The characteristics of the laser-induced plasma encountered in laser welding are investigated using a new three-dimensional modelling approach. A simplified keyhole model is employed to couple with our previous plasma plume model, and thus both the plasma inside a blind keyhole and the plasma plume issuing from the keyhole can be treated simultaneously. Investigations include the effects on the laser-induced plasma characteristics of many factors, including the velocity of metal vapour leaving from the keyhole bottom, the velocity of the shielding gas injected coaxially with the laser beam, the velocity and location of the assisting gas injected laterally with respect to the workpiece, and the energy absorption and radiation heat loss of the laser-induced plasma. Typical computed distributions of temperature, velocity and vapour concentration within the plasma are presented with the continuous-wave CO2 laser welding of iron workpiece as the calculation example. It is shown that the high-temperature core of the laser-induced plasma is mostly located inside the blind keyhole or near the keyhole top for the cases under study. The metal-vapour/shielding-gas momentum ratio plays an important role in determining the height of the plasma plume, and the plume height decreases with increasing shielding-gas velocity. The laterally injected assisting gas may also significantly affect the laser-induced plasma characteristics and thus can be used to control the unfavourable effect of the laser-induced plasma on the laser welding process. The predicted temperatures of the laser-induced plasma are reasonably consistent with corresponding experimental data
Partially ionized plasmas including the third symposium on uranium plasmas
Krishnan, M. [ed.
1976-09-01
Separate abstracts are included for 28 papers on electrically generated plasmas, fission generated plasmas, nuclear pumped lasers, gaseous fuel reactor research, and applications. Five papers have been previously abstracted and included in ERA.
Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)
... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...
Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)
... Treatment Health Professional Plasma Cell Neoplasms Treatment Research Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Plasma Cell Neoplasms Go to Health Professional Version Key ...
Plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects
Pustovitov, V. D.
2015-12-01
> Plasma stabilization due to a nearby conducting wall can provide access to better performance in some scenarios in tokamaks. This was proved by experiments with an essential gain in and demonstrated as a long-lasting effect at sufficiently fast plasma rotation in the DIII-D tokamak (see, for example, Strait et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 43, 2003, pp. 430-440). The rotational stabilization is the central topic of this review, though eventually the mode rotation gains significance. The analysis is based on the first-principle equations describing the energy balance with dissipation in the resistive wall. The method emphasizes derivation of the dispersion relations for the modes which are faster than the conventional resistive wall modes, but slower than the ideal magnetohydrodynamics modes. Both the standard thin wall and ideal-wall approximations are not valid in this range. Here, these are replaced by an approach incorporating the skin effect in the wall. This new element in the stability theory makes the energy sink a nonlinear function of the complex growth rate. An important consequence is that a mode rotating above a critical level can provide a damping effect sufficient for instability suppression. Estimates are given and applications are discussed.
Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D
2013-09-17
Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.
Kinetic approach in magnetospheric plasma transport modeling
The need for a kinetic approach in magnetospheric plasma transport problems is reviewed, as are the trends in its recent applications. The need for kinetic modeling is particularly obvious when confronted with the astonishing variety of magnetospheric particle measurements that display compelling energy and pitch angle-related spatial and/or temporal dispersion, and various types of highly non-Maxwellian features in the distribution functions. Global problems in which the kinetic approach has recently been applied include solar wind plasma injection and dispersion over the cusp, substorm particle injection near synchronous orbit, synergistic energization of ionospheric ions into ring current populations by waves and induced electric field-driven convection, and ionospheric outflow from restricted source regions into the magnetosphere. Kinetic modeling can include efforts ranging from test-particle techniques to particle-in-cell studies, and this range is considered here. There are some areas where fluid and kinetic approaches have been combined or patched together, and these will be briefly discussed. 131 references
Experimental approaches for studying non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets
Shashurin, A., E-mail: ashashur@purdue.edu [School of Aeronautics & Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Keidar, M. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia 20052 (United States)
2015-12-15
This work reviews recent research efforts undertaken in the area non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets with special focus on experimental approaches. Physics of small non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma jets operating in kHz frequency range at powers around few Watts will be analyzed, including mechanism of breakdown, process of ionization front propagation, electrical coupling of the ionization front with the discharge electrodes, distributions of excited and ionized species, discharge current spreading, transient dynamics of various plasma parameters, etc. Experimental diagnostic approaches utilized in the field will be considered, including Rayleigh microwave scattering, Thomson laser scattering, electrostatic streamer scatterers, optical emission spectroscopy, fast photographing, etc.
Alternative approaches to plasma confinement
Roth, J. R.
1978-01-01
The paper discusses 20 plasma confinement schemes each representing an alternative to the tokamak fusion reactor. Attention is given to: (1) tokamak-like devices (TORMAC, Topolotron, and the Extrap concept), (2) stellarator-like devices (Torsatron and twisted-coil stellarators), (3) mirror machines (Astron and reversed-field devices, the 2XII B experiment, laser-heated solenoids, the LITE experiment, the Kaktus-Surmac concept), (4) bumpy tori (hot electron bumpy torus, toroidal minimum-B configurations), (5) electrostatically assisted confinement (electrostatically stuffed cusps and mirrors, electrostatically assisted toroidal confinement), (6) the Migma concept, and (7) wall-confined plasmas. The plasma parameters of the devices are presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are listed.
Multiflow approach to plasma kinetics
Instead of the commonly used Vlasov equation, one is able to treat kinetic phenomena in collisionless plasma with the help of the infinite set of hydrodynamic equations. The present paper deals with the linear approximation of multiflow hydrodynamics. It is shown that single-particle and collective excitations analogous to Van Kampen waves are explicitly separated. Expressions for the energy of all eigenmodes are obtained
Including patients’ perspectives in patient information leaflets: A polyocular approach
Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary
2013-01-01
asymmetries. The paper contributes theoretically in its innovative use of perspectivist theory in relation to text, and in identifying that the insights of polyocularity could valuably inform a new health communication paradigm, as current health communication paradigms do not fully recognize patients......Existing research reveals that patients’ perspectives are missing from mandatory patient information leaflets (PILs). At the same time, there is overwhelming consensus that they should be included in this genre, and a corresponding need for potential approaches to tackle this problem. This paper......’ perspectives. Apart from its theoretical contributions, the paper includes guidelines to support the production of PILs where patients’ perspectives are included. The guidelines are informed by practices that have characterised previous polyocular communication events, as well as research into how to maximize...
Comparison of Joint Modeling Approaches Including Eulerian Sliding Interfaces
Lomov, I; Antoun, T; Vorobiev, O
2009-12-16
Accurate representation of discontinuities such as joints and faults is a key ingredient for high fidelity modeling of shock propagation in geologic media. The following study was done to improve treatment of discontinuities (joints) in the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN (Lomov and Liu 2005). Lagrangian methods with conforming meshes and explicit inclusion of joints in the geologic model are well suited for such an analysis. Unfortunately, current meshing tools are unable to automatically generate adequate hexahedral meshes for large numbers of irregular polyhedra. Another concern is that joint stiffness in such explicit computations requires significantly reduced time steps, with negative implications for both the efficiency and quality of the numerical solution. An alternative approach is to use non-conforming meshes and embed joint information into regular computational elements. However, once slip displacement on the joints become comparable to the zone size, Lagrangian (even non-conforming) meshes could suffer from tangling and decreased time step problems. The use of non-conforming meshes in an Eulerian solver may alleviate these difficulties and provide a viable numerical approach for modeling the effects of faults on the dynamic response of geologic materials. We studied shock propagation in jointed/faulted media using a Lagrangian and two Eulerian approaches. To investigate the accuracy of this joint treatment the GEODYN calculations have been compared with results from the Lagrangian code GEODYN-L which uses an explicit treatment of joints via common plane contact. We explore two approaches to joint treatment in the code, one for joints with finite thickness and the other for tight joints. In all cases the sliding interfaces are tracked explicitly without homogenization or blending the joint and block response into an average response. In general, rock joints will introduce an increase in normal compliance in addition to a reduction in shear strength. In the
Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation
Morsch H.P.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.
2012-02-08
... 20993-0002, (301) 796-9148. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the FR Doc. 2011-33554, appearing on page 7 in the Federal Register of Tuesday, January 3, 2012 (77 FR 7), the following correction is made: 1. On... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and...
Including plasma and fusion topics in the science education in school
Yutori education (more relaxed education policy) started with the revision of the Courses of Study to introduce 'five-day week system' in 1989, continued with the reduction of the content of school lessons by 30% in 1998, and ended with the introduction of the New Courses of Study in 2011. Focusing on science education, especially in the topics of plasma and nuclear fusion, the modality of the education system in Japan is discussed considering the transition of academic performance based on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) in comparison with the examples in other countries. Particularly, the issues with high school textbooks are pointed out from the assessment of current textbooks, and the significance and the need for including the topic of 'plasma' in them are stated. Lastly, in order to make the general public acknowledged with plasma and nuclear fusion, it is suggested to include them also in junior high school textbooks, by briefly mentioning the terms related to plasma, solar wind, aurora phenomenon, and nuclear fusion energy. (S.K.)
A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines
Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1
A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines
Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Pucci, Daniele; Piesco, F.; Zarfati, Emanuele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Mazzitelli, G. [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Monaco, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy)
2013-10-15
Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1].
X-ray Thomson scattering for partially ionized plasmas including the effect of bound levels
Nilsen, J; Cheng, K T
2013-01-01
X-ray Thomson scattering is being developed as a method to measure the temperature, electron density, and ionization state of high energy density plasmas such as those used in inertial confinement fusion. Most experiments are currently done at large laser facilities that can create bright X-ray sources, however the advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) provides a new bright source to use in these experiments. One challenge with X-ray Thomson scattering experiments is understanding how to model the scattering for partially ionized plasmas in order to include the contributions of the bound electrons in the scattered intensity. In this work we take the existing models of Thomson scattering that include elastic ion-ion scattering and the electron-electron plasmon scattering and add the contribution of the bound electrons in the partially ionized plasmas. We validated our model by analyzing existing beryllium experimental data. We then consider several higher Z materials such as Cr and predict the existe...
Chromohydrodynamic approach to the unstable quark-gluon plasma
We derive hydrodynamic-like equations that are applicable to short-time-scale color phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma. The equations are solved in the linear response approximation, and the gluon polarization tensor is derived. As an application, we study the collective modes in a two-stream system and find plasma instabilities when the fluid velocity is larger than the speed of sound in the plasma. The chromohydrodynamic approach, discussed here in detail, should be considered as simpler over other approaches and well-designed for numerical studies of the dynamics of an unstable quark-gluon plasma
Chromohydrodynamic approach to the unstable quark-gluon plasma
Manuel, Cristina; Mrówczyński, Stanisław
2006-11-01
We derive hydrodynamic-like equations that are applicable to short-time-scale color phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma. The equations are solved in the linear response approximation, and the gluon polarization tensor is derived. As an application, we study the collective modes in a two-stream system and find plasma instabilities when the fluid velocity is larger than the speed of sound in the plasma. The chromohydrodynamic approach, discussed here in detail, should be considered as simpler over other approaches and well-designed for numerical studies of the dynamics of an unstable quark-gluon plasma.
Internal transport barrier analysis including impurities in tokamak and helical reactor plasmas
The operation with Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) is expected as a high performance operation. ITB is utilized to improve core plasma confinement in the reversed magnetic shear. It is considered that the changes of core plasma profile by the ITB cause changes of impurity transport. In a large fusion reactor, high-Z materials will be used as plasma facing components because high loads of heat and particles concentrate there. However, high-Z impurities from these components cause large radiation loss and dilute the fuel even if the amount of impurities is small. Therefore, in this study, firstly, the ITB formation which includes the effects of the magnetic shear and perturbed profiles by the pellet injection was simulated using the Toroidal Transport Analysis Linkage code TOTAL. Secondly, we analyzed transport of the tungsten impurities using an impurity model in TOTAL code, and compared the impurity profile in the case with ITB to the one without ITB in the tokamak reactor. The impurities decreased in the ITB formation region when ITB was formed, and the outward flux of total impurity density was observed there. It can be expected that outward flux of impurities is generated by the temperature and the density gradients. (author)
Transverse electric conductivity in quantum collisional plasma in Mermin approach
Latyshev, A. V.; Yushkanov, A. A.
2011-01-01
Formulas for transversal electric conductivity and dielectric permeability of quantum collisional plasma are deduced. The kinetic equation for a density matrix in relaxation approaching in momentum space is used. It is shown, that when Planck's constant tends to zero, these deduced formulas pass in classical expressions and when frequency of electron collision tends to zero (i.e. plasma passes in collisionless plasma), the deduced formulas pass in deduced earlier by Lindhard. It is shown also...
Fusion modeling approach for novel plasma sources
Melazzi, D.; Cardinali, A.; Manente, M.; Pavarin, D.
2012-12-01
The physics involved in the coupling, propagation and absorption of RF helicon waves (electronic whistler) in low temperature Helicon plasma sources is investigated by solving the 3D Maxwell-Vlasov model equations using a WKB asymptotic expansion. The reduced set of equations is formally Hamiltonian and allows for the reconstruction of the wave front of the propagating wave, monitoring along the calculation that the WKB expansion remains satisfied. This method can be fruitfully employed in a new investigation of the power deposition mechanisms involved in common Helicon low temperature plasma sources when a general confinement magnetic field configuration is allowed, unveiling new physical insight in the wave propagation and absorption phenomena and stimulating further research for the design of innovative and more efficient low temperature plasma sources. A brief overview of this methodology and its capabilities has been presented in this paper.
Langmuir-probe data analysis including the complex nature of the ECR plasma
Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasmas have already been studied in many ways, mainly by x-ray and UV measurements. Langmuir-probes, however, have proven useful for other kind of plasmas, and have rarely been used to explore the ECR plasma. A diagnostics setup has been built at the 14.5 GHz ATOMKI-ECRIS. Results of the cold plasma region measurements are shown. (R.P.)
The Langevin's approach to the statistical theory of bounded plasma
The Langevin approach taking into account the own thermal radiation of the external medium is developed to create the correlation theory of semi-bounded non-equilibrium plasma. The equivalence of results obtained on the basis of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem and using the proposed Langevin approach with allowance for random sources in the whole space is shown. 25 refs. (author)
Kinetic approach to long wave length modes in rotating plasmas
Stability of low frequency long wave length modes is studied by a kinetic approach in rotating Maxwellian plasmas. In the rigid rotator model, the centrifugal force due to the plasma rotation strongly destabilizes the ballooning modes particularly when the Mach number is close to unity. The fluid flow shear weakly stabilizes the ballooning mode. Energetic particles are effective to stabilize the ballooning mode particularly in the high-β region even in the rotating plasmas. The electric potential induced from the radial electric field increases the particle trapping rate for eΦ>0. For Φ<0 as in tokamaks, electron trapping rate increases, which destabilizes the dissipative trapped electron mode. (author)
Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement
An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized
Suits, C Guy
2013-01-01
The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir, Volume 5: Plasma and Oscillations is an 11-chapter text covers the extensive research study of Langmuir in the field of gas discharges. This book specifically tackles oscillations in ionized gases. The opening chapters describe the plasma-boundary phenomena and the use of a probe to separate the primary electron beam from the scattered electrons. The succeeding chapters deal with the collisions between electrons and gas molecules, oscillations in ionized gases, and the interaction of electron and positive ion space charges in cathode sheaths. These t
Plasma Approach for Generating Ultra-Intense Single Attosecond Pulse
In our previous work, a plasma approach for single attosecond pulse (AP) generation was proposed. A few-cycle relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse will induce a single drastic oscillation of plasma boundary, from which high-order harmonics and furthermore an ultra-intense single AP can be generated naturally after it is reflected. Analytical model and simulations both demonstrate that the process is mostly efficient as the pulse duration is close to the plasma responding time. The effects of plasma density ramp are analyzed here, suggesting that the proposal is still quite efficient with appropriate density gradient in the ramp. At last, a combined approach is employed to obtain single AP with 30 fs incident laser. The relatively large-duration pulse is firstly shortened by a density dropping thin foil, and then reflected from an overdense plasma target. One-dimensional simulation shows that a 600 as single light pulse is generated with peak intensity of 3×1020 W/cm2. (cai awardee's article)
Coughlan, Joseph; Shale, Estelle; Dyson, Robert
2010-01-01
Purpose: This paper illustrates the effect of including the customer as a resource in efficiency measurement. Variations in counting the customer illustrate the different impacts on efficiency between a transactional and a relational approach to bank branch marketing. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to analyse the efficiency of the branch network under consideration. This technique, while well established in the bank branch eff...
Zeng, Xianzhong
2004-01-01
Many laser ablation applications such as laser drilling and micromachining generate cavity structures. The study of laser ablation inside a cavity is of both fundamental and practical significance. In this dissertation, cavities with different aspect ratios (depth/diameter) were fabricated in fused silica by laser micromachining. Pulsed laser ablation in the cavities was studied and compared with laser ablation on a flat surface. The formation of laser-induced plasmas in the cavities and...
The postprandial plasma rye fingerprint includes benzoxazinoid-derived phenylacetamide sulfates.
Hanhineva, Kati; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Lappi, Jenni; Katina, Kati; Pekkinen, Jenna; Savolainen, Otto; Timonen, Oskari; Paananen, Jussi; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa
2014-07-01
The bioavailability of whole-grain rye-derived phytochemicals has not yet been comprehensively characterized, and different baking and manufacturing processes can modulate the phytochemical composition of breads and other rye products. The aim of our study was to find key differences in the phytochemical profile of plasma after the consumption of 3 breads containing rye bran when compared with a plain white wheat bread control. Plasma metabolite profiles of 12 healthy middle-aged men and women were analyzed using LC quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics analysis while fasting and at 60 min, 120 min, 240 min, and 24 h after consuming a meal that contained either 100% whole-grain sourdough rye bread or white wheat bread enriched with native unprocessed rye bran or bioprocessed rye bran. White wheat bread was used as the control. The meals were served in random order after a 12-h overnight fast, with at least 3 d between each occasion. Two sulfonated phenylacetamides, hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide, potentially derived from the benzoxazinoid metabolites, were among the most discriminant postprandial plasma biomarkers distinguishing intake of breads containing whole-meal rye or rye bran from the control white wheat bread. Furthermore, subsequent metabolite profiling analysis of the consumed breads indicated that different bioprocessing/baking techniques involving exposure to microbial metabolism (e.g., sourdough fermentation) have a central role in modulating the phytochemical content of the whole-grain and bran-rich breads. PMID:24812068
Hayden, Carol; S. Pike
2005-01-01
This article reports on aspects of an evaluation of ‘Team-Teach’ - a ‘whole setting holistic’ approach to behaviour management in a range of child-care environments. A distinctive feature of Team-Teach is that it includes both training in de-escalation skills and physical interventions, known as ‘positive handling strategies’. The approach is clearly structured and calibrated against level of risk. It includes accreditation and re-accreditation of trainers. Findings from four case study educa...
The approach to equilibrium in a quark-gluon plasma
The basic questions to be addressed in this paper are: How does the quark-gluon plasma, once formed in heavy-ion collisions, approach equilibrium? What are the basic equilibrium time scales - how do they compare with the plasma lifetime before hadronization and freeze-out set in? In particular, how do the strong color anisotropies, which are presumably present in the initial formation stage disappear and how fast, if at all, do the color degrees of freedom attain local equilibrium? The approach that I wish to present here involves the following chain of arguments: equilibration is related to dissipation of energy and creation of entropy; it is determined by the dissipative, i.e., imaginary part of certain response functions - for example, to calculate the rate of dissipation for a density perturbation in an equilibrium plasma we need to work out the imaginary part of the retarded density-density correlation function; this imaginary part of the response function is dominated by its poles which signal collective modes - for example, phonons in the density-density correlation function, (colored) plasmons in the electric and magnetic response functions, etc.; from the imaginary part one can calculate a damping rate γ for these collective modes which in turn yields an estimate for the equilibration time scale tau/sub equ/ ∼ h-bar/γ. In this contribution I will concentrate on color equilibration and thus focus on color electric and magnetic plasma oscillations and their damping rates. 21 refs
A Reconstruction Approach to High-Order Schemes Including Discontinuous Galerkin for Diffusion
Huynh, H. T.
2009-01-01
We introduce a new approach to high-order accuracy for the numerical solution of diffusion problems by solving the equations in differential form using a reconstruction technique. The approach has the advantages of simplicity and economy. It results in several new high-order methods including a simplified version of discontinuous Galerkin (DG). It also leads to new definitions of common value and common gradient quantities at each interface shared by the two adjacent cells. In addition, the new approach clarifies the relations among the various choices of new and existing common quantities. Fourier stability and accuracy analyses are carried out for the resulting schemes. Extensions to the case of quadrilateral meshes are obtained via tensor products. For the two-point boundary value problem (steady state), it is shown that these schemes, which include most popular DG methods, yield exact common interface quantities as well as exact cell average solutions for nearly all cases.
X-ray Thomson scattering for partially ionized plasmas including the effect of bound levels
Nilsen, J.; Johnson, W. R.; Cheng, K. T.
2013-01-01
X-ray Thomson scattering is being developed as a method to measure the temperature, electron density, and ionization state of high energy density plasmas such as those used in inertial confinement fusion. Most experiments are currently done at large laser facilities that can create bright X-ray sources, however the advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) provides a new bright source to use in these experiments. One challenge with X-ray Thomson scattering experiments is understanding h...
Akhtar, N.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Mahmood, S.; Behery, E. E.; Khan, S. A.; Ali, S.; Hussain, S.
2015-10-01
> . The magnetic field has no effect on the amplitude of the IASW, whereas the obliqueness angle of the wave propagation, the ion-to-electron temperature ratio and positron-to-ion density concentration ratio affect both the amplitude and the width of the solitary wave structures. The transverse instability analysis illustrates that the one soliton solution has a constant growth rate, and it suffers from instability in the transverse direction. The relevance of the present study to astrophysical space plasmas is also discussed.
Longitudinal electrostatic waves are simulated in a magnetized plasma, propagating perpendicular to B0. Groups of particles are arranged in one or more rings and spokes in velocity space. Using various loading schemes to represent different particle velocity-space distributions in the simulations, f(upsilon/sub perpendicular/), these particles are then distributed uniformly in position space along the length of the system. In particular, the evolution of magnetized cold and warm rings is followed (physically unstable), and of a magnetized Maxwellian (unstable due to the particle loading) through to saturation. Rules are deduced for useful loading methods
Control of plasma profile in microwave discharges via inverse-problem approach
Yasuyoshi Yasaka
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In the manufacturing process of semiconductors, plasma processing is an essential technology, and the plasma used in the process is required to be of high density, low temperature, large diameter, and high uniformity. This research focuses on the microwave-excited plasma that meets these needs, and the research target is a spatial profile control. Two novel techniques are introduced to control the uniformity; one is a segmented slot antenna that can change radial distribution of the radiated field during operation, and the other is a hyper simulator that can predict microwave power distribution necessary for a desired radial density profile. The control system including these techniques provides a method of controlling radial profiles of the microwave plasma via inverse-problem approach, and is investigated numerically and experimentally.
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten;
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches for...... including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g/d and...
DEMOCRITUS code: A kinetic approach to the simulation of complex plasmas
Arinaminpat, Nimlan; Fichtl, Chris; Patacchini, Leonardo; Lapenta, Giovanni; Delzanno, Gian Luca
2006-10-01
The DEMOCRITUS code is a particle-based code for plasma-material interaction simulation. The code makes use of particle in cell (PIC) methods to simulate each plasma species, the material, and their interaction. In this study, we concentrate on a dust particle immersed in a plasma. We start with the simplest case, in which the dust particle is not allowed to emit. From here, we expand the DEMOCRITUS code to include thermionic and photo emission algorithms and obtain our data. Next we expand the physics processes present to include the presence of magnetic fields and collisional processes with a neutral gas. Finally we describe new improvements of the code including a new mover that allows for particle subcycling and a new grid adaptation approach.
Stressors, including social conflict, decrease plasma prolactin in male golden hamsters.
Huhman, K L; Mougey, E H; Moore, T O; Meyerhoff, J L
1995-12-01
Following exposure to a stressor, plasma prolactin (PRL) rises in most species. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of social conflict or of footshock stress on PRL responsiveness in male Syrian hamsters. Contrary to expectations, PRL was significantly lower in subordinate hamsters than in their dominant opponents or in controls following one, five, or nine exposures to social conflict. Similarly, PRL was reduced in hamsters subjected to a mild footshock stressor. By contrast, adrenocorticotropin, another stress-responsive hormone, was elevated following exposure to each of these stressors. We also demonstrate that PRL release is inhibited by dopamine as it is in other species by showing that there is a dose-dependent increase in PRL release following treatment with the dopamine receptor blocker, domperidone. PMID:8748515
Bilibin, Ilya; Capitanescu, Florin; Sachau, Jürgen
2013-01-01
This paper focuses on the real-time overloads management in active radial distribution systems that host a significant amount of distributed generators (DGs). In order to possibly reduce the amount of generation curtailed to remove congestion, and hence harvest as much renewable energy as possible, we propose a centralized optimization approach that includes the option to use remotely controlled grid switches and breakers so as to transfer distributed generation between feeders. To mitigate t...
An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments
Petersen, Bjørn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik;
2013-01-01
to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of...... soybean production in China. The suggested approach considers the time of the soil CO2 emissions for the LCA by including the Bern Carbon Cycle Model. Time perspectives of 20, 100 and 200 years are used and a soil depth of 0–100 cm is considered. The application of the suggested method showed that the...
A model of plasma current through a hole of Rogowski probe including sheath effects
Furui, H.; Ejiri, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Takase, Y.; Sonehara, M.; Tsujii, N.; Yamaguchi, T.; Shinya, T.; Togashi, H.; Homma, H.; Nakamura, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Yajima, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Toida, K.; Takahashi, W.; Yamazaki, H.
