Sample records for approach control

  1. A comprehensive approach to nuclear arms control

    Cold war nuclear arms control was characterized by American Soviet hostility and the limits of verification; the end of the cold war allowed for a more cooperative approach. From this new situation emerged the idea of a new agenda for arms control and of exploring a more comprehensive approach to nuclear arms control. The author posits eight elements for such a comprehensive approach. Though such an approach seems unrealistic today, recent history teaches us to look beyond today's constraints. (author)

  2. Linear Design Approach to a Fuzzy Controller

    Jantzen, Jan


    A ball-balancer, basically an inverted pendulum problem, is stabilised by a linear controller. With certain design choices, a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a summation; thus it can replace the linear controller. It can be claimed, that the fuzzy controller performs at least as well as the...... linear controller, since the linear controller is contained in the fuzzy controller. The approach makes it somewhat easier to design a fuzzy controller....

  3. Linear Design Approach to a Fuzzy Controller

    Jantzen, Jan

    A ball-balancer, basically an inverted pendulum problem, is stabilised by a linear controller. With certain design choices, a fuzzy controller is equivalent to a summation; thus it can replace the linear controller. It can be claimed, that the fuzzy controller performs at least as well as the...... linear controller, since the linear controller is contained in the fuzzy controller. The approach makes it somewhat easier to design a fuzzy controller....

  4. An approach to optical structures control

    Iwens, R. P.; Benhabib, R. J.; Major, C. S.


    The stabilization of a large, spaceborne Cassegrain telescope is examined. Modal gain factors and known characteristics of disturbances are used to determine which structural model affect line of sight (LOS) the most and are candidates for active control. THe approach is to: (1) actively control and maintain alignment of optical components; (2) place structural control actuators for optimum impact on the selected modes for active vibration control; and (3) feed back the best available estimate of LOS error for direct LOS control. Local analog loops are used for lower bandwidth control and multivariable digital control for lower bandwidth control. The control law is synthesized in the frequency domain using the characteristic gain approach. Robustness is measured by employing conicity, which is an outgrowth of the positivity approach to robust feedback system design. The feasibility of the design approach will be demonstrated by conducting a lab experiment on a structure similar to a scaled version of the telescope.

  5. Contamination Control: a systems approach

    Donck, J.C.J. van der


    Contamination influences a wide variety of industrial processes. For complex systems, contamination control, the collective effort to control contamination to such a level that it guarantees or even improves process or product functionality, offers a way for finding workable solutions. Central in th

  6. Generic attack approaches for industrial control systems.

    Duggan, David P.


    This report suggests a generic set of attack approaches that are expected to be used against Industrial Control Systems that have been built according to a specific reference model for control systems. The posed attack approaches are ordered by the most desirable, based upon the goal of an attacker. Each attack approach is then graded by the category of adversary that would be capable of utilizing that attack approach. The goal of this report is to identify necessary levels of security required to prevent certain types of attacks against Industrial Control Systems.

  7. Control theory: A practical approach

    Stability and frequency response enhancements can be made to custom manufactured and off-the-shelf power supplies. Combined power converter and magnet loads that result in poor transient response and marginal loop stability due to inadequate phase margin can be corrected with a systematic approach utilizing lead compensation techniques. Using a Venable Systems 350 Frequency Response Analyzer two actual case studies are documented demonstrating a practical approach to stabilizing and enhancing a power supply's performance. A description of the system and conventions are followed by a description of two power supplies with specific deficiencies. The first case study involves a power supply without a dominant pole output capacitor. The next case study involves a power supply driving a highly damped resonant load. The paper is concluded by a discussion of measurements pitfalls

  8. Aflatoxin control through transgenic approaches

    Control of preharvest aflatoxin contamination of susceptible crops such as corn, cotton, peanut, and tree nuts is possible through time consuming and expensive agronomic practices. Breeding for disease-resistant crops is also very time consuming and does not lend itself readily to combat the evolut...

  9. Robust Decentralized Controller Design: Subsystem Approach

    Rosinová, Danica; Thuan, Nguyen Quang; Veselý, Vojtech; Marko, L'ubomír


    The paper addresses the problem of the robust output feedback PI controller design for complex large-scale stable systems with a state decentralized control structure. A decentralized control design procedure is proposed for static output feedback control which is based on solving robust control design problems of subsystems' size. The presented approach is based on the Generalized Gershgorin Theorem and uses the so-called equivalent subsystems approach to consider the interactions in the local robust controller design. The resulting decentralized control scheme has been successfully tested on two examples: a linearized model of three interconnected boiler-turbine subsystems and a linear model of four cooperating DC motors where the problem is to design four local PI controllers for a large scale system which will guarantee robust stability and performance of the closed-loop uncertain system.

  10. Flight Test Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The validation of adaptive controls has the potential to enhance safety in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  11. A hybrid approach to experimental control.

    Dixon, Peter


    In the present article, I describe a new, hybrid approach to experimental control that combines the best features of general-purpose programs and specific-experiment programs. First, experimental control objects are developed in an object-oriented programming environment. Then, an XML file is used to select and arrange those control objects in order to carry out an experiment. A wide range of experiments can be implemented by specifying the arrangement of the control objects in the XML file, while, at the same time, the set of control objects can be easily extended for more demanding applications. An overview of a system using this approach is provided, along with some examples. PMID:19587170

  12. Flight Approach to Adaptive Control Research

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen; Less, James L.; Larson, David Nils


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dryden Flight Research Center completed flight testing of adaptive controls research on a full-scale F-18 testbed. The testbed served as a full-scale vehicle to test and validate adaptive flight control research addressing technical challenges involved with reducing risk to enable safe flight in the presence of adverse conditions such as structural damage or control surface failures. This paper describes the research interface architecture, risk mitigations, flight test approach and lessons learned of adaptive controls research.

  13. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M


    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  14. Fuzzy Approach to Statistical Control Charts

    Shahryar Sorooshian


    After investigating the advantages and disadvantages of current methods of statistical process control, it becomes important to overcome the disadvantages and then use the advantages to improve a method for monitoring a process with categorical observations. An approach which considers uncertainty and vagueness is tried for this study; and for this purpose, fuzzy set theory is inevitable to use. So, a new approach based on fuzzy set theory is introduced in this research for monitoring attribu...

  15. Global approach for hybrid vehicle optimal control

    Scordia, Julien; TRIGUI, Rochdi; DESBOIS-RENAUDIN, Matthieu; JEANNERET, Bruno; BADIN, François


    In this paper, we describe the global approach that has been developed at INRETS-LTE for hybrid powertrain sizing, consumption gain evaluation, and optimal control. The procedure is described in the particular case of a two clutch parallel hybrid architecture, but could apply to any other configuration. Firstly the context and the common issues related to this subject are described. Then our global approach is detailed: sizing procedure, offline global optimization process, method for obtaini...

  16. Angular-velocity control approach for stance-control orthoses.

    Lemaire, Edward D; Goudreau, Louis; Yakimovich, Terris; Kofman, Jonathan


    Currently, stance-control knee orthoses require external control mechanisms to control knee flexion during stance and allow free knee motion during the swing phase of gait. A new angular-velocity control approach that uses a rotary-hydraulic device to resist knee flexion when the knee angular velocity passes a preset threshold is presented. This angular-velocity approach for orthotic stance control is based on the premise that knee-flexion angular velocity during a knee-collapse event, such as a stumble or fall, is greater than that during walking. The new hydraulic knee-flexion control device does not require an external control mechanism to switch from free motion to stance control mode. Functional test results demonstrated that the hydraulic angular-velocity activated knee joint provided free knee motion during walking, engaged upon knee collapse, and supported body weight while the end-user recovered to a safe body position. The joint was tested to 51.6 Nm in single loading tests and passed 200,000 repeated loading cycles with a peak load of 88 Nm per cycle. The hydraulic, angular velocity activation approach has potential to improve safety and security for people with lower extremity weakness or when recovering from joint trauma. PMID:19497821

  17. Predictive Approaches to Control of Complex Systems

    Karer, Gorazd


    A predictive control algorithm uses a model of the controlled system to predict the system behavior for various input scenarios and determines the most appropriate inputs accordingly. Predictive controllers are suitable for a wide range of systems; therefore, their advantages are especially evident when dealing with relatively complex systems, such as nonlinear, constrained, hybrid, multivariate systems etc. However, designing a predictive control strategy for a complex system is generally a difficult task, because all relevant dynamical phenomena have to be considered. Establishing a suitable model of the system is an essential part of predictive control design. Classic modeling and identification approaches based on linear-systems theory are generally inappropriate for complex systems; hence, models that are able to appropriately consider complex dynamical properties have to be employed in a predictive control algorithm. This book first introduces some modeling frameworks, which can encompass the most frequ...

  18. A Modular Approach to Redundant Robot Control

    This paper describes a modular approach for computing redundant robot kinematics. First some conventional redundant control methods are presented and shown to be 'passive control laws', i.e. they can be represented by a network consisting of passive elements. These networks are then put into modular form by applying scattering operator techniques. Additional subnetwork modules can then be added to further shape the motion. Modules for obstacle detection, joint limit avoidance, proximity sensing, and for imposing nonlinear velocity constraints are presented. The resulting redundant robot control system is modular, flexible and robust

  19. Controllable Load Management Approaches in Smart Grids

    Jingshuang Shen


    Full Text Available With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively participate in demand-side management (DSM with the mutual information communication between the distributor operation company and the smart devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G, and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP, and the load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

  20. Operator approach to linear control systems

    Cheremensky, A


    Within the framework of the optimization problem for linear control systems with quadratic performance index (LQP), the operator approach allows the construction of a systems theory including a number of particular infinite-dimensional optimization problems with hardly visible concreteness. This approach yields interesting interpretations of these problems and more effective feedback design methods. This book is unique in its emphasis on developing methods for solving a sufficiently general LQP. Although this is complex material, the theory developed here is built on transparent and relatively simple principles, and readers with less experience in the field of operator theory will find enough material to give them a good overview of the current state of LQP theory and its applications. Audience: Graduate students and researchers in the fields of mathematical systems theory, operator theory, cybernetics, and control systems.

  1. Multimodel Approach for Intelligent Control and Applications

    Abdelkader El Kamel; Pierre Borne


    The use of the multimodel approach in the modelling, analysis and control of non-linear complex and/or ill-defined systems was advocated by many researchers. This approach supposes the definition of a set of local models valid in a given region or domain. Different strategies exist in the literature and are generally based on a partitioning of the non-linear system's full range of operation into multiple smaller operating regimes each of which is associated with a locally valid model or controller. However, most of these strategies, which suppose the determination of these local models as well as their validity domain, remain arbitrary and are generally fixed thanks to a certain a priori knowledge of the system whatever its order. Recently, we have proposed a new approach to derive a multimodel basis which allows us to limit the number of models in the basis to almost four models. Meanwhile, the transition problem between the different models, which may use either a simple commutation or a fusion technique, remains still arise. In this plenary talk, a fuzzy fusion technique is presented and has the following main advantages: (1) use of a fuzzy partitioning in order to determine the validity of each model which enhances the robustness of the solution; (2) introduction, besides the four extreme models, of another model, called average model, determined as an average of the boundary models.

  2. Comparison of Routable Control System Security Approaches

    Edgar, Thomas W.; Hadley, Mark D.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Manz, David O.; Winn, Jennifer D.


    This document is an supplement to the 'Secure and Efficient Routable Control Systems.' It addressed security in routable control system communication. The control system environment that monitors and manages the power grid historically has utilized serial communication mechanisms. Leased-line serial communication environments operating at 1200 to 9600 baud rates are common. However, recent trends show that communication media such as fiber, optical carrier 3 (OC-3) speeds, mesh-based high-speed wireless, and the Internet are becoming the media of choice. In addition, a dichotomy has developed between the electrical transmission and distribution environments, with more modern communication infrastructures deployed by transmission utilities. The preceding diagram represents a typical control system. The Communication Links cloud supports all of the communication mechanisms a utility might deploy between the control center and devices in the field. Current methodologies used for security implementations are primarily led by single vendors or standards bodies. However, these entities tend to focus on individual protocols. The result is an environment that contains a mixture of security solutions that may only address some communication protocols at an increasing operational burden for the utility. A single approach is needed that meets operational requirements, is simple to operate, and provides the necessary level of security for all control system communication. The solution should be application independent (e.g., Distributed Network Protocol/Internet Protocol [DNP/IP], International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC] C37.118, Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control [OPC], etc.) and focus on the transport layer. In an ideal setting, a well-designed suite of standards for control system communication will be used for vendor implementation and compliance testing. An expected outcome of this effort is an international standard.

  3. Multiple Model Approaches to Modelling and Control,

    learning. The underlying question is `How should we partition the system - what is `local'?'. This book presents alternative ways of bringing submodels together,which lead to varying levels of performance and insight. Some are further developed for autonomous learning of parameters from data, while others...... into multiple smaller operating regimes each of which is associated a locally valid model orcontroller. This can often give a simplified and transparent nonlinear model or control representation. In addition, the local approach has computationaladvantages, it lends itself to adaptation and learning...

  4. Approaches to Learning to Control Dynamic Uncertainty

    Magda Osman


    Full Text Available In dynamic environments, when faced with a choice of which learning strategy to adopt, do people choose to mostly explore (maximizing their long term gains or exploit (maximizing their short term gains? More to the point, how does this choice of learning strategy influence one’s later ability to control the environment? In the present study, we explore whether people’s self-reported learning strategies and levels of arousal (i.e., surprise, stress correspond to performance measures of controlling a Highly Uncertain or Moderately Uncertain dynamic environment. Generally, self-reports suggest a preference for exploring the environment to begin with. After which, those in the Highly Uncertain environment generally indicated they exploited more than those in the Moderately Uncertain environment; this difference did not impact on performance on later tests of people’s ability to control the dynamic environment. Levels of arousal were also differentially associated with the uncertainty of the environment. Going beyond behavioral data, our model of dynamic decision-making revealed that, in actual fact, there was no difference in exploitation levels between those in the highly uncertain or moderately uncertain environments, but there were differences based on sensitivity to negative reinforcement. We consider the implications of our findings with respect to learning and strategic approaches to controlling dynamic uncertainty.

  5. Immunocontraceptives: New Approaches to Fertility Control

    Kiranjeet Kaur


    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing global population has bowed the attention of family planning and associated reproductive health programmes in the direction of providing a safe and reliable method which can be used to limit family size. The world population is estimated to exceed a phenomenal 10 billion by the year 2050 A.D., thus presenting a real jeopardy of overpopulation with severe implications for the future. Despite the availability of contraceptive methods, there are over one million elective abortions globally each year due to unintended pregnancies, having devastating impact on reproductive health of women worldwide. This highlights the need for the development of newer and improved contraceptive methods. A novel contraceptive approach that is gaining substantial attention is “immunocontraception” targeting gamete production, gamete outcome, or gamete function. Amongst these, use of sperm antigens (gamete function seems to be an exciting and feasible approach. However, the variability of immune response and time lag to attain titer among vaccinated individuals after active immunization has highlighted the potential relevance of preformed antibodies in this league. This review is an attempt to analyze the current status and progress of immunocontraceptive approaches with respect to their establishment as a future fertility control agent.

  6. Control-matrix approach to stellarator design and control

    The full space Z(equivalent to){Zj=1,...,Nz} of independent variables defining a stellarator configuration is large. To find attractive design points in this space, or to understand operational flexibility about a given design point, one needs insight into the topography in Z-space of the physics figures of merit Pi which characterize the machine performance, and means of determining those directions in Z-space which give one independent control over the Pi, as well as those which affect none of them, and so are available for design flexibility. The control matrix (CM) approach described here provides a mathematical means of obtaining these. In this work, the CM approach is described and used in studying some candidate Quasi-Axisymmetric (QA) stellarator configurations the National Compact Stellarator Experiment design group has been considering. In the process of the analysis, a first exploration of the topography of the configuration space in the vicinity of these candidate systems has been performed, whose character is discussed

  7. Radiopharmaceutical quality control-Pragmatic approach

    The quality control must be considered in a practical manner. The radiopharmaceuticals are drugs. They must satisfy the quality assurance control. These products are then conform to Pharmacopeia. But sometimes the user must control some data especially radiochemical purity and pH value. On all the administered solutions four controls are compulsory: radionuclide identity, administered radioactivity, organoleptic character and pH

  8. Vision Based Fuzzy Control Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Olivares Mendez, Miguel Angel; Campoy, Pascual


    This paper proposed the use of vision based Fuzzy control approaches for autonomous navigation tasks with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It is shown the advantages of using RGB cameras as the sensor onboard UAVs and the advantages of using Fuzzy logic controllers. It is explained how to set a vision based system and how to define a Fuzzy controller for a general control approach. A specific software was design and used to develop and tune general Fuzzy control app...

  9. Robust control of robots fault tolerant approaches

    Siqueira, Adriano A G; Bergerman, Marcel


    Comes with access to online material containing a MATLAB®-based simulator including all controllers presented in the book Discusses experimental results of the implementation of H-infinity controllers to robotic manipulators Written by experts in robust control of robots

  10. Access control, security, and trust a logical approach

    Chin, Shiu-Kai


    Access Control, Security, Trust, and Logic Deconstructing Access Control Decisions A Logical Approach to Access Control PRELIMINARIES A Language for Access ControlSets and Relations Syntax SemanticsReasoning about Access Control Logical RulesFormal Proofs and Theorems Soundness of Logical RulesBasic Concepts Reference Monitors Access Control Mechanisms: Tickets and Lists Authentication Security PoliciesConfidentiality, Integrity, and Availability Discretionary Security Policies Mandatory Security Policies Military Security Policies Commercial PoliciesDISTRIBUTED ACCESS CONTROL Digital Authenti

  11. Frequency Transmission Control of Local Networked Control Systems Approach

    O. Esquivel-Flores; H. Benítez-Pérez


    The use of Network Control Systems has been successful in the industry and therefore has opened several lines ofresearch. Control systems over a communication network include two important considerations, control andscheduling. Co-design strategies are focused on maintaining adequate control performance and maximize the level ofservice. Network scheduling is the main objective to resolve because through a balanced data load is possible tomaintain control performance in a desired level. This a...

  12. A Biclustering Approach to Combinatorial Transcription Control

    Srinivasan, Venkataraghavan


    Combinatorial control of transcription is a well established phenomenon in the cell. Multiple transcription factors often bind to the same transcriptional control region of a gene and interact with each other to control the expression of the gene. It is thus necessary to consider the joint conservation of sequence pairs in order to identify combinations of binding sites to which the transcription factors bind. Conventional motif finding algorithms fail to address this issue. We propose a nove...

  13. Configurations of Control: A Transaction Cost Approach

    R.F. Speklé (Roland)


    textabstractIn this paper, I present a theory of management control based on Transaction Cost Economics. This theory seeks to integrate into a single framework a set of insights as to the nature of the organization's activities, the control problems that are inherent in these activities, and the uni

  14. Changes of Control and Joint-control Approaches

    Marie Zelenková


    Definition of control and join-control changed during last years in both Czech accounting legislation and International Financial Reporting Standards. This paper deals with character of these changes. This paper also includes comparison of current treatment of control and join-control according to the Czech legislation and according to IFRS. Illustrative examples and cases indicate critical points where are found the substantial differences between Act on Business Corporations as amended with...

  15. Adaptive Control with Approximated Policy Search Approach

    Agus Naba


    Full Text Available Most of existing adaptive control schemes are designed to minimize error between plant state and goal state despite the fact that executing actions that are predicted to result in smaller errors only can mislead to non-goal states. We develop an adaptive control scheme that involves manipulating a controller of a general type to improve its performance as measured by an evaluation function. The developed method is closely related to a theory of Reinforcement Learning (RL but imposes a practical assumption made for faster learning. We assume that a value function of RL can be approximated by a function of Euclidean distance from a goal state and an action executed at the state. And, we propose to use it for the gradient search as an evaluation function. Simulation results provided through application of the proposed scheme to a pole-balancing problem using a linear state feedback controller and fuzzy controller verify the scheme’s efficacy.

