Sample records for apporaches mapping examples

  1. An example of association mapping in Cacao.

    Association mapping and genomic selection have become important methodologies in perennial crop breeding improvement programs for accelerating breeding efforts and increasing the efficiency of selection. They are good alternatives to the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping approach.The ...

  2. Performance driven expression mapping based on segmented examples

    YING Shuang; ZHANG Qiang; ZHO U Dongsheng


    We present a method that combines performance-driven method with segmented 3D blendshape models to animate a face. First we prepare key sample examples and corresponding key target examples. Next we segment the whole face into two regions, for each region we reduce dimensionality of source examples using PAC into abstract space which is defined by truncated PCA eigen- vectors. Then for each example we fix the cardinal base function, which can determine the weight of the target example. Finally, in the animation stage we compute the weight of each example for each frame and add the weighted displacement vectors of each re- gion on the general face model.

  3. Making maps of the cosmic microwave background: The MAXIMA example

    This work describes cosmic microwave background (CMB) data analysis algorithms and their implementations, developed to produce a pixelized map of the sky and a corresponding pixel-pixel noise correlation matrix from time ordered data for a CMB mapping experiment. We discuss in turn algorithms for estimating noise properties from the time ordered data, techniques for manipulating the time ordered data, and a number of variants of the maximum likelihood map-making procedure. We pay particular attention to issues pertinent to real CMB data, and present ways of incorporating them within the framework of maximum likelihood map making. Making a map of the sky is shown to be not only an intermediate step rendering an image of the sky, but also an important diagnostic stage, when tests for and/or removal of systematic effects can efficiently be performed. The case under study is the MAXIMA-I data set. However, the methods discussed are expected to be applicable to the analysis of other current and forthcoming CMB experiments

  4. An Example of a Country Assessment: Desertification Mapping in Italy

    Riccardo G. Boschetto


    Full Text Available Desertification is the result of human induced land degradation which can be accelerated under severe drought conditions, and can occur under very diverse climatic conditions. Actually, studies have been conducted on assessing the vulnerability to desertification in Italy at national and regional level and they are based on different methodologies to carry out maps. These methodologies are developed by combination of different climatic, soil, vegetation, and socio-economic attributes useful to estimate pressure on land and state of soil and vegetation. This study is aimed at sketching the methodologies used in the creation of the current available maps of the risk of desertification in Italy and the state of the art of the mapping tools as well as some limits of them: firstly, a complete absence of bias in each indices of the algorithm which gives vulnerability index, and secondly the extreme variability of indices in relation to the degree of precision from national to local scale.

  5. Mapping suspected buried channels using gravity: Examples from southwest Michigan

    Keighley, K.E.; Atekwana, E.A.; Sauck, W.A. (Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo, MI (United States). Dept. of Geology)


    This study documents the successful application of the gravity method in mapping suspected buried bedrock valleys at three sites in southwest Michigan. The first site is located in Benton Harbor, Berrien County. Gravity surveys were conducted along the Jean Klock Park as part of an ongoing coastal research study of the Lake Michigan shoreline. Previous Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) studies at this site had suggested the presence of a buried valley. The results of the gravity survey confirmed the existence of a buried valley approximately 30--40 m deep and at least 2,000 m wide, which is in good agreement with information from drill cores suggesting a possible ancient river system. A detailed gravity survey was conducted at the second site located in Schoolcraft Township, Kalamazoo County, where the heavy use of pesticides has resulted in the contamination of the upper aquifers. Preliminary results suggest the presence of a broad shallow valley at least 25 m deep. Gravity surveys at the third site located southeast of the Kavco Landfill, Barry County also suggests the presence of a buried valley oriented NE-SW, confirming the interpretations of an earlier electrical resistivity study. It is possible that this channel controls groundwater flow and facilitates the transport of contaminants from the landfill to the surrounding areas.

  6. Parameterization of triangular meshes for texture mapping

    Leksell, Mats


    A parameterization of a three-dimensional triangular mesh M to a two dimensional parameter domain is a invertibel PM : S - R, where is the set of all points on the surface. one of the use for such a mapping is for mapping an image from the parameter space D-R onto S. thesis evalutes several apporaches for creating such a mapping. for this purpos , the optimal mapping is an isomtry, i.e. a mapping that preserves the length of all the edges. Such a mapping is however often impossible or somputa...

  7. Aeromagnetic map compilation: procedures for merging and an example from Washington

    C. Finn


    Full Text Available Rocks in Antarctica and offshore have widely diverse magnetic properties. Consequently, aeromagnetic data collected there can improve knowledge of the geologic, tectonic and geothermal characteristics of the region. Aeromagnetic data can map concealed structures such as faults, folds and dikes, ascertain basin thickness and locate buried volcanic, as well as some intrusive and metamorphic rocks. Gridded, composite data sets allow a view of continental-scale trends that individual data sets do not provide and link widely-separated areas of outcrop and disparate geologic studies. Individual magnetic surveys must be processed so that they match adjacent surveys prior to merging. A consistent representation of the Earth's magnetic field (International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF must be removed from each data set. All data sets need to be analytically continued to the same flight elevation with their datums shifted to match adjacent data. I advocate minimal processing to best represent the individual surveys in the merged compilation. An example of a compilation of aeromagnetic surveys from Washington illustrates the utility of aeromagnetic maps for providing synoptic views of regional tectonic features.

  8. Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents

    Mitchell Steven


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence – a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools – a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling

  9. An Example of Unsupervised Networks Kohonen's Self-Organizing Feature Map

    Niebur, Dagmar


    Kohonen's self-organizing feature map belongs to a class of unsupervised artificial neural network commonly referred to as topographic maps. It serves two purposes, the quantization and dimensionality reduction of date. A short description of its history and its biological context is given. We show that the inherent classification properties of the feature map make it a suitable candidate for solving the classification task in power system areas like load forecasting, fault diagnosis and security assessment.

  10. Example of a non-measurable set involving aperiodic trajectories of a discrete map

    We consider a discrete map transforming a compact set in RN onto itself. Under assumptions that: (i) there exists a measure on this set which is invariant under the map, and (ii) the set of all cyclic trajectories has a measure which is strictly less than the measure of the whole set, it is shown that the set consisting of all 'distinct initial conditions' (each point of the set represents a different aperiodic trajectory of the discrete map) is non-measurable with respect to this measure. (author). 8 refs


    Abrahamyan, Nazeli


    The purpose of this diploma thesis is to describe the basic principles of Business Intelligence, its meaning in business reporting with focus on ensuring relevant information for stakeholders and consequently to identify the major risk factors in complex data mapping process of a project carried out for an insurance company Solvency II regulatory reporting. The identification of risks is based on a detailed analysis of the mapping process and its weak points. The main benefit of the thesis wi...

  12. Poverty mapping based on first order dominance with an example from Mozambique

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo;

    We explore a novel first order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly; is straightforward to implement; is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare; and accounts rigorously for...... welfare distributions in both levels and trends. An application to Mozambique highlights the value of the approach, including its advantages in the monitoring and evaluation of public expenditures. We conclude that the FOD approach to poverty mapping constitutes a useful addition to the toolkit of policy...

  13. Poverty Mapping Based on First-Order Dominance with an Example from Mozambique

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo;


    We explore a novel first-order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small-area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly, is straightforward to implement, is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare and accounts rigorously for...... welfare distributions in both levels and trends. An application to Mozambique highlights the value of the approach, including its advantages in the monitoring and evaluation of public expenditures. We conclude that the FOD approach to poverty mapping constitutes a useful addition to the toolkit of policy...

  14. Geomorphological map as a tool for visualisation of geodiversity - example from Cave Park Grabovaca (Croatia)

    Buzjak, Nenad; Bocic, Neven; Pahernik, Mladen


    Cave Park Grabovaca is located near Perusic in Lika region (central Croatia). It was established in 2006 at the area of 5.95 km2 (protection category: significant landscape). The main task is management and protection of Samograd, Medina and Amidzina caves that were declared as geomorphological monuments, and 6 other caves located close to each other. Owing to the central geographic location in Croatian Dinaric karst area, good traffic connections between central Europe and tourist centres of the Adriatic coast, preserved nature and easy accessible karst features typical for the Dinaric Karst, it has good potential to develop as an research, educational and tourist centre. In 2013. Cave Park management and the Department of Geography (University of Zagreb, Faculty of Science) established a core team that started to develop the project of Geoeducational centre (GEC) with following goals: exploration-evaluation-presentation-education. According to the accepted strategy, the first step in the project process is to enlarge the area and change the protection category. During the consultation process team members take into account protection, environmental, local economy, tourism and local population issues and proposed that protected area should be increased to 52,2 km2. This enlargement provides more efficient protection, greater geodiversity and biodiversity by occupying geotope, biotope, and landscape units typical for the whole Lika karst region. The next step was inventorying, evaluation, analysis and visualisation of geological, geomorphological and speleological phenomena. This 2 year task was made in cooperation between Croatian Geomorphological Society, Department of Geography, Speleological Society Karlovac and Caving Club Samobor. The inventory was made using field-work mapping and geotagged photographs, cave mapping and DEM analysis. It resulted in GIS oriented geodatabase consisting of geomorphological forms, processes and cave inventory. From those data

  15. Poverty Mapping Based on First-Order Dominance with an Example from Mozambique

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave


    We explore a novel first-order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small-area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly, is straightforward to implement, is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare and accounts rigorously for w...

  16. Poverty mapping based on first order dominance with an example from Mozambique

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, M. Azhar; Salvucci, Vincenzo; Tarp, Finn; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    We explore a novel first order dominance (FOD) approach to poverty mapping and compare its properties to small area estimation. The FOD approach uses census data directly; is straightforward to implement; is multidimensional allowing for a broad conception of welfare; and accounts rigorously for ...

  17. Making maps of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization for B-mode studies: the POLARBEAR example

    Poletti, Davide; Jeune, Maude Le; Peloton, Julien; Arnold, Kam; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Barron, Darcy; Beckman, Shawn; Borrill, Julian; Chapman, Scott; Chinone, Yuji; Cukierman, Ari; Ducout, Anne; Elleflot, Tucker; Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen; Goeckner-Wald, Neil; Groh, John; Hall, Grantland; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Hill, Charles; Howe, Logan; Inoue, Yuki; Jaffe, Andrew H; Jeong, Oliver; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Keating, Brian; Keskitalo, Reijo; Kisner, Theodore; Kusaka, Akito; Lee, Adrian T; Leon, David; Linder, Eric; Lowry, Lindsay; Matsuda, Frederick; Navaroli, Martin; Paar, Hans; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Reichardt, Christian L; Ross, Colin; Siritanasak, Praween; Stebor, Nathan; Steinbach, Bryan; Stompor, Radek; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tajima, Osamu; Teply, Grant; Whitehorn, Nathan


    Analysis of cosmic microwave background (CMB) datasets typically requires some filtering of the raw time-ordered data. Filtering is frequently used to minimize the impact of low frequency noise, atmospheric contributions and/or scan synchronous signals on the resulting maps. In this work we explicitly construct a general filtering operator, which can unambiguously remove any set of unwanted modes in the data, and then amend the map-making procedure in order to incorporate and correct for it. We show that such an approach is mathematically equivalent to the solution of a problem in which the sky signal and unwanted modes are estimated simultaneously and the latter are marginalized over. We investigate the conditions under which this amended map-making procedure can render an unbiased estimate of the sky signal in realistic circumstances. We then study the effects of time-domain filtering on the noise correlation structure in the map domain, as well as impact it may have on the performance of the popular pseudo...

  18. Principles of soil mapping of a megalopolis with St. Petersburg as an example

    Aparin, B. F.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.


    For the first time, a soil map of St. Petersburg has been developed on a scale of 1 : 50000 using MicroStation V8i software. The legend to this map contains more than 60 mapping units. The classification of urban soils and information on the soil cover patterns are principally new elements of this legend. New concepts of the urbanized soil space and urbopedocombinations have been suggested for soil mapping of urban territories. The typification of urbopedocombinations in St. Petersburg has been performed on the basis of data on the geometry and composition of the polygons of soils and nonsoil formations. The ratio between the areas of soils and nonsoil formations and their spatial distribution patterns have been used to distinguish between six types of the urbanized soil space. The principles of classification of the soils of urban territories have been specified, and a separate order of pedo-allochthonous soils has been suggested for inclusion into the Classification and Diagnostic System of Russian Soils (2004). Six types of pedo-allochthonous soils have been distinguished on the basis of data on their humus and organic horizons and the character of the underlying mineral substrate.

  19. Geoheritage assessment based on large-scale geomorphological mapping: contributes from a Portuguese limestone massif example

    Rodrigues, Maria Luísa; Fonseca, André


    The importance of scale during the different steps of geomorphological mapping is a well-discussed issue within the scientific community. Nevertheless, in association with the growing importance of geomorphosite assessment, evaluation, promotion and preservation, the use of different scales is yet to be clearly defined, especially because of the differences in spatial scale of the geomorphological phenomena. When talking about scale in geoheritage assessment, one must take into account the ev...

  20. Spatially quantitative seafloor habitat mapping: example from the northern South Carolina inner continental shelf

    Ojeda, Germán Y.; Gayes, Paul T.; Van Dolah, Robert F.; Schwab, William C.


    Naturally occurring hard bottom areas provide the geological substrate that can support diverse assemblages of sessile benthic organisms, which in turn, attract many reef-dwelling fish species. Alternatively, defining the location and extent of bottom sand bodies is relevant for potential nourishment projects as well as to ensure that transient sediment does not affect reef habitats, particularly in sediment-starved continental margins. Furthermore, defining sediment transport pathways documents the effects these mobile bedforms have on proximal reef habitats. Thematic mapping of these substrates is therefore crucial in safeguarding critical habitats and offshore resources of coastal nations. This study presents the results of a spatially quantitative mapping approach based on classification of sidescan-sonar imagery. By using bottom video for image-to-ground control, digital image textural features for pattern recognition, and an artificial neural network for rapid, quantitative, multivariable decision-making, this approach resulted in recognition rates of hard bottom as high as 87%. The recognition of sand bottom was less successful (31%). This approach was applied to a large (686 km 2), high-quality, 2-m resolution sidescan-sonar mosaic of the northern South Carolina inner continental shelf. Results of this analysis indicate that both surficial sand and hard bottoms of variable extent are present over the study area. In total, 59% of the imaged area was covered by hard bottom, while 41% was covered by sand. Qualitative spatial correlation between bottom type and bathymetry appears possible from comparison of our interpretive map and available bathymetry. Hard bottom areas tend to be located on flat, low-lying areas, and sandy bottoms tend to reside on areas of positive relief. Published bio-erosion rates were used to calculate the potential sediment input from the mapped hard bottom areas rendering sediment volumes that may be as high as 0.8 million m 3/yr for

  1. Mining plant genome browsers as a means for efficient connection of physical, genetic and cytogenetic mapping: an example using soybean

    Luis C. Belarmino


    Full Text Available Physical maps are important tools to uncover general chromosome structure as well as to compare different plant lineages and species, helping to elucidate genome structure, evolution and possibilities regarding synteny and colinearity. The increasing production of sequence data has opened an opportunity to link information from mapping studies to the underlying sequences. Genome browsers are invaluable platforms that provide access to these sequences, including tools for genome analysis, allowing the integration of multivariate information, and thus aiding to explain the emergence of complex genomes. The present work presents a tutorial regarding the use of genome browsers to develop targeted physical mapping, providing also a general overview and examples about the possibilities regarding the use of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC, simple sequence repeats (SSR and rDNA probes, highlighting the potential of such studies for map integration and comparative genetics. As a case study, the available genome of soybean was accessed to show how the physical and in silico distribution of such sequences may be compared at different levels. Such evaluations may also be complemented by the identification of sequences beyond the detection level of cytological methods, here using members of the aquaporin gene family as an example. The proposed approach highlights the complementation power of the combination of molecular cytogenetics and computational approaches for the anchoring of coding or repetitive sequences in plant genomes using available genome browsers, helping in the determination of sequence location, arrangement and number of repeats, and also filling gaps found in computational pseudochromosome assemblies.

  2. Hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons-an example of Bok-choy

    Lin, Yong-Jun; Ma, Kuo-Chen; Lai, Jihn-Sung; Chang, Tsang-Jung; Tan, Yih-Chi


    The torrential rain and strong wind brought by typhoons usually cause huge damages to agricultural products. This study aims at hazard map of agricultural products due to typhoons. The factors affecting the hazard of agricultural products due to typhoons include the duration of flooding, flooding depth, wind speed, and rainfall intensity. High rainfall intensity and high wind speed may knock down the leaves or fruits of the plants. The long-duration of flooding or high flooding depth may chock the plant or rotten the roots. In order to get the information needed for making hazard map due to assumed scenarios, an overland flow simulations is performed for getting the duration of flooding and maximum flooding in the study area. The data of wind speed is obtained from metrological stations. Four levels of hazard are defined due to the characteristic of the chosen agricultural products- Bok-choy (such average height of mature Bok-choy). The final goal of this study is to establish a real-time hazard evaluation system for the specific agricultural products.

  3. An exploration in mineral supply chain mapping using tantalum as an example

    Soto-Viruet, Yadira; Menzie, W. David; Papp, John F.; Yager, Thomas R.


    This report uses the supply chain of tantalum (Ta) to investigate the complexity of mineral and metal supply chains in general and show how they can be mapped. A supply chain is made up of all the manufacturers, suppliers, information networks, and so forth, that provide the materials and parts that go into making up a final product. The mineral portion of the supply chain begins with mineral material in the ground (the ore deposit); extends through a series of processes that include mining, beneficiation, processing (smelting and refining), semimanufacture, and manufacture; and continues through transformation of the mineral ore into concentrates, refined mineral commodities, intermediate forms (such as metals and alloys), component parts, and, finally, complex products. This study analyses the supply chain of tantalum beginning with minerals in the ground to many of the final goods that contain tantalum.