2016-04-01
In TST-2 Ohmic discharges, local current is measured using a Rogowski probe by changing the angle between the local magnetic field and the direction of the hole of the Rogowski probe. The angular dependence shows a peak when the direction of the hole is almost parallel to the local magnetic field. The obtained width of the peak was broader than that of the theoretical curve expected from the probe geometry. In order to explain this disagreement, we consider the effect of sheath in the vicinity of the Rogowski probe. A sheath model was constructed and electron orbits were numerically calculated. From the calculation, it was found that the electron orbit is affected by E × B drift due to the sheath electric field. Such orbit causes the broadening of the peak in the angular dependence and the dependence agrees with the experimental results. The dependence of the broadening on various plasma parameters was studied numerically and explained qualitatively by a simplified analytical model.
The Direct Statistical Approach (DSA) to surface splitting and Russian Roulette (RR) is one of the current routes toward automatism in Monte Carlo and is currently applied to fixed source particle transport problems. A general volumetric particle bifurcation capability has been inserted into the Direct Statistical Approach (DSA) surface parameter and cell models. The resulting extended DSA describes the second moment and time functions in terms of phase-space surface splitting/Russian roulette parameters (surface parameter model) or phase-space cell importances (cell model) in the presence of volumetric particle bifurcations including both natural events [such as (n,xn) or gamma production from neutron collisions] and artificial events (such as DXTRAN). At the same time, other limitations in the DSA models (concerning tally scores direct from the source and tracks surviving an event at which a tally score occurs) are removed. Given the second moment and time functions, the foregoing surface or cell parameters may then be optimized
何雪松; 王旭永; 冯正进; 章志新; 杨钦廉
2003-01-01
A nonlinear mathematical model of the injection molding process for electrohydraulic servo injection molding machine (IMM) is developed.It was found necessary to consider the characteristics of asymmetric cylinder for electrohydraulic servo IMM.The model is based on the dynamics of the machine including servo valve,asymmetric cylinder and screw,and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of polymer melt in injection molding is also considered.The performance of the model was evaluated based on novel approach of molding - injection and compress molding,and the results of simulation and experimental data demonstrate the effectiveness of the model.
Yang, Jeong-Hoon
The fast ignitor approach to inertial confinement fusion offers an efficient route to produce higher energy gain for less driver energy and compressed fuel density than the conventional hydrodynamic ignition scheme. Over the last decade, serious efforts have been expended towards the goal of achieving controlled fusion using this new approach. However, until now no simple physical plasma model for this idea has been available and the feasibility of the fast ignition project by petawatt laser pulses is not yet clear. We have investigated the capability of ultrafast lasers with irradiance I > 1018 W cm-2 to produce highly energetic electron beams both in a planar wave and in a Gaussian focus in a low-density plasma and within a physical model of electrostatic effects in relativistic plasmas. The trajectory of a free electron in a plane wave with arbitrary initial conditions has been derived. From the complete solutions for the particle trajectory, we have also determined the initial velocities required to produce figure-of-eight motions for arbitrary initial particle positions. A new expression for the relativistic ponderomotive force has been developed. It compares very well with earlier work by Quesnel and Mora. The new expression promises to speed up particle-in-cell simulations. It has been found that free electrons escape from the Gaussian focal region of a 10-ps petawatt laser pulse very quickly before the field reaches its maximum amplitude. In this case very small net energy transfer occurs during the complete interaction of the electrons with the laser beam, indicating that (in the absence of collective electrostatic effects) free electrons cannot extract enough energy from the ignition laser pulse for ignition. This thesis presents a novel simulation model for predicting the large-scale dynamic behavior of the high intensity laser-plasma interaction. We have developed a simple particle simulation code to explore collective electrostatic effects in plasmas
Nonextensive statistical mechanics approach to electron trapping in degenerate plasmas
Mebrouk, Khireddine; Gougam, Leila Ait; Tribeche, Mouloud
2016-06-01
The electron trapping in a weakly nondegenerate plasma is reformulated and re-examined by incorporating the nonextensive entropy prescription. Using the q-deformed Fermi-Dirac distribution function including the quantum as well as the nonextensive statistical effects, we derive a new generalized electron density with a new contribution proportional to the electron temperature T, which may dominate the usual thermal correction (∼T2) at very low temperatures. To make the physics behind the effect of this new contribution more transparent, we analyze the modifications arising in the propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves. Interestingly, we find that due to the nonextensive correction, our plasma model allows the possibility of existence of quantum ion-acoustic solitons with velocity higher than the Fermi ion-sound velocity. Moreover, as the nonextensive parameter q increases, the critical temperature Tc beyond which coexistence of compressive and rarefactive solitons sets in, is shifted towards higher values.
The influence of electron–positron pair annihilations on the resonant instability of surface dust-acoustic wave is investigated in semi-bounded electron–positron–ion dusty plasmas. The dispersion relation and the temporal growth rate of the surface dust-acoustic wave including the pair annihilation effect are obtained by the specular reflection boundary condition. It is found that the electron–positron annihilation effect suppresses the temporal growth rate of the surface dust-acoustic instability and, however, increases the domain of the resonant instability. It is also shown that the pair annihilation effect on the growth rate decreases with increasing wave number and dust plasma frequency. The variation of the domain and magnitude of temporal growth rate is also discussed. - Highlights: • The resonant instability of surface dust-acoustic wave is investigated in semi-bounded electron–positron pair dusty plasmas. • The dispersion relation and the temporal growth rate are obtained by the specular reflection boundary condition. • The pair annihilation effects on the domain and magnitude of temporal growth rate are discussed
Martinelli and Morini have used an analytical method for calculating values and distribution of the magnetic field in superconducting magnets. Using Fourier series the magnetic field is determined by carrying out a series expansion of the current density distribution of the system of coils. This Fourier method can be modified to include axial iron to a far greater accuracy (for finite permeability) by incorporating the image series approach of Caldwell and Zisserman. Also an exact solution can be obtained for the case of infinite permeability. A comparison of the results derived from the expansion of Martinelli and Morini with the exact solution of Caldwell and Zisserman shows excellent agreement for the iron-free case but the accuracy deteriorates as the permeability μ/sub z/ increases. The exact solution should be used for infinite permeability and also gives satisfactory results for permeability μ/sub z/ >100. A symmetric geometry is used throughout the communication for simplicity of presentation
Jiang, Yingqiu; Wilson, Robert; Hochbaum, Aharon; Carter, John
2002-04-01
Optical variable pigment technologies for markings and inks have increased in use as overt protection methods for document and product security. These technologies use optical reflective effects including interference technologies that create angular dependent color changes. Novel developments in different inorganic and organic pigments offer potentially new optical performance for both overt and covert security applications. These developments may lead to unique signature pigment formats that can verify origin and authenticity. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal (CLC) pigment approaches utilize both angular dependent color flop and the unique polarization properties to potentially develop markings with both overt and covert detection mechanisms. Continuous improvement in these technologies may lead to new visible and non-visible applications that when integrated with the graphic design will provide novel protection and graphic impact.
Marquis-Gravel, Guillaume; Hayami, Douglas; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Élise; Gayda, Mathieu
2015-01-01
Objectives To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. Methods The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion of a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention program conducted at the cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation center of the Montreal Heart Institute, from 2009 to 2012. The program included 2–3 weekly supervised exercise training sessions (HIIT and resistance exercise), combined to MedD counseling. Results Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mmol/L) (before: 5.5 ± 0.9; after: 5.2 ± 0.6; P HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects. PMID:26844086
Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a global spectral approach
Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas are studied by means of a linear global eigenvalue numerical code. The code is the electromagnetic extension of an existing electrostatic global gyrokinetic spectral toroidal code, called GLOGYSTO. Ion dynamics is described by the gyrokinetic equation, so that ion finite Larmor radius effects are taken into account to all orders. Non adiabatic electrons are included in the model, with passing particles described by the drift-kinetic equation and trapped particles through the bounce averaged drift-kinetic equation. A low frequency electromagnetic perturbation is applied to a low -but finite- βplasma (where the parameter β identifies the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure); thus, the parallel perturbations of the magnetic field are neglected. The system is closed by the quasi-neutrality equation and the parallel component of Ampere's law. The formulation is applied to a large aspect ratio toroidal configuration, with circular shifted surfaces. Such a simple configuration enables one to derive analytically the gyrocenter trajectories. The system is solved in Fourier space, taking advantage of a decomposition adapted to the toroidal geometry. The major contributions of this thesis are as follows. The electromagnetic effects on toroidal Ion Temperature Gradient driven (ITG) modes are studied. The stabilization of these modes with increasing β, as predicted in previous work, is confirmed. The inclusion of trapped electron dynamics enables the study of its coupling to the ITG modes and of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) .The effects of finite β are considered together with those of different magnetic shear profiles and of the Shafranov shift. The threshold for the destabilization of an electromagnetic mode is identified. Moreover, the global formulation yields for the first time the radial structure of this so-called Alfvenic Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode. The stability of the AITG mode is analysed
Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas using a global spectral approach
Falchetto, G. L
2002-03-01
Electromagnetic microinstabilities in tokamak plasmas are studied by means of a linear global eigenvalue numerical code. The code is the electromagnetic extension of an existing electrostatic global gyrokinetic spectral toroidal code, called GLOGYSTO. Ion dynamics is described by the gyrokinetic equation, so that ion finite Larmor radius effects are taken into account to all orders. Non adiabatic electrons are included in the model, with passing particles described by the drift-kinetic equation and trapped particles through the bounce averaged drift-kinetic equation. A low frequency electromagnetic perturbation is applied to a low -but finite- {beta}plasma (where the parameter {beta} identifies the ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure); thus, the parallel perturbations of the magnetic field are neglected. The system is closed by the quasi-neutrality equation and the parallel component of Ampere's law. The formulation is applied to a large aspect ratio toroidal configuration, with circular shifted surfaces. Such a simple configuration enables one to derive analytically the gyrocenter trajectories. The system is solved in Fourier space, taking advantage of a decomposition adapted to the toroidal geometry. The major contributions of this thesis are as follows. The electromagnetic effects on toroidal Ion Temperature Gradient driven (ITG) modes are studied. The stabilization of these modes with increasing {beta}, as predicted in previous work, is confirmed. The inclusion of trapped electron dynamics enables the study of its coupling to the ITG modes and of Trapped Electron Modes (TEM) .The effects of finite {beta} are considered together with those of different magnetic shear profiles and of the Shafranov shift. The threshold for the destabilization of an electromagnetic mode is identified. Moreover, the global formulation yields for the first time the radial structure of this so-called Alfvenic Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode. The stability of the
Multi-reference approach to the calculation of photoelectron spectra including spin-orbit coupling
Grell, Gilbert; Winter, Bernd; Seidel, Robert; Aziz, Emad F; Aziz, Saadullah G; Kühn, Oliver
2015-01-01
X-ray photoelectron spectra provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure. The extraction of molecular details requires adequate theoretical methods, which in case of transition metal complexes has to account for effects due to the multi-configurational and spin-mixed nature of the many-electron wave function. Here, the Restricted Active Space Self-Consistent Field method including spin-orbit coupling is used to cope with this challenge and to calculate valence and core photoelectron spectra. The intensities are estimated within the frameworks of the Dyson orbital formalism and the sudden approximation. Thereby, we utilize an efficient computational algorithm that is based on a biorthonormal basis transformation. The approach is applied to the valence photoionization of the gas phase water molecule and to the core ionization spectrum of the $\\text{[Fe(H}_2\\text{O)}_6\\text{]}^{2+}$ complex. The results show good agreement with the experimental data obtained in this work, whereas the sudden approx...
Multi-reference approach to the calculation of photoelectron spectra including spin-orbit coupling
X-ray photoelectron spectra provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure. The extraction of molecular details requires adequate theoretical methods, which in case of transition metal complexes has to account for effects due to the multi-configurational and spin-mixed nature of the many-electron wave function. Here, the restricted active space self-consistent field method including spin-orbit coupling is used to cope with this challenge and to calculate valence- and core-level photoelectron spectra. The intensities are estimated within the frameworks of the Dyson orbital formalism and the sudden approximation. Thereby, we utilize an efficient computational algorithm that is based on a biorthonormal basis transformation. The approach is applied to the valence photoionization of the gas phase water molecule and to the core ionization spectrum of the [Fe(H2O)6]2+ complex. The results show good agreement with the experimental data obtained in this work, whereas the sudden approximation demonstrates distinct deviations from experiments
Multi-reference approach to the calculation of photoelectron spectra including spin-orbit coupling
Grell, Gilbert; Bokarev, Sergey I., E-mail: sergey.bokarev@uni-rostock.de; Kühn, Oliver [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Winter, Bernd; Seidel, Robert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Methods for Material Development, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Emad F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Methods for Material Development, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Physics, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimalle 14, D-14159 Berlin (Germany); Aziz, Saadullah G. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, 21589 Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)
2015-08-21
X-ray photoelectron spectra provide a wealth of information on the electronic structure. The extraction of molecular details requires adequate theoretical methods, which in case of transition metal complexes has to account for effects due to the multi-configurational and spin-mixed nature of the many-electron wave function. Here, the restricted active space self-consistent field method including spin-orbit coupling is used to cope with this challenge and to calculate valence- and core-level photoelectron spectra. The intensities are estimated within the frameworks of the Dyson orbital formalism and the sudden approximation. Thereby, we utilize an efficient computational algorithm that is based on a biorthonormal basis transformation. The approach is applied to the valence photoionization of the gas phase water molecule and to the core ionization spectrum of the [Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} complex. The results show good agreement with the experimental data obtained in this work, whereas the sudden approximation demonstrates distinct deviations from experiments.
Effective action approach to wave propagation in scalar QED plasmas
Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong
2016-01-01
A relativistic quantum field theory with nontrivial background fields is developed and applied to study waves in plasmas. The effective action of the electromagnetic 4-potential is calculated ab initio from the standard action of scalar QED using path integrals. The resultant effective action is gauge invariant and contains nonlocal interactions, from which gauge bosons acquire masses without breaking the local gauge symmetry. To demonstrate how the general theory can be applied, we study a cold unmagnetized plasma and a cold uniformly magnetized plasma. Using these two examples, we show that all linear waves well-known in classical plasma physics can be recovered from relativistic quantum results when taking the classical limit. In the opposite limit, classical wave dispersion relations are modified substantially. In unmagnetized plasmas, longitudinal waves propagate with nonzero group velocities even when plasmas are cold. In magnetized plasmas, anharmonically spaced Bernstein waves persist even when plasma...
Zooming of states and parameters using a lumping approach including back-translation
Jirstrand Mats
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Systems biology models tend to become large since biological systems often consist of complex networks of interacting components, and since the models usually are developed to reflect various mechanistic assumptions of those networks. Nevertheless, not all aspects of the model are equally interesting in a given setting, and normally there are parts that can be reduced without affecting the relevant model performance. There are many methods for model reduction, but few or none of them allow for a restoration of the details of the original model after the simplified model has been simulated. Results We present a reduction method that allows for such a back-translation from the reduced to the original model. The method is based on lumping of states, and includes a general and formal algorithm for both determining appropriate lumps, and for calculating the analytical back-translation formulas. The lumping makes use of efficient methods from graph-theory and ϵ-decomposition and is derived and exemplified on two published models for fluorescence emission in photosynthesis. The bigger of these models is reduced from 26 to 6 states, with a negligible deviation from the reduced model simulations, both when comparing simulations in the states of the reduced model and when comparing back-translated simulations in the states of the original model. The method is developed in a linear setting, but we exemplify how the same concepts and approaches can be applied to non-linear problems. Importantly, the method automatically provides a reduced model with back-translations. Also, the method is implemented as a part of the systems biology toolbox for matlab, and the matlab scripts for the examples in this paper are available in the supplementary material. Conclusions Our novel lumping methodology allows for both automatic reduction of states using lumping, and for analytical retrieval of the original states and parameters without performing a
A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach
The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to
Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Takako [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Safronova, U.
1999-01-01
We have calculated the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients from Li-like Ne (Ne{sup 7+}) ions to Be-like Ne (Ne{sup 6+}) ions for selected excited states of Ne{sup 6+} ions. A collisional-radiative model (CRM) for Ne{sup 6+} ions is constructed to calculate the population density of each excited state in non-equilibrium ionization plasmas, including recombining processes. NeVII spectral line intensities and the radiative power loss are calculated with the CRM. A density effect caused by collisional excitation from the metastable state 2s2p {sup 3}P is found at an electron density of 10{sup 5} - 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. The collisional excitations between excited states become important at high electron temperature T{sub e} > or approx. 100 eV. (author)
We have calculated the dielectronic recombination rate coefficients from Li-like Ne (Ne7+) ions to Be-like Ne (Ne6+) ions for selected excited states of Ne6+ ions. A collisional-radiative model (CRM) for Ne6+ ions is constructed to calculate the population density of each excited state in non-equilibrium ionization plasmas, including recombining processes. NeVII spectral line intensities and the radiative power loss are calculated with the CRM. A density effect caused by collisional excitation from the metastable state 2s2p 3P is found at an electron density of 105 - 1017 cm-3. The collisional excitations between excited states become important at high electron temperature Te > or approx. 100 eV. (author)
Modeling weakly-ionized plasmas in magnetic field: A new computationally-efficient approach
Parent, Bernard; Macheret, Sergey O.; Shneider, Mikhail N.
2015-11-01
Despite its success at simulating accurately both non-neutral and quasi-neutral weakly-ionized plasmas, the drift-diffusion model has been observed to be a particularly stiff set of equations. Recently, it was demonstrated that the stiffness of the system could be relieved by rewriting the equations such that the potential is obtained from Ohm's law rather than Gauss's law while adding some source terms to the ion transport equation to ensure that Gauss's law is satisfied in non-neutral regions. Although the latter was applicable to multicomponent and multidimensional plasmas, it could not be used for plasmas in which the magnetic field was significant. This paper hence proposes a new computationally-efficient set of electron and ion transport equations that can be used not only for a plasma with multiple types of positive and negative ions, but also for a plasma in magnetic field. Because the proposed set of equations is obtained from the same physical model as the conventional drift-diffusion equations without introducing new assumptions or simplifications, it results in the same exact solution when the grid is refined sufficiently while being more computationally efficient: not only is the proposed approach considerably less stiff and hence requires fewer iterations to reach convergence but it yields a converged solution that exhibits a significantly higher resolution. The combined faster convergence and higher resolution is shown to result in a hundredfold increase in computational efficiency for some typical steady and unsteady plasma problems including non-neutral cathode and anode sheaths as well as quasi-neutral regions.
Holographic approach to quark–gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions
We review recent applications of the dual holographic approach to describing the quark–gluon plasma observed in high-energy collisions of relativistic heavy nuclei. Holography and AdS/CFT duality provide a means to study the properties of strong-coupling quantum field theories using higher-dimensional gravity theories. The appearance of quark–gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions can be described in dual terms as the formation of a black hole. To illustrate the major achievements of holographic theory, we discuss the calculation of the following quantities: the shear viscosity and other transport coefficients (all calculated by second order hydrodynamic models), the energy dependence of multiplicities, and the anisotropic thermalization and isotropization times. We also compare theoretical predictions with available experimental data, including the recent LHC results. (reviews of topical problems)
During this work, a 2D axially symmetric model of a TIG arc welding process had been developed in order to predict for given welding parameters, the needed variables for a designer of welded assembly: the heat input on the work piece, the weld pool geometry,... The developed model, using the Cast3M finite elements software, deals with the physical phenomena acting in each part of the process: the cathode, the plasma, the work piece with a weld pool, and the interfaces between these parts. To solve this model, the thermohydraulics equations are coupled with the electromagnetic equations that are calculated in part using the least squares finite element method. The beginning of the model validation consisted in comparing the results obtained with the ones available in the scientific literature. Thus, this step points out the action of each force in the weld pool, the contribution of each heat flux in the energy balance. Finally, to validate the model predictiveness, experimental and numerical sensitivity analyses were conducted using a design of experiments approach. The effects of the process current, the arc gap and the electrode tip angle on the weld pool geometry and the energy transferred to the work piece and the arc efficiency were studied. The good agreement obtained by the developed model for these outputs shows the good reproduction of the process physics. (author)
An approach for including resolved resonance interference effects in multigroup scale methodology
In the current work, an equivalence approach is proposed to improve resolved resonance absorption calculation in the SCALE modular code system, where toe cross sections generated using multiregion option of this code system ignore the lattice geometry effects. This approach is applicable for any geometry for which a flux solution by collision probability method is possible. The VEGAKENO code, based ob this approach calculates the desired one-parameter representation of the resonance absorption (dilution cross section σ sub 0) by making the equivalence approximation. This approximation states that the resonance self-shielding factor in the whole effective resonance intervals for each resonance nuclide in each resonance region of a heterogeneous media is the same as in the homogeneous media containing a pseudo moderator material with a cross section σ sub 0. Effective resonance interval around the resolved resonance base energy, at which the VEGAKENO calculates self-shielding factor for absorption in heterogeneous and equivalent homogeneous media, is based on NITAWL algorithm that selects a factor s/2 of practical width, or ten times the Doppler width. The proposed approach was benchmarked for recent exercise that represents a system with a fuel double heterogeneity, i.e., fuel in solid form (pellets) surrounded by fissile material in solution. (author)
Abdulhalim, I.
2007-06-01
Optical scatterometry is being used as a powerful technique for measurement of sub-wavelength periodic structures. It is based on measuring the scattered signal and solving the inverse scattering problem. For periodic nano-arrays with feature size less than 100nm, it is possible to simplify the electromagnetic simulations using the Rytov near quasi-static approximation valid for feature periods only few times less than the wavelength. This is shown to be adequate for the determination of the structure parameters from the zero order reflected or transmitted waves and their polarization or ellipsometric properties. The validity of this approach is applied to lamellar nano-scale grating photo-resist lines on Si substrate. Formulation for structures containing anisotropic multilayers is presented using the 4x4 matrix approach.
Plasma Onco-Immunotherapy: Novel Approach to Cancer Treatment
Fridman, Alexander
2015-09-01
Presentation is reviewing the newest results obtained by researchers of A.J. Drexel Plasma Institute on direct application of non-thermal plasma for direct treatment of different types of cancer by means of specific stimulation of immune system in the frameworks of the so-called onco-immunotherapy. Especial attention is paid to analysis of depth of penetration of different plasma-medical effects, from ROS, RNS, and ions to special biological signaling and immune system related processes. General aspects of the plasma-stimulation of immune system are discussed, pointing out specific medical applications. Most of experiments have been carried out using nanosecond pulsed DBD at low power and relatively low level of treatment doses, guaranteeing non-damage no-toxicity treatment regime. The nanosecond pulsed DBD physics is discussed mostly regarding its space uniformity and control of plasma parameters relevant to plasma medical treatment, and especially relevant to depth of penetration of different plasma medical effects. Detailed mechanism of the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy has been suggested based upon preliminary in-vitro experiments with DBD treatment of different cancer cells. Sub-elements of this mechanism related to activation of macrophages and dendritic cells, specific stressing of cancer cells and the immunogenic cell death (ICD) are to be discussed based on results of corresponding in-vitro experiments. In-vivo experiments focused on the plasma-induced onco-immunotherapy were carried out in collaboration with medical doctors from Jefferson University hospital of Philadelphia. Todays achievements and nearest future prospective of clinical test focused on plasma-controlled cancer treatment are discussed in conclusion.
This paper presents a theoretical model for describing globular transfer in gas metal arc welding. The heat and mass transfer in the electrode, arc plasma and molten pool are considered in one unified model. Using the volume of fluid method, the transport phenomena are dynamically studied in the following processes: droplet formation and detachment, droplet flight in arc plasma, impingement of droplets on the molten pool and solidification after the arc extinguishes. The simulation of heat and mass transfer in the arc plasma considers the developing surface profile of the electrode and molten pool and also the effect of the flying droplet inside the arc plasma. Furthermore, the heat inputs to the electrode and the molten pool result from the simulation of the arc plasma. In addition, a He-Ne laser in conjunction with the shadow-graphing technique is used to observe the metal-transfer process. The theoretical predictions and experimental results are shown to be in good agreement
Chromo-Hydrodynamic Approach to the Unstable Quark-Gluon Plasma
Manuel, C; Manuel, Cristina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2006-01-01
We derive hydrodynamic-like equations that are applicable to short-time scale color phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma. The equations are solved in the linear response approximation, and the gluon polarization tensor is derived. As an application, we study the collective modes in a two-stream system and find plasma instabilities when the fluid velocity is larger than the speed of sound in the plasma. The chromo-hydrodynamic approach, discussed here in detail, should be considered as simpler over other approaches and well-designed for numerical studies of the dynamics of an unstable quark-gluon plasma.
Promoting Plasma Physics as a Career: A Generational Approach
Morgan, James
2005-10-01
A paradigm shift is occurring in education physics programs. Educators are shifting from the traditional teaching focus to concentrate on student learning. Students are unaware of physics as a career, plasma physics or the job opportunities afforded to them with a physics degree. The physics profession needs to promote itself to the younger generations, or specifically the millennial generation (Born in the 1980's-2000's). Learning styles preferred by ``Millennials'' include a technological environment that promotes learning through active task performance rather than passive attendance at lectures. Millennials respond well to anything experiential and will be motivated by opportunities for creativity and challenging learning environments. The open-ended access to information, the ability to tailor learning paths, and continuous and instantaneous performance assessment offer flexibility in the design of curricula as well as in the method of delivery. Educators need to understand the millennial generation, appeal to their motivations and offer a learning environment designed for their learning style. This poster suggests promoting a physics career by focusing on generational learning styles and preferences.