  16. Frequency Transmission Control of Local Networked Control Systems Approach

    O. Esquivel-Flores


    Full Text Available The use of Network Control Systems has been successful in the industry and therefore has opened several lines ofresearch. Control systems over a communication network include two important considerations, control andscheduling. Co-design strategies are focused on maintaining adequate control performance and maximize the level ofservice. Network scheduling is the main objective to resolve because through a balanced data load is possible tomaintain control performance in a desired level. This article reviews a scheduling strategy based on frequencytransition modeled as a linear subsystem, this control reconfigure on line the sensors’ periods. The case of study isthe control of a prototype helicopter and by numerical simulations it shows the effect of changing the transmissionfrequency.

  17. Parametric Approach to Trajectory Tracking Control of Robot Manipulators

    Shijie Zhang; Yi Ning


    The mathematic description of the trajectory of robot manipulators with the optimal trajectory tracking problem is formulated as an optimal control problem, and a parametric approach is proposed for the optimal trajectory tracking control problem. The optimal control problem is first solved as an open loop optimal control problem by using a time scaling transform and the control parameterization method. Then, by virtue of the relationship between the optimal open loop control and the optimal ...

  18. A methodological approach to designing sewer system control

    Mollerup, Ane Loft

    this thesis was therefore the wish for a methodological approach to sewer system control design. Using a case study the following research hypothesis was tested in this thesis: Using classical and modern control theory, a methodological approach can be derived for designing sewer system control. This...... can aid urban drainage planner and other professionals in the planning phase of sewer system con-trol design and effectively contribute to find novel control solution. It was investigated if the established methodology used in classic control the-ory for process control design can be applied...... limited, it is not necessarily the best option to implement advanced optimisation based control systems. Therefore it is also advisable to approach the design of a control system in a methodological manner, where the design and evaluation can be done step by step. Based on the experiences gained from...

  19. Distributed Stochastic Control: A Team Theoretic Approach

    Gattami, Ather


    We consider the problem of stochastic control under constraints on the information structure. We review some old results from static team theory, where new simple proofs are given. The signaling phenomenon in distributed optimal linear quadratic Gaussian control plays a central role because of the NP-hardness it implicates. Necessary and sufficient conditions for eliminating the signaling incentive are given in terms of the interconnection structure.


    Olena Petrashchuk


    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of integrative approach to language training of air traffic controllers in air traffic control simulator. The integrative approach is viewed in terms of two elements of English communicative competency: oral speech skills (listening comprehension and speaking and language of radiotelephony communication (radiotelephony phraseology and plain English in aviation context.

  1. A lexicographic approach to constrained MDP admission control

    Panfili, Martina; Pietrabissa, Antonio; Oddi, Guido; Suraci, Vincenzo


    This paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based lexicographic approach to the call admission control problem in communication networks. The admission control problem is modelled as a multi-constrained Markov decision process. To overcome the problems of the standard approaches to the solution of constrained Markov decision processes, based on the linear programming formulation or on a Lagrangian approach, a multi-constraint lexicographic approach is defined, and an online implementation based on reinforcement learning techniques is proposed. Simulations validate the proposed approach.

  2. Controller design approach based on linear programming.

    Tanaka, Ryo; Shibasaki, Hiroki; Ogawa, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa


    This study explains and demonstrates the design method for a control system with a load disturbance observer. Observer gains are determined by linear programming (LP) in terms of the Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and the final-value theorem. In addition, the control model has a feedback structure, and feedback gains are determined to be the linear quadratic regulator. The simulation results confirmed that compared with the conventional method, the output estimated by our proposed method converges to a reference input faster when a load disturbance is added to a control system. In addition, we also confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method by performing an experiment with a DC motor. PMID:23910155

  3. Optical pulse shaping approaches to coherent control

    The last part of the twentieth century has experienced a huge resurge of activity in the field of coherent light-matter interaction, more so in attempting to exert control over such interactions. Birth of coherent control was originally spurred by the theoretical understanding of the quantum interferences that lead to energy randomization and experimental developments in ultrafast laser spectroscopy. The theoretical predictions on control of reaction channels or energy randomization processes are still more dramatic than the experimental demonstrations, though this gap between the two is consistently reducing over the recent years with realistic theoretical models and technological developments. Experimental demonstrations of arbitrary optical pulse shaping have made some of the previously impracticable theoretical predictions possible to implement. Starting with the simple laser modulation schemes to provide proof-of-the-principle demonstrations, feedback loop pulse shaping systems have been developed that can actively manipulate some atomic and molecular processes. This tremendous experimental boost of optical pulse shaping developments has prospects and implications into many more new directions, such as quantum computing and terabit/sec data communications. This review captures certain aspects and impacts of optical pulse shaping into the fast developing areas of coherent control and other related fields. Currently available reviews focus on one or the other detailed aspects of coherent control, and the reader will be referred to such details as and when necessary for issues that are dealt in brief here. We will focus on the current issues including control of intramolecular dynamics and make connections to the future concepts, such as, quantum computation, biomedical applications, etc

  4. Statistical quality control a loss minimization approach

    Trietsch, Dan


    While many books on quality espouse the Taguchi loss function, they do not examine its impact on statistical quality control (SQC). But using the Taguchi loss function sheds new light on questions relating to SQC and calls for some changes. This book covers SQC in a way that conforms with the need to minimize loss. Subjects often not covered elsewhere include: (i) measurements, (ii) determining how many points to sample to obtain reliable control charts (for which purpose a new graphic tool, diffidence charts, is introduced), (iii) the connection between process capability and tolerances, (iv)

  5. Computer science approach to quantum control

    Janzing, Dominik


    This work considers several hypothetical control processes on the nanoscopic level and show their analogy to computation processes. It shows that measuring certain types of quantum observables is such a complex task that every instrument that is able to perform it would necessarily be an extremely powerful computer.

  6. Intersectoral approaches to dengue vector control.

    Kay, B H


    Medical entomology in the context of urban vector control, especially for dengue, can be likened to the tail of a dog. Vertically structured Aedes aegypti campaigns such as run by Gorgas and Soper earlier this century relied on sufficient legislative backing for vector control to ensure that the tail was capable of wagging the dog. Under these conditions, especially where individual rights do not intrude, vertical programs will be successful. The global expansion of dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever and its vectors, plus growing trends towards urban/periurban living indicate a more serious scenario than at present. In 1987, the Brundtland Report: "Our Common Future" decried sectoralism in problem solving. Following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, the resulting Commission on Sustainable Development has promoted the intersectoral message of health, environment and development. The WHO/FAO/UNEP/UNCHS Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control has promoted this for some time and is attempting to build multidisciplinary projects against urban vector borne disease. Adequate solid waste management and recycling will reduce numbers of water bearing containers infested with Aedes aegypti and provision of reliable piped water supplies will impact heavily on infested water storage containers. Both should be encouraged as viable control options. For much of the world, vertical programs have been reported as prohibitively expensive, and unacceptable intrusion on human rights and thus unsustainable in the modern economic context. However there are successful modern examples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7844851

  7. A controllability approach to the control of a class of chaotic systems

    In this paper the exponential control problem for a class of chaotic systems with affine dependence on the control is addressed and solved by the controllability approach. It is shown that the controllability approach in conjunction with Lyapunov Direct Method yields a promising way of controlling chaotic dynamics. The proposed strategy is an input-output control scheme which comprises a state estimator and an exponential linearizing feedback. The proposed output feedback controller allows chaos suppression and can be applied to a large class of chaotic systems. Explicit expression of the control time is given. Computer simulations confirm the feasibility of the proposed approach. (author)

  8. Reverse Genetics Approaches to Control Arenavirus.

    Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Cheng, Benson Yee Hin; de la Torre, Juan Carlos


    Several arenavirus cause hemorrhagic fever disease in humans and pose a significant public health problem in their endemic regions. To date, no licensed vaccines are available to combat human arenavirus infections, and anti-arenaviral drug therapy is limited to an off-label use of ribavirin that is only partially effective. The development of arenavirus reverse genetics approaches provides investigators with a novel and powerful approach for the investigation of the arenavirus molecular and cell biology. The use of cell-based minigenome systems has allowed examining the cis- and trans-acting factors involved in arenavirus replication and transcription and the identification of novel anti-arenaviral drug targets without requiring the use of live forms of arenaviruses. Likewise, it is now feasible to rescue infectious arenaviruses entirely from cloned cDNAs containing predetermined mutations in their genomes to investigate virus-host interactions and mechanisms of pathogenesis, as well as to facilitate screens to identify anti-arenaviral drugs and development of novel live-attenuated arenavirus vaccines. Recently, reverse genetics have also allowed the generation of tri-segmented arenaviruses expressing foreign genes, facilitating virus detection and opening the possibility of implementing live-attenuated arenavirus-based vaccine vector approaches. Likewise, the development of single-cycle infectious, reporter-expressing, arenaviruses has provided a new experimental method to study some aspects of the biology of highly pathogenic arenaviruses without the requirement of high-security biocontainment required to study HF-causing arenaviruses. In this chapter we summarize the current knowledge on arenavirus reverse genetics and the implementation of plasmid-based reverse genetics techniques for the development of arenavirus vaccines and vaccine vectors. PMID:27076139

  9. A Guerilla Approach to Control System Development

    Dovc, J.; Milcinski, G; Plesko, M.


    We present our experiences in managing the development cycles of the control systems for ANKA and the ALMA Common Software. Our team consists practically only of undergraduate students. Stimulating and rewarding the students with cutting-edge technologies and travel to conferences like this and installation fieldwork are an important positive factor in raising their motivation. However, building any system with a group of inexperienced students is quite a challenging task. Many problems occur...

  10. A stochastic approach to robust broadband structural control

    Macmartin, Douglas G.; Hall, Steven R.


    Viewgraphs on a stochastic approach to robust broadband structural control are presented. Topics covered include: travelling wave model; dereverberated mobility model; computation of dereverberated mobility; power flow; impedance matching; stochastic systems; control problem; control of stochastic systems; using cost functional; Bernoulli-Euler beam example; compensator design; 'power' dual variables; dereverberation of complex structure; and dereverberated transfer function.

  11. Inventory control in supply chains an internal model control approach /

    García Salcedo, Carlos Andrés


    Esta tesis se basa en el diseño de estrategias de gestión de inventario en cadenas de suministro usando la teoría de control. El principal objetivo es proponer un esquema de control para resolver los principales problemas que aparecen en el controla gestión de inventario de una cadena de suministro (incertidumbre en el retardo, el efecto látigo y el déficit de inventario). Este objetivo principal se divide en dos objetivos: 1. La neutralización de los efectos causados por el retardo de e...

  12. An integrated approach to modeling and adaptive control

    HAN Zhi-gang


    In the book (Adaptive Identification,Prediction and Control-Multi Level Recursive Approach), the concept of dynamical linearization of nonlinear systems has been presented.This dynamical linearization is formal only,not a real linearization.From the linearization procedure,we can find a new approach of system identification,which is on-line real-time modeling and real-time feedback control correction.The modeling and real-time feedback control have been integrated in the identification approach,with the parameter adaptation model being abandoned.The structure adaptation of control systems has been achieved,which avoids the complex modeling steps.The objective of this paper is to introduce the approach of integrated modeling and control.

  13. Artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms

  14. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    Gans, Roger F


    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...

  15. Sliding mode control the delta-sigma modulation approach

    Sira-Ramírez, Hebertt


    This monograph presents a novel method of sliding mode control for switch-regulated nonlinear systems. The Delta Sigma modulation approach allows one to implement a continuous control scheme using one or multiple, independent switches, thus effectively merging the available linear and nonlinear controller design techniques with sliding mode control.   Sliding Mode Control: The Delta-Sigma Modulation Approach, combines rigorous mathematical derivation of the unique features of Sliding Mode Control and Delta-Sigma modulation with numerous illustrative examples from diverse areas of engineering. In addition, engineering case studies demonstrate the applicability of the technique and the ease with which one can implement the exposed results. This book will appeal to researchers in control engineering and can be used as graduate-level textbook for a first course on sliding mode control.

  16. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    Ravn, Ib


    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  17. Towards MAV Autonomous Flight: A Modeling and Control Approach

    Colorado Montaño, Julián


    This thesis is about modeling and control of miniature rotary-wing flying vehicles, with a special emphasis on quadrotor and coaxial systems. Mathematical models for simulation and nonlinear control approaches are introduced and subsequently applied to commercial aircrafts: the DraganFlyer and the Hummingbird quadrotors, which have been hardware-modified in order to perform experimental autonomous flying. Furthermore, a first-ever approach for modeling commercial micro coaxial mechanism is pr...


    CHEN Wei-min; SUN Dong-chang; WANG Da-jun; WEI Jian-ping; TONG Li-yong; WANG Quan


    The reduction approaches are presented for vibration control of symmetric,cyclic periodic and linking structures. The condensation of generalized coordinates, the locations of sensors and actuators, and the relation between system inputs and control forces are assumed to be set in a symmetric way so that the control system posses the same repetition as the structure considered. By employing proper transformations of condensed generalized coordinates and the system inputs, the vibration control of an entire system can be implemented by carrying out the control of a number of sub-structures, and thus the dimension of the control problem can be significantly reduced.

  19. A switched system approach to stabilization f networked control systems


    A switched system approach is proposed to model networked control systems (NCSs) with communication constraints. This enables us to apply the rich theory of switched systems to analyzing such NCSs. Sufficient conditions are presented on the stabilization of NCSs. Stabilizing state/output feedback controllers can be constructed by using the feasible solutions of some linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The merit of our proposed approach is that the behavior of the NCSs can be studied by considering switched system without augmenting the system. A simulation example is worked out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  20. A systems approach to malaria control: an institutional perspective

    Temel, T.


    This study introduces a systems approach to malaria control. Comprising organizations from the health, environmental, agricultural, economic, political, and social sectors, the malaria control system (MCS) at hand is organized around a common goal of improving living conditions through reduced malar

  1. A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines

    Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1

  2. Approach to Synchronization Control of Magnetic Bearings Using Fuzzy Logic

    Yang, Li-Farn


    This paper presents a fuzzy-logic approach to the synthesis of synchronization control for magnetically suspended rotor system. The synchronization control enables a whirling rotor to undergo synchronous motion along the magnetic bearing axes; thereby avoiding the gyroscopic effect that degrade the stability of rotor systems when spinning at high speed. The control system features a fuzzy controller acting on the magnetic bearing device, in which the fuzzy inference system trained through fuzzy rules to minimize the differential errors between four bearing axes so that an error along one bearing axis can affect the overall control loop for the motion synchronization. Numerical simulations of synchronization control for the magnetically suspended rotor system are presented to show the effectiveness of the present approach.

  3. A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines

    Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Pucci, Daniele; Piesco, F.; Zarfati, Emanuele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Mazzitelli, G. [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Monaco, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy)


    Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1].

  4. A Decentralized Adaptive Approach to Fault Tolerant Flight Control

    Wu, N. Eva; Nikulin, Vladimir; Heimes, Felix; Shormin, Victor


    This paper briefly reports some results of our study on the application of a decentralized adaptive control approach to a 6 DOF nonlinear aircraft model. The simulation results showed the potential of using this approach to achieve fault tolerant control. Based on this observation and some analysis, the paper proposes a multiple channel adaptive control scheme that makes use of the functionally redundant actuating and sensing capabilities in the model, and explains how to implement the scheme to tolerate actuator and sensor failures. The conditions, under which the scheme is applicable, are stated in the paper.

  5. Enhance Throughput in Wireless Sensor Network Using Topology Control Approach

    Parikha Chawla; Parmender Singh; Taruna Sikka


    This paper is associated with implementation of topology control approach to enhance throughput in wireless sensor network. A wireless sensor network is characterized by limited energy supply and large nodes. To maximise the network lifetime of wireless sensor network the topology control is the considered to be the important process. Every attempt is being made to reduce the energy consumption and to enhance throughput of the wireless sensor node. Topology Control aims at network-wide goals,...

  6. Martingale Approach to Stochastic Control with Discretionary Stopping

    We develop a martingale approach for continuous-time stochastic control with discretionary stopping. The relevant Dynamic Programming Equation and Maximum Principle are presented. Necessary and sufficient conditions are provided for the optimality of a control strategy; these are analogues of the 'equalization' and 'thriftiness' conditions introduced by Dubins and Savage (1976) in a related, discrete-time context. The existence of a thrifty control strategy is established

  7. Active control of smart structures : an overall approach

    Nestorović Tamara; Trajkov Miroslav


    The paper presents active control of smart structures within a focused frame of piezoelectric applications in active vibration and noise attenuation with potentials for the use in mechanical and civil engineering. An overall approach to active control of piezoelectric structures involves subsequent steps of modeling, control, simulation, experimental verification and implementation. Each of these steps is regarded in details. Different application examples showing the feasibility of the activ...

  8. Nonlinear identification and control a neural network approach

    Liu, G P


    The series Advances in Industrial Control aims to report and encourage technology transfer in control engineering. The rapid development of control technology has an impact on all areas of the control discipline. New theory, new controllers, actuators, sensors, new industrial processes, computer methods, new applications, new philosophies . . . , new challenges. Much of this development work resides in industrial reports, feasibility study papers and the reports of advanced collaborative projects. The series otTers an opportunity for researchers to present an extended exposition of such new work in all aspects of industrial control for wider and rapid dissemination. The time for nonlinear control to enter routine application seems to be approaching. Nonlinear control has had a long gestation period but much ofthe past has been concerned with methods that involve formal nonlinear functional model representations. It seems more likely that the breakthough will come through the use of other more flexible and ame...

  9. A variable structure approach to robust control of VTOL aircraft

    Calise, A. J.; Kramer, F. S.


    This paper examines the application of variable structure control theory to the design of a flight control system for the AV-8A Harrier in a hover mode. The objective in variable structure design is to confine the state trajectories to a subspace of the total state space. The motion in this subspace is insensitive to system parameter variations and external disturbances that lie in the range space of the control. A switching type of control law results from the design procedure. The control system was designed to track a vector-valued velocity command. For comparison, a proportional controller was designed using optimal linear regulator theory. Both controllers were evaluated for their transient response performance using a linear model; then a nonlinear simulation study of a hovering approach to landing was conducted. The variable structure controller outperformed its linear counterpart in the presence of wind disturbances and plant parameter uncertainties afforded by the simulation.

  10. Parametric Approach to Trajectory Tracking Control of Robot Manipulators

    Shijie Zhang


    Full Text Available The mathematic description of the trajectory of robot manipulators with the optimal trajectory tracking problem is formulated as an optimal control problem, and a parametric approach is proposed for the optimal trajectory tracking control problem. The optimal control problem is first solved as an open loop optimal control problem by using a time scaling transform and the control parameterization method. Then, by virtue of the relationship between the optimal open loop control and the optimal closed loop control along the optimal trajectory, a practical method is presented to calculate an approximate optimal feedback gain matrix, without having to solve an optimal control problem involving the complex Riccati-like matrix differential equation coupled with the original system dynamics. Simulation results of 2-link robot manipulator are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Stochastic Control of Energy Efficient Buildings: A Semidefinite Programming Approach

    Ma, Xiao [ORNL; Dong, Jin [ORNL; Djouadi, Seddik M [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Teja [ORNL


    The key goal in energy efficient buildings is to reduce energy consumption of Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning (HVAC) systems while maintaining a comfortable temperature and humidity in the building. This paper proposes a novel stochastic control approach for achieving joint performance and power control of HVAC. We employ a constrained Stochastic Linear Quadratic Control (cSLQC) by minimizing a quadratic cost function with a disturbance assumed to be Gaussian. The problem is formulated to minimize the expected cost subject to a linear constraint and a probabilistic constraint. By using cSLQC, the problem is reduced to a semidefinite optimization problem, where the optimal control can be computed efficiently by Semidefinite programming (SDP). Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness and power efficiency by utilizing the proposed control approach.

  12. Controller design approaches for large space structures using LQG control theory. [Linear Quadratic Gaussian

    Joshi, S. M.; Groom, N. J.