  4. Cathodoluminescence mapping - optimising collection conditions and examples of applications to minerals and mineral processing

    Full text: A Cathodoluminescence (CL) system has been developed at CSIRO Minerals that allows the simultaneous collection of X-ray, backscatter and multi-channel CL data on a JEOL 8900/8200 microprobe. This system offers significant benefits over traditional CL, X-ray and BSE techniques in that direct comparison with the elemental concentrations at the same pixel or over the same region is now possible. The CL signal is collected from a monocular eye-piece which is integrated into the electron optics on the electron microprobe. From here it is fed via a fibre optic to a grating spectrometer with a 2048-element linear charge-coupled device (CCD)-array. The CCD array is connected to a PCI A/D card in a PC. The PC also contains a digital I/O card that is connected to the microprobe to synchronise the CL capture with the X-ray capture. This paper looks at the various modifications we have made in order to improve the capturing and processing of the CL data. One of the first improvements we made was to fit a cooling device to stabilise the temperature of the CCD. Spectra acquired from a CCD has a 'dark noise' background which is dependent upon temperature, and CL maps acquired without the cooling device can show subtle variations in room temperature which lead to background banding or artefacts in the image. The removal of background drift due to thermal instability has enabled us to implement automatic background subtraction at every pixel. This has significantly improved peak to background ratios and enabled more subtle chemical and structural modifications within the CL image to be seen. We have also made a modification to allow the collection of CL maps in beam scan mode, as well as stage scan mode. Cathodoluminescence can offer very high spatial resolution; at low voltages resolutions of down to 20 nm have been recently achieved. Depending upon the region of interest, one can now select pixel sizes on this system down to 50 nm. When performing beam maps on larger

  5. Mapping service activity: the example of childhood obesity schemes in England

    Roberts Helen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is high on the policy agenda of wealthier nations, and many interventions have been developed to address it. This work describes an overview of schemes for obese and overweight children and young people in England, and the 'mapping' approach we used. Methods Our search strategy, inclusion criteria and coding frame had to be suitable for describing a potentially large number of schemes within a short timeframe. Data were collected from key informants, scheme publicity and reports, and via a web-survey. To be included, schemes had to be based in England, follow a structured programme lasting at least two weeks, promote healthy weight, and be delivered exclusively to overweight and/or obese children and young people (age range 4-18. Data were entered into a coding frame recording similar information for each scheme, including any underpinning research evidence, evaluation or monitoring reports. Priority questions were identified in consultation with colleagues from the Department of Health and the Cross Government Obesity Unit. Results Fifty-one schemes were identified. Some operated in multiple areas, and by using estimates of the number of schemes provided by multi-site scheme leads, we found that between 314 and 375 local programmes were running at any time. Uncertainty is largely due to the largest scheme provider undergoing rapid expansion at the time of the mapping exercise and therefore able to provide only an estimate of the number of programmes running. Many schemes were similar in their approach, had been recently established and were following NICE guidelines on interventions to promote healthy weight. Rigorous evaluation was rare. Conclusions Our methods enabled us to produce a rapid overview of service activity across a wide geographic area and a range of organisations and sectors. In order to develop the evidence base for childhood obesity interventions, rigorous evaluation of these schemes is

  6. The application aeromagnetic data for dyke swarm mapping (an example the Ladoga region, Russia)

    Vasilieva, T.; Frank-Kamenetsky, D.


    Vasilieva T.I., Frank-Kamenetsky D.A., Zayonchek A.V. The main factor of the Fennoscandian evolution in Late Proterozoic was inter- and intracratonic rifting. However, products of magmatic activity were removed by erosion. Thus, only plutonic bodies and dyke swarms allow us to reconstruct the Fennoscandian shield tectono-magmatic evolution in Late Proterozoic. The rifting processes in southeastern Fennoscandia took place in Riphean. The earlier are several massifs of rapakivi-granite accompanied by mafic dyke swarms with age about 1.64 to 1.51 Ga were formed. The Middle Riphean is characterized by rift structure forming. They are known in Russia (White Sea rift system, northern Kola, Ladoga Lake, probably, Onega Lake), Finland (Muhos, Satakunta) and central Sweden. The age of mafic magmatic complexes, corresponding with these rift systems, is 1.24 Ga (Suominen, 1991). There are at least two stages of Riphean evolution and magmatic complexes in Ladoga Lake region. They are the Salminski and Vyborg rapakivi-granites at first, Salminski volcano-sedimentary suite, Valaam sill, Hopunvaara intrusion and several dolerites dykes at second. Our detailed studies based on magnetic geophysical data. A combination of geophysical methods and GIS provided effective mapping of dyke swarms in NW Ladoga. It has shown that the Fe-enriched olivine dolerite dykes, it was described on the NW coast of Ladoga Lake, are very locally developed forming narrow zone, which runs through Sortavala town and several islands. The dykes were clearly observed, because of their extremely high magnetic susceptibility. The dykes strike toward NW corresponding to the longest axis of the graben. Chemical identity of the dykes and Salminski lavas allows considering the age of this rifting about 1.35 Ga. The other dyke complexes were being described in North-West Ladoga region. It is dykes of fresh clinopyroxene dolerites. Probably, the dykes are accompanying by rapakivi-granites. Unfortunately, very

  7. Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.

    Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo


    All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and μ-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a μ-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional μ-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted

  8. Geotourist itineraries along the Italian territory: examples of mapping the geoheritage in different geomorphological and historical contexts

    Panizza, Valeria; Brandolini, Pierluigi; Laureti, Lamberto; Nesci, Olivia; Russo, Filippo; Savelli, Daniele


    In the framework of the studies dealing with geomorphosites mapping, many researches were carried out in the last years presenting both applied examples and proposals for tourist fruition. Researchers had to face many different challenges in transferring the knowledge about the geomorphological heritage on maps. The most relevant are those concerning the use of maps for tourist promotion, taking into account the requirements of clearness of representation of landforms and also the need of pointing out possible geomorphological hazards along tourist paths. Within the activity of the Working Group "Geomorphosites and Cultural Landscape" of AIGeo (Italian Association of Physical Geography and Geomorphology), some Italian itineraries, focused on the promotion of the geomorphological heritage by means of geotourist maps, are presented. They have the goal of: promoting landscape through its geomorphological and geological heritage; disseminating geoheritage knowledge focusing its relationships with cultural landscape and human history; assessing geomorphological hazards and possible risk situations The proposed itineraries are localised in different Italian regions and they concern: - the area around the remains of the Roman town of Ostra. The town is placed on the left side of the Misa River (Marche region, Italy), atop a stream terrace dating back to the uppermost Pleistocene-early Holocene. Detailed geomorphological field and remote-sensing mapping started in 2015. The surveying is aimed at focusing the geomorphological evolution as well as at assessing possible geomorphological hazard for both conservation and exploitation scopes. A geotourist trail is proposed with the aim of highlighting and integrating geomorphological and archaeological elements and information. - a geotourist trail along the coastal terraced slopes of Cinque Terre (Liguria, NW Italy): worldwide considered as one of the most outstanding examples of human integration with the natural landscape

  9. Mapping carbon sequestration in forests at the regional scale - a climate biomonitoring approach by example of Germany

    Schroeder, Winfried; Pesch, Roland [University of Vechta, Chair of Landscape Ecology, PO Box. 1553, Vechta (Germany)


    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change recognizes carbon (C) fixation in forests as an important contribution for the reduction of atmospheric pollution in terms of greenhouse gases. Spatial differentiation of C sequestration in forests either at the national or at the regional scale is therefore needed for forest planning purposes. Hence, within the framework of the Forest Focus regulation, the aim of this investigation was to statistically analyse factors influencing the C fixation and to use the corresponding associations in terms of a predictive mapping approach at the regional scale by example of the German federal state North Rhine-Westphalia. The results of the methodical scheme outlined in this article should be compared with an already-published approach applied to the same data which were used in the investigation at hand. Site-specific data on C sequestration in humus, forest trees/dead wood and soil from two forest monitoring networks were intersected with available surface information on topography, soil, climate and forestal growing areas and districts. Next, the association between the C sequestration and the influence factors were examined and modelled by linear regression analyses. The resulting regression equations were applied on the surface data to predicatively map the C sequestration for the entire study area. The computations yielded an estimation of 146.7 mio t C sequestered in the forests of North Rhine-Westphalia corresponding to 168.6 t/ha. The calculated values correspond well to according specifications given by the literature. Furthermore, the results are almost identical to those of another pilot study where a different statistical methodology was applied on the same database. Nevertheless, the underlying regression models contribute only a low degree of explanation to the overall variance of the C fixation. This might mainly be due to data quality aspects and missing influence factors in the analyses. In another

  10. A semi-quantitative technique for mapping potential aquifer productivity on the national scale: example of England and Wales (UK)

    Abesser, Corinna; Lewis, Melinda


    The development and validation of aquifer productivity and depth-to-source maps for England and Wales are described. Aquifer productivity maps can provide valuable support for the assessment, planning and management of groundwater and renewable heat energy resources. Aquifer productivity is often mapped using geostatistical interpolation techniques such as kriging, but these techniques tend to be unsuitable for mapping at the national scale due to the high data (and time) demands. A methodology is outlined for mapping aquifer productivity at the national scale using existing national-scale data sets. Pumping test data are used to characterise the potential borehole yields that different geological formations of varying lithologies and ages can provide. Based on this analysis and using expert knowledge, the corresponding map codes on the geological map are assigned to potential productivity classes. The subsurface (concealed) extent of aquifer units is mapped from geophysical data, and together with the attributed geological map, provide the bedrock-aquifer productivity map. Drilling and pumping costs can be an important consideration when evaluating the feasibility of developing a groundwater source. Thus, a map of the approximate depth to source is developed alongside the aquifer productivity map. The maps are validated using independent data sets, and map performance is compared against performance from maps derived by random and uniform attribution. The results show that the maps successfully predict potential productivity and approximate depth to the water source, although utility of the depth-to-source map could be improved by increasing the vertical discretisation at which depth intervals are mapped.

  11. A method for multi-hazard mapping in poorly known volcanic areas: an example from Kanlaon (Philippines

    M. Neri


    Full Text Available Hazard mapping in poorly known volcanic areas is complex since much evidence of volcanic and non-volcanic hazards is often hidden by vegetation and alteration. In this paper, we propose a semi-quantitative method based on hazard event tree and multi-hazard map constructions developed in the frame of the FP7 MIAVITA project. We applied this method to the Kanlaon volcano (Philippines, which is characterized by poor geologic and historical records. We combine updated geological (long-term and historical (short-term data, building an event tree for the main types of hazardous events at Kanlaon and their potential frequencies. We then propose an updated multi-hazard map for Kanlaon, which may serve as a working base map in the case of future unrest. The obtained results extend the information already contained in previous volcanic hazard maps of Kanlaon, highlighting (i an extensive, potentially active ~5 km long summit area striking north–south, (ii new morphological features on the eastern flank of the volcano, prone to receiving volcanic products expanding from the summit, and (iii important riverbeds that may potentially accumulate devastating mudflows. This preliminary study constitutes a basis that may help local civil defence authorities in making more informed land use planning decisions and in anticipating future risk/hazards at Kanlaon. This multi-hazard mapping method may also be applied to other poorly known active volcanoes.

  12. Accuracy Optimization for High Resolution Object-Based Change Detection: An Example Mapping Regional Urbanization with 1-m Aerial Imagery

    Kenneth B. Pierce


    Full Text Available The utility of land-cover change data is often derived from the intersection with other information, such as riparian buffers zones or other areas of conservation concern. In order to avoid error propagation, we wanted to optimize our change maps to have very low error rates. Our accuracy optimization methods doubled the number of total change locations mapped, and also increased the area of development related mapped change by 93%. The ratio of mapped to estimated change was increased from 76.3% to 86.6%. To achieve this, we used object-based change detection to assign a probability of change for each landscape unit derived from two dates of 1 m US National Agriculture Imagery Program data. We developed a rapid assessment tool to reduce analyst review time such that thousands of locations can be reviewed per day. We reviewed all change locations with probabilities above a series of thresholds to assess commission errors and the relative cost of decreasing acceptance thresholds. The resultant change maps had only change locations verified to be changed, thus eliminating commission error. This tool facilitated efficient development of large training sets in addition to greatly reducing the effort required to manually verify all predicted change locations. The efficiency gain allowed us to review locations with less than a 50% probability of change without inflating commission errors and, thus, increased our change detection rates while eliminating both commission errors and locations that would have been omission errors among the reviewed lower probability change locations.

  13. A method for producing digital probabilistic seismic landslide hazard maps; an example from the Los Angeles, California, area

    Jibson, Randall W.; Harp, Edwin L.; Michael, John A.


    The 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake is the first earthquake for which we have all of the data sets needed to conduct a rigorous regional analysis of seismic slope instability. These data sets include (1) a comprehensive inventory of triggered landslides, (2) about 200 strong-motion records of the mainshock, (3) 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping of the region, (4) extensive data on engineering properties of geologic units, and (5) high-resolution digital elevation models of the topography. All of these data sets have been digitized and rasterized at 10-m grid spacing in the ARC/INFO GIS platform. Combining these data sets in a dynamic model based on Newmark's permanent-deformation (sliding-block) analysis yields estimates of coseismic landslide displacement in each grid cell from the Northridge earthquake. The modeled displacements are then compared with the digital inventory of landslides triggered by the Northridge earthquake to construct a probability curve relating predicted displacement to probability of failure. This probability function can be applied to predict and map the spatial variability in failure probability in any ground-shaking conditions of interest. We anticipate that this mapping procedure will be used to construct seismic landslide hazard maps that will assist in emergency preparedness planning and in making rational decisions regarding development and construction in areas susceptible to seismic slope failure.

  14. Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia

    Mahmud, Ahmad; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed


    A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

  15. A new approach of mapping soils in the Alps - Challenges of deriving soil information and creating soil maps for sustainable land use. An example from South Tyrol (Italy)

    Baruck, Jasmin; Gruber, Fabian E.; Geitner, Clemens


    Nowadays sustainable land use management is gaining importance because intensive land use leads to increasing soil degradation. Especially in mountainous regions like the Alps sustainable land use management is important, as topography limits land use. Therefore, a database containing detailed information of soil characteristics is required. However, information of soil properties is far from being comprehensive. The project "ReBo - Terrain classification based on airborne laser scanning data to support soil mapping in the Alps", founded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano, aims at developing a methodical framework of how to obtain soil data. The approach combines geomorphometric analysis and soil mapping to generate modern soil maps at medium-scale in a time and cost efficient way. In this study the open source GRASS GIS extension module r.geomorphon (Jasciewicz and Stepinski, 2013) is used to derive topographically homogeneous landform units out of high resolution DTMs on scale 1:5.000. Furthermore, for terrain segmentation and classification we additionally use medium-scale data sets (geology, parent material, land use etc.). As the Alps are characterized by a great variety of topography, parent material, wide range of moisture regimes etc. getting reliable soil data is difficult. Additionally, geomorphic activity (debris flow, landslide etc.) leads to natural disturbances. Thus, soil properties are highly diverse and largely scale dependent. Furthermore, getting soil information of anthropogenically influenced soils is an added challenge. Due to intensive cultivation techniques the natural link between the soil forming factors is often repealed. In South Tyrol we find the largest pome producing area in Europe. Normally, the annual precipitation is not enough for intensive orcharding. Thus, irrigation strategies are in use. However, as knowledge about the small scaled heterogeneous soil properties is mostly lacking, overwatering and modifications of the

  16. Determining the Suitability of Different Digital Elevation Models and Satellite Images for Fancy Maps. An Example of Cyprus

    Drachal, J.; Kawel, A. K.


    The article describes the possibility of developing an overall map of the selected area on the basis of publicly available data. Such a map would take the form designed by the author with the colors that meets his expectations and a content, which he considers to be appropriate. Among the data available it was considered the use of satellite images of the terrain in real colors and, in the form of shaded relief, digital terrain models with different resolutions of the terrain mesh. Specifically the considered data were: MODIS, Landsat 8, GTOPO-30, SRTM-30, SRTM-1, SRTM-3, ASTER. For the test area the island of Cyprus was chosen because of the importance in tourism, a relatively small area and a clearly defined boundary. In the paper there are shown and discussed various options of the Cyprus terrain image obtained synthetically from variants of Modis, Landsat and digital elevation models of different resolutions.

  17. The Application of Digital Terrain Analysis for Digital Soil Mapping : Examples from Vestfold County, South-Eastern Norway


    Digital terrain modeling has revolutionized the way topography is characterized and analyzed. Its applicability has widened to almost anything where topography has a role to play. On the other hand, digital soil mapping has become the pedological paradigm of the time as it is making tremendous improvements in the ways soil information is obtained, stored, retrieved and manipulated. This research was conducted in Vestfold County of south-eastern Norway to use digital terrain analysis aided by...

  18. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Eeckhaut, M.; Reichenbach, P.; Guzzetti, F.; Rossi, M.; J. Poesen


    For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory sho...

  19. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Eeckhaut, M.; P. Reichenbach; Guzzetti, F.; M. Rossi; Poesen, J.


    For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 la...

  20. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    Van Den Eeckhaut, Miet; P. Reichenbach; Guzzetti, F.; M. Rossi; Poesen, Jean


    For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10m×10m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, ...

  1. Combined landslide inventory and susceptibility assessment based on different mapping units: an example from the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium

    M. Van Den Eeckhaut


    Full Text Available For a 277 km2 study area in the Flemish Ardennes, Belgium, a landslide inventory and two landslide susceptibility zonations were combined to obtain an optimal landslide susceptibility assessment, in five classes. For the experiment, a regional landslide inventory, a 10 m × 10 m digital representation of topography, and lithological and soil hydrological information obtained from 1:50 000 scale maps, were exploited. In the study area, the regional inventory shows 192 landslides of the slide type, including 158 slope failures occurred before 1992 (model calibration set, and 34 failures occurred after 1992 (model validation set. The study area was partitioned in 2.78×106 grid cells and in 1927 topographic units. The latter are hydro-morphological units obtained by subdividing slope units based on terrain gradient. Independent models were prepared for the two terrain subdivisions using discriminant analysis. For grid cells, a single pixel was identified as representative of the landslide depletion area, and geo-environmental information for the pixel was obtained from the thematic maps. The landslide and geo-environmental information was used to model the propensity of the terrain to host landslide source areas. For topographic units, morphologic and hydrologic information and the proportion of lithologic and soil hydrological types in each unit, were used to evaluate landslide susceptibility, including the depletion and depositional areas. Uncertainty associated with the two susceptibility models was evaluated, and the model performance was tested using the independent landslide validation set. An heuristic procedure was adopted to combine the landslide inventory and the susceptibility zonations. The procedure makes optimal use of the available landslide and susceptibility information, minimizing the limitations inherent in the inventory and the susceptibility maps. For the established susceptibility classes, regulations to

  2. Mapping porosity anomalies in deep Jurassic sandstones - an example from the Svane-1A area, Danish Central Graben

    Abramovitz, T.


