Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Tikoff, B.
Spatial thinking skills are critical to success in many subdisciplines of the geosciences (and beyond). There are many components of spatial thinking, such as mental rotation, penetrative visualization, disembedding, perspective taking, and navigation. Undergraduate students in introductory and upper-level geoscience courses bring a wide variety of spatial skill levels to the classroom, as measured by psychometric tests of many of these components of spatial thinking. Furthermore, it is not unusual for individual students to excel in some of these areas while struggling in others. Although pre- and post-test comparisons show that student skill levels typically improve over the course of an academic term, average gains are quite modest. This suggests that it may be valuable to develop interventions to help undergraduate students develop a range of spatial skills that can be used to solve geoscience problems. Cognitive science research suggests a number of strong strategies for building students' spatial skills. Practice is essential, and time on task is correlated to improvement. Progressive alignment may be used to scaffold students' successes on simpler problems, allowing them to see how more complex problems are related to those they can solve. Gesturing has proven effective in moving younger students from incorrect problem-solving strategies to correct strategies in other disciplines. These principles can be used to design instructional materials to improve undergraduate geoscience students' spatial skills; we will present some examples of such materials.
The provision of mathematics curriculum that encourages students to develop their powers of spatial thinking and visualisation, as important components of their geometrical reasoning, is seen as a key area for development in mathematics education. This short article reviews the nature of spatial thinking and visualisation, both in mathematics education more generally and in geometry in particular, illustrating how both forms of thinking are vital to mathematics.
Johnson-Sheehan, Richard; Baehr, Craig
Explores what it means to think visually and spatially in hypertexts and how users react and maneuver in real and virtual three-dimensional spaces. Offers four principles of visual thinking that can be applied when developing hypertexts. Applies these principles to actual hypertexts, demonstrating how selectivity, fixation, depth discernment, and…
Taylor, Holly A.; Hutton, Allyson
This article describes the initial implementation of an innovative program for elementary-age children involving origami and pop-up paper engineering to promote visuospatial thinking. While spatial ability measures correlate with science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) success, a focus on spatial thinking is all but missing in elementary…
Shin, Euikyung E.; Milson, Andrew J.; Smith, Thomas J.
The spatial thinking skills and attitudes of geography majors were compared with those of future teachers majoring in elementary education and secondary social studies education. Scores were obtained for each group on two measures: the spatial skills test and the attitude toward spatial thinking inventory. Mean differences were examined based on…
Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice. PMID:26285997
Udomprasert, Patricia S.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Plummer, Julia; Sadler, Philip M.; Johnson, Erin; Sunbury, Susan; Zhang, Helen; Dussault, Mary E.
Critical breakthroughs in science (e.g., Einstein's Theory of General Relativity, and Watson & Crick's discovery of the structure of DNA), originated with those scientists' ability to think spatially, and research has shown that spatial ability correlates strongly with likelihood of entering a career in STEM. Mounting evidence also shows that spatial skills are malleable, i.e., they can be improved through training. We report early work from a new project that will build on this research to create a series of middle schools science labs called "Thinking Spatially about the Universe" (ThinkSpace), in which students will use a blend of physical and virtual models (in WorldWide Telescope) to explore complex 3-dimensional phenomena in space science. In the three-year ThinkSpace labs project, astronomers, technologists, and education researchers are collaborating to create and test a suite of three labs designed to improve learners' spatial abilities through studies of: 1) Moon phases and eclipses; 2) planetary systems around stars other than the Sun; and 3.) celestial motions within the broader universe. The research program will determine which elements in the labs will best promote improvement of spatial skills within activities that emphasize disciplinary core ideas; and how best to optimize interactive dynamic visualizations to maximize student understanding.
Lee, Jongwon; Bednarz, Robert
A spatial-skills test is used to examine the effect of GIS learning on the spatial thinking ability of college students. Eighty students at a large state university completed pre- and post- spatial-skills tests administered during the 2003 fall semester. Analysis of changes in the students' test scores revealed that GIS learning helped students…
Newcombe, Nora S.; Stieff, Mike
Visualizations are an increasingly important part of scientific education and discovery. However, users often do not gain knowledge from them in a complete or efficient way. This article aims to direct research on visualizations in science education in productive directions by reviewing the evidence for widespread assumptions that learning styles, sex differences, developmental stages, and spatial language determine the impact of visualizations on science learning. First, we examine the assumption that people differ in their verbal versus visual learning style. Due to the lack of rigorous evaluation, there is no current support for this distinction. Future research should distinguish between two different kinds of visual learning style. Second, we consider the belief that there are large and intractable sex differences in spatial ability resultant from immutable biological reasons. Although there are some spatial sex differences (in some types of spatial tests although not all), there is actually only very mixed support for biological causation. Most important, there is conclusive evidence that spatial skills can be improved through training and education. Third, we explore educators' use of Piaget's ideas about spatial development to draw conclusions about 'developmental appropriateness'. However, recent research on spatial development has focused on identifying sequences that begin with early starting points of skill, and spatial education is possible in some form at all ages. Fourth, although spatial language does not determine spatial thought, it does frame attention in a way that can have impact on learning and understanding. We examine the empirical support for each assumption and its relevance to future research on visualizations in science education.
Stieff, Mike; Lira, Matthew E.; Scopelitis, Stephanie A.
The present article describes two studies that examine the impact of teaching students to use gesture to support spatial thinking in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) discipline of chemistry. In Study 1 we compared the effectiveness of instruction that involved either watching gesture, reproducing gesture, or reading…
Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada
This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert
This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…
Hou, Huei-Tse; Yu, Tsai-Fang; Wu, Yi-Xuan; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En
The theory of spatial thinking is relevant to the learning and teaching of many academic domains. One promising method to facilitate learners' higher-order thinking is to utilize a web map mind tool to assist learners in applying spatial thinking to cooperative problem solving. In this study, an environment is designed based on the theory of…
Milson, Andrew J.; Curtis, Mary D.
The authors developed and implemented a project for high school geography students that modeled the processes in a site selection analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). They sought to explore how spatial thinking could be fostered by using the MyWorld GIS software that was designed specifically for educational uses. The task posed…
Scholz, Michael A.; Huynh, Niem Tu; Brysch, Carmen P.; Scholz, Ruojing Wang
Geography textbooks contain chapter or review questions that may engage students in spatial thinking. This research used Jo and Bednarz's (2009) "Taxonomy of Spatial Thinking" to evaluate the percentage of spatial thinking questions in four university-level world geography course textbooks. The results from this study were then…
Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S; Frick, Andrea
Previous research has indicated a close link between spatial and mathematical thinking. However, what shared processes account for this link? In this study, we focused on the spatial skill of map reading and the mathematical skill of proportional reasoning and investigated whether scaling, or the ability to relate information in different-sized representations, is a shared process. Scaling was experimentally manipulated in both tasks. In the map task, 4- and 5-year-olds (N=50) were asked to point to the same position shown on a map in a larger referent space on a touch screen. The sizes of the maps were varied systematically, such that some trials required scaling and some did not (i.e., the map had the same size as the referent space). In the proportional reasoning task, children were presented with different relative amounts of juice and water and were asked to estimate each mixture on a rating scale. Again, some trials required scaling, but others could be solved by directly mapping the proportional components onto the rating scale. Children's absolute errors in locating targets in the map task were closely related to their performance in the proportional reasoning task even after controlling for age and verbal intelligence. Crucially, this was only true for trials that required scaling, whereas performance on nonscaled trials was not related. These results shed light on the mechanisms involved in the close connection between spatial and mathematical thinking early in life. PMID:25705050
Street networks, as one of the oldest infrastructures of transport in the world, play a significant role in modernization, sustainable development, and human daily activities in both ancient and modern times. Although street networks have been well studied in a variety of engineering and scientific disciplines, including for instance transport, geography, urban planning, economics, and even physics, our understanding of street networks in terms of their structure and dynamics remains limited, especially when dealing with such real-world problems as traffic jams, pollution, and human evacuations for disaster management. One goal of this special issue is to promote different ways of thinking about understanding street networks, and of conducting spatial analysis.
Ben Youssef, Belgacem; Berry, Barbara
Spatial thinking skills are vital for success in everyday living and work, not to mention the centrality of spatial reasoning in scientific discoveries, design-based disciplines, medicine, geosciences and mathematics to name a few. This case study describes a course in spatial thinking and communicating designed and delivered by an…
Zhang, Jun; Cai, Kai-Quan; Du, Wen-Bo; Cao, Xian-Bin
Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models.
Inspired by the realistic process of taking decisions in social life, we have proposed a repeated thinking mechanism in the evolutionary spatial prisoner's dilemma game where players are denoted by the vertices and play games with their direct neighbors. Under our mechanism, a player i will randomly select a neighbor j and then deliberate for M times before strategy updating. It will remain unchanged if not all M considerations suggest it to learn the strategy of j. We mainly focus on the evolution of cooperation in the systems. Interestingly, we find that the cooperation level fC is remarkably promoted and fC has a monotonic dependence on the caution parameter M, indicating that being cautious facilitates the emergence and persistence of cooperation. We give a simple but clear explanation for this cooperation promotion via detecting the cooperator-defector transition process. Moreover, the robustness of this mechanism is also examined on different noise levels and game models. (paper)
Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah Witham
The primary objectives of this article are: (1) to conceptualize teacher dispositions related to teaching spatial thinking in geography classrooms; and (2) to propose an exemplar assessment that can be used to prepare teachers who are disposed toward teaching spatial thinking through geography. A detailed description of the construction procedures…
Newcombe, Nora S.
Spatial thinking--such as visualizing the earth rotating--is crucial to student success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Since spatial thinking is associated with skill and interest in STEM fields (as well as in other areas, such as art, graphic design, and architecture), the immediate question is whether it can be…
Jo, Injeong; Hong, Jung Eun; Verma, Kanika
Advocates for geographic information system (GIS) education contend that learning about GIS promotes students' spatial thinking. Empirical studies are still needed to elucidate the potential of GIS as an instructional tool to support spatial thinking in other geography courses. Using a non-equivalent control group research design, this study…
Weakley, Kevin Douglas
This study examined the effectiveness of two geography courses at improving student spatial thinking skills. Spatial thinking is an important cognitive skill in the sciences and everyday life. A taxonomy of spatial thinking was constructed by Gersmehl (2008) in geography education which included core modes assessed in this study: comparison, region, transition, analogy, pattern, and association. Two additional modes related to space over time, change and movement, were also assessed. The central research question in this study is: What are the effects of a pre-service teacher education earth science content course (Geography 1900) that is conceptually designed and inquiry-based on the spatial thinking of university students compared to the Geography 1020 course that follows a lecture format with an atlas study component? The six sub-questions to this central question were: (1) What spatial thinking modes are embedded in the Geography 1900 course based on the Gersmehl (2008) classification of modes of spatial thinking? (2) What modes of spatial thinking do pre-service elementary education students exhibit prior to instruction in Geography 1900 and 1020? (3) What changes occur in spatial thinking and spatial skills as a result of enrolling in and completing a conceptually based, inquiry course (Geography 1900) that has embedded clearly identifiable spatial tasks based on Gersmehl's classification? (4) What are the effects of Geography 1900 on the modes of spatial thinking that students apply at the completion of the course? (5) What modes of spatial thinking do students transfer from the classroom to the outdoors as they move about campus? (6) Are there differences in spatial thinking between the Geography 1900 population and the Geography 1020 comparison sample of students that received a different course treatment? The research used a mixed methods approach with both quantitative and qualitative information. Statistically significant changes were observed in the
The challenge of extending students' skills in spatial thinking to astronomical scales was the central focus of our K-8 curriculum development. When the project's lead teacher requested a curriculum that cumulatively built on each prior year's learning in a spiral fashion, I knew exactly what the school was asking for. Second and third graders began by noticing the cyclical patters that the sun, moon, and stars make in the sky. Fourth graders explored the phases of the moon by taking turns modeling and sketching them in their classroom and then comparing them to the real sky. Sixth !graders used real telescopes to observe a moving model of our solar system and walked a scale model of the planets' orbits. The curriculum is designed to expand students' capacity to visualize space in a hierarchical fashion that asks them to imagine themselves from a broader number of spatial perspectives through hands-on activities. The "situational awareness" Peter's story describes is a hallmark of high-performance engineering and innovation. Keeping in mind the potential outcomes of multiple paths of pursuit from multiple perspectives while keeping track of their relative merits and performance requirements is a demanding spatial task. What made it possible for Peter to transform the failure of his first glove into triumph was the mental space in which that failure provided exactly the information needed for a new breakthrough. In at least two cases, Peter could immediately "see" the full implications of what his hands were telling him. He tells the story of how putting his hands in a Phase VI astronaut glove instantly transformed his understanding of the glove challenge. Six months into his development, the failure of circumferentially wrapped cords to produce a sufficiently flexible glove again forced him to abandon his assumptions. His situational awareness was so clear and compelling it became a gut-level response. Peter's finely developed spatial skills enabled him to almost
Anneli Hoel Fjærli
Full Text Available The modern world is continuously engaged in a racing processes aimed towards building a favourable future society. In this development, the apparent tools seem to be related to theoretical thought, new technology, avant-garde approaches and innovation. The bodily focus and the societal micro level processes are often left behind in this race. Though, in our aspiration towards urban development and the future society, we should not forget that the bodily functions and the possibilities that these give, represent one of the most fundamental and basic tools we have. This article would like to form an argument carrying out the seeming advantage of bringing in not just technological and theoretic avant-garde to the term of innovation and development, but to invite the whole body into the forming of the future, thereby seeing the term innovation from a material perspective. As the art field today is more often approaching subject matters that are primarily societal, we would like to introduce the potential of a mutual approach from the other end, seeing the art field as a central part in the creation of engagement and progress that can instigate another form of efficiency and present an expanded understanding of what innovative activity can be, and how it can be perceived and comprehended. We would like to debate an art form that takes the bodily, active and relational focus and its social context as a base and starting point on the road towards societal consciousness and potential development. Looking at the example of the art project «The Collectivity Project», this article takes it’s starting point in the following question; How can applied art projects in connection to social contexts, like The Collectivity Project, show the art field and the bodily sensuousness as a tool in the forming of values pointing towards an alternative way of thinking societal consciousness and development?
Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T. A.; Tikoff, B.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.
Spatial visualization is an essential skill in the STEM disciplines, including the geological sciences. Undergraduate students, including geoscience majors in upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. Students with weak spatial skills may struggle to understand fundamental concepts and to solve geological problems with a spatial component. However, spatial thinking skills are malleable. Using strategies that have emerged from cognitive science research, we developed a set of curricular materials that improve undergraduate geology majors' abilities to reason about 3D concepts and to solve spatially complex geological problems. Cognitive science research on spatial thinking demonstrates that predictive sketching, making visual comparisons, gesturing, and the use of analogy can be used to develop students' spatial thinking skills. We conducted a three-year study of the efficacy of these strategies in strengthening the spatial skills of students in core geology courses at three universities. Our methodology is a quasi-experimental quantitative design, utilizing pre- and post-tests of spatial thinking skills, assessments of spatial problem-solving skills, and a control group comprised of students not exposed to our new curricular materials. Students taught using the new curricular materials show improvement in spatial thinking skills. Further analysis of our data, to be completed prior to AGU, will answer additional questions about the relationship between spatial skills and academic performance, spatial skills and gender, spatial skills and confidence, and the impact of our curricular materials on students who are struggling academically. Teaching spatial thinking in the context of discipline-based exercises has the potential to transform undergraduate education in the geological sciences by removing one significant barrier to success.