    The paper presents several approaches for the design of reduced order controllers for large space structures. These approaches are shown to be based on LQG control theory and include truncation, modified truncation regulators and estimators, use of higher order estimators, selective modal suppression, and use of polynomial estimators. Further, the use of direct sensor feedback, as opposed to a state estimator, is investigated for some of these approaches. Finally, numerical results are given for a long free beam.

  13. Control packages: an approach to solution of positional control problems with incomplete information

    An approach is proposed for solving problems of positional control of a dynamical system under conditions of incomplete information about its current phase states. The basis of this approach is a new notion of control packages, namely, procedures for constructing control programs which are non-anticipatory with respect to the dynamics of observations. For definiteness, the approach is realised for a concrete control problem of guaranteed guidance of a controlled system to a given target set at a fixed moment of time. The main result of the paper states that the indicated problem is soluble in the class of positional strategies if and only if it is soluble in the class of control packages. This result shows a way to reduce control problems in the positional (closed-loop) formulation to control problems in the program (open-loop) formulation. In this sense a methodology for program constructions is developed that is well known in the theory of positional differential games.

  14. A Goal-Function Approach to Analysis of Control Situations

    Lind, Morten


    The concept of situations plays a central role in all theories of meaning and context. and serve to frame or group events and other occurrences into coherent meaningful wholes. Situations are typed, may be interconnected and organized into higher level structures. In operation of industrial...... processes situations should identify operational aspects relevant for control agent’s decision making in plant supervision and control. Control situations can be understood as recurrent and interconnected patterns of control with important implications for control and HMI design. Goal-Function approaches to...... systems modeling like Multilevel Flow Modeling can be used to represent control situations. The paper will describe an action theoretical foundation for MFM and its use for the development of a theory of control situations....

  15. An ecosystem approach to malaria control in an urban setting

    Carrasquilla Gabriel


    Full Text Available We conducted a research project aimed at strengthening local government and the community for a sustainable malaria control strategy. The project began with a baseline diagnosis of malaria prevalence, a KAP survey, entomology, and health services delivery, after which an epidemiological study was performed to identify risk factors associated with malaria, thereafter used to plan intervention measures. A program evaluation was conducted five years later. By using an ecosystem approach to reanalyze data, this paper discusses how malaria arises from a complex interaction of cultural, economic, ecological, social, and individual factors. Intervention measures require an intersectorial and transdisciplinary approach that does not exist at the moment. Health sector leadership is limited, and there is no true community participation. Implications for research, including the use of qualitative and quantitative methods, study design, and complexity of data analysis are discussed. Finally, implications for malaria control are discussed, stressing the differences between the ecosystem and integrated disease control approaches.

  16. APE (state-oriented approach) centralized control procedures

    This article presents the progressive implementation of the state-oriented approach (APE) for centralized control procedures in French nuclear power plants. The implementation began in the years 1982-83 and it concerned only the circuits involved in engineered safeguard systems such IS (safety injection), EAS (containment spray system) and GMPP (reactor coolant pump set). In 2003 the last PWR unit switched from the event oriented approach to APE for post-accidental situations

  17. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    Ravn, Ib


    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  18. Optimization of nonlinear controller with an enhanced biogeography approach

    Mohammed Salem


    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the optimization of nonlinear controllers basing of an enhanced Biogeography Based Optimization (BBO approach. Indeed, The BBO is combined to a predator and prey model where several predators are used with introduction of a modified migration operator to increase the diversification along the optimization process so as to avoid local optima and reach the optimal solution quickly. The proposed approach is used in tuning the gains of PID controller for nonlinear systems. Simulations are carried out over a Mass spring damper and an inverted pendulum and has given remarkable results when compared to genetic algorithm and BBO.

  19. An Approach to Robust Control of the Hopf Bifurcation

    Giacomo Innocenti


    Full Text Available The paper illustrates a novel approach to modify the Hopf bifurcation nature via a nonlinear state feedback control, which leaves the equilibrium properties unchanged. This result is achieved by recurring to linear and nonlinear transformations, which lead the system to locally assume the ordinary differential equation representation. Third-order models are considered, since they can be seen as proper representatives of a larger class of systems. The explicit relationship between the control input and the Hopf bifurcation nature is obtained via a frequency approach, that does not need the computation of the center manifold.

  20. Control approaches for a cylinder wake by electromagnetic force

    The reduction of drag force and suppression of vortex shedding on a circular cylinder in electrically poorly-conducting water can be realized by utilizing the Lorentz forces. In order to control the cylinder wake effectively, three kinds of control approach, i.e. open-loop, closed-loop and optimal control methods, are proposed and discussed in the present paper. Constant Lorentz forces are used in the open-loop control process, and Lorentz forces are varied to target the zero total drag or the zero pressure drag coefficients during the control process in two closed-loop control procedures. The purpose of optimal flow control is to determine controls that effectively tailor the flow, and the key element of an optimal flow control is the minimization of a cost functional that provides a quantitative measure of the objective. Numerical simulation of the theoretical models is performed in the exponential-polar coordinates system, from which it has been shown that the above three methods can suppress the vortex shedding successfully; moreover, during the control process, the optimal control needs less energy than the closed-loop control method targeting a zero total drag or pressure drag coefficients.


    Lu Kaining; Jin Zhigang; Zou Jun


    Admission control plays an important role in providing QoS to network users. Motivated by the measurement-based admission control algorithm, this letter proposed a new admission control approach for integrated service packet network based on traffic prediction. In the letter, FARIMA(p, d, q) models in the admission control algorithm is deployed. A method to simplify the FARIMA model fitting procedure and hence to reduce the time of traffic modeling and prediction is suggested. The feasibility-study experiments show that FARIMA models which have less number of parameters can be used to model and predict actual traffic on quite a large time scale. Simulation results validate the promising approach.

  2. Viability of Hybrid Systems A Controllability Operator Approach

    Labinaz, G


    The problem of viability of hybrid systems is considered in this work. A model for a hybrid system is developed including a means of including three forms of uncertainty: transition dynamics, structural uncertainty, and parametric uncertainty. A computational basis for viability of hybrid systems is developed and applied to three control law classes. An approach is developed for robust viability based on two extensions of the controllability operator. The three-tank example is examined for both the viability problem and robust viability problem. The theory is applied through simulation to an active magnetic bearing system and to a batch polymerization process showing that viability can be satisfied in practice. The problem of viable attainability is examined based on the controllability operator approach introduced by Nerode and colleagues. Lastly, properties of the controllability operator are presented.

  3. New approaches in intelligent control techniques, methodologies and applications

    Kountchev, Roumen


    This volume introduces new approaches in intelligent control area from both the viewpoints of theory and application. It consists of eleven contributions by prominent authors from all over the world and an introductory chapter. This volume is strongly connected to another volume entitled "New Approaches in Intelligent Image Analysis" (Eds. Roumen Kountchev and Kazumi Nakamatsu). The chapters of this volume are self-contained and include summary, conclusion and future works. Some of the chapters introduce specific case studies of various intelligent control systems and others focus on intelligent theory based control techniques with applications. A remarkable specificity of this volume is that three chapters are dealing with intelligent control based on paraconsistent logics.

  4. [Individual, community, regulatory, and systemic approaches to tobacco control interventions].

    Gorini, Giuseppe


    During the 60s and the 70s strategies for decreasing initiation or quitting have been developed, in order to find those with high success rates. Unfortunately, interventions with an individual approach involved few smokers, so their impact in decreasing smoking prevalence was limited. The socio-ecological model offers a theoretical framework to community interventions for smoking cessation developed during the 80s, in which smoking was considered not only an individual, but also a social problem. In the 80s and the 90s smoking cessation community trials were developed, such as the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT). Afterwards, policy interventions (price policy; smoking bans in public places; advertising bans; bans of sales to minors) were developed, such as the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST). California has been the first State all over the world to develop a comprehensive Tobacco Control Program in 1988, becoming the place for an ever-conducted natural experiment. All policy interventions in tobacco control have been finally grouped together in the World Health Organization - Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), the first Public Health Treaty. Study designs have changed, according to the individual, community, or regulatory approaches: the classical randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in which the sampling unit is the individual, have been carried out for the evaluation of smoking cessation treatments, whereas cluster RCTs, in which the sampling unit is the community, have been conducted for evaluating community interventions, such as COMMIT. Finally, quasi-experimental studies (before/after study; prospective cohorts, both with a control group), in which the observational unit is a State, have been used for evaluating tobacco control policies, such as ASSIST and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project. Although the successes of the last 20 years, tobacco

  5. An Approach to Robust Control of the Hopf Bifurcation

    Giacomo Innocenti; Roberto Genesio; Alberto Tesi


    The paper illustrates a novel approach to modify the Hopf bifurcation nature via a nonlinear state feedback control, which leaves the equilibrium properties unchanged. This result is achieved by recurring to linear and nonlinear transformations, which lead the system to locally assume the ordinary differential equation representation. Third-order models are considered, since they can be seen as proper representatives of a larger class of systems. The explicit relationship between the control ...

  6. Adaptive Control of the Chaotic System via Singular System Approach

    Yudong Li; Tianyu Zhang; Yujun Zhang


    This paper deals with the control problem of the chaotic system subject to disturbance. The sliding mode surface is designed by singular system approach, and sufficient condition for convergence is given. Then, the adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to make the state arrive at the sliding mode surface in finite time. Finally, Lorenz system is considered as an example to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. A network congestion control approach to airport departure management

    Khadilkar, Harshad Dilip; Balakrishnan, Hamsa


    This paper presents a novel approach to managing the aircraft taxi-out process at airports, by posing the problem in a network congestion control framework. We develop a network model for a generic airport and then validate it using surface surveillance data from Boston Logan International Airport. A set of stochastic processes that constitute the link travel times are proposed, followed by a discussion of the theoretical maximum network throughput. Finally, we propose a control algorithm tha...

  8. Adaptive Control of the Chaotic System via Singular System Approach

    Yudong Li


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control problem of the chaotic system subject to disturbance. The sliding mode surface is designed by singular system approach, and sufficient condition for convergence is given. Then, the adaptive sliding mode controller is designed to make the state arrive at the sliding mode surface in finite time. Finally, Lorenz system is considered as an example to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Control approach development for variable recruitment artificial muscles

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew


    This study characterizes hybrid control approaches for the variable recruitment of fluidic artificial muscles with double acting (antagonistic) actuation. Fluidic artificial muscle actuators have been explored by researchers due to their natural compliance, high force-to-weight ratio, and low cost of fabrication. Previous studies have attempted to improve system efficiency of the actuators through variable recruitment, i.e. using discrete changes in the number of active actuators. While current variable recruitment research utilizes manual valve switching, this paper details the current development of an online variable recruitment control scheme. By continuously controlling applied pressure and discretely controlling the number of active actuators, operation in the lowest possible recruitment state is ensured and working fluid consumption is minimized. Results provide insight into switching control scheme effects on working fluids, fabrication material choices, actuator modeling, and controller development decisions.

  10. Matrix converter controlled with the direct transfer function approach

    Rodriguez, J.; Silva, E.; Blaabjerg, Frede;


    power circuit, including the input filter. The power semiconductors are modelled as ideal bidirectional switches and the MC is controlled using a direct transfer function approach. The modulation strategy of the converter is explained in a complete and clear form. The commutation problem of two switches...

  11. A novel testing approach for SSRF digital power supply controllers

    KE Xinhua; LU Songlin; LI Rui; XU Ruinian; SHEN Tianjian


    Digital power supply controller is one of the key parts of SSRF high resolution high stability magnet power supply system.It is very essential to keep any degradation of these excellent properties by any stages as small as possible via careful testing when the controller is developed.In this study,a novel testing approach was presented,with which a novel closed conrail loop without actual power converter was constructed,and the new developed SSRF Digital Controller can work well in it.

  12. Sliding Mode Control Approach for Electrically Controllable Clutch of AMT Based on the Feedback Linearization

    程东升; 张建武; 叶晓峰; 黄维纲


    A sliding mode control approach based on the feedback linearization is proposed for the electrically controllable clutch of AMT vehicles. The nonlinear dynamic model for the hydraulic actuator associated with clutch is established. By means of the exact feedback linearization procedure of differential geometry, an equivalent, fully controllable and linear model is derived via a homomorphic transformation for the AMT clutch system.Furthermore, a sliding mode control is introduced to improve robustness. The tracking tests are performed using the sliding mode control on a Santana LX passenger car, and the experimental results prove that this nonlinear controller is of fine robustness and high degree of tracking accuracy.

  13. On the Ecological Approach to Information and Control for Roboticists

    Jorge Ibáñez-Gijón


    Full Text Available The ongoing and increasingly important trend in robotics to conceive designs that decentralize control is paralleled by currently active research paradigms in the study of perception and action. James Gibson’s ecological approach is one of these paradigms. Gibson’s approach emerged in part as a reaction to representationalist and computationalist approaches, which devote the bulk of their resources to the study of internal processes. The ecological approach instead focuses on constraints and ambient energy patterns in the animal‐environment coalition. The present article reviews how the emphasis on the environment by ecological psychologists has given rise to the concepts of direct perception, higher order information, active information pick up, information‐ based control laws, prospective control, and direct learning. Examples are included to illustrate these concepts and to show how they can be applied to the construction of robots. Action is described as emergent and self‐organized. It is argued that knowledge about perception, action, and learning as it occurs in living organisms may facilitate the construction of robots, more obviously so if the aim is to construct (to some extent biologically plausible robots.

  14. Intelligent process control operator aid -- An artificial intelligence approach

    This paper describes an approach for designing intelligent process and power plant control operator aids. It is argued that one of the key aspects of an intelligent operator aid is the capability for dynamic procedure synthesis with incomplete definition of initial state, unknown goal states, and the dynamic world situation. The dynamic world state is used to determine the goal, select appropriate plan steps from prespecified procedures to achieve the goal, control the execution of the synthesized plan, and provide for dynamic recovery from failure often using a goal hierarchy. The dynamic synthesis of a plan requires integration of various problems solving capabilities such as plan generation, plan synthesis, plan modification, and failure recovery from a plan. The programming language for implementing the DPS framework provides a convenient tool for developing applications. An application of the DPS approach to a Nuclear Power Plant emergency procedure synthesis is also described. Initial test results indicate that the approach is successful in dynamically synthesizing the procedures. The authors realize that the DPS framework is not a solution for all control tasks. However, many existing process and plant control problems satisfy the requirements discussed in the paper and should be able to benefit from the framework described

  15. Issues and approaches in control for autonomous reactor operation

    A capability for autonomous and passively safe operation is one of the goals of the NERI funded development of Generation IV nuclear plants. An approach is described for evaluating the effect of increasing autonomy on safety margins and load behavior and for examining issues that arise with increasing autonomy and their potential impact on performance. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error. Some preliminary results are given

  16. A new approach for vibration control in large space structures

    Kumar, K.; Cochran, J. E., Jr.


    An approach for augmenting vibration damping characteristics in space structures with large panels is presented. It is based on generation of bending moments rather than forces. The moments are generated using bimetallic strips, suitably mounted at selected stations on both sides of the large panels, under the influence of differential solar heating, giving rise to thermal gradients and stresses. The collocated angular velocity sensors are utilized in conjunction with mini-servos to regulate the control moments by flipping the bimetallic strips. A simple computation of the rate of dissipation of vibrational energy is undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Optimal Control of Vertically Transmitted Disease: An Integrated Approach

    Samit Bhattacharyya


    horizontal transmission, administration of the antiviral drug to infected individuals lessens the chance of vertical transmission. Thus the vaccine and antiviral drug play different roles in controlling the disease, which has both vertical and horizontal transmission. We develop a 3D model with Susceptible–Infected–Recovered under vaccination to the susceptible and antiviral treatment to the infected and consider a control theoretic approach using the Pontryagin maximum principle to analyse the costeffectiveness of the control process. Our results demonstrate that a mixed intervention strategy of vaccination and antiviral drug in a proper ratio is the most effective way to control the disease. We show that cost-effectiveness of both intervention strategies intimately depends on disease-related parameters, such as force of infection, probability of being infected to offspring from infected mothers, loss of immunity or reinfection and also on cost of treatment.

  18. Multimodel Predictive Control Approach for UAV Formation Flight

    Chang-jian Ru


    Full Text Available Formation flight problem is the most important and interesting problem of multiple UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles cooperative control. In this paper, a novel approach for UAV formation flight based on multimodel predictive control is designed. Firstly, the state equation of relative motion is obtained and then discretized. By the geometrical method, the characteristic points of state are determined. Afterwards, based on the linearization technique, the standard linear discrete model is obtained at each characteristic state point. Then, weighted model set is proposed using the idea of T-S (Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy control and the predictive control is carried out based on the multimodel method. Finally, to verify the performance of the proposed method, two different simulation scenarios are performed.

  19. Biological approaches for control of root pathogens of strawberry.

    Martin, F N; Bull, C T


    ABSTRACT Soil fumigation with methyl bromide plus chloropicrin is used as a preplant treatment to control a broad range of pathogens in high-value annual crop production systems. In California, fumigation is used on approximately 10,125 ha of strawberry production to control pathogens ranging from Verticillium dahliae to root pruning pathogens such as Pythium, Rhizoctonia, or Cylindrocarpon spp. In addition to pathogen control, fumigation also causes an enhanced growth response of the plant and reduces weed pressure. The development of successful, long-term cost effective biocontrol strategies most likely will require the development of an integrated systems approach that incorporates diverse aspects of the crop production system. Although application of single microbial inoculants may provide some level of control for specific production problems, it will be a challenge to provide the broad spectrum of activity needed in production fields. PMID:18943893

  20. Variable Neural Adaptive Robust Control: A Switched System Approach

    Lian, Jianming; Hu, Jianghai; Zak, Stanislaw H.


    Variable neural adaptive robust control strategies are proposed for the output tracking control of a class of multi-input multi-output uncertain systems. The controllers incorporate a variable-structure radial basis function (RBF) network as the self-organizing approximator for unknown system dynamics. The variable-structure RBF network solves the problem of structure determination associated with fixed-structure RBF networks. It can determine the network structure on-line dynamically by adding or removing radial basis functions according to the tracking performance. The structure variation is taken into account in the stability analysis of the closed-loop system using a switched system approach with the aid of the piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. The performance of the proposed variable neural adaptive robust controllers is illustrated with simulations.

  1. A Unified Approach to Robust Control of Flexible Mechanical Systems Using H-Infinity Control Powered by PD Control

    Toda, Masayoshi


    In this article, we have presented the control design method based on H∞ control and PD control aiming at a uniform approach to motion control of various flexible mechanical systems. In particular, with a special emphasis on MIMO systems and the optimal PD gains, we have introduced and demonstrated the concept of the generic problem setting in the modeling phase, the physics behind our control method, that is, how the PD control scheme elaborately powers the H∞ control system, the promisi...

  2. Mathematical models for therapeutic approaches to control HIV disease transmission

    Roy, Priti Kumar


    The book discusses different therapeutic approaches based on different mathematical models to control the HIV/AIDS disease transmission. It uses clinical data, collected from different cited sources, to formulate the deterministic as well as stochastic mathematical models of HIV/AIDS. It provides complementary approaches, from deterministic and stochastic points of view, to optimal control strategy with perfect drug adherence and also tries to seek viewpoints of the same issue from different angles with various mathematical models to computer simulations. The book presents essential methods and techniques for students who are interested in designing epidemiological models on HIV/AIDS. It also guides research scientists, working in the periphery of mathematical modeling, and helps them to explore a hypothetical method by examining its consequences in the form of a mathematical modelling and making some scientific predictions. The model equations, mathematical analysis and several numerical simulations that are...