    Hydrocarbon-bearing Upper Jurassic sandstone reservoirs at depths of more than 5000 m may form a future exploration target in the Danish Central Graben. The Upper Jurassic sandstone play in the Danish sector has historically been less successful than in the neighbouring Norwegian and British sectors of the North Sea. This is mainly due to poor reservoir quality of the sandstones. However, the discovery in 2001 of an oil accumulation at a depth of more than 5000 m in the Svane-1 well has triggered renewed interest in the Upper Jurassic High Temperature - High Pressure (HTHP) sandstone play in Danish waters. The Jurassic plays comprise sandstone reservoirs deposited in a variety of environments, ranging from fluvial to deep marine. This paper presents a study of a minor area around the Svane-1A well in the Tail End Graben. The objective was to map acoustic impedance variations and hence to identify porosity anomalies associated with Jurassic sandstone units. (LN)

  3. A Probabilistic Approach of Hazard Mapping for flow-type phenomena. An example of application at Mt. Etna

    Bongolan, Vena Pearl; Iovine, Giulio; D'Ambrosio, Donato; Rongo, Rocco; Spataro, William


    The hazard induced by dangerous flow-type phenomena like lava flows, debris flows and debris avalanches can be usefully assessed by analysing a proper set of simulations of hypothetical events characterized in probability. In particular, to map lava-flow hazard, simulations can be performed by assuming a number of nodes from a regular grid of potential vents, selected to uniformly covering the study area. A probability of occurrence can then be assigned to each simulation, based on statistics of historical events and location of each vent with respect to the volcano. In this study, different hazard scenarios for Mt. Etna (Italy) have been realized, based on computer simulations of lava flows generated by a non-uniform grid of sources. The adopted grid covers the volcano with a variable density of nodes. Five macro-areas can in fact be recognised, in which at higher densities of nodes correspond higher probabilities of vent activation. Moreover, 4 distinct temporal frames have been considered (next 1, 25, 50 and 100 years) and related hazard scenarios have been computed. In addition, the topographic effects of the expected simulation within the considered temporal frames have been analysed, aiming at evaluating hazard trends due to natural morphological changes. Model parameters, e.g. the probability distribution function for vent activation and for types of eruption (distinguished into classes by duration and volume), have been derived by analysing the past 400-years volcanic history at Mt. Etna. Probabilities of vent activation for the 4 considered scenarios have been computed in terms of total number of expected events per each temporal frame. The actual number of events to be simulated per each scenario has been obtained by considering a Poisson distribution, with the number of expected events in that frame being the mean of the obtained probabilities. For each frame, a total of 240 runs have been performed. Each run is made of the set of simulations expected



    This paper generalizes the makeup and forming dynamic mechanism of natural disaster systems, principles and methods of comprehensive division of natural disasters, as well as structure, function and up-build routes of map and file information visualization system (MFIVS). Taking the Chang, jiang(Yangtze) Valley as an example, on the basis of revealing up the integrated mechanism on the formations of its natural disasters and its distributing law, there after, the paper relies on the MFIVS technique, adopts two top-down and bottom-up approaches to study a comprehen sive division of natural disasters. It is relatively objective and precise that the required division results include three natural disaster sections and nine natural disaster sub-sections, which can not only provide a scientific basis for utilizing natural resources and controlling natural disaster and environmental degradation, but also be illuminated to a concise, practical and effective technique on comprehensive division.

  5. Maximal Frequent Itemset Generation Using Segmentation Apporach



    Full Text Available Finding frequent itemsets in a data source is a fundamental operation behind Association Rule Mining.Generally, many algorithms use either the bottom-up or top-down approaches for finding these frequentitemsets. When the length of frequent itemsets to be found is large, the traditional algorithms find all thefrequent itemsets from 1-length to n-length, which is a difficult process. This problem can be solved bymining only the Maximal Frequent Itemsets (MFS. Maximal Frequent Itemsets are frequent itemsets whichhave no proper frequent superset. Thus, the generation of only maximal frequent itemsets reduces thenumber of itemsets and also time needed for the generation of all frequent itemsets as each maximal itemsetof length m implies the presence of 2m-2 frequent itemsets. Furthermore, mining only maximal frequentitemset is sufficient in many data mining applications like minimal key discovery and theory extraction. Inthis paper, we suggest a novel method for finding the maximal frequent itemset from huge data sourcesusing the concept of segmentation of data source and prioritization of segments. Empirical evaluationshows that this method outperforms various other known methods.

  6. IIP Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) measurements for widely varying terrain and atmospheric paths, example retrievals of albedos and atmospheric constituents

    Rairden, R. L.; Kumer, J.; Roche, A.; Mergenthaler, J.; Chatfield, B.


    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) Tropospheric Infrared Mapping Spectrometers (TIMS) have been developed to demonstrate measurement capability, when deployed in space, for multi-layer retrieval of CO from spectral measurements acquired in the solar reflective (SR) region ~ 4281 to 4301 cm-1 and in the thermal InfraRed (TIR) region ~ 2110 to 2165 cm 1. Measurements in the SR of widely varying terrain types were obtained in a single data frame. The slit was projected in a vertical orientation from a balcony on the Denver University building to a scene that included the foreground at slit bottom, then on going further up the slit to a near foothill range, and finally on top side of the slit to a distant snow capped mountain range. The scene provided albedo data for various surface types including green vegetation, a bright barren spot on the foothill, and the snow cap. It also provides varying path lengths through the atmosphere, e.g., 20 km to the foothill, and 100 km to the snow cap. We'll present examples of albedo retrieved for these various features, and for gasses retrieved along the various path lengths.


    Kamiński, Mirosław


    Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used fac...

  8. Noisy data and distribution maps: the example of Phylan semicostatus Mulsant and Rey, 1854 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae from Serra de Tramuntana (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean

    Palmer, M.


    Full Text Available Distribution maps are key tools for environmental management and biogeographic analyses. However, success in predicting spatial distribution is limited when using noisy presence/absence data sets. Both false absences and presences can be related with local departures from equilibrium (for example, temporary extinctions or unsuccessful colonisations. Moreover, false absences can arise from limited sampling effort. Here we explore an analytical strategy to get additional information on the presence/absence pattern of one target species from the presence/absence of all other species in the community. The logic is simple: the target species should display higher probability of presence at a site if a sample from this site is faunistically very close to the samples from other sites where the species occurs. Therefore, we first model presence/absence of the target species as a function of between-sample faunistic similarity. Second, the observed data for the target species are readjusted as a function of the expected probability of presence: current presences at sites with extreme low probability of presence are interpreted as unstable presences, and are recoded as absences. Seemingly, absences at sites with high probability of presence are interpreted as false absences, and are recoded as presences. In the experimental case presented herein, the recoding procedure is based on the presence/absence of 174 species, covering a broad taxonomic scope (snails, beetles, spiders and isopods. 1 km2 distribution maps of presence/absence of the endemic beetle Phylan semicostatus were modelled from these recoded data. Mapping is done using GARP based on four environmental explanatory variables. These maps seem to be more stable and less prone to fail in predicting presence than those derived directly from the observed data.

    Los mapas de distribución son herramientas clave para la gestión medioambiental y los análisis biogeogr

  9. Description and validation of an automated methodology for mapping mineralogy, vegetation, and hydrothermal alteration type from ASTER satellite imagery with examples from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.


    The efficacy of airborne spectroscopic, or "hyperspectral," remote sensing for geoenvironmental watershed evaluations and deposit-scale mapping of exposed mineral deposits has been demonstrated. However, the acquisition, processing, and analysis of such airborne data at regional and national scales can be time and cost prohibitive. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor carried by the NASA Earth Observing System Terra satellite was designed for mineral mapping and the acquired data can be efficiently used to generate uniform mineral maps over very large areas. Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the ASTER sensor were analyzed to identify and map minerals, mineral groups, hydrothermal alteration types, and vegetation groups in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, including the Silverton and Lake City calderas. This mapping was performed in support of multidisciplinary studies involving the predictive modeling of surface water geochemistry at watershed and regional scales. Detailed maps of minerals, vegetation groups, and water were produced from an ASTER scene using spectroscopic, expert system-based analysis techniques which have been previously described. New methodologies are presented for the modeling of hydrothermal alteration type based on the Boolean combination of the detailed mineral maps, and for the entirely automated mapping of alteration types, mineral groups, and green vegetation. Results of these methodologies are compared with the more detailed maps and with previously published mineral mapping results derived from analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data acquired by the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor. Such comparisons are also presented for other mineralized and (or) altered areas including the Goldfield and Cuprite mining districts, Nevada and the central Marysvale volcanic field, Wah Wah Mountains, and San Francisco Mountains, Utah. The automated

  10. Risk-informed assessment of defence in depth, LOCA example. Phase 1: Mapping of conditions and definition of quantitative measures for the defence in depth levels. Rev 0

    The concept of defence-in-depth (DID) is fundamental to the safety of nuclear power plants. It calls for multiple successive methods or barriers against radioactive release to the environment. DID principle is partly reflected in a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), but not all of the DID levels are included in the model. In addition, events included in PSA are not typically labelled with DID information. PSA could however be a powerful tool to assess the status of various DID levels in an NPP. This work is a start of a development of the PSA-methodology towards an assessment of DID levels. It includes: 1) mapping of conditions that should be considered for the defence in depth levels, and 2) definition of quantitative measures that should be considered for the defence in depth levels. The work has been limited to loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and DID levels 1 and 2, i.e., prevention of abnormal operation and failures and control of abnormal operation and detection of failures. Examples are chosen both from power operation LOCAs and LOCAs during cold shutdown. The methods that are used today in PSA are applicable for evaluating defence-in-depth levels 1 and 2. In the framework of these methodologies there are many different conditions and measures used. Failure data can be determined through: human reliability analysis (HRA), risk-informed in-service-inspection (RI-ISI) methodology, system reliability analysis and directly from plant specific failure data for the components. Many DID activities against LOCA are not explicitly modelled in typical PSA-studies. The risk importance of in-service-inspection is analysed and quantified in RI-ISI applications but so far results from RI-ISI have not been incorporated into PSA. Very few leakage detection systems are modelled in PSA-studies. Normally leakage detection systems that is part of the automatic actuation system are modelled while leakage detection systems in DID levels 1 and 2 typically are omitted. DID

  11. Groundwater potentiality mapping of hard-rock terrain in arid regions using geospatial modelling: example from Wadi Feiran basin, South Sinai, Egypt

    Arnous, Mohamed O.


    Identifying a good site for groundwater exploitation in hard-rock terrains is a challenging task. In Sinai, Egypt, groundwater is the only source of water for local inhabitants. Interpretation of satellite data for delineation of lithological units and weathered zones, and for mapping of lineament density and their trends, provides a valuable aid for the location of groundwater promising areas. Complex deformational histories of the wide range of lithological formations add to the difficulty. Groundwater prospect mapping is a systematic approach that considers the major controlling factors which influence the aquifer and quality of groundwater. The presented study aims to delineate, identify, model and map groundwater potential zones in arid South Sinai using remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) to prepare various hydromorphogeological thematic maps such as maps of slope, drainage density, lithology, landforms, structural lineaments, rainfall intensity and plan curvature. The controlling-factor thematic maps are each allocated a fixed score and weight, computed by using a linear equation approach. Furthermore, each weighted thematic map is statistically computed to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories (very poor, poor, moderate, good and very good) and were validated using the relation between the zone and the spatial distribution of productive wells and of previous geophysical investigations from a literature review. The results show the groundwater potential zones in the study area, and create awareness for better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  12. Example book

    This document presents some examples which were used for debugging the code. It seemed useful to write these examples onto a book to be sure the code would not regret; to give warranties for the code's functionality; to propose some examples to illustrate the possibilities and the limits of Miro. (author)

  13. Mapping and characterization of small-scale aeolian structures on Mars: An example from the MSL landing site in Gale Crater

    Vaz, David A.; Silvestro, Simone


    A new set of methodologies, which allow a simple and fast mapping and characterization of small-scale aeolian structures on Mars is introduced in this work. We follow an object-based approach in which the bedform crestlines are automatically mapped and characterized. From the methodology validation, we conclude that the quality of the obtained results is comparable with human-produced photointerpretations. We show that the accuracy associated with the measurement of mean trends from the a...

  14. Application of LiDAR Date to Assess the Landslide Susceptibility Map Using Weights of Evidence Method - AN Example from Podhale Region (southern Poland)

    Kamiński, Mirosław


    Podhale is a region in southern Poland, which is the northernmost part of the Central Carpathian Mountains. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of landslides that threaten the local infrastructure. In an article presents application of LiDAR data and geostatistical methods to assess landslides susceptibility map. Landslide inventory map were performed using LiDAR data and field work. The Weights of Evidence method was applied to assess landslides susceptibility map. Used factors for modeling: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density, faults density, lithology and curvature. All maps were subdivided into different classes. Then were converted to grid format in the ArcGIS 10.0. The conditional independence test was carried out to determine factors that are conditionally independent of each other with landslides. As a result, chi-square test for further GIS analysis used only five factors: slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainage density and lithology. The final prediction results, it is concluded that the susceptibility map gives useful information both on present instability of the area and its possible future evolution in agreement with the morphological evolution of the area.

  15. Two independent methods for mapping the grounding line of an outlet glacier – example from the Astrolabe Glacier, Terre Adélie, Antarctica

    E. Le Meur


    Full Text Available The grounding line is a key element acting on the dynamics of coastal outlet glaciers. Knowing its position accurately is fundamental for both modelling the glacier dynamics and establishing a benchmark to which one can later refer in case of change. Here we map the grounding line of the Astrolabe Glacier in East Antarctica (66°41´ S; 140°05´ E, using hydrostatic and tidal methods. The first method is based on new surface and ice thickness data from which the line of buoyant flotation is found. We compare this hydrostatic map with kinematic GPS measurements of the tidal response of the ice surface. By detecting the transitions where the ice starts to move vertically in response to the tidal forcing we find control points for the grounding line position along GPS profiles. %If it can be shown that the long-term viscous mechanical behaviour of the ice slab validates the hydrostatic approach, mapping the grounding line from the ice supper surface displacements conversely requires correcting for the rigid elastic slab effect that dominates at tidal frequencies. With the help of a 2-dimensional elastic plate model, rigid elastic deviations are computed and applied to these control points. Once the extent of the grounding zone, the kinematic approach is consistent with the hydrostatic map. These two approaches lead us to propose a grounding line for the Astrolabe Glacier that significantly deviates from those obtained so far from satellite imagery.

  16. The Effect of Map Scale on the Determination of the Coastline Length and the Area of Islands in the Adriatic Sea - the Example of the Island of Rab

    Nada Vučetić; Nedjeljko Frančula; Ivana Šimat


    The procedure to determine the coastline length and the area of the island of Rab from the maps at the scales 1:25 000, 1:50 000, 1:100 000, 1:200 000, 1:300 000, 1:500 000, 1:1 000 000 and 1:2 000 000 is described. The map sheets at the scales 1:25 000, 1:100 000 and 1:200 000 were obtained already in a georeferenced raster format, and the others were scanned and georeferenced. This was followed by a manual vectorization of the coastline and a transformation of all coordinates into the 5th z...

  17. Inferring coastal processes from regional-scale mapping of {sup 222}Radon and salinity: examples from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Stieglitz, Thomas C., E-mail: [AIMS-JCU, Townsville (Australia); Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB NO 3, Townsville QLD 4810 (Australia); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); Cook, Peter G., E-mail: peter.g.cook@csiro.a [CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond SA 5064 (Australia); Burnett, William C., E-mail: wburnett@mailer.fsu.ed [Department of Oceanography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)


    The radon isotope {sup 222}Rn and salinity in coastal surface water were mapped on regional scales, to improve the understanding of coastal processes and their spatial variability. Radon was measured with a surface-towed, continuously recording multi-detector setup on a moving vessel. Numerous processes and locations of land-ocean interaction along the Central Great Barrier Reef coastline were identified and interpreted based on the data collected. These included riverine fluxes, terrestrially-derived fresh submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and the tidal pumping of seawater through mangrove forests. Based on variations in the relationship of the tracers radon and salinity, some aspects of regional freshwater inputs to the coastal zone and to estuaries could be assessed. Concurrent mapping of radon and salinity allowed an efficient qualitative assessment of land-ocean interaction on various spatial and temporal scales, indicating that such surveys on coastal scales can be a useful tool to obtain an overview of SGD locations and processes.

  18. Structure and contents of a new geomorphological GIS database linked to a geomorphological map — With an example from Liden, central Sweden

    Gustavsson, M.; Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Kolstrup, E.


    This paper presents the structure and contents of a standardised geomorphological GIS database that stores comprehensive scientific geomorphological data and constitutes the basis for processing and extracting spatial thematic data. The geodatabase contains spatial information on morphography/morphometry, hydrography, lithology, genesis, processes and age. A unique characteristic of the GIS geodatabase is that it is constructed in parallel with a new comprehensive geomorphological mapping sys...

  19. Aerospace Example

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a textbook, created example for illustration purposes. The System takes inputs of Pt, Ps, and Alt, and calculates the Mach number using the Rayleigh Pitot...

  20. Two independent methods for mapping the grounding line of an outlet glacier – example from the Astrolabe Glacier, Terre Adélie, Antarctica

    le Meur, E.; Sacchettini, M.; S. Garambois; Berthier, E.; Drouet, A.S.; Durand, G.; D. Young; Greenbaum, J. S.; Blankenship, D.D.; Holt, J. W.; RIGNOT, E.; J. Mouginot; Gim, Y.; Kirchner, D.; B. de Fleurian


    The grounding line is a key element acting on the dynamics of coastal outlet glaciers. Knowing its position accurately is fundamental for both modelling the glacier dynamics and establishing a benchmark to which one can later refer in case of change. Here we map the grounding line of the Astrolabe Glacier in East Antarctica (66°41´ S; 140°05´ E), using hydrostatic and tidal methods. The first method is based on new surface and ice thickness data from which the line of buoyant flotation is fou...

  1. Two independent methods for mapping the grounding line of an outlet glacier - an example from the Astrolabe Glacier, Terre Adélie, Antarctica

    le Meur, E.; Sacchettini, M.; S. Garambois; Berthier, E.; Drouet, A.S.; Durand, G.; D. Young; Greenbaum, J. S.; Holt, J. W.; Blankenship, D.D.; RIGNOT, E.; J. Mouginot; Gim, Y.; Kirchner, D.; B. de Fleurian


    The grounding line is a key element acting on the dynamics of coastal outlet glaciers. Knowing its position accurately is fundamental for both modelling the glacier dynamics and establishing a benchmark to which one can later refer in case of change. Here we map the grounding line of the Astrolabe Glacier in East Antarctica (66°41' S; 140°05' E), using hydrostatic and tidal methods. The first method is based on new surface and ice thickness data from which the line of buoyant flotation is fou...

  2. A New Method of Providing Communities With High-Resolution Maps of Present and Future Inundation Pathways: Two Examples From Massachusetts

    Borrelli, M.; Mague, S. T.; Smith, T. L.


    A new method of mapping storm-tide (inundation) pathways and linking those data with tidal elevations in real-time for local managers is being developed. Separate, ongoing studies in two coastal towns in Massachusetts have demonstrated the strengths of this method. High-resolution lidar datasets are imported into 3D data visualization software and water levels are raised incrementally from the highest spring tide of the year to the storm of record +1 m. This range was identified to include 'nuisance flooding' as well as present and future inundation pathways not yet observed by local authorities caused by storms superimposed on projected sea level rise. Potential storm-tide pathways are identified using Lidar data but are then verified with extensive fieldwork using RTK-GPS instruments (tested vertical accuracy of 4.9 cm at 95%) to overcome the vertical uncertainty associated with Lidar data. The fieldwork serves two purposes, first is to field check the lidar data with the highest resolution instrument available and, second to verify and document the presence or absence of a storm-tide pathway. Having developed the map of storm tide pathways within a GIS environment referenced to a geodetic datum (NAVD88), a tide gauge or staff is installed in the town's harbor or other sheltered coastal area and the elevations of all storm tide pathways are then referenced to the local tidal datum. The benefit here is three-fold. First, local officials can use the high-resolution data set that is tied to a local tidal datum to autonomously monitor predicted storm surges and be prepared for inundation at sites prior to flooding. Second, storm-tide pathways that have heretofore never been inundated can be identified and steps can be taken to remove or minimize flooding hazards. Finally, identification of present and future storm tide pathways can be used to prioritize and budget proactive solutions in response to increases in chronic, nuisance and more frequent flooding associated

  3. WRF Environment Assessment in Guangzhou City with an Extracted Land-use Map from the Remote Sensing Data in 2000 as an Example

    Yuan Li; YeHao Song; Akashi Mochida; Tsubasa Okaze


    Mesoscale urban environment forecast combined with WRF is a current frontier in international academic. Taking Guangzhou as an example, the new land⁃use model presented by the present authors, the existing USGS and MODIS models in WRF were firstly compared to the remote sensing model in this article. The comparison result shows that the land⁃use model presented by the authors has the highest similarity with the remote sensing data. Secondly, the new land⁃use model was used to replace the defaulted land⁃use data in WRF for simulation. By comparing this simulation results with the WRF results using the defaulted USGS and MODIS model, it was showed that the geographic models have a great impact on the mesoscale environment forecast result. Also, the geographic information model presented in this article shows the best accuracy when comparing with the observation data. Results in this study are going to be an important reference in the contemporary international forefront of mesoscale urban environment studies by WRF.