Full Text Available This paper explores the issues of landscape teaching and its connection and potential for the development of spatial thinking in students.We will first present a brief overview of the way landscapes have been addressed in research and educational activities by Geographical Education. Next, the theoretical questions on spatial thinking are explored.As an empirical exercise of the study,we analyzed how landscapes are presented in practical activities in three basic education Geography textbooks from three countries (Portugal, France and the UK and characterize them by their level of capacity to develop spatial thinking, comparing the results. Finally we present some conclusions and reflections.
Elhorst, J. Paul
This paper places the key issues and implications of the new 'introductory' book on spatial econometrics by James LeSage & Kelley Pace (2009) in a broader perspective: the argument in favour of the spatial Durbin model, the use of indirect effects as a more valid basis for testing whether spatial sp
Pittalis, Marios; Christou, Constantinos
The aim of this study is to describe and analyse the structure of 3D geometry thinking by identifying different types of reasoning and to examine their relation with spatial ability. To achieve this goal, two tests were administered to students in grades 5 to 9. The results of the study showed that 3D geometry thinking could be described by four…
Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.
This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…
Now that digital technology has accessed the Z-space in cinema, narrative artistry is at a loss. Motion picture professionals no longer can readily resort to familiar tools. A new language and new linguistics for Z-axis storytelling are necessary. After first examining the roots of monocular thinking in painting, prior modes of visual narrative in twodimensional cinema obviating true binocular stereopsis can be explored, particularly montage, camera motion and depth of field, with historic examples. Special attention is paid to the manner in which monocular cues for depth have been exploited to infer depth on a planar screen. Both the artistic potential and visual limitations of actual stereoscopic depth as a filmmaking language are interrogated. After an examination of the historic basis of monocular thinking in visual culture, a context for artistic exploration of the use of the z-axis as a heightened means of creating dramatic and emotional impact upon the viewer is illustrated.
Research in the cognition and learning sciences has demonstrated that the human brain contains basic structures whose functions are to perform a variety of specific spatial reasoning tasks and that children are capable of learning basic spatial concepts at an early age. There has been a call from within geography to recognize research on spatial…
The aim of this paper is to discuss the conceptual framework and principles to guide knowledge mapping to foster critical and creative thinking in open content environments. We introduce knowledge mapping techniques and tools and present examples of knowledge maps applied to open learning. Then we present some principles to develop thinking skills, highlighting the importance of mapping techniques to organise knowledge. At the end of this paper, we discuss important issues required to foster...
Geospatial analysis is very much dominated by a Gaussian way of thinking, which assumes that things in the world can be characterized by a well-defined mean, i.e., things are more or less similar in size. However, this assumption is not always valid. In fact, many things in the world lack a well-defined mean, and therefore there are far more small things than large ones. This paper attempts to argue that geospatial analysis requires a different way of thinking - a Paretian way of thinking that underlies skewed distribution such as power laws, Pareto and lognormal distributions. I review two properties of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity, and point out that the notion of spatial heterogeneity in current spatial statistics is only used to characterize local variance of spatial dependence. I subsequently argue for a broad perspective on spatial heterogeneity, and suggest it be formulated as a scaling law. I further discuss the implications of Paretian thinking and the scaling law for better understan...
Sorudeykin, Kirill A
Trying to be effective (no matter who exactly and in what field) a person face the problem which inevitably destroys all our attempts to easily get to a desired goal. The problem is the existence of some insuperable barriers for our mind, anotherwords barriers for principles of thinking. They are our clue and main reason for research. Here we investigate these barriers and their features exposing the nature of mental process. We start from special structures which reflect the ways to define relations between objects. Then we came to realizing about what is the material our mind uses to build thoughts, to make conclusions, to understand, to form reasoning, etc. This can be called a mental dynamics. After this the nature of mental barriers on the required level of abstraction as well as the ways to pass through them became clear. We begin to understand why thinking flows in such a way, with such specifics and with such limitations we can observe in reality. This can help us to be more optimal. At the final step...
Center for Spatial Studies, UCSB; Spatial Intelligence Learning Center, Temple University
More than 40 position papers were prepared by participants prior to meeting in Santa Barbara. The objective was to explore from a multi-discipline perspective the potential values and challenges of formulating curricula to advance the role of spatial reasoning in undergraduate education. The authors consider the following general questions: • What are best current practices in spatial education at the college level? • What role do technologies, such as geographic i...
Mathewson, James H.
Thinking with images plays a central role in scientific creativity and communication but is neglected in science classrooms. This article reviews the fundamental role of imagery in science and technology and our current knowledge of visual-spatial cognition. A novel analogic and thematic organization of images and visualization within science and technology is proposed that can help in the generation and evaluation of classroom activities and materials, and serve as a focus for professional development programs in visual-spatial thinking for science teachers. Visual-spatial thinking includes vision - using the eyes to identify, locate, and think about objects and ourselves in the world, and imagery - the formation, inspection, transformation, and maintenance of images in the mind's eye in the absence of a visual stimulus. A spatial image preserves relationships among a complex set of ideas as a single chunk in working memory, increasing the amount of information that can be maintained in consciousness at a given moment. Vision and imagery are fundamental cognitive processes using specialized pathways in the brain and rely on our memory of prior experience. Visual-spatial thinking develops from birth, together with language and other specialized abilities, through interactions between inherited capabilities and experience. Scientific creativity can be considered as an amalgam of three closely allied mental formats: images; metaphors; and unifying ideas (themes). Combinations of images, analogies, and themes pervade science in the form of master images and visualization techniques. A critique of current practice in education contrasts the subservient role of visual-spatial learning with the dominance of the alphanumeric encoding skills in classroom and textbooks. The lack of coherence in curriculum, pedagogy, and learning theory requires reform that addresses thinking skills, including imagery. Successful integration of information, skills and attitudes into cohesive
Nielsen, Curtis P.; Oberle, Alex; Sugumaran, Ramanathan
Understanding geospatial technologies (GSTs) and spatial thinking is increasingly vital to contemporary life including common activities and hobbies; learning in science, mathematics, and social science; and employment within fields as diverse as engineering, health, business, and planning. As such, there is a need for a stand-alone K-12…
Full Text Available Systems thinking is the art of understanding interconnections between various disciplines thereby unwinding the existing complexity. Most of the real world problems are complex, take for the example the increasing dependency rate on food banks. While various factors contribute towards it, not much has been done to bring the take off the number of dependents. By viewing this system from a holistic systems thinking lens, one explores the issue in depth. We realise the universally acceptable solution is not alleviating the problem in the long run. By applying systems thinking principles several hidden factors are brought to attention and subsequently can be dealt with more aptly. A movement that transcends disciplines results in delivering better solutions.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of implicit teaching of critical thinking and its practice on the attitude the participants hold towards the subject matter being taught. For the observation of the practicality of critical thinking in altering students’ attitudes, 25 Iranian EFL college students -16 girls and 9 boys- were selected as the participants of this study, and the application of critical thinking techniques was operationalized during their English Literature course. A 20-item questionnaire was devised in order to measure the participants’ attitudes towards literature prior to the beginning of the intervention and the same questionnaire was used after the completion of the experiment in order to examine probable differences in their attitudes towards the taught subject. Throughout the course, some promoted techniques by critical thinking advocates including identifying arguments, detecting evidence in its support, reasoning for held stands, and forming analyses were applied for 12 sessions. Statistical calculation of a paired samples t-test after the treatment indicted a significance increase in the participants’ positive attitudes towards literature. The findings of this study are believed to be useful in encouraging the inclusion of critical pedagogies in academic systems for the goal of creating interest in students towards the subject matter.Keywords: critical thinking, critical pedagogy, English literature, group discussion
This mixed-method research attempted to clarify the role of visuospatial abilities in learning about mineralogy. Various sources of data--including quantitative pre- and postmeasures of spatial visualization and spatial orientation tests and achievement scores on six measures and qualitative unstructured observations, interviews, and field trip…
A number of theoretical models can be applied to help guide quality improvement and patient safety interventions in hospitals. However there are often significant differences between such models and, therefore, their potential contribution when applied in diverse contexts. The aim of this paper is to explore how two such models have been applied by hospitals to improve quality and safety. We describe and compare the models: (1) The Organizing for Quality (OQ) model, and (2) the Design for Integrated Safety Culture (DISC) model. We analyze the theoretical foundations of the models, and show, by using a retrospective comparative case study approach from two European hospitals, how these models have been applied to improve quality and safety. The analysis shows that differences appear in the theoretical foundations, practical approaches and applications of the models. Nevertheless, the case studies indicate that the choice between the OQ and DISC models is of less importance for guiding the practice of quality and safety improvement work, as they are both systemic and share some important characteristics. The main contribution of the models lay in their role as boundary objects directing attention towards organizational and systems thinking, culture, and collaboration
Madsen, Lene Møller; Rump, Camilla Østerberg
studied. We empirically analyse students’ learning processes and the influences of teaching practice in an introductory course in GIS. We show that students have different strategies for creating their personal instrument for spatial thinking and how teaching interacts with the students’ learning...
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in pre-service Science teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards astronomy and skills for spatial thinking in terms of their years of study. Another purpose of the study was to find out whether there was correlation between pre-service teachers' astronomy achievement, attitudes towards…
Moore, Dana W.; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A.; Billings, Rebecca L.; Fulwiler, Carl; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Rood, Kenneth M. J.; Gansler, David A.
Background/hypothesis: Divergent thinking is an important measurable component of creativity. This study tested the postulate that divergent thinking depends on large distributed inter- and intra-hemispheric networks. Although preliminary evidence supports increased brain connectivity during divergent thinking, the neural correlates of this…
Buchen, Irving H.
The focus of this book is to explore the extent to which our thinking, learning, and leading is influenced and shaped by the future. In the process, professionals and organizations are classified into three basic types: future-oriented, future-poised, and future-driven. The last typically employs divergent and convergent thinking and planning; and…
Promraksa, Siwarak; Sangaroon, Kiat; Inprasitha, Maitree
The objectives of this research were to study and analyze the characteristics of computational thinking about the estimation of the students in mathematics classroom applying lesson study and open approach. Members of target group included 4th grade students of 2011 academic year of Choomchon Banchonnabot School. The Lesson plan used for data…
Peterson, M J; Bechtel, G A
The quality of care that nurses provide to patients is strongly influenced by the nurses' ability to think critically and to solve problems. In response to the dynamic changes in healthcare and rapid technological advancements, nursing educators must prepare nursing students to meet the challenges. Baccalaureate nursing students must be taught to utilize critical thinking skills for problem solving during the application of the nursing process. Nursing students who use critical thinking skills will provide high quality and efficient patient care in the acute care and community settings. During the simulated laboratory experience, incorporating creative teaching strategies to promote critical thinking and enhance problem-solving skills can enable nursing graduates to enter the workforce feeling confident and competent. PMID:12016668
Systems thinking is the art of understanding interconnections between various disciplines thereby unwinding the existing complexity. Most of the real world problems are complex, take for the example the increasing dependency rate on food banks. While various factors contribute towards it, not much has been done to bring the take off the number of dependents. By viewing this system from a holistic systems thinking lens, one explores the issue in depth. We realise the universally acceptable sol...
Hoffman, Steve G
Some scholars dismiss the distinction between basic and applied science as passé, yet substantive assumptions about this boundary remain obdurate in research policy, popular rhetoric, the sociology and philosophy of science, and, indeed, at the level of bench practice. In this article, I draw on a multiple ontology framework to provide a more stable affirmation of a constructivist position in science and technology studies that cannot be reduced to a matter of competing perspectives on a single reality. The analysis is grounded in ethnographic research in the border zone of Artificial Intelligence science. I translate in-situ moments in which members of neighboring but differently situated labs engage in three distinct repertoires that render the reality of basic and applied science: partitioning, flipping, and collapsing. While the essences of scientific objects are nowhere to be found, the boundary between basic and applied is neither illusion nor mere propaganda. Instead, distinctions among scientific knowledge are made real as a matter of course. PMID:26477207
Goodwillie, A. M.
Commonly, geoscience data is presented to students in the lab and classroom in the form of data tables, maps and graphs. Successful data interpretation requires learners to become proficient with spatial thinking skills, allowing them to gain insight and understanding of the underlying real-world 3-D processes and concepts. Yet, educators at both the school and university level often witness students having difficulty in performing that translation. As a result, tools and resources that help to bridge that spatial capability gap can have useful application in the educational realm. A free, map-based data discovery and visualisation tool developed with NSF funding at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory caters to students and teachers alike by providing a variety of data display and manipulation techniques that enhance geospatial awareness. Called GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), the tool provides access to hundreds of built-in authentic geoscience data sets. Examples include earthquake and volcano data, geological maps, lithospheric plate boundary information, geochemical, oceanographic, and environmental data. Barriers to entry are lowered through easy installation, seamless integration of research-grade data sets, intuitive menus, and project-saving continuity. The default base map is a cutting-edge elevation model covering the oceans and land. Dynamic contouring, artificial illumination, 3-D visualisations, data point manipulations, cross-sectional profiles, and other display techniques help students grasp the content and geospatial context of data. Data sets can also be layered for easier comparison. Students may import their own data sets in Excel, ASCII, shapefile, and gridded format, and they can gain a sense of ownership by being able to tailor their data explorations and save their own projects. GeoMapApp is adaptable to a range of learning environments from lab sessions, group projects, and homework assignments to in-class pop-ups. A new Save Session
An active learning process has the potential to provide educational benefits above-and-beyond what they might receive from more traditional, passive approaches. The Socratic Method is a unique approach to passive learning that facilitates critical thinking, open-mindedness, and teamwork. By imposing a series of guided questions to students, an…
Grillo, Elizabeth U.; Koenig, Mareile A.; Gunter, Cheryl D.; Kim, Sojung
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of teaching modules designed to enhance the use of critical thinking (CT), evidence-based practice (EBP), and professional writing (PW) skills by graduate students in communication sciences and disorders. Three single-session teaching modules were developed to highlight key features of CT,…
Mingo, Wendye Dianne
This study attempts to determine if authentic learning strategies can be used to acquire knowledge of and increase motivation for computational thinking. Over 600 students enrolled in a computer literacy course participated in this study which involved completing a pretest, posttest and motivation survey. The students were divided into an…
Gryl, Inga; Carlos, Vânia
Although Spatial Citizenship is rooted deeply in critical theories and is based on ideas of reflexivity, the link to Critical Thinking has not been systematically developed yet. Nevertheless, intersections of both concepts are considered likely due to the closeness of the semantic fields around them. Identifying such overlaps is expected to significantly contribute to advancing the theoretical depth of Spatial Citizenship. Additionally, Critical Thinking – an influential and field-tested appr...