  3. Advanced control room evaluation: General approach and rationale

    Advanced control rooms (ACRs) for future nuclear power plants (NPPs) are being designed utilizing computer-based technologies. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews the human engineering aspects of such control rooms to ensure that they are designed to good human factors engineering principles and that operator performance and reliability are appropriately supported in order to protect public health and safety. This paper describes the rationale and general approach to the development of a human factors review guideline for ACRs. The factors influencing the guideline development are discussed, including the review environment, the types of advanced technologies being addressed, the human factors issues associated with advanced technology, and the current state-of-the-art of human factors guidelines for advanced human-system interfaces (HSIs). The proposed approach to ACR review would track the design and implementation process through the application of review guidelines reflecting four review modules: planning, design process analysis, human factors engineering review, and dynamic performance evaluation. 21 refs

  4. A "Hybrid" Approach for Synthesizing Optimal Controllers of Hybrid Systems

    Zhao, Hengjun; Zhan, Naijun; Kapur, Deepak;


    We propose an approach to reduce the optimal controller synthesis problem of hybrid systems to quantifier elimination; furthermore, we also show how to combine quantifier elimination with numerical computation in order to make it more scalable but at the same time, keep arising errors due to disc...... within the European project Quasimodo as a case study throughout this paper, and show that our method improves (up to 7.5%) the results reported in [4] based on game theory and model checking....

  5. Comparison by Simulation of Different Approaches to Urban Traffic Control

    Přikryl, Jan; Tichý, T.; Bělinová, Z.; Kapitán, J.

    Katowice: Silesian University of Technology, 2012. s. 76-76. ISBN 978-83-927504-1-3. [12th International Conference on Transport System s Telematics 2012. 10.10.2012-13.10.2012, Katowice] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01030603 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : urban traffic * traffic jams * rolling horizon method by simulation of different approaches to urban traffic control-A.pdf

  6. Challenges and Approaches for Mosquito Targeted Malaria Control

    Ramirez, José L.; Garver, Lindsey S.; Dimopoulos, George


    Malaria is one of today’s most serious diseases with an enormous socioeconomic impact. While anti-malarial drugs have existed for some time and vaccines development may be underway, the most successful malaria eradication programs have thus far relied on attacking the mosquito vector that spreads the disease causing agent Plasmodium. Here we will review past, current and future perspectives of malaria vector control strategies and how these approaches have taken a promising turn thanks recent...

  7. Controlling the Data Warehouse – a Balanced Scorecard Approach

    Bensberg, Frank


    Data warehouse systems have become a basic technological infrastructure in management decision making. Nevertheless, the overall utility of data warehouses remains unmeasured in most practical cases. As a consequence of this, IT-managers do not possess appropriate means to evaluate warehouse benefits in order to decide about investments in warehousing technology. This paper develops a controlling instrument for data warehouse systems based on the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach. On the basi...

  8. Distributed computer-controlled systems: the DEAR-COTS approach

    Veríssimo, P; A. Casimiro; L. M. Pinho; vasques, f; Rodrigues, L.; E. Tovar


    This paper proposes a new architecture targeting real-time and reliable Distributed Computer-Controlled Systems (DCCS). This architecture provides a structured approach for the integration of soft and/or hard real-time applications with Commercial O -The-Shelf (COTS) components. The Timely Computing Base model is used as the reference model to deal with the heterogeneity of system components with respect to guaranteeing the timeliness of applications. The reliability and ava...

  9. Human rights-based approach to tobacco control.

    Dresler, Carolyn; Lando, Harry; Schneider, Nick; Sehgal, Hitakshi


    The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control. PMID:22345248

  10. Fault Reconstruction Approach for Distributed Coordinated Spacecraft Attitude Control System

    Mingyi Huo


    Full Text Available This work presents a novel fault reconstruction approach for a large-scale system, that is, a distributed coordinated spacecraft attitude control system. The attitude of all the spacecrafts in this distributed system is controlled by using thrusters. All possible faults of thruster including thrust magnitude error and alignment error are investigated. As a stepping stone, the mathematical model of thruster is firstly established based on the thruster configuration. On the basis of this, a sliding mode observer is then proposed to reconstruct faults in each agent of the coordinated control system. A Lyapunov-based analysis shows that the observer asymptotically converges to the actual faults. The key feature of this fault reconstruction approach is that it can achieve a faster reconstruction of the fault in comparison with the conventional fault reconstruction schemes. It can globally reconstruct thruster faults with zero reconstruction error, and this is accomplished within finite time. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is analytically authenticated via simulation study.

  11. Stall Recovery Guidance Algorithms Based on Constrained Control Approaches

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Acosta, Diana


    Aircraft loss-of-control, in particular approach to stall or fully developed stall, is a major factor contributing to aircraft safety risks, which emphasizes the need to develop algorithms that are capable of assisting the pilots to identify the problem and providing guidance to recover the aircraft. In this paper we present several stall recovery guidance algorithms, which are implemented in the background without interfering with flight control system and altering the pilot's actions. They are using input and state constrained control methods to generate guidance signals, which are provided to the pilot in the form of visual cues. It is the pilot's decision to follow these signals. The algorithms are validated in the pilot-in-the loop medium fidelity simulation experiment.

  12. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana


    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections. PMID:26687332

  13. An alternative approach to control measurements of crane rails.

    Marjetič, Aleš; Kregar, Klemen; Ambrožič, Tomaž; Kogoj, Dušan


    Horizontal and vertical positions of points for the control assessment of crane rails are classically determined separately. The procedure is time consuming and causes non-homogenous accuracy of the horizontal and vertical position of control points. The proposed alternative approach is based on polar measurements using a high accuracy total station instrument and a special platform with two precise surveying prisms fixed on it. Measurements are carried out from a single station thus ensuring a common coordinate system and homogenous accuracy. The position of the characteristic point of a rail is derived from the measured positions of both prisms with known geometry of the platform. The influence of platform non-horizontality is defined, along with its elimination procedure. Accuracy assessment is ensured with redundant measurements. Result of the proposed procedure is a numerical and graphical presentation of characteristic points. The control parameters required in international Eurocode standards are easily determined from them. PMID:22778621

  14. A line of defense approach to fissile material control

    A crucial element of the safety policy of the UK Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is that concerned with the safe control of fissile material in order to minimize the potential for unplanned criticality. The principles by which AWE controls fissile material advocate a simple Line of Defense (LOD) approach to assessing criticality-safety related aspects of fissile operations. An LOD assessment provides a measure of the depth of defense available to prevent general types of criticality accident and can be used to demonstrate compliance with the risk-based Basic Safety Limits (BSLs) and Objectives (BSOs) used by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) to judge the safety of operations in accordance with its Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Plants. This paper discusses the LOD concept, the basis of LOD assessment and describes LODs specific to criticality control

  15. Optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach

    Jie Jiang; Yulin Chang


    To guarantee bus priority with a minimum impact on car traffic at intersections, an optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach (IBA) was proposed. The problems of the existing system are first solved through optimization: the judgment time of the IBA system was advanced to allow a bus to jump car queues if the bus was detected to arrive at the intersection, and the instant that the IBA lane became available to cars was controlled dynamically to increase the capacity of the IBA lane. The total car delay in one cycle was then analyzed quantitatively when implementing the optimal control system. The results show that in comparison with the existing system of the IBA, the car delay is greatly reduced and the probability of a car stopping twice is low after optimizing the IBA system.

  16. IDCOR approach to hydrogen generation, combustion, and burn control

    The IDCOR Program is developing the appropriate information and methodology to predict the following phenomena during severe accidents: 1) hydrogen generation, both in-vessel and ex-vessel, primarily from metal-water reactions; 2) hydrogen distribution in reactor containments; and 3) potential hazards of overpressurization or combustion of hydrogen. The information is being assembled into reports describing the phenomenology and incorporated into the IDCOR Modular Accident Analysis Program, in order to determine the behavior of hydrogen during accident sequences on four reference plants. From these analyses, conditions will be determined so that hydrogen burn control measures can be evaluated. A review is being made of various approaches for suppression of combustion or controlled burning to limit hydrogen to concentrations below the detonation range. The review considers the advantages and disadvantages of various hydrogen control systems concepts for reactor and containment combinations and, in addition, addresses the various concepts for eventual removal of hydrogen from containment

  17. Stochastic control approaches for sensor management in search and exploitation

    Hitchings, Darin Chester

    Recent improvements in the capabilities of autonomous vehicles have motivated their increased use in such applications as defense, homeland security, environmental monitoring, and surveillance. To enhance performance in these applications, new algorithms are required to control teams of robots autonomously and through limited interactions with human operators. In this dissertation we develop new algorithms for control of robots performing information-seeking missions in unknown environments. These missions require robots to control their sensors in order to discover the presence of objects, keep track of the objects, and learn what these objects are, given a fixed sensing budget. Initially, we investigate control of multiple sensors, with a finite set of sensing options and finite-valued measurements, to locate and classify objects given a limited resource budget. The control problem is formulated as a Partially Observed Markov Decision Problem (POMDP), but its exact solution requires excessive computation. Under the assumption that sensor error statistics are independent and time-invariant, we develop a class of algorithms using Lagrangian Relaxation techniques to obtain optimal mixed strategies using performance bounds developed in previous research. We investigate alternative Receding Horizon (RH) controllers to convert the mixed strategies to feasible adaptive-sensing strategies and evaluate the relative performance of these controllers in simulation. The resulting controllers provide superior performance to alternative algorithms proposed in the literature and obtain solutions to large-scale POMDP problems several orders of magnitude faster than optimal Dynamic Programming (DP) approaches with comparable performance quality. We extend our results for finite action, finite measurement sensor control to scenarios with moving objects. We use Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) for the evolution of objects, according to the dynamics of a birth-death process. We develop a

  18. S-variable approach to LMI-based robust control

    Ebihara, Yoshio; Arzelier, Denis


    This book shows how the use of S-variables (SVs) in enhancing the range of problems that can be addressed with the already-versatile linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach to control can, in many cases, be put on a more unified, methodical footing. Beginning with the fundamentals of the SV approach, the text shows how the basic idea can be used for each problem (and when it should not be employed at all). The specific adaptations of the method necessitated by each problem are also detailed. The problems dealt with in the book have the common traits that: analytic closed-form solutions are not available; and LMIs can be applied to produce numerical solutions with a certain amount of conservatism. Typical examples are robustness analysis of linear systems affected by parametric uncertainties and the synthesis of a linear controller satisfying multiple, often  conflicting, design specifications. For problems in which LMI methods produce conservative results, the SV approach is shown to achieve greater accuracy...

  19. Quorum Quenching Mediated Approaches for Control of Membrane Biofouling

    Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby; Kweon, Ji Hyang


    Membrane biofouling is widely acknowledged as the most frequent adverse event in wastewater treatment systems resulting in significant loss of treatment efficiency and economy. Different strategies including physical cleaning and use of antimicrobial chemicals or antibiotics have been tried for reducing membrane biofouling. Such traditional practices are aimed to eradicate biofilms or kill the bacteria involved, but the greater efficacy in membrane performance would be achieved by inhibiting biofouling without interfering with bacterial growth. As a result, the search for environmental friendly non-antibiotic antifouling strategies has received much greater attention among scientific community. The use of quorum quenching natural compounds and enzymes will be a potential approach for control of membrane biofouling. This approach has previously proven useful in diseases and membrane biofouling control by triggering the expression of desired phenotypes. In view of this, the present review is provided to give the updated information on quorum quenching compounds and elucidate the significance of quorum sensing inhibition in control of membrane biofouling. PMID:24910534

  20. An Approach to Absolute Position Control based on Object Coordinate

    Nakano, Keisuke; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    This paper describes an accurate position control in object coordinate. In case the motion control of industrial robot placed in global coordinate is considered in object coordinate, it is preferable and convenient to decide its motion by the teaching of robot operator. However the teaching procedure requires much time and effort. Moreover, as often as relative position between robot and object is changed, the operator needs to do the teaching operation again. To improve the above issue, it is required to develop the strategy that decides the robot motion without the teaching operation. This paper proposes a control strategy that is not required the teaching operation and enables to realize the desired motion without affecting the relative position error between the robot and the target object in object coordinate defined by PSD (Position Sensitive Detector). In the proposed approach, the estimation algorithm of the kinetic transformation between global and object coordinates is introduced by using PSD output, and the error of coordinate transformation estimated by the proposed approach is compensated in global coordinate. The validity of the proposed method is shown by simulations and experiments.

  1. Robust and optimal control a two-port framework approach

    Tsai, Mi-Ching


    A Two-port Framework for Robust and Optimal Control introduces an alternative approach to robust and optimal controller synthesis procedures for linear, time-invariant systems, based on the two-port system widespread in electrical engineering. The novel use of the two-port system in this context allows straightforward engineering-oriented solution-finding procedures to be developed, requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra. A chain-scattering description provides a unified framework for constructing the stabilizing controller set and for synthesizing H2 optimal and H∞ sub-optimal controllers. Simple yet illustrative examples explain each step. A Two-port Framework for Robust and Optimal Control  features: ·         a hands-on, tutorial-style presentation giving the reader the opportunity to repeat the designs presented and easily to modify them for their own programs; ·         an abundance of examples illustrating the most important steps in robust and optimal design; and ·   �...

  2. Robust motion control of oscillatory-base manipulators h∞-control and sliding-mode-control-based approaches

    Toda, Masayoshi


    This book provides readers with alternative robust approaches to control design for an important class of systems characteristically associated with ocean-going vessels and structures. These systems, which include crane vessels, on-board cranes, radar gimbals, and a conductivity temperature and depth winch, are modelled as manipulators with oscillating bases. One design approach is based on the H-infinity control framework exploiting an effective combination of PD control, an extended matrix polytope and a robust stability analysis method with a state-dependent coefficient form. The other is based on sliding-mode control using some novel nonlinear sliding surfaces. The model demonstrates how successful motion control can be achieved by suppressing base oscillations and in the presence of uncertainties. This is important not only for ocean engineering systems in which the problems addressed here originate but more generally as a benchmark platform for robust motion control with disturbance rejection. Researche...

  3. Controlling Risk Exposure in Periodic Environments: A Genetic Algorithm Approach

    Navarro, Emeterio


    In this paper, we compare the performance of different agent's investment strategies in an investment scenario with periodic returns and different types and levels of noise. We consider an investment model, where an agent decides the percentage of budget to risk at each time step. Afterwards, agent's investment is evaluated in the market via a return on investment (RoI), which we assume is a stochastic process with unknown periodicities and different levels of noise. To control the risk exposure, we investigate approaches based on: technical analysis (Moving Least Squares, MLS), and evolutionary computation (Genetic Algorithms, GA). In our comparison, we also consider two reference strategies for zero-knowledge and complete-knowledge behaviors, respectively. In our approach, the performance of a strategy corresponds to the average budget that can be obtained with this strategy over a certain number of time steps. To this end, we perform some computer experiments, where for each strategy the budget obtained af...

  4. The 4-D approach to visual control of autonomous systems

    Dickmanns, Ernst D.


    Development of a 4-D approach to dynamic machine vision is described. Core elements of this method are spatio-temporal models oriented towards objects and laws of perspective projection in a foward mode. Integration of multi-sensory measurement data was achieved through spatio-temporal models as invariants for object recognition. Situation assessment and long term predictions were allowed through maintenance of a symbolic 4-D image of processes involving objects. Behavioral capabilities were easily realized by state feedback and feed-foward control.

  5. Data-Driven Controller Design The H2 Approach

    Sanfelice Bazanella, Alexandre; Eckhard, Diego


    Data-driven methodologies have recently emerged as an important paradigm alternative to model-based controller design and several such methodologies are formulated as an H2 performance optimization. This book presents a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the H2 approach to data-driven control design. The fundamental properties implied by the H2 problem formulation are analyzed in detail, so that common features to all solutions are identified. Direct methods (VRFT) and iterative methods (IFT, DFT, CbT) are put under a common theoretical framework. The choice of the reference model, the experimental conditions, the optimization method to be used, and several other designer’s choices are crucial to the quality of the final outcome, and firm guidelines for all these choices are derived from the theoretical analysis presented. The practical application of the concepts in the book is illustrated with a large number of practical designs performed for different classes of processes: thermal, fluid processing a...

  6. Hierarchical Control of Droop-Controlled DC and AC Microgrids - A General Approach Towards Standardization

    Guerrero, Josep M.; Vásquez, Juan V.; Teodorescu, Remus

    DC and AC Microgrids are key elements to integrate renewable and distributed energy resources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the last years, efforts toward the standardization of these Microgrids have been made. In this sense, this paper present the hierarchical control derived...... from ISA-95 and electrical dispatching standards to endow smartness and flexibility to microgrids. The hierarchical control proposed consist of three levels: i) the primary control is based on the droop method, including an output impedance virtual loop; ii) the secondary control allows restoring the...... deviations produced by the primary control; and iii) the tertiary control manage the power flow between the microgrid and the external electrical distribution system. Results from a hierarchicalcontrolled microgrid are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed approach....

  7. Fault Tolerant Control for Civil Structures Based on LMI Approach

    Chunxu Qu


    Full Text Available The control system may lose the performance to suppress the structural vibration due to the faults in sensors or actuators. This paper designs the filter to perform the fault detection and isolation (FDI and then reforms the control strategy to achieve the fault tolerant control (FTC. The dynamic equation of the structure with active mass damper (AMD is first formulated. Then, an estimated system is built to transform the FDI filter design problem to the static gain optimization problem. The gain is designed to minimize the gap between the estimated system and the practical system, which can be calculated by linear matrix inequality (LMI approach. The FDI filter is finally used to isolate the sensor faults and reform the FTC strategy. The efficiency of FDI and FTC is validated by the numerical simulation of a three-story structure with AMD system with the consideration of sensor faults. The results show that the proposed FDI filter can detect the sensor faults and FTC controller can effectively tolerate the faults and suppress the structural vibration.

  8. Novel Approach to Control of Robotic Hand Using Flex Sensors

    Sandesh R.S


    Full Text Available This paper discuss about novel design approach to control of a robotic hand using flex sensors which indicates a biomechatronic multi fingered robotic hand. This robotic hand consists of base unit, upper arm, lower arm, palm and five fingers. The aim is to develop an anthropomorphic five fingered robotic hand. The proposed design illustrates the use of 5 micro DC motors with 9 Degrees of Freedom (DOF.Each finger is controlled independently. Further three extra motors were used for the control of wrist elbow and base movement. The study of the DC motor is being carried out using the transfer function model for constant excitation. The micro DC motor performance was analyzed using MATLAB simulation environment. The whole system is implemented using flex sensors. The flex sensors placed on the human hand gloves appear as if they look like real human hand.  89v51 microcontroller was used for all the controlling actions along with RF transmitter/receiver .The performance of the system has been conducted experimentally and studied.

  9. Simulating advanced life support systems to test integrated control approaches

    Kortenkamp, D.; Bell, S.

    Simulations allow for testing of life support control approaches before hardware is designed and built. Simulations also allow for the safe exploration of alternative control strategies during life support operation. As such, they are an important component of any life support research program and testbed. This paper describes a specific advanced life support simulation being created at NASA Johnson Space Center. It is a discrete-event simulation that is dynamic and stochastic. It simulates all major components of an advanced life support system, including crew (with variable ages, weights and genders), biomass production (with scalable plantings of ten different crops), water recovery, air revitalization, food processing, solid waste recycling and energy production. Each component is modeled as a producer of certain resources and a consumer of certain resources. The control system must monitor (via sensors) and control (via actuators) the flow of resources throughout the system to provide life support functionality. The simulation is written in an object-oriented paradigm that makes it portable, extensible and reconfigurable.

  10. Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture

    Alyssa M. Budd


    Full Text Available At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand and control fish sex and reproductive function. In this review, we provide an introduction to sex determination and differentiation in fish, including the genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that can influence fish sex ratios. We also summarise the major approaches used to control sex in fish and discuss their application in commercially important species. Specifically, we discuss the use of exogenous steroid hormones, chromosome ploidy, environmental manipulations, sex-linked genetic markers, selection for altered sex ratios, and transgenics and comment on the challenges associated with controlling sex in a commercial environment.