  4. Nighttime activity of moving objects, their mapping and statistic making, on the example of applying thermal imaging and advanced image processing to the research of nocturnal mammals

    Pregowski, Piotr; Owadowska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Jan; Zwolenik, Slawomir


    The paper presents method of acquiring a new form of statistical information about the changes at scenery, overseen by thermal imaging camera in static configuration. This type of imagers reach uniquely high efficiency during nighttime surveillance and targeting. The technical issue we have solved, resulted from the problem: how to verify the hypothesis that small, nocturnal rodents, like bank voles, use common paths inside their range and that they form a common, rather stable system? Such research has been especially difficult because the mentioned mammals are secretive, move with various speed and due to low contrast to their natural surroundings - as leaves or grass - nearly impossible for other kind of observations from a few meters distance. The main advantage of the elaborated method showed to be both adequately filtered long thermal movies for manual analyses, as well as auto-creation of the synthetic images which present maps of invisible paths and activity of their usage. Additional file with logs describing objects and their dislocations as the ".txt" files allows various, more detailed studies of animal behavior. The obtained results proved that this original method delivers a new, non-invasive, powerful and dynamic concept of solving various ecological problems. Creation of networks consisted of uncooled thermal imagers - of significantly increased availability - with data transmissions to digital centers allows to investigate of moving - particularly heat generated - objects in complete darkness, much wider and much more efficiently than up today. Thus, although our system was elaborated for ecological studies, a similar one can be considered as a tool for chosen tasks in the optical security areas.


    S. Kh. KHOTKO


    Full Text Available The first map of the Black Sea that adequately reflected the outlines of its shores, was the one established by Genoese Pietro Veskonte in 1311-1318. It contained a number of names of settlements and harbors, which were the main points of the Genoese-Caucasian trade. Instead of the single "country" – Zikhia, the largest ethno-territorial union of the North-West Caucasus during that period, Veskonte pointed two Zikhias – Black Zikhia and White Zikhia. The colour symbolism of the territorial structure of the one space was based on the nature of the relationship with supreme authority of the khan of the Golden Horde. Beside that main criterion there was the criterion of political order: areas under the princes’ ruling were considered as white ones, and mountain communities administrating in democratic ways – as black areas. The author proposes a new etymology of the toponym “Anapa”, which had been used for the first time in 1479 by Ottoman historian Kemalpashazade. Anapa, presumably, was a Turkish distortion of the Italian name “Mapa”. That latter form was used in numerous Italian sources of the XIV-XV centuries and quite probably related to the Greek primal word – “emporia” or “Emporion” ("market square", "commercial city" through the Latin (Italic form “Maparium”, which was occasionally used as the full name of Mapa. During the XVI-XVIII centuries Circassians learned the Ottoman form of the toponym and it began to be perceived as the typical for Circassian language compound word due to the full compliance of its morphemic structure to the word formation rules of Circassian language.


    Puissant, A. P.; Kellerer, D.; Gluard, L.; Levoy, F.


    Coastal landscapes are severely affected by environmental and social pressures. Their long term development is controlled by both physical and anthropogenic factors, which spatial dynamics and interactions may be analysed by Earth Observation data. The Mont-Saint-Michel Bay (Normandy, France) is one of the European coastal systems with a very high tidal range (approximately 15m during spring tides) because of its geological, geomorphological and hydrodynamical contexts at the estuary of the Couesnon, Sée and Sélune rivers. It is also an important touristic place with the location of the Mont-Saint-Michel Abbey, and an invaluable ecosystem of wetlands forming a transition between the sea and the land. Since 2006, engineering works are performed with the objective of restoring the maritime character of the Bay. These works will lead to many changes in the spatial dynamics of the Bay which can be monitored with two indicators: the sediment budget and the wetland vegetation surfaces. In this context, the aim of this paper is to map and monitor the tidal channel network and the extension of the salt marsh vegetation formation in the tidal zone of the Mont-Saint-Michel Bay by using satellite images. The spatial correlation between the network location of the three main rivers and the development of salt marsh is analysed with multitemporal medium (60m) to high spatial resolution (from 10 to 30 m) satellite images over the period 1975-2006. The method uses a classical supervised algorithm based on a maximum likelihood classification of eleven satellites images. The salt-marsh surfaces and the tidal channel network are then integrated in a GIS. Results of extraction are assessed by qualitative (visual interpretation) and quantitative indicators (confusion matrix). The multi-temporal analysis between 1975 and 2006 highlights that in 1975 when the study area is 26000 ha, salt marshes cover 16% (3000ha), the sandflat (slikke) and the water represent respectively 59% and 25

  7. Conformal Maps, Biharmonic Maps, and the Warped Product

    Seddik Ouakkas; Djelloul Djebbouri


    In this paper we study some properties of conformal maps between equidimensional manifolds, we construct new example of non-harmonic biharmonic maps and we characterize the biharmonicity of some maps on the warped product manifolds.

  8. Mappings for the Semantic Web

    Gómez-Pérez, A.; Ramos, JA


    Mappings usually relate two similar knowledge aware resources. Mapping examples abound in thesauri, databases, and ontologies. Additionally, mapping systems can relate two different knowledge resources, such as databases and ontologies. All these mappings are operationally different and are sometimes named differently— for example, correspondences, semantic bridges, transformations, semantic relations, functions, conversions, and domain-method relations

  9. Mapping Resilience

    Carruth, Susan


    relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed by...

  10. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha


    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  11. Mental Mapping: A Classroom Strategy

    Solomon, Les


    Examines potential uses of mental maps in the classroom by reviewing research efforts, providing an example of the differences between mental maps of two student groups, and suggesting how to use mental maps in the geography curriculum. Mental mapping (or cognitive mapping) refers to individuals' processes of collecting, storing, and retrieving…

  12. From reactive to proactive apporach of interactive leadership

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    In order to enhance a constructive approach to technological and organisational development it seems important to involve employees proactively. The chapter discribe and analyse different approaches to do that and analyse the impacts on organisational change...

  13. A systematic apporach to service oriented product development

    Matzen, Detlef

    calls for an integrated approach to their development. The integrated development of solution concepts spanning products, service delivery systems and matching delivery business models is the theme of this thesis. A design based approach - service oriented product development - is proposed...... oriented product development is based on the analysis of existing product life-, business- and use processes. This helps to identify the opportunities of creating improved solutions, through the combined delivery of products and services, potentially supported by altered customer relationship models......Throughout the last years, manufacturing industry has experienced a trend towards a higher level of operational integration with their customers, i.e. manufacturers differentiate their offer from competitors by combining physical and software products with service plans and service support...

  14. India-Pakistan Trade Liberalization: A CGE Modelling Apporach

    Pohit, Sanjib


    This study makes an attempt to assess the impact of bilateral trade liberalization on their respective economies and also on the rest of the South Asia. Our results indicate that there exist significant gains from India, Pakistan mutual trade liberalization. However, these gains are realized only when productivity gain occur in the modes of transport service engaged in trade between these two countries. This is expected given the logistics problems in trade between India and Pakistan

  15. "Small talk" - a new apporach to optimised cheese quality

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    Aim The aim with this project is to achieve knowledge of how microbial communication (quorum sensing) influences growth of starter cultures and pathogenic bacteria e.g. Listeria monocytogenes. With time it may be expected that knowledge of how microorganisms communicate can be used actively to...... control the growth of both starter cultures and pathogenic bacteria....

  16. Statistical Mapping by Computer.

    Utano, Jack J.

    The function of a statistical map is to provide readers with a visual impression of the data so that they may be able to identify any geographic characteristics of the displayed phenomena. The increasingly important role played by the computer in the production of statistical maps is manifested by the varied examples of computer maps in recent…

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard


    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  18. Branched polynomial covering maps

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard


    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Mapping with Drupal

    Palazzolo, Alan


    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  20. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  1. Mapping out Map Libraries

    Ferjan Ormeling


    Full Text Available Discussing the requirements for map data quality, map users and their library/archives environment, the paper focuses on the metadata the user would need for a correct and efficient interpretation of the map data. For such a correct interpretation, knowledge of the rules and guidelines according to which the topographers/cartographers work (such as the kind of data categories to be collected, and the degree to which these rules and guidelines were indeed followed are essential. This is not only valid for the old maps stored in our libraries and archives, but perhaps even more so for the new digital files as the format in which we now have to access our geospatial data. As this would be too much to ask from map librarians/curators, some sort of web 2.0 environment is sought where comments about data quality, completeness and up-to-dateness from knowledgeable map users regarding the specific maps or map series studied can be collected and tagged to scanned versions of these maps on the web. In order not to be subject to the same disadvantages as Wikipedia, where the ‘communis opinio’ rather than scholarship, seems to be decisive, some checking by map curators of this tagged map use information would still be needed. Cooperation between map curators and the International Cartographic Association ( ICA map and spatial data use commission to this end is suggested.

  2. GIS-mapping of environmental assessment of the territories in the region of intense activity for the oil and gas complex for achievement the goals of the Sustainable Development (on the example of Russia)

    Yermolaev, Oleg


    The uniform system of complex scientific-reference ecological-geographical should act as a base for the maintenance of the Sustainable Development (SD) concept in the territories of the Russian Federation subjects or certain regions. In this case, the assessment of the ecological situation in the regions can be solved by the conjugation of the two interrelated system - the mapping and the geoinformational. The report discusses the methodological aspects of the Atlas-mapping for the purposes of SD in the regions of Russia. The Republic of Tatarstan viewed as a model territory where a large-scale oil-gas complex "Tatneft" PLC works. The company functions for more than 60 years. Oil fields occupy an area of more than 38 000 km2; placed in its territory about 40 000 oil wells, more than 55 000 km of pipelines; more than 3 billion tons of oil was extracted. Methods for to the structure and requirements for the Atlas's content were outlined. The approaches to mapping of "an ecological dominant" of SD conceptually substantiated following the pattern of a large region of Russia. Several trends of thematically mapping were suggested to be distinguished in the Atlas's structure: • The background history of oil-fields mine working; • The nature preservation technologies while oil extracting; • The assessment of natural conditions of a humans vital activity; • Unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and phenomena; • The anthropogenic effect and environmental surroundings change; • The social-economical processes and phenomena. • The medical-ecological and geochemical processes and phenomena; Within these groups the other numerous groups can distinguished. The maps of unfavorable and dangerous processes and phenomena subdivided in accordance with the types of processes - of endogenous and exogenous origin. Among the maps of the anthropogenic effects on the natural surroundings one can differentiate the maps of the influence on different nature's spheres

  3. Diametrically Contractive Multivalued Mappings

    S. Dhompongsa


    Full Text Available Diametrically contractive mappings on a complete metric space are introduced by V. I. Istratescu. We extend and generalize this idea to multivalued mappings. An easy example shows that our fixed point theorem is more applicable than a former one obtained by H. K. Xu. A convergence theorem of Picard iteratives is also provided for multivalued mappings on hyperconvex spaces, thereby extending a Proinov's result.


    Goffman, Casper


    For length and area, a central fact is that the value of the length of a curve or the area of a surface, as given by the Lebesgue theory, is at least as great as that given by the classical formula, whenever the latter has meaning. This is now found not to be valid in higher dimensions. We give an example of a continuous mapping of the unit cube into itself for which the value given by the formula exceeds the three-dimensional Lebesgue area of the corresponding suface. PMID:16591750

  5. Nonunique tangent maps at isolated singularities of harmonic maps

    White, Brian


    Shoen and Uhlenbeck showed that ``tangent maps'' can be defined at singular points of energy minimizing maps. Unfortunately these are not unique, even for generic boundary conditions. Examples are discussed which have isolated singularities with a continuum of distinct tangent maps.

  6. Slant Riemannian maps to Kaehler manifolds

    Sahin, Bayram


    We introduce slant Riemannian maps from Riemannian manifolds to almost Hermitian manifolds as a generalization of slant immersions, invariant Riemannian maps and anti-invariant Riemannian maps. We give examples, obtain characterizations and investigate the harmonicity of such maps. We also obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for slant Riemannian maps to be totally geodesic. Moreover we relate the notion of slant Riemannian maps to the notion of pseudo horizontally weakly conformal maps...

  7. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van


    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constr

  8. Multi-moment maps

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun


    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...... and third Lie algebra Betti numbers are zero. We show that these form a special class of solvable Lie groups and provide a structural characterisation. We provide many examples of multi-moment maps for different geometries and use them to describe manifolds with holonomy contained in G(2) preserved by...

  9. Vegetation Fuel Mapping

    A. V. Volokitina


    Full Text Available All vegetation sites as objects of burning are structural complexes of various fuels. Especially complex are forest biogeoceonoses. For practical use, pyrological characteristics of vegetation are reflected on plans and maps showing both general one-sided estimations with site descriptions (for example, their fire hazard and detailed multi-sided characteristics of all compounds in the vegetation fuel complexes. The latter become basic maps for obtaining various pyrological estimations and are called vegetation fuel maps. Vegetation fuel (VF mapping can be made using two methodological approaches: first, by distinguishing pyrological vegetation categories as standard complexes; second, by individually characterizing each vegetation site in terms of VF. Obviously, the standard VF characteristic of sites can be only approximate and rough, since the possible number of studied site categories is limited. For large-scale mapping, the detailed individual characteristic of vegetation sites in terms of VF is more preferable and precise but more expensive. Therefore, historically, the first approach to VF mapping got its development, i. e. distinguishing and mapping of certain vegetation categories with standard characteristics. Foreign and Russian methodical approaches to vegetation fuel (VF classification and mapping are considered. Examples of VF mapping at different scales and guidelines for their use are given.

  10. Map format for mobile robot map-based autonomous navigation

    Corominas Murtra, Andreu; Mirats-Tur, Josep M.


    This technical report defines the spatial representation and the map file format used in a mobile robot map-based autonomous navigation system designed to be deployed in urban areas. After a discussion about common requirements of spatial representations for map-based mobile robot autonomous navigation, a proposed environment model that fulfills previously discussed requirements is formally presented. An example of a map representing an outdoor area of an university campus of about 10000m2 is...

  11. On a relation between potentials for pluriharmonic maps and para-pluriharmonic maps

    Boumuki, Nobutaka; Dorfmeister, Josef


    In this paper, we show that one can interrelate pluriharmonic maps with para-pluriharmonic maps by means of the loop group method. As an appendix, we give examples for the interrelation between pluriharmonic maps and para-pluriharmonic maps. Moreover, we investigate the relation among CMC-surfaces by use of such maps.

  12. Visualizing post genomics data-sets on customized pathway maps by ProMeTra – aeration-dependent gene expression and metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum as an example

    Hüser Andrea T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid progress of post-genomic analyses, such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has resulted in the generation of large amounts of quantitative data covering and connecting the complete cascade from genotype to phenotype for individual organisms. Various benefits can be achieved when these "Omics" data are integrated, such as the identification of unknown gene functions or the elucidation of regulatory networks of whole organisms. In order to be able to obtain deeper insights in the generated datasets, it is of utmost importance to present the data to the researcher in an intuitive, integrated, and knowledge-based environment. Therefore, various visualization paradigms have been established during the last years. The visualization of "Omics" data using metabolic pathway maps is intuitive and has been applied in various software tools. It has become obvious that the application of web-based and user driven software tools has great potential and benefits from the use of open and standardized formats for the description of pathways. Results In order to combine datasets from heterogeneous "Omics" sources, we present the web-based ProMeTra system that visualizes and combines datasets from transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics on user defined metabolic pathway maps. Therefore, structured exchange of data with our "Omics" applications Emma 2, Qupe and MeltDB is employed. Enriched SVG images or animations are generated and can be obtained via the user friendly web interface. To demonstrate the functionality of ProMeTra, we use quantitative data obtained during a fermentation experiment of the L-lysine producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum DM1730. During fermentation, oxygen supply was switched off in order to perturb the system and observe its reaction. At six different time points, transcript abundances, intracellular metabolite pools, as well as extracellular glucose, lactate, and L-lysine levels

  13. 双语地图中英文注释的设计研究--以中英文版《武汉市中心城区图》为例%The Research on the Design of the English Annotation in Bilingual Map---Taking the 《Wuhan Urban Map》 as an Example

    程思聪; 刘亚虹


    双语地图在城市宣传与对外交流中发挥的作用越来越大,其中地图注记的翻译是地图是否实用的关键。本文以中英文版《武汉市中心城区图》为例,探讨了双语地图中英文注释的设计方法。在参考国家相关规定的基础上,总结了注记翻译中“专名音译,通名意译”的一般原则,并针对属性词、单位名、地名和专题信息等不同种类的地图注记翻译进行了研究。%The bilingual map plays an increasingly important role in the city publicity and outside communication ,in which the translation of map annotation is the key to the practical value of the map .The paper discusses the design method of the English annotation in bilingual map taking the for example.Based on the relevant provisions of the state,it summarizes the principle of “common-name in Chinese and general-name in english ” in translation and discusses different types of map annotation according to attribute words ,institutions names,place names and thematic information .

  14. Structure of Ce2RhIn8: an example of complementary use of high-resolution neutron powder diffraction and reciprocal-space mapping to study complex materials.

    Moshopoulou, E G; Ibberson, R M; Sarrao, J L; Thompson, J D; Fisk, Z


    The room-temperature crystal structure of the heavy fermion antiferromagnet Ce2RhIn8, dicerium rhodium octaindide, has been studied by a combination of high-resolution synchrotron X-ray reciprocal-space mapping of single crystals and high-resolution time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction. The structure is disordered, exhibiting a complex interplay of non-periodic, partially correlated planar defects, coexistence and segregation of polytypic phases (induced by periodic planar ;defects'), mosaicity (i.e. domain misalignment) and non-uniform strain. These effects evolve as a function of temperature in a complicated way, but they remain down to low temperatures. The room-temperature diffraction data are best represented by a complex mixture of two polytypic phases, which are affected by non-periodic, partially correlated planar defects, differ slightly in their tetragonal structures, and exhibit different mosaicities and strain values. Therefore, Ce2RhIn8 approaches the paracrystalline state, rather than the classic crystalline state and thus several of the concepts of conventional single-crystal crystallography are inapplicable. The structural results are discussed in the context of the role of disorder in the heavy-fermion state and in the interplay between superconductivity and magnetism. PMID:16552150

  15. Regression analysis by example

    Chatterjee, Samprit


    Praise for the Fourth Edition: ""This book is . . . an excellent source of examples for regression analysis. It has been and still is readily readable and understandable."" -Journal of the American Statistical Association Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition has been expanded

  16. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    Brown, I. F.