Petrov, Laura Oana; Shahumyan, Harutyun; Williams, Brendan;
information products and tools, policy-makers can be given the opportunity to spatially interrogate the driving forces and the current state of urban development. Understanding how trends will develop in the future and the possible impacts of their decisions on the development process is vital for......Indicators are helpful tools for land use management, particularly in the context of sustainable urban development. Together with scenarios they are a key requirement in order to produce information for stakeholders and policy-makers and aid their understanding of development processes. Using these...
Full Text Available This contribution explains the connection between spatial intelligence and spatial competences and by indicating how the first is the cognitive matrix of abilities necessary to move in space as well as to represent it. Indeed, two are principal factors involved in the spatial intelligence: orientation and representation. Both are based on a close interaction between spatial thought and movement in space. I show the basic features of spatial intelligence through the analysis of specialist literature. This point, however, requires a further step to be taken into consideration: how can spatial intelligence be strengthened together with the related spatial competences? Moreover, which branch of knowledge is the most suitable to do so? By referring to the existing literature on the subject, we would like to indicate that geography has a pre-eminent role in dealing with the connection between man and space and as such it is the most suitable academic discipline to aid the development of spatial abilities through a series of precise didactic activities. The second part of this paper presents an experimental prototype of this kind of targeted teaching activity following the research-action method, an approach where theory and practice meet allowing a systematic collection of data. In effect, the stages of an experimental framework which has allowed the spatial intelligence of primary school children to be developed has been described and the methods of monitoring the results have also be illustrated.
Taylor, Lloyd J; Churchwell, Lana
Managers for years have known that the best way to run a business is to constantly be looking for ways to improve the way to do business. The barrier has been the ability to identify and solve the right problems. Eliyahu Goldratt (1992c), in his book The Goal, uses a love story format to illustrate his "Theory of Constraints." In Goldratt's (1994) next book, It's Not Luck, he further illustrates this powerful technique called "The Thinking Process" which is based on the Socratic method, using the "if ... then" reasoning process, The first step is to identify UDEs or undesirable effects within the organization and then use these UDEs to create a Current Reality Tree (CRT) which helps to identify the core problem. Next, use an Evaporating Cloud to come up with ideas and a way to break the constraint. Finally, use the injections in the Evaporating Cloud to create a Future Reality Tree, further validating the idea and making sure it does not create any negative effects. In this article, the "Thinking Process" will be used to identify and solve problems related to the General Medical Department of an MHMR State Hospital. PMID:15704641
Bey, Niki; McAloone, Timothy Charles
optimisations on all system levels. However, as the act of ecodesign conventionally focuses on physical products, the search for potential optimisations is usually directed ‘downwards’, i.e. towards lower system levels, resulting in optimised components within products rather than optimised products within...... their surrounding systems. This paper will exemplify that when broadening the ecodesign horizon to environmental product/service-system (PSS) design, there is a better possibility of applying a system-oriented life cycle thinking approach, and therefore a potential to yield extreme improvements towards...
Canada, Amanda N
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Probing the Relationship Between Evidence-Based Practice Implementation Models and Critical Thinking in Applied Nursing Practice," found on pages 161-168, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until March 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Describe the key components and characteristics related to evidence
BeLue, Rhonda; Carmack, Chakema; Myers, Kyle R; Weinreb-Welch, Laurie; Lengerich, Eugene J
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is being used increasingly to address health disparities and complex health issues. The authors propose that CBPR can benefit from a systems science framework to represent the complex and dynamic characteristics of a community and identify intervention points and potential "tipping points." Systems science refers to a field of study that posits a holistic framework that is focused on component parts of a system in the context of relationships with each other and with other systems. Systems thinking tools can assist in intervention planning by allowing all CBPR stakeholders to visualize how community factors are interrelated and by potentially identifying the most salient intervention points. To demonstrate the potential utility of systems science tools in CBPR, the authors show the use of causal loop diagrams by a community coalition engaged in CBPR activities regarding youth drinking reduction and prevention. PMID:22467637
Lind, Sophie E.; Williams, David M.; Raber, Jacob; Peel, Anna; Bowler, Dermot M.
Research suggests that spatial navigation relies on the same neural network as episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and theory of mind (ToM). Such findings have stimulated theories (e.g., the scene construction and self-projection hypotheses) concerning possible common underlying cognitive capacities. Consistent with such theories, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by concurrent impairments in episodic memory, episodic future thinking, and ToM. However, it is currently unc...
Newcombe, Nora S.
The author discusses four specific strategies for enhancing and supporting the spatial aspects of the science, mathematics, and social studies curricula. However, these four strategies are examples of what can be done, not an exhaustive list. The overarching concept is to embrace the spatial visualizations used for discovery and communication in…
Green, A. E. S.; Singhal, R. P.
An analytic representation for the spatial (radial and longitudinal) yield spectra is developed in terms of a model containing three simple 'microplumes'. The model is applied to electron energy degradation in molecular nitrogen gas for 0.1 to 5 keV incident electrons. From the nature of the cross section input to this model it is expected that the scaled spatial yield spectra for other gases will be quite similar. The model indicates that each excitation, ionization, etc. plume should have its individual spatial and energy dependence. Extensions and aeronomical and radiological applications of the model are discussed.
Full Text Available Background Systems Thinking (ST has recently been promoted as an important approach to health systems strengthening. However, ST is not common practice, particularly in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs. This paper seeks to explore the barriers that may hinder its application in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR and possible strategies to mitigate them. Methods A survey consisting of open-ended questions was conducted with a purposive sample of health policymakers such as senior officials from the Ministry of Health (MoH, researchers, and other stakeholders such as civil society groups and professional associations from ten countries in the region. A total of 62 respondents participated in the study. Thematic analysis was conducted. Results There was strong recognition of the relevance and usefulness of ST to health systems policy-making and research, although misconceptions about what ST means were also identified. Experience with applying ST was very limited. Approaches to designing health policies in the EMR were perceived as reactive and fragmented (66%. Commonly perceived constraints to application of ST were: a perceived notion of its costliness combined with lack of the necessary funding to operationalize it (53%, competing political interests and lack of government accountability (50%, lack of awareness about relevance and value (47%, limited capacity to apply it (45%, and difficulty in coordinating and managing stakeholders (39%. Conclusion While several strategies have been proposed to mitigate most of these constraints, they emphasized the importance of political endorsement and adoption of ST at the leadership level, together with building the necessary capacity to apply it and apply the learning in research and practice.
Full Text Available Such teaching strategy collaborates to improve the knowledge of Spatial Geometry, trying to end the educational gap related to this subject, and instigating reflections about its importance in the students’ lives since the mathematical concepts are present in our daily lives through shapes, areas and volumes. In order to make a change in the school environment it is important to take the first step with a change in the pedagogical practices, thus contributing to learning processes and helping in the decision of the school subjects and the way they will be discussed in the classroom. Considering learning as a process, and being aware that each student has its own way to learn, classes should be planned considering dynamic and active methodologies, involving the students and allowing them to be protagonists of their own learning while they think about and interact with the object of knowledge, as the mere memorization of formulas is not acceptable anymore. Thus, the following study proposes didactic ways to work some Spatial Geometry concepts, emphasizing the volumes and using technological resources as GeoGebra software and concrete materials.
Bodzin, Alec M.
This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…
Ham, van den A.; Veenstra, J.
In a first part of this study van den Ham reacts to the increased free-market thinking and makes in chapter 1 a plea for continued efforts in active, public socio-spatial development policies in order to contribute to sustainable poverty alleviation in remote areas. This policy should aim at lifting
The paper Inquires engineering graphics education developing spatial thinking from view of cognition psychology and points out emphatically that the spatial skills which cerebrum processes spatial images play an important part in developing spatial thinking according to analysing characteristics of spatial thinking in solving spatial geometry problems. It points out that the sense of graphics education work is not only teaching graphics concepts and drawing skills but also a work of scheme and enforcement in student's "not language" intellectual development. Teaching methods to spur improving effectively spatial thinking ability of students are put forward.%从认知心理学观点出发，对发展空间思维的工程图学教育研究进行了探讨。根据对解决空间几何问题时空间思维特征分析，强调指出大脑加工空间表象的技能性因素，对发展该思维有着重要作用。指出图学教育工作的意义不仅在于讲授图学概念、图示技能，还是一项开发学生的这种"非语言"智力的策划与实施工作。提出了几点教学法以促使有效提高学生的空间想象力。
Mathematical ability of students creative thinking is a component that must be mastered by the student. Mathematical creative thinking plays an important role, both in solving the problem and well, even in high school students. Therefore, efforts are needed to convey ideas in mathematics. But the reality is not yet developed the ability to…
Mossad, Sarah I; AuCoin-Power, Michelle; Urbain, Charline; Smith, Mary Lou; Pang, Elizabeth W; Taylor, Margot J
Theory of Mind (ToM) is the ability to understand the perspectives, mental states and beliefs of others in order to anticipate their behaviour and is therefore crucial to social interactions. Although fMRI has been widely used to establish the neural networks implicated in ToM, little is known about the timing of ToM-related brain activity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure the neural processes underlying ToM, as MEG provides very accurate timing and excellent spatial localization of brain processes. We recorded MEG activity during a false belief task, a reliable measure of ToM, in twenty young adults (10 females). MEG data were recorded in a 151 sensor CTF system (MISL, Coquitlam, BC) and data were co-registered to each participant's MRI (Siemens 3T) for source reconstruction. We found stronger right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) activations in the false belief condition from 150ms to 225ms, in the right precuneus from 275ms to 375ms, in the right inferior frontal gyrus from 200ms to 300ms and the superior frontal gyrus from 300ms to 400ms. Our findings extend the literature by demonstrating the timing and duration of neural activity in the main regions involved in the "mentalizing" network, showing that activations related to false belief in adults are predominantly right lateralized and onset around 100ms. The sensitivity of MEG will allow us to determine spatial and temporal differences in the brain processes in ToM in younger populations or those who demonstrate deficits in this ability. PMID:27039146
Keehner, M; Montello, D; Fabrikant, Sara I; Riggs, E M; Dalton, R C
This symposium will address how the breadth of investigation within the cognitive sciences can be brought to bear on applied everyday common problems, such as difficulties with reading charts and maps, and difficulties in using an in-car navigation device. Research with a problem-based focus often requires a systems approach that requires assimilation of work from many different disciplines. Such problems thus constitute ideal domains for illustrating the benefits of such multi-discipline and...
Begault, Durand R.; Wenzel, Elizabeth M.; Godfrey, Martine; Miller, Joel D.; Anderson, Mark R.
From the perspective of human factors engineering, the inclusion of spatial audio within a human-machine interface is advantageous from several perspectives. Demonstrated benefits include the ability to monitor multiple streams of speech and non-speech warning tones using a cocktail party advantage, and for aurally-guided visual search. Other potential benefits include the spatial coordination and interaction of multimodal events, and evaluation of new communication technologies and alerting systems using virtual simulation. Many of these technologies were developed at NASA Ames Research Center, beginning in 1985. This paper reviews examples and describes the advantages of spatial sound in NASA-related technologies, including space operations, aeronautics, and search and rescue. The work has involved hardware and software development as well as basic and applied research.
Huang, J.; Hong, C.; Hsu, Y.
Climate change is a consequence of interaction among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. The causes of climate change are extremely complicated for scientists to explain. The fact that the global climate has kept warming in the past few decades is one example. It remains controversial for scientists whether this warming is the result of human activity or natural causes. This research aims to lead students to discuss the causes of global warming from distinct and controversial viewpoints to help the students realize the uncertainty and complicated characteristics of the global warming issue. The context of applying the critical thinking model to teaching the scientific concepts of climate change and global warming is designed for use in junior high schools. The videos of the upside concept 'An Inconvenient Truth' (a 2006 documentary film directed by Davis Guggenheim) and the reverse-side concept 'The Great Global Warming Swindle' (a 2007 documentary film made by British television producer/director Martin Durkin) about the global warming crisis are incorporated into lessons in order to guide students to make their own decisions appropriately when discussing the earth climate change crisis. A questionnaire, individual teacher interviews and observations in class were conducted to evaluate the curriculum. The pre-test and post-test questionnaires showed differences in the students' knowledge, attitudes and behavior towards the global warming phenomenon before and after attending the lessons. The results show that those students who attended the whole curriculum had a significant increase in their knowledge and behavior factors of global climate (P value class and improve the efficiency of learning.
Ham, van den, R.; Veenstra, J
In a first part of this study van den Ham reacts to the increased free-market thinking and makes in chapter 1 a plea for continued efforts in active, public socio-spatial development policies in order to contribute to sustainable poverty alleviation in remote areas. This policy should aim at lifting restrictions, both material and socio-cultural, of people to realise their human capabilities to qualitatively and sustainably change the conditions of life and livelihood. It is argued why, from ...
以往会计教学欠缺提高学生思辨、批判思考能力。为了让学生能够培养批判思考、带着走的能力，将批判思考教学应用于会计教学，让理论与实际结合。批判思考教学法并非新的教学方法，而是在现有的教学法上改变心态，强调以学生为主的教学方式。以常见的问答法、讨论法为教学主轴，降低一般教师对批判思考教学法的疑虑，培养批判思考能力并非空谈。%The previous accounting teaching did not focus on improving the critical thinking skills of students.In order to cultivate the autonomous critical thinking skills of students,the teaching of critical thinking is applied to accounting teaching to integrate theory with practice.The critical thinking teaching method is not new.It changes the mentality on the basis of existing teaching methods and emphasizes the student-oriented teaching methods.It takes the common question and answer method and discussion method as the main teaching shaft to lower the common doubt of teachers against the critical thinking teaching method.It is not an empty talk to cultivate the critical thinking skill.
Riga, Vassiliki; Chronopoulou, Elena
The purpose of this study was to identify certain strategies and conditions that should be used by teachers in kindergarten so as to foster creative thinking and creative behaviours to children. We used a quasi-experimental research design for 6 months in a public kindergarten in a suburban area of Greece, and we developed a creative music and…
Evgeniy K. Khenner
Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education; on comparing the notion of «computational thinking» with related concepts used in the Russian scientific and pedagogical literature.Results. The concept «computational thinking» is analyzed from the point of view of intuitive understanding and scientific and applied aspects. It is shown as computational thinking has evolved in the process of development of computers hardware and software. The practice-oriented interpretation of computational thinking which dominant among educators is described along with some ways of its formation. It is shown that computational thinking is a metasubject result of general education as well as its tool. From the point of view of the author, purposeful development of computational thinking should be one of the tasks of the Russian education.Scientific novelty. The author gives a theoretical justification of the role of computational thinking schemes as metasubject results of learning. The dynamics of the development of this concept is described. This process is connected with the evolution of computer and information technologies as well as increase of number of the tasks for effective solutions of which computational thinking is required. Author substantiated the affirmation that including «computational thinking » in the set of pedagogical concepts which are used in the national education system fills an existing gap.Practical significance. New metasubject result of education associated with
Robertson, Peter J.