A Simulation Approach for ICRF Plasma Thruster Antennas
In the past twenty years plasma-based propulsion systems have found increasing aerospace interest; although they were initially conceived as rockets for interplanetary missions, more recent advances in plasma-based concepts have led to the identification of radio-frequency (RF) generation and acceleration systems as capable of providing not only continuous thrust, but also controllable exhaust velocities, as required in maneuvering applications. The most interesting such studies for plasma propulsion are those focused on the possibility of coupling radio frequency power to plasma, exploiting the possibility of having very efficient devices to generate and heat the plasma, magnetically confining it in a trap in the heating region, so that ion can escape the magnetic trap only when they are energetic enough to be converted into direct out-going flow which provides the thrust. The structure of this system is therefore based on of three stages where plasma is respectively generated, heated and expanded in a magnetic nozzle. The heating stage acts as an amplifier; here plasma is heated by the radio frequency waves by the process of ion cyclotron resonance. It has been developed and tested a numerical tool for the electromagnetic modeling of the ICRF antenna, of the RF booster unit of plasma thrusters, and of the RF-plasma interactions. The latter is studied in the critical ICRF acceleration region by setting up a convenient Electromagnetic (EM) analytical and numerical model based on the Moment-Method solution of a suitable set of integral equations. Solution of the relevant integral equation directly provides the electric surface current density induced on antenna conductors, but the ultimate quantity to be computed is the circuit characterization (e.g. admittance matrix) at the input ports
A nonextensive statistics approach for Langmuir waves in relativistic plasmas
V. Muñoz
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The nonextensive statistics formalism proposed by Tsallis has found many applications in systems with memory effects, long range spatial correlations, and in general whenever the phase space has fractal or multi-fractal structure. These features may appear naturally in turbulent or non-neutral plasmas. In fact, the equilibrium distribution functions which maximize the nonextensive entropy strongly resemble the non-Maxwellian particle distribution functions observed in space and laboratory and turbulent pure electron plasmas. In this article we apply the Tsallis entropy formalism to the problem of longitudinal oscillations in a proton-electron plasma. In particular, we study the equilibrium distribution function and the dispersion relation of longitudinal oscillations in a relativistic plasma, finding interesting differences with the nonrelativistic treatment.
Pusztai, Tamas; Toth, Gyula I; Koernyei, Laszlo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Tegze, Gyoergy; Bansel, Gurvinder; Fan, Zhungyun; Granasy, Laszlo [Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Laszlo.Granasy@brunel.ac.uk, E-mail: grana@szfki.hu
2008-10-08
Advanced phase-field techniques have been applied to address various aspects of polycrystalline solidification including different modes of crystal nucleation. The height of the nucleation barrier has been determined by solving the appropriate Euler-Lagrange equations. The examples shown include the comparison of various models of homogeneous crystal nucleation with atomistic simulations for the single-component hard sphere fluid. Extending previous work for pure systems (Granasy et al 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 035703), heterogeneous nucleation in unary and binary systems is described via introducing boundary conditions that realize the desired contact angle. A quaternion representation of crystallographic orientation of the individual particles (outlined in Pusztai et al 2005 Europhys. Lett. 71 131) has been applied for modeling a broad variety of polycrystalline structures including crystal sheaves, spherulites and those built of crystals with dendritic, cubic, rhombo-dodecahedral and truncated octahedral growth morphologies. Finally, we present illustrative results for dendritic polycrystalline solidification obtained using an atomistic phase-field model.
Michor, Peter W.
2006-01-01
This is the extended version of a lecture course given at the University of Vienna in the spring term 2005. The main aim of this course was to understand the papers \\cite{10} and \\cite{11} and to give a complete account of existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the members of higher order of the hierarchies of Burgers' equation and the Korteweg-de Vries equation, including their derivation and all the necessary background, both on the circle and on the real line in the setting of rapidl...
FENICIA: a generic plasma simulation code using a flux-independent field-aligned coordinate approach
The primary thrust of this work is the development and implementation of a new approach to the problem of field-aligned coordinates in magnetized plasma turbulence simulations called the FCI approach (Flux-Coordinate Independent). The method exploits the elongated nature of micro-instability driven turbulence which typically has perpendicular scales on the order of a few ion gyro-radii, and parallel scales on the order of the machine size. Mathematically speaking, it relies on local transformations that align a suitable coordinate to the magnetic field to allow efficient computation of the parallel derivative. However, it does not rely on flux coordinates, which permits discretizing any given field on a regular grid in the natural coordinates such as (x, y, z) in the cylindrical limit. The new method has a number of advantages over methods constructed starting from flux coordinates, allowing for more flexible coding in a variety of situations including X-point configurations. In light of these findings, a plasma simulation code FENICIA has been developed based on the FCI approach with the ability to tackle a wide class of physical models. The code has been verified on several 3D test models. The accuracy of the approach is tested in particular with respect to the question of spurious radial transport. Tests on 3D models of the drift wave propagation and of the Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) instability in cylindrical geometry in the linear regime demonstrate again the high quality of the numerical method. Finally, the FCI approach is shown to be able to deal with an X-point configuration such as one with a magnetic island with good convergence and conservation properties. (author)
Including the monetary part in macro accounting: A ‘modern’ approach to the macroeconomic accounting
Onur TUTULMAZ
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Economic output is placed at the heart of the macroeconomics. To calculate the output one needs to achieve simplifying a high level complexity of economic relationships to form a system. On the flip side, the model should be enough elaborated to be able to reflect the important relationships. In this manner, the classical macroeconomic identity as Keynes suggested is simple enough to understand the main elements but it does not show the financial parts of transactions. Not having the monetary part of the economy it lacks the coherence. With the financial and economic crises getting more frequent, more endeavour to build a more inclusive and coherent macroeconomic system has been observed. However, there are large variety in different options of simplifying and simulating complex relationships among the real and monetary part of the modern economies. Our paper tries to set an analysis comparing some of the recent prominent ideas in building balance sheet and transaction flow matrix in regard to macroeconomic accounting system. We can conclude the new achievement of including the monetary transactions in the frame causes a compromise from the simplicity for a coherent and more complete picture of macro economy.
Viscous Quark-Gluon Plasma Model Through Fluid QCD Approach
Djun, T P; Mart, T; Handoko, L T
2014-01-01
A Lagrangian density for viscous quark-gluon plasma has been constructed within the fluid-like QCD framework. Gauge symmetry is preserved for all terms inside the Lagrangian, except for the viscous term. The transition mechanism from point particle field to fluid field, and vice versa, is discussed. The energy momentum tensor that is relevant for the gluonic plasma having the nature of fluid bulk of gluon sea is derived within the model. By imposing conservation law in the energy momentum tensor, shear viscosity appears as extractable from the equation.
Bénisti, Didier
2016-01-01
This paper addresses the linear and nonlinear propagation of an electron wave (EPW), in a three-dimensional geometry, and in a collisionless plasma that may be inhomogeneous, nonstationary, anisotropic and even weakly magnetized. The wave amplitude, together with any hydrodynamic quantity characterizing the plasma (density, temperature,...) are supposed to vary very little within one wavelength or one wave period. Hence, the geometrical optics limit is assumed, and the wave propagation is described by a first order differential equation. This equation explicitly accounts for three-dimensional effects, plasma inhomogeneity, Landau damping, and the collisionless dissipation and electron acceleration due to trapping. It is derived by mixing results obtained from a direct resolution of the Vlasov-Poisson system and from a variational formalism involving a nonlocal Lagrangian density. In a one-dimensional situation, abrupt transitions are predicted in the coefficients of the wave equation. They occur when the sate...
Therapeutical approach to plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk reduction
Marcello Ciaccio; Giulia Bivona; Chiara Bellia
2008-01-01
Marcello Ciaccio, Giulia Bivona, Chiara BelliaDepartment of Medical Biotechnologies and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing aminoacid produced during metabolism of methionine. Since 1969 the relationship between altered homocysteine metabolism and both coronary and peripheral atherotrombosis is known; in recent years experimental evidences have shown that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with an...
Approaches to modeling of plasmas containing impurity at arbitrary concentration
Tokar, Mikhail Z.
2016-02-01
A new approximate method to modeling of two-ion-species plasmas with arbitrary concentration of impurity is developed. It based on the usage of equations for the electron density and the ratio of the ion species densities as new dependent variables. In contrast to motion equations for the ion mass velocities used normally, those for the new variables have a singularity at the Debye sheath only, as in the case of a one species plasma. Computations for the most critical situations of weak and intermediate friction between species due to Coulomb collisions reproduce nearly perfectly the results got by solving the original equations, however within a calculation time reduced by a factor of 102-103. In the case of strong friction, where ions’ velocities are very close each other, the normal procedure does not converge at all, but the new one, being precise in this limit, operates very reliably. Calculations are done for conditions typical in the linear device PSI-2, with deuterium plasmas seeded by neon impurity. For fixed electron and ion temperatures a critical density of impurity atoms is found, at which the electron density grows without limits. Such a catastrophic behavior does not occur if the electron and ion heat balances are taken into account to calculate the temperature profiles self-consistently.
El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Behery, E. E.; Zedan, N. A.
2015-12-01
Propagation of dust acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of extremely massive, negatively/positively charged dust fluid and Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions is studied. A nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation adequate for describing the solitary waves is derived by applying a reductive perturbation technique. Moreover, an extended Zakharov Kuznetsov (EZK) equation is derived at the vicinity of the critical phase velocity. The effects of the polarization force are explicitly discussed and the growth rate of the produced waves is calculated. It is found that the physical parameters have strong effects on the instability criterion as well as on the growth rate. It is noted that the phase velocity decreases as the polarization force, the effective-to-ion temperature ratio, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio increase. Moreover, the nonlinearity coefficient and the critical phase velocity increase by increasing the polarization force. The relevance of these findings to a recent plasma experiment and astrophysical plasma observations is briefly discussed.
Coherent dynamic structure factors of strongly coupled plasmas: A generalized hydrodynamic approach
Luo, Di; Zhao, Bin; Hu, GuangYue; Gong, Tao; Xia, YuQing; Zheng, Jian
2016-05-01
A generalized hydrodynamic fluctuation model is proposed to simplify the calculation of the dynamic structure factor S(ω, k) of non-ideal plasmas using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In this model, the kinetic and correlation effects are both included in hydrodynamic coefficients, which are considered as functions of the coupling strength (Γ) and collision parameter (kλei), where λei is the electron-ion mean free path. A particle-particle particle-mesh molecular dynamics simulation code is also developed to simulate the dynamic structure factors, which are used to benchmark the calculation of our model. A good agreement between the two different approaches confirms the reliability of our model.
Nind, M.; Wearmouth, J.; Collins, J.; Hall, K; Rix, J.; Sheehy, K.
2004-01-01
The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education, and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education itself is incr...
Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice
2005-01-01
Background The broad background to this review is a long history of concepts of special pupils and special education and a faith in special pedagogical approaches. The rise of inclusive schools and some important critiques of special pedagogy (e.g. Hart, 1996; Norwich and Lewis, 2001; Thomas and Loxley, 2001) have raised the profile of teaching approaches that ordinary teachers can and do use to include children with special educational needs in mainstream classrooms. Inclusive education i...
Ballinger, Jared
Diamond thin films have promising applications in numerous fields due to the extreme properties of diamonds in conjunction with the surface enhancement of thin films. Biomedical applications are numerous including temporary implants and various dental and surgical instruments. The unique combination of properties offered by nanostructured diamond films that make it such an attractive surface coating include extreme hardness, low obtainable surface roughness, excellent thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness. Regrettably, numerous problems exist when attempting to coat stainless steel with diamond generating a readily delaminated film: outward diffusion of iron to the surface, inward diffusion of carbon limiting necessary surface carbon precursor, and the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion yielding substantial residual stress. While some exotic methods have been attempted to overcome these hindrances, the most common approach is the use of an intermediate layer between the stainless steel substrate and the diamond thin film. In this research, both 316 stainless steel disks and 440C stainless steel ball bearings were tested with interlayers including discrete coatings and graded, diffusion-based surface enhancements. Titanium nitride and thermochemical diffusion boride interlayers were both examined for their effectiveness at allowing for the growth of continuous and adherent diamond films. Titanium nitride interlayers were deposited by cathodic arc vacuum deposition on 440C bearings. Lower temperature diamond processing resulted in improved surface coverage after cooling, but ultimately, both continuity and adhesion of the nanostructured diamond films were unacceptable. The ability to grow quality diamond films on TiN interlayers is in agreement with previous work on iron and low alloy steel substrates, and the similarly seen inadequate adhesion strength is partially a consequence of the lacking establishment of an interfacial carbide phase
A time-delay approach for the modeling and control of plasma instabilities in thermonuclear fusion
Witrant, Emmanuel; Olofsson, Erik; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian
2009-01-01
This letter presents a summary of [1], where we investigated the stability problems and control issues that occur in a reversedfield pinch (RFP) device, EXTRAP-T2R, used for research in fusion plasma physics and general plasma (ionized gas) dynamics. The plant exhibits, among other things, magnetohydrodynamic instabilities known as resistive-wall modes (RWMs), growing on a time-scale set by a surrounding non-perfectly conducting shell. We propose a new modeling approach that takes into accoun...
Chromo-Hydrodynamic Approach to the Unstable Quark-Gluon Plasma
Manuel, Cristina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2006-01-01
We derive hydrodynamic-like equations that are applicable to short-time scale color phenomena in the quark-gluon plasma. The equations are solved in the linear response approximation, and the gluon polarization tensor is derived. As an application, we study the collective modes in a two-stream system and find plasma instabilities when the fluid velocity is larger than the speed of sound in the plasma. The chromo-hydrodynamic approach, discussed here in detail, should be considered as simpler ...
Vikingsson, Svante; Strömqvist, Malin; Svedberg, Anna; Hansson, Johan; Höiom, Veronica; Gréen, Henrik
2016-08-01
A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method for quantification of vemurafenib in human plasma, that also for the first time allows for metabolite semi-quantification, was developed and validated to support clinical trials and therapeutic drug monitoring. Vemurafenib was analysed by precipitation with methanol followed by a 1.9 min isocratic liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry analysis using an Acquity BEH C18 column with methanol and formic acid using isotope labelled internal standards. Analytes were detected in multireaction monitoring mode on a Xevo TQ. Semi-quantification of vemurafenib metabolites was performed using the same analytical system and sample preparation with gradient elution. The vemurafenib method was successfully validated in the range 0.5-100 μg/mL according to international guidelines. The metabolite method was partially validated owing to the lack of commercially available reference materials. For the first time concentration levels at steady state for melanoma patients treated with vemurafenib is presented. The low abundance of vemurafenib metabolites suggests that they lack clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683023
Towards modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions with hydrocodes: the thick-ray approach.
Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Nicolaï, P; Tikhonchuk, V
2014-03-01
This paper deals with the computation of laser beam intensity in large-scale radiative hydrocodes applied to the modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is adapted for light waves in an inhomogeneous medium and modified to include the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the ponderomotive force. This thick-ray model is compared to the standard ray-tracing (RT) approach, both in the chic code. The PCGO model leads to different power deposition patterns and better diffraction modeling compared to standard RT codes. The intensity-reconstruction technique used in RT codes to model nonlinear LPI leads to artificial filamentation and fails to reproduce realistic ponderomotive self-focusing distances, intensity amplifications, and density channel depletions, whereas PCGO succeeds. Bundles of Gaussian thick rays can be used to model realistic non-Gaussian ICF beams. The PCGO approach is expected to improve the accuracy of ICF simulations and serve as a basis to implement diverse LPI effects in large-scale hydrocodes. PMID:24730950
A statistical approach is proposed to predict thermal diffusivity profiles as a transport “model” in fusion plasmas. It can provide regression expressions for the ion and electron heat diffusivities (χi and χe), separately, to construct their radial profiles. An approach that this letter is proposing outstrips the conventional scaling laws for the global confinement time (τE) since it also deals with profiles (temperature, density, heating depositions etc.). This approach has become possible with the analysis database accumulated by the extensive application of the integrated transport analysis suite to experiment data. In this letter, TASK3D-a analysis database for high-ion-temperature (high-Ti) plasmas in the LHD (Large Helical Device) is used as an example to describe an approach. (author)
A matching approach to communicate through the plasma sheath surrounding a hypersonic vehicle
In order to overcome the communication blackout problem suffered by hypersonic vehicles, a matching approach has been proposed for the first time in this paper. It utilizes a double-positive (DPS) material layer surrounding a hypersonic vehicle antenna to match with the plasma sheath enclosing the vehicle. Analytical analysis and numerical results indicate a resonance between the matched layer and the plasma sheath will be formed to mitigate the blackout problem in some conditions. The calculated results present a perfect radiated performance of the antenna, when the match is exactly built between these two layers. The effects of the parameters of the plasma sheath have been researched by numerical methods. Based on these results, the proposed approach is easier to realize and more flexible to the varying radiated conditions in hypersonic flight comparing with other methods
Radiative transfer in hot plasmas: a new numeric approach
Radiative transfer is one of the main issues in inertial confinement fusion and in astrophysics. The basic equations governing the evolution of a radiative field and its coupling with a heat equation are well known, at least in the LTE approximation (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium). However, the numerical techniques which have been developed so far are not fully satisfactory. The aim of this work has therefore been to suggest a few new ideas concerning simplicity and accuracy in the description as well as in the resolution of the equations coupling the radiative field with matter. Chapter 1 introduces the context of this work and stresses the importance of opacities in the study of the interaction between the radiation field and matter, whereas chapter 2 gives a rather complete general survey of the main physical models used until now to describe this interaction. An alternative formalism of this coupling is presented in chapter 3 where a new distribution function, based on the departure of the radiation field from thermodynamic equilibrium, is introduced. In the new resulting transport equation, the source term is now mainly determined by a time derivative and a spatial gradient of the temperature and on the other hand by a universal spectrum. This formalism includes thermal conduction in a natural way which is not the case with standard formalisms. Finally, chapter 4 presents results of the confrontation with literature data of our formalism and the numerical techniques developed, including an application to a non homogeneous medium. (author) figs., tabs., 57 refs
Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Tarek, Merzouki; Hambli, Ridha; Ali, Mkaddem
2014-01-01
The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modelling to understand its mechanical behaviour and its remodelling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network computation and homogenisation equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained neural network simulation. Finite element (FE) calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house neural network program; (iii) in steps 2 to 10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenisation equations are used to perform the computation at the higher s...
T.Bentrcia; F.Djeffal; E.Chebaaki
2013-01-01
A fuzzy framework based on an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to evaluate the relative degradation of the basic subthreshold parameters due to hot-carrier effects for nanoscale thin-film double-gate (DG) MOSFETs.The effect of the channel length and thickness on the resulting degradation is addressed,and 2-D numerical simulations are used for the elaboration of the training database.Several membership function shapes are developed,and the best one in terms of accuracy is selected.The predicted results agree well with the 2-D numerical simulations and can be efficiently used to investigate the impact of the interface fixed charges and quantum confinement on nanoscale DG MOSFET subthreshold behavior.Therefore,the proposed ANFIS-based approach offers a simple and accurate technique to study nanoscale devices,including the hot-carrier and quantum effects.
A fuzzy framework based on an adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is proposed to evaluate the relative degradation of the basic subthreshold parameters due to hot-carrier effects for nanoscale thin-film double-gate (DG) MOSFETs. The effect of the channel length and thickness on the resulting degradation is addressed, and 2-D numerical simulations are used for the elaboration of the training database. Several membership function shapes are developed, and the best one in terms of accuracy is selected. The predicted results agree well with the 2-D numerical simulations and can be efficiently used to investigate the impact of the interface fixed charges and quantum confinement on nanoscale DG MOSFET subthreshold behavior. Therefore, the proposed ANFIS-based approach offers a simple and accurate technique to study nanoscale devices, including the hot-carrier and quantum effects. (semiconductor devices)
For low-energy nuclear reactions well above the resonance region, but still below the pion threshold, statistical pre-equilibrium models (e.g., the exciton and the hybrid ones) are a frequent tool for analysis of energy spectra and the cross sections of cluster emission. For α’s, two essentially distinct approaches are popular, namely the preformed one and the different versions of coalescence approaches, whereas only the latter group of models can be used for other types of cluster ejectiles. The original Iwamoto-Harada model of pre-equilibrium cluster emission was formulated using the overlap of the cluster and its constituent nucleons in momentum space. Transforming it into level or state densities is not a straigthforward task; however, physically the same model was presented at a conference on reaction models five years earlier. At that time, only the densities without spin were used. The introduction of spin variables into the exciton model enabled detailed calculation of the γ emission and its competition with nucleon channels, and - at the same time - it stimulated further developments of the model. However - to the best of our knowledge - no spin formulation has been presented for cluster emission till recently, when the first attempts have been reported, but restricted to the first emission only. We have updated this effort now and we are able to handle (using the same simplifications as in our previous work) pre-equilibrium cluster emission with spin including all nuclei in the reaction chain. (author)
Richmond, R
1993-01-01
The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330
Ion temperature gradient (ITG)-related instabilities are studied in tokamak-like plasmas with the help of a new global eigenvalue code. Ions are modelled in the frame of gyrokinetic theory so that finite Larmor radius effects of these particles are retained to all orders. Non-adiabatic trapped electron dynamics is taken into account through the bounce-averaged drift kinetic equation. Assuming electrostatic perturbations, the system is closed with the quasineutrality relation. Practical methods are presented which make this global approach feasible. These include a non-standard wave decomposition compatible with the curved geometry as well as adapting an efficient root finding algorithm for computing the unstable spectrum. These techniques are applied to a low pressure configuration given by a large aspect ratio torus with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces. Simulations from a linear, time evolution, particle in cell code provide a useful benchmark. Comparisons with local ballooning calculations for different parameter scans enable further validation while illustrating the limits of that representation at low toroidal wave numbers or for non-interchange-like instabilities. The stabilizing effect of negative magnetic shear is also considered, in which case the global results show not only an attenuation of the growth rate but also a reduction of the radial extent induced by a transition from the toroidal- to the slab-ITG mode. Contributions of trapped electrons to the ITG instability as well as the possible coupling to the trapped electron mode are clearly brought to the fore. (author) figs., tabs., 69 refs
An alternative approach for reusing slags from a plasma vitrification process
Kuo, Y.-M. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, 89, Wenhwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 71703, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: yiming@mail.hwai.edu.tw; Tseng, H.-J. [Department of Foundry Engineering, National Tainan Industrial Vocational High School, Tainan 71075, Taiwan (China); Chang, J.-E. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wang, J.-W.; Wang, C.-T. [Department of Safety Health and Environmental Engineering, Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology, 89, Wenhwa 1st St., Rende Shiang, Tainan County 71703, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.-T. [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)
2008-08-15
Vitrification is widely applied to transform hazardous materials into inert slags. Raising the value of the recycled slag is an important issue from an economic point of view. In this study, an alternative approach for mixing a plasma slag with unsaturated polyester resin for making the dough-like molding composites is proposed. Physical properties, including ultimate tensile strength, Rockwell hardness, and the elongation at break, were measured to evaluate the characteristics of the composites. A scanning electron microscope and an X-ray diffractometer were used to examine the micro characteristics of the specimens. The chemical stability of the composites was estimated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and a hot water bathing process. In an optimal slag loading (mass ratio of slag to unsaturated polyester resin) ranged from 0.1 to 0.2, the slag powder improved the physical properties of the composites. With an increased slag loading, excess slag powder weakened the structure of the resin, reducing the ultimate tensile strength and Rockwell hardness. The acid and water bathing tests indicated that the resin is decomposed in a hot environment. However, the slag was not destructed nor were the hazardous metals leached out. The results show that the molding method is an effective technology to recycle the slag.
An alternative approach for reusing slags from a plasma vitrification process.
Kuo, Yi-Ming; Tseng, Ho-Jung; Chang, Juu-En; Wang, Jian-Wen; Wang, Chih-Ta; Chen, Hung-Ta
2008-08-15
Vitrification is widely applied to transform hazardous materials into inert slags. Raising the value of the recycled slag is an important issue from an economic point of view. In this study, an alternative approach for mixing a plasma slag with unsaturated polyester resin for making the dough-like molding composites is proposed. Physical properties, including ultimate tensile strength, Rockwell hardness, and the elongation at break, were measured to evaluate the characteristics of the composites. A scanning electron microscope and an X-ray diffractometer were used to examine the micro characteristics of the specimens. The chemical stability of the composites was estimated using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and a hot water bathing process. In an optimal slag loading (mass ratio of slag to unsaturated polyester resin) ranged from 0.1 to 0.2, the slag powder improved the physical properties of the composites. With an increased slag loading, excess slag powder weakened the structure of the resin, reducing the ultimate tensile strength and Rockwell hardness. The acid and water bathing tests indicated that the resin is decomposed in a hot environment. However, the slag was not destructed nor were the hazardous metals leached out. The results show that the molding method is an effective technology to recycle the slag. PMID:18243535
Imaging approaches for analysis of cholesterol distribution and dynamics in the plasma membrane.