    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  17. Making maps a visual guide to map design for GIS

    Krygier, John


    Acclaimed for its innovative use of visual material, this book is engaging, clear, and compelling-exactly how an effective map should be. Nearly every page is organized around maps and other figures (many in full color) that illustrate all aspects of map making, including instructive examples of both good and poor design choices. The book covers everything from locating and processing data to making decisions about layout, symbols, color, and type. Readers are invited to think critically about both the technical features and social significance of maps as they learn to create better maps of t

  18. Code query by example

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien


    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  19. A guide of patent map

    This book introduces application and characteristic of patent information, types of patent information data and research of patent information, arrangement of patent information and patent map, analysis of patent information, necessity, writing period arrangement way of patent map, cases of patent map on selection of task of research and development, system of research and development and application, examples of PM such as MAP by year, application, technique, Inventor, and claim point map and computerization like data arrangement of PM patent, collection of analysis range and item analysis of patent, cases and written reports on patent analysis.

  20. Proportional Symbol Mapping in R

    Susumu Tanimura


    Full Text Available Visualization of spatial data on a map aids not only in data exploration but also in communication to impart spatial conception or ideas to others. Although recent carto-graphic functions in R are rapidly becoming richer, proportional symbol mapping, which is one of the common mapping approaches, has not been packaged thus far. Based on the theories of proportional symbol mapping developed in cartography, the authors developed some functions for proportional symbol mapping using R, including mathematical and perceptual scaling. An example of these functions demonstrated the new expressive power and options available in R, particularly for the visualization of conceptual point data.

  1. The role of national regulations in RPAS-based mapping projects in the monitoring of natural hazards that could involve infrastructures: the example of the Val Venosta Railway (Northern Italy - Bolzano).

    Gandolfo, Luca; Busnardo, Enrico; Castellarin, Nicola; Canella, Claudio; Canella, Federico; Stabile, Marco; Curci, Francesco; Petrillo, Giovanni


    Italy has adopted National Regulations for the use of RPAS in its country's airspace in December 2013, issued by the Italian Civil Aviation Authority (ENAC). Despite the issued regulations, over the past months an increasing number of unauthorized and unsafe operations have been performed and the attention to safety is growing quickly in the public opinion. For this reason "Critical Operations" is permitted only to those RPAS Operators which have received special authorization by ENAC after a very demanding Aeronautical procedure. According to the Regulations, the flight close to-over urban areas, industrial plants, highways and railways, implies that only authorized RPAS Operators may perform such activities. An example of a "Critical" operation were the RPAS flights performed along the Venosta railway line to evaluate the current situation of two areas affected by geological instability and laid the basis for a future high accurate monitoring. The Venosta Valley is located in the western part of South Tyrol (Norhtern Italy). The valley possesses some unique features compared to the entire Alps, the particularly dry climate and the presence of huge alluvional fans, which give rise to different levels of altitude in the valley. From geological point of view, the Venosta Valley is characterized by the presence of the Austroalpine domain. In particular, there are two different geological units in this area: (i) the crystalline schists of the basement, which includes paragneiss, gneiss, granitoid pegmatites, garnet micaschists, quartzites and phyllites. (ii) The Mesozoic coverage divided into various complexes with successions of phyllites, volcanics and magmatiti. The railway line that runs through the Venosta Valley (Merano - Malles) unfolds along a path of 59,8 kilometers and covers an altitude difference of about 700 meters. In particular, three tunnels characterized the first section, including the M. Giuseppe tunnel, which required extensive consolidations both

  2. Semiconductor circuits worked examples

    Abrahams, J R; Hiller, N


    Semiconductor Circuits: Worked Examples is a companion volume to Semiconductor Circuits: Theory, Design and Experiment. This book is a presentation of many questions at the undergraduate and technical level centering on the transistor. The problems concern basic physical theories of energy bands, covalent bond, and crystal lattice. Questions regarding the intrinsic property and impurity of semiconductors are also asked after the book presents a brief discussion of semiconductors. This book addresses the physical principles of semiconductor devices by presenting questions and worked examples o

  3. Web Call Example Application

    Li, Shanbo


    Web Call Example Application from Ericsson Developer Connection is an application that hosted at a web server and supplies functionality of VoIP phone calls. Users can access the service from desktop browser, mobile phone browser or Java ME Client. Users can also manage their contact books. Each user can have more than one VoIP service accounts, so they can choose the cheapest on when they make phone call. The Web Call Example Application supports two kinds of VoIP phone call connection: Rela...

  4. CR rigidity of pseudo harmonic maps and pseudo biharmonic maps

    Urakawa, Hajime


    The CR analogue of B.-Y. Chen's conjecture on pseudo biharmonic maps will be shown. Pseudo biharmonic, but not pseudo harmonic, isometric immersions with parallel pseudo mean curvature vector fields, will be characterized. Several examples of pseudo biharmonic maps will be given.

  5. A Map Enters the Conversation

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy it was...... trying to chart. I use these examples to discuss the potential modes of mattering afforded by digital cartography in STS....

  6. Infrared design examples

    Wolfe, William L


    This tutorial covers infrared design examples in considerable detail, building on principles presented in an earlier text, 'Introduction to Infrared System Design' (SPIE PRESS Vol. TT24). The text explores a range of problems illustrating several design issues, with applications in military, industry, aeronautics, space, and medicine, among others.

  7. Cyclostationarity by examples

    Antoni, Jérôme


    This paper is a tutorial on cyclostationarity oriented towards mechanical applications. The approach is voluntarily intuitive and accessible to neophytes. It thrives on 20 examples devoted to illustrating key concepts on actual mechanical signals and demonstrating how cyclostationarity can be taken advantage of in machine diagnostics, identification of mechanical systems and separation of mechanical sources.

  8. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.


    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  9. Argument Maps Improve Critical Thinking

    Twardy, Dr. Charles R.


    Computer-based argument mapping greatly enhances student critical thinking, more than tripling absolute gains made by other methods. I describe the method and my experience as an outsider. Argument mapping often showed precisely how students were erring (for example: confusing helping premises for separate reasons), making it much easier for them to fix their errors.

  10. Mind Maps as Classroom Exercises

    Budd, John W.


    A Mind Map is an outline in which the major categories radiate from a central image and lesser categories are portrayed as branches of larger branches. The author describes an in-class exercise in which small groups of students each create a Mind Map for a specific topic. This exercise is another example of an active and collaborative learning…

  11. 无人机在正射影像图制作中的应用--以罗格生态科技园为例%The Application of UAV in the Production of Orthophoto Map-With Luoge Eco-technology Industrial Park as an Example

    陈凌; 陈雅娜


    采用无人机进行航空摄影,可以使正射影像图的制作,获得良好的时间效益与经济效益。本文以罗格生态科技园无人机影像制作为例,从航空摄影、像控点测量、空中三角测量到最后的影像制作,阐述了无人机在正射影像图制作中的应用。%Adopting UAV to aerial photography, can make the production of Orthophoto Map, for the good time efficiency and economic benefits. In this paper, with UAV image production of Luoge Eco-technology Industrial Park as an example, expounds the application of UAV in the production of Orthophoto Map, from aerial photography, photo-control-point survey, aerotriangulation and image production.

  12. Visual field map clusters in human cortex

    Wandell, Brian A.; Brewer, Alyssa A.; Dougherty, Robert F.


    We describe the location and general properties of nine human visual field maps. The cortical location of each map, as well as many examples of the eccentricity and angular representations within these maps, are shown in a series of images that summarize a large set of functional MRI data. The organization and properties of these maps are compared and contrasted with descriptions by other investigators. We hypothesize that the human visual field maps are arranged in several clusters, each com...

  13. A q-deformed nonlinear map

    A scheme of q-deformation of nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a q-deformation procedure related to the Tsallis q-exponential function is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of q-logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors-a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps

  14. Symplectic maps for accelerator lattices

    We describe a method for numerical construction of a symplectic map for particle propagation in a general accelerator lattice. The generating function of the map is obtained by integrating the Hamilton-Jacobi equation as an initial-value problem on a finite time interval. Given the generating function, the map is put in explicit form by means of a Fourier inversion technique. We give an example which suggests that the method has promise. 9 refs., 9 figs

  15. Uranium prospection methods illustrated with examples

    Uranium exploration methods are briefly reviewed: aerial (radiometric, spectrometric), surface (mapping, radiometric, geophysical, geochemical), sub-surface (well logging, boring) and mining methods in the different steps of a mine project: preliminary studies, general prospecting, detailed prospecting deposit area and deposit estimation. Choice of methods depends strongly on geographic and geologic environment. Three examples are given concerning: an intragranitic deposit Limousin (France), a deposit spatially related to a discordance Athabasca (Canada) and a sedimentary deposit Manyingee (Western Australia)

  16. Examples of transient sounding from groundwater exploration in sedimentary aquifers

    Fitterman, D.V.


    Examples of the use of transient electromagnetic soundings for three groundwater exploration problems in sedimentary aquifers are given. The examples include: 1) estimating depths to water table and bedrock in an alluvium-filled basin, 2) mapping a confined freshwater aquifer in bedrock sediments, and 3) locating a freshwater/saltwater interface in a glacial-outwash aquifer. -from Author

  17. Neutrosophic Examples in Physics

    Fu Yuhua


    Full Text Available Neutrosophy can be widely applied in physics and the like. For example, one of the reasons for 2011 Nobel Prize for physics is "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe through observations of distant supernovae", but according to neutrosophy, there exist seven or nine states of accelerating expansion and contraction and the neutrosophic state in the universe. Another two examples are "a revision to Gödel's incompleteness theorem by neutrosophy" and "six neutral (neutrosophic fundamental interactions". In addition, the "partial and temporary unified theory so far" is discussed (including "partial and temporary unified electromagnetic theory so far", "partial and temporary unified gravitational theory so far", "partial and temporary unified theory of four fundamental interactions so far", and "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far".

  18. Systematic reviews. Some examples.

    Knipschild, P


    Reviewing the literature is a scientific inquiry that needs a clear design to preclude bias. It is a real enterprise if one aims at completeness of the literature on a certain subject. Going through refereed English language journals is not enough. On line databases are helpful, but mainly as a starting point. This article gives examples of systematic reviews on vitamin C and the common cold, pyridoxine against the premenstrual syndrome, homeopathy, and physiotherapy. PMID:7950526

  19. Examples of quantum integrals

    Gudder, Stan


    We first consider a method of centering and a change of variable formula for a quantum integral. We then present three types of quantum integrals. The first considers the expectation of the number of heads in $n$ flips of a "quantum coin". The next computes quantum integrals for destructive pairs examples. The last computes quantum integrals for a (Lebesgue)^2 quantum measure. For this last type we prove some quantum counterparts of the fundamental theorem of calculus.

  20. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van


    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic constraints, which pose more demands on how the labels should be placed in relation to their surroundings. For example, a label is preferably placed above and to the right of a city. These two aspects (comb...

  1. Airborne geophysical mapping of environmental features - examples from Northern Ireland

    Young, Michael; Appleton, James; Beamish, David; Cuss, Robert; Van Dam, Christiaan; Jones, David; Lahti, Mari; Miles, Jon; Rawlins, Barry; Scheib, Catherine


    The Geological Survey of Northern Ireland completed a low-level regional airborne geophysical survey of Northern Ireland during 2005-6 as part of the Tellus Project. The survey was flown by the Joint Airborne Geoscience Capability, a partnership of the British Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Finland. The aircraft, a De Havilland Twin Otter, was equipped with two magnetometer sensors, a four-frequency electromagnetic system and a 256-channel gamma-ray spectrometer. The traverse-...

  2. Enhancements in reservoir flood risk mapping: example application for Ulley

    Smith, Alan; Geoff, Craig; Panzeri, Michael


    In July 2007, at Ulley Reservoir, South Yorkshire, a catastrophic dam failure was narrowly avoided due to emergency preventative actions. During the event, a number of homes were evacuated and roads were closed for precautionary measures. Within very close proximity of the reservoir lies the town of Rotherham, the busy M1 motorway and a trunk freight railway line. The incident highlights the need for detailed flood risk and hazard modelling to improve management of the risk and better inciden...

  3. Example based style classification

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik;


    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  4. Examples of hypospecial loops

    A hypospecial loop is a generalized of both an A-loop and a Bol loop. The general theory of hypospecial loops is originated by Sabinin L.V. Here we give some examples of hypospecial loops and it is pointed out that Moufang A-loops constitute a large class of such loops. Sufficient conditions are found for A-loops and Bol loops to be hypospecial and at the same time the connection between left hypospecial loops and left conjugacy closed loops and Burn loops is established. (author). 18 refs

  5. Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals

    Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao


    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...

  6. Map Projection

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim


    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  7. Learning Bing maps API

    Sinani, Artan


    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  8. Harmonic Maps and Biharmonic Maps

    Hajime Urakawa


    This is a survey on harmonic maps and biharmonic maps into (1) Riemannian manifolds of non-positive curvature, (2) compact Lie groups or (3) compact symmetric spaces, based mainly on my recent works on these topics.

  9. Maps of Computer Science

    Fried, Daniel


    We describe a practical approach for visual exploration of research papers. Specifically, we use the titles of papers from the DBLP database to create what we call maps of computer science (MoCS). Words and phrases from the paper titles are the cities in the map, and countries are created based on word and phrase similarity, calculated using co-occurrence. With the help of heatmaps, we can visualize the profile of a particular conference or journal over the base map. Similarly, heatmap profiles can be made of individual researchers or groups such as a department. The visualization system also makes it possible to change the data used to generate the base map. For example, a specific journal or conference can be used to generate the base map and then the heatmap overlays can be used to show the evolution of research topics in the field over the years. As before, individual researchers or research groups profiles can be visualized using heatmap overlays but this time over the journal or conference base map. Fin...

  10. Not a good example

    The heat producer Teplaren Kosice (TEKO), which supplies energy to the city of Kosice, was mentioned by PM Robert Fico as an example of a well-managed state-controlled business. At the very same time, TEKO was selling its heating plant in the nearby city of Presov without any public tender. It sold the facility to Spravbytkomfort, a company owned by the city of Presov and an Austrian investor, Energiecomfort Wien. The price was 980,000 eur, which is 30,000 eur above the official expert appraisal value. However, there was no other candidate allowed to bid. TEKO explains that the land beneath the plant belongs to the city of Presov and therefore nobody else would be willing to buy such a business. The official reason for the sell-out was the business efficiency of the Presov subsidiary - it had been accumulating losses in the past three years. And TEKO needs sources for its investments. TEKO's business in Kosice is not really thriving. While it reported a net profit of 6.7 million eur in 2006, under new management it dropped down to some 70,000 eur in 2008. Last year, the P and L was almost 700,000 eur in the black. The management explains the financial trend due to the lack of investments and revenues from the selling of carbon credits by the former executive body. Now TEKO needs to invest far more. TEKO's P and L statement was also affected by the increase in gas and coal prices in 2008. The Regulatory Office for Network Industries allowed TEKO to increase its prices but the company took only partial advantage of this, claiming its policy is to keep prices below the national average. People from the industry say TEKO is mismanaged. They say expensive contracts brought the company into a difficult financial position and actually forced it to sell the Presov facility. For example, a turbine repair in 2008 cost 3.2 million eur, twice as much as they paid for the same repair in 2002. (author)

  11. Research on Division of Land Grades Based on MapInfo-EXCEL:With Xiuyan County, Liaoning Province as an Example%基于MapInfo- EXCEL的土地级别划分方法研究——以辽宁省岫岩县为例

    王利; 祝晓丹


    以辽宁省岫岩县为例,探讨了基于GIS技术的土地级别划分方法.以国家《城镇土地分等定级规程》为基础,详细分析采用单元总分频率曲线法进行土地定级,并以“自然划分”、“标准差”方法进行界线的修正及确定.结果表明此种方法能够有效地提高土地级别划分的精度和准确性.%The town-land classification is the fundamental work of the town-land management. With Xiuyan County as an example, this paper studies the techniques for land grading based on GIS technology. On the basis of the Procedure of Urban Land Gradation, and using the method of total frequency, the paper modifies and corrects the results by means of "natural division" and "standard deviation". The results confirm that this method can effectively raise the precision and accuracy of land grading.

  12. Skyrmions from Harmonic Maps

    Zakrzewski, Wojtek


    We describe some relations between solitonic solutions of various models in different dimensions. We present some examples and then concentrate on some of our recent work (performed in collaboration with Ioannidou and Piette) \\cite{IPZ} \\cite{us2} which shows how some harmonic maps from S2 to CPN-1 can be used to find nontrivial spherically symmetric static solutions of the SU(N) Skyrme model in 3 dimensions and to generate some of its low energy field configurations.

  13. Effective Mind Maps in E-learning

    Petr Kedaj; Josef Pavlíček; Petr Hanzlík


    This article presents the role of mind maps in creating well-structured e-learning materials and courses, which has become very important with increasing influence of new technologies and alternative study modes. The basic principles of mind mapping are described, including structural components of mind maps, and examples of practical use cases. Based on the identified lack of existing methodical frameworks for creating interactive mind maps for e-learning, we present a set of rules and metri...

  14. Brain mapping

    Blaž Koritnik


    Full Text Available Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping" aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1 acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2 transformation of data into a common reference, (3 visualization and interpretation of results, and (4 databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prerequisite for multisubject, multidimensional and multimodal mapping is transformation of individual images to match a standard brain template. To produce brain maps, color, contours, and other visual cues are used to differentiate metabolic rates, electrical field potentials, receptor densities, and other attributes of structure or function. Databases are used to organize and archive data records. By relating the maps to cognitive functions and psychological models, brain mapping offers a prerequisite for the understanding of organizational principles of the human brain.

  15. Affective Maps

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    Recently, in human geography there has been a considerable attention paid to retheorising maps; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic, performative, and participatory practice....... In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology...

  16. Cognitive maps

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann


    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...

  17. Causal mapping

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard


    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  18. Weak monotonicity inequality and partial regularity for harmonic maps

    沈尧天; 严树森


    The notion of locally weak monotonicity inequality for weakly harmonic maps is introduced and various results on this class of maps are obtained. For example, the locally weak monotonicity inequality is nearly equivalent to the ε-regularity.

  19. Examples in Markov decision processes

    Piunovskiy, A B


    This invaluable book provides approximately eighty examples illustrating the theory of controlled discrete-time Markov processes. Except for applications of the theory to real-life problems like stock exchange, queues, gambling, optimal search etc, the main attention is paid to counter-intuitive, unexpected properties of optimization problems. Such examples illustrate the importance of conditions imposed in the theorems on Markov Decision Processes. Many of the examples are based upon examples published earlier in journal articles or textbooks while several other examples are new. The aim was

  20. The power of example

    Liliana Gheorghian, Mariana


    beginning of the XXI century" with the participation of several schools in the country in 2009 and 2011. The papers presented were diverse and gave examples of various teaching experiences and scientific information. Topics by the teachers: The impact of tourism on the environment, Tornadoes, Natural science and environmental education in school, Air Pollution and health, Ecological education of children from primary school, The effects of electromagnetic radiation, Formation of an ecological mentality using chemistry, Why should we protect water, Environmental education, Education for the future, SOS Nature, Science in the twenty-first century, etc. Topics by students: Nature- the palace of thermal phenomena, Life depends on heat, Water Mysteries, Global Heating, The Mysterious universe, etc. In March 2013 our school hosted an interesting exchange of ideas on environmental issues between our students and those from Bulgaria, Poland and Turkey, during a symposium of the Comenius multilateral project "Conserving Nature". In order to present the results of protecting nature in their communities, two projects "Citizen" qualified in the Program Civitas in the autumn of 2013. "The Battle" continues both in nature and in classrooms, in order to preserve the environment.