    B. Hari Krishna


    Full Text Available FPGA is a device that contains a matrix of reconfigurable gate arrays that can implement different complex functions and also vary structurally. In this study, a novel method of reconfigurable circuit switching action is done with the help of a controller. BPSK Modulation application is chosen to demonstrate the reconfigurable action. When an event occurs the context/core switching is done at both input and output and also preserving the structural and functional relationship. The reconfiguration ability of FPGA with an embedded core performing the switching in real time is the focus of this study. A controller running on Linux platform is used along with the FPGA core. In this study, we propose a real time approach for reconfiguring evolved circuits using controller. It has an adaptive hardware that can continuously change in response to the input data and there by perform reconfiguration. Here the reconfiguration process is achieved by using a real time controller which gives a command to the FPGA core (ALTERA (Cypress processor for reconfiguration.

  12. An optimal control theory approach to non-pharmaceutical interventions

    Lawley Mark


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI are the first line of defense against pandemic influenza. These interventions dampen virus spread by reducing contact between infected and susceptible persons. Because they curtail essential societal activities, they must be applied judiciously. Optimal control theory is an approach for modeling and balancing competing objectives such as epidemic spread and NPI cost. Methods We apply optimal control on an epidemiologic compartmental model to develop triggers for NPI implementation. The objective is to minimize expected person-days lost from influenza related deaths and NPI implementations for the model. We perform a multivariate sensitivity analysis based on Latin Hypercube Sampling to study the effects of input parameters on the optimal control policy. Additional studies investigated the effects of departures from the modeling assumptions, including exponential terminal time and linear NPI implementation cost. Results An optimal policy is derived for the control model using a linear NPI implementation cost. Linear cost leads to a "bang-bang" policy in which NPIs are applied at maximum strength when certain state criteria are met. Multivariate sensitivity analyses are presented which indicate that NPI cost, death rate, and recovery rate are influential in determining the policy structure. Further death rate, basic reproductive number and recovery rate are the most influential in determining the expected cumulative death. When applying the NPI policy, the cumulative deaths under exponential and gamma terminal times are close, which implies that the outcome of applying the "bang-bang" policy is insensitive to the exponential assumption. Quadratic cost leads to a multi-level policy in which NPIs are applied at varying strength levels, again based on certain state criteria. Results indicate that linear cost leads to more costly implementation resulting in fewer deaths. Conclusions The

  13. Optimal Control Approaches to the Aggregate Production Planning Problem

    Yasser A. Davizón


    Full Text Available In the area of production planning and control, the aggregate production planning (APP problem represents a great challenge for decision makers in production-inventory systems. Tradeoff between inventory-capacity is known as the APP problem. To address it, static and dynamic models have been proposed, which in general have several shortcomings. It is the premise of this paper that the main drawback of these proposals is, that they do not take into account the dynamic nature of the APP. For this reason, we propose the use of an Optimal Control (OC formulation via the approach of energy-based and Hamiltonian-present value. The main contribution of this paper is the mathematical model which integrates a second order dynamical system coupled with a first order system, incorporating production rate, inventory level, and capacity as well with the associated cost by work force in the same formulation. Also, a novel result in relation with the Hamiltonian-present value in the OC formulation is that it reduces the inventory level compared with the pure energy based approach for APP. A set of simulations are provided which verifies the theoretical contribution of this work.


    Татьяна Александровна Печенегина


    Full Text Available Modern economists point out to up-to-datedness of the problem of better tax control. In the same time the indicators of efficiency are rather declarative and refer rather to tax system as a whole than to tax control. Classical approaches to the notion “tax policy” is analyzed in the article.Analysis of the reasons which determine the necessity to increase tax control, the needs of management and information bodies to work  with non-payers of taxes, investigation of practical experience of tax offices  of the Perm territory in carrying out of inspections and generalization of the results, identification of group patterns of the combination of in-house and on-site audits allowed the author to identify statistical indicators which can characterize in complex way the results of control for current period and in dynamics for the number (series of investigated periods. Targets of each stage of tax control are identified; the key role is fulfilled by the systems of technological support because efficiency of taxation depends on use of targeted, functional, institutional technologies of technical means.The importance of the method of tax revenues simulation is outlined. The results of calculation of simulation model are the forecasts on expected object and the structure of tax revenues for every combination of input values.Investigations of inspections of specific objects allowed to find out the necessity of mobilization of the staff for on-site inspection, success of which depends on special training.DOI:

  15. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from an intruder attempting to

  16. An Approach to Discrete Variable Structure Control System

    FalahE.Alsaqre; YUANBaozong


    Variable structure control (VSC) systems consist of a set of subsystems referred to as structures and supplied with appropriate switching functions. The most common approach used for variable structure in continu-ous or discrete time systems is sliding mode. In this paper,a new scheme to design a discrete variable structure con-trol (DVSC) for an nth-order type one system is presented.First, a set of discrete subsystems is constructed relying on the assumption that every system is considered as a vari-able structure system when its poles can be assignment to other locations. The adopted method for constructing dif-ferent discrete structures involves switching alternatively two zero-order hold (ZOH) devices, having different char-acteristics. Second, a suitable switching function is devised based on minimizing a quadratic sum of discrete error sig-nal criterion, to perform one switching without chattering.New advantageous properties are carried out via compos-ing a desired performance from parts of performances of the constructed structures. Simulation results are made to illustrate the quality of control being achieved.

  17. Controlled Chemistry Approach to the Oxo-Functionalization of Graphene.

    Eigler, Siegfried


    Graphene is the best-studied 2D material available. However, its production is still challenging and the quality depends on the preparation procedure. Now, more than a decade after the outstanding experiments conducted on graphene, the most successful wet-chemical approach to graphene and functionalized graphene is based on the oxidation of graphite. Graphene oxide has been known for more than a century; however, the structure bears variable large amounts of lattice defects that render the development of a controlled chemistry impossible. The controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene avoids the formation of defects within the σ-framework of carbon atoms, making the synthesis of specific molecular architectures possible. The scope of this review is to introduce the field of oxo-functionalizing graphene. In particular, the differences between GO and oxo-functionalized graphene are described in detail. Moreover analytical methods that allow determining lattice defects and functional groups are introduced followed by summarizing the current state of controlled oxo-functionalization of graphene. PMID:26990805

  18. A hybrid approach to modeling and control of vehicle height for electronically controlled air suspension

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Cai, Yingfeng; Wang, Shaohua; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Long


    The control problems associated with vehicle height adjustment of electronically controlled air suspension (ECAS) still pose theoretical challenges for researchers, which manifest themselves in the publications on this subject over the last years. This paper deals with modeling and control of a vehicle height adjustment system for ECAS, which is an example of a hybrid dynamical system due to the coexistence and coupling of continuous variables and discrete events. A mixed logical dynamical (MLD) modeling approach is chosen for capturing enough details of the vehicle height adjustment process. The hybrid dynamic model is constructed on the basis of some assumptions and piecewise linear approximation for components nonlinearities. Then, the on-off statuses of solenoid valves and the piecewise approximation process are described by propositional logic, and the hybrid system is transformed into the set of linear mixed-integer equalities and inequalities, denoted as MLD model, automatically by HYSDEL. Using this model, a hybrid model predictive controller (HMPC) is tuned based on online mixed-integer quadratic optimization (MIQP). Two different scenarios are considered in the simulation, whose results verify the height adjustment effectiveness of the proposed approach. Explicit solutions of the controller are computed to control the vehicle height adjustment system in realtime using an offline multi-parametric programming technology (MPT), thus convert the controller into an equivalent explicit piecewise affine form. Finally, bench experiments for vehicle height lifting, holding and lowering procedures are conducted, which demonstrate that the HMPC can adjust the vehicle height by controlling the on-off statuses of solenoid valves directly. This research proposes a new modeling and control method for vehicle height adjustment of ECAS, which leads to a closed-loop system with favorable dynamical properties.

  19. Autonomous formation flight of helicopters: Model predictive control approach

    Chung, Hoam

    Formation flight is the primary movement technique for teams of helicopters. However, the potential for accidents is greatly increased when helicopter teams are required to fly in tight formations and under harsh conditions. This dissertation proposes that the automation of helicopter formations is a realistic solution capable of alleviating risks. Helicopter formation flight operations in battlefield situations are highly dynamic and dangerous, and, therefore, we maintain that both a high-level formation management system and a distributed coordinated control algorithm should be implemented to help ensure safe formations. The starting point for safe autonomous formation flights is to design a distributed control law attenuating external disturbances coming into a formation, so that each vehicle can safely maintain sufficient clearance between it and all other vehicles. While conventional methods are limited to homogeneous formations, our decentralized model predictive control (MPC) approach allows for heterogeneity in a formation. In order to avoid the conservative nature inherent in distributed MPC algorithms, we begin by designing a stable MPC for individual vehicles, and then introducing carefully designed inter-agent coupling terms in a performance index. Thus the proposed algorithm works in a decentralized manner, and can be applied to the problem of helicopter formations comprised of heterogenous vehicles. Individual vehicles in a team may be confronted by various emerging situations that will require the capability for in-flight reconfiguration. We propose the concept of a formation manager to manage separation, join, and synchronization of flight course changes. The formation manager accepts an operator's commands, information from neighboring vehicles, and its own vehicle states. Inside the formation manager, there are multiple modes and complex mode switchings represented as a finite state machine (FSM). Based on the current mode and collected

  20. Biogas Production Modelling: A Control System Engineering Approach

    Stollenwerk, D.; Rieke, C.; Dahmen, M.; Pieper, M.


    Due to the Renewable Energy Act, in Germany it is planned to increase the amount of renewable energy carriers up to 60%. One of the main problems is the fluctuating supply of wind and solar energy. Here biogas plants provide a solution, because a demand-driven supply is possible. Before running such a plant, it is necessary to simulate and optimize the process feeding strategy. Current simulation models are either very detailed like the ADM 1, which leads to very long optimization runtimes or not accurate enough to handle the biogas production kinetics. Therefore this paper provides a new model of a biogas plant, which is easy to parametrize but also has the needed accuracy for the output prediction. It is based on the control system approach of system identification and validated with laboratory results of a real biogas production testing facility.

  1. A fuzzy behaviorist approach to sensor-based robot control

    Pin, F.G.


    Sensor-based operation of autonomous robots in unstructured and/or outdoor environments has revealed to be an extremely challenging problem, mainly because of the difficulties encountered when attempting to represent the many uncertainties which are always present in the real world. These uncertainties are primarily due to sensor imprecisions and unpredictability of the environment, i.e., lack of full knowledge of the environment characteristics and dynamics. An approach. which we have named the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist Approach{close_quotes} (FBA) is proposed in an attempt to remedy some of these difficulties. This approach is based on the representation of the system`s uncertainties using Fuzzy Set Theory-based approximations and on the representation of the reasoning and control schemes as sets of elemental behaviors. Using the FBA, a formalism for rule base development and an automated generator of fuzzy rules have been developed. This automated system can automatically construct the set of membership functions corresponding to fuzzy behaviors. Once these have been expressed in qualitative terms by the user. The system also checks for completeness of the rule base and for non-redundancy of the rules (which has traditionally been a major hurdle in rule base development). Two major conceptual features, the suppression and inhibition mechanisms which allow to express a dominance between behaviors are discussed in detail. Some experimental results obtained with the automated fuzzy, rule generator applied to the domain of sensor-based navigation in aprion unknown environments. using one of our autonomous test-bed robots as well as a real car in outdoor environments, are then reviewed and discussed to illustrate the feasibility of large-scale automatic fuzzy rule generation using the {open_quotes}Fuzzy Behaviorist{close_quotes} concepts.

  2. Morphopedologic approach for diagnosis and control of erosion

    Thiago de Oliveira Faria


    Full Text Available This paper describes a morphopedological approach applied to the Sapo River sub-basin to support territorial management for soil and water conservation. The approach follows the conception of the morphopedological compartment presented by Salomão (1994, which considers terrain homogenous units based on soil, relief and geological substrate. Three thematic maps of 1:50,000 scale were made to characterize the morphopedology. Afterwards, spatial analyses techniques were developed in GIS to outline the morphopedological compartments considering the hydraulic functions of the relief inclination. As a result, 11 compartments of the physical environment with specific characteristics have been identified. Relatively smooth terrains predominated, formed by sandy soils in 76.41% of the studied area, represented by the MP-06 and MP-08 morphopedological compartments. These two units, together with the Quartzarenic Neosol, the MP-10 compartment with erosive amphitheaters of drainage head waters, the colluvial slopes and slope talus from the MP-07, and the median and low mountain sides of median hills of the MP-05 compartment, constitute the regions most vulnerable to erosion. Erosion occurs predominantly at the bottom of fluvial valleys from MP-05 and MP-06 and at drainage head waters, resulting in direct impacts on soil and waters of the basin due to silt build-up, hydromorphism losses and decrease of the water level. It was concluded that preventive actions are necessary to control erosion, especially in the most fragile areas.


    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping


    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.


    This paper describes a safety design basis documentation change control process. The process identifies elements that can be used to manage the project/facility configuration during design evolution through the Initiation, Definition, and Execution project phases. The project phases addressed by the process are defined in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order (O) 413.3A, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, in support of DOE project Critical Decisions (CD). This approach has been developed for application to two Hanford Site projects in their early CD phases and is considered to be a key element of safety and design integration. As described in the work that has been performed, the purpose of change control is to maintain consistency among design requirements, the physical configuration, related facility documentation, and the nuclear safety basis during the evolution of the design. The process developed (1) ensures an appropriate level of rigor is applied at each project phase and (2) is considered to implement the requirements and guidance provided in DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. Presentation of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008 or managing nuclear safety documentation in support of projects in-process


    Mariko Funasaki


    Full Text Available The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea, andiroba (Carapa guianensis, bacuri (Platonia insignis, Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, buriti (Mauritia vinifera or M. flexuosa, cumaru (Dipteryx odorata, cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum, guarana (Paullinia cupana, mulateiro (Calycophyllum spruceanum, murumuru (Astrocaryum murumuru, patawa (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua, pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba, rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora, and ucuuba (Virola sebifera. Based on the reviewed articles, we selected chemical markers for the quality control purpose and evaluated analytical methods. Even though chromatographic and spectroscopic methods are major analytical techniques in the studies of these species, molecular approaches will also be important as used in food and medicine traceability. Only a little phytochemical study is available about most of the Amazonian species and some species such as açaí and andiroba have many reports on chemical constituents, but studies on biological activities of isolated compounds and sampling with geographical variation are limited.

  6. New experimental approaches to the biology of flight control systems.

    Taylor, Graham K; Bacic, Marko; Bomphrey, Richard J; Carruthers, Anna C; Gillies, James; Walker, Simon M; Thomas, Adrian L R


    Here we consider how new experimental approaches in biomechanics can be used to attain a systems-level understanding of the dynamics of animal flight control. Our aim in this paper is not to provide detailed results and analysis, but rather to tackle several conceptual and methodological issues that have stood in the way of experimentalists in achieving this goal, and to offer tools for overcoming these. We begin by discussing the interplay between analytical and empirical methods, emphasizing that the structure of the models we use to analyse flight control dictates the empirical measurements we must make in order to parameterize them. We then provide a conceptual overview of tethered-flight paradigms, comparing classical ;open-loop' and ;closed-loop' setups, and describe a flight simulator that we have recently developed for making flight dynamics measurements on tethered insects. Next, we provide a conceptual overview of free-flight paradigms, focusing on the need to use system identification techniques in order to analyse the data they provide, and describe two new techniques that we have developed for making flight dynamics measurements on freely flying birds. First, we describe a technique for obtaining inertial measurements of the orientation, angular velocity and acceleration of a steppe eagle Aquila nipalensis in wide-ranging free flight, together with synchronized measurements of wing and tail kinematics using onboard instrumentation and video cameras. Second, we describe a photogrammetric method to measure the 3D wing kinematics of the eagle during take-off and landing. In each case, we provide demonstration data to illustrate the kinds of information available from each method. We conclude by discussing the prospects for systems-level analyses of flight control using these techniques and others like them. PMID:18165253

  7. Control of conducting polymer actuators without physical feedback: simulated feedback control approach with particle swarm optimization

    Conducting polymer actuators have shown significant potential in articulating micro instruments, manipulation devices, and robotics. However, implementing a feedback control strategy to enhance their positioning ability and accuracy in any application requires a feedback sensor, which is extremely large in size compared to the size of the actuators. Therefore, this paper proposes a new sensorless control scheme without the use of a position feedback sensor. With the help of the system identification technique and particle swarm optimization, the control scheme, which we call the simulated feedback control system, showed a satisfactory command tracking performance for the conducting polymer actuator’s step and dynamic displacement responses, especially under a disturbance, without needing a physical feedback loop, but using a simulated feedback loop. The primary contribution of this study is to propose and experimentally evaluate the simulated feedback control scheme for a class of the conducting polymer actuators known as tri-layer polymer actuators, which can operate both in dry and wet media. This control approach can also be extended to other smart actuators or systems, for which the feedback control based on external sensing is impractical. (paper)


    Zhongping JIANG; Yuandan LIN; Yuan WANG


    This paper presents a control Lyapunov function approach to the global stabilization problem for general nonlinear and time-varying systems. Explicit stabilizing feedback control laws are proposed based on the method of control Lyapunov functions and Sontag's universal formula.

  9. Metadata Control Agent approach for Replication in Grid Environments

    P. SunilGavaskar


    Full Text Available since grid environment is dynamic, network latency and user requests may change. In order to provide better communication, access time and fault tolerant in decentralized systems, the replication is a technique to reduce access time, storage space. The objective of the work is to propose an agent control approach for Heterogeneous environments using the Agents for storing objects as replicas in decentralized environments. Our idea minimizes the more replicas (i.e. causes overhead on response time and update cost, therefore maintaining suitable number of replicas is important. Fixed replicas provides file access structure to identify the esteem files and gives optimal replication location, which minimize replication issues like access time and update cost by assuming a given traffic pattern. In this context we present the Agents as replicas to maintain a suitable scalable architecture. The solution uses fewer replicas, which lead to fewer agents as a result of that frequent updating is possible. Our tests show that the proposed strategy outperforms previous solutions in terms of replication issues.

  10. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency

  11. Possible approaches to rapid control of IFE targets

    The goal of ICF microobjects characterization (such as polymer and glass shells, and cryogenic targets) is to provide reliable information within a definite time. From this viewpoint, the following two stages of producing the targets are of special interest: i. fuel layering technique development, which requires the most comprehensive information on the object (i.e. a 3D reconstruction of the microobject), ii. the fueling of a commercial power plant, requiring 500, 000 fusion targets each day or six fusion targets each second (i.e., this determine the values of some target parameters by which the target can be rejected during its injection). In this report we consider possible approaches exclusively meant for threshold target characterization, namely the application of algorithms for target characterization, based on low-projected tomography, and the application of methods of coherent optics based on Fourier holography for ultra-rapid target characterization. The results of computer experiments are presented. It is shown that (a) depending on the choice of rejection rule, it is possible to construct different threshold algorithms with different operational speeds, and (b) in the case of target quality control using holography method of image recognition, the operational time can be as short as ∼1 μs. Therefore, target characterization during the injection process is possible. (author)

  12. Arms control and disarmament: A new conceptual approach

    In the frame of the Millennium Assembly of the UN, the Secretary-General urged the global community to seize a sense of the occasion that comes from the turning of the century, to step back from today's headlines and take a broader, longer-term view of the state of the world and the challenges it poses. In partnership with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), the Department for Disarmament Affairs (DDA) is taking up precisely that challenge. This panel discussion is part of a series of events sponsored by the Department to deepen the discussion on topical disarmament and security related issues. It is also part of the constant search for a new approach, a new concept, a new paradigm or vision for disarmament and arms control since the end of the cold war, the end of the post-cold war period and the beginning of the new century. It is axiomatic that progress in disarmament is closely linked to the evolution of the security environment. Disarmament cannot be separated from the new geo-political and security configurations in Europe, new demonstrations of nuclear capability in Asia, the emergence of new conflicts that are being driven mainly by internal and ethnic strife and that are outrageous in their brutality in Europe, Asia and Africa. Today's agenda is still full and diverse in the traditional areas of disarmament, nuclear, chemical and biological disarmament as well as ballistic missile defense and proliferation and conventional disarmament including landmines. Like many organizations, research institutes, researchers and individuals in the field of security, DDA has set store on the reliability and credibility of the research and publications produced by SIPRI. As an independent international institute for research on problems for peace and conflict, disarmament and arms control founded in 1966, SIPRI's primary research has been consistently objective, timely, comprehensive and clearly presented. SIPRI's Yearbook has been a reference

  13. Visual control of wheeled mobile robots unifying vision and control in generic approaches

    Becerra, Héctor M


    Vision-based control of wheeled mobile robots is an interesting field of research from a scientific and even social point of view due to its potential applicability. This book presents a formal treatment of some aspects of control theory applied to the problem of vision-based pose regulation of wheeled mobile robots. In this problem, the robot has to reach a desired position and orientation, which are specified by a target image. It is faced in such a way that vision and control are unified to achieve stability of the closed loop, a large region of convergence, without local minima, and good robustness against parametric uncertainty. Three different control schemes that rely on monocular vision as unique sensor are presented and evaluated experimentally. A common benefit of these approaches is that they are valid for imaging systems obeying approximately a central projection model, e.g., conventional cameras, catadioptric systems and some fisheye cameras. Thus, the presented control schemes are generic approa...