Wüstner, Daniel; Modzel, Maciej; Lund, Frederik W; Lomholt, Michael A
2016-09-01
Cholesterol is an important lipid component of the plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian cells, where it is involved in control of many physiological processes, such as endocytosis, cell migration, cell signalling and surface ruffling. In an attempt to explain these functions of cholesterol, several models have been put forward about cholesterol's lateral and transbilayer organization in the PM. In this article, we review imaging techniques developed over the last two decades for assessing the distribution and dynamics of cholesterol in the PM of mammalian cells. Particular focus is on fluorescence techniques to study the lateral and inter-leaflet distribution of suitable cholesterol analogues in the PM of living cells. We describe also several methods for determining lateral cholesterol dynamics in the PM including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), single particle tracking (SPT) and spot variation FCS coupled to stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. For proper interpretation of such measurements, we provide some background in probe photophysics and diffusion phenomena occurring in cell membranes. In particular, we show the equivalence of the reaction-diffusion approach, as used in FRAP and FCS, and continuous time random walk (CTRW) models, as often invoked in SPT studies. We also discuss mass spectrometry (MS) based imaging of cholesterol in the PM of fixed cells and compare this method with fluorescence imaging of sterols. We conclude that evidence from many experimental techniques converges towards a model of a homogeneous distribution of cholesterol with largely free and unhindered diffusion in both leaflets of the PM. PMID:27016337
We developed a novel approach to the fabrication of three-dimensional, nanoporous graphene sheets featuring a high specific surface area of 734.9 m2 g−1 and an ultrahigh pore volume of 4.1 cm3 g−1 through a rapid microwave-induced plasma treatment. The sheets were used as electrodes for supercapacitors and for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for fuel cells. Argon-plasma grown sheets exhibited a 44% improvement of supercapacitive performance (203 F g−1) over the plasma grown sheets (141 F g−1). N-doped sheets with Co3O4 showed an outstanding ORR activity evidenced from the much smaller Tafel slope (42 mV/decade) than that of Pt/C (82 mV/decade), which is caused by the high electrical conductivity of the graphene sheets, the planar N species content and the nanoporous morphology. (paper)
A consistent approach for mixed detailed and statistical calculation of opacities in hot plasmas
Porcherot, Quentin; Gilleron, Franck; Blenski, Thomas
2011-01-01
Absorption and emission spectra of plasmas with multicharged-ions contain transition arrays with a huge number of coalescent electric-dipole (E1) lines, which are well suited for treatment by the unresolved transition array and derivative methods. But, some transition arrays show detailed features whose description requires diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix. We developed a hybrid opacity code, called SCORCG, which combines statistical approaches with fine-structure calculations consistently. Data required for the computation of detailed transition arrays (atomic configurations and atomic radial integrals) are calculated by the super-configuration code SCO (Super-Configuration Opacity), which provides an accurate description of the plasma screening effects on the wave-functions. Level energies as well as position and strength of spectral lines are computed by an adapted RCG routine of R. D. Cowan. The resulting code provides opacities for hot plasmas and can handle mid-Z elements. The code is also a po...
Odedairo, Taiwo; Ma, Jun; Gu, Yi; Zhou, Wei; Jin, Jian; Zhao, X S; Zhu, Zhonghua
2014-12-12
We developed a novel approach to the fabrication of three-dimensional, nanoporous graphene sheets featuring a high specific surface area of 734.9 m(2) g(-1) and an ultrahigh pore volume of 4.1 cm(3) g(-1) through a rapid microwave-induced plasma treatment. The sheets were used as electrodes for supercapacitors and for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for fuel cells. Argon-plasma grown sheets exhibited a 44% improvement of supercapacitive performance (203 F g(-1)) over the plasma grown sheets (141 F g(-1)). N-doped sheets with Co3O4 showed an outstanding ORR activity evidenced from the much smaller Tafel slope (42 mV/decade) than that of Pt/C (82 mV/decade), which is caused by the high electrical conductivity of the graphene sheets, the planar N species content and the nanoporous morphology. PMID:25410325
Petelina, S. V.
2009-12-01
Most 1st year students who take the service course in Physics - Physics for Life Sciences - in Australia encounter numerous problems caused by such factors as no previous experience with this subject; general perception that Physics is hard and only very gifted people are able to understand it; lack of knowledge of elementary mathematics; difficulties encountered by lecturers in teaching university level Physics to a class of nearly 200 students with no prior experience, diverse and sometime disadvantageous backgrounds, different majoring areas, and different learning abilities. As a result, many students either drop, or fail the subject. In addition, many of those who pass develop a huge dislike towards Physics, consider the whole experience as time wasted, and spread this opinion among their peers and friends. The above issues were addressed by introducing numerous changes to the curriculum and modifying strategies and approaches in teaching Physics for Life Sciences. Instead of a conventional approach - teaching Physics from simple to complicated, topic after topic, the students were placed in the world of Physics in the same way as a newborn child is introduced to this world - everything is seen all the time and everywhere. That created a unique environment where a bigger picture and all details were always present and interrelated. Numerous concepts of classical and modern physics were discussed, compared, and interconnected all the time with “Light” being a key component. Our primary field of research is Atmospheric Physics, in particular studying the atmospheric composition and structure using various satellite and ground-based data. With this expertise and also inspired by an increasing importance of training a scientifically educated generation who understands the challenges of the modern society and responsibilities that come with wealth, a new section on environmental physics has been developed. It included atmospheric processes and the greenhouse
Guillaume Marquis-Gravel; Douglas Hayami; Martin Juneau; Anil Nigam; Valérie Guilbeault; Élise Latour; Mathieu Gayda
2015-01-01
Objectives: To analyze the effects of a long-term intensive lifestyle intervention including high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and Mediterranean diet (MedD) counseling on glycemic control parameters, insulin resistance and β-cell function in obese subjects. Methods: The glycemic control parameters (fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin), insulin resistance, and β-cell function of 72 obese subjects (54 women; mean age = 53 ± 9 years) were assessed at baseline and upon completion...
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a brain tumour with a very high patient mortality rate, with a median survival of 47 weeks. This might be improved by the identification of novel diagnostic, prognostic and predictive therapy-response biomarkers, preferentially through the monitoring of the patient blood. The aim of this study was to define the impact of GBM in terms of alterations of the plasma protein levels in these patients. We used a commercially available antibody array that includes 656 antibodies to analyse blood plasma samples from 17 healthy volunteers in comparison with 17 blood plasma samples from patients with GBM. We identified 11 plasma proteins that are statistically most strongly associated with the presence of GBM. These proteins belong to three functional signalling pathways: T-cell signalling and immune responses; cell adhesion and migration; and cell-cycle control and apoptosis. Thus, we can consider this identified set of proteins as potential diagnostic biomarker candidates for GBM. In addition, a set of 16 plasma proteins were significantly associated with the overall survival of these patients with GBM. Guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha (GNAO1) was associated with both GBM presence and survival of patients with GBM. Antibody array analysis represents a useful tool for the screening of plasma samples for potential cancer biomarker candidates in small-scale exploratory experiments; however, clinical validation of these candidates requires their further evaluation in a larger study on an independent cohort of patients
Numerical simulation of a dual-source supersonic plasma jet expansion process: continuum approach
Expanding thermal plasma (ETP) is a versatile technology for thin film deposition process with directional plasma flux and high deposition rates. This process involves expansion of supersonic plasma jets through a steep pressure ratio into a chamber maintained at near vacuum. Usually the plasma jets deviate from chemical and thermal equilibrium and the continuum approach is insufficient to describe the phenomena. In the current work, the continuum approach based Navier-Stokes equations have been implemented to study and understand the jet expansion process in a typical dual-arc plasma deposition reactor. The numerical predictions have been compared against in-house experimental data obtained by thermocouple measurements. For the range of back pressures (6-200 Pa) considered, it was observed that the jet core is supersonic and transitions to a subsonic zone downstream without the formation of any Mach disc for the prevalent operating parameters. Indications of thick and smeared barrel shocks were however observed in the computed flow-thermal fields. The modelled fluid was assumed to be a perfect gas with temperature dependent specific heats, thermal conductivity and viscosity coefficients, with constant Prandtl number of order unity. The radial spreads of the jets increase with increasing pressure ratio thus leading to enhanced interactions within reduced distances downstream of the nozzle exit. The jet core Mach number also increases, but moderately, with decreasing backpressure. It is concluded that within reasonable accuracy, continuum approach based calculations are able to capture most of the important phenomena involved in compressible, high-temperature, supersonic jet expansion processes which are essential in designing chambers relevant to the mentioned processes
A plasma-assisted directed vapor deposition approach has been explored for the synthesis of lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon) thin films. A Li3PO4 source was first evaporated using a high voltage electron beam and the resulting vapor entrained in a nitrogen-doped supersonic helium gas jet and deposited on a substrate at ambient temperature. This approach failed to incorporate significant concentrations of nitrogen in the films. A hollow cathode technique was then used to create an argon plasma that enabled partial ionization of both the Li3PO4 vapor and nitrogen gas just above the substrate surface. The plasma-enhanced deposition process greatly increased the gas phase and surface reactivity of the system and facilitated the synthesis and high rate deposition of amorphous Lipon films with the N/P ratios between 0.39 and 1.49. Manipulation of the plasma-enhanced process conditions also enabled control of the pore morphology and significantly affected the ionic transport properties of these films. This enabled the synthesis of electrolyte films with lithium ion conductivities in the 10-7-10-8 S/m range. They appear to be well suited for thin-film battery applications
The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m5) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 21A' state of SO2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables
Two approaches to plasma polarimetry: Angular variables technique and Stokes vector formalism
Bieg, Bohdan; Chrzanowski, Janusz; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Murari, Andrea; Orsitto, Francesco
2013-08-01
The modern plasma polarimetry is based on Stokes vector formalism (SVF) suggested and developed in depth by Segre (see Ref. [1] and cited there references). Segre's equations describe evolution of the Stokes vector along the ray in the weakly inhomogeneous and weakly anisotropic plasma. Alternative approach - angular variables technique (AVT) - suggested by Czyż et al. [2] in distinction to SVF deals with angular parameters of the polarization ellipse. Equations for angular parameters drastically differ from the SVF equations; however, AVT and SVF equations happen to be equivalent to each other. This paper proves equivalence of the SVF and AVT and in the sometime reveals some practical distinctions between two approaches. Although all the results of SVF can be obtained in frame of the AVT and vice versa, in specific problems one of the methods can be more convenient. Generally, AVT may serve as a valuable compliment to traditional SVF, providing sometimes more simple an less laborious solution of polarimetric problems.
Ewa A Jankowska
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that assessment of plasma C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1, a stable endothelin-1 precursor fragment, is of prognostic value in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF, beyond other prognosticators, including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. METHODS: We examined 491 patients with systolic CHF (age: 63±11 years, 91% men, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class [I/II/III/IV]: 9%/45%/38%/8%, 69% ischemic etiology. Plasma CT-proET-1 was detected using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Increasing CT-proET-1 was a predictor of increased cardiovascular mortality at 12-months of follow-up (standardized hazard ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.95, p = 0.03 after adjusting for NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, age, creatinine, NYHA class. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, areas under curve for 12-month follow-up were similar for CT-proET-1 and NT-proBNP (p = 0.40. Both NT-proBNP and CT-proET-1 added prognostic value to a base model that included LVEF, age, creatinine, and NYHA class. Adding CT-proET-1 to the base model had stronger prognostic power (p<0.01 than adding NT-proBNP (p<0.01. Adding CT-proET-1 to NT-proBNP in this model yielded further prognostic information (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma CT-proET-1 constitutes a novel predictor of increased 12-month cardiovascular mortality in patients with CHF. High CT-proET-1 together with high NT-proBNP enable to identify patients with CHF and particularly unfavourable outcomes.
The relative sensitivity factors (RSFs) of 68 elements including alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth, and transition elements, Cd, B, In, Te, I in the analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were determined. The ionization process in an inductively coupled plasma was found to be only approximately described by the Saha-Eggert equation. A relationship between the RSFs and the absolute electronegativities of atoms of the elements was found. This factor has the strongest effect on the accuracy of calculations of RSFs for chemically active elements. The average relative systematic error of calculations of RSFs with consideration for absolute electronegativity was reduced to 0.30
Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha; Mkaddem, Ali
2014-03-01
The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modeling to understand its mechanical behavior and its remodeling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network (NN) computation and homogenization equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained NN simulation. Finite element calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house NN program; and (iii) in steps 2-10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenization equations are used to perform the computation at the higher scales. The NN outputs (elastic properties of the microfibril) are used as inputs for the homogenization computation to determine the properties of mineralized collagen fibril. The mechanical and geometrical properties of bone constituents (mineral, collagen, and cross-links) as well as the porosity were taken in consideration. This paper aims to predict analytically the effective elastic constants of cortical bone by modeling its elastic response at these different scales, ranging from the nanostructural to mesostructural levels. Our findings of the lowest scale's output were well integrated with the other higher levels and serve as inputs for the next higher scale modeling. Good agreement was obtained between our predicted results and literature data. PMID:24123969
EMAPS: An Efficient Multiscale Approach to Plasma Systems with Non-MHD Scale Effects
Omelchenko, Yuri A [SciberQuest, Inc; Karimabadi, Homa [SciberQuest, Inc
2014-10-14
Using Discrete-Event Simulation (DES) as a novel paradigm for time integration of large-scale physics-driven systems, we have achieved significant breakthroughs in simulations of multi-dimensional magnetized plasmas where ion kinetic and finite Larmor radius (FLR) and Hall effects play a crucial role. For these purposes we apply a unique asynchronous simulation tool: a parallel, electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, HYPERS (Hybrid Particle Event-Resolved Simulator), which treats plasma electrons as a charge neutralizing fluid and solves a self-consistent set of non-radiative Maxwell, electron fluid equations and ion particle equations on a structured computational grid. HYPERS enables adaptive local time steps for particles, fluid elements and electromagnetic fields. This ensures robustness (stability) and efficiency (speed) of highly dynamic and nonlinear simulations of compact plasma systems such spheromaks, FRCs, ion beams and edge plasmas. HYPERS is a unique asynchronous code that has been designed to serve as a test bed for developing multi-physics applications not only for laboratory plasma devices but generally across a number of plasma physics fields, including astrophysics, space physics and electronic devices. We have made significant improvements to the HYPERS core: (1) implemented a new asynchronous magnetic field integration scheme that preserves local divB=0 to within round-off errors; (2) Improved staggered-grid discretizations of electric and magnetic fields. These modifications have significantly enhanced the accuracy and robustness of 3D simulations. We have conducted first-ever end-to-end 3D simulations of merging spheromak plasmas. The preliminary results show: (1) tilt-driven relaxation of a freely expanding spheromak to an m=1 Taylor helix configuration and (2) possibility of formation of a tilt-stable field-reversed configuration via merging and magnetic reconnection of two double-sided spheromaks with opposite helicities.
Idealized Slab Plasma approach for the study of Warm Dense Matter
Ng, A; Perrot, F; Dharma-wardana, M W C; Foord, M E
2005-01-01
Recently, warm dense matter (WDM) has emerged as an interdisciplinary field that draws increasing interest in plasma physics, condensed matter physics, high pressure science, astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion, as well as materials science under extreme conditions. To allow the study of well-defined WDM states, we have introduced the concept of idealized-slab plasmas that can be realized in the laboratory via (i) the isochoric heating of a solid and (ii) the propagation of a shock wave in a solid. The application of this concept provides new means for probing the dynamic conductivity, equation of state, ionization and opacity. These approaches are presented here using results derived from first-principles (density-functional type) theory, Thomas-Fermi type theory, and numerical simulations.
Radio and Plasma Wave Observations at Saturn from Cassini's Approach and First Orbit
Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Haspodarsky, G. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Averkamp, T. F.; Cecconi, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.
2005-01-01
We report data from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument during the approach and first orbit at Saturn. During the approach, radio emissions from Saturn showed that the radio rotation period is now 10 hours 45 minutes 45 k 36 seconds, about 6 minutes longer than measured by Voyager in 1980 to 1981. In addition, many intense impulsive radio signals were detected from Saturn lightning during the approach and first orbit. Some of these have been linked to storm systems observed by the Cassini imaging instrument. Within the magnetosphere, whistler-mode auroral hiss emissions were observed near the rings, suggesting that a strong electrodynamic interaction is occurring in or near the rings.
Study of a pseudo-empirical model approach to characterize plasma actuators
The use of plasma actuators is a recent technology that imposes a localized electric force that is used to control air flows. A suitable representation of actuation enables to undertake plasma actuators optimization, to design flow-control strategies, or to analyse the flow stabilization that can be attained by plasma forcing. The problem description may be clearly separated in two regions. An outer region, where the fluid is electrically neutral, in which the flow is described by the Navier-Stokes equation without any forcing term. An inner region, that forms a thin boundary layer, where the fluid is ionized and electric forces are predominant. The outer limit of the inner solution becomes the boundary condition for the outer problem. The outer problem can then be solved with a slip velocity that is issued from the inner solution. Although the solution for the inner problem is quite complex it can be contoured proposing pseudo-empirical models where the slip velocity of the outer problem is determined indirectly from experiments. This pseudo-empirical model approach has been recently tested in different cylinder flows and revealed quite adapted to describe actuated flow behaviour. In this work we determine experimentally the influence of the duty cycle on the slip velocity distribution. The velocity was measured by means of a pitot tube and flow visualizations of the starting vortex (i.e. the induced flow when actuation is activated in a quiescent air) have been done by means of the Schlieren technique. We also performed numerical experiments to simulate the outer region problem when actuation is activated in a quiescent air using a slip velocity distribution as a boundary condition. The experimental and numerical results are in good agreement showing the potential of this pseudo-empirical model approach to characterize the plasma actuation.
Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss
Radiative opacity of plasmas studied by detailed term (level) accounting approaches
ZENG Jiao-long; JIN Feng-tao; YUAN Jian-min
2006-01-01
Detailed term and level accounting (DTA and DLA) schemes have been developed to calculate the spectrally resolved and Rosseland and Planck mean opacities of plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium.Various physical effects,such as configuration interaction effect (including core-valence electron correlations effect and relativistic effect),detailed line width effect (including the line saturation effect),etc.,on the opacity of plasmas have been investigated in detail.Some of these physical effects are less capable or even impossible to be taken into account by statistical models such as unresolved transition arrays,super-transitionarray or average atom models.Our detailed model can obtain accurate opacity of plasmas.Using this model,we have systematically investigated the radiative opacities of low,medium and high-Z plasmas under different conditions of temperature and density.For example,for aluminum plasma,in the X-ray region,we demonstrated the effects of autoionization resonance broadening on the opacity for the first time.Furthermore,the relativistic effects play an important role on the opacity as well.Our results are in good agreement with other theoretical ones although better agreement can be obtained after the effects of autoionization resonance broadening and relativity have been considered.Our results also show that the modelling of the opacity is very complicated,since too many physical effects influence the accuracy of opacity.``For medium and high-Z plasmas,however,there are systematic discrepancies unexplained so far between the theoretical and experimental opacities.Here,the theoretical opacities are mainly obtained by statistical models.To clarify the discrepaneies,efforts from both sides are needed.From the viewpoint of theory,however,a DLA method,in which various physical effects can be taken into account,should be useful in resolving the difference.Taking gold plasma as an example,we studied in detail the effects of core-valence electron
Port-Hamiltonian approach for modelling, reduction and control of plasma dynamics in tokamaks
Vu, Ngoc Minh Trang
2014-01-01
The modelling and analysis of the plasma dynamics in tokamaks using the port-Hamiltonian approach is the main project purpose. Thermo-mMagnetohydrodynamics balances have been written in port-Hamiltonian form using Stokes-Dirac interconnection structures and 3D differential forms. A simplified 1D model for control has been derived using quasi-static and symmetry assumptions. It has been proved to be equivalent to a classical 1D control model: the resistive diffusion model for the poloidal magn...
Quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density: A large-N/sub c/ approach
A simple model for the quark-gluon plasma with a nonzero baryon number B is developed in a microcanonical (i.e., fixed B) approach. The model exhibits features which one expects will emerge from a nonperturbative treatment of QCD. We show the existence of a critical chemical potential μ/sub c/ such that, for T>0, physical properties are unaffected by chemical potentials μ when chemical bondμchemical bond<μ/sub c/. μ/sub c/ therefore resembles a mass gap
Quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density: A large-N/sub c/ approach
Azakov, S.I.; Salomonson, P.; Skagerstam, B.h.
1987-10-01
A simple model for the quark-gluon plasma with a nonzero baryon number B is developed in a microcanonical (i.e., fixed B) approach. The model exhibits features which one expects will emerge from a nonperturbative treatment of QCD. We show the existence of a critical chemical potential ..mu../sub c/ such that, for T>0, physical properties are unaffected by chemical potentials ..mu.. when chemically bond..mu..chemically bond<..mu../sub c/. ..mu../sub c/ therefore resembles a mass gap.
Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel
techniques for a variety of volatility factors, and implement the relevant likelihood ratio tests. Our factor model estimates are similar across a general state space implementation and an alternative robust two-step principal components approach. The evidence favors time-varying market prices of risk. Most......We develop a new empirical approach to term structure analysis that allows testing for time-varying risk premia and for the absence of arbitrage opportunities based on the drift restriction within the Heath, Jarrow and Morton (1992) framework. As in the equity case, a zero intercept condition is...... tested, but in addition to the standard bilinear term in factor loadings and market prices of risk, the relevant mean restriction in the term structure case involves an additional nonlinear (quadratic) term in factor loadings. We estimate our general model using likelihood-based dynamic factor model...
Briggs, Stephen; Hingley-Jones, Helen
2013-01-01
This article aims to explore new approaches to working with young people that are relevant to changed techno-social contexts. Firstly an emerging theory of adolescent development is elaborated, based on the notion of subjectivation, which takes into account new contexts and thinking about the development and experiences of young people and which is oriented towards inclusive practice. Secondly, appropriate practice-near methods for exploring and empirically assessing the applicability of this...
Single-particle potential in a chiral approach to nuclear matter including short-range NN-terms
We extend a recent chiral approach to nuclear matter of Lutz et al. (Phys. Lett. B 474,7(2000)) by calculating the underlying (complex-valued) single-particle potential U(p,kf)+iW(p,kf). The potential for a nucleon at the bottom of the Fermi sea, U(0,kf0)=- 20.0 MeV, comes out as much too weakly attractive in this approach. Even more seriously, the total single-particle energy does not rise monotonically with the nucleon momentum p, implying a negative effective nucleon mass at the Fermi surface. Also, the imaginary single-particle potential, W(0,kf0)=51.1 MeV, is too large. More realistic single-particle properties together with a good nuclear-matter equation of state can be obtained if the short-range contributions of non-pionic origin are treated in mean-field approximation (i.e. if they are not further iterated with 1π-exchange). We also consider the equation of state of pure neutron matter anti En(kn) and the asymmetry energy A(kf) in that approach. The downward bending of these quantities above nuclear-matter saturation density seems to be a generic feature of perturbative chiral pion-nucleon dynamics. (orig.)
Soft-computing approach to plasma evolution tracking in tokamak reactors
Morabito, Francesco C.
1997-10-01
Qualitative information about the structure of a mapping can surely be of help in learning a mapping by a collection of input-output pairs. However, there are conditions in which time and some other constraints make guessing the only plausible means for interpreting data. In this paper, the problem of the plasma boundary reconstruction in 'Tokamak' nuclear fusion rectors is assessed. The problem is formulated as an inverse 'identification' problem and the mapping is derived by a properly generated database of simulated experiments. Real data coming from experiments are also available to validate both numerically generated data and extracted model. The identification problem is solved for two different databases by using neural networks and more conventional models. The introduction of techniques derived from soft computing is shown to improve the performance in various respects. Dynamic identification systems appear to be rather demanding also for such systems, for the need of rapidly interpreting real time data for discharge control. Soft computing approaches may yet yield some low cost ways to take decisions during plasma evolution. The approximate analysis of experimental data could also improve the knowledge on the particular problem allowing an evolution of the knowledge base. Experimental data related to ASDEX-Upgrade machine are presented in this work and preliminary processed. Soft computing techniques also allow to simply get ideas about two other interesting problems in plasma engineering, namely, the fault tolerance and the minimization of the number of sensors.
Thermalization of a boost-invariant non-Abelian plasma: Holographic approach with boundary sourcing
Bellantuono, Loredana; De Fazio, Fulvia; Giannuzzi, Floriana
2015-01-01
In a holographic approach, the evolution of a 4D strongly coupled non-Abelian plasma towards equilibrium can be studied investigating a 5D gravitational dual. The process driving the plasma out-of-equilibrium can be described by boundary sourcing, a deformation of the boundary metric; the analysis of the late-time dynamics allows to understand how the hydrodynamic regime settles in. We apply the method to a boost-invariant case, considering the effects of different quenches, solving the Einstein equations in the bulk and studying the time-dependence of observables such as the effective temperature, the energy density and the pressures. The main outcome is that, if the effective temperature of the system when the quench is switched off is $T_{eff}(\\tau^*)=500$ MeV, thermalization is reached within a time of ${\\cal O}$(1 fm/c), an important information if the case of the QCD plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions is considered.
van den Oever, Jessica M E; van Minderhout, Ivonne J H M; Harteveld, Cornelis L; den Hollander, Nicolette S; Bakker, Egbert; van der Stoep, Nienke; Boon, Elles M J
2015-09-01
The challenge in noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for monogenic disorders lies in the detection of low levels of fetal variants in the excess of maternal cell-free plasma DNA. Next-generation sequencing, which is the main method used for noninvasive prenatal testing and diagnosis, can overcome this challenge. However, this method may not be accessible to all genetic laboratories. Moreover, shotgun next-generation sequencing as, for instance, currently applied for noninvasive fetal trisomy screening may not be suitable for the detection of inherited mutations. We have developed a sensitive, mutation-specific, and fast alternative for next-generation sequencing-mediated noninvasive prenatal diagnosis using a PCR-based method. For this proof-of-principle study, noninvasive fetal paternally inherited mutation detection was performed using cell-free DNA from maternal plasma. Preferential amplification of the paternally inherited allele was accomplished through a personalized approach using a blocking probe against maternal sequences in a high-resolution melting curve analysis-based assay. Enhanced detection of the fetal paternally inherited mutation was obtained for both an autosomal dominant and a recessive monogenic disorder by blocking the amplification of maternal sequences in maternal plasma. PMID:26162331
A non-local polycrystal approach, taking into account strain gradients, is proposed to simulate the 316LN stainless steel fatigue life curve in the hardening stage. Material parameters identification is performed on tensile curves corresponding to several 316LN polycrystals presenting different grain sizes. Applied to an actual 3D aggregate of 316LN stainless steel of 1200 grains, this model leads to an accurate prediction of cyclic curves. Geometrical Necessary Dislocation densities related to the computed strain gradient are added to the micro-plasticity laws. Compared to standard models, this model predicts a decrease of the local stresses as well as a grain size effect. (authors)
New Statistical Multiparticle Approach to the Acceleration of Electrons by the Ion Field in Plasmas
Eugene Oks
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of the acceleration of the (perturbing electrons by the ion field (AEIF significantly reduces Stark widths and shifts in plasmas of relatively high densities and/or relatively low temperature. Our previous analytical calculations of the AEIF were based on the dynamical treatment: the starting point was the ion-microfield-caused changes of the trajectories and velocities of individual perturbing electrons. In the current paper, we employ a statistical approach: the starting point is the electron velocity distribution function modified by the ion microfield. The latter had been calculated by Romanovsky and Ebeling in the multiparticle description of the ion microfield. The result shows again the reduction of the electron Stark broadening. Thus two totally different analytical approaches (dynamical and statistical agree with each other and therefore disprove the corresponding recent fully-numerical simulations by Stambulchik et al. that claimed an increase of the electron Stark broadening.