Amartya Sen's capability approach characterizes an individual's well-being in terms of what they are able to be, and what they are able to do. This framework for thinking has many commonalities with the core ideas in career guidance. Sen's approach is abstract and not in itself a complete or explanatory theory, but a case can be…
Existence is concrete discerned bodily, thinking considers existents, and so concrete thinking is primal, at the base of logical thinking. Still, concrete actuality is reasonable beyond logical analysis. So, concrete thinking is “illogical” bodily reasonable. Thus this essay explores 1) concrete thinking various and 2) concrete thinking concretely. All this concrete thinking culminates in kids’ joys alive.
Olinda, R. A.; Blanchet, J.; dos Santos, C. A. C.; Ozaki, V. A.; Ribeiro, P. J., Jr.
Most of the mathematical models developed for rare events are based on probabilistic models for extremes. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate and multivariate extremes are well developed, the extension of these tools to model spatial extremes includes an area of very active research nowadays. A natural approach to such a modeling is the theory of extreme spatial and the max-stable process, characterized by the extension of infinite dimensions of multivariate extreme value theory, and making it possible then to incorporate the existing correlation functions in geostatistics and therefore verify the extremal dependence by means of the extreme coefficient and the Madogram. This work describes the application of such processes in modeling the spatial maximum dependence of maximum monthly rainfall from the state of Paraná, based on historical series observed in weather stations. The proposed models consider the Euclidean space and a transformation referred to as space weather, which may explain the presence of directional effects resulting from synoptic weather patterns. This method is based on the theorem proposed for de Haan and on the models of Smith and Schlather. The isotropic and anisotropic behavior of these models is also verified via Monte Carlo simulation. Estimates are made through pairwise likelihood maximum and the models are compared using the Takeuchi Information Criterion. By modeling the dependence of spatial maxima, applied to maximum monthly rainfall data from the state of Paraná, it was possible to identify directional effects resulting from meteorological phenomena, which, in turn, are important for proper management of risks and environmental disasters in countries with its economy heavily dependent on agribusiness.
Time to shift from systems thinking-talking to systems thinking-action: Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
Holmes, Bev J; Noel, Kevin
A recent International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) article by Fadi El-Jardali and colleagues makes an important contribution to the literature on health system strengthening by reporting on a survey of healthcare stakeholders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) about Systems Thinking (ST). The study's main contributions are its confirmation that healthcare stakeholders understand the importance of ST but do not know how to act on that understanding, and the call for collective action by the global community of systems thinkers committed to healthcare improvement. We offer three basic considerations for next steps by this community, derived from our recent work in ST and the related field of Knowledge Translation (KT): resist the temptation to adopt a reductionist approach; recognize not everyone needs to understand ST; and do not wait for everything to be in place before getting started. PMID:25844387
Time to Shift from Systems Thinking-Talking to Systems Thinking-Action; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Bev J. Holmes
Full Text Available A recent International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM article by Fadi El-Jardali and colleagues makes an important contribution to the literature on health system strengthening by reporting on a survey of healthcare stakeholders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs about Systems Thinking (ST. The study’s main contributions are its confirmation that healthcare stakeholders understand the importance of ST but do not know how to act on that understanding, and the call for collective action by the global community of systems thinkers committed to healthcare improvement. We offer three basic considerations for next steps by this community, derived from our recent work in ST and the related field of Knowledge Translation (KT: resist the temptation to adopt a reductionist approach; recognize not everyone needs to understand ST; and do not wait for everything to be in place before getting started.
The Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Children (DOTCA-Ch) is a tool for finding out about cognitive problems in school-aged children. However, the DOTCA-Ch was developed in English for Western children. For this reason, it’s not appropriate for Thai children because of the differences of culture and language. The objectives of this study were aimed at translating the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests to a Thai version with a Worl...
Isaeva E. A.
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle’s principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Isaeva E. A.
Full Text Available The usual concept of space and time, based on Aristotle's principle of contemplation of the world and of the absoluteness of time, is a product of rational thinking. At the same time, in philosophy, rational thinking differs from reasonable thinking; the aim of logic is to distinguish finite forms from infinite forms. Agreeing that space and time are things of infinity in this work, we shall show that, with regard to these two things, it is necessary to apply reasonable thinking. Spaces with non-Euclidean geometry, for example Riemannian and Finslerian spaces, in particular, the space of the General Theory of the Relativity (four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian geometry and also the concept of multi-dimensional space-time are products of reasonable thinking. Consequently, modern physical experiment not dealing with daily occurrences (greater speeds than a low speed to the velocity of light, strong fields, singularities, etc. can be covered only by reasonable thinking.
Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Chang, Chuen-Jung; Tu, Hsiao-Han; Yeh, Shiou-Wen
Developing interactive history learning materials to facilitate historical thinking is one of the challenges in history teaching and learning. This study developed a web-based history educational system, which has used the acronym HES-SPATO (history educational system based on SPATO), to increase the understandability of history learning…
Dynamic image sequences allow physiological mechanisms to be monitored after the injection of a tracer. Factor analysis of medical image sequences (FAMIS) hence creates a synthesis of the information in one image sequence. It estimates a limited number of structures (factor images) assuming that the tracer kinetics (factors) are similar at each point inside the structure. A spatial regularization method for computing factor images (REG-FAMIS) is proposed to remove irregularities due to noise in the original data while preserving discontinuities between structures. REG-FAMIS has been applied to two sets of simulations: (a) dynamic data with Gaussian noise and (b) dynamic studies in emission tomography (PET or SPECT), which respect real tomographic acquisition parameters and noise characteristics. Optimal regularization parameters are estimated in order to minimize the distance between reference images and regularized factor images. Compared with conventional factor images, the root mean square error between regularized images and reference factor images is improved by 3 for the first set of simulations, and by about 1.5 for the second set of simulations. In all cases, regularized factor images are qualitatively and quantitatively improved. (author)
Full text: Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is widely used and provides high-speed measurements for academic and industrial research. Characterized by simple optical setup and full digital data acquisition and -processing, it provides some advantages to holography which is still bound to wet photo processing. The main drawbacks of DSPI are the grainy structure of the interferograms and the related inherent noise which imposes high demands to evaluation software. Though DSPI is utilized mainly for measurements of mechanical stress and vibration, it can also be used for refractive index measurement in phase objects. With experience in plasma diagnostics by classic and holographic interferometry, we also applied DSPI in this field of research for a more industrial oriented approach. Measurements to determine number densities include 2-wavelength interferometry for electrons and resonant interferometry for heavy particles. The resonant measurement requires a tomographic reconstruction procedure to obtain spatially resolved data from a cross-section of the plasma. The presentation shows the specific implementation of DSPI and assesses its performance within this demanding experimental environment. (author)
Razumnikova, O M; Bryzgalova, A O
Gender differences in EEG patterns associated with verbal creativity were studied by EEG mapping. The EEGs of 18 males and 21 females (right-handed university students) were recorded during a performance of Remote Associates Task (RAT) compared with the letter-fluency and simple associate's tasks. Gender differences were found in a factor structure of the indices of verbal thinking and a score of generating words was greater in women than men. No significant gender differences in originality of associations were revealed, however, gender-related differences in the EEG-patterns were found at the final and initial stages of RAT. In men, the beta2-power was increased in both hemispheres at the beginning of test. To the end of testing, the power of oscillations in the beta2 band increased only in the central part of the cortex. In women, the beta2-power was increased to a greater extent in the right than in the left hemisphere at the initial stage of task performance, whereas the final stage was characterized by a relative decrease in beta-activity in parietotemporal cortical regions and increase in the left prefrontal region. It is suggested that the verbal creative thinking in men is based mostly on "insight" strategy whereas women additionally involve the "intellectual" strategy. PMID:16217962
Saro Lee; Woo Jeon Seong; Kwan-Young Oh; Moung-Jin Lee
The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs) followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering fo...
Nielsen, O. F.; Ploug, C.; Mendoza, J. A.; Martínez, K.
The need for increaseding accuracy and reduced ambiguities in the inversion results has resulted in focus on the development of more advanced inversion methods of geophysical data. Over the past few years more advanced inversion techniques have been developed to improve the results. Real 3D-inversion is time consuming and therefore often not the best solution in a cost-efficient perspective. This has motivated the development of 3D constrained inversions, where 1D-models are constrained in 3D, also known as a Spatial Constrained Inversion (SCI). Moreover, inversion of several different data types in one inversion has been developed, known as Mutually Constrained Inversion (MCI). In this paper a presentation of a Spatial Mutually Constrained Inversion method (SMCI) is given. This method allows 1D-inversion applied to different geophysical datasets and geological information constrained in 3D. Application of two or more types of geophysical methods in the inversion has proved to reduce the equivalence problem and to increase the resolution in the inversion results. The use of geological information from borehole data or digital geological models can be integrated in the inversion. In the SMCI, a 1D inversion code is used to model soundings that are constrained in three dimensions according to their relative position in space. This solution enhances the accuracy of the inversion and produces distinct layers thicknesses and resistivities. It is very efficient in the mapping of a layered geology but still also capable of mapping layer discontinuities that are, in many cases, related to fracturing and faulting or due to valley fills. Geological information may be included in the inversion directly or used only to form a starting model for the individual soundings in the inversion. In order to show the effectiveness of the method, examples are presented from both synthetic data and real data. The examples include DC-soundings as well as land-based and airborne TEM
Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel
We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after…
The aim of this paper is to present how literature can be a powerful tool for teaching critical thinking as it offers the potential for higher level thinking. Benjamin S. Bloom’s critical thinking questioning strategies are applied into the reading of a short story, "The Lottery" by Shirley Jackson. Pre-, while-, and post-reading activities which are designed according to Bloom’s taxonomy are presented to show how the students learn to read personally, actively, and deeply - questioning, unde...
Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.
Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…
Gosset, Eric; Surdej, Jean; Swings, Jean-Pierre
The authors discuss the application of different statistical tests to the study of the spatial distribution of quasars. Applications to data sets of optically selected quasars lead to the detection of a clustering at a typical scale of 10 arcmin. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of quasars in a field around NGC 450 shows a deviation from randomness, towards clustering, at a scale of 10 h[SUP]-1[/SUP]Mpc.
Kryjevskaia, Mila; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Grosz, Nathaniel
We have applied the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning to interpret inconsistencies in student reasoning approaches to physics problems. This study was motivated by an emerging body of evidence that suggests that student conceptual and reasoning competence demonstrated on one task often fails to be exhibited on another. Indeed, even after instruction specifically designed to address student conceptual and reasoning difficulties identified by rigorous research, many undergraduate physics students fail to build reasoning chains from fundamental principles even though they possess the required knowledge and skills to do so. Instead, they often rely on a variety of intuitive reasoning strategies. In this study, we developed and employed a methodology that allowed for the disentanglement of student conceptual understanding and reasoning approaches through the use of sequences of related questions. We have shown that the heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning can be used to account for, in a mechanistic fashion, the observed inconsistencies in student responses. In particular, we found that students tended to apply their correct ideas in a selective manner that supported a specific and likely anticipated conclusion while neglecting to employ the same ideas to refute an erroneous intuitive conclusion. The observed reasoning patterns were consistent with the heuristic-analytic theory, according to which reasoners develop a "first-impression" mental model and then construct an argument in support of the answer suggested by this model. We discuss implications for instruction and argue that efforts to improve student metacognition, which serves to regulate the interaction between intuitive and analytical reasoning, is likely to lead to improved student reasoning.
Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…
Cervone, G.; Kafatos, M.
Formulating general hypotheses from limited observations is one of the fundamental principles of scientific discovery. The data mining approach consists, among others, in generating new knowledge analyzing massive amounts of data and using background knowledge. Knowledge representation is one of the fundamental topics of data mining, because the representation language dictates which algorithms to use, as well as the effective usefulness of the learned hypotheses. Programs that use richer representation languages have the advantage of generating hypotheses that are compact and easy to understand, and the disadvantage of being more complex, slower and ususally with more control parameters. On the other hand, programs that use simpler representaiton languages overcome these shortcomings, but fail to generate hypotheses that can be easily interpreted and used for problem solving and decision making. Symbolic machine learning methods, such as decision rule classifiers, use a complex representation language which can be used to describe difficult concepts, and allow to cope with spatial and temporal data, such as remote sensing data. Because data are usually collected as a sequence of observations over time and in specific locations, very often it is necessary to find relations not only in the data per se, but also in the temporal and spatial distribution of the observations. Due to the increasingly large amount of spatial and temporal data collected and analyzed in several fields such as remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS), bioinformatics, medicine, bank transactions, etc, spatial and temporal knowledge representaion has become a problem of crucial importance. Present research investigates methods to use existing symbolic machine learning classifiers with temporal and spatial data. The data are converted in a representation language which is suitable to learn spatial and temporal relationship without modifying the existing algorithms. Results from
Full Text Available Early reforms in Serbia (Yugoslavia were announced immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. From the beginning of the 1990s few attempts of the kind announced have taken place, and, altogether, they still remain more or less uncompleted. To a large extent, this is a result of choices taken by the political and economic elites, in effect without any broader public dialogue undertaken about the strategic directions, contents and means for the implementation of such reforms. So far no overall societal consensus on the key strategic issues has been reached whatsoever, and, therefore, the choices in question have simply been imposed on the society at large by decree. The economic recovery from 2000 onwards, while fairly dynamic, has still been insufficient, and more or less assumes the form of “growth without development”. Serbia still keeps one of the most dissipating and non-sustainable economies, social services and spatial development patterns in Europe. Its “post-socialist Argonautics” has been facing a number of difficulties, also exacerbated by a lack of adequate institutional and organizational adjustments, as well as by a lack of proper cognitive and heuristic support. The spatial and environmental planning practice represents a mixture of old habits and substandard approaches, with only some new initiatives. There have been few attempts to redirect the improper development path, however, which have so far either failed of been uncompleted, mostly reflecting the collapse an overall collapse of strategic thinking, research and governance in this country.
Eldon Glen Caldwell Marin
Full Text Available The Markov Chains Model was proposed to analyze stochastic events when recursive cycles occur; for example, when rework in a continuous flow production affects the overall performance. Typically, the analysis of rework and scrap is done through a wasted material cost perspective and not from the perspective of waste capacity that reduces throughput and economic value added (EVA. Also, we can not find many cases of this application in agro-industrial production in Latin America, given the complexity of the calculations and the need for robust applications. This scientific work presents the results of a quasi-experimental research approach in order to explain how to apply DOE methods and Markov analysis in a rice production process located in Central America, evaluating the global effects of a single reduction in rework and scrap in a part of the whole line. The results show that in this case it is possible to evaluate benefits from Global Throughput and EVA perspective and not only from the saving costs perspective, finding a relationship between operational indicators and corporate performance. However, it was found that it is necessary to analyze the markov chains configuration with many rework points, also it is still relevant to take into account the effects on takt time and not only scrap´s costs.