  14. An efficient stakeholder driven approach to disease control

    least amount of time. Critical to this concept is the need to identify and prioritise the most important gaps in our ability to control the critical diseases. Having identified our targets, it is then vital that we have the fundamental research capacity - infrastructure and people to carry out the necessary research. Establishing our research capability necessitates the creation of a database with the relevant information with gaps then being addressed. Along with filling gaps, efficiency can also be improved by avoiding unnecessary capacity development. Enabling factors such as quality assurance, intellectual property rights and facilitation of technology transfer are critical components in moving from basic research to the development of a tool that can be used to fight a disease. Financial support at critical points in the development chain is also vital. Too often, projects are dropped because intellectual property rights have not been secured and nobody is willing to invest perhaps Euro 100 million in taking the project from the laboratory bench through development and into the market. The correct regulatory environment is vital to stimulate innovation. A balance needs to be reached between protecting human and animal health from the risks associated with a product versus the wish to eliminate all hazard. In addition, regulation needs to be focused on the needs of the veterinary sector, which may be quite different to those of the human sector. From a global perspective, it is in the interests of everybody to reduce the global burden of disease. It may be much more beneficial to tackle disease at its source. This approach facilitates cooperation across the globe including capacity building. Having explored the broad areas that need attention in the SRA, the Action Plan was then developed and published in July, 2007 identifying the actions - research or information gathering - that need to be carried out in order to deliver the SRA. The Action Plan follows the

  15. A new approach in development of data flow control and investigation system for computer networks

    This paper describes a new approach in development of data flow control and investigation system for computer networks. This approach was developed and applied in the Moscow Radiotechnical Institute for control and investigations of Institute computer network. It allowed us to solve our network current problems successfully. Description of our approach is represented below along with the most interesting results of our work. (author)

  16. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J


    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP. PMID:12224422

  17. The approach to multimodule control of the MHTGR

    This paper describes the advanced instrumentation and control technology that has been applied to the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) to meet the top-level goal of safe, economical power. The MHTGR, with its four reactor modules and two turbine generators, will be controlled to respond to a variety of normal and transient operating modes. The overall objective of the plant control, data, and instrumentation system (PCDIS) function is to assist plant operations personnel in maintaining highly reliable control of the MHTGR. The MHTGR design simplicity and passive response, in conjunction with the plant supervisory control system, have yielded a major reduction in operator workload. The plant does not require safety-related operator actions, nor does it require the control room or its equipment to be safety related. Therefore, plant control is accomplished from a central control room by two operators and one supervisor via the supervisory control system. (author). 5 figs

  18. New Highly Dynamic Approach for Thrust Vector Control

    Hecht, M.; Ettl, J.; Grothe, D.; Hrbud, I.


    For a new launcher system a thrust vector control system is needed. This launch vehicle system consists of two rockets which are namely the VS-50 (two-stage suborbital vehicle) and the VLM-1 (three-stage microsatellite launch vehicle). VLM-1 and VS-50 are developed in a cooperation between the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Brazilian Aeronautics and Space Institute (IAE). To keep these two rockets on its trajectory during flight a highly dynamic thrust vector control system is required. For the purpose of developing such a highly dynamic thrust vector control system a master thesis was written by the author. The development includes all mechanical constructions as well as control algorithms and electronics design. Moreover an optimization of control algorithms was made to increase the dynamic capabilities of the thrust vector control system. The composition of the right components plus the sophisticated control algorithm make the thrust vector control system highly dynamic.

  19. A new approach to a site radiological control manual.

    Farrell, Linda M


    The Pantex Plant significantly revised its Radiological Control Manual to improve its usability, streamline plant procedures, and clarify conflicting guidance. This article overviews the process used to develop the new Radiological Control Manual. PMID:11797900

  20. A first approach to runaway electron control in FTU

    Boncagni, L. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Carnevale, D., E-mail: [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Cianfarani, C.; Esposito, B. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Granucci, G. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Maddaluno, G.; Marocco, D. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Martin-Solis, J.R. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes-Madrid (Spain); Pucella, G. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sozzi, C. [Associazione Euratom-CNR sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Varano, G. [Dipartimento Ing. Civile ed Ing. Informatica Università di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Vitale, V. [Associazione Euratom/ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, CP 65, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Zaccarian, L. [CNRS, LAAS, 7 av. du colonel Roche, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Univ. de Toulouse, LAAS, F-31400 Toulouse (France)


    The Plasma Control System (PCS) of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is not equipped with any runaway electron (RE) beam control or suppression tool. In this paper we propose an upgraded PCS including an architecture for the control of disruption-generated REs that, making use of filtering techniques to estimate the onsets of the current quench (CQ) and of the RE beam current plateau, provides a controlled plasma current shut-down and a simultaneous RE position control. The control strategy is based on a nonlinear technique, called Input Allocation, that allows to re-configure the current in the poloidal field (PF) coils and improve the PCS responsiveness needed for RE position control. Preliminary results on the implementation of the Input Allocation and an experimental proposal to test the control scheme architecture are discussed.

  1. A first approach to runaway electron control in FTU

    The Plasma Control System (PCS) of the Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU) is not equipped with any runaway electron (RE) beam control or suppression tool. In this paper we propose an upgraded PCS including an architecture for the control of disruption-generated REs that, making use of filtering techniques to estimate the onsets of the current quench (CQ) and of the RE beam current plateau, provides a controlled plasma current shut-down and a simultaneous RE position control. The control strategy is based on a nonlinear technique, called Input Allocation, that allows to re-configure the current in the poloidal field (PF) coils and improve the PCS responsiveness needed for RE position control. Preliminary results on the implementation of the Input Allocation and an experimental proposal to test the control scheme architecture are discussed

  2. Systems approach for control of olive fruit fly in California

    Full text: The systems approach incorporating various control techniques in the field was investigated as an economical procedure for reducing high olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), populations in olive, Olea europaea, orchards along the coastal areas of California and as a means of control for low populations of the pest in commercial orchards in the central interior valley. The basic biology of olive fruit fly was investigated in laboratory incubator tests. Adults survived for the following number of days after exposure to different temperatures and humidities with and without food: 5 deg. C, 85% RH, 30-40 d (food), 10-17 d (no food); 15 deg. C, 65% RH, 44-76 d (food), 4-5 d (no food); and 25 deg. C, 25% RH, 17-32 d (food), 2-4 d (no food); 35 deg. C, 25% RH, 2-4 d (food), 1 d (no food). At 21 deg. C, 60% RH, the duration of each life stage in olive fruit was as follows: Eggs 5-6 d, 1st instar 7-8 d, 2nd instar 9-11 d, and 3rd instar 12-15 d. A yellow panel trap was found to be a highly effective method to monitor olive fruit fly adults. The mean ± SEM total number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps (17.2 ± 11.9 in summer to 232.5 ± 44.8 in spring) was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than in ChamP traps (5.5 ± 2.1 in summer to 170.5 ± 25.5 in spring) for the sum of all collection dates (every 7-12 d from March through June, and every 14 d from July through August). Orchard sanitation was shown to be important in reducing overwintering populations. Non-harvested fruit that remained in trees in a coastal orchard since the previous year supported olive fruit fly from March through May (0.4-6.4 pupae per 10 g olive fruit). A parasitoid, Psytallia cf. concolor, imported from MOSCAMED, Guatemala and originally collected from Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), on coffee in Kenya, caused 100% mortality of olive fruit fly, B. oleae (Gmelin), larvae in field cage tests and 10% parasitism of larvae in small field

  3. A hamiltonian control approach for the stabilization of the angular velocity of a rigid body system controlled by two torques

    C. Aguilar-Ibáñez; M.S. Suárez-Castañón; F. Guzmán-Aguilar


    We present a Hamiltonian control approach for the stabilization of a rigid body system that is controlled by two torques. The stabilization strategy consists in solving a feasible matching condition in order to derive a feedback controller which forces the closed-loop system to be globally asymptotically stable.

  4. Embedded Control System Design A Model Based Approach

    Forrai, Alexandru


    Control system design is a challenging task for practicing engineers. It requires knowledge of different engineering fields, a good understanding of technical specifications and good communication skills. The current book introduces the reader into practical control system design, bridging  the gap between theory and practice.  The control design techniques presented in the book are all model based., considering the needs and possibilities of practicing engineers. Classical control design techniques are reviewed and methods are presented how to verify the robustness of the design. It is how the designed control algorithm can be implemented in real-time and tested, fulfilling different safety requirements. Good design practices and the systematic software development process are emphasized in the book according to the generic standard IEC61508. The book is mainly addressed to practicing control and embedded software engineers - working in research and development – as well as graduate students who are face...

  5. Quality control with R an ISO standards approach

    Cano, Emilio L; Prieto Corcoba, Mariano


    Presenting a practitioner's guide to capabilities and best practices of quality control systems using the R programming language, this volume emphasizes accessibility and ease-of-use through detailed explanations of R code as well as standard statistical methodologies. In the interest of reaching the widest possible audience of quality-control professionals and statisticians, examples throughout are structured to simplify complex equations and data structures, and to demonstrate their applications to quality control processes, such as ISO standards. The volume balances its treatment of key aspects of quality control, statistics, and programming in R, making the text accessible to beginners and expert quality control professionals alike. Several appendices serve as useful references for ISO standards and common tasks performed while applying quality control with R.

  6. Control of (max,+) Automata: a single step approach

    Komenda, Jan; Lahaye, S.; Boimond, J.-L.

    Budapest: European Union Control Association, 2009 - (Kevicky, L.; Bokor, J.), s. 1985-1990 ISBN 978-963-311-369-1. [European Control Conference 2009. Budapest (HU), 23.08.2009-26.08.2009] Grant ostatní: EU Projekt(XE) EU. ICT .DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : (max,+) automata * supervisory control * Hadamard product * residuation theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  7. A Model-Driven Approach to Embedded Control System Implementation

    Broenink, Jan F.; Groothuis, Marcel A.; Visser, Peter M.; Orlic, Bojan; Anderson, J.; Huntsinger, R.


    The work presented here is on setting up methodological support, including (prototype) tools, for the design of distributed hard real-time embedded control software for mechatronic products. The use of parallel hardware (CPUs, FPGAs) and parallel software is investigated, to exploit the inherent parallel nature of embedded systems and their control. Two core models of computation are used to describe the behavior of the total mechatronic system (plant, control, software and I/O): discrete eve...

  8. Voltage control of DC islanded microgrids: a decentralized scalable approach

    Tucci, Michele; Riverso, Stefano; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    We propose a new decentralized control scheme for DC Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) with a general interconnection topology. Each local controller regulates to a reference value the voltage of the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the correspond......We propose a new decentralized control scheme for DC Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) with a general interconnection topology. Each local controller regulates to a reference value the voltage of the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) of the...

  9. Artificial Intelligence Approach to Support Statistical Quality Control Teaching

    Reis, Marcelo Menezes; Paladini, Edson Pacheco; Khator, Suresh; Sommer, Willy Arno


    Statistical quality control--SQC (consisting of Statistical Process Control, Process Capability Studies, Acceptance Sampling and Design of Experiments) is a very important tool to obtain, maintain and improve the Quality level of goods and services produced by an organization. Despite its importance, and the fact that it is taught in technical and…

  10. An Ecological Approach to the Supervisory Control of UAV Swarms

    Fuchs, C.; Borst, C.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.


    This research employs ecological interface design to improve the human machine interface of an existing ground control station for the supervisory control of UAV swarms. As a case study, a general ground surveillance mission with four UAVs is envisioned. An analysis of the swarming work domain is pe

  11. A system approach to controlling semiconductor manufacturing operations

    Σταυράκης, Γιώργος Δ.


    Semicoductor manufacturers, faced with stiffening competition in both product cost and quality, require improved utilization of their development and manufacturing resources. Manufacturing philosophy must be changed, from focusing on short term results, to support continuous improvements in both output and quality. Such improvements demand better information management to monitor and control the manufacturing process. From these considerations, a process control methodology was develope...

  12. A passivity approach to controller-observer design for robots

    Berghuis, Harry; Nijmeijer, Henk


    Passivity-based control methods for robots, which achieve the control objective by reshaping the robot system's natural energy via state feedback, have, from a practical point of view, some very attractive properties. However, the poor quality of velocity measurements may significantly deteriorate t

  13. Dynamics and Control of Humanoid Robots: A Geometrical Approach

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G


    his paper reviews modern geometrical dynamics and control of humanoid robots. This general Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism starts with a proper definition of humanoid's configuration manifold, which is a set of all robot's active joint angles. Based on the `covariant force law', the general humanoid's dynamics and control are developed. Autonomous Lagrangian dynamics is formulated on the associated `humanoid velocity phase space', while autonomous Hamiltonian dynamics is formulated on the associated `humanoid momentum phase space'. Neural-like hierarchical humanoid control naturally follows this geometrical prescription. This purely rotational and autonomous dynamics and control is then generalized into the framework of modern non-autonomous biomechanics, defining the Hamiltonian fitness function. The paper concludes with several simulation examples. Keywords: Humanoid robots, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms, neural-like humanoid control, time-dependent biodynamics

  14. Simple Approach For Induction Motor Control Using Reconfigurable Hardware



    Full Text Available The paper deals with rotor-field-oriented vector control structures for the induction motor drives fed by the so-called tandem frequency converter. It is composed of two different types of DC-link converters connected in parallel arrangement. The larger-power one has current-source character and is operating synchronized in time and in amplitude with the stator currents. The other one has voltage-source character and it is the actuator of the motor control system. The drive is able to run also with partial-failed tandem converter, if the control strategy corresponds to the actual operating mode. A reconfigurable hardware implemented in configurable logic cells ensures the changing of the vector-control structure. The proposed control schemes were tested by simulation based on Matlab-Simulink model.

  15. Spreadsheet Assurance by "Control Around" is a Viable Alternative to the Traditional Approach

    Ettema, Harmen; de Swart, Jacques


    The traditional approach to spreadsheet auditing generally consists of auditing every distinct formula within a spreadsheet. Although tools are developed to support auditors during this process, the approach is still very time consuming and therefore relatively expensive. As an alternative to the traditional "control through" approach, this paper discusses a "control around" approach. Within the proposed approach not all distinct formulas are audited separately, but the relationship between input data and output data of a spreadsheet is audited through comparison with a shadow model developed in a modelling language. Differences between the two models then imply possible errors in the spreadsheet. This paper describes relevant issues regarding the "control around" approach and the circumstances in which this approach is preferred above a traditional spreadsheet audit approach.

  16. A Network Traffic Control Enhancement Approach over Bluetooth Networks

    Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun;


    This paper analyzes network traffic control issues in Bluetooth data networks as convex optimization problem. We formulate the problem of maximizing of total network flows and minimizing the costs of flows. An adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme is proposed as an approximated...... solution of the stated optimization problem that satisfies quality of service requirements and topologically induced constraints in Bluetooth networks, such as link capacity and node resource limitations. The proposed scheme is decentralized and complies with frequent changes of topology as well...... as capacity limitations and flow requirements in the network. Simulation shows that the performance of Bluetooth networks could be improved by applying the adaptive distributed network traffic control scheme...

  17. Monitoring Software Reliability using Statistical Process Control: An MMLE Approach

    Bandla Sreenivasa Rao


    Full Text Available This paper consider an MMLE (Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation based scheme to estimatesoftware reliability using exponential distribution. The MMLE is one of the generalized frameworks ofsoftware reliability models of Non Homogeneous Poisson Processes (NHPPs. The MMLE givesanalytical estimators rather than an iterative approximation to estimate the parameters. In this paper weproposed SPC (Statistical Process Control Charts mechanism to determine the software quality usinginter failure times data. The Control charts can be used to measure whether the software process isstatistically under control or not.

  18. Monitoring Software Reliability using Statistical Process control: An MMLE approach

    Prasad, R Satya; Kantam, R R L


    This paper consider an MMLE (Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation) based scheme to estimate software reliability using exponential distribution. The MMLE is one of the generalized frameworks of software reliability models of Non Homogeneous Poisson Processes (NHPPs). The MMLE gives analytical estimators rather than an iterative approximation to estimate the parameters. In this paper we proposed SPC (Statistical Process Control) Charts mechanism to determine the software quality using inter failure times data. The Control charts can be used to measure whether the software process is statistically under control or not.

  19. A Novel Control Approach Based on Second Order Sliding Modes & Its Application to Hydraulic Drives

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.


    control accuracy to be reached. In this paper a novel control approach based on second order sliding modes utilizing the idea of the power rate reaching law is introduced. Dependent on parameters the proposed controller may preserve the main features of sliding controls, while at the same time avoiding...

  20. Comparison of three approaches on DSP based digital controlled 2-wheeler forward converter

    Lau, CK; Pong, MH


    This paper presents the design of digital controls of PWM DC-DC converters on a digital signal processor (DSP) based platform. Three digital control approaches are being investigated: discretisation of analog control, digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control, and deadbeat control. Simulation results of the three types of control are shown. Experimental results of a 25W 2-wheeler forward converter prototype are presented to verify the design.

  1. Industrial management- control and profit a technical approach

    Halevi, Gideon


    This volume presents controlling tools for management in order to be in a position to communicate with control engineers concerning technological decisions. The main objective of manufacturing management is to make profit. However, in traditional manufacturing systems none of the separate stages in the process support this objective. Management is not expert in any of these stages, and therefore is dependent on specific experts at each stage and must follow their decisions. Each stage has its own first priority which is not profit and cost. This means that management does not have real control over these functional stages, nor over the process as a whole. This book presents controlling tools for management in order to allow them to communicate better with the experts of the particular manufacturing stages to reach better results and higher profits. It is shown that most enterprises can improve their efficiency rate by between 25 and 60% by using the tools developed here.


    V. O. Zadoya


    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  3. Practical approaches for the control and eradication of bovine brucellosis

    Enright, Fred


    Outline: * A short history of the Brucellosis problems in the coastal marshes of southwest Louisiana. * A summary of results of the field studies on the control of brucellosis in the marsh herds. * The U.S. Brucellosis Program in the mid 1970s: A program in turmoil. * Questions for Argentina's animal health officials, beef and dairy producers and veterinarians. * Scientific factors and a disease control program: prevalence, reservoirs and transmission. A very long incubation pe...

  4. The Network representations of control and raising : a parallel approach

    Lin, Wen-Tzu


    This paper probes a long-standing issue at raising/control distinction in terms of a parallel model. The literature has argued the isomorphism between syntax and semantics. The Principles and Parameters favour the syntactic distinctions, which mirror the semantic ones, whereas Structure Sharing supports a semantic influence. In GB, the PRO Theorem and Control Theory have empirical and theoretical problems. This further drives the development of Minimalism. In Hornstein’s moveme...