  1. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine;


    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function, or...... for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any...

  2. Coordinate systems and map projections

    Maling, DH


    A revised and expanded new edition of the definitive English work on map projections. The revisions take into account the huge advances in geometrical geodesy which have occurred since the early years of satellite geodesy. The detailed configuration of the geoid resulting from the GEOS and SEASAT altimetry measurements are now taken into consideration. Additionally, the chapter on computation of map projections is updated bearing in mind the availability of pocket calculators and microcomputers. Analytical derivation of some map projections including examples of pseudocylindrical and polyconic

  3. CALS Mapping

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm


    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State of the...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  4. Roots of mappings from manifolds

    Brooks Robin


    Full Text Available Assume that is a proper map of a connected -manifold into a Hausdorff, connected, locally path-connected, and semilocally simply connected space , and has a neighborhood homeomorphic to Euclidean -space. The proper Nielsen number of at and the absolute degree of at are defined in this setting. The proper Nielsen number is shown to a lower bound on the number of roots at among all maps properly homotopic to , and the absolute degree is shown to be a lower bound among maps properly homotopic to and transverse to . When , these bounds are shown to be sharp. An example of a map meeting these conditions is given in which, in contrast to what is true when is a manifold, Nielsen root classes of the map have different multiplicities and essentialities, and the root Reidemeister number is strictly greater than the Nielsen root number, even when the latter is nonzero.

  5. Participatory maps

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper......There has recently been considerable attention paid to digital, spatial visualisations in digital journalism and technology studies; less as a product and more as practice. This refers to the notion that rather than reading maps as fixed representations, digital mapping is by nature a dynamic...... is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within which journalistic practice can be seen as dynamic, performative interactions between journalists, ecosystems, space, and species....

  6. Brain mapping

    Blaž Koritnik


    Cartography of the brain ("brain mapping") aims to represent the complexities of the working brain in an understandable and usable way. There are four crucial steps in brain mapping: (1) acquiring data about brain structure and function, (2) transformation of data into a common reference, (3) visualization and interpretation of results, and (4) databasing and archiving. Electrophysiological and functional imaging methods provide information about function of the human brain. A prere...

  7. Noise map

    Němcová, Michaela


    The aim of this paper is to introduce the measurement of noise and create a noise map in a geographic information system. The first part is focused on describing the physical properties of sound in space, atmospheric and physiological acoustics. It also deals with the physiological effects of noise on the human body and technology needed for measure and process noise. Other part describes the structure of a geographic information system and noise map. The last part is about the practical crea...

  8. Rethinking maps

    Kitchin, Rob; Dodge, Martin


    In this paper we argue that cartography is profitably conceived as a processual, rather than representational, science. Building on recent analysis concerning the philosophical underpinnings of cartography we question the ontological security of maps, contending that it is productive to rethink cartography as ontogenetic in nature; that is maps emerge through practices and have no secure ontological status. Drawing on the concepts of transduction and technicity we contend that ...

  9. Introduction: The Power of Example

    Højer, Lars; Bandak, Andreas

    persuasive and evocative power – positive and negative – of ‘examples’ in social and academic life while also proposing exemplification as a distinct anthropological way of theorizing. Such theorizing points to a ‘lateral’ rethinking of the relation between the particular and the general. Our central...... argument is that examples highlight the precarious tension between the example as ‘example’ and the example as ‘exemplar’. All contributions to this special issue, in one way or another, explore this tension between the unruliness of examples and the stability-enhancing power of exemplarity. The...

  10. Mapping your competitive position.

    D'Aveni, Richard A


    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  11. Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place

    Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani


    Indigenous communities have successfully used Western geospatial technologies (GT) (for example, digital maps, satellite images, geographic information systems (GIS), and global positioning systems (GPS)) since the 1970s to protect tribal resources, document territorial sovereignty, create tribal utility databases, and manage watersheds. The use…

  12. Constructing Programs from Example Computations.

    Bierman, A. W.; Krishnaswamy, R.

    This paper describes the construction and implementation of an autoprogramming system. An autoprogrammer is an interactive computer programming system which automatically constructs computer programs from example computations executed by the user. The example calculations are done in a scratch pad fashion at a computer display, and the system…

  13. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Pecorino, Paul


    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  14. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis


    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are...

  15. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are...

  16. Mapping Deeply

    Denis Wood


    Full Text Available This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, water, electricity into the stuff of individual lives (sidewalk graffiti, wind chimes, barking dogs, and vice versa. Maps in the central transformer section of the atlas were to have charted this process in action, as in one showing the route of an individual newspaper into the neighborhood, then through the neighborhood to a home, and finally, as trash, out of the neighborhood in a garbage truck; though few of these had been completed when the project concluded in 1986. Resurrected in 1998 in an episode on Ira Glass’ This American Life, the atlas was finally published, as Everything Sings: Maps for a Narrative Atlas, in 2010 (and an expanded edition in 2013.

  17. Modelling and comparing maps with graphs

    Le Ber, Florence; Metzger, Jean-Luc; Napoli, Amedeo


    This paper is concerned with the modelling of maps with conceptual graphs for the design of a knowledge-based system. We first describe the maps, which are synthetic descriptions of farm territories. We then explain the modelling principles we have used: the spatial objects of the map and the relations are represented into concepts linked with arcs. The reasoning principle of the system are briefly described. We finally focus on an example of graph comparison.

  18. An Unusual Apporach to the Elementary Qualitative Physics Course: Introduction to Space Science

    Moore, E. Neal


    Describes a course, without laboratory, using rudimentary algebra and covering such topics as gravitation, orbital mechanics, atomic structure, geomagnetism, electromagnetic spectrum, theory of relativity, extraterrestrial life, and interstellar travel. (GH)

  19. Parametric mapping

    Branch, Allan C.


    Parametric mapping (PM) lies midway between older and proven artificial landmark based guidance systems and yet to be realized vision based guidance systems. It is a simple yet effective natural landmark recognition system offering freedom from the need for enhancements to the environment. Development of PM systems can be inexpensive and rapid and they are starting to appear in commercial and industrial applications. Together with a description of the structural framework developed to generically describe robot mobility, this paper illustrates clearly the parts of any mobile robot navigation and guidance system and their interrelationships. Among other things, the importance of the richness of the reference map, and not necessarily the sensor map, is introduced, the benefits of dynamic path planners to alleviate the need for separate object avoidance, and the independence of the PM system to the type of sensor input is shown.

  20. Appendix 2: Maps


    Map 1. The border towns of Zabaykalsk (Russia) and Manzhouli (China). Map created by Philip Stickler. Map 2. Legendary and historical Khori Buryat migrations. Map created by Philip Stickler. Map 3. Buryat emigrations in the 20th century. Map created by Philip Stickler. Map 4. Numerous demarcation lines supplement the Sino-Russian international boundary. Map created by Philip Stickler.

  1. Radioelement mapping

    A high quality geochemical database is pertinent to a wide range of investigations in the earth and life sciences, and should be considered as an essential component of environmental knowledge. Natural radioactive elements associated with radioactive raw materials, the radiation environment and their health impact, form part of such a comprehensive geochemical database. Databases on radioelement mapping have been increasingly used and updated in several countries for the exploration of uranium and thorium raw materials for nuclear fuels, environmental geochemical studies and the assessment of the radiation environment. The demand for radioelement databases is expected to grow over the next decade as new applications for them are foreseen. To this end, the IAEA invited a group of experts to investigate the issues and draft a report on the current state of radioelement mapping and the development of a global radioelement baseline. In the past, based on gamma surveys for uranium exploration and field gamma spectrometry, the IAEA took a leading role in facilitating the development of methodologies and standards for the quantitative estimation of radioelement concentrations and for the geochemical mapping of radioelements.. The need for approved methodologies and standards for radioelement mapping was identified at an IAEA panel meeting in 1972. This led to IAEA technical meetings in 1973 and 1974 and the publication of the proceedings of an IAEA symposium entitled Exploration for Uranium Ore Deposits. In subsequent years, calibration standards and procedures were developed for radiometric field equipment. The standards were based on geological reference materials for laboratory gamma ray spectrometers issued by the IAEA. The information on the standards and the equipment has been documented in detail in IAEA technical reports: Preparation and Certification of IAEA Gamma ray Spectrometry Reference Materials RGU-1, RGTh-1 and RGK-1, report IAEA/RL/148 (1987); and

  2. Contextualising Archaeological Information Through Interactive Maps

    Ian Johnson


    Full Text Available Many web sites use maps delivered as non-interactive images. With the development of web-enabled mapping, new methods of presenting and contextualising archaeological and historical data are becoming available. However, most current examples are static views of contemporary framework data or specific time slices, and do not provide interactivity relating to the time dimension, which is so important to archaeology and related disciplines. In this article I look at some of the advantages of time-enabled interactive mapping and map animation in providing educational experiences to museum visitors and the web-browsing public. These will be illustrated through three example applications of the TimeMap methodology developed at the University of Sydney Archaeological Computing Laboratory: 1. the Sydney TimeMap kiosk at the Museum of Sydney; 2. an embedded Java mapping applet developed for MacquarieNet, a major Australian online educational encyclopaedia; and 3. the metadata clearinghouse mapping applet developed for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Berkeley. In each of these examples, a wide range of resources are delivered through a time-enabled map interface which accesses live database data rather than pre-structured curated presentations of data. This flexibility brings its own challenges in providing intuitive pathways and appropriate levels of detail in response to free-ranging user enquiries. The paper outlines some of the approaches I have adopted to resolve these issues.

  3. Extended asymptotic functions - some examples

    Several examples of extended asymptotic functions are exposed. These examples will illustrate the notions introduced in another paper but at the same time they have a significance as realizations of some Schwartz disctibutions: delta(x), H(x), P(1/xsup(n)), etc. The important thing is that the asymptotic functions of these examples (which, on their part, are realizations of the above-mentioned distributions) can be multiplied in the class of the asymptotic functions as opposed to the theory of Schwartz distributions. Some properties of the set of all extended asymptotic functions are considered which are essential for the next step of this approach

  4. Evaluation of integrated data sets: four examples

    Several large data sets have been integrated and utilized for rapid evaluation on a reconnaissance scale for the Montrose 10 x 20 quadrangle, Colorado. The data sets include Landsat imagery, hydrogeochemical and stream sediment analyses, airborne geophysical data, known mineral occurrences, and a geologic map. All data sets were registered to a 179 x 119 rectangular grid and projected onto Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates. A grid resolution of 1 km was used. All possible combinations of three, for most data sets, were examined for general geologic correlations by utilizing a color microfilm output. In addition, gray-level pictures of statistical output, e.g., factor analysis, have been employed to aid evaluations. Examples for the data sets dysprosium-calcium, lead-copper-zinc, and equivalent uranium-uranium in water-uranium in sediment are described with respect to geologic applications, base-metal regimes, and geochemical associations

  5. A Learning Design Worked Example

    Gorissen, Pierre; Tattersall, Colin


    Gorissen, P. & Tattersall, C. (2005). A Learning Design Worked Example. In: Koper, R. & Tattersall, C., Learning Design: A Handbook on Modelling and Delivering Networked Education and Training (pp. 3-20). Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

  6. The Synthesizability of Texture Examples

    Dai, Dengxin; Riemenschneider, Hayko; Van Gool, Luc


    Dai D., Riemenschneider H., Van Gool L., ''The synthesizability of texture examples'', 27th IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition - CVPR 2014, pp. 3027-3034, June 23-28, 2014, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

  7. Mapping filmmaking

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik;


    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus is...

  8. Energetic map

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  9. Concept Maps in Chemistry Education

    Regis, Alberto; Albertazzi, Pier Giorgio; Roletto, Ezio


    This article presents and illustrates a proposed application of concept maps in chemistry teaching in high schools. The students were provided with the "concept lables" necessary for map building in three different ways. The analysis of the students' maps at different stages of the learning process led to the recognition of the three types of cognitive events which seem to correspond to the same number of restructuring stages in the conceptual organization. This can enable the teacher to characterize the changes produced in the learners' conceptions by teaching / learning activities. Three examples of the use of concept maps in chemistry teaching are reported and discussed with reference to: atomic structure, oxidation-reduction and thermodynamics.

  10. Characterization and solvability of quasipolynomial symplectic mappings

    Hernandez-Bermejo, Benito [ESCET (Edificio Departamental II), Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Calle Tulipan S/N, 28933-Mostoles-Madrid (Spain); Brenig, Leon [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, CP 231, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)


    Quasipolynomial (or QP) mappings constitute a wide generalization of the well-known Lotka-Volterra mappings, of importance in different fields such as population dynamics, physics, chemistry or economy. In addition, QP mappings are a natural discrete-time analogue of the continuous QP systems, which have been extensively used in different pure and applied domains. After presenting the basic definitions and properties of QP mappings in a previous paper, the purpose of this work is to focus on their characterization by considering the existence of symplectic QP mappings. In what follows such QP symplectic maps are completely characterized. Moreover, use of the QP formalism can be made in order to demonstrate that all QP symplectic mappings have an analytical solution that is explicitly and generally constructed. Examples are given.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that map to gaps in the human SNP map

    Tsui, Circe; Coleman, Laura E.; Griffith, Jacqulyn L.; Bennett, E. Andrew; Goodson, Summer G.; Scott, Jason D.; Pittard, W. Stephen; Devine, Scott E.


    An international effort is underway to generate a comprehensive haplotype map (HapMap) of the human genome represented by an estimated 300 000 to 1 million ‘tag’ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our analysis indicates that the current human SNP map is not sufficiently dense to support the HapMap project. For example, 24.6% of the genome currently lacks SNPs at the minimal density and spacing that would be required to construct even a conservative tag SNP map containing 300 000 SNPs. In...


    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian


    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  13. Risk Mapping of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Distribution and Spread

    Richard A. J. Williams


    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza begs effective and accurate mapping of current knowledge and future risk of infection. Methods for such mapping, however, are rudimentary, and few good examples exist for use as templates for risk-mapping efforts. We review the transmission cycle of avian influenza viruses, and identify points on which risk-mapping can focus. We provide examples from the literature and from our work that illustrate mapping risk based on (1 avian influenza case occurrences, (2 poultry distributions and movements, and (3 migratory bird movements.

  14. On the Gray index conjecture for phantom maps

    Iriye, Kouyemon


    We study the Gray index of phantom maps, which is a numerical invariant of phantom maps. It is conjectured that the only phantom map with infinite Gray index between finite-type spaces is the constant map. We disprove this conjecture by constructing a counter example. We also prove that this conjecture is valid if the target spaces of phantom maps are restricted to simply connected finite complexes. As an application of the counter example we show that $\\SNT^{\\infty}(X)$ can be non-trivial fo...

  15. Implementing Parallel Google Map-Reduce in Eden

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Loogen, Rita


    Recent publications have emphasised map-reduce as a general programming model (labelled Google map-reduce), and described existing high-performance implementations for large data sets. We present two parallel implementations for this Google map-reduce skeleton, one following earlier work, and one...... of the Google map-reduce skeleton in usage and performance, and deliver runtime analyses for example applications. Although very flexible, the Google map-reduce skeleton is often too general, and typical examples reveal a better runtime behaviour using alternative skeletons....

  16. Book review: Visualizing social science research: maps, methods and meaning

    Tsirogianni, Stavroula


    Presenting basic principles of social science research through maps, graphs, and diagrams, this book shows how concept maps and mind maps can be used in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research, using student-focused examples and classroom based activities. Stavroula Tsirogianni would like to have seen more discussion on audiences and design, but feels the book will certainly appeal to educators and researchers.

  17. Mining e-Learning Domain Concept Map from Academic Articles

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wei, Chun-Wang; Chen, Hong-Jhe


    Recent researches have demonstrated the importance of concept map and its versatile applications especially in e-Learning. For example, while designing adaptive learning materials, designers need to refer to the concept map of a subject domain. Moreover, concept maps can show the whole picture and core knowledge about a subject domain. Research…

  18. Concept mapping for learners of all ages

    Nancy L. Gallenstein


    Full Text Available Concept mapping is an inquiry technique that provides students at all ages with opportunities to demonstrate learning through performance. A concept map refers to a graphic/visual representation of concepts with linking connections that show various relationships between concepts (Novak & Gowin, 1984. Assessment is an ongoing process integrated with instruction across subject areas. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM emphasizes that assessment should focus on both the enhancement of student learning as well as serve as a valuable tool for making instructional decisions (NCTM, 2000. Assessment activities can take on a variety of forms, one being performance tasks. In this manuscript, an explanation of concept mapping is provided for learners ages 3 – 12 along with several examples of concept maps for young learners, including examples from an assessment project in the subject area of mathematics. Also presented are the numerous benefits of the concept mapping technique for both students and teachers.

  19. Mapping Participation

    Hood, Beverley


    Mapping/Tracking is a participatory, collaborative project, exploring GPS tracking via mobile devices as a performative drawing material, blending technology and creativity. Using the Forth Valley Royal Hospital and the surrounding forest as a canvas, the project is a collaboration between artist, lecturer and researcher Beverley Hood, visual artist Sharon Quigley, audio-visual artist Emma Bowen and participants of the Abrupt Encounters program. “Abrupt Encounters is a new live arts program d...

  20. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Hanssen, Joel


    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  1. Harvesting geographic features from heterogeneous raster maps

    Chiang, Yao-Yi


    Raster maps offer a great deal of geospatial information and are easily accessible compared to other geospatial data. However, harvesting geographic features locked in heterogeneous raster maps to obtain the geospatial information is challenging. This is because of the varying image quality of raster maps (e.g., scanned maps with poor image quality and computer-generated maps with good image quality), the overlapping geographic features in maps, and the typical lack of metadata (e.g., map geocoordinates, map source, and original vector data). Previous work on map processing is typically limited to a specific type of map and often relies on intensive manual work. In contrast, this thesis investigates a general approach that does not rely on any prior knowledge and requires minimal user effort to process heterogeneous raster maps. This approach includes automatic and supervised techniques to process raster maps for separating individual layers of geographic features from the maps and recognizing geographic features in the separated layers (i.e., detecting road intersections, generating and vectorizing road geometry, and recognizing text labels). The automatic technique eliminates user intervention by exploiting common map properties of how road lines and text labels are drawn in raster maps. For example, the road lines are elongated linear objects and the characters are small connected-objects. The supervised technique utilizes labels of road and text areas to handle complex raster maps, or maps with poor image quality, and can process a variety of raster maps with minimal user input. The results show that the general approach can handle raster maps with varying map complexity, color usage, and image quality. By matching extracted road intersections to another geospatial dataset, we can identify the geocoordinates of a raster map and further align the raster map, separated feature layers from the map, and recognized features from the layers with the geospatial

  2. An example of natural teaching

    McHardy, Callum


    This essay is an introduction to one natural, evolutionary-based approach to teaching English language to Spanish children of 5 years old. It takes the view that teaching of any kind is a natural process and that learning is equally natural, and essentially analytical. It puts forward the idea that the teacher, not the textbook, should be the chief tool of the child. It gives an example of a natural learning and teaching situation, and gives an example of how this may be ap...