To calibrate the co-axial HPGe semiconductor detectors, we introduce a new theoretical approach based on the Direct Statistical method proposed by Selim and Abbas (1995, 1996) to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency for cylindrical detectors. The present method depends on the accurate analytical calculation of the average path length covered by the photon inside the detector active volume and the geometrical solid angle Ω, to obtain a simple formula for the efficiency. In addition, the self attenuation coefficient of the source matrix (with a radius greater than the detector's radius), the attenuation factors of the source container and the detector housing materials are also treated by calculating the average path length within these materials. 152Eu aqueous radioactive sources covering the energy range from 121 to 1408 keV were used. Remarkable agreement between the measured and the calculated efficiencies was achieved with discrepancies less than 2%. - Highlight: ► A new analytical approach for calculation of the FEPE is deduced. ► Separate calculation of factors which related to photon attenuation is introduced. ► The method depends on the calculation of the average path length. ► 152Eu aqueous sources covering the energy range from 121 to 1408 keV were used. ► Remarkable agreement between measured and calculated efficiencies was achieved.
Decomposition into eigenmodes: a novel approach to characterize plasma confinement in a tokamak
A novel method of perturbation analysis has been developed to characterize particle and energy confinement in a tokamak plasma. Whereas the classical approach to confinement begins with an empirical model using transport coefficients, the present work uses eigenmodes to represent the dynamic response. The latter approach has been applied to density perturbations induced in the TCA tokamak by pellet injection. The observed dynamic response can be entirely reproduced by a set of three eigenmodes, thereby reducing the temporal evolution of the density to three time constants only. The scatter of these time constants allows the density to evolve on quite different time-scales, with the relaxation of the density profile being determined by the nature of the eigenmodes. Whilst a τ∼I2-3pnoe dependence is observed in the time constants, the eigenfunctions remain insensitive to plasma conditions. The density invariance is linked with a strong linearity in the dynamic response, indicating that the pellet has no significant impact on transport processes. The eigenmode representation is particularly well suited to the study of coupled variables. A coupling has been identified between density perturbations and another variable which is very likely to be the electron temperature. The strength of this coupling does not depend on plasma conditions, although it varies with the level of MHD activity. High levels of activity change the interaction between particle and heat fluxes without affecting the eigenmodes. This results in an unfavourable weighting of the eigenmodes which accelerates the density relaxation and thereby explains the observed confinement degradation. (author) 42 figs., 45 refs
Hamiltonian approach to the description of non-linear plasma phenomena
This review discusses the methods of description of non-linear processes. We demonstrate the usefulness of the Hamiltonian approach to these problems. We show the existence of Hamiltonian structures for a number of plasma situations. The choice of normal variables results in a standard form of equations for all kinds of problems. The actual physics involved changes only dispersion laws and the structure of the matrix elements. This approach makes it possible to consider a number of problems in a unique way. We discuss the stability of monochromatic waves and the statistical description of a plasma. The connection between decay and modulational instability growth rates and matrix elements is demonstrated. The standard form of the equations enables us to introduce a statistical description in a very simple way. We discuss the usual kinetic wave equations and their generalization for inhomogeneous turbulence and turbulence excited by a coherent pump. We pay special attention to the problem of Langmuir turbulence. The average dynamical equations are deduced in a consistent way and we present a detailed discussion of the limits of this description. (orig.)
Two approaches to plasma polarimetry: Angular variables technique and Stokes vector formalism
Bieg, Bohdan, E-mail: b.bieg@am.szczecin.pl [Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin (Poland); Chrzanowski, Janusz; Kravtsov, Yury A. [Maritime University of Szczecin, Szczecin (Poland); Murari, Andrea [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Padova (Italy); Orsitto, Francesco [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA, Frascati (Italy)
2013-08-21
The modern plasma polarimetry is based on Stokes vector formalism (SVF) suggested and developed in depth by Segre (see Ref. [1] and cited there references). Segre's equations describe evolution of the Stokes vector along the ray in the weakly inhomogeneous and weakly anisotropic plasma. Alternative approach – angular variables technique (AVT) – suggested by Czyż et al. [2] in distinction to SVF deals with angular parameters of the polarization ellipse. Equations for angular parameters drastically differ from the SVF equations; however, AVT and SVF equations happen to be equivalent to each other. This paper proves equivalence of the SVF and AVT and in the sometime reveals some practical distinctions between two approaches. Although all the results of SVF can be obtained in frame of the AVT and vice versa, in specific problems one of the methods can be more convenient. Generally, AVT may serve as a valuable compliment to traditional SVF, providing sometimes more simple an less laborious solution of polarimetric problems.
A three-dimensional (3-D) transient model has been developed to investigate plasma deformation driven by a magnetic field and its influence on arc stability in a circuit breaker. The 3-D distribution of electric current density is obtained from a current continuity equation along with the generalized Ohm's law; while the magnetic field induced by the current flowing through the arc column is calculated by the magnetic vector potential equation. When gas interacts with an arc column, fundamental factors, such as Ampere's law, Ohm's law, the turbulence model, transport equations of mass, momentum and energy of plasma flow, have to be coupled for analyzing the phenomenon. The coupled interactions between arc and plasma flow are described in the framework of time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in conjunction with a K-ε turbulence model. Simulations have been focused on sausage and kink instabilities in plasma (these phenomena are related to pinch effects and electromagnetic fields). The 3-D simulation reveals the relation between plasma deformation and instability phenomena, which affect arc stability during circuit breaker operation. Plasma deformation is the consequence of coupled interactions between the electromagnetic force and plasma flow described in simulations. (plasma technology)
Hughes, D.
2015-12-01
There are many large basins in southern Africa that are mostly ungauged but may have some streamflow observations either on the main river or on tributaries. Many of the streamflow records are, however, of poor quality or impacted by largely unquantified and non-stationary development impacts. All water resources assessments are therefore uncertain and model setups are difficult to validate in traditional ways. The paper presents a method for practical uncertainty assessment using a semi-distributed (sub-basin) model. The method uses a 2-stage approach where the first stage involves obtaining 'behavioural' parameter sets to represent the incremental natural streamflow for each sub-basin. The criteria for 'behavioural' are based on a series of constraints on model output that can be developed from the available gauged data or from regional assessments of natural hydrological functioning. The second stage simulates the whole basin based on sampling the 'behavioural' incremental flow parameter sets, as well as samples of additional individual parameter values representing downstream routing parts of the model and development impacts. One of the perceived advantage of the method is that all the ensembles at the total basin outlet are made up of behavioural inputs for all sub-basins. The method is also flexible in terms of the uncertainty range of the constraints, which might be expected to be narrow (low uncertainty) in well gauged sub-basins, or areas where our understanding of flow regime characteristics is good, but much wider (higher uncertainty) in other parts of the basin. The paper briefly explains the approach and discusses some of the issues associated with its application using examples from southern Africa.
The constant collision frequency model for a transitional plasma, i.e. one that is between collisionless and fully collisional, is developed for the situation where there is a flux of positive ions and electrons into the plasma. This is then used to describe the outer region of an electronegative plasma and thus obtain a plasma balance equation for the whole plasma. Chlorine is chosen as an exemplar gas for which the differences are explored between this model and another that has been suggested based on the ambipolar diffusion coefficient derived by Thompson (Thomson J B 1959 Proc. Phys. Soc. 73 818). The differences appear to be experimentally measurable. Corresponding values for estimating the effect using a constant ion mean free path model are also given
High pressure cold plasma technique for etching of hi-tech materials, a physio-chemical approach
High pressure cold plasma technique involves radio frequency excitation of a flowing mixture of helium or argon and a reactive gas like CF/sub 4/ or CH/sub 4/ in our originally designed plasma beam generator. The stable cold plasma beam thus generated is, characterized by optical emission spectroscopy and electrostatic Langmuir probe methods. The cold plasma is then exposed to conducting, semiconducting and insulating surfaces to achieve high rate etching in open air. Single crystal silicon wafers were etched with etching rate as high as 0.5 micron/second by CF/sub 4/ /He plasma. Other application examples include etching of stainless steel, tungsten, copper and graphite surfaces. The etched surfaces have been characterized by stylus method and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The mechanism of high-pressure cold plasma sustainment and physio-chemical aspects involved in surface etching are discussed. (author)
Vahid ABBASI; Ahmad GHOLAMI; Kaveh NIAYESH
2012-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) transient model has been developed to investigate plasma deformation driven by a magnetic field and its influence on arc stability in a circuit breaker. The 3-D distribution of electric current density is obtained from a current continuity equation along with the generalized Ohm's law; while the magnetic field induced by the current flowing through the arc column is calculated by the magnetic vector potential equation. When gas interacts with an arc column, fundamental factors, such as Ampere's law, Ohm's law, the turbulence model, transport equations of mass, momentum and energy of plasma flow, have to be coupled for aria- lyzing the phenomenon. The coupled interactions between arc and plasma flow are described in the fl'amework of time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in conjunction with a K-~ turbulence model. Simulations have been focused on sausage and kink instabilities in plasma (these phenomena are related tO pinch effects and electromagnetic fields). The 3-D sjm- ulation reveals the relation between plasma deformation and instability phenomena, which affect arc stability during circuit breaker operation. Plasma deformation is the consequence of coupled interactions between the electromagnetic force and plasma flow described in simulations.
Variational principle approach to short-pulse laser-plasma interactions in three dimensions
An approach for describing the evolution of short-pulse lasers propagating through underdense plasmas is presented. This approach is based upon the use of a variational principle. The starting point is an action integral of the form S[a,a*,φ]=∫d4x L[a,a*,φ,∂μa,∂μa*,∂μφ] whose Euler-Lagrange equations recover the well-known weakly nonlinear coupled equations for the envelope of the laser's vector potential a, its complex conjugate a*, and the plasma wave wakes' (real) potential φ. Substituting appropriate trial functions for a, a*, and φ into the action and carrying out the ∫d2x(perpendicularsign) integration provides a reduced action integral. Approximate equations of motion for the trial-function parameters (e.g., amplitudes, spot sizes, phases, centroid positions, and radii of curvature), valid to the degree of accuracy of the trial functions, can then be generated by treating the parameters as a new set of dependent variables and varying the action with respect to them. Using this approach, fully three-dimensional, nonlinear envelope equations are derived in the absence of dispersive terms. The stability of these equations is analyzed, and the growth rates for hosing and symmetric spot-size self-modulation, in the short-wavelength regime (k∼ωp/c) are recovered. In addition, hosing and spot-size self-modulational instabilities for longer wavelength perturbations (kp/c), and an asymmetric spot-size self-modulational instability are found to occur. The relationships between the variational principle formalism, the source-dependent-expansion (SDE), and moment methods are presented. The importance of nonlinear effects is also briefly discussed, and possible directions for future work are given. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Bothara M.G.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Plasma pressure compaction (P2C is a novel sintering technique that enables the consolidation of silicon carbide with a nanoscale microstructure at a relatively low temperature. To achieve a high final density with optimized mechanical properties, the effects of various sintering factors pertaining to the temperature-time profile and pressure were characterized. This paper reports a design of experiment approach used to optimize the processing for a 100 nm SiC powder focused on four sintering factors: temperature, time, pressure, and heating rate. Response variables included the density and mechanical properties. A L9 orthogonal array approach that includes the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio and analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to optimize the processing factors. All of the sintering factors have significant effect on the density and mechanical properties. A final density of 98.1% was achieved with a temperature of 1600°C, hold time of 30 min, pressure of 50 MPa, and heating rate of 100°C/min. The hardness reached 18.4 GPa with a fracture toughness of 4.6 MPa√m, and these are comparable to reports from prior studies using higher consolidation temperatures.
刘松芬; 胡北来
2003-01-01
The internal energy and pressure of dense hydrogen plasma are calculated by the direct path integral Monte Carlo approach. The Kelbg potential is used as interaction potentials both between electrons and between protons and electrons in the calculation. The complete formulae for internal energy and pressure in dense hydrogen plasma derived for the simulation are presented. The correctness of the derived formulae are validated by the obtained simulation results. The numerical results are discussed in details.
Schmitt, R.; Coblenz, G.; Cherevatyy, O.; Brunner, H.; Froehner, S.; Wedell, E.; Christopoulos, G. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Karg, G. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany)
2005-12-01
The purpose of this study was to include the pedal vasculature into the coverage of peripheral multistation magnetic resonance angiography (3DceMRA). A total of 216 patients suffering from peripheral vascular disease were examined with a modified hybrid dual-bolus technique. The cruropedal arteries were acquired first with two sagittal slabs and time-resolved 3D sequences. Then the aortofemoral vessels were visualized using the bolus-chase technique and a second contrast injection. Interventional procedures were performed in 104 patients, and in 69 of those, the cruropedal vessels were also examined with digital subtraction angiography (iaDSA). Using 3DceMRA, the cruropedal arteries were displayed with both excellent and good quality in 95% (205/216 cases), and without any venous overlay in 94% (203/216 cases). The aortofemoral vessels were not jeopardized by the first contrast injection. With iaDSA as the standard of reference, observed sensitivity of 3DceMRA was found in ranges from 80% (29%, 99%) to 100% (86%, 100%) for assessing significant stenoses, and observed specificity ranged between 93% [80%, 98%] and 100% (82%, 100%). In conclusion, hybrid dual-bolus 3DceMRA significantly reduces the limitations of standard single-bolus 3DceMRA in anatomic coverage and temporal resolution of the cruropedal arteries, thus providing high-quality images of the entire peripheral vasculature. (orig.)
Keogan, M T
2009-04-01
Patients presenting with recurrent orogenital ulcers may have complex aphthosis, Behçet\\'s disease, secondary complex aphthosis (e.g. Reiter\\'s syndrome, Crohn\\'s disease, cyclical neutropenia) or non-aphthous disease (including bullous disorders, erythema multiforme, erosive lichen planus). Behçet\\'s syndrome is a multi-system vasculitis of unknown aetiology for which there is no diagnostic test. Diagnosis is based on agreed clinical criteria that require recurrent oral ulcers and two of the following: recurrent genital ulcers, ocular inflammation, defined skin lesions and pathergy. The condition can present with a variety of symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. The most common presentation is with recurrent mouth ulcers, often with genital ulcers; however, it may take some years before diagnostic criteria are met. All patients with idiopathic orogenital ulcers should be kept under review, with periodic focused assessment to detect evolution into Behçet\\'s disease. There is often a delay of several years between patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria and a diagnosis being made, which may contribute to the morbidity of this condition. Despite considerable research effort, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition remains enigmatic.
Experience of the Westinghouse Water Reactors Division with indoctrination and training of quality engineers includes training of personnel from Westinghouse divisions in the USA and overseas as well as of customers' personnel. A written plan is prepared for each trainee in order to fit the training to the individual's needs, and to cover the full range of information and activities. The trainee is also given work assignments, working closely with experienced quality engineers. He may prepare inspection plans and audit check lists, assist in the preparation of QA training modules, write procedures, and perform supplier surveillance and data analyses, or make special studies of operating systems. The trainee attends seminars and special courses on work-related technical subjects. Throughout the training period, emphasis is placed on inculcating an attitude of team work in the trainee so that the result of the training is the achievement of both quality and productivity. Certification is extended (given that education/experience/skill requirements are met) to such functions as mechanical equipment quality engineering, electrical equipment quality engineering, and start-up and testing quality engineering. A well-trained quality engineer is equipped to provide technical assistance to other disciplines and, through effective co-operation with others, contributes to the success of the organization's endeavours. (author)
Fenny M. Dwivany; Dina Yuli; Rachel A. Burton; Neil J. Shirley; Sarah M. Wilson; Geoffrey B. Fincher; Antony Bacic; Ed Newbigin; Monika S. Doblin
2009-01-01
The CELLULOSESYNTHASE-LIKE C(CSLC) family is an ancient lineage within the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE/CEL-LULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CESA/CSL) polysaccharide synthase superfamily that is thought to have arisen before the diver-gence of mosses and vascular plants. As studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis have suggested synthesis of the (1,4)-β-glucan backbone of xyloglucan (XyG), a wall polysaccharide that tethers adjacent cellulose microfibrils to each other, as a probable function for the CSLCs, CSLC function was investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a species with low amounts of XyG in its walls. Four barley CSLC genes were identified (designated HvCSLC1-4). Phylogenetic analysis reveals three well supported clades of CSLCs in flowering plants, with barley having representatives in two of these clades. The four barley CSLCs were expressed in various tissues, with in situ PCR detecting transcripts in all cell types of the coleoptile and root, including cells with primary and secondary cell walls. Co-expression analysis showed that HvCSLC3 was coor-dinately expressed with putative XyG xylosyltransferase genes. Both immuno-EM and membrane fractionation showed that HvCSLC2 was located in the plasma membrane of barley suspension-cultured cells and was not in internal membranes such as endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. Based on our current knowledge of the sub-cellular locations of poly-saccharide synthesis, we conclude that the CSLC family probably contains more than one type of polysaccharide synthase.
Approach to Chandrasekhar-Kendall-Woltjer State in a Chiral Plasma
Xia, Xiao-liang; Wang, Qun
2016-01-01
We study the time evolution of the magnetic field in a plasma with a chiral magnetic current. The Vector Spherical Harmonic functions (VSH) are used to expand all fields. We define a measure for the Chandrasekhar-Kendall-Woltjer (CKW) state, which has a simple form in VSH expansion. We propose the conditions for a general class of initial momentum spectra that will evolve into the CKW state. For this class of initial conditions, to approach the CKW state, (i) a non-vanishing chiral magnetic conductivity is necessary, and (ii) the time integration of the product of the electric resistivity and chiral magnetic conductivity must grow faster than the time integration of the resistivity. We give a few examples to test these conditions numerically which work very well.
Brochard, M.
2009-06-15
During this work, a 2D axially symmetric model of a TIG arc welding process had been developed in order to predict for given welding parameters, the needed variables for a designer of welded assembly: the heat input on the work piece, the weld pool geometry,... The developed model, using the Cast3M finite elements software, deals with the physical phenomena acting in each part of the process: the cathode, the plasma, the work piece with a weld pool, and the interfaces between these parts. To solve this model, the thermohydraulics equations are coupled with the electromagnetic equations that are calculated in part using the least squares finite element method. The beginning of the model validation consisted in comparing the results obtained with the ones available in the scientific literature. Thus, this step points out the action of each force in the weld pool, the contribution of each heat flux in the energy balance. Finally, to validate the model predictiveness, experimental and numerical sensitivity analyses were conducted using a design of experiments approach. The effects of the process current, the arc gap and the electrode tip angle on the weld pool geometry and the energy transferred to the work piece and the arc efficiency were studied. The good agreement obtained by the developed model for these outputs shows the good reproduction of the process physics. (author)
Bennett, C.T.
1994-03-01
This paper presents a comparison of several qualitatively different approaches to Total Quality Management (TQM). The continuum ranges from management approaches that are primarily standards -- with specific guidelines, but few theoretical concepts -- to approaches that are primarily philosophical, with few specific guidelines. The approaches to TQM discussed in this paper include the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9000 Standard, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, Senge`s the Learning Organization, Watkins and Marsick`s approach to organizational learning, Covey`s Seven Habits of Highly Successful People, and Deming`s Fourteen Points for Management. Some of these approaches (Deming and ISO 9000) are then compared to the DOE`s official position on quality management and conduct of operations (DOE Orders 5700.6C and 5480.19). Using a tabular format, it is shown that while 5700.6C (Quality Assurance) maps well to many of the current approaches to TQM, DOE`s principle guide to management Order 5419.80 (Conduct of Operations) has many significant conflicts with some of the modern approaches to continuous quality improvement.
Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report
Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2013-08-26
High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.
This paper is dedicated to the exploration of non-conventional nonlinear optics models for intense and short electromagnetic fields propagating in a gas. When an intense field interacts with a gas, usual nonlinear optics models, such as cubic nonlinear Maxwell, wave and Schrödinger equations, derived by perturbation theory may become inaccurate or even irrelevant. As a consequence, and to include in particular the effect of free electrons generated by laser–molecule interaction, several heuristic models, such as UPPE, HOKE models, etc, coupled with Drude-like models [1, 2], were derived. The goal of this paper is to present alternative approaches based on non-heuristic principles. This work is in particular motivated by the on-going debate in the filamentation community, about the effect of high order nonlinearities versus plasma effects due to free electrons, in pulse defocusing occurring in laser filaments [3–9]. The motivation of our work goes beyond filamentation modeling, and is more generally related to the interaction of any external intense and (short) pulse with a gas. In this paper, two different strategies are developed. The first one is based on the derivation of an evolution equation on the polarization, in order to determine the response of the medium (polarization) subject to a short and intense electromagnetic field. Then, we derive a combined semi-heuristic model, based on Lewenstein’s strong field approximation model and the usual perturbative modeling in nonlinear optics. The proposed model allows for inclusion of high order nonlinearities as well as free electron plasma effects. (paper)
Purpose This study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Meth...
PurposeThis study demonstrates an approach to assess human health and ecotoxicity impacts of pesticide use by including multiple environmental pathways and various exposure routes using the case of corn grown for bio-based fuel or chemical production in US Midwestern states.Metho...
A comparison of paraxial and extended paraxial approach for laser beam propagation in plasma
The propagation of laser beam in the plasma has been investigated for two cases, first with imposing the restriction of paraxial approximation on the beam profile, and second relaxing the restriction on the profile up to a certain extent. Besides the standard ponderomotive nonlinearity the work also includes the nonlinearity that arises from the relativistic electron velocities. The expression for the laser beam width parameter has been derived by expanding the eikonal, dielectric constant and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r, therefore, the contribution of both r2 and r4 terms is incorporated in the present analysis. The dynamical equation governing the beam width parameter has been numerically solved for typical laser plasma parameters. The result shows that the focusing of the laser beams has been affected and becomes fast due to the contribution of the off-axial rays in the extended-paraxial region. The intensity of the laser beam has also been examined in the light of these two cases and a notable change is found in the magnitude in the laser beam intensity with modified-paraxial case as compared to the paraxial case.
The magnetic confinement in tokamaks is for now the most advanced way towards energy production by nuclear fusion. Both theoretical and experimental studies showed that rotation generation can increase its performance by reducing the turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas. The rotation influence on the heat and particle fluxes is studied along with the angular momentum transport with the quasi-linear gyro-kinetic eigenvalue code QuaLiKiz. For this purpose, the QuaLiKiz code is modified in order to take the plasma rotation into account and compute the angular momentum flux. It is shown that QuaLiKiz framework is able to correctly predict the angular momentum flux including the E*B shear induced residual stress as well as the influence of rotation on the heat and particle fluxes. The major approximations of QuaLiKiz formalisms are reviewed, in particular the ballooning representation at its lowest order and the eigenfunctions calculated in the hydrodynamic limit. The construction of the quasi-linear fluxes is also reviewed in details and the quasi-linear angular momentum flux is derived. The different contributions to the turbulent momentum flux are studied and successfully compared both against non-linear gyro-kinetic simulations and experimental data. (author)
Statistical properties of turbulence: a new approach to characterize transport in fusion plasmas
Goncalves, B.; Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Silva, C.; Erents, K.; Matthews, G.; Hron, Martin; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R. A.
2003-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 10 (2003), s. 827-853. ISSN 0011-4626. [Workshop "Electric Fields Structures and Relaxation in Edge Plasmas"/6th./. St.Petersburg, 13.06.2003-14.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma, Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.263, year: 2003
Sliz, Rafal
2012-09-13
Due to low manufacturing costs, printed organic solar cells are on the short-list of renewable and environmentally- friendly energy production technologies of the future. However, electrode materials and each photoactive layer require different techniques and approaches. Printing technologies have attracted considerable attention for organic electronics due to their potentially high volume and low cost processing. A case in point is the interface between the substrate and solution (ink) drop, which is a particularly critical issue for printing quality. In addition, methods such as UV, oxygen and argon plasma treatments have proven suitable to increasing the hydrophilicity of treated surfaces. Among several methods of measuring the ink-substrate interface, the simplest and most reliable is the contact angle method. In terms of nanoscale device applications, zinc oxide (ZnO) has gained popularity, owing to its physical and chemical properties. In particular, there is a growing interest in exploiting the unique properties that the so-called nanorod structure exhibits for future 1-dimensional opto-electronic devices. Applications, such as photodiodes, thin-film transistors, sensors and photo anodes in photovoltaic cells have already been demonstrated. This paper presents the wettability properties of ZnO nanorods treated with UV illumination, oxygen and argon plasma for various periods of time. Since this work concentrates on solar cell applications, four of the most common solutions used in organic solar cell manufacture were tested: P3HT:PCBM DCB, P3HT:PCBM CHB, PEDOT:PSS and water. The achieved results prove that different treatments change the contact angle differently. Moreover, solvent behaviour varied uniquely with the applied treatment. © (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
D'Eramo, Francesco; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim
2016-01-01
We explore the phenomenology of a class of models where the dark matter particle can inelastically up-scatter to a heavier excited state via off-diagonal dipolar interactions with the interstellar plasma (gas or free electrons). The heavier particle then rapidly decays back to the dark matter particle plus a quasi-monochromatic photon. For the process to occur at appreciable rates, the mass splitting between the heavier state and the dark matter must be comparable to, or smaller than, the kinetic energy of particles in the plasma. As a result, the predicted photon line falls in the soft X-ray range, or, potentially, at arbitrarily lower energies. We explore experimental constraints from cosmology and particle physics, and present accurate calculations of the dark matter thermal relic density and of the flux of monochromatic X-rays from thermal plasma excitation. We find that the model provides a natural explanation for the observed 3.5 keV line from clusters of galaxies and from the Galactic center, and is co...