    KOÇER, Bülent; BİRGÖREN, Burak


    ABSTRACT Statistical process control charts aim  to detect out-of-control signals which indicate existence of special causes effecting the process. Once such a signal is detected, the interpretation of the signal, that is, discovering the actual causes behind the signal, rests upon the shoulders  of operators or engineers. Recently, some techniques have been developed  for making this interpretation process easier. This study presents an overview of such techniques in three cat...

  6. Dynamics and Control of Humanoid Robots: A Geometrical Approach

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Ivancevic, Tijana T.


    his paper reviews modern geometrical dynamics and control of humanoid robots. This general Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism starts with a proper definition of humanoid's configuration manifold, which is a set of all robot's active joint angles. Based on the `covariant force law', the general humanoid's dynamics and control are developed. Autonomous Lagrangian dynamics is formulated on the associated `humanoid velocity phase space', while autonomous Hamiltonian dynamics is formulated on th...

  7. A constructive and modular approach to decentralized supervisory control problems

    Komenda, Jan; Marchand, H.; Pinchinnat, S.

    Zielona Gora : University of Zielona Gora Press, 2006 - (Adamski, M.), s. 111-116 ISBN 83-7481-035-1. [IFAC Workshop on Discrete Event Systems Design/3./ (DESdes´06). Rydzyna (PL), 26.09.2006-28.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB100190609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete-event systems * decentralized supervisory control * modular supervisory control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  8. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

    Ana Domingos; Sandra Antunes; Lara Borges; Virgilio Estolio do Rosario


    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a co...

  9. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control. Phase III report

    Babbitt, C.; Bartlett, P.; Kelly, J.; Ludlow, J.; Mangolds, A.; Rajan, S.; Ruggieri, S.; Varga, E.


    The overall objective of the contract is to evaluate the effectiveness of available dust control technology for double-drum shearer longwall sections in a coordinated, systematic program at a few longwall test sections and to make the results available to the entire coal mining industry. This program is investigating nine different dust control techniques. These nine subprograms encompass a broad range of dust control measures ranging from administrative controls to new hardware. They span not only presently employed methods but also those recently adopted in the United States and those proposed for the future. This report documents the Phase III effort on each of the subprograms. For clarity, the report is divided in sections by subprogram as follows: Section 2, Subprogram A - passive barriers/spray air movers for dust control; Section 3, Subprogram B - practical aspects of deep cutting; Section 4, Subprogram C - stage loader dust control; Section 5, Subprogram D - longwall automation technology; Section 6, Subprogram E - longwall application of ventilation curtains; Section 7, Subprogram F - reversed drum rotation; Section 8, Subprogram G - reduction of shield generated dust; Section 9, Subprogram H - air canopies for longwalls; and Section 10, Subprogram I - mining practices. 43 figures, 11 tables.

  10. Levels of autonomy control approach for mobile robots

    Moorehead, Stewart J.


    Increasingly mobile robots are finding applications in the military, mining, nuclear and agriculture industries. These fields require a robot capable of operating in a highly unstructured and changing environment. Current autonomous control techniques are not robust enough to allow successful operation at all times in these environments. Teleoperation can help with many tasks but causes operator fatigue and negates much of the economic advantages of using robots by requiring one person per robot. This paper introduces a control system for mobile robots based on the concept of levels of autonomy. Levels of autonomy recognizes that control can be shared between the operator and robot in a continuous fashion from teleoperation to full autonomy. By sharing control, the robot can benefit from the operator's knowledge of the world to help extricate it from difficult situations. The robot can operate as autonomously as the situation allows, reducing operator fatigue and increasing the economic benefit by allowing a single operator to control multiple robots simultaneously. This paper presents a levels of autonomy control system developed for use in exploration or reconnaissance tasks.

  11. A control theoretic approach to containing the spread of rabies.

    Evans, N D; Pritchard, A J


    Many problems in medicine and biology involve some kind of spatial spread, and quite often the need to control it. A large proportion of medical and biological systems distinguish themselves from those found in engineering by the way the control acts. We illustrate this by considering the specific example of the spread of rabies among foxes. We first give a brief description of a model proposed by Murray et al. (Murray, J. D., Stanley, E. A. & Brown, D. L., Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B 229, 111-150 (1986)), which we extend to include the control mechanism. The problem is to prevent the spread of rabies by vaccinating foxes via the distribution of bait in a region around an observed outbreak. The extended model can be formulated as a nonlinear time-varying control system described by partial differential equations. In contrast to most engineering type control problems, the control does not continuously affect the system but only acts through the initial distributions. We briefly outline a general theory developed for dealing with such nonlinear systems by the use of a fixed point theorem. The problem and the theory are illustrated by some numerical simulations. PMID:11339335

  12. Novel reinforcement learning approach for difficult control problems

    Becus, Georges A.; Thompson, Edward A.


    We review work conducted over the past several years and aimed at developing reinforcement learning architectures for solving difficult control problems and based on and inspired by associative control process (ACP) networks. We briefly review ACP networks able to reproduce many classical instrumental conditioning test results observed in animal research and to engage in real-time, closed-loop, goal-seeking interactions with their environment. Chronologically, our contributions include the ideally interfaced ACP network which is endowed with hierarchical, attention, and failure recognition interface mechanisms which greatly enhanced the capabilities of the original ACP network. When solving the cart-pole problem, it achieves 100 percent reliability and a reduction in training time similar to that of Baird and Klopf's modified ACP network and additionally an order of magnitude reduction in number of failures experienced for successful training. Next we introduced the command and control center/internal drive (Cid) architecture for artificial neural learning systems. It consists of a hierarchy of command and control centers governing motor selection networks. Internal drives, similar hunger, thirst, or reproduction in biological systems, are formed within the controller to facilitate learning. Efficiency, reliability, and adjustability of this architecture were demonstrated on the benchmark cart-pole control problem. A comparison with other artificial learning systems indicates that it learns over 100 times faster than Barto, et al's adaptive search element/adaptive critic element, experiencing less failures by more than an order of magnitude while capable of being fine-tuned by the user, on- line, for improved performance without additional training. Finally we present work in progress on a 'peaks and valleys' scheme which moves away from the one-dimensional learning mechanism currently found in Cid and shows promises in solving even more difficult learning control

  13. An Approach to Autonomous Control for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)


    Under Project Prometheus, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) investigated deep space missions that would utilize space nuclear power systems (SNPSs) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power. The initial study involved the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), which was proposed to conduct in-depth studies of three Jovian moons. Current radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and solar power systems cannot meet expected mission power demands, which include propulsion, scientific instrument packages, and communications. Historically, RTGs have provided long-lived, highly reliable, low-power-level systems. Solar power systems can provide much greater levels of power, but power density levels decrease dramatically at {approx} 1.5 astronomical units (AU) and beyond. Alternatively, an SNPS can supply high-sustained power for space applications that is both reliable and mass efficient. Terrestrial nuclear reactors employ varying degrees of human control and decision-making for operations and benefit from periodic human interaction for maintenance. In contrast, the control system of an SNPS must be able to provide continuous operatio for the mission duration with limited immediate human interaction and no opportunity for hardware maintenance or sensor calibration. In effect, the SNPS control system must be able to independently operate the power plant while maintaining power production even when subject to off-normal events and component failure. This capability is critical because it will not be possible to rely upon continuous, immediate human interaction for control due to communications delays and periods of planetary occlusion. In addition, uncertainties, rare events, and component degradation combine with the aforementioned inaccessibility and unattended operation to pose unique challenges that an SNPS control system must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design.

  14. Approaches to strengthen China nuclear material control system

    Full text: 1. Introduction. In order to ensure the security and lawful use of nuclear material, to protect against theft, loss, unlawful taking of nuclear materials and sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, the Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China was issued by the state council in 1987. In 1990, the Rules for the Implementation of Regulations on Nuclear Materials Control of the People's Republic of China was promulgated. These documents formed the legal basis of nuclear material control in China. As defined in the Regulation', licensing system has been adopted. Any organization or individuals intending to use, produce or store nuclear materials is required to apply the license and get the approval from the state competent authorities.The licensees should establish the nuclear material accounting and control system and physical protection system. 2. Basic requirements for licensee. To meet the requirements for nuclear material accounting and control, licensee should establish and maintain records and accounts on the quantities of nuclear material in each MBA, conduct physical inventory to determine the quantities of nuclear material present in each MBA periodically, and establish nuclear material measurement system to provide the quantities of nuclear material including inventory, shipment, receipts and loss etc. The physical protection system should be based on the evaluation of the threat. The principles of detection balance and defence in depth are required to be applied in the physical protection system design. IAEA document INFCIRC/225 Rev.4 is recommended as a reference for reviewing and designing physical protection system of nuclear material and facilities. 3. Inspection. Based on the Rules for Inspection of Nuclear Material Control issued by China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) In 1997, the competent authorities organize the expert group to verify the compliance of licensee and to evaluate the

  15. Optimal step-down approach for pediatric asthma controlled by salmeterol/fluticasone: A randomized, controlled trial (OSCAR study

    Kenichi Akashi


    Conclusions: A high level of asthma control was maintained with both approaches. The use of SFC step-down resulted in somewhat better respiratory function, with no worsening of airway inflammation. However, halving the dose of SFC and switching to FP alone are both optimal step-down approaches.

  16. Dynamics and control of multibody systems: An approach with application

    Grewal, A.; Modi, V. J.


    The paper focuses on the study of the dynamics and control of large flexible space structures, comprised of sub-assemblies, a subject of considerable contemporary interest. To begin with, a relatively general Lagrangian formulation of the problem is developed. The governing equations are non-linear, non-autonomous, coupled and extremely lengthy even in matrix notation. Next, an efficient computer code is developed and the versatility of the program illustrated through a study of the dynamics of the First Element Launch (FEL) configuration of the Space Station Freedom, now superseded by the International Space Station Alpha. The response of the FEL is obtained for two critical disturbances: (a) docking of the Space Shuttle; and (b) maneuver of the onboard mobile manipulator system (MSS). The study clearly demonstrates a need for active control. To that end, robust control of the rigid body motion of the FEL configuration using the LQG/LTR procedure is demonstrated. The controller designed using the simplified linear model, proves to be effective in regulating librational disturbances. Such a global approach—formulation, numerical code, dynamics and control—can serve as a powerful tool to gain comprehensive understanding of the interactions of the dynamics and thus aid in the development of effective and efficient control systems.

  17. NeuroControl: system identification approach for clinical benefit.

    Carel G.M. Meskers


    Full Text Available Progress in diagnosis and treatment of movement disorders after neurological diseases like stroke, cerebral palsy, dystonia and at old age requires understanding of the altered capacity to adequately respond to physical obstacles in the environment. With posture and movement disorders, the control of muscles is hampered, resulting in aberrant force generation and improper impedance regulation. Understanding of this improper regulation not only requires the understanding of the role of the neural controller, but also attention for the 1 the interaction between the neural controller and the “plant”, comprising the biomechanical properties of the skeleton including the viscoelastic properties of the contractile (muscle and non-contractile (connective tissues: neuromechanics and 2 the closed loop nature of neural controller and biomechanical system in which cause and effect interact and are hence difficult to separate. Properties of the neural controller and the biomechanical system need to be addressed synchronously by the combination of haptic robotics, (closed loop system identification, and neuro-mechanical modelling. In this paper, we argue that assessment of neuromechanics in response to well defined environmental conditions and tasks may provide for key parameters to understand posture and movement disorders in neurological diseases and as biomarkers to increase accuracy of prediction models for functional outcome and effects of intervention.

  18. Statistical Approach to Quality Control of Large Thermodynamic Databases

    Nyman, Henrik; Talonen, Tarja; Roine, Antti; Hupa, Mikko; Corander, Jukka


    In chemistry and engineering, thermodynamic databases are widely used to obtain the basic properties of pure substances or mixtures. Large and reliable databases are the basis of all thermodynamic modeling of complex chemical processes or systems. However, the effort needed in the establishment, maintenance, and management of a database increases exponentially along with the size and scope of the database. Therefore, we developed a statistical modeling approach to assist an expert in the evaluation and management process, which can pinpoint various types of erroneous records in a database. We have applied this method to investigate the enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity characteristics in a large commercial database for approximately 25,000 chemical species. Our highly successful results show that a statistical approach is a valuable tool (1) for the management of such databases and (2) to create enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity estimates for such species in which thermochemical data are not available.

  19. An approach to control collaborative processes in PLM systems

    Elkadiri, Soumaya; Pernelle, Philippe; Delattre, Miguel; Bouras, Abdelaziz


    International audience Companies that collaborate within the product development processes need to implement an effective management of their collaborative activities. Despite the implementation of a PLM system, the collaborative activities are not efficient as it might be expected. This paper presents an analysis of the problems related to the collaborative work using a PLM system. From this analysis, we propose an approach for improving collaborative processes within a PLM system, based ...

  20. Sensor Communication Rate Control Scheme Based on Inference Game Approach

    Sungwook Kim


    In real-life situations, decisions must be made even when limited or uncertain information is available. Therefore, the payoff of an action is not clearly known when the decision is made. Recently, game theory has become a powerful tool for analyzing the interactions between decision makers in many domains. However, the traditional game theory approach assumes that a player belief about the payoff of a strategy taken is accurate. To address this problem, we introduce a new kind of game, calle...

  1. A human factors approach to range scheduling for satellite control

    Wright, Cameron H. G.; Aitken, Donald J.


    Range scheduling for satellite control presents a classical problem: supervisory control of a large-scale dynamic system, with unwieldy amounts of interrelated data used as inputs to the decision process. Increased automation of the task, with the appropriate human-computer interface, is highly desirable. The development and user evaluation of a semi-automated network range scheduling system is described. The system incorporates a synergistic human-computer interface consisting of a large screen color display, voice input/output, a 'sonic pen' pointing device, a touchscreen color CRT, and a standard keyboard. From a human factors standpoint, this development represents the first major improvement in almost 30 years to the satellite control network scheduling task.

  2. Risk and Management Control: A Partial Least Square Modelling Approach

    Nielsen, Steen; Pontoppidan, Iens Christian

    and interrelations between risk and areas within management accounting. The idea is that management accounting should be able to conduct a valid feed forward but also predictions for decision making including risk. This study reports the test of a theoretical model using partial least squares (PLS) on survey data...... and a external attitude dimension. The results have important implications for both management control research and for the management control systems design for the way accountants consider the element of risk in their different tasks, both operational and strategic. Specifically, it seems that different risk...

  3. Action-Amplitude Approach to Controlled Entropic Self-Organization

    Vladimir Ivancevic


    Full Text Available Motivated by the notion of perceptual error, as a core concept of the perceptual control theory, we propose an action-amplitude model for controlled entropic self-organization (CESO. We present several aspects of this development that illustrate its explanatory power: (i a physical view of partition functions and path integrals, as well as entropy and phase transitions; (ii a global view of functional compositions and commutative diagrams; (iii a local geometric view of the Kähler–Ricci flow and time-evolution of entropic action; and (iv a computational view using various path-integral approximations.

  4. The magic ring systems thinking approach to control systems

    Mella, Piero


    This book presents a gradual path toward ""educating"" readers in understanding how Control Systems truly operate and in recognizing, simulating and improving them in all fields of activity. Starting from the hypothesis that knowledge of Control Systems is not only a technical fact but also represents a discipline - that is, ""A discipline is a developmental path for acquiring certain skills or competencies. (...) To practice a discipline is to be a lifelong learner. You ""never arrive""; you spend your life mastering disciplines."" (Senge, 2006, p. 10) - Piero Mella has set the objective of m

  5. Programmable System on Chip Distributed Communication and Control Approach for Human Adaptive Mechanical System

    Ahmad A.M. Faudzi; Suzumori, K


    Problem statement: Communication and control are two main components in any Mechatronics system. They can be designed either by centralized or decentralized approach. Both approaches can be chosen based on application designed and specific requirements of the designer. In this study, decentralized or normally called distributed approach was selected to solved communication and control of a human adaptive mechanical system namely Intelligent Chair Tools (ICT). The ICT seating system is powered...

  6. Supervisor localization a top-down approach to distributed control of discrete-event systems

    Cai, Kai


    This monograph presents a systematic top-down approach to distributed control synthesis of discrete-event systems (DES). The approach is called supervisor localization; its essence is the allocation of external supervisory control action to individual component agents as their internal control strategies. The procedure is: first synthesize a monolithic supervisor, to achieve globally optimal and nonblocking controlled behavior, then decompose the monolithic supervisor into local controllers, one for each agent. The collective behavior of the resulting local controllers is identical to that achieved by the monolithic supervisor. The basic localization theory is first presented in the Ramadge–Wonham language-based supervisory control framework, then demonstrated with distributed control examples of multi-robot formations, manufacturing systems, and distributed algorithms. An architectural approach is adopted to apply localization to large-scale DES; this yields a heterarchical localization procedure, which is...

  7. A systematic approach for fine-tuning of fuzzy controllers applied to WWTPs

    Ruano, M.V.; Ribes, J.; Sin, Gürkan; Seco, A.; Ferrer, J.


    A systematic approach for fine-tuning fuzzy controllers has been developed and evaluated for an aeration control system implemented in a WWTR The challenge with the application of fuzzy controllers to WWTPs is simply that they contain many parameters, which need to be adjusted for different WWTP...... of 33, which improved the quality of the optimization of the control system by a minimization algorithm. Overall the systematic approach considerably improved the performance of the control system as measured by the Integral Absolute Error (deviation between the set-point and the controlled variable...... fine-tune the identifiable parameter subset of the controller. Indeed, the initial location found by Monte-Carlo simulations provided better results than using trial and error approach when identifying parameters of the fuzzy controller. The identifiable subset was reduced to 4 parameters from a total...

  8. Accounting Control Technology Using SAP: A Case-Based Approach

    Ragan, Joseph; Puccio, Christopher; Talisesky, Brandon


    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) revolutionized the accounting and audit industry. The use of preventative and process controls to evaluate the continuous audit process done via an SAP ERP ECC 6.0 system is key to compliance with SOX and managing costs. This paper can be used in a variety of ways to discuss issues associated with auditing and testing…

  9. Supervisory Control of (max,+) automata: a behavioral approach

    Komenda, Jan; Lahaye, S.; Boimond, J.-L.


    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2009), s. 525-549. ISSN 0924-6703 Grant ostatní: EU Projekt(XE) EU. ICT .DISC 224498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : timed discrete-event systems * supervisory control * formal power series * (max,+) * automata Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2009

  10. Formation control of marine surface craft: a Lagrangian approach

    Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.


    This paper presents a method for formation control of marine surface craft inspired by Lagrangian mechanics. The desired formation configuration and response of the marine surface craft are given as a set of constraints in analytical mechanics. Thus, constraints forces arise and feedback from the...

  11. A comparision of approaches to solving H2 control problem

    Kučera, Vladimír


    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2008), s. 328-335. ISSN 0023-5954 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Linear systems * Norma H2 * Optimal izace Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.281, year: 2008

  12. Digital photovoltaic power conversion system with intelligent control approach

    Hua, C.C.; Huang, C.L. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    Although photovoltaic (PV) energy is considered to be one of the most useful natural energy sources, new economically viable methods must be developed to increase system performance. This paper presented a digital PV power conversion system. The digital signal processor (DSP)-based controller consisted of a PV module, a boost converter and a full-bridge inverter. The controller was used to implement the system control in different operating modes, including maximum power point tracking (MPPT), grid-connected modes and stand-alone modes. The complex control theory can be readily implemented and the conversion system can supply local loads exclusively or feed excess power back to the utility network. In the grid-connected mode, the zero crossover detection technique for the inverter output current and the voltage of utility network with unit power factor is implemented. In the stand- alone mode, the system can work at maximum power at 500 W. Experimental results were provided to verify the theoretical analysis and feasibility of the proposed PV power conversion system. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 16 figs.

  13. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona


    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a third of the variation in the detection time.