  3. QTL IciMapping:Integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations

    Lei; Meng; Huihui; Li; Luyan; Zhang; Jiankang; Wang


    QTL Ici Mapping is freely available public software capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci(QTL) in biparental populations. Eight functionalities are integrated in this software package:(1) BIN: binning of redundant markers;(2) MAP: construction of linkage maps in biparental populations;(3) CMP: consensus map construction from multiple linkage maps sharing common markers;(4) SDL: mapping of segregation distortion loci;(5) BIP: mapping of additive, dominant, and digenic epistasis genes;(6) MET: QTL-by-environment interaction analysis;(7) CSL: mapping of additive and digenic epistasis genes with chromosome segment substitution lines; and(8) NAM: QTL mapping in NAM populations. Input files can be arranged in plain text, MS Excel 2003, or MS Excel 2007 formats. Output files have the same prefix name as the input but with different extensions. As examples, there are two output files in BIN, one for summarizing the identified bin groups and deleted markers in each bin, and the other for using the MAP functionality. Eight output files are generated by MAP, including summary of the completed linkage maps, Mendelian ratio test of individual markers, estimates of recombination frequencies, LOD scores, and genetic distances, and the input files for using the BIP, SDL,and MET functionalities. More than 30 output files are generated by BIP, including results at all scanning positions, identified QTL, permutation tests, and detection powers for up to six mapping methods. Three supplementary tools have also been developed to display completed genetic linkage maps, to estimate recombination frequency between two loci,and to perform analysis of variance for multi-environmental trials.

  4. QTL IciMapping:Integrated software for genetic linkage map construction and quantitative trait locus mapping in biparental populations

    Lei Meng; Huihui Li; Luyan Zhang; Jiankang Wang


    QTL IciMapping is freely available public software capable of building high-density linkage maps and mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in biparental populations. Eight func-tionalities are integrated in this software package: (1) BIN:binning of redundant markers;(2) MAP: construction of linkage maps in biparental populations; (3) CMP: consensus map construction from multiple linkage maps sharing common markers; (4) SDL: mapping of segregation distortion loci;(5) BIP:mapping of additive, dominant, and digenic epistasis genes;(6) MET:QTL-by-environment interaction analysis;(7) CSL:mapping of additive and digenic epistasis genes with chromosome segment substitution lines; and (8) NAM: QTL mapping in NAM populations. Input files can be arranged in plain text, MS Excel 2003, or MS Excel 2007 formats. Output files have the same prefix name as the input but with different extensions. As examples, there are two output files in BIN, one for summarizing the identified bin groups and deleted markers in each bin, and the other for using the MAP functionality. Eight output files are generated by MAP, including summary of the completed linkage maps, Mendelian ratio test of individual markers, estimates of recombination frequencies, LOD scores, and genetic distances, and the input files for using the BIP, SDL, and MET functionalities. More than 30 output files are generated by BIP, including results at all scanning positions, identified QTL, permutation tests, and detection powers for up to six mapping methods. Three supplementary tools have also been developed to display completed genetic linkage maps, to estimate recombination frequency between two loci, and to perform analysis of variance for multi-environmental trials.

  5. MAP user's manual copyright

    The program MITMAP represents a set of general purpose, two- dimensional, finite element programs for the calculation of magnetic fields. It consists of the program MAP and MAP2DJ. The two programs are used to solve different electromagnetic problems, but they have a common set of subrountines for pre- and postprocessing. Originally separate programs, they have been combined to make modification easier. The manuals, however, will remain separate. The program MAP is described in this manual. MAP is applicable to the class of problems with two-dimensional-planar or axisymmetric - geometries, in which the current density and the magnetic vector potential have only a single nonvanishing component. The single component is associated with the direction that is perpendicular to the plane of the problem and is invariant with respect to that direction. Maxwell's equations can be reduced to a solver diffusion equation in terms of the single, nonvanishing component of the magnetic vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector potential for planar problems and to a single component of a vector diffusion equation for axisymmetric problems. The magnetic permeability appears in the governing equation. The permeability may be a function of the magnetic flux density. In addition, any electrically conducting material present will have eddy currents induced by a time varying magnetic field. These eddy currents must be included in the solution process. This manual provides a description of the structure of the input data and output for the program. There are several example problems presented that illustrate the major program features. Appendices are included that contain a derivation of the governing equations and the application of the finite element method to the solution of the equations

  6. Sphere Recognition: Heuristics and Examples

    Joswig, Michael; Lutz, Frank H.; Tsuruga, Mimi


    Heuristic techniques for recognizing PL spheres using the topological software polymake are presented. These methods have been successful very often despite sphere recognition being known to be hard (for dimensions $d \\ge 3$) or even undecidable (for $d \\ge 5$). A deeper look into the simplicial complexes for which the heuristics failed uncovered a trove of examples having interesting topological and combinatorial properties.

  7. Generalization in Learning from Examples

    Kůrková, Věra

    Berlin: Springer, 2007 - (Duch, W.; Mandziuk, J.), s. 343-363. (Studies in Computational Intelligence. 63). ISBN 978-3-540-71983-0 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : learning from example * inverse problems * regularization Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. Interactive example-based hatching

    Gerl, Moritz; Isenberg, Tobias


    We present an approach for interactively generating pen-and-ink hatching renderings based on hand-drawn examples. We aim to overcome the regular and synthetic appearance of the results of existing methods by incorporating human virtuosity and illustration skills in the computer generation of such im

  9. Active Learning with Irrelevant Examples

    Wagstaff, Kiri; Mazzoni, Dominic


    An improved active learning method has been devised for training data classifiers. One example of a data classifier is the algorithm used by the United States Postal Service since the 1960s to recognize scans of handwritten digits for processing zip codes. Active learning algorithms enable rapid training with minimal investment of time on the part of human experts to provide training examples consisting of correctly classified (labeled) input data. They function by identifying which examples would be most profitable for a human expert to label. The goal is to maximize classifier accuracy while minimizing the number of examples the expert must label. Although there are several well-established methods for active learning, they may not operate well when irrelevant examples are present in the data set. That is, they may select an item for labeling that the expert simply cannot assign to any of the valid classes. In the context of classifying handwritten digits, the irrelevant items may include stray marks, smudges, and mis-scans. Querying the expert about these items results in wasted time or erroneous labels, if the expert is forced to assign the item to one of the valid classes. In contrast, the new algorithm provides a specific mechanism for avoiding querying the irrelevant items. This algorithm has two components: an active learner (which could be a conventional active learning algorithm) and a relevance classifier. The combination of these components yields a method, denoted Relevance Bias, that enables the active learner to avoid querying irrelevant data so as to increase its learning rate and efficiency when irrelevant items are present. The algorithm collects irrelevant data in a set of rejected examples, then trains the relevance classifier to distinguish between labeled (relevant) training examples and the rejected ones. The active learner combines its ranking of the items with the probability that they are relevant to yield a final decision about which item

  10. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Douma, M.


    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum ( and SpicyNodes information visualization tool ( as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  11. $\\lambda$-perfect maps

    Namdari, M.; Siavoshi, M. A.


    The $\\lambda$-perfect maps, a generalization of perfect maps (continuous closed maps with compact fibers) are presented. Using $P_\\lambda$-spaces and the concept of $\\lambda$-compactness some results regarding $\\lambda$-perfect maps will be investigated.

  12. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)


    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  13. More 'mapping' in brain mapping: statistical comparison of effects

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Anthony C.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Østergaard, Arne L.


    The term 'mapping' in the context of brain imaging conveys to most the concept of localization; that is, a brain map is meant to reveal a relationship between some condition or parameter and specific sites within the brain. However, in reality, conventional voxel-based maps of brain function, or...... for that matter of brain structure, are generally constructed using analyses that yield no basis for inferences regarding the spatial nonuniformity of the effects. In the normal analysis path for functional images, for example, there is nowhere a statistical comparison of the observed effect in any...... voxel relative to that in any other voxel. Under these circumstances, strictly speaking, the presence of significant activation serves as a legitimate basis only for inferences about the brain as a unit. In their discussion of results, investigators rarely are content to confirm the brain's role, and...

  14. Infiltration SuDS Map

    Dearden, Rachel


    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  15. Recommendations for the user-specific enhancement of flood maps

    V. Meyer; Kuhlicke, C.; Luther, J.; Fuchs, S; S. Priest; W. Dorner; K. Serrhini; Pardoe, J; McCarthy, S; Seidel, J.; PALKA, G.; Unnerstall, H.; Viavattene, C.; Scheuer, S.


    The European Union Floods Directive requires the establishment of flood maps for high risk areas in all European member states by 2013. However, the current practice of flood mapping in Europe still shows some deficits. Firstly, flood maps are frequently seen as an information tool rather than a communication tool. This means that, for example, local stocks of knowledge are not incorporated. Secondly, the contents of flood maps often do not match the requirements of the end-users. Finally, fl...

  16. High-order control for symplectic maps

    Sansottera, M.; Giorgilli, A.; Carletti, T.


    We revisit the problem of introducing an a priori control for devices that can be modeled via a symplectic map in a neighborhood of an elliptic equilibrium. Using a technique based on Lie transform methods we produce a normal form algorithm that avoids the usual step of interpolating the map with a flow. The formal algorithm is completed with quantitative estimates that bring into evidence the asymptotic character of the normal form transformation. Then we perform an heuristic analysis of the dynamical behavior of the map using the invariant function for the normalized map. Finally, we discuss how control terms of different orders may be introduced so as to increase the size of the stable domain of the map. The numerical examples are worked out on a two dimensional map of Hénon type.

  17. Effective Mind Maps in E-learning

    Petr Kedaj


    Full Text Available This article presents the role of mind maps in creating well-structured e-learning materials and courses, which has become very important with increasing influence of new technologies and alternative study modes. The basic principles of mind mapping are described, including structural components of mind maps, and examples of practical use cases. Based on the identified lack of existing methodical frameworks for creating interactive mind maps for e-learning, we present a set of rules and metrics, which can help to identify points of ineffectiveness, and eliminate redundancies. This framework for creating effective mind maps and its implications are described in details with help of illustrative figures and textual description. The maps that has been created in accordance with this methodology are clear and comprehensible.

  18. Wireless communication electronics by example

    Sobot, Robert


    This book is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as practicing engineers who are involved in design and analysis of radio frequency (RF) circuits.  Fully-solved, tutorial-like examples are used to put into practice all major topics required to understand the principles underlying the main sub-circuits required to design an RF transceiver and the whole communication system. Starting with review of principles in electromagnetic (EM) transmission and signal propagation, through detailed practical analysis of RF amplifier, mixer, modulator, demodulator, and oscillator circuit topologies, all the way to the system communication theory behind the RF transceiver operation, this book systematically covers all relevant aspects in a way that is suitable for a single semester university level course. Readers will benefit from the author’s sharp focus on radio receiver design, demonstrated through hundreds of fully-solved, realistic examples, as opposed to texts that cover many aspects of e...

  19. Simulation examples of ultrasonic inspection

    The paper gives examples of application of two very different computer programs that are used to simulate and model ultrasonic inspection. The real propagation path of the sound beam can be difficult to trace when the geometry is complex. Ray tracing simulation on a three dimensional model of the inspection geometry can be very useful and sometimes nearly a necessity to analyse the probe angles and scanning paths. The modelling of the sound pulse behaviour in the material and its interaction with geometric details and defects produces information about the signals that can occur during the inspection. Simulation examples show how information can be generated to support inspection design, data analyses and qualification. (orig.)

  20. Hawking into Unruh mapping for embeddings of hyperbolic type

    Paston, S A


    We study the conditions of the existence of Hawking into Unruh mapping for hyperbolic (Fronsdal-type) embeddings of metric into the Minkowski space, for which timelines are hyperbolas. Many examples are known for global embeddings into the Minkowskian spacetime (GEMS) with such mapping for physically interesting metrics with some symmetry. However the examples of embeddings, both smooth and hyperbolic, for which there is no mapping, were also given. In the present work we prove that Hawking into Unruh mapping takes place for a hyperbolic embedding of an arbitrary metric with a time-like Killing vector and a Killing horizon if the embedding smoothly covers the horizon. At the same time we do not assume any symmetry (spherical for example), except the time translational invariance which corresponds to the existence of a time-like Killing vector. We show that the known examples of the absence of mapping do not satisfy the formulated conditions of its existence.

  1. Asymptotic safety: A simple example

    We use the Gross-Neveu model in 2f expansion where the model is known to be renormalizable to all orders. In this limit, the fixed-point action as well as all universal critical exponents can be computed analytically. As asymptotic safety has become an important scenario for quantizing gravity, our description of a well-understood model is meant to provide for an easily accessible and controllable example of modern nonperturbative quantum field theory.

  2. Whole Class Laboratories: More Examples

    Kouh, Minjoon


    Typically, introductory physics courses are taught with a combination of lectures and laboratories in which students have opportunities to discover the natural laws through hands-on activities in small groups. This article reports the use of Google Drive, a free online document-sharing tool, in physics laboratories for pooling experimental data from the whole class. This pedagogical method was reported earlier, and the present article offers a few more examples of such "whole class" laboratories.

  3. Map viewer design and web mapping

    Zupan Vrenko, Dunja


    This dissertation focuses on map viewers and the maps as a part of map viewer's design. Special attention was paid to the limitations affecting both seniors and colour-vision-impaired users. The first, general analysis focuses on providing basic information of the selected map viewers and web maps subjects of further analyses. The second analysis is of the visibility and perception of a web map’s/map viewer’s elements and map viewer’s manipulation, the emphasis is on the visual perception of ...

  4. Methods for numerical conformal mapping

    Nonlinear integral equations for the boundary functions which determine conformal transformations in two dimensions are developed and analyzed. One of these equations has a nonsingular logarithmic kernel and is especially well suited for numerical computations of conformal maps including those which deal with regions having highly distorted boundaries. Numerical procedures based on interspersed Gaussian quadrature for approximating the integrals and a Newton--Raphson technique to solve the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are described. The Newton--Raphson iteration converges reliably with very crude initial approximations. Numerical examples are given for the mapping of a half-infinite region with periodic boundary onto a half plane, with up to nine-figure accuracy for values of the map function on the boundary and for its first derivatives. The examples include regions bounded by ''spike'' curves characteristic of Rayleigh--Taylor instability phenomena. A differential equation is derived which relates changes of the boundary. This is relevant to potential problems for regions with time-dependent boundaries. Further nonsingular integral formulas are derived for conformal mapping in a variety of geometries and for application to the boundary-value problems of potential theory

  5. Photon mapping

    Nečas, Ondřej


    V rámci této práce byla provedena praktická implementace algoritmu photon mapping. Pro dosažení kvalitnějšího výstupu byly zkoumány některé základní a pokročilejší metody globálního osvětlení. Tyto náročné algoritmy jsou často prakticky nepoužitelné a je nutná jejich optimalizace. Základem praktické implementace je optimalizace raytraceru. Vzorky nepřímého difuzního osvětlení počítané metodou Monte Carlo je možné mezi sebou interpolovat s použitím vhodné techniky....

  6. Projective mapping

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus


    will include the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part...... of the assessor instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm, 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous...... perceptions are much dependent on the assessor’s way of thinking. Furthermore, a suggestion for validating product separations is proposed for the case where Multiple Factor Analysis is chosen for data analysis (Dehlholm, Brockhoff & Bredie, 2012a)....

  7. Programming language fundamentals by example

    Stevenson, DE


    A WORD ABOUT USING THIS TEXT Expectations for the Student and InstructorOpening Comments Possible Semester Course Detailed Semester Plan Milestone Maps INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Memorandum From the President Background SOL Primitive Data and Primitive Operations Primitive Data OperationsControl Structures ExpressionsInput File Structures and File Scope Derived Types Scope and Persistence Type System Primitive Functions and Arguments Built-in Values, Functions and Pseudo-Functions Type Conversions Part 1. Milestones GENERAL INFORMATION General Information on Milestones Milestone Report Genera

  8. What's beyond query by example?

    Boujemaa, Nozha; Fauqueur, Julien; Gouet, Valérie


    Over the last ten years, the crucial problem of information retrieval in multimedia documents has boosted research activities in the field of visual appearance indexing and retrieval by content. In the early research years, the concept of the «query by visual example» (QBVE) has been proposed and shown to be relevant for visual information retrieval. It is obvious that QBVE is not able to satisfy the multiple visual search usage requirements. In this paper, we focus on two major approaches th...

  9. Application examples of EFPACS series

    Tsuchiya, Yasunori; Aoki, Makoto; Yamahata, Noboru (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This paper introduces some application examples of picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series which achieves efficient management of a volume of image data generated in a hospital, and powerfully support image diagnosis using multi-modality. EFPACS can be applied to various objectives of system installation, and can meet the scale of a hospital and the way of image filing. EFPACS has been installed in a middle-scale hospital for image conference, in a general hospital for long-term archiving of MRI data and for referring in the outpatient clinic, in a dental hospital for dental image processing, and so on. (author).

  10. Application examples of EFPACS series

    This paper introduces some application examples of picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series which achieves efficient management of a volume of image data generated in a hospital, and powerfully support image diagnosis using multi-modality. EFPACS can be applied to various objectives of system installation, and can meet the scale of a hospital and the way of image filing. EFPACS has been installed in a middle-scale hospital for image conference, in a general hospital for long-term archiving of MRI data and for referring in the outpatient clinic, in a dental hospital for dental image processing, and so on. (author)

  11. Spatial filtering through elementary examples

    Gluskin, Emanuel


    The spatial filtering features of resistive grids have become important in microelectronics in the last two decades, in particular because of the current interest in the design of 'vision chips.' However, these features of the grids are unexpected for many who received a basic physics or electrical engineering education. The author's opinion is that the concept of spatial filtering is important in itself, and should be introduced and separately considered at an early educational stage. We thus discuss some simple examples, of both continuous and discrete systems in which spatial filtering may be observed, using only basic physics concepts.

  12. Probability mapping of contaminants

    Exhaustive characterization of a contaminated site is a physical and practical impossibility. Descriptions of the nature, extent, and level of contamination, as well as decisions regarding proposed remediation activities, must be made in a state of uncertainty based upon limited physical sampling. The probability mapping approach illustrated in this paper appears to offer site operators a reasonable, quantitative methodology for many environmental remediation decisions and allows evaluation of the risk associated with those decisions. For example, output from this approach can be used in quantitative, cost-based decision models for evaluating possible site characterization and/or remediation plans, resulting in selection of the risk-adjusted, least-cost alternative. The methodology is completely general, and the techniques are applicable to a wide variety of environmental restoration projects. The probability-mapping approach is illustrated by application to a contaminated site at the former DOE Feed Materials Production Center near Fernald, Ohio. Soil geochemical data, collected as part of the Uranium-in-Soils Integrated Demonstration Project, have been used to construct a number of geostatistical simulations of potential contamination for parcels approximately the size of a selective remediation unit (the 3-m width of a bulldozer blade). Each such simulation accurately reflects the actual measured sample values, and reproduces the univariate statistics and spatial character of the extant data. Post-processing of a large number of these equally likely statistically similar images produces maps directly showing the probability of exceeding specified levels of contamination (potential clean-up or personnel-hazard thresholds)

  13. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios


    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  14. Constructing Weighted Argumentation Framework with Cognitive Maps

    Sedki, Karima; Bonneau De Beaufort, Louis


    Cognitive map is a qualitative decision model which is frequently used in social science and decision making applications. This model allows to easily organize individuals’ judgments, thinking or beliefs about a given problem in a graphical representation containing different concepts and influences between them. However, reasoning on this model presents some limits and remains a difficult task. For example, cognitive maps donot model uncertainty within the variables, and only deductive reaso...