People in different cultures are taught to think differently. How we gather information, process, rationalise, justify and communicate our ideas is culturally determined. Europe is divided between the pragmatic, inductive thinking of North Sea cultures and the rationalist thinking of the rest of the continent. Westerners and Asians have different mental skills and capacities deriving from the nature of written and spoken language, the relative importance of learning by rote or investigation and the social environment. Western children are expected to ask questions and test ideas for themselves, while in Asia it is unacceptable to question anyone senior in age or authority, including teachers. Westerners base thinking on reason; Asians base thinking on harmony. Whenever people of different cultures work together, different ways of thinking create barriers to understanding and communication. This applies to many spheres of work, including the medical profession. PMID:12195863
The paper presents an adaptive illumination system for image quality enhancement in vision-based quality control systems. In particular, a spatial modulation of illumination intensity is proposed in order to improve image quality, thus compensating for different target scattering properties, local reflections and fluctuations of ambient light. The desired spatial modulation of illumination is obtained by a digital light projector, used to illuminate the scene with an arbitrary spatial distribution of light intensity, designed to improve feature extraction in the region of interest. The spatial distribution of illumination is optimized by running a genetic algorithm. An image quality estimator is used to close the feedback loop and to stop iterations once the desired image quality is reached. The technique proves particularly valuable for optimizing the spatial illumination distribution in the region of interest, with the remarkable capability of the genetic algorithm to adapt the light distribution to very different target reflectivity and ambient conditions. The final objective of the proposed technique is the improvement of the matching score in the recognition of parts through matching algorithms, hence of the diagnosis of machine vision-based quality inspections. The procedure has been validated both by a numerical model and by an experimental test, referring to a significant problem of quality control for the washing machine manufacturing industry: the recognition of a metallic clamp. Its applicability to other domains is also presented, specifically for the visual inspection of shoes with retro-reflective tape and T-shirts with paillettes. (paper)
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
Application of systems thinking in health: opportunities for translating theory into practice Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: a regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
Malik, Asmat Ullah
Systems thinking is not a new concept to health system strengthening; however, one question remains unanswered: How policy-makers, system designers and consultants with a system thinking philosophy should act (have acted) as potential change agents in actually gaining opportunities to introduce systems thinking? Development of Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs) for Immunization System is one such opportunity because almost all Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) develop and implement cMYPs every five years. Without building upon examples and showing practical application, the discussions and deliberations on systems thinking may fade away with passage of time. There are opportunities that exist around us in our existing health systems that we can benefit from starting with an incremental approach and generating evidence for longer lasting system-wide changes. PMID:26340394
Application of Systems Thinking in Health: Opportunities for Translating Theory into Practice; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Asmat Ullah Malik
Full Text Available Systems thinking is not a new concept to health system strengthening; however, one question remains unanswered: How policy-makers, system designers and consultants with a system thinking philosophy should act (have acted as potential change agents in actually gaining opportunities to introduce systems thinking? Development of Comprehensive Multi-Year Plans (cMYPs for Immunization System is one such opportunity because almost all Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs develop and implement cMYPs every five years. Without building upon examples and showing practical application, the discussions and deliberations on systems thinking may fade away with passage of time. There are opportunities that exist around us in our existing health systems that we can benefit from starting with an incremental approach and generating evidence for longer lasting system-wide changes.
Thinking Shift on Health Systems: From Blueprint Health Programmes towards Resilience of Health Systems; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptab...
Thinking Shift on Health Systems: From Blueprint Health Programmes towards Resilience of Health Systems; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Full Text Available International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptability as entry points to better understand how health systems react to shocks.
Thinking shift on health systems: from blueprint health programmes towards resilience of health systems Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptability as entry points to better understand how health systems react to shocks. PMID:25905481
Juliano de Bastos Pazini
Full Text Available Tibraca limbativentris (rice stem bug is an insect highly injurious to the rice crop in Brazil. The aim of this research was to define the spatial distribution of the T. limbativentris and improve the sampling process by means of geostatistical application techniques and construction of prediction maps in a flooded rice field located in the "Planalto da Campanha" Region, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. The experiments were conducted in rice crop in the municipality of Itaqui - RS, in the crop years of 2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12, counting fortnightly the number of nymphs and adults in a georeferenced grid with points spaced at 50m in the first year and in 10m in the another years. It was performed a geostatistical analysis by means adjusting semivariogram and interpolation of numeric data by kriging to verify the spatial dependence and the subsequent mapping population. The results obtained indicated that the rice stem bug, T. limbativentris, has a strong spatial dependence. The prediction maps allow estimating population density of the pest and visualization of the spatial distribution in flooded rice fields, enabling the improvement of the traditional method of sampling for rice stem bug
Carver, Steve; Evans, Andy; Kingston, Richard
The development and testing of a Web-based GIS e-learning resource is described. This focuses on the application of GIS for siting a nuclear waste disposal facility and the associated principles of spatial decision-making using Boolean and weighted overlay methods. Initial student experiences in using the system are analysed as part of a research…
Wu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiacheng; Peng, Jian; Li, Weifeng; Xu, Guang; Dong, Chengcheng
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the major air pollutant in Beijing, posing serious threats to human health. Land use regression (LUR) has been widely used in predicting spatiotemporal variation of ambient air-pollutant concentrations, though restricted to the European and North American context. We aimed to estimate spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 by building separate LUR models in Beijing. Hourly routine PM2.5 measurements were collected at 35 sites from 4th March 2013 to 5th March 2014. Seventy-seven predictor variables were generated in GIS, including street network, land cover, population density, catering services distribution, bus stop density, intersection density, and others. Eight LUR models were developed on annual, seasonal, peak/non-peak, and incremental concentration subsets. The annual mean concentration across all sites is 90.7 μg/m(3) (SD = 13.7). PM2.5 shows more temporal variation than spatial variation, indicating the necessity of building different models to capture spatiotemporal trends. The adjusted R (2) of these models range between 0.43 and 0.65. Most LUR models are driven by significant predictors including major road length, vegetation, and water land use. Annual outdoor exposure in Beijing is as high as 96.5 μg/m(3). This is among the first LUR studies implemented in a seriously air-polluted Chinese context, which generally produce acceptable results and reliable spatial air-pollution maps. Apart from the models for winter and incremental concentration, LUR models are driven by similar variables, suggesting that the spatial variations of PM2.5 remain steady for most of the time. Temporal variations are explained by the intercepts, and spatial variations in the measurements determine the strength of variable coefficients in our models. PMID:25487555
Fischer, B. M. C.; Mul, M. L.; Savenije, H. H. G.
With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the probability of dry spell occurrence. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. This map is then related to the critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the probability of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels, which makes rainfed agricultural practices unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully practiced. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells, and subsequently to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
Spatial data is a powerful form of information, capable of providing information of great interest and tremendous use to a variety of users. However, much like other data representing the 'real world', precision and accuracy must be high for the results of data analysis to be deemed reliable and thus applicable to real world projects and undertakings. The spatial data quality control (QC) procedure presented here was developed as the topic of a Master's thesis, in the sphere of and using data from the Okavango Basin Information System (OBIS), itself a part of The Future Okavango (TFO) project. The aim of the QC procedure was to form the basis of a method through which to determine the quality of spatial data relevant for application to hydrological, solute, and erosion transport modelling using the Jena Adaptable Modelling System (JAMS). As such, the quality of all data present in OBIS classified under the topics of elevation, geoscientific information, or inland waters, was evaluated. Since the initial data quality has been evaluated, efforts are underway to correct the errors found, thus improving the quality of the dataset.
Following recently proposed approaches on gamma/hadron separation, spatial correlations among secondary charged particles in extensive air showers have been studied for the case of the ARGO-YBJ experiment, which represents a particularly suited detector in this respect because of its “continuous-carpet” geometry. Two different types of statistics have been considered, namely the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution (NNSD) and the variance of the number of secondary particles at given distance. The results of this preliminary investigation are reported
Examines creative thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy and compares creative and critical thinking. Discusses teaching for thinking, techniques for sparking creativity, activities for creating a mental museum, synectics (a group creative process to create new insights), and creating meaning through story…
Use of Design Thinking in Development of Professional Conferences : Increasing Teaching Staff Participation in International Week of School of Art, Music, and Media of Tampere University of Applied Sciences
Primary aim of this thesis is to propose practical solutions to improve staff attendance at the International Week of School of Art, Music, and Media at Tampere University of Applied Sciences. In order to effectively apply design thinking approaches, methods, and principles an extensive theoretical research was conducted. This research presents global, university, and teaching staff perspectives on the international week; positions the event; and explores professional development, idea ex...
The method of characteristics is an efficient and flexible technique to solve the neutron transport equation and has been extensively used in two-dimensional calculations because it permits to deal with complex geometries. However, because of a very fast increase in storage requirements and number of floating operations, its direct application to three-dimensional routine transport calculations it is not still possible. In this work we introduce and analyze several modifications aimed to reduce memory requirements and to diminish the computing burden. We explore high-order spatial approximation, the use of intermediary trajectory-dependent flux expansions and the possibility of dynamic trajectory reconstruction from local tracking for typed subdomains. (authors)
Feltmate, B. E.
Several new and seemingly successful scene analysis techniques for application to real image processing are presented. These techniques consist of particular combinations of spatial low pass filtering, global thresholding and Boolean operators, specifically the AND, OR and NOT operators. These combinatorial operators, hereafter referred to as the Boolpass operators, perform the task of picture energy/information reduction, while retaining the fundamental picture primitives such as edges which characterize the images. Over 150 figures are included which illustrate the results obtained from application of the Boolpass techniques to eight different natural scenes. These results indicate that the Boolpass operators do display great potential as important components of a larger more comprehensive pattern recognition machine. Such a machine would encompass further processing (for target classification/recognition) of the resulting Boolpass operator information.
In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…
Vitalistic thinking has traditionally been associated with reasoning about biological phenomena. The current research aimed to investigate a broader range of vitalistic thinking than previously studied. Esoteric notions of 'energy' are frequently used by individuals when making causal attributions for strange occurrences, and previous literature has linked such thinking with paranormal, magical, and superstitious beliefs. Two experiments are described that aim to investigate whether adults are vitalistic when asked to make causal judgments, and whether this can be predicted by thinking styles and prior paranormal belief. Experiment 1 asked participants to rate three causal options (one of which was vitalistic) for six vignettes. Scores on one dimension of paranormal belief (New Age Philosophy) and analytical thinking significantly predicted vitalism, but scores on intuitive thinking and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs did not. Experiment 2 extended the findings by asking participants to generate their own causal responses. Again, paranormal belief was found to be the best predictor of vitalism, but this time Traditional Paranormal Beliefs were associated with vitalistic responses whilst both intuitive and analytical thinking were unable to significantly predict classification. Results challenge previous findings, suggesting that vitalistic thinking may operate differently when applied to everyday causal reasoning. PMID:24094281
“Wood Already Touched by Fire is not Hard to Set Alight”; Comment on “Constraints to Applying Systems Thinking Concepts in Health Systems: A Regional Perspective from Surveying Stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean Countries”
Irene Akua Agyepong
Full Text Available A major constraint to the application of any form of knowledge and principles is the awareness, understanding and acceptance of the knowledge and principles. Systems Thinking (ST is a way of understanding and thinking about the nature of health systems and how to make and implement decisions within health systems to maximize desired and minimize undesired effects. A major constraint to applying ST within health systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs would appear to be an awareness and understanding of ST and how to apply it. This is a fundamental constraint and in the increasing desire to enable the application of ST concepts in health systems in LMIC and understand and evaluate the effects; an essential first step is going to be enabling of a wide spread as well as deeper understanding of ST and how to apply this understanding.
"Wood already touched by fire is not hard to set alight": Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".
Agyepong, Irene Akua
A major constraint to the application of any form of knowledge and principles is the awareness, understanding and acceptance of the knowledge and principles. Systems Thinking (ST) is a way of understanding and thinking about the nature of health systems and how to make and implement decisions within health systems to maximize desired and minimize undesired effects. A major constraint to applying ST within health systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) would appear to be an awareness and understanding of ST and how to apply it. This is a fundamental constraint and in the increasing desire to enable the application of ST concepts in health systems in LMIC and understand and evaluate the effects; an essential first step is going to be enabling of a wide spread as well as deeper understanding of ST and how to apply this understanding. PMID:25774378
Brewer, Jonathan; Bloksgaard, Maria; Kubiak, Jakub; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Bagatolli, Luis A
A multiphoton excitation-based fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy method, Raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS), was used to measure the local diffusion coefficients of distinct model fluorescent substances in excised human skin. In combination with structural information obtained by multiphoton excitation fluorescence microscopy imaging, the acquired diffusion information was processed to construct spatially resolved diffusion maps at different depths of the stratum corneum (SC). Experiments using amphiphilic and hydrophilic fluorescently labeled molecules show that their diffusion in SC is very heterogeneous on a microscopic scale. This diffusion-based strategy was further exploited to investigate the integrity of liposomes during transdermal penetration. Specifically, the diffusion of dual-color fluorescently labeled liposomes--containing an amphiphilic fluorophore in the lipid bilayer and a hydrophilic fluorophore encapsulated in the liposome lumen--was measured using cross-correlation RICS. This type of experiment allows discrimination between separate (uncorrelated) and joint (correlated) diffusion of the two different fluorescent probes, giving information about liposome integrity. Independent of the liposome composition (phospholipids or transfersomes), our results show a clear lack of cross-correlation below the skin surface, indicating that the penetration of intact liposomes is highly compromised by the skin barrier. PMID:23223136
Within this thesis a conceptual model is presented which allows for the definition of a vulnerability assessment according to its time and spatial scale and within a multi-dimensional framework, which should help to design and develop appropriate methodologies and adaptation of concepts for the required scale of implementation. Building on past experiences with participatory approaches in community mapping in the District of Buzi in Mozambique, the relevance of such approaches for a community-based disaster risk reduction framework is analysed. Finally, methodologies are introduced which allow the assessment of vulnerability and the prioritisation of vulnerability factors at the community level. At the district level, homogenous vulnerability regions are identified through the application of integrated modelling approaches which build on expert knowledge and weightings. A set of indicators is proposed, which allow the modelling of vulnerability in a data-scarce environment. In developing these different methodologies for the community and district levels, it has been identified that the monitoring of vulnerability and the identification of trends is essential to addressing the objective of a continuous and improved disaster risk management. In addition to the technical and methodological challenges discussed in this thesis, the commitment from different stakeholders and the availability of capacity in different domains is essential for the successful, practical implementation of the developed approaches. (author)
Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) is capable of providing two-dimensional information about dopant and carrier concentrations in semiconducting devices. This information can be used to calibrate models used in the simulation of these devices prior to manufacturing and to develop and optimize the manufacturing processes. To provide information for future generations of devices, ultra-high spatial accuracy (<10 nm) will be required. One method, which potentially provides a means to obtain these goals, is inverse modeling of SCM data. Current semiconducting devices have large dopant gradients. As a consequence, the capacitance probe signal represents an average over the local dopant gradient. Conversion of the SCM signal to dopant density has previously been accomplished with a physical model which assumes that no dopant gradient exists in the sampling area of the tip. The conversion of data using this model produces results for abrupt profiles which do not have adequate resolution and accuracy. A new inverse model and iterative method has been developed to obtain higher resolution and accuracy from the same SCM data. This model has been used to simulate the capacitance signal obtained from one and two-dimensional ideal abrupt profiles. This simulated data has been input to a new iterative conversion algorithm, which has recovered the original profiles in both one and two dimensions. In addition, it is found that the shape of the tip can significantly impact resolution. Currently SCM tips are found to degrade very rapidly. Initially the apex of the tip is approximately hemispherical, but quickly becomes flat. This flat region often has a radius of about the original hemispherical radius. This change in geometry causes the silicon directly under the disk to be sampled with approximately equal weight. In contrast, a hemispherical geometry samples most strongly the silicon centered under the SCM tip and falls off quickly with distance from the tip's apex. Simulation
Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Davis, Dawn M.; Niell, Lara E.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Delehanty, David J.
multiple spatial scales. As applied to sage-grouse, the composite map identifies spatially explicit management categories within sagebrush steppe that are most critical to sustaining sage-grouse populations as well as those areas where changes in land use would likely have minimal impact. Importantly, collaborative efforts among stakeholders guide which intersections of habitat selection indices and abundance and space use classes are used to define management categories. Because sage-grouse are an umbrella species, our joint-index modelling approach can help target effective conservation for other sagebrush obligate species, and can be readily applied to species in other ecosystems with similar life histories, such as central-placed breeding.
Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira
The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS. These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50% and a test set (50%. A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10% was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%. Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, ‘slope’ yielded the highest weight value (1.330, and ‘aspect’ yielded the lowest value (1.000. This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.
Saro, Lee; Woo, Jeon Seong; Kwan-Young, Oh; Moung-Jin, Lee
The aim of this study is to predict landslide susceptibility caused using the spatial analysis by the application of a statistical methodology based on the GIS. Logistic regression models along with artificial neutral network were applied and validated to analyze landslide susceptibility in Inje, Korea. Landslide occurrence area in the study were identified based on interpretations of optical remote sensing data (Aerial photographs) followed by field surveys. A spatial database considering forest, geophysical, soil and topographic data, was built on the study area using the Geographical Information System (GIS). These factors were analysed using artificial neural network (ANN) and logistic regression models to generate a landslide susceptibility map. The study validates the landslide susceptibility map by comparing them with landslide occurrence areas. The locations of landslide occurrence were divided randomly into a training set (50%) and a test set (50%). A training set analyse the landslide susceptibility map using the artificial network along with logistic regression models, and a test set was retained to validate the prediction map. The validation results revealed that the artificial neural network model (with an accuracy of 80.10%) was better at predicting landslides than the logistic regression model (with an accuracy of 77.05%). Of the weights used in the artificial neural network model, `slope' yielded the highest weight value (1.330), and `aspect' yielded the lowest value (1.000). This research applied two statistical analysis methods in a GIS and compared their results. Based on the findings, we were able to derive a more effective method for analyzing landslide susceptibility.
Jackson, Philip W.
Background: The intellectual context of this essay is the nature of human thought as examined by philosophers and psychologists past and present. Focus of study: The study focuses on the treatment of thinking by John Dewey in his two editions of "How We Think" and by William James in his "Talks to Teachers". Research Design: This is a…
Kinnell, P. I. A.
The assumption that runoff is produced uniformly over the eroding area underlies the traditional use of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and the revised version of it, the RUSLE. However, although the application of the USLE/RUSLE to segments on one dimensional hillslopes and cells on two-dimensional hillslopes is based on the assumption that each segment or cell is spatially uniform, factors such as soil infiltration, and hence runoff production, may vary spatially between segments or cells. Results from equations that focus on taking account of spatially variable runoff when applying the USLE/RUSLE and the USLE-M, the modification of the USLE/RUSLE that replaces the EI30 index by the product of EI30 and the runoff ratio, in hillslopes during erosion events where runoff is not produced uniformly were compared on a hypothetical a 300 m long one-dimensional hillslope with a spatially uniform gradient. Results were produced for situations where all the hillslope was tilled bare fallow and where half of the hillslope was cropped with corn and half was tilled bare fallow. Given that the erosive stress within a segment or cell depends on the volume of surface water flowing through the segment or cell, soil loss can be expected to increase not only with distance from the point where runoff begins but also directly with runoff when it varies about the average for the slope containing the segment or cell. The latter effect was achieved when soil loss was predicted using the USLE-M but not when the USLE/RUSLE slope length factor for a segment using an effective upslope length that varies with the ratio of the upslope runoff coefficient and the runoff coefficient for the slope to the bottom of the segment or cell was used. The USLE-M also predicted deposition to occur in a segment containing corn when an area with tilled bare fallow soil existed immediately upslope of it because the USLE-M models erosion on runoff and soil loss plots as a transport limited system. In a
Bravos, Cynthia; Adler, Isabel K.
This paper aims at presenting how a Brazilian innovation consultancy guided a collaborative development of a mobile solution using the Design Thinking approach (Vianna et al, 2012) and Lean principles (Ries, 2011). It will describe tools and methods used and how it was applied to requirement...
This article presents a lesson in which students examine current field research on global change. In particular, students investigate the effect of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on ecosystems by applying their knowledge of scientific inquiry and photosynthesis. The goal of the activity is for students to think like ecologists and draw…
Why are there still problems concerning the management of spatial changes? Are spatial development projects really unique or are there typical patterns, which occur regularly? Is there a possibility to generalise such principles towards a 'theory of practice', which will be able to provide better management strategies for spatial development?
Huynh, Niem Tu; Sharpe, Bob
Spatial thinking is fundamental to the practice and theory of geography, however there are few valid and reliable assessment methods in geography to measure student performance in spatial thinking. This article presents the development and evaluation of a geospatial thinking assessment instrument to measure participant understanding of spatial…
Evgeniy K. Khenner
Abstract. The aim of the research is to draw attention of the educational community to the phenomenon of computational thinking which actively discussed in the last decade in the foreign scientific and educational literature, to substantiate of its importance, practical utility and the right on affirmation in Russian education.Methods. The research is based on the analysis of foreign studies of the phenomenon of computational thinking and the ways of its formation in the process of education;...
Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.
There is a compelling need to develop the geoscience workforce of the future to address the "grand challenges" that face humanity. This workforce must have a strong understanding of Earth history, processes and materials and be able to communicate effectively and responsibly to inform public policy and personal and societal actions, particularly with regard to geohazards and natural resources. Curricula to train future geoscientists must be designed to help students develop critical thinking skills across the curriculum, from introductory to senior capstone courses. Students will be challenged in their pre-professional training as geoscientists as they encounter an incomplete geologic record, ambiguity and uncertainty in observed and experimental results, temporal reasoning ("deep time", frequency, recurrence intervals), spatial reasoning (from microns to mountains), and complex system behavior. Four instructional approaches can be combined to address these challenges and help students develop critical thinking skills: 1) Geoethics and ethical decision making includes review and integration of the context/facts of the situation, stakeholders, decision-makers, and possible alternative actions and expected outcomes; 2) The affective domain which encompasses factors such as student motivation to learn, curiosity, fear, attitudes, perceptions, social barriers and values; 3) Metacognition which encourages students to be aware about their own thinking processes, and to develop self-monitoring and self-regulating behaviors; and 4) Systems thinking which requires integrative thinking about the interactions between physical, chemical, biological and human processes, feedback mechanisms and emergent phenomena. Guided inquiry and scaffolded exercises can be used to present increasingly complex situations that require a thorough understanding of geologic principles and processes as applied to issues of societal concern. These approaches are not "owned" by any single course or
Huang, Yu-Hsien; Lin, Mei-Feng; Ho, Hsueh-Jen; Chang, Lu-Na; Chen, Shiue
Lack of knowledge and experience is prevalent in undergraduate students who are taking their clinical practicum for mental-health nursing. This issue negatively affects the learning process. This article shares an experience of implementing a practicum-teaching program. This program was developed by the authors to facilitate the cooperative learning and clinical care competence of students. A series of multidimensional teaching activities was designed by integrating the strategies of peer cooperation and creative thinking to promote group and individual learning. Results indicate that the program successfully encouraged the students to participate more actively in the learning process. Additionally, the students demonstrated increased competence in empathetic caring toward patients, stronger friendship relationships with peers, and improved self-growth. The authors hope this teaching program provides a framework to increase the benefits for students of participating in clinical practicums and provides a teaching reference for clinical instructors. PMID:25854950
Thanos, Sotirios; Bristow, Abigail L; Wardman, Mark R
Incorporating spatial econometric tools in hedonic pricing (HP) models for environmental valuation has become the standard approach in the literature. The effect of house prices on other house prices is taken into account and usually measured by distance or contiguity in spatial weight matrices. Disaggregate house sale datasets are composed from observations each at a specific location and time. Nevertheless, the symmetric spatial weight matrices commonly employed in HP studies ignore the tem...
Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.
Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted with...
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects over 250 million people worldwide. Many in Malta suffer from the disease because of our high carbohydrate diet and lack of physical activity. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/diabetes-from-genes-to-blood/
Costa, José Vilton; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda; Donalísio, Maria Rita
Dengue incidence occurs predominantly within city limits. Identifying spatial distribution of the disease at the local level helps formulate strategies to control and prevent the disease. Spatial analysis of counting data for small areas commonly violates the assumptions of traditional Poisson models due to the excessive amount of zeros. This study compared the performance of four counting models used in mapping diseases: Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial. The methods were compared in a simulation study. The models analyzed in the simulation were applied to a spatial ecological study of dengue data aggregated by census tracts in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007. Spatial analysis was conducted with Bayesian hierarchical models. The zero-inflated Poisson model showed the best performance for estimating relative risk of dengue incidence in the census tracts. PMID:27509547
Evans, T. P. O.; Bishop, S.R.
We present a simple mathematical model to replicate the key features of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for controlling pest species, with particular reference to the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue fever. The model differs from the majority of those studied previously in that it is simultaneously spatially explicit and involves pulsed, rather than continuous, sterile insect releases. The spatially uniform equilibria of the model are identified and analysed. Simulations a...
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo......In the 21st century, think tanks have become more than a buzzword in European public discourse. They now play important roles in the policy-making process by providing applied research, building networks and advocating policies. The book studies the development of think tanks and contemporary...... consequences in the United Kingdom, Germany, Denmark and at the EU-level. A Continental think tank tradition in which the state plays a pivotal role and an Anglo-American tradition which facilitates interaction in public policy on market-like terms have shaped the development of think tanks. On the basis of a...
Bottino, Rosa; Chioccariello, Augusto
Digital technology has radically changed the way people work in industry, finance, services, media and commerce. Informatics has contributed to the scientific and technological development of our society in general and to the digital revolution in particular. Computational thinking is the term indicating the key ideas of this discipline that might be included in the key competencies underlying the curriculum of compulsory education. The educational potential of informatics h...
Full Text Available The twenty-first century has brought lots of challenges for people in all spheres, including education. In the new context, traditional approaches often seem ineffective and therefore new tools and methods have to be applied. An alternative approach that might be useful in the given context is design thinking – the approach that originated in architecture, design and art, and nowadays is applied in many fields. It is a human-centered problem-solving approach that may be used in the teaching/learning process to develop twenty-first century skills and enhance creativity and innovation. This paper introduces readers to the origin of design thinking, its attributes and processes as well as its application in pedagogy.
Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.
Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…
Full Text Available Science, medicine and ophthalmology have all evolved and progressed through varied but powerful influences over the centuries. While the tremendous technological advances in ophthalmology in the past 20 years are readily appreciated, many clinicians fail to grasp the impact of the several clinical trials that have contributed to better patient care. This article briefly traces the history of science, medicine and ophthalmology, and explains how scientific thinking could be applied to the clinical and academic aspects of ophthalmology.
The article briefly describes the relatively young field of cognitive science dedicated to the research of lived human experience – the so-called phenomenological inquiry (or first-person research). It enumerates the reasons for the renewed interest in the study of experience and outlines the field’s relation to the rest of cognitive science. With the help of an example (phenomenology of thinking), the article attempts to illustrate the importance of systematic study of experience and address...
The ability of thinking creatively is the obvious mark of the successful people.This demands teachers to train the students to think creatively and arouse them to learn more so that they can develop their abilities of thinking.The relationship between the teachers and the students should become friendly, equal and relax so that the students try to think creatively.The training of thinking indirectly or differently should be often applied in class.It is necessary to change the traditional teaching methods in English class.
Ossés de Eicker, Margarita; Zah, Rainer; Triviño, Rubén; Hurni, Hans
The spatial accuracy of top-down traffic emission inventory maps obtained with a simplified disaggregation method based on street density was assessed in seven mid-sized Chilean cities. Each top-down emission inventory map was compared against a reference, namely a more accurate bottom-up emission inventory map from the same study area. The comparison was carried out using a combination of numerical indicators and visual interpretation. Statistically significant differences were found between the seven cities with regard to the spatial accuracy of their top-down emission inventory maps. In compact cities with a simple street network and a single center, a good accuracy of the spatial distribution of emissions was achieved with correlation values>0.8 with respect to the bottom-up emission inventory of reference. In contrast, the simplified disaggregation method is not suitable for complex cities consisting of interconnected nuclei, resulting in correlation valuessituation to get an overview on the spatial distribution of the emissions generated by traffic activities.
Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard
The paper probes the background of the dire rhetoric of the Danish National Health Board’s 40 week anti-alcohol consumption campaign, in particular the model of communication implied by the campaign's strategy. Contrasting the campaign's strategy in 2011 with the results of evaluations of previous...... years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted with...
Evolution as an idea has a lengthy history, even though the idea of evolution is generally associated with Darwin today. Rebecca Stott provides an engaging and thoughtful overview of this history of evolutionary thinking in her 2013 book, Darwin's Ghosts: The Secret History of Evolution. Since Darwin, the debate over evolution—both how it takes place and, in a long war of words with religiously-oriented thinkers, whether it takes place—has been sustained and heated. A growing share of this de...
Ibrahim, Mohamed; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland;
This paper describes a teaching experience conducted and carried out as part of the coursework of first year students of architecture at Strathclyde University. The workshop is the Third of three workshops planned to take place during the course of the first year studio, aimed at introducing new ...... ways of thinking and introducing students to a new pattern of architectural education. The experiment was planned under the theme of “Evaluation” during the Final stage. A grammatical approach was chosen to deliver the methodology in the design studio, based on shape grammars....
Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Soelberg, Søren
This project seeks to discuss the possibility of thinking machines. First the technical side of Artificial Intelligence (A.I.) is discussed with reference to Alan Turing’s Turing machines and John Haugeland’s automated formal systems. This is followed by a definition of A.I. as put forth in Turing’s famous description of the Turing Test. John Searle’s Chinese Room argument is presented as an objection to the notion of Strong A.I.. Bram van Heuveln proves through an advanced Systems Reply that...
In this article we examine location, space and spatial representation in two classic adventure games belonging to the same game series: Gabriel Knight Sins of the Fathers, a one screen at a time point-and-click adventure and Gabriel Knight Blood of the Sacred Blood of the Damned, a 3D game. Our aim
Ogden, Thomas H
The author believes that contemporary psychoanalysis has shifted its emphasis from the understanding of the symbolic meaning of dreams, play, and associations to the exploration of the processes of thinking, dreaming, and playing. In this paper, he discusses his understanding of three forms of thinking-magical thinking, dream thinking, and transformative thinking-and provides clinical illustrations in which each of these forms of thinking figures prominently. The author views magical thinking as a form of thinking that subverts genuine thinking and psychological growth by substituting invented psychic reality for disturbing external reality. By contrast, dream thinking--our most profound form of thinking-involves viewing an emotional experience from multiple perspectives simultaneously: for example, the perspectives of primary process and secondary process thinking. In transformative thinking, one creates a new way of ordering experience that allows one to generate types of feeling, forms of object relatedness, and qualities of aliveness that had previously been unimaginable. PMID:20496835
Fischer, B. M. C.; Mul, M. L.; Savenije, H. H. G.
With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource-intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the length of dry spells for fixed probabilities of non-exceedance. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. The dry spell map thus obtained is compared to the spatially variable critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure in different locations. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the length of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels that make rainfed agricultural unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully being practised. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells and, subsequently, to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
B. M. C. Fischer
Full Text Available With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource-intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the length of dry spells for fixed probabilities of non-exceedance. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. The dry spell map thus obtained is compared to the spatially variable critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure in different locations. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the length of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels that make rainfed agricultural unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully being practised. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells and, subsequently, to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
H. H. G. Savenije
Full Text Available With a growing world population and a trend towards more resource intensive diets, pressure on land and water resources for food production will continue to increase in the coming decades. Large parts of the world rely on rainfed agriculture for their food security. In Africa, 90% of the food production is from rainfed agriculture, generally with low yields and a high risk of crop failure. One of the main reasons for crop failure is the occurrence of dry spells during the growing season. Key indicators are the critical dry spell duration and the probability of dry spell occurrence. In this paper a new Markov-based framework is presented to spatially map the probability of dry spell occurrence. The framework makes use of spatially varying Markov coefficients that are correlated to readily available spatial information such as elevation and distance to the sea. This map is then related to the critical dry spell duration, based on soil properties and crop water requirements, to assess the probability of crop failure. The results show that in the Makanya catchment the probability of dry spell occurrence is highly variable in space, even over relatively short distances. In certain areas the probability of crop failure reaches levels, which makes rainfed agricultural practices unsustainable, even close to areas where currently rainfed agriculture is successfully practiced. This method can be used to identify regions that are vulnerable to dry spells, and subsequently to develop strategies for supplementary irrigation or rainwater harvesting.
Semerci, Nuriye; Fırat Üniversitesi Teknik Eğitim Fakültesi Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü
The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90. Bu çalışmanın amacı, kritik düşünme ölçeğini geliştirmektir. Ölçek 200 öğrenciye uygulanmıştır. Ölçeğin son halinde dördü olumsuz, 51'i'oluml...
Baars, Daniela; Bajzík, Michal; Pisarčík, Stanislav; Weiser, Ines
1. What does critical thinking mean? 2. Critical thinking in school 3. Critical thinking as a process 4. Analysing and evaluating the questionnaire 5. Interview with one of the students 6. Analysis and evaluation of the assignments 7. Conclusion
Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.
Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.
The focus of the study is on water availability for energy development in the Ohio River Basin; however, the techniques developed are applicable to water supply investigations for other regions and uses. The study assesses the spatial association between water supply and demand for future energy development in the Basin. The problem is the development of a method that accurately portrays the actual spatial coincidence of water availability and use within a basin. The issues addressed involve questions of scale and methods used to create a model distribution of streamflow and to compare it with projected patterns of water requirements for energy production. The analysis procedure involves the compilation of streamflow data and calculation of 7-day/10-year low-flow estimates within the Basin. Low-flow probabilities are based on historical flows at gaging stations and are adjusted for the effects of reservoir augmentation. Once streamflow estimates have been determined at gaging stations, interpolation of these values is made between known data points to enable direct comparison with projected energy water-use data. Finally, a method is devised to compare the patterns of projected water requirements with the model distribution of streamflow, in sequential downstream order.
Elena Tikhonova; Natalia Kudinova
The information-based society determines that the key factor to achieve success is the development of sophisticated thinking. That said, the thinking process cannot be just a mere imitation of cognitive work, since the digital age requires the authentic skills of working with a flow of information that is being constantly updated. This paper deals with the last stage of the study devoted to the development of sophisticated thinking. It focuses on the enhancement of higher order thinking sk...
Thinking, including critical thinking, is indispensable to a person so that a person can base his or her decisions on solid reasoning and facts. Even so, to think critically requires more than just being critical; it requires skills and aptitude for applying the skills in practice. In addition, to become an advanced thinker, the skills need to be practiced, and for that classroom offers a natural venue. Among numerous alternatives, Bloom’s taxonomy and Paul’s model provide two applicable ...
Spirov, Alexander V; Myasnikova, Ekaterina M; Holloway, David M
Gene network simulations are increasingly used to quantify mutual gene regulation in biological tissues. These are generally based on linear interactions between single-entity regulatory and target genes. Biological genes, by contrast, commonly have multiple, partially independent, cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) for regulator binding, and can produce variant transcription and translation products. We present a modeling framework to address some of the gene regulatory dynamics implied by this biological complexity. Spatial patterning of the hunchback (hb) gene in Drosophila development involves control by three CRMs producing two distinct mRNA transcripts. We use this example to develop a differential equations model for transcription which takes into account the cis-regulatory architecture of the gene. Potential regulatory interactions are screened by a genetic algorithms (GAs) approach and compared to biological expression data. PMID:27122317
Full Text Available A subtropical old-growth forest was analyzed over a twelve year period to investigate temporal and spatial fluctuations of biomass and stem fluxes under disturbances. Vegetations were categorized into three types caused by biotic factors and abiotic factors, including Castanopsis chinensis population, insect direct-influenced population, and insect indirect-influenced population according to disturbance scenarios. The biomass fluxes (including biomass growth and mortality and stem fluxes (including stem recruitment and mortality were used to quantify the fluctuation of population. The results showed that annual average biomass growth rate was stable throughout the three periods, 1992–1994, 1994–1999, and 1999–2004, while annual biomass mortality and stem fluxes kept increasing through the three periods. Castanopsis chinensis population contributed the most in biomass fluxes of the community. Biomass and stem mortalities of insect direct-influenced population increased significantly during the whole study period (1992–2004. Dynamics of indirect-influenced population were compared by dominate species, diameter classes, and spatial patterns of subplots, respectively. Results of indirect-influenced population showed that (1 the increase of biomass of the dominant species was well correlated between different intervals. Similar relationships were found in stem fluxes; (2 higher stem mortality was observed when DBH ranged from 1 to 10 cm as compared with individuals in other DBH classes; (3 stem fluxes in the canopy gaps were remarkably higher than those in closed canopy. The biomass growth rate in gaps increased remarkably after the formation of the gaps.
隋扬帆; 王梦君; 巫程成; 周艳艳
Objective To probe into the relationship between cognitive style ,spatial pattern cognitive ability and creative thinking . Methods The study investigated 283 middle school students with the implements of GEET ,Spatial Pattern Cognitive Ability Test ,Crea-tive Thinking Test.Results ①Spatial pattern cognitive ability was related to originality significantly (r=0.17,P<0.01).②Spatial pattern cognitive ability had positive predication to cognitive style (β=0.37,P<0.01);cognitive style could also do positive predication to creative thinking(β=0.26,P<0.01)and spatial pattern cognitive ability could do positive predication to the originality of creative thinking significantly(β=0.16,P<0.01).③Cognitive style fully mediated between spatial pattern cognitive ability and originality of creative thinking .Conclusion There is complicated relationship among cognitive style , spatial pattern cognitive ability and creative thinking .%目的：探讨认知方式、空间图形认知能力与创造性思维之间的关系。方法采用团体镶嵌图形测验（ GEET ）、空间图形认知能力测验和创造性思维测验对283名初中生进行研究。结果①空间图形认知能力与独创性存在显著的正相关（ r＝0．17，P＜0．01）；②空间图形认知能力对认知方式具有显著的预测作用（β＝0．37，P＜0．01）；认知方式对创造性思维有显著的预测作用（β＝0．26，P＜0．01）；空间图形认知能力对独创性也有显著的预测作用（β＝0．16，P＜0．01）；③认知方式在空间图形认知能力与独创性的关系上起中介作用。结论认知方式、空间图形认知能力与创造性思维三者之间存在复杂关系。
Full Text Available A subtropical old-growth forest was studied over a twelve-year period to investigate temporal and spatial fluctuations of biomass and stem fluxes under disturbances. Vegetations were categorized into three types according to disturbances caused by biotic and abiotic factors, including Castanopsis chinensis population, insect direct-influenced population, and insect indirect-influenced population according to disturbance scenarios. The biomass fluxes (growth and mortality and stem fluxes (stem recruitment and mortality were used to quantify population fluctuations. Annual average biomass growth rate was stable throughout the study while annual biomass mortality and stem fluxes increased consistently. C. chinensis population predominantly contributed to biomass fluxes of the community. Biomass and stem mortalities of insect direct-influenced population increased significantly during the whole study period (1992–2004. Results of indirect-influenced population showed that (1 the increase in biomass of the dominant species was well correlated between different intervals. Similar relationships were found in stem fluxes; (2 higher stem mortality occurred within the DBH range of 1 to 10 cm; (3 stem fluxes in the canopy gaps were remarkably higher than those in closed canopy.
In this essay, I examine the concept of thinking in Hannah Arendt's writings. Arendt's interest in the experience of thinking allowed her to develop a concept of thinking that is distinct from other forms of mental activity such as cognition and problem solving. For her, thinking is an unending, unpredictable and destructive activity without fixed…
This article applies theories of alternative thinking and problem solving to the teaching context. Teachers working in static situations are prone to stagnation leading to a paradigm crisis where they are forced to question the status quo. Techniques for confronting such situations are examined, along with personal management strategies and the…
Holmes, N G; Bonn, D A
The ability to make decisions based on data, with its inherent uncertainties and variability, is a complex and vital skill in the modern world. The need for such quantitative critical thinking occurs in many different contexts, and while it is an important goal of education, that goal is seldom being achieved. We argue that the key element for developing this ability is repeated practice in making decisions based on data, with feedback on those decisions. We demonstrate a structure for providing suitable practice that can be applied in any instructional setting that involves the acquisition of data and relating that data to scientific models. This study reports the results of applying that structure in an introductory physics lab course. Students in an experimental condition were repeatedly instructed to make and act on quantitative comparisons between datasets, and between data and models, an approach that is common to all science disciplines. These instructions were slowly faded across the course. After the...
Good, Alice; Sambhanthan, A.; Adda, Mo; Johnstone, J.
Where there is an emphasis on critical thinking being an essential component learning at University level education, there needs to be a clear focus upon integrating the development of these skills within the curriculum. This paper looks at the importance of critical thinking in higher education and the difficulties that students have in applying critical thinking. Results from a short study show students' understanding of what critical thinking actually means.
Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very conditi...
Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa
Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…
Wing, Jeannette M.
Computational thinking will influence everyone in every field of endeavour. This vision poses a new educational challenge for our society, especially for our children. In thinking about computing, we need to be attuned to the three drivers of our field: science, technology and society. Accelerating technological advances and monumental societal demands force us to revisit the most basic scientific questions of computing.
Brizuela, Jose; Katchadjian, Pablo; Garcia, Alejandro; Desimone, Carlos
The aim of this work is to obtain a C-Scan view of an austenitic stainless steel weld from a nuclear use pipe. In order to obtain this result Sectorial Scans (S-Scan) from both sides of the weld are obtained by Ultrasonic Phase Array (UT-PA). Then, spatial image compounding is performed to generate a single image from the S-Scans acquired at the same circumferential position of the transducer. These joints have a coarse grain structure which significantly reduce the transmission of the ultrasonic wave due to attenuation characteristics and backscattered noise from microstructures inside the material. For this reason, phase coherence imaging technique has been also applied to reduce the structural noise and improve the image quality. To verify detected defects, and given the impossibility of cutting the component, gammagraphy were performed with Co60.
Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete
Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...... outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re...
Gampe, David; Ludwig, Ralf; Qahman, Khalid; Afifi, Samir
In the Mediterranean region, particularly in the Gaza strip, an increased risk of drought is among the major concerns related to climate change. The impacts of climate change on water availability, drought risk and food security can be assessed by means of hydro-climatological modeling. However, the region is prone to severe observation data scarcity, which limits the potential for robust model parameterization, calibration and validation. In this study, the physically based, spatially distributed hydrological model WaSiM is parameterized and evaluated using satellite imagery to assess hydrological quantities. The Triangle Method estimates actual evapotranspiration (ETR) through the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (LST) provided by Landsat TM imagery. So-derived spatially distributed evapotranspiration is then used in two ways: first a subset of the imagery is used to parameterize the irrigation module of WaSiM and second, withheld scenes are applied to evaluate the performance of the hydrological model in the data scarce study area. The results show acceptable overall correlation with the validation scenes (r=0.53) and an improvement over the usual irrigation parameterization scheme using land use information exclusively. This model setup is then applied for future drought risk assessment in the Gaza Strip using a small ensemble of four regional climate projections for the period 2041-2070. Hydrological modeling reveals an increased risk of drought, assessed with an evapotranspiration index, compared to the reference period 1971-2000. Current irrigation procedures cannot maintain the agricultural productivity under future conditions without adaptation. PMID:26283619
The nature of thinking is the subject of this second part in a series which is examining various topics and issues related to the controversy of whether or not computers can think. Suggests that intelligence is the ability to develop general ideas and not the ability to apply those ideas. (JN)
Full Text Available This paper describes the possibility of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS as a means to support decision making in solving spatial problems. Spatial problems accompany every human activity, of which agriculture is no exception. The solutions to these problems requires the application of available knowledge in the relevant decision-making processes. GISs integrate hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Coupled with GISs, geography helps to better understand and apply geographic knowledge to a host of global problems (unemployment, environmental pollution, the loss of arable land, epidemics etc.. The result may be a geographical approach represents a new way of thinking and solutions to existing spatial problems. This approach allows to apply existing knowledge to model and analyze these problems and thus help to solve them.