  14. Detecting Approaching Vehicles at Streets with No Traffic Control

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Sauerburger, Dona


    This study assessed the ability of people with visual impairments to reliably detect oncoming traffic at crossing situations with no traffic control. In at least one condition, the participants could not hear vehicles to afford a safe crossing time when sound levels were as quiet as possible. Significant predictors of detection accounted for a…

  15. Control system of motivation of personal based on gradient approach

    Doliatovskii Valerii Anastasievich


    Full Text Available The concept of management by motivation of workers on the basis of definition of sensitivity of results of work to influence various motives is proved. There by the object of management is identified by a set of indicators of sensitivity which are the limiting sizes defining reaction of workers on motives. By averaging of the given questionnaires the matrix of identification of system of motivation is received. On its basis the decision of direct and return problems of management is possible. Experimental data about results of application are led to a choice of system of motivation based on gradient the approach.

  16. Refractory asthma - An old disorder: Novel approaches for effective control.

    Prasad, B N B M


    Bronchial asthma is an inflammatory disorder of airways characterized by hyper-responsiveness to a wide range of triggers and is associated with variable airflow obstruction that remits spontaneously or with the treatment. Several phenotype of asthma not responding to the currently acceptable standard therapy of high dose inhaled gluco-corticosteroids along with along acting β2 agonists come under the purview of refractory asthma. This condition is a heterogeneous and complex disease that requires a multi-disciplinary approach to identify accurately various sub-phenotypes to enable improved understanding of the pathogenesis and development of effective management strategies including use of novel methods and targeted therapy. PMID:27546969

  17. Project management a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling

    Kerzner, Harold R


    The bestselling project management text for students and professionals-now updated and expanded This Eleventh Edition of the bestselling ""bible"" of project management maintains the streamlined approach of the prior editions and moves the content even closer to PMI''s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK). New content has been added to this edition on measuring project management ROI, value to the organization and to customers, and much more. The capstone ""super"" case on the ""Iridium Project"" has been maintained, covering all aspects of project management. Increased use of sideba

  18. Acceptability of impregnated school uniforms for dengue control in Thailand: a mixed methods approach

    Murray, Natasha; Jansarikij, Suphachai; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Souares, Aurélia; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Louis, Valérie R


    Background: As current dengue control strategies have been shown to be largely ineffective in reducing dengue in school-aged children, novel approaches towards dengue control need to be studied. Insecticide-impregnated school uniforms represent an innovative approach with the theoretical potential to reduce dengue infections in school children.Objectives: This study took place in the context of a randomised control trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated school uniform...

  19. Light-Duty Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Cost Estimates Using a Part-Pricing Approach

    Wang, Quanlu; Kling, Catherine; Sperling, Daniel


    The substantial reductions in motor vehicle emissions that have occurred since the late 1960s have been accompanied by continuous increases in vehicle emission control costs, and cost increases or decreases due to changes in vehicle performance such as driveability, power, fuel economy, and vehicle maintenance. In this paper, a systematic approach has been developed to estimate emission control costs for motor vehicles. The approach accounts for all emission control parts installed on vehicle...

  20. A Hybrid Approach for Coordinated Formation Control of Multiple Surface Vessels

    Mingyu Fu; Jianfang Jiao


    This paper investigates the coordination control of multiple marine vessels in different operational modes. Based on hybrid control theory, a novel coordinated formation control approach is proposed. The proposed method comprises several continuous state controllers and discrete event logics. Continuous controllers for coordinated formation, coordinated dynamic positioning and coordinated path following are designed, and an appropriate weighting function is given to switch between these contr...

  1. A Decoupled MPC for Motion Control in Robotino Using a Geometric Approach

    Straßberger, Daniel; Mercorelli, Paolo; Sergiyenko, Oleg


    This paper proposes a controller for motion control of the Robotino. The proposed controller considers a functional decoupling control strategy realized using a geometric approach and the invertibility property of the DC-drives with which the Robotino is equipped. Horizontal, Vertical and Angular motions are considered and once the decoupling between these motions is obtained, a Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy is used in combination with the inverse DC-drive model. Simulation results using real data of Robotino are shown.

  2. Modern linear control design a time-domain approach

    Caravani, Paolo


    This book offers a compact introduction to modern linear control design.  The simplified overview presented of linear time-domain methodology paves the road for the study of more advanced non-linear techniques. Only rudimentary knowledge of linear systems theory is assumed - no use of Laplace transforms or frequency design tools is required. Emphasis is placed on assumptions and logical implications, rather than abstract completeness; on interpretation and physical meaning, rather than theoretical formalism; on results and solutions, rather than derivation or solvability.  The topics covered include transient performance and stabilization via state or output feedback; disturbance attenuation and robust control; regional eigenvalue assignment and constraints on input or output variables; asymptotic regulation and disturbance rejection. Lyapunov theory and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI) are discussed as key design methods. All methods are demonstrated with MATLAB to promote practical use and comprehension. ...

  3. Two Approaches to Control of Fed-batch Fermentation Process

    Tatiana Ilkova


    Full Text Available L-lysine is one of the irreplaceable aminoacids whose content in the animal protein is relatively high in comparison to plants, where the content is relatively low. The insufficiently L-lysine quantity in the fodders reduces the biological value of the fodder doses, reduces the weight increase and the further productiveness of the agricultural animals, it increases the fodder quantity, used for a kilogram growth and decreases the product quantity of animal origin. The most effective and cheapest method for the L-lysine biosynthesis (in biological active form is the microbiological method via a direct fermentation. In this paper it is used an optimization method at the L-lysine production from strain Brevibacterium flavum 22LD - Neuro-dynamic programming. For receiving a feedback and robustness of the optimal control profile the Model predictive control of the L-lysine production is developed.

  4. A market approach to decentralized control of a manufacturing cell

    Based on a fictitious market model, a decentralized approach is presented for the workstation scheduling in a CNC workshop. A multi-agent framework is proposed, where job agents and resource agents act as buyers and sellers of resource in the virtual market. With cost and benefit calculation of these agent activities, which reflects the state of the production environment, various, and often conflicting goals and interests influencing the scheduling process in practice can be balanced through a unified instrument offered by the markets. The paper first introduces a heuristic procedure that makes scheduling reservations in a periodic manner. A multi-agent framework is then introduced, in which job agents and resource agents seek appropriate job-workstation matches through bidding in the construction of the above periodic 'micro-schedules'. A pricing policy is proposed for the price-directed coordination of agent activities in this. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and give some insights on the effects of some decision making parameters. Future work will be focused on the designing of some more sophisticated coordination mechanism and its deployment.

  5. Gravity Control Propulsion: Towards a General Relativistic Approach

    Bertolami, O.; Pedro, F. G.


    Evaluation of gravity control concepts should be examined with respect to currently known physical theories. In this work we study the hypothetical conversion of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy using the formalism of general relativity. We show that the energy involved in the process greatly exceeds the Newtonian estimate, given the nature of general relativity. We conclude that the impact of any gravity manipulation for propulsion greatly depends fundamentally on its exact...

  6. Technical enforcement of european privacy legislation: an access control approach

    Bekara, Kheira; Laurent, Maryline; Nguyen, Than Ha


    Until today, the protection of personal data is mainly left to the legislation by means of guidelines. This paper aims to increase the perceived control by users over their data by helping the user's agent to check the service requests conformity to the legislation. To do so, it discusses the main concepts involved in the legislative privacy principles, and deduces a privacy semantic information model. The proposed model focuses on the main concepts involved in legislative privacy principles....

  7. Monitoring Software Reliability using Statistical Process Control: An MMLE Approach

    Bandla Sreenivasa Rao; Dr.R. Satya Prasad; Kantham, R. R. L.


    This paper consider an MMLE (Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation) based scheme to estimate software reliability using exponential distribution. The MMLE is one of the generalized frameworks of software reliability models of Non Homogeneous Poisson Processes (NHPPs). The MMLE gives analytical estimators rather than an iterative approximation to estimate the parameters. In this paper we proposed SPC (Statistical Process Control) Charts mechanism to determine the software quality using inter ...

  8. Modern Approach in Management and Noise Control in Urban Areas

    Hadzi-Nikolova, Marija


    PhD thesis presents identification and analysis of noise sources in the city of Stip (as a representative for a small urban center with a dynamic development, whose noise dispersion model can be applied in other similar urban centers). Methodology for modern technologies application in management and noise control in urban areas is developed based on generated noise maps and conflicting noise maps. For this porpose, two-year noise level monitoring on strategic measurement points was performed...

  9. Controlled institutional chaos: development of conceptual approaches to the study

    Dyatlov Sergei Alexeevich


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methodological principles of the organization of the global economic system, the crisis of the industrial and market paradigms, reviewing the evolution of views and critical analysis of the main provisions of the concept of controlled chaos and entropy logic theory. Introduced into the scientific circulation a number of new concepts. Formulated the new concept of "creative order".

  10. An AI-Based Approach to Destination Control in Elevators

    Koehler, Jana; Ottiger, Daniel


    Not widely known by the AI community, elevator control has become a major field of application for AI technologies. Techniques such as neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy rules and, recently, multiagent systems and AI planning have been adopted by leading elevator companies not only to improve the transportation capacity of conventional elevator systems but also to revolutionize the way in which elevators interact with and serve passengers. In this article, we begin with an overview of...


    Mariko Funasaki; Hileia dos Santos Barroso; Valdelira Lia Araújo Fernandes; Ingrid Sabino Menezes


    The market for natural cosmetics featuring ingredients derived from Amazon natural resources is growing worldwide. However, there is neither enough scientific basis nor quality control of these ingredients. This paper is an account of the chemical constituents and their biological activities of fourteen Amazonian species used in cosmetic industry, including açaí (Euterpe oleracea), andiroba (Carapa guianensis), bacuri (Platonia insignis), Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa), buriti (Mauritia vi...

  12. Sex Control in Fish: Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities for Aquaculture

    Alyssa M. Budd; Quyen Q. Banh; Jose A. Domingos; Jerry, Dean R.


    At present, aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of animal food production and holds great potential as a sustainable solution for world food security. The ability to control sex is one of the most important factors for the commercialisation and efficient propagation of fish species, due to influences on reproduction, growth and product quality. Accordingly, there is a large body of research that targets sexual development in commercially important species in an attempt to understand an...

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage: direct approach under fluoroscopic control.

    Takada, T; Hanyu, F; Kobayashi, S; Uchida, Y


    We devised a direct percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage under fluoroscopic control. The principle is as follows. After percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, the three dimensional structure of intrahepatic bile ducts is projected to a two dimensional plane under fluoroscopy; the needle can then be introduced into the selected bile duct with accuracy. The technique can be used as a preoperative management of operations of patients with jaundice and also as a palliative management of advanced cancer without much complication. PMID:1249944

  14. Evaluation of modern approach of strategic cost control ABSTRACT

    Jana Fibírová


    The aim of the strategic cost control is to recognize mutual interconnections and relations of budgeting process as a whole, to design the management model of a company operating in turbulent market environment and to specify the principles, rules and tools of the model. Budgets stand on the top of the complex of management system of business; they represent the completion of the whole planning system. Increasing of efficiency of budgets is closely linked to the change of business strategy re...

  15. Multicontroller: an object programming approach to introduce advanced control algorithms for the GCS large scale project

    Cabaret, S; Coppier, H; Rachid, A; Barillère, R; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    The GCS (Gas Control System) project team at CERN uses a Model Driven Approach with a Framework - UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) - based on PLC (Programming Language Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) technologies. The first' UNICOS versions were able to provide a PID (Proportional Integrative Derivative) controller whereas the Gas Systems required more advanced control strategies. The MultiController is a new UNICOS object which provides the following advanced control algorithms: Smith Predictor, PFC (Predictive Function Control), RST* and GPC (Global Predictive Control). Its design is based on a monolithic entity with a global structure definition which is able to capture the desired set of parameters of any specific control algorithm supported by the object. The SCADA system -- PVSS - supervises the MultiController operation. The PVSS interface provides users with supervision faceplate, in particular it links any MultiController with recipes: the GCS experts are ab...

  16. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    Shaker Khubab


    Full Text Available A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.

  17. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

    Ana Domingos


    Full Text Available Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the first commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry.

  18. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control.

    Domingos, Ana; Antunes, Sandra; Borges, Lara; Rosário, Virgílio Estólio do


    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the fi rst commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry. PMID:23559344

  19. Constrained off-line synthesis approach of model predictive control for networked control systems with network-induced delays.

    Tang, Xiaoming; Qu, Hongchun; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Meng


    This paper investigates the off-line synthesis approach of model predictive control (MPC) for a class of networked control systems (NCSs) with network-induced delays. A new augmented model which can be readily applied to time-varying control law, is proposed to describe the NCS where bounded deterministic network-induced delays may occur in both sensor to controller (S-A) and controller to actuator (C-A) links. Based on this augmented model, a sufficient condition of the closed-loop stability is derived by applying the Lyapunov method. The off-line synthesis approach of model predictive control is addressed using the stability results of the system, which explicitly considers the satisfaction of input and state constraints. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:25538025

  20. Wind turbine control with constraint handling: a model predictive control approach

    Henriksen, Lars Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    on model predictive control, a control method well suited for constraint handling. The performance of the presented controller during an extreme operating gust is compared to that of a proportional-integral controller with integrator anti-windup. Furthermore, the presented controller-s capability to......This study presents a wind turbine controller able to handle both hard and soft constraints, typically on actuators but also on other components of the wind turbine, if needed. An issue especially relevant during extreme events or for under-dimensioned actuators. The presented controller is based...

  1. Synchronization of hyperchaotic Chen systems: a class of the adaptive control approach

    The synchronization of hyperchaotic Chen systems is considered. An adaptive synchronization approach and a cascade adaptive synchronization approach are presented to synchronize a drive system and a response system. By utilizing an adaptive controller based on the dynamic compensation mechanism, exact knowledge of the systems is not necessarily required, and the synchronous speed is controllable by tuning the controller parameters. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stability of the two synchronization schemes are derived. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the adaptive synchronization scheme with four control inputs and the cascade adaptive synchronization scheme with only one control signal are effective and feasible in chaos synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. (general)


    P. Andreev


    The main approaches to the definition of basic terms in the field of internal public financial control are studied. The paper provides an analysis of internal control categories in the world. The current trends in the interpretation of these terms in national legislation are underlined. The own definition of the internal state financial control is provided.

  3. A simplified fuel control approach for low cost aircraft gas turbines

    Gold, H.


    Reduction in the complexity of gas turbine fuel controls without loss of control accuracy, reliability, or effectiveness as a method for reducing engine costs is discussed. A description and analysis of hydromechanical approach are presented. A computer simulation of the control mechanism is given and performance of a physical model in engine test is reported.

  4. Modern approaches to accelerator simulation and on-line control

    COMFORT-PLUS consists of three parts: (1) COMFORT (Control Of Machine Function, ORbits, and Trajectories), which computes the machine lattice functions and transport matrices along a beamline; (2) PLUS (Prediction from Lattice Using Simulation) which finds or compensates for errors in the beam parameters or machine elements; and (3) a highly graphical interface to PLUS. The COMFORT-PLUS package has been developed on a SUN-3 workstation. The structure and use of COMFORT-PLUS are described, and an example of the use of the package is presented

  5. Spatial operator approach to flexible multibody system dynamics and control

    Rodriguez, G.


    The inverse and forward dynamics problems for flexible multibody systems were solved using the techniques of spatially recursive Kalman filtering and smoothing. These algorithms are easily developed using a set of identities associated with mass matrix factorization and inversion. These identities are easily derived using the spatial operator algebra developed by the author. Current work is aimed at computational experiments with the described algorithms and at modelling for control design of limber manipulator systems. It is also aimed at handling and manipulation of flexible objects.

  6. Control design approaches for nonlinear systems using multiple models

    Junyong ZHAI; Shumin FEI; Feipeng DA


    It is difficult to realize control for some complex nonlinear systems operated in different operating regions.Based on developing local models for different operating regions of the process, a novel algorithm using multiple models is proposed. It utilizes dynamic model bank to establish multiple local models, and their membership functions are defined according to respective regions. Then the nonlinear system is approximated to a weighted combination of the local models.The stability of the nonlinear system is proven. Finally, simulations are given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  7. A systematic approach to control of radioactive waste discharges

    The setting of controls of radioactive waste discharges from the major nuclear sites in England is a statutory responsibility of the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food acting jointly with the Chief Inspector of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution, within the terms of the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 as amended by the Environmental Protection Act 1990. MAFF's technical responsibilities are divided between the Food Safety (Radiation) Unit, which is responsible for terrestrial exposure pathways, and the Fisheries Radiological Inspectorate, responsible for aquatic exposure pathways. Both groups operate in a similar way and their work can be considered to fall into four main areas. First, discharge routes, important isotopes, exposure pathways and doses to the public are considered. Second, the adequacy of discharge controls is monitored by inspection of plant operations and site records, and by MAFF's supervision of an environmental monitoring programme by the polluter. Third, an independent 'check' monitoring programme is carried out on the environmental impact. Fourth, there is a complementary research programme involving specific projects designed to support monitoring and assessments methodology. (author)

  8. Procurement control - A proactive approach to seller management

    The successful completion of any program is directly and intimately related to the seller's ability to make satisfactory progress in achieving the program's objectives. Impairments to progress include but are not limited to (a) evolving or pacing technology development, (b) production and manufacturing problems, (c) seller's subcontractor difficulties, (d) seller cash flow, and (e) buyer/seller contractual or relationship issues. While it is not possible to anticipate every problem that can occur during program performance, their occurrence and effect can be minimized by preaward and postaward attention by the buyer. But who is responsible? The engineer, concerned with achieving the technical objectives of the program, is not interested in the management of the acquisition or the contract administrative details. The contract administrator often lacks the technical skills and insights necessary to head off and resolve production problems. A procurement control organization, involved at the initial stage of acquisition strategy development and dedicated to procurement control, will have a pronounced effect on the successful completion of the program and attainment of its objectives

  9. An artificial intelligence approach to accelerator control systems

    An experiment was recently started at LAMPF to evaluate the power and limitations of using artificial intelligence techniques to solve problems in accelerator control and operation. A knowledge base was developed to describe the characteristics and the relationships of the first 30 devices in the LAMPF H+ beam line. Each device was categorized and pertinent attributes for each category defined. Specific values were assigned in the knowledge base to represent each actual device. Relationships between devices are modeled using the artificial intelligence techniques of rules, active values, and object-oriented methods. This symbolic model, built using the Knowledge Engineering Environment (KEE) system, provides a framework for analyzing faults, tutoring trainee operators, and offering suggestions to assist in beam tuning. Based on information provided by the domain expert responsible for tuning this portion of the beam line, additional rules were written to describe how he tunes, how he analyzes what is actually happening, and how he deals with failures. Initial results have shown that artificial intelligence techniques can be a useful adjunct to traditional methods of numerical simulation. Successful and efficient operation of future accelerators may depend on the proper merging of symbolic reasoning and conventional numerical control algorithms

  10. A New Approach to an Automated Air Traffic Control

    Patchev Dragoljub


    This paper identifies areas of improvements of the air traffic control system and proposes modification of the concept of automation by using available technologies. With the proposed modification, the current Europe wide en route network structure can be modified in order to make routes more optimal. For this new route network structure, a new concept of automation will be used to manage with the air traffic. The first identified area of improvement is implementation of automation process that will enable decentralization of the air traffic control functionality to each individual aircraft and this will be achieved through automated routing of the aircrafts and CD&R (conflict detection and resolution). The FMS (flight management system) at the aircraft will make decisions for the optimal flight route based on the sensor inputs, information on selection of the routes, next hope points and flight levels, all received by ADS-B (automatic dependant surveillance-broadcast). The second area is processing the information about the deviation from the optimal route as in flight plan due to a traffic management (vectoring, level change) and taking it into consideration when further actions are undertaken. For each action, a cost factor will be calculated from the fuel burned for that action. This factor will be used to select conflict resolution protocol. The proposed concept shall increase the capacity of the network, and enable the air traff~c more efficient and more environmentally friendly while maintaining safe separation.