D'Eramo, Francesco; Hambleton, Kevin; Profumo, Stefano; Stefaniak, Tim
2016-05-01
We explore the phenomenology of a class of models where the dark matter particle can inelastically up-scatter to a heavier excited state via off-diagonal dipolar interactions with the interstellar plasma (gas or free electrons). The heavier particle then rapidly decays back to the dark matter particle plus a quasimonochromatic photon. For the process to occur at appreciable rates, the mass splitting between the heavier state and the dark matter must be comparable to, or smaller than, the kinetic energy of particles in the plasma. As a result, the predicted photon line falls in the soft x-ray range, or, potentially, at arbitrarily lower energies. We explore experimental constraints from cosmology and particle physics, and present accurate calculations of the dark matter thermal relic density and of the flux of monochromatic x rays from thermal plasma excitation. We find that the model provides a natural explanation for the observed 3.5 keV line from clusters of galaxies and from the Galactic center, and is consistent with null detections of the line from dwarf galaxies. The unique line shape, which will be resolved by future observations with the Hitomi (formerly Astro-H) satellite, and the predicted unique morphology and target-temperature dependence will enable easy discrimination of this class of models versus other scenarios for the generation of the 3.5 keV line or of any other unidentified line across the electromagnetic spectrum.
New approach of statistical analysis and modeling of turbulent processes in plasma
Experiments in ECRH plasma in three stellarators have shown the occurrence of steady-state low-frequency strong structural turbulence throughout the entire plasma column. A key feature of strong structural turbulence is the presence of stochastic plasma structures. A new mathematical model is proposed for the probability distributions of the characteristics of the processes observed in turbulent plasmas. The model is based on formal theoretical considerations related to probabilistic limit theorems for a nonhomogeneous random walk and has the form of a finite mixture of Gaussian distributions. The reliability of the model is confirmed by the results of a statistical analysis of the experimental data on density and turbulent flux fluctuations in plasmas of the L-2M, LHD, and TJ-II stellarators with the use of the estimation-maximization algorithm. It is shown that low-frequency structural turbulence in a magnetized plasma of all these stellarators is related to non-Brownian transport, which is determined by the characteristic temporal and spatial scales of the ensembles of stochastic plasma structures. A new physical concept of the intermittence of plasma turbulent pulsations is developed on the basis of the statistical separation of mixtures in terms of the model proposed. The intermittence of plasma pulsations is shown to be associated with the generation of plasma structures (solitons and vortices) and their nonlinear interaction, as well as with their damping and drift. (author)
Saxena, N.
1974-01-01
Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These oceanic problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an ocean-bottom control-net unit is provided.
Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Tarek, Merzouki; Hambli, Ridha; Ali, Mkaddem
2013-01-01
The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modelling to understand its mechanical behaviour and its remodelling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network computation and homogenisation equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the e...
A collisional-radiative model based on the approach of detailed relativistic configurations is developed, where the complete set of atomic data including photo-excitation, photoionization, electron impact excitation, electron impact ionization and autoionization is calculated, and the data of the inverse processes are obtained by detailed balance. The population distribution is obtained by solving the rate equation under the steady-state condition. The present model is applied to calculate the charge state distribution and M band emission spectra of gold plasmas in non-local thermodynamic equilibrium under a variety of plasma conditions. Comparisons between the present work and experimental results were made and good agreement is found. For the strong transition lines, the intensities predicted by the present model agree with those of experimental spectra within 50%. The present work is useful in analyzing and interpreting experiments as well as in diagnosing the electron temperature in experiments. (paper)
Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Lupelli, I.; Gaudio, P.
2015-07-01
The extrapolation of the energy confinement time to the next generation of devices has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally for several decades in the tokamak community. Various scaling expressions have been proposed using dimensional and dimensionless quantities. They are all based on the assumption that the scalings are in power law form. In this paper, an innovative methodology is proposed to extract the scaling expressions for the energy confinement time in tokamaks directly from experimental databases, without any previous assumption about the mathematical form of the scalings. The approach to obtain the scaling expressions is based on genetic programming and symbolic regression. These techniques have been applied to the ITPA database of H-mode discharges and the results have been validated with a series of established statistical tools. The soundest results, using dimensional variables, are not in the form of power laws but contain a multiplicative saturation term. Also the scalings, expressed in terms of the traditional dimensionless quantities, are not in power law form and contain additive saturation terms. The extrapolation to ITER of both dimensional and dimensionless quantities indicate that the saturation effects are quite significant and could imply a non-negligible reduction in the confinement time to be expected in the next generation of devices. The results obtained with the proposed techniques therefore motivate a systematic revisiting of the scaling expressions for plasma confinement in tokamaks.
Neoclassical Approach to Angular Momentum Transport and Toroidal Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas
Full text: Approaching the problem of toroidal momentum evolution within the framework of the neoclassical theory with the corrected Braginskii stress tensors, this paper looks for the counterparts of terms like fluxes and sources in the momentum conservation equations and presents their numerical solutions for the evolution of the toroidal and poloidal velocities. Present study considers a subsonic, collisional plasma in front of the magnetic separatrix having a model temperature profile with a controllable gradient and a pedestal height. Study indicates a nonlinear, two-time-scales-coupling between the poloidal and toroidal rotation velocities and shows that the poloidal rotation velocity has a faster response time. If gyrostress tensor is properly taken into account, however; the longer-time evolution of the poloidal and toroidal rotation velocities are strongly coupled. This behaviour is found to be governed by a system of three quasilinear partial differential equations where the space variable is a radial boundary layer distance from the magnetic separatrix. Possibility of a solution is determined by the chosen initial and boundary conditions, (Dirichlet or Neumann), at both limits of the radial boundary layer and the gradient and pedestal height of the model temperature curve used. Steep temperature gradients are found to lead to rapidly diverging rotation velocity profiles. (author)
Ganeev, Rashid A
2014-01-01
Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o
Understanding tin plasmas in vacuum: A new approach to tin whisker risk assessment
This study examines the mechanisms governing sustained tin plasma formation in vacuum. The authors have experimentally demonstrated that sustained tin plasmas can form in vacuum at dc power supply voltages as low as 4 V, and present a qualitative model for the observed voltage and current signatures associated with tin plasma formation. Engineering estimates were developed to help quantify tin whisker risk as a function of power supply voltage. Implications for space applications are also discussed
Sahu, B. B.; Shin, Kyung S.; Han, Jeon G.
2016-02-01
This study investigates low-temperature plasma nitriding of hydrogenated silicon (SiN x :H) film in radio frequency (RF) and RF-ultra-high frequency (UHF) hybrid plasmas. To study the optimized conditions for the deposition of SiN x :H film, this work adopts a systematic plasma diagnostic approach in the nitrogen-silane and nitrogen-silane-ammonia plasmas. This work also evaluates the capability of plasma and radical formation by utilizing different plasma sources in the PECVD process. For the plasma diagnostics, we have purposefully used the combination of optical emission spectroscopy (OES), intensified CCD (ICCD) camera, vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS), and RF compensated Langmuir probe (LP). Data reveal that there is significant enhancement in the atomic nitrogen radicals, plasma densities, and film properties using the hybrid plasmas. Measurements show that addition of a small amount of NH3 can significantly reduce the electron temperature, plasma, and radical density. Also, optical and chemical properties of the deposited films are investigated on the basis of plasma diagnostics. Good quality SiN x :H films, with atomic nitrogen to hydrogen ratio of 4:1, are fabricated. The plasma chemistry of the hybrid plasmas is also discussed for its utility for plasma applications.
Computer-supported acquisition, analysis, and storage of mirror fusion experimental data requires the solution of several problems. The data must be gathered with a minimum amount of noise, and transients must be excluded from the computer so that it can function properly. On Beta II (which was an experiment to produce field-reversed plasma rings from a coaxial plasma gun) the diagnostic system was planned to provide the shielding and isolation necessary to solve these two problems. The Beta II system has been in operation for about two years and provides 300-channel capacity, CAMAC interfaced, to a Hewlett Packard 21MX computer. The system routinely handles signals ranging from 1 mV to 50 kV, with bandwidths from .05 Hz to 10 MHz. The data are captured by transient recorders during a shot, then transferred to the computer. The computer stores the data on disc for immediate processing and on tape for long-term storage. Processed data from any number of channels (usually 20 to 30) is plotted between shots for immediate review. The rest of the data is processed and plotted during off hours
A combined multibody and finite element approach is given to solve the dynamic interaction of a Shinkansen train (high-speed train in Japan) and the railway structure including post-derailment during an earthquake effectively. The motion of the train is expressed in multibody dynamics. Efficient mechanical models to express interactions between wheel and track structure including post-derailment are given. Rail and track elements expressed in multibody dynamics and FEM are given to solve contact problems between wheel and long railway components effectively. The motion of a railway structure is modeled with various finite elements and rail and track elements. The computer program has been developed for the dynamic interaction analysis of a Shinkansen train and railway structure including post derailment during an earthquake. Numerical examples are demonstrated.
The field line map approach for simulations of magnetically confined plasmas
Stegmeir, Andreas; Maj, Omar; Hallatschek, Klaus; Lackner, Karl
2015-01-01
In the presented field line map approach the simulation domain of a tokamak is covered with a cylindrical grid, which is Cartesian within poloidal planes. Standard finite-difference methods can be used for the discretisation of perpendicular (w.r.t.~magnetic field lines) operators. The characteristic flute mode property $\\left(k_{\\parallel}\\ll k_{\\perp}\\right)$ of structures is exploited computationally by a grid sparsification in the toroidal direction. A field line following discretisation of parallel operators is then required, which is achieved via a finite difference along magnetic field lines. This includes field line tracing and interpolation or integration. The main emphasis of this paper is on the discretisation of the parallel diffusion operator. Based on the support operator method a scheme is constructed which exhibits only very low numerical perpendicular diffusion. The schemes are implemented in the new code GRILLIX, and extensive benchmarks are presented which show the validity of the approach ...
Novel approach for old results on plasma physics: what new do we learn about?
Tosto, Sebastiano
2009-01-01
The present paper proposes a simple model aimed to point out the link between basilar concepts of plasma physics and fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. The model shows in particular that Debye lengths and plasma frequency are actually straightforward consequences of the indistinguishability of identical particles and the exclusion and uncertainty principles.
New approach to controlling impurity contamination of a plasma-gun-produced compact torus
The presence of impurity ions, notably carbon and oxygen, has been determined to be a major factor limiting the lifetime of field-reversed plasma entities produced by coaxial plasma guns such as the Beta II gun at LLNL. Similar problems are encountered in other toroidal plasmas, e.g. those in tokamaks. However, the solution employed there, discharge cleaning, followed by initiation of the plasma at low density (where impurity radiation losses are exceeded by ohmic heating rates) is not applicable here. This note discusses a proposed means for drastically reducing the level of impurities. (These are believed to be evolved from the gun electrode surfaces as a result of thermal shock associated with UV emission from the gun plasma). The idea: take advantage of the UV pulse preferentially to release hydrogen from the electrode surfaces. These surfaces are to be coated with a few-micron-thick layer of titanium, outgassed by preheating and subsequently loaded with hydrogen
Moment Approach to Deriving a Unified Parallel Viscous Stress in Magnetized Plasmas
Ji, Jeong-Young; Held, Eric D.
2009-06-01
In the moment approach, a parallel heat flux and a viscous stress are derived for arbitrary collisionality, which is becoming increasingly important in emerging concept devices. This derivation improves upon previous derivations by using the full linearized collision operators instead of the pitch-angle scattering operator and also by including the ion-electron collision operator. The parallel viscous stress can be computed by integrating thermodynamic drives along a magnetic field line weighted by kernel functions that are simple linear combinations of exponential functions. The convergence of the ion viscous stress is verified for sinusoidally varying drives with increasing number of moments.
The dc electrical conductivity of an ultrarelativistic QED plasma is studied in real time by implementing the dynamical renormalization group. The conductivity is obtained from the real-time dependence of a dissipative kernel closely related to the retarded photon polarization. Pinch singularities in the imaginary part of the polarization are manifest as secular terms that grow in time in the perturbative expansion of this kernel. The leading secular terms are studied explicitly and it is shown that they are insensitive to the anomalous damping of hard fermions as a result of a cancellation between self-energy and vertex corrections. The resummation of the secular terms via the dynamical renormalization group leads directly to a renormalization group equation in real time, which is the Boltzmann equation for the (gauge invariant) fermion distribution function. A direct correspondence between the perturbative expansion and the linearized Boltzmann equation is established, allowing a direct identification of the self-energy and vertex contributions to the collision term. We obtain a Fokker-Planck equation in momentum space that describes the dynamics of the departure from equilibrium to leading logarithmic order in the coupling. This equation determines that the transport time scale is given by ttr=24 π/e4T ln(1/e). The solution of the Fokker-Planck equation approaches asymptotically the steady-state solution as ∼e-t/(4.038...ttr). The steady-state solution leads to the conductivity σ=15.698 T/e2ln(1/e) to leading logarithmic order. We discuss the contributions beyond leading logarithms as well as beyond the Boltzmann equation. The dynamical renormalization group provides a link between linear response in quantum field theory and kinetic theory
Stefan Rupf
Full Text Available The removal of biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants is a still unresolved challenge. This experimental study investigated disinfection and removal of in situ formed biofilms from microstructured titanium using cold atmospheric plasma in combination with air/water spray. Titanium discs (roughness (Ra: 1.96 µm were exposed to human oral cavities for 24 and 72 hours (n = 149 each to produce biofilms. Biofilm thickness was determined using confocal laser scanning microscopy (n = 5 each. Plasma treatment of biofilms was carried out ex vivo using a microwave-driven pulsed plasma source working at temperatures from 39 to 43°C. Following plasma treatment, one group was air/water spray treated before re-treatment by second plasma pulses. Vital microorganisms on the titanium surfaces were identified by contact culture (Rodac agar plates. Biofilm presence and bacterial viability were quantified by fluorescence microscopy. Morphology of titanium surfaces and attached biofilms was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Total protein amounts of biofilms were colorimetrically quantified. Untreated and air/water treated biofilms served as controls. Cold plasma treatment of native biofilms with a mean thickness of 19 µm (24 h to 91 µm (72 h covering the microstructure of the titanium surface caused inactivation of biofilm bacteria and significant reduction of protein amounts. Total removal of biofilms, however, required additional application of air/water spray, and a second series of plasma treatment. Importantly, the microstructure of the titanium discs was not altered by plasma treatment. The combination of atmospheric plasma and non-abrasive air/water spray is applicable for complete elimination of oral biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants and may enable new routes for the therapy of periimplant disease.
'Plasma Camp': A Different Approach to Professional Development for Physics Teachers
Andrew Post-Zwicker and Nicholas R. Guilbert
1998-12-01
The Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Institute ('Plasma Camp') was inaugurated in 1998 as a way to address two areas of concern in the professional development of high-school physics teachers: involving teachers in the theory and methods of a current area of research in physics and connecting the research experience back into the classroom. The Institute, run jointly by a scientist and a teacher, immersed high-school teachers from across the country in laboratory investigations and in pedagogical projects for two weeks at Princeton University's Plasma Physics Laboratory. The goals, structure, and initial outcomes of the Institute are discussed.
Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas
Morfill, G E; Shimizu, T; Steffes, B; Schmidt, H-U [Max-Planck Institute for extraterrestrial physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hospital Munich Schwabing, Koelner Platz 1, D-80804 Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: gem@mpe.mpg.de
2009-11-15
A new, very efficient, large area scalable and robust electrode design for plasma production in air at atmosphere pressures has been developed and tested. This has made the development of a 'plasma dispenser' for hospital disinfection possible, which has certain advantages over current fluid disinfection systems. The properties of this device are presented, in particular the bactericidal and fungicidal efficiency, and the advantages are described. Such plasma dispensers could play an important role in the future fight against the alarming and growing threat posed by nosocomial (=hospital and community associated) bacterial infections.
Jaeger, R.
2007-05-01
GNSS-positioning services like SAPOS/ascos in Germany and many others in Europe, America and worldwide, usually yield in a short time their interdisciplinary and country-wide use for precise geo-referencing, replacing traditional low order geodetic networks. So it becomes necessary that possible changes of the reference stations' coordinates are detected ad hoc. The GNSS-reference-station MONitoring by the KArlsruhe approach and software (MONIKA) are designed for that task. The developments at Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences in cooperation with the State Survey of Baden-Württemberg are further motivated by a the official resolution of the German state survey departments' association (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Vermessungsverwaltungen Deutschland (AdV)) 2006 on coordinate monitoring as a quality-control duty of the GNSS-positioning service provider. The presented approach can - besides the coordinate control of GNSS-positioning services - also be used to set up any GNSS-service for the tasks of an area-wide geodynamical and natural disaster-prevention service. The mathematical model of approach, which enables a multivariate and multi-epochal design approach, is based on the GNSS-observations input of the RINEX-data of the GNSS service, followed by fully automatic processing of baselines and/or session, and a near-online setting up of epoch-state vectors and their covariance-matrices in a rigorous 3D network adjustment. In case of large scale and long-term monitoring situations, geodynamical standard trends (datum-drift, plate-movements etc.) are accordingly considered and included in the mathematical model of MONIKA. The coordinate-based deformation monitoring approach, as third step of the stepwise adjustments, is based on the above epoch-state vectors, and - splitting off geodynamics trends - hereby on a multivariate and multi-epochal congruency testing. So far, that no other information exists, all points are assumed as being stable and congruent reference
Idealized Slab Plasma approach for the study of Warm Dense Matter
Ng, A; Ao, T; Perrot, F.; Dharma-wardana, M. W. C.; Foord, M. E.
2005-01-01
Recently, warm dense matter (WDM) has emerged as an interdisciplinary field that draws increasing interest in plasma physics, condensed matter physics, high pressure science, astrophysics, inertial confinement fusion, as well as materials science under extreme conditions. To allow the study of well-defined WDM states, we have introduced the concept of idealized-slab plasmas that can be realized in the laboratory via (i) the isochoric heating of a solid and (ii) the propagation of a shock wave...
An effective field theory approach to the stabilization of 8Be in a QED plasma
Yao, Xiaojun; Mehen, Thomas; Müller, Berndt
2016-07-01
We use effective field theory to study the α –α resonant scattering in a finite-temperature QED plasma. The static plasma screening effect causes the resonance state 8Be to live longer and eventually leads to the formation of a bound state when {m}{{D}}≳ 0.3 {{MeV}}. We speculate that this effect may have implications on the rates of cosmologically and astrophysically relevant nuclear reactions involving α particles.
Gupta, Sharad; Gui, Dong; Zandi, Roya; Gill, Sarjeet; Mohideen, Umar
2014-03-01
Melittin is an anti-bacterial and hemolytic toxic peptide found in bee venom. Cell lysis behavior of peptides has been widely investigated, but the exact interaction mechanism of lytic peptides with lipid membranes and its constituents has not been understood completely. In this paper we study the melittin interaction with lipid plasma membranes in real time using non-invasive and non-contact fluorescence interference contrast microscopy (FLIC). Particularly the interaction of melittin with plasma membranes was studied in a controlled molecular environment, where these plasma membrane were composed of saturated lipid, 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) and unsaturated lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(DOPC) with and without cholesterol. We found out that melittin starts to form nanometer size pores in the plasma membranes shortly after interacting with membranes. But the addition of cholesterol in plasma membrane slows down the pore formation process. Our results show that inclusion of cholesterol to the plasma membranes make them more resilient towards pore formation and lysis of membrane.
Su, Guanyong; Greaves, Alana K; Gauthier, Lewis; Letcher, Robert J
2014-12-29
Environmentally relevant organophosphate (OP) triester flame retardants are known to degrade to OP diester phosphoric acids. In this study, a quantitatively sensitive method was developed for OP diesters in biological samples of varying complexity, bovine serum, chicken egg homogenate and pork liver. Fortified with 1ng or 10ng each of the six OP diester and six OP triester standards, samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction that completely separated OP diesters and triesters. OP diester fractions were cleaned up using weak anion exchange solid phase extraction and eluted with high ionic strength ammonium acetate buffer. Optimal analysis of chlorinated OP diesters was via decamethonium hydroxide dicationic reagent derivatization and by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS, and for all non-chlorinated OP diesters by non-derivatized LC-ESI(-)-MS/MS. Except for derivatization LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis of liver, at the 10ng spiking level for the three matrices, recovery efficiencies, matrix effects and method limits of quantification (MLOQs) of OP diesters ranged from 55-116%, 92-119%, and 0.02-0.31ng/g wet weight (ww) respectively. Plasma samples of n=6 herring gulls (2010, Chantry Is., Laurentian Great Lakes) contained triphenyl phosphate and tris(1-3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate ranging from 1.3 to 4.0ng/g ww and
Rosmej, F. [Sorbonne Universites, Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7605, case 128, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses LULI, Physique Atomique dans les Plasmas Denses PAPD, F-91228 Palaiseau (France); Bennadji, K. [Sorbonne Universites, Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7605, case 128, 4 place Jussieu, F-75252 Paris (France); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, GSI Helmholtz Centre of Heavy Ion Research, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lisitsa, V. S. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov, Laboratory of Radiation Theory, Kurchatov Square 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-09-15
An alternative method of calculation of dense plasma effects on exchange-energy shifts {Delta}E{sub x} of highly charged ions is proposed which results in closed expressions for any plasma or perturbation potential. The method is based on a perturbation theory expansion for the inner atomic potential produced by charged plasma particles employing the Coulomb Green function method. This approach allows us to obtain analytic expressions and scaling laws with respect to the electron temperature T, density n{sub e}, and nuclear charge Z. To demonstrate the power of the present method, two specific models were considered in detail: the ion sphere model (ISM) and the Debye screening model (DSM). We demonstrate that analytical expressions can be obtained even for the finite temperature ISM. Calculations have been carried out for the singlet 1s2p{sup 1} P{sub 1} and triplet 1s2p{sup 3} P{sub 1} configurations of He-like ions with charge Z that can be observed in dense plasmas via the He-like resonance and intercombination lines. Finally we discuss recently available purely numerical calculations and experimental data.
Cloutier, M; Turgeon, S; Busby, Y; Tatoulian, M; Pireaux, J-J; Mantovani, D
2016-08-17
Incorporation of selected metallic elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as an innovative approach to add unique functional properties to DLC coatings, thus opening up a range of new potential applications in fields as diverse as sensors, tribology, and biomaterials. However, deposition by plasma techniques of metal-containing DLC coatings with well-defined structural properties and metal distribution is currently hindered by the limited understanding of their growth mechanisms. We report here a silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon coating (Ag-DLC) prepared in a hybrid plasma reactor which allowed independent control of the metal content and the carbon film structure and morphology. Morphological and chemical analyses of Ag-DLC films were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical distribution of silver from the surface toward the coating bulk was found to be highly inhomogeneous due to top surface segregation and clustering of silver nanoparticles. Two plasma parameters, the sputtered Ag flux and ion energy, were shown to influence the spatial distribution of silver particles. On the basis of these findings, a mechanism for Ag-DLC growth by plasma was proposed. PMID:27454833
Successful treatment of congenital TTP with a novel approach using plasma-derived factor VIII.