  15. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun


    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are guaranteed to exist and are unique when the symmetry group is (3,4)-trivial, meaning that the group is connected and the third and fourth Lie algebra Betti numbers vanish. We give a structural description of some classes of (3,4)-trivial algebras and provide a number of examples.

  16. Explicit Mapping of Acoustic Regimes For Wind Instruments

    Missoum, Samy; Doc, Jean-Baptiste


    This paper proposes a methodology to map the various acoustic regimes of wind instruments. The maps can be generated in a multi-dimensional space consisting of design, control parameters, and initial conditions. The bound- aries of the maps are obtained explicitly in terms of the parameters using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier as well as a dedicated adaptive sam- pling scheme. The approach is demonstrated on a simplified clarinet model for which several maps are generated based on different criteria. Examples of computation of the probability of occurrence of a specific acoustic regime are also provided. In addition, the approach is demonstrated on a design optimization example for optimal intonation.

  17. Explicit mapping of acoustic regimes for wind instruments

    Missoum, Samy; Vergez, Christophe; Doc, Jean-Baptiste


    This paper proposes a methodology to map the various acoustic regimes of wind instruments. The maps can be generated in a multidimensional space consisting of design, control parameters, and initial conditions. The boundaries of the maps are obtained explicitly in terms of the parameters using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier as well as a dedicated adaptive sampling scheme. The approach is demonstrated on a simplified clarinet model for which several maps are generated based on different criteria. Examples of computation of the probability of occurrence of a specific acoustic regime are also provided. In addition, the approach is demonstrated on a design optimization example for optimal intonation.

  18. Some practical crack path examples

    Les P. Pook


    Full Text Available It is well known that many engineering structures and components, as well as consumer items, contain cracks or crack-like flaws. It is widely recognised that crack growth must be considered both in designand in the analysis of failures. The complete solution of a crack growth problem includes determination of the crack path. Macroscopic aspects of crack paths have been of industrial interest for a very long time.At the present state of the art the factors controlling the path taken by a crack are not completely understood.Eight brief case studies are presented. These are taken from the author’s professional and personal experience of macroscopic crack paths over many years. They have been chosen to illustrate various aspects of crack paths. One example is in a component from a major structure, three examples are in laboratory specimens, and four are in nuisance failures. Such nuisance failures cause, in total, a great deal of inconvenience and expensive, but do not normally receive much publicity.

  19. Roots of mappings from manifolds

    Robin Brooks


    Full Text Available Assume that f:X→Y is a proper map of a connected n-manifold X into a Hausdorff, connected, locally path-connected, and semilocally simply connected space Y, and y0∈Y has a neighborhood homeomorphic to Euclidean n-space. The proper Nielsen number of f at y0 and the absolute degree of f at y0 are defined in this setting. The proper Nielsen number is shown to a lower bound on the number of roots at y0 among all maps properly homotopic to f, and the absolute degree is shown to be a lower bound among maps properly homotopic to f and transverse to y0. When n>2, these bounds are shown to be sharp. An example of a map meeting these conditions is given in which, in contrast to what is true when Y is a manifold, Nielsen root classes of the map have different multiplicities and essentialities, and the root Reidemeister number is strictly greater than the Nielsen root number, even when the latter is nonzero.

  20. Understanding modern magnets through conformal mapping

    I want to show with the help of a number of examples that conformal mapping is a unique and enormously powerful tool for thinking about, and solving, problems. Usually one has to write down only a few equations, and sometimes none at all exclamation point When I started getting involved in work for which conformal mapping seemed to be a powerful tool, I did not think that I would ever be able to use that technique successfully because it seemed to require a nearly encyclopedic memory, an impression that was strengthened when I saw K. Kober's Dictionary of Conformal Representations. This attitude changed when I started to realize that beyond the basics of the theory of a function of a complex variable, I needed to know only about a handful of conformal maps and procedures. Consequently, my second goal for this talk is to show that in most cases conformal mapping functions can be obtained by formulating the underlying physics appropriately. This means particularly that encyclopedic knowledge of conformal maps is not necessary for successful use of conformal mapping techniques. To demonstrate these facts I have chosen examples from an area of physics/engineering in which I am active, namely accelerator physics. In order to do that successfully I start with a brief introduction into high energy charged particle storage ring technology, even though not all examples used in this paper to elucidate my points come directly from this particular field of accelerator technology

  1. Complexity Results and Approximation Strategies for MAP Explanations

    Darwiche, A; 10.1613/jair.1236


    MAP is the problem of finding a most probable instantiation of a set of variables given evidence. MAP has always been perceived to be significantly harder than the related problems of computing the probability of a variable instantiation Pr, or the problem of computing the most probable explanation (MPE). This paper investigates the complexity of MAP in Bayesian networks. Specifically, we show that MAP is complete for NP^PP and provide further negative complexity results for algorithms based on variable elimination. We also show that MAP remains hard even when MPE and Pr become easy. For example, we show that MAP is NP-complete when the networks are restricted to polytrees, and even then can not be effectively approximated. Given the difficulty of computing MAP exactly, and the difficulty of approximating MAP while providing useful guarantees on the resulting approximation, we investigate best effort approximations. We introduce a generic MAP approximation framework. We provide two instantiations of the frame...

  2. Human Mind Maps

    Glass, Tom


    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  3. Consequences of Uncertainty in Global-Scale Land Cover Maps for Mapping Ecosystem Functions: An Analysis of Pollination Efficiency

    Rob Alkemade


    Full Text Available Mapping ecosystem services (ESs is an important tool for providing the quantitative information necessary for the optimal use and protection of ecosystems and biodiversity. A common mapping approach is to apply established empirical relationships to ecosystem property maps. Often, ecosystem properties that provide services to humanity are strongly related to the land use and land cover, where the spatial allocation of the land cover in the landscape is especially important. Land use and land cover maps are, therefore, essential for ES mapping. However, insight into the uncertainties in land cover maps and how these propagate into ES maps is lacking. To analyze the effects of these uncertainties, we mapped pollination efficiency as an example of an ecosystem function, using two continental-scale land cover maps and two global-scale land cover maps. We compared the outputs with maps based on a detailed national-scale map. The ecosystem properties and functions could be mapped using the GLOBCOVER map with a reasonable to good accuracy. In homogeneous landscapes, an even coarser resolution map would suffice. For mapping ESs that depend on the spatial allocation of land cover in the landscape, a classification of satellite images using fractional land cover or mosaic classes is an asset.

  4. The Structuring of Personal Example Spaces

    Sinclair, Nathalie; Watson, Anne; Zazkis, Rina; Mason, John


    This paper elaborates the notion of a personal example space as the set of mathematical objects and construction techniques that a learner has access to as examples of a concept while working on a given task. This is different from the conventional space of examples that is represented by the worked examples and exercises in textbooks. We refer to…

  5. Secular Redemptions: Biopolitics by Example.

    Giordano, Cristiana


    In this article, I analyze the practices of a group of Catholic nuns who run shelters for 'victims of human trafficking' in Italy, and are thus involved in state-funded rehabilitation programs for former foreign prostitutes. This case shows how the state and the Church are deeply implicated in each other's projects of redemption and the creation of new forms of life. In Italy, the legal model for rehabilitating foreign prostitutes is avowedly secular yet also deeply shaped by a Catholic impetus to purify sinners. At the same time, however, the nuns themselves develop an understanding of redemption as a secular life-saving project in line with the state's project of recognition, and thus inscribe their practices within the biopolitical effort to transform lives. Ultimately, I argue, leading by example becomes a specific Catholic instantiation of biopolitics that characterizes both the state's and the Church's approach to foreigners. PMID:26258728

  6. Statics learning from engineering examples

    Emri, Igor


    This textbook introduces and explains the basic concepts on which statics is based utilizing real engineering examples. The authors emphasize the learning process by showing a real problem, analyzing it, simplifying it, and developing a way to solve it. This feature teaches students intuitive thinking in solving real engineering problems using the fundamentals of Newton’s laws. This book also: · Stresses representation of physical reality in ways that allow students to solve problems and obtain meaningful results · Emphasizes identification of important features of the structure that should be included in a model and which features may be omitted · Facilitates students' understanding and mastery of the "flow of thinking" practiced by professional engineers.

  7. National Pipeline Mapping System: Map Tool

    Department of Transportation — The NPMS Public Map Viewer allows the general public to view maps of transmission pipelines, LNG plants, and breakout tanks in one selected county. Distribution and...

  8. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps

    Vasantha, Kandasamy; Smarandache, Florentin


    In this book we study the concepts of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) and their Neutrosophic analogue, the Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps (NCMs).Fuzzy Cognitive Maps are fuzzy structures that strongly resemble neural networks, and they have powerful and far-reaching consequences as a mathematical tool for modeling complex systems. Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps are generalizations of FCMs, and their unique feature is the ability to handle indeterminacy in relations between two concepts thereby bringing...

  9. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    U.S. Geological Survey


    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  10. Evaluating OO example programs for CS1

    Börstler, Jürgen; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Bennedsen, Jens;


    Example programs play an important role in learning to program. They work as templates, guidelines, and inspiration for learners when developing their own programs. It is therefore important to provide learners with high quality examples. In this paper, we discuss properties of example programs...... that might affect the teaching and learning of object-oriented programming. Furthermore, we present an evaluation instrument for example programs and report on initial experiences of its application to a selection of examples from popular introductory programming textbooks....

  11. Biharmonic Riemannian maps

    Sahin, Bayram


    We give necessary and sufficient conditions for Riemannian maps to be biharmonic. We also define pseudo umbilical Riemannian maps as a generalization of pseudo-umbilical submanifolds and show that such Riemannian maps put some restrictions on the base manifolds.

  12. Lunar Map Catalog

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps;...

  13. [Mind mapping: a new tool for enhancing student learning strategy].

    Hsu, Li-Ling; Chang, Mei-Ying; Hsieh, Suh-Ing


    With the rapid pace of development and reform in education learners face many challenges. Learning how to acquire skills and how to think are very important issues. The application of mind mapping can help students to enhance the creative thinking and problem-solving abilities of the whole brain. In other words, mind-mapping is a visual or pictorial thinking method. This paper introduces the basic concept of mind-mapping, radiant thinking, the methods of mind-mapping, its rules of application, and examples of such application, to improve understanding and knowledge about mind-mapping. PMID:18393212

  14. A Method of Cartographic Visualization for Climate Change Maps

    Nadka Stoimenova


    Full Text Available Maps are essential in climate change research. This paper considers examples of cartographic visualizations for different climate change characteristics. International map symbol systems used in climate change maps are analyzed. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the need for a single symbol system for these maps. It is suggested that thematic elements in the contents of climate change maps be introduced. The need for a single, clear, consistent approach to designing symbols for presenting climate change theme is presented. The basic cartographic rules for the application of graphic variables are considered.

  15. Mapping Images with the Coherence Length Diagrams

    Sparavigna, A


    Statistical pattern recognition methods based on the Coherence Length Diagram (CLD) have been proposed for medical image analyses, such as quantitative characterisation of human skin textures, and for polarized light microscopy of liquid crystal textures. Further investigations are made on image maps originated from such diagram and some examples related to irregularity of microstructures are shown.

  16. Conjugate Function Method for Numerical Conformal Mappings

    Hakula, Harri; Rasila, Antti


    We present a method for numerical computation of conformal mappings from simply or doubly connected domains onto so-called canonical domains, which in our case are rectangles or annuli. The method is based on conjugate harmonic functions and properties of quadrilaterals. Several numerical examples are given.

  17. Topic Maps Based Project Knowledge Management

    Wu Xiaofan; Zhou Liang; Zhang Lei; Li Lingzhi; Ding Qiulin


    Based on topic maps, a preprocessing scheme using similarity comparision is presented and applied in knowledge management.Topic and occurrence-oriented merging algorithm is also introduced to implement knowledge integration for the sub-system. An Omnigator-supported example from an aeroaustic institute is utilised to validate the preprocessing method and the result indicates it can speed up the research schedule.

  18. Visualization of neural networks using saliency maps

    Mørch, Niels J.S.; Kjems, Ulrik; Hansen, Lars Kai;


    The saliency map is proposed as a new method for understanding and visualizing the nonlinearities embedded in feedforward neural networks, with emphasis on the ill-posed case, where the dimensionality of the input-field by far exceeds the number of examples. Several levels of approximations are...

  19. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    Girill, T R


    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  20. Boltzmann map for quantum oscillators

    The authors define a map tau on the space of quasifree states of the CCR or CAR of more than one harmonic oscillator which increases entropy except at fixed points of tau. The map tau is the composition of a double stochastic map T*, and the quasifree reduction Q. Under mixing conditions on T, iterates of tau take any initial state to the Gibbs states, provided that the oscillator frequencies are mutually rational. They give an example of a system with three degrees of freedom with energies omega1, omega2, and omega3 mutually irrational, but obeying a relation n1omega1 + n2omega2 = n3omega3, n/sub i/epsilon Z. The iterated Boltzmann map converges from an initial state rho to independent Gibbs states of the three oscillators at betas (inverse temperatures) β1, β2, β3 obeying the equation n1omega1β1 + n2omega3β1number. The equilibrium state can be rewritten as a grand canonical state. They show that for two, three, or four fermions we can get the usual rate equations as a special case

  1. Example dated with 210Pb

    In this chapter we describe in detail, using an example, the procedure to date a core with the technique of 210Pb using the models described in Chapter 7. Described below, one by one, the spreadsheets containing the information and calculations necessary to complete a profile geochronology of 210Pb core adapted from Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. In this case, the old model obtained from the CA model could not be validated with 137Cs because the peak age of 137Cs is too old (1985 ± 3 years). Moreover, there was an investment of age between sections 2-3 and 3-4 cm because the activity of the lower section is higher than at the top, most likely due to a change in sediment accumulation. The average value of MAR (obtained with the CFCS model: 0.222 ± 0.016 g cm-2 yr-1) is in good agreement with the range obtained with the model MAR CF (0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.30 ± 0.01 g cm-2 yr-1). The chronology obtained with the CF model is well validated with the peak of 137Cs (section 6-7 cm: 1960-1972). SAR profiles and MAR show a progressive increase from the late nineteenth century, due to economic development and population growth in the Gulf of Tehuantepec. This growth, which has altered the coastal marine circulation and sedimentation regimes, had its greatest impact during the past two decades, after the establishment of three major industrial complexes in the region.



    A new self-organizing map, parallel self-organizing map (PSOM), was proposed for information parallel processing purpose. In this model, there are two separate layers of neurons connected together,the number of neurons in both layer and connections between them is equal to the number of total elements of input signals, the weight updating is managed through a sequence of operations among some unitary transformation and operation matrixes, so the conventional repeated learning procedure was modified to learn just once and an algorithm was developed to realize this new learning method. With a typical classification example, the performance of PSOM demonstrated convergence results similar to Kohonen's model. Theoretic analysis and proofs also showed some interesting properties of PSOM. As it was pointed out, the contribution of such a network may not be so significant, but its parallel mode may be interesting for quantum computation.

  3. What can we learn from Accretion Disc Eclipse Mapping experiments?

    Baptista, Raymundo


    The accretion disc eclipse mapping method is an astrotomographic inversion technique that makes use of the information contained in eclipse light curves to probe the structure, the spectrum and the time evolution of accretion discs in cataclysmic variables. This paper presents examples of eclipse mapping results that have been key to improve our understanding of accretion physics.

  4. Mapping the Heart

    Hulse, Grace


    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  5. Three examples of neutron radiography testing

    Three examples of neutron radiography concerning small components of pyrotechnical devices are given: an example of testing a detonating fuse, detonating fuse ends and an explosive channel inside a metallic part

  6. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  7. Beyond data collection in digital mapping: interpretation, sketching and thought process elements in geological map making

    Watkins, Hannah; Bond, Clare; Butler, Rob


    Geological mapping techniques have advanced significantly in recent years from paper fieldslips to Toughbook, smartphone and tablet mapping; but how do the methods used to create a geological map affect the thought processes that result in the final map interpretation? Geological maps have many key roles in the field of geosciences including understanding geological processes and geometries in 3D, interpreting geological histories and understanding stratigraphic relationships in 2D and 3D. Here we consider the impact of the methods used to create a map on the thought processes that result in the final geological map interpretation. As mapping technology has advanced in recent years, the way in which we produce geological maps has also changed. Traditional geological mapping is undertaken using paper fieldslips, pencils and compass clinometers. The map interpretation evolves through time as data is collected. This interpretive process that results in the final geological map is often supported by recording in a field notebook, observations, ideas and alternative geological models explored with the use of sketches and evolutionary diagrams. In combination the field map and notebook can be used to challenge the map interpretation and consider its uncertainties. These uncertainties and the balance of data to interpretation are often lost in the creation of published 'fair' copy geological maps. The advent of Toughbooks, smartphones and tablets in the production of geological maps has changed the process of map creation. Digital data collection, particularly through the use of inbuilt gyrometers in phones and tablets, has changed smartphones into geological mapping tools that can be used to collect lots of geological data quickly. With GPS functionality this data is also geospatially located, assuming good GPS connectivity, and can be linked to georeferenced infield photography. In contrast line drawing, for example for lithological boundary interpretation and sketching

  8. 7. Annex II: Maps

    Aeberli, Annina


    Map 1: States of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – States, as of 15 July 2012, Reliefweb, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 2: Counties of South Sudan UN OCHA (2012) Republic of South Sudan – Counties, as of 16 July 2012, Reliefweb, accessed 31 July 2012. Map 3: Eastern Equato...

  9. Interrater reliability of the mind map assessment rubric in a cohort of medical students

    Zipp Genevieve; D'Antoni Anthony V; Olson Valerie G


    Abstract Background Learning strategies are thinking tools that students can use to actively acquire information. Examples of learning strategies include mnemonics, charts, and maps. One strategy that may help students master the tsunami of information presented in medical school is the mind map learning strategy. Currently, there is no valid and reliable rubric to grade mind maps and this may contribute to their underutilization in medicine. Because concept maps and mind maps engage learners...

  10. On the surgery assembly map

    The question of whether an element of the Wall group is the surgery obstruction of a degree-one normal map of closed manifolds is one of the basic problems in surgery theory. In the present paper we obtain new forbidding invariants in this problem for the case of finite 2-groups with arbitrary orientation. Our approach is based on the conception of iterated Browder-Livesay invariants developed by Hambleton and Kharshiladze jointly with the results on closed manifold surgery problem in oriented case obtained by Hambleton, Milgram, Taylor, and Williams. We consider several examples and give an application of our results to the surgery on filtered manifolds