Naik, Swati; Mahoney, Donald H
2013-10-01
We describe a 19-year-old boy who was diagnosed with congenital thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (cTTP) at 7 months of age. He was subsequently treated with fresh frozen plasma infusions every 3 to 4 weeks for the next 15 years at which point he developed significant hypersensitivity reactions to fresh frozen plasma. He required immunosuppressive therapy with systemic desensitization in the intensive care unit but did not tolerate this regimen and suffered debilitating adverse effects. On the basis of the observations from United Kingdom, he was started on a trial with Koate, a plasma-derived factor VIII concentrate with ADAMTS-13 activity that is commercially available in the United States. He tolerated Koate without any complications and attained a target platelet count of>100,000/μL. He has now been in remission for 36 months and responds to exacerbations of cTTP with additional doses of Koate. For patients with cTTP who are intolerant to plasma infusions, therapy with select plasma-derived factor concentrates with ADAMTS-13 activity may represent a reasonable alternative therapy. PMID:23128332
A.J. HARRIS; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) XIANG
2009-01-01
We propose a simple statistical approach for using Dispersal-Vicariance Analysis (DIVA) software to infer biogeographic histories without fully bifurcating trees. In this approach, ancestral ranges are first optimized for a sample of Bayesian trees. The probability P of an ancestral range r at a node is then calculated as P(rY)= Σnt=1 F(rY)tPt where Y is a node, and F(rY) is the frequency of range r among all the optimal solutions resulting from DIVA optimization at node Y, t is one of n topologies optimized, and Pt is the probability of topology t. Node Y is a hypothesized ancestor shared by a specific crown lineage and the sister of that lineage "x", where x may vary due to phylogenetic uncertainty (polytomies and nodes with posterior probability <100%). Using this method, the ancestral distribution at Y can be estimated to provide inference of the geographic origins of the specific crown group of interest. This approach takes into account phylogenetic uncertainty as well as uncertainty from DIVA optimization. It is an extension of the previously described method called Bayes-DIVA, which pairs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis with biogeographic analysis using DIVA. Further, we show that the probability P of an ancestral range at Y calculated using this method does not equate to pp* F(rY) on the Bayesian consensus tree when both variables are < 100%, where pp is the posterior probability and F(rY) is the frequency of range r for the node containing the specific crown group. We tested our DIVA-Bayes approach using Aesculus L., which has major lineages unresolved as a polytomy. We inferred the most probable geographic origins of the five traditional sections of Aesculus and ofAesculus californica Nutt. and examined range subdivisions at parental nodes of these lineages.Additionally, we used the DIVA-Bayes data from Aesculus to quantify the effects on biogeographic inference of including two wildcard fossil taxa in phylogenetic analysis. Our analysis resolved the
Nakano, Hiroshi; Sato, Hirofumi
2016-03-01
An efficient quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics-based approach is presented to calculate a vertical excitation energy of a chromophore in condensed phases including the nonequilibrium solvation effect. The electronic polarization of a medium and the related nonequilibrium solvation effect associated with the vertical excitation are described using a polarizable solvent model. By virtue of the mean-field approximation, the target energy can be completely separated into classical and quantum mechanical parts, which enables us to efficiently evaluate the vertical excitation energy with a high-level quantum mechanical method. The method is applied to N,N-dimethyl-4-nitroaniline in a variety of solutions at the MRMP2/CASSCF level, showing quantitative agreement with the experimental reports. The observed large bathochromic shifts are analyzed by focusing on the induction effects of the solvents. PMID:26501431
The singular approach for processing polarization-inhomogeneous laser images of blood plasma layers
Angelsky, P. O.; Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Sidor, M. I.; Bodnar, G. B.; Koval, G.; Trifonyuk, L.
2013-04-01
We present in this work the results of an investigation to analyse the coordinate distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization (polarization maps) in laser images of blood plasma layers for three groups of patients: healthy (group 1), mastopathy (group 2) and breast cancer (group 3). To characterize polarization maps for all groups of samples we use three groups of parameters: statistical moments of the first to fourth orders, autocorrelation functions and logarithmic dependences for power spectra related to distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization inherent to laser images of blood plasma. We ascertain the criteria for diagnosis and differentiation of pathological changes of the breast.
The singular approach for processing polarization-inhomogeneous laser images of blood plasma layers
We present in this work the results of an investigation to analyse the coordinate distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization (polarization maps) in laser images of blood plasma layers for three groups of patients: healthy (group 1), mastopathy (group 2) and breast cancer (group 3). To characterize polarization maps for all groups of samples we use three groups of parameters: statistical moments of the first to fourth orders, autocorrelation functions and logarithmic dependences for power spectra related to distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization inherent to laser images of blood plasma. We ascertain the criteria for diagnosis and differentiation of pathological changes of the breast. (paper)
An Effective Field Theory Approach to the Stabilization of $^8$Be in a QED Plasma
Yao, Xiaojun; Müller, Berndt
2016-01-01
We use effective field theory to study the $\\mathrm{\\alpha}$-$\\mathrm{\\alpha}$ resonance scattering in a finite-temperature QED plasma. The plasma screening effect causes the resonance state $^8$Be to live longer and eventually leads to the formation of a bound state when $m_D\\gtrsim 0.3$ MeV. We speculate that this effect may contribute to a possible solution to the problem of the primordial $^7$Li abundance. It also has applications in other nuclear fusion processes.
Choi, Young-Joon; Klosterman, Steven J; Kummer, Volker; Voglmayr, Hermann; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Thines, Marco
2015-05-01
Accurate species determination of plant pathogens is a prerequisite for their control and quarantine, and further for assessing their potential threat to crops. The family Peronosporaceae (Straminipila; Oomycota) consists of obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause downy mildew disease on angiosperms, including a large number of cultivated plants. In the largest downy mildew genus Peronospora, a phylogenetically complex clade includes the economically important downy mildew pathogens of spinach and beet, as well as the type species of the genus Peronospora. To resolve this complex clade at the species level and to infer evolutionary relationships among them, we used multi-locus phylogenetic analysis and species tree estimation. Both approaches discriminated all nine currently accepted species and revealed four previously unrecognized lineages, which are specific to a host genus or species. This is in line with a narrow species concept, i.e. that a downy mildew species is associated with only a particular host plant genus or species. Instead of applying the dubious name Peronospora farinosa, which has been proposed for formal rejection, our results provide strong evidence that Peronospora schachtii is an independent species from lineages on Atriplex and apparently occurs exclusively on Beta vulgaris. The members of the clade investigated, the Peronospora rumicis clade, associate with three different host plant families, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllaceae, and Polygonaceae, suggesting that they may have speciated following at least two recent inter-family host shifts, rather than contemporary cospeciation with the host plants. PMID:25772799
von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.
2013-09-01
Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous
Considering the spectral problem of microinstabilities in a curved system, methods for solving the global gyrokinetic equation are presented for the simple case of a cylindrical plasma. They prove to be efficient for computing the full unstable spectrum of ITG-type modes and have shown to be applicable to the two-dimensional integral equation of tokamak configurations. (author) 5 figs., 22 refs
Physics of the Advanced Plasma Source: a review of recent experimental and modeling approaches
Brinkmann, R. P.; Harhausen, J.; Schröder, B.; Lapke, M.; Storch, R.; Styrnoll, T.; Awakowicz, P.; Foest, R.; Hannemann, M.; Loffhagen, D.; Ohl, A.
2016-01-01
The Advanced Plasma Source (APS), a gridless hot cathode glow discharge capable of generating an ion beam with an energy of up to 150 eV and a flux of 1019s-1, is a standard industrial tool for the process of plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD). This manuscript details the results of recent experimental and modeling work aimed at a physical understanding of the APS. A three-zone model is proposed which consists of (i) the ionization zone (the source itself) where the plasma is very dense, hot, and has a high ionization rate, (ii) the acceleration zone (of ˜20 cm extension) where a strong outward-directed electric field accelerates the primary ions to a high kinetic energy, and (iii) a drift zone (the rest of the process chamber) where the emerging plasma beam is further modified by resonant charge exchange collisions that neutralize some of the energetic ions and generate, at the same time, a flux of slow ions.
Ziomkiewicz, Iwona
The plasma membrane (PM) is a physical barrier that defines the boundaries of a cell. It not only isolates the cell interior from the environment, but also enables cell communication and a selective exchange of solutes. To serve those contrasting functions, the PM has a dynamic structure consisting...
L. Bornmann; L. Leydesdorff; J. Wang
2013-01-01
For comparisons of citation impacts across fields and over time, bibliometricians normalize the observed citation counts with reference to an expected citation value. Percentile-based approaches have been proposed as a non-parametric alternative to parametric central-tendency statistics. Percentiles
Horiuchi, Masahisa; Nakakuma, Miwa; Arimura, Emi; Ushikai, Miharu; Yoshida, Goichiro
2015-01-01
The food habit is involved in the onset and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this review I would like to describe a historical case of vitamin B1 deficiency, as well as our case study of fatty acid metabolism abnormality due to carnitine deficiency. In history, the army and navy personnel in Japan at the end of the 19th century received food rations based on a high-carbohydrate diet including white rice, resulting in the onset of beriberi. An epidemiological study by Kenkan Takaki revealed the relationship between the onset of beriberi and rice intake. Then, Takaki was successful in preventing the onset of beriberi by changing the diet. However, the primary cause had yet to be elucidated. Finally, Christian Eijkman established an animal model of beriberi (chickens) showing peripheral neuropathy, and he identified the existence of an anti-beriberi substance, vitamin B1. This is an example of the successful control of a disease by integrating the results of epidemiological and experimental studies. In our study using a murine model of fatty acid metabolism abnormality caused by carnitine deficiency, cardiac abnormality and fatty liver developed depending on the amount of dietary fat. In addition, the mice showed disturbance of orexin neuron activity related to the sleep-arousal system, which is involved in fatigue symptoms under fasting condition, one of the states showing enhanced fatty acid metabolism. These findings suggest that fatty acid toxicity is enhanced when the mice are more dependent on fatty acid metabolism. Almost simultaneously, a human epidemiological study showed that narcolepsy, which is caused by orexin system abnormality, is associated with the polymorphism of the gene coding for carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B, which is involved in carnitine metabolism. To understand the pathological mechanism of fatty acid toxicity, not only an experimental approach using animal models, but also an epidemiological approach is necessary. The
Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin
2015-04-01
The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The
Karolina Sörman
Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.
Chang, Susane; Porto Carneiro-Leão, Mariele; Ferreira de Oliveira, Benny; Souza-Motta, Cristina; Lima, Nelson; Santos, Cledir; Tinti de Oliveira, Neiva
2016-01-01
Fusarium verticillioides is considered one of the most important global sources of fumonisins contamination in food and feed. Corn is one of the main commodities produced in the Northeastern Region of Brazil. The present study investigated potential mycotoxigenic fungal strains belonging to the F. verticillioides species isolated from corn kernels in 3 different Regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. A polyphasic approach including classical taxonomy, molecular biology, MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS for the identification and characterisation of the F. verticillioides strains was used. Sixty F. verticillioides strains were isolated and successfully identified by classical morphology, proteomic profiles of MALDI-TOF MS, and by molecular biology using the species-specific primers VERT-1 and VERT-2. FUM1 gene was further detected for all the 60 F. verticillioides by using the primers VERTF-1 and VERTF-2 and through the amplification profiles of the ISSR regions using the primers (GTG)5 and (GACA)4. Results obtained from molecular analysis shown a low genetic variability among these isolates from the different geographical regions. All of the 60 F. verticillioides isolates assessed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS presented ion peaks with the molecular mass of the fumonisin B1 (721.83 g/mol) and B2 (705.83 g/mol). PMID:26927172
Susane Chang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Fusarium verticillioides is considered one of the most important global sources of fumonisins contamination in food and feed. Corn is one of the main commodities produced in the Northeastern Region of Brazil. The present study investigated potential mycotoxigenic fungal strains belonging to the F. verticillioides species isolated from corn kernels in 3 different Regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco. A polyphasic approach including classical taxonomy, molecular biology, MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF MS/MS for the identification and characterisation of the F. verticillioides strains was used. Sixty F. verticillioides strains were isolated and successfully identified by classical morphology, proteomic profiles of MALDI-TOF MS, and by molecular biology using the species-specific primers VERT-1 and VERT-2. FUM1 gene was further detected for all the 60 F. verticillioides by using the primers VERTF-1 and VERTF-2 and through the amplification profiles of the ISSR regions using the primers (GTG5 and (GACA4. Results obtained from molecular analysis shown a low genetic variability among these isolates from the different geographical regions. All of the 60 F. verticillioides isolates assessed by MALDI-TOF MS/MS presented ion peaks with the molecular mass of the fumonisin B1 (721.83 g/mol and B2 (705.83 g/mol.
Vittorio Simeon
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL.
Simeon, Vittorio; Todoerti, Katia; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; De Luca, Luciana; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Neri, Antonino; Musto, Pellegrino
2015-01-01
Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL). PMID:26263974
Simeon, Vittorio; Todoerti, Katia; La Rocca, Francesco; Caivano, Antonella; Trino, Stefania; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; De Luca, Luciana; Laurenzana, Ilaria; Neri, Antonino; Musto, Pellegrino
2015-01-01
Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, added to the pharmacogenetic profile of new and old agents in the analysis of efficacy and safety, could contribute to help clinical decisions move toward a precision medicine and a better clinical outcome for these patients. In this review, we describe the available literature concerning the genomic characterization and pharmacogenetics of plasma cell leukemia (PCL). PMID:26263974
Kinetic Trajectory Simulation (KTS) approach for one-dimensional, collisionless bounded plasmas
A Kinetic Trajectory Simulation (KTS) model of a one-dimensional, time -independent, collisionless bounded plasma is presented, which can be used for modeling various situations of interest and yields results of high accuracy. Exact ion trajectories are followed, to calculate along them the ion distribution function, assuming an arbitrary injection ion distribution. The electrons, on the other hand, are assumed to have a half Maxwellian velocity distribution at injection so that their density can be calculated analytically. Starting from an initial guess, the potential profile is iterated towards the final time-independent self-consistent state. The method is exemplarily applied to a single-emitter diode and a one-dimensional plasma sheath. (author)
Lagrangian Mapping Approach to Generate Intermittency and its Application in Plasma Turbulence
Subedi, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Tessein, J.; Chhiber, R.; Wan, M.
2014-12-01
The Minimal Lagrangian Mapping procedure developed in the context of neutral fluid turbulence(Rosales and Meneveau 2006) is a simple method to generate synthetic vector fields. Using a sequenceof low pass filtered fields, fluid particles are displaced at their rms-speed for some scale-dependenttime interval, and then interpolated back to a regular grid. Fields produced in this way are seen topossess certain properties of real turbulence. We extend the technique to plasmas by takinginto account the coupling between the velocity and magnetic fields. We examine several possibleapplications to plasma systems. One use is as initial conditions for simulations, wherein these syntheticfields may efficiently produce a strongly intermittent cascade. The intermittency properties of thesynthetic fields are also compared with those of the solar wind. Finally, studies of cosmic ray transportand modulation in the test particle approximation may benefit from improved realism in syntheticfields produced in this way.
Hypersonic Aerothermochemistry Duplication in Ground Plasma Facilities: A Flight-to-Ground Approach
Sakraker, Isil; Turchi, Alessandro; Chazot, Olivier
2015-01-01
High conservative safety margins, applied to the design of spacecraft thermal protection systems for planetary entry, need to be reduced for higher efficiency of future space missions. Ground testing of such protection systems is of great importance during the design phase. This study covers a methodology for simulating the complex hypersonic entry aerothermochemistry in a plasma wind tunnel for a given spacecraft geometry without any assumption on axisymmetry or bluntness. A demonstration of...
Vittorio Simeon; Katia Todoerti; Francesco La Rocca; Antonella Caivano; Stefania Trino; Marta Lionetti; Luca Agnelli; Luciana De Luca; Ilaria Laurenzana; Antonino Neri; Pellegrino Musto
2015-01-01
Primary plasma cell leukemia (pPCL) is a rare and aggressive variant of multiple myeloma (MM) which may represent a valid model for high-risk MM. This disease is associated with a very poor prognosis, and unfortunately, it has not significantly improved during the last three decades. New high-throughput technologies have allowed a better understanding of the molecular basis of this disease and moved toward risk stratification, providing insights for targeted therapy studies. This knowledge, ...
Pouchly V.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The sintering is a complex thermally activated process, thus any prediction of sintering behaviour is very welcome not only for industrial purposes. Presented paper shows the possibility of densification prediction based on concept of Master Sintering Surface (MSS for pressure assisted Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS. User friendly software for evaluation of the MSS is presented. The concept was used for densification prediction of alumina ceramics sintered by SPS.
Fuel cell electrodes from organometallic Pt precursors: an easy atmospheric plasma approach
Merche, Delphine; Dufour, Thierry; Baneton, Joffrey; Caldarella, Giuseppe; Debaille, Vinciane; Job, Nathalie; Reniers, François
2016-01-01
An organometallic powder (platinum (II) acetylacetonate) is decomposed in the post-discharge of an atmospheric RF plasma torch to deposit Pt nanoparticles on carbon black supports. The resulting nanohybrid materials are characterized by FEG-SEM and XPS techniques to highlight their high content in Pt, their oxidation degree, and the dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles on the substrate. ICP-MS and electrochemical characterizations in a single fuel cell (cyclic voltammetry, dynamic polarization ...
Rupf, Stefan; Idlibi, Ahmad Nour; Marrawi, Fuad Al; Hannig, Matthias; Schubert, Andreas; von Mueller, Lutz; Spitzer, Wolfgang; Holtmann, Henrik; Lehmann, Antje; Rueppell, Andre; Schindler, Axel
2011-01-01
The removal of biofilms from microstructured titanium used for dental implants is a still unresolved challenge. This experimental study investigated disinfection and removal of in situ formed biofilms from microstructured titanium using cold atmospheric plasma in combination with air/water spray. Titanium discs (roughness (Ra): 1.96 µm) were exposed to human oral cavities for 24 and 72 hours (n = 149 each) to produce biofilms. Biofilm thickness was determined using confocal laser scanning mic...
Boyanovsky, D.; de Vega, H. J.; Wang, S. -Y.
2002-01-01
The DC electrical conductivity of an ultrarelativistic QED plasma is studied in real time by implementing the dynamical renormalization group. The conductivity is obtained from the realtime dependence of a dissipative kernel related to the retarded photon polarization. Pinch singularities in the imaginary part of the polarization are manifest as growing secular terms that in the perturbative expansion of this kernel. The leading secular terms are studied explicitly and it is shown that they a...
Contemporary particle-in-cell approach to laser-plasma modelling
Arber, T. D.; Bennett, K.; Brady, C. S.; Lawrence-Douglas, A.; Ramsay, M. G.; Sircombe, N. J.; Gillies, P.; Evans, R. G.; Schmitz, H.; Bell, A. R.; Ridgers, C. P.
2015-11-01
Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods have a long history in the study of laser-plasma interactions. Early electromagnetic codes used the Yee staggered grid for field variables combined with a leapfrog EM-field update and the Boris algorithm for particle pushing. The general properties of such schemes are well documented. Modern PIC codes tend to add to these high-order shape functions for particles, Poisson preserving field updates, collisions, ionisation, a hybrid scheme for solid density and high-field QED effects. In addition to these physics packages, the increase in computing power now allows simulations with real mass ratios, full 3D dynamics and multi-speckle interaction. This paper presents a review of the core algorithms used in current laser-plasma specific PIC codes. Also reported are estimates of self-heating rates, convergence of collisional routines and test of ionisation models which are not readily available elsewhere. Having reviewed the status of PIC algorithms we present a summary of recent applications of such codes in laser-plasma physics, concentrating on SRS, short-pulse laser-solid interactions, fast-electron transport, and QED effects.
A Quasi-Particle Approach to Modulational Instabilities in Wave-Plasma Interactions
The interaction of broadband turbulence with monochromatic plasma waves has been studied. A kinetic equation for quasi-particles is used to describe the turbulence. Beam instabilities occur in this interaction when the group velocity of the short-wavelength wave packets, or quasi-particles, is nearly equal to the phase velocity of the long-wavelength monochromatic wave. Depending on the bandwidth of the turbulence, either a kinetic (resonant) instability, e.g. quasiparticle Landau damping, or a hydrodynamic instability, e.g. a modulational instability, will develop. This establishes a direct link between short- and long wavelength perturbations of the medium. In this paper, the interaction between broadband drift mode turbulence and (nearly) monochromatic zonal flows has been studied numerically. Simulations have been conducted in which a particle-in-cell representation is used for the quasi-particles, while a fluid model is employed for the plasma. The interactions have been studied in both a Tokamak-like configuration and a pseudo-shock wave configuration. Simulation results show the development of a zonal flow through the modulational instability of the drift wave distribution, as well as the existence of solitary zonal flow structures drifting towards steeper relative density gradients. The coupling between short- and long wavelength modes found here is distinct from the usual picture of direct and inverse energy cascades, and it can be used as a new paradigm for the fluid and plasma turbulence theories
S.L. Xia; Zhang, X. B.; Zhou, J. S.; Gao, X.
2015-01-01
The radial approach is widely used in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of published results on the efficacy and safety of the left and right radial approaches in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. A systematic search of reference databases was conducted, and data from 14 randomized controlled trials involving 6870 participants were analyzed. The left radial approach was associated with significant reductions in fluoroscopy...
Yeung, David T; Smith, J Richard; Sweeney, Richard E; Lenz, David E; Cerasoli, Douglas M
2008-01-01
The organophosphorus (OP) nerve agent soman (GD) contains two chiral centers (a carbon and a phosphorus atom), resulting in four stereoisomers (C+P+, C-P+, C+P-, and C-P-); the P- isomers exhibit a mammalian toxicity that is approximately 1000-fold greater than that of the P+ isomers. The capacity to assess the binding or hydrolysis of each of the four stereoisomers is an important tool in the development of enzymes with the potential to protect against GD intoxication. Using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based approach, we have examined the capacity of plasma-derived human serum albumin, plasma-purified human butyrylcholinesterase, goat milk-derived recombinant human butyrylcholinesterase, and recombinant human paraoxonase 1 to interact with each of the four stereoisomers of GD in vitro at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C. Under these experimental conditions, the butyrylcholinesterase samples were found to bind GD with a relative preference for the more toxic stereoisomers (C-P- > C+P- > C-P+ > C+P+), while human serum albumin and paraoxonase 1 interacted with GD with a relative preference for the less toxic isomers (C-P+/C+P+ > C+P-/C-P-). The results indicate that these human proteins exhibit distinct stereoselective interactions with GD. The approach described presents a means to rapidly assess substrate stereospecificity, supporting future efforts to develop more effective OP bioscavenger proteins. PMID:18269799
The paper presents a new approach to formation of superconducting MgB2 thin films: ion implantation followed by annealing in an unconventional second step treatment using pulsed laser, plasma, or ion beams. Merits and drawbacks of individual approaches are discussed. (authors)
Benard, N.; Pons-Prats, J.; Periaux, J.; Bugeda, G.; Braud, P.; Bonnet, J. P.; Moreau, E.
2016-02-01
The potential benefits of active flow control are no more debated. Among many others applications, flow control provides an effective mean for manipulating turbulent separated flows. Here, a nonthermal surface plasma discharge (dielectric barrier discharge) is installed at the step corner of a backward-facing step ( U 0 = 15 m/s, Re h = 30,000, Re θ = 1650). Wall pressure sensors are used to estimate the reattaching location downstream of the step (objective function #1) and also to measure the wall pressure fluctuation coefficients (objective function #2). An autonomous multi-variable optimization by genetic algorithm is implemented in an experiment for optimizing simultaneously the voltage amplitude, the burst frequency and the duty cycle of the high-voltage signal producing the surface plasma discharge. The single-objective optimization problems concern alternatively the minimization of the objective function #1 and the maximization of the objective function #2. The present paper demonstrates that when coupled with the plasma actuator and the wall pressure sensors, the genetic algorithm can find the optimum forcing conditions in only a few generations. At the end of the iterative search process, the minimum reattaching position is achieved by forcing the flow at the shear layer mode where a large spreading rate is obtained by increasing the periodicity of the vortex street and by enhancing the vortex pairing process. The objective function #2 is maximized for an actuation at half the shear layer mode. In this specific forcing mode, time-resolved PIV shows that the vortex pairing is reduced and that the strong fluctuations of the wall pressure coefficients result from the periodic passages of flow structures whose size corresponds to the height of the step model.
A new approach for sequencing virion genome of Chinese HIV-1 strains subtype B and BC from plasma
MENG Zhe-feng; ZHANG Xiao-yan; XIN Ruo-lei; XING Hui; HE Xiang; XU Jian-qing; SHAO Yi-ming
2011-01-01
Background Although it was widely accepted that full-length HIV genome sequences is important in studying virus genetic evolution and variation as well as developing vaccine candidate,to directly sequencing HIV-1 genome of virion RNA remains as a challenge worldwide.Up to date,no published genomic sequences from virion RNA are available for Chinese prevalent HIV-1 strains due to the absence of specialized protocol and appropriate lab equipments.In this study we developed a straightforward approach for amplifying and sequencing HIV virion RNA from plasma by modifying published protocols and further confirmed it is suitable to process Chinese samples.Methods The methods for viral RNA extraction and gene amplification was modified and optimized as could be widely used in most Chinese labs.Gene alignment of Chinese HIV-1 strains was employed for designing specialized primer sets for Thai-B and BC recombinant strains.Based on comprehensively consideration of high variable gene region and recombinant breakpoints in BC recombinant strains,a three-amplicon strategy (including 4.3-kb gag-pol,2.9-kb pol-env and 2.7-kb env-ne) was developed.In addition,one amplicon (9 kb near full-length genome) was also used in 32 samples with varied viral loads.All amplicons were directly sequenced by DNA automated sequencer.Results Twenty-five percent(8/32) amplification efficiency was achieved by the one-amplicon strategy and 65.6%(21/32) by three-amplicon strategy.For one amplicon strategy,none of complete near full-length genome sequences was obtained by DNA sequencing.For three-amplicon strategy,75% sequences were achieved in DNA sequencing.Amplification efficiency but not sequencing efficiency was closely associated with viral loads.Conclusion Three-amplicon strategy covering all encoding regions of HIV-1 is suitable for Thai-B and BC recombinant strains and could be potentially employed in less-well equipped Chinese labs.
Maxwell, S.; Jones, V.
2009-05-27
A new rapid separation method that allows separation and preconcentration of actinides in urine samples was developed for the measurement of longer lived actinides by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and short-lived actinides by alpha spectrometry; a hybrid approach. This method uses stacked extraction chromatography cartridges and vacuum box technology to facilitate rapid separations. Preconcentration, if required, is performed using a streamlined calcium phosphate precipitation. Similar technology has been applied to separate actinides prior to measurement by alpha spectrometry, but this new method has been developed with elution reagents now compatible with ICP-MS as well. Purified solutions are split between ICP-MS and alpha spectrometry so that long- and short-lived actinide isotopes can be measured successfully. The method allows for simultaneous extraction of 24 samples (including QC samples) in less than 3 h. Simultaneous sample preparation can offer significant time savings over sequential sample preparation. For example, sequential sample preparation of 24 samples taking just 15 min each requires 6 h to complete. The simplicity and speed of this new method makes it attractive for radiological emergency response. If preconcentration is applied, the method is applicable to larger sample aliquots for occupational exposures as well. The chemical recoveries are typically greater than 90%, in contrast to other reported methods using flow injection separation techniques for urine samples where plutonium yields were 70-80%. This method allows measurement of both long-lived and short-lived actinide isotopes. 239Pu, 242Pu, 237Np, 243Am, 234U, 235U and 238U were measured by ICP-MS, while 236Pu, 238Pu, 239Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm were measured by alpha spectrometry. The method can also be adapted so that the separation of uranium isotopes for assay is not required, if uranium assay by direct dilution of the urine sample is preferred instead
Thickness measurement approach for plasma sprayed coatings using ultrasonic testing technique
LIN Li; LI Xi-meng; XU Zhi-hui; LEI Ming-kai
2004-01-01
The special ultrasonic testing system has been developed for thickness measurement of plasma sprayed coatings. The ultrasonic immersion method was used to obtain stable coupling condition and avoid other disadvantages of contact method. Spherical acoustic lens were designed to focus ultrasonic beam so as to improve beam directivity and concentrate ultrasonic energy. To increase testing precision and avoid mussy wave signals, moderate pulse width and frequency of the transducer has been selected. The displacement of transducer in X-Y-Z directions was precisely manipulated by step-controlled system to insure the accuracy of focus length and repetition of measurement. Optimized testing conditions (with the transducer of center frequency of 10 MHz and crystal diameter of 8 mm, focus length of 9.5 mm, diameter of focal column of 0. 1 mm and length of focal column of 0.27 mm) were selected to determine the thickness between 285 -414 μm of ZrO2 coatings plasma sprayed on the nickel based superalloy. The frequency interval of the periodic extremums in ultrasonic power spectra decreases with increasing coating thickness. The ultrasonic results accord with those of metallographical method.
S.L. Xia
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The radial approach is widely used in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of published results on the efficacy and safety of the left and right radial approaches in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures. A systematic search of reference databases was conducted, and data from 14 randomized controlled trials involving 6870 participants were analyzed. The left radial approach was associated with significant reductions in fluoroscopy time [standardized mean difference (SMD=-0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI=-0.19 to -0.09; P<0.00001] and contrast volume (SMD=-0.07, 95%CI=-0.12 to -0.02; P=0.009. There were no significant differences in rate of procedural failure of the left and the right radial approaches [risk ratios (RR=0.98; 95%CI=0.77-1.25; P=0.88] or procedural time (SMD=-0.05, 95%CI=0.17-0.06; P=0.38. Tortuosity of the subclavian artery (RR=0.27, 95%CI=0.14-0.50; P<0.0001 was reported more frequently with the right radial approach. A greater number of catheters were used with the left than with the right radial approach (SMD=0.25, 95%CI=0.04-0.46; P=0.02. We conclude that the left radial approach is as safe as the right radial approach, and that the left radial approach should be recommended for use in percutaneous coronary procedures, especially in percutaneous coronary angiograms.
Zhang, Ya; Li, Lian; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin
2016-07-01
A one dimensional quantum-hydrodynamic/particle-in-cell (QHD/PIC) model is used to study the interaction process of an intense proton beam (injection density of 1017 cm‑3) with a dense plasma (initial density of ~ 1021 cm‑3), with the PIC method for simulating the beam particle dynamics and the QHD model for considering the quantum effects including the quantum statistical and quantum diffraction effects. By means of the QHD theory, the wake electron density and wakefields are calculated, while the proton beam density is calculated by the PIC method and compared to hydrodynamic results to justify that the PIC method is a more suitable way to simulate the beam particle dynamics. The calculation results show that the incident continuous proton beam when propagating in the plasma generates electron perturbations as well as wakefields oscillations with negative valleys and positive peaks where the proton beams are repelled by the positive wakefields and accelerated by the negative wakefields. Moreover, the quantum correction obviously hinders the electron perturbations as well as the wakefields. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the quantum effects in the interaction of a proton beam with cold dense plasmas, such as in the metal films. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11405067, 11105057, 11275007)
Electron-impact excitation collision strengths for transitions between all singly excited levels up to the n=4 shell of helium-like argon and the n=4 and 5 shells of helium-like iron have been calculated using a radiation-damped R-matrix approach. The theoretical collision strengths have been examined and associated with their infinite-energy limit values to allow the preparation of Maxwell-averaged effective collision strengths. These are conservatively considered to be accurate to within 20% at all temperatures, 3x105-3x108 K for Ar16+ and 106-109 K for Fe24+. They have been compared with the results of previous studies, where possible, and we find a broad accord. The corresponding rate coefficients are required for use in the calculation of derived, collisional-radiative, effective emission coefficients for helium-like lines for diagnostic application to fusion and astrophysical plasmas. The uncertainties in the fundamental collision data have been used to provide a critical assessment of the expected resultant uncertainties in such derived data, including redistributive and cascade collisional-radiative effects. The consequential uncertainties in the parts of the effective emission coefficients driven by excitation from the ground levels for the key w, x, y and z lines vary between 5% and 10%. Our results remove an uncertainty in the reaction rates of a key class of atomic processes governing the spectral emission of helium-like ions in plasmas. (author)
A plasma formulary for physics, technology, and astrophysics
Diver, Declan
2011-01-01
Plasma physics has matured rapidly as a discipline, and now touches on many different research areas, including manufacturing processes. This collection of fundamental formulae and definitions in plasma physics is vital to anyone with an interest in plasmas or ionized gases, whether in physics, astronomy or engineering.Both theorists and experimentalists will find this book useful, as it incorporates the latest results and findings.The text treats astrophysical plasmas, fusion plasmas, industrial plasmas and low temperature plasmas as aspects of the same discipline - a unique approach made pos
Opacity of Hot and Dense Plasmas of a Mixture using an Average-Atom Approach
袁建民
2002-01-01
An average-atom model is proposed to calculate the opacities of hot and dense plasmas of a mixture. A self-consistent scheme is used to reach the requirements of the same temperature and chemical potential for all kinds ofatoms in the mixtures, the same electron density at the boundaries between the atoms, and the electrical neutralitywithin each atomic sphere. The orbital energies and wavefunctions for the bound electrons are calculated withthe Dirac-Slater equations. The occupation numbers at each orbital of each kind of atom are determined by theFermi-Dirac distribution with the same chemical potential for all kinds of atoms. As an example, the opacity ofthe mixture of Au and Cd is calculated at a few temperatures and densities.
Boyanovsky, D; wang, S Y
2003-01-01
The DC electrical conductivity of an ultrarelativistic QED plasma is studied in real time by implementing the dynamical renormalization group. The conductivity is obtained from the realtime dependence of a dissipative kernel related to the retarded photon polarization. Pinch singularities in the imaginary part of the polarization are manifest as growing secular terms that in the perturbative expansion of this kernel. The leading secular terms are studied explicitly and it is shown that they are insensitive to the anomalous damping of hard fermions as a result of a cancellation between self-energy and vertex corrections. The resummation of the secular terms via the dynamical renormalization group leads directly to a renormalization group equation in real time, which is the Boltzmann equation for the (gauge invariant) fermion distribution function. A direct correspondence between the perturbative expansion and the linearized Boltzmann equation is established, allowing a direct identification of the self energy ...
Welsh, John D; Muthard, Ryan W; Stalker, Timothy J; Taliaferro, Joshua P; Diamond, Scott L; Brass, Lawrence F
2016-03-24
Previous studies have shown that hemostatic thrombi formed in response to penetrating injuries have a core of densely packed, fibrin-associated platelets overlaid by a shell of less-activated, loosely packed platelets. Here we asked, first, how the diverse elements of this structure combine to stem the loss of plasma-borne molecules and, second, whether antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants that perturb thrombus structure affect the re-establishment of a tight vascular seal. The studies combined high-resolution intravital microscopy with a photo-activatable fluorescent albumin marker to simultaneously track thrombus formation and protein transport following injuries to mouse cremaster muscle venules. The results show that protein loss persists after red cell loss has ceased. Blocking platelet deposition with an αIIbβ3antagonist delays vessel sealing and increases extravascular protein accumulation, as does either inhibiting adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12receptors or reducing integrin-dependent signaling and retraction. In contrast, sealing was unaffected by introducing hirudin to block fibrin accumulation or a Gi2α gain-of-function mutation to expand the thrombus shell. Collectively, these observations describe a novel approach for studying vessel sealing after injury in real time in vivo and show that (1) the core/shell architecture previously observed in arterioles also occurs in venules, (2) plasma leakage persists well beyond red cell escape and mature thrombus formation, (3) the most critical events for limiting plasma extravasation are the stable accumulation of platelets, ADP-dependent signaling, and the emergence of a densely packed core, not the accumulation of fibrin, and (4) drugs that affect platelet accumulation and packing can delay vessel sealing, permitting protein escape to continue. PMID:26738537
Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.; Rowlands, G.; Watkins, N. W.
A characteristic property of many timeseries in solar system plasmas is that they capture phenomenology that is intrinsically multiscale Insights can often be gained by approaching the data from a statistical rather than event by event point of view and considering measures that test for and quantify scaling properties Here we discuss two sets of observations- in situ plasma measurements of the turbulent solar wind and geomagnetic indices- which show scaling We treat the special case of self affine time series which show statistical intermittency in the sense that the Probability Density Function of the differenced variable is heavy tailed Structure functions can in principle be used to determine the scaling properties of the higher order moments of the PDF but in practice there are statistical limitations presented by a finite length time series We consider a method of conditioning the data that overcomes these to recover the underlying self affine scaling in a finite length time series and test its applicability using an idealized Le vy flight Having determined the scaling exponents from the data we can then derive a Fokker-Planck model along with the associated Langevin equation- a stochastic dynamical equation for the fluctuations in the time series This formalism has connections to understanding these systems in terms of the statistical mechanics of correlated out of equilibrium systems generally
Analysis of the low-pressure plasma pretreated polymer surface in terms of acid-base approach
Kraus, Eduard; Orf, Lukas; Baudrit, Benjamin; Heidemeyer, Peter; Bastian, Martin; Bonenberger, Ramona; Starostina, Irina; Stoyanov, Oleg
2016-05-01
We demonstrate the use of a modern wetting method for determining the acid-base properties of treated polymer surfaces for different plastics and adhesives. The effect of the surface treatment with low pressure plasma was evaluated from the viewpoint of acid-base approach with plastics polyoxymethylene (POM) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK). The correlations between the acid-base properties and the identified mechanical tensile strengths of adhesive bonded joints were evaluated and discussed. In the investigated range the determination coefficients for POM and PEEK were calculated to R2 = 0.93 and R2 = 0.97, respectively. These relatively high determination coefficients showed a good correlation between the mechanical strength and the acidity parameter ΔDshort for use in bonding technology for surface pretreatment of polymers with LPP.
Chang, Chong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-09
We present a simple approach for determining ion, electron, and radiation temperatures of heterogeneous plasma-photon mixtures, in which temperatures depend on both material type and morphology of the mixture. The solution technique is composed of solving ion, electron, and radiation energy equations for both mixed and pure phases of each material in zones containing random mixture and solving pure material energy equations in subdivided zones using interface reconstruction. Application of interface reconstruction is determined by the material configuration in the surrounding zones. In subdivided zones, subzonal inter-material energy exchanges are calculated by heat fluxes across the material interfaces. Inter-material energy exchange in zones with random mixtures is modeled using the length scale and contact surface area models. In those zones, inter-zonal heat flux in each material is determined using the volume fractions.
A new transport theory of cosmic rays in magnetized space plasmas with axisymmetric incompressible magnetic turbulence is developed extending the quasilinear approximation to the particle orbit. Arbitrary gyrophase deviations from the unperturbed spiral orbits in the uniform magnetic field are allowed. For quasi-stationary and spatially homogeneous magnetic turbulence, we derive the small Larmor radius approximation gyrophase-averaged cosmic ray Fokker-Planck coefficients. The generalized Fokker-Planck coefficients correctly reduce to their known quasilinear values in the corresponding limit. New forms of the quasilinear Fokker-Planck coefficients in axisymmetric turbulence are derived which no longer involve infinite sums of products of Bessel functions, which facilitate their numerical computation for specified turbulence field correlation tensors. The Fokker-Planck coefficients for arbitrary phase orbits of the cosmic ray particles provide strict upper limits for the perpendicular and pitch-angle Fokker-Planck coefficients, which in turn yield strict upper and lower limits for the perpendicular and parallel spatial diffusion coefficients, respectively, describing the spatial diffusion of the isotropic part of the cosmic ray phase space density. For the associated mean free paths, we find for this general case that the product of the minimum parallel mean free path with the sum of the maximum perpendicular mean free paths equals R2L, where RL denotes the cosmic ray gyroradius.
Le Guillou, J; Ropers, M-H; Gaillard, C; David-Briand, E; van Leeuwen-Ibarrola, J; Desherces, S; Schmitt, E; Bencharif, D; Amirat-Briand, L; Anton, M; Tainturier, D
2016-04-01
Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins, the main proteins from bovine seminal plasma, are known to partially intercalate into the outer leaflet of the spermatozoa membrane and bind to choline-containing lipids being present therein. This insertion generates a negative effect on semen quality after cryopreservation by inducing an early-stage capacitation of spermatozoa. The assumption of surface properties exhibited by BSP proteins was checked by tensiometry measurements: BSP proteins are highly surface active. This suggests that BSP proteins can reach the interface covered by phospholipids not only by interactions between one and each other but also due to their own surface activity. The insertion of BSP proteins into the lipid domains outer leaflet of spermatozoa was reproduced on a biomimetic system such as Langmuir monolayers. The insertion of BSP proteins can be performed in the compressible fluid domains which contain choline-bearing lipids. Monolayer films were used as well to study the complexation of BSP proteins by two phospholipid assemblies: low density lipoprotein (LDLs) from egg yolk or liposomes produced from egg phospholipids. Irrespective of the phospholipid structure (lipoprotein or liposome), BSP was hindered to alter the structure of the membrane. Only the overall ratio BSP proteins:phosphatidylcholine was important. The difference between the two sequestering agents lies on their surface properties: LDL have a strong tendency to merge with the outer layer whereas liposomes mainly remain in the bulk on the same time scale. PMID:26628332
Transport coefficients of Quark-Gluon Plasma in a Kinetic Theory approach
One of the main results of heavy ions collision at relativistic energy experiments is the very small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, close to the conjectured lower bound η/s = 1/4π for systems in the infinite coupling limit. Transport coefficients like shear viscosity are responsible of non-equilibrium properties of a system: Green- Kubo relations give us an exact expression to compute these coefficients. We computed shear viscosity numerically using Green-Kubo relation in the framework of Kinetic Theory solving the relativistic transport Boltzmann equation in a finite box with periodic boundary conditions. We investigated different cases of particles, for one component system (gluon matter), interacting via isotropic or anisotropic cross-section in the range of temperature of interest for HIC. Green-Kubo results are in agreement with Chapman-Enskog approximation while Relaxation Time approximation can underestimates the viscosity of a factor 2. Another transport coefficient of interest is the electric conductivity σel which determines the response of QGP to the electromagnetic fields present in the early stage of the collision. We study the σel dependence on microscopic details of interaction and we find also in this case that Relaxation Time Approximation is a good approximation only for isotropic cross-section.
Neves, BM; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, A.; Duarte, CB; Lopes, MC; Cruz, MT
2011-01-01
The development of non-animal testing methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential is an urgent challenge within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. Efforts have been made to replace current animal tests, but so far no alternative methods have been developed. It is widely recognised that alternatives to animal testing cannot be accomplished with a single approach, but rather will require the integration of results obtained from different in vitro and in silico...
Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Oladyshkin, Sergey;
2012-01-01
features such as caprock properties, faults, and distinct geological layers. This is considered in this work by 6 different scenarios having different characteristic geological features. On the other hand, Monte Carlo methods are a classical approach to address statistical uncertainty. This is not feasible...... study provides estimates of the risk of brine discharge into freshwater aquifers due to CO2 injection into geological formations and resultant salt concentrations in the overlying drinking water aquifers....
Novel approaches for mitigating runaway electrons and plasma disruptions in ADITYA tokamak
Tanna, R. L.; Ghosh, J.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Dhyani, Pravesh; Purohit, Shishir; Joisa, S.; Rao, C. V. S.; Panchal, V. K.; Raju, D.; Jadeja, K. A.; Bhatt, S. B.; Gupta, C. N.; Chavda, Chhaya; Kulkarni, S. V.; Shukla, B. K.; Praveenlal E., V.; Raval, Jayesh; Amardas, A.; Atrey, P. K.; Dhobi, U.; Manchanda, R.; Ramaiya, N.; Patel, N.; Chowdhuri, M. B.; Jha, S. K.; Jha, R.; Sen, A.; Saxena, Y. C.; Bora, D.; the ADITYA Team
2015-06-01
This paper summarizes the results of recent dedicated experiments on disruption control and runaway mitigation carried out in ADITYA, which are of the utmost importance for the successful operation of large size tokamaks, such as ITER. It is quite a well-known fact that disruptions in tokamaks must be avoided. Disruptions, induced by hydrogen gas puffing, are successfully avoided by two innovative techniques in ADITYA using a bias electrode placed inside the last closed flux surface and applying an ion cyclotron resonance pulse with a power of ∼50 to 70 kW. These experiments led to better understanding of the disruption avoidance mechanisms and also can be thought of as one of the options for disruption avoidance in ITER. In both cases, the physical mechanism seems to be the control of magnetohydrodynamic modes due to increased poloidal rotation of edge plasma generated by induced radial electric fields. Real time avoidance of disruption with identifying proper precursors in both the mechanisms is successfully attempted. Further, analysing thoroughly the huge database of different types of spontaneous and deliberately-triggered disruptions from ADITYA, a significant contribution has been made to the international disruption database (ITPA). Furthermore, the mitigation of the runaway electron generated mainly during disruptions remains a challenging topic in present tokamak research as these high-energy electrons can cause severe damage to in-vessel components and the vacuum vessel. A simple technique has been implemented in ADITYA to mitigate the runaway electrons before they can gain high energies using a localized vertical magnetic field perturbation applied at one toroidal location to extract runaway electrons.
Tsai, Shu-Ju; Wang, Chiang-Lun; Lee, Hung-Chun; Lin, Chun-Yeh; Chen, Jhih-Wei; Shiu, Hong-Wei; Chang, Lo-Yueh; Hsueh, Han-Ting; Chen, Hung-Ying; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tu, Li-Wei; Teng, Hsisheng; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hao; Wu, Chung-Lin
2016-01-01
In the past few decades, gate insulators with a high dielectric constant (high-k dielectric) enabling a physically thick but dielectrically thin insulating layer, have been used to replace traditional SiOx insulator and to ensure continuous downscaling of Si-based transistor technology. However, due to the non-silicon derivative natures of the high-k metal oxides, transport properties in these dielectrics are still limited by various structural defects on the hetero-interfaces and inside the dielectrics. Here, we show that another insulating silicon compound, amorphous silicon nitride (a-Si3N4), is a promising candidate of effective electrical insulator for use as a high-k dielectric. We have examined a-Si3N4 deposited using the plasma-assisted atomic beam deposition (PA-ABD) technique in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment and demonstrated the absence of defect-related luminescence; it was also found that the electronic structure across the a-Si3N4/Si heterojunction approaches the intrinsic limit, which exhibits large band gap energy and valence band offset. We demonstrate that charge transport properties in the metal/a-Si3N4/Si (MNS) structures approach defect-free limits with a large breakdown field and a low leakage current. Using PA-ABD, our results suggest a general strategy to markedly improve the performance of gate dielectric using a nearly defect-free insulator. PMID:27325155
The development of non-animal testing methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential is an urgent challenge within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. Efforts have been made to replace current animal tests, but so far no alternative methods have been developed. It is widely recognised that alternatives to animal testing cannot be accomplished with a single approach, but rather will require the integration of results obtained from different in vitro and in silico assays. The argument subjacent to the development of in vitro dendritic cell (DC)-based assays is that sensitiser-induced changes in the DC phenotype can be differentiated from those induced by irritants. This assumption is derived from the unique capacity of DC to convert environmental signals encountered at the skin into a receptor expression pattern (MHC class II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules, chemokine receptors) and a soluble mediator release profile that will stimulate T lymphocytes. Since signal transduction cascades precede changes in surface marker expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion, these phenotypic modifications are a consequence of a signal transduction profile that is specifically triggered by sensitisers and not by irritants. A limited number of studies have addressed this subject and the present review attempts to summarise and highlight all of the signalling pathways modulated by skin sensitisers and irritants. Furthermore, we conclude this review by focusing on the most promising strategies suitable for inclusion into a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification.
Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke
selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...... have better fit compared to the model with only additive effect. Mutation as direct effect contributes 3.18% of the total phenotypic variance. While in the model with interactions between additive and mutation, it contributes 1.43% as direct effect and 1.36% as interaction effect of the total variance...
Complex plasmas scientific challenges and technological opportunities
Lopez, Jose; Becker, Kurt; Thomsen, Hauke
2014-01-01
This book provides the reader with an introduction to the physics of complex plasmas, a discussion of the specific scientific and technical challenges they present, and an overview of their potential technological applications. Complex plasmas differ from conventional high-temperature plasmas in several ways: they may contain additional species, including nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles, negative ions, molecules and radicals, and they may exhibit strong correlations or quantum effects. This book introduces the classical and quantum mechanical approaches used to describe and simulate complex plasmas. It also covers some key experimental techniques used in the analysis of these plasmas, including calorimetric probe methods, IR absorption techniques and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The final part of the book reviews the emerging applications of microcavity and microchannel plasmas, the synthesis and assembly of nanomaterials through plasma electrochemistry, the large-scale generation of ozone using mi...
Kubo-Greenwood approach to conductivity in dense plasmas with average atom models
Starrett, C E
2016-01-01
A new formulation of the Kubo-Greenwood conductivity for average atom models is given. The new formulation improves upon previous by explicitly including the ionic-structure factor. Calculations based on this new expression lead to much improved agreement with ab initio results for DC conductivity of warm dense hydrogen and beryllium, and for thermal conductivity of hydrogen. We also give and test a slightly modified Ziman-Evans formula for the resistivity that includes a non-free electron density of states, thus removing an ambiguity in the original Ziman-Evans formula. Again results based on this expression are in good agreement with ab initio simulations for warm dense beryllium and hydrogen. However, for both these expressions, calculations of the electrical conductivity of warm dense aluminum lead to poor agreement at low temperatures compared to ab initio simulations.
Crystal structure is the fundamental information in the materials science, chemistry, physics and geoscience. Electron-density distribution of ceramic materials is important, because most of material properties are governed by the electronic states. Ion-diffusion pathway is useful to understand the ion conduction mechanism. In the present paper the author briefly reviews his group's recent research works on the crystal structure, thermal expansion, electron-density distribution and ion-diffusion pathway of some ceramic materials investigated by multiple approaches such as synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, neutron powder diffraction, electron diffraction, first-principles electronic calculations, maximum-entropy method (MEM) and bond valence method. The crystal structure should be examined by multiple methods, because invalid structure sometimes gives good Rietveld fit. (author)
Leblond, Emilie; Daures, Fabienne; Berthou, Patrick; Dintheer, Christian
2008-01-01
Since 2000, Ifremer has been implemented a Fisheries Information System (FIS), in strong collaboration with the DPMA (Direction of fisheries and aquaculture of the French Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries). The FIS aims at building an operational and multidisciplinary monitoring network for scientific purposes, allowing a comprehensive view of fishery systems including their biological, technical, environmental and economical components. The objectives of the FIS are (i) to provide t...
Numerical study of chiral plasma instability within the classical statistical field theory approach
Buividovich, P. V.; Ulybyshev, M. V.
2016-07-01
We report on a numerical study of real-time dynamics of electromagnetically interacting chirally imbalanced lattice Dirac fermions within the classical statistical field theory approach. Namely, we perform exact simulations of the real-time quantum evolution of fermionic fields coupled to classical electromagnetic fields, which are in turn coupled to the vacuum expectation value of the fermionic electric current. We use Wilson-Dirac Hamiltonian for fermions, and noncompact action for the gauge field. In general, we observe that the backreaction of fermions on the electromagnetic field prevents the system from acquiring chirality imbalance. In the case of chirality pumping in parallel electric and magnetic fields, the electric field is screened by the produced on-shell fermions and the accumulation of chirality is hence stopped. In the case of evolution with initially present chirality imbalance, axial charge tends to transform to helicity of the electromagnetic field. By performing simulations on large lattices we show that in most cases this decay process is accompanied by the inverse cascade phenomenon, which transfers energy from short-wavelength to long-wavelength electromagnetic fields. In some simulations, however, we observe a very clear signature of inverse cascade for the helical magnetic fields that is not accompanied by the axial charge decay. This suggests that the relation between the inverse cascade and axial charge decay is not as straightforward as predicted by the simplest form of anomalous Maxwell equations.
A dynamical quasiparticle approach for the Quark-Gluon-Plasma bulk and transport properties
Berrehrah, Hamza; Steinert, Thorsten; Cassing, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
The properties of quantum-chromo dynamics (QCD) nowadays are accessable by lattice QCD calculations at vanishing quark chemical potential $\\mu_q$=0 but often lack a transparent physical interpretation. In this review we report about results from an extended dynamical quasiparticle model (DQPM$^*$) in which the effective parton propagators have a complex selfenergy that depends on the temperature $T$ of the medium as well as on the chemical potential $\\mu_q$ and the parton three-momentum ${\\boldsymbol p}$ with respect to the medium at rest. It is demonstrated that this approach allows for a good description of QCD thermodynamics with respect to the entropy density, pressure etc. above the critical temperature $T_c \\approx$ 158 MeV. Furthermore, the quark susceptibility $\\chi_q$ and the quark number density $n_q$ are found to be reproduced simultaneously at zero and finite quark chemical potential. The shear and bulk viscosities $\\eta, \\zeta$, and the electric conductivity $\\sigma_e$ from the DQPM$^*$ also turn...