With the development of English teaching, English teaching methods have been paid more and more attention to. Language learning is a complicated process, creative thinking is very important for students to learn language. According to analyzing several factors of affecting students' thinking, the author points out five areas of suggestions on developing students' thinking in this paper.
Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.
"Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…
Olivares, Sonia; Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.
Introduction: Here we report the results obtained in an innovative teaching experience that encourages the development of Critical Thinking skills through motivational intervention. Understanding Critical Thinking as a theory of action, "we think to solve problems", and accompanying this concept with a program aimed at teaching/learning…
Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl
The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied in their...... national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how and...
In search of lessons to apply in our own careers, we often try to emulate what effective leaders do. Roger Martin says this focus is misplaced, because moves that work in one context may make little sense in another. A more productive, though more difficult, approach is to look at how such leaders think. After extensive interviews with more than 50 of them, the author discovered that most are integrative thinkers -that is, they can hold in their heads two opposing ideas at once and then come up with a new idea that contains elements of each but is superior to both. Martin argues that this process of consideration and synthesis (rather than superior strategy or faultless execution) is the hallmark of exceptional businesses and the people who run them. To support his point, he examines how integrative thinkers approach the four stages of decision making to craft superior solutions. First, when determining which features of a problem are salient, they go beyond those that are obviously relevant. Second, they consider multidirectional and nonlinear relationships, not just linear ones. Third, they see the whole problem and how the parts fit together. Fourth, they creatively resolve the tensions between opposing ideas and generate new alternatives. According to the author, integrative thinking is an ability everyone can hone. He points to several examples of business leaders who have done so, such as Bob Young, cofounder and former CEO of Red Hat, the dominant distributor of Linux opensource software. Young recognized from the beginning that he didn't have to choose between the two prevailing software business models. Inspired by both, he forged an innovative third way, creating a service offering for corporate customers that placed Red Hat on a path to tremendous success. PMID:17580648
McCullum, A. J. K.; Schmidt, C.; Blevins, B.; Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Prados, A. I.
The utility of spatial data products and tools to assess risk and effectively manage wildfires has increased, highlighting the need for communicating information about these new capabilities to decision makers, resource managers, and community leaders. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) program works directly with agencies and policy makers to develop in-person and online training courses that teach end users how to access, visualize, and apply NASA Earth Science data in their profession. The expansion of ARSET into wildfire applications began in 2015 with a webinar and subsequent in-person training hosted in collaboration with Idaho State University's (ISU) GIS Training and Research Center (TReC). These trainings featured presentations from the USDA Forest Service's Remote Sensing Training and Applications Center, the Land Processes DAAC, Northwest Nazarene University, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and ISU's GIS TReC. The webinar focused on providing land managers, non-governmental organizations, and international management agencies with an overview of 1) remote sensing platforms for wildfire applications, 2) products for pre- and post-fire planning and assessment, 3) the use of terrain data, 4) new techniques and technologies such as Unmanned Aircraft Systems and the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP), and 5) the RECOVER Decision Support System. This training highlighted online tools that engage the wildfire community through collaborative monitoring and assessment efforts. Webinar attendance included 278 participants from 178 organizations in 42 countries and 33 US states. The majority of respondents (93%) from a post-webinar survey indicated they displayed improvement in their understanding of specific remote-sensing data products appropriate for their work needs. With collaborative efforts between federal, state, and local agencies and academic institutions, increased use of NASA Earth Observations may lead to improved near real
José L. Villaveces; Guillermo Restrepo
Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffro...
Blevis, Eli; Churchill, Elizabeth; Odom, William; Pierre, James; Roedl, David; Wakkary, Ron
This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery—which subsumes digital imagery—goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broa...
Strategic thinking in a bussines – summary This diploma work deals with the issue of strategic thinking in business, which is an inseparable part of the development of company strategy. The utilisation of the principles of strategies thinking as well as the processes and analyses of strategic management is shown on the example of REBYTO BEAR Ltd. The Theoretical Background Chapter provides explanation of important terminology whose knowledge is necessary for the practical use of strate...
Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture and...... modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Michel Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long...
Wenchong Shi; Maohua Liu; Peter Hendler
The paper aims at revealing the essence and connotation of Computational Thinking. It analyzed some of the international academia’s research results of Computational Thinking. The author thinks Computational Thinking is discipline thinking or computing philosophy, and it is very critical to understand Computational Thinking to grasp the thinking’ s computational features and the computing’s thinking attributes. He presents the basic rules of screening the representative term...
Ormand, C. J.; Shipley, T. F.; Tikoff, B.; Manduca, C. A.; Dutrow, B. L.; Goodwin, L. B.; Hickson, T.; Atit, K.; Gagnier, K. M.; Resnick, I.
Spatial visualization is an essential skill in many, if not all, STEM disciplines. It is a prerequisite for understanding subjects as diverse as fluid flow through 3D fault systems, magnetic and gravitational fields, atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns, cellular and molecular structures, engineering design, topology, and much, much more. Undergraduate geoscience students, in both introductory and upper-level courses, bring a wide range of spatial skill levels to the classroom. However, spatial thinking improves with practice, and can improve more rapidly with intentional training. As a group of geoscience faculty members and cognitive psychologists, we are collaborating to apply the results of cognitive science research to the development of teaching materials to improve undergraduate geology majors' spatial thinking skills. This approach has the potential to transform undergraduate STEM education by removing one significant barrier to success in the STEM disciplines. Two promising teaching strategies have emerged from recent cognitive science research into spatial thinking: gesturing and predictive sketching. Studies show that students who gesture about spatial relationships perform better on spatial tasks than students who don't gesture, perhaps because gesture provides a mechanism for cognitive offloading. Similarly, students who sketch their predictions about the interiors of geologic block diagrams perform better on penetrative thinking tasks than students who make predictions without sketching. We are developing new teaching materials for Mineralogy, Structural Geology, and Sedimentology & Stratigraphy courses using these two strategies. Our data suggest that the research-based teaching materials we are developing may boost students' spatial thinking skills beyond the baseline gains we have measured in the same courses without the new curricular materials.
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss
Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…
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ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The industrial milieu is a traditional area for hard systems analysis, and the optimization of processes using reductionist approaches.
Soft Systems Thinking, with its powerful use of conceptual modelling, has been neglected in the West, but has been applied by the Japanese - with some very surprising results.
It is suggested that South African industry could benefit from an injection of soft systems thinking.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die bedryfsomgewing is h tradisionele gebied vir die toepassing van hardestelselontleding, en die optimalisering van prosesse deur die gebruik van benaderings wat die probleme maklik kan herlei.
Sagtestelselontleding, met die klem op konsepsuele modulering, word min in Westerse lande gebruik, maar het in Japan verbasende resultate opgelewer.
Dit word voorgestel dat ondernemings in Suid Afrika sal kan baat deULgebruik te maak van die sagtestelselbenadering.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field
Yukalov, V I
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.
A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.
Full Text Available Whether in Homer or Plato, Shakespeare or Huxley, throughout history, thinking about islands has shaped how we think about human nature and our place in the world. However, to date archipelagos have received far less attention. This is problematic because we live, increasingly, in a world of island-island movements and not static forms. Not only in the more obvious cases of the Caribbean, Hawaii or the Philippines but, as Stratford et al (2011 say, many ‘continental forms’ like Canada and Australia are in fact archipelagos composed of thousands of island movements. To this list we can add more manufactured archipelagos: wind turbine arrays, industrial oil and military constellations. The key question therefore arises: what does it mean to think with the archipelago? This paper argues firstly that archipelagic thinking denaturalizes the conceptual basis of space and place, and therefore engages ‘the spatial turn’ presently sweeping the social sciences and humanities. Secondly, such thinking highlights the trope of what I call ‘metamorphosis’, of the adaptation and transformation of material, cultural and political practices through island movements. In both cases, I argue that thinking with the archipelago requires an important shift in how we frame analysis and engagement.
Critical thinking pedagogy is misguided. Ostensibly a cure for narrowness of thought, by using the emotions appropriate to conflict, it names only one mode of relation to material among many others. Ostensibly a cure for fallacies, critical thinking tends to dishonesty in practice because it habitually leaps to premature ideas of what the object…
Downs, Christopher J.
Critical thinking is of primary importance in higher education, yet the concept remains slippery and the skill elusive. The author argues that most current critical thinking textbooks are out of line with the seminal work of John Dewey. Rather than logical argument and justification, it is suggested that carefulness, open-mindedness and creativity…
When one thinks of 21st century schools, one thinks of geometric modern architecture, sustainable building materials, and high-tech modular classrooms. It's rare, though, that a district has the space or the money to build that school from the ground up. Instead, the challenge for most is the transformation of the 20th century architecture to…
Elwenspoek, Miko; Birke, Dorothee; Butter, Michael; Köppe, Tilmann
Counterfactual thinking plays a key role in research in physics and, I believe, in research in all natural sciences. In this contribution I will describe a few examples of counterfactual thinking, how it is used, the power of this method of inquiry, and the types of results that can be achieved. A b
Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis of...... technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our...
Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a challenge to show how HE may benefit of thinking in complexity. For me thinking in complexity is a way of humanizing our scientific thinking. It asks for a reform of our thinking. The rethinking of com...
Many ELT experts believe that the inclusion of critical thinking skills in English classes is necessary to improve students’ English competence. Students’ critical thinking skills will be optimally increased if meaning is prioritized in English lessons. Those two inter-related elements can be implemented when teachers do collaborative activities stimulating students’ thinking process and meaning negotiation. Yet, the realization might be counter-productive if they are applied without careful ...
Voskoglou, Michael Gr.; Buckley, Sheryl
Computational thinking is a new problem soling method named for its extensive use of computer science techniques. It synthesizes critical thinking and existing knowledge and applies them in solving complex technological problems. The term was coined by J. Wing, but the relationship between computational and critical thinking, the two modes of thiking in solving problems, has not been yet learly established. This paper aims at shedding some light into this relationship. We also present two cla...
Tok, Emel; Pamukkale Üniversitesi; Sevinç, Müzeyyen; Marmara Üniversitesi
The aim of this study was to test the effects of “Thinking Skills Training Program” which is based on Sternberg’s “Theory of Successful Intelligence” on preschool teacher candidates’ creative thinking.A quasi-experimental design was applied with three samples. Treatment group (n=34), Comparison I (n=34) and Comparison II group (n=33). Data were collected by Torrance Creative Thinking Test (TCTT). According to the results derived from the treatment group, the total scores obtained from the pre...
Kinach, Barbara M.
Learning to reason spatially is increasingly recognized as an essential component of geometry education. Generally taken to be the "ability to represent, generate, transform, communicate, document, and reflect on visual information," "spatial reasoning" uses the spatial relationships between objects to form ideas. Spatial thinking takes a variety…
Computational thinking was brought to the forefront in 2006 by Jeannette Wing. Computational thinking is a problem solving method that uses computer science techniques. The thesis is analyzing computational thinking and how it could be applied to graph theory. Characteristics and main fields from computational thinking is being analysed. This analysis is applied to graph theory to see the potential in developing a proposal for how an exercise can look for an introductory course in discrete da...
Semerci, Çetin; Fırat Üniversitesi, Eğitim Fakültesi, Eğitim Bilimleri Bölümü
The aims of this research are to determine if the doctorate students of various institutes of Fırat University have critical thinking skills, and to find out if the two education courses, “Development and Learning” and “Planning and Assessment in Instruction” offered in the same term help to develop critical thinking. For this aim, “The Scale of Critical Thinking Skills” is used. The KMO (Kaiser- Meyer- Olkin) value of the scale is 0.75 and Cronbach Alpha Coefficient is 0.90. The results have...
Desmet, Klaus; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban
We present a theory of spatial development. Manufacturing and services firms located in a continuous geographic area choose each period how much to innovate. Firms trade subject to transport costs and technology diffuses spatially across locations. The result is a spatial endogenous growth theory that can shed light on the link between the evolution of economic activity over time and space. We apply the model to study the evolution of the U.S. economy in the last few decades and find that the...
Lam, Mei-Yung Lam; Lim, Swee Eng; Ma, Jung Chen; Adams, Leah D.
This study examined the perceptions of teachers and parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong regarding what constitutes thinking skills, the importance of thinking skills in children's lives, strategies they use to foster thinking skills in young children, and their perceived roles in facilitating thinking skills. Responses revealed the need for more…
Nørgård, Rikke Toft
specifically, a clash between educational organization and design thinking paradigms emerges, tensions between goal-oriented education and vision-driven design build, and unproductive war on what education through design implies flare. Children are caught in the middle. Drawing on central works within design...... thinking (e.g. Nelson & Stolterman or Cross), empathic design (e.g. Bannon or Gagnon & Coté), technological imagination (McCarthy & Wright or Balsamo), educational design and technology use within education (Laurrilard or Donohue), the paper builds a case for new ways of thinking through technologies in...... formal and informal educational settings where children’s creative, innovative, and entrepreneurial design processes are the goal. Based on works such as the above as well as data on these matters (see below) the paper develops a conceptual framework for Educational Design Thinking. Here, the focus is on...
This paper argues that in the context of human activity systems, the concept of purpose is critically important and that giving purpose a central role in the development and management of human activity systems can lead to more flexible, effective and autonomous systems. The systems thinking literature is reviewed in order to consolidate and assess current thinking about purpose. The importance of intrinsic purpose is highlighted. Implications for practice in terms of information systems desi...
Perlovsky, L.I; R. ILIN
Computing with words, CWW, is considered in the context of natural language functioning, unifying language with thinking. Previous attempts at modeling natural languages as well as thinking processes in artificial intelligence have met with computational complexity. To overcome computational complexity we use dynamic logic (DL), an extension of fuzzy logic describing fuzzy to crisp transitions. We suggest a possible architecture motivated by mathematical and neural considerations. We discuss ...
Malek Hossein; Hossein Hosseini Abstract
This article investigates connections between critical thinking and moral virtues. Critical thinking, demonstrating the sound principles of arguments, can bring order and clarity to our mind and intensify our critical power. Furtheremore, it can be efficient in creating honesty and improving our relations with each other. In this manner, being logical is related to many virtues such as fairness, honesty and truthfulness, while fallacious reasoning- if intentional – arises from dishonesty and ...
Vepoo公司在创立之前，经历了三次创业转型。用他们的话来说，从“think big go small”转到“think small go big”用了一年的时间。这期间他们耗尽了初期筹备资金，幸运的是在最后一刻迎来了黎明的曙光。
Full Text Available Critical thinking enjoys almost universal support, except when applied to controversial topics. Yet it is these topics that are often the most effective initiators of critical thinking exercises that improve students’ rational approaches to challenging problems. The use of controversial issues to promote critical thinking requires an institutional commitment to academic freedom in order to survive. In some institutional contexts, the most crucial need for critical thinking is the very condition under which it is least likely to be applied. Instead, avoidance of controversy seems to be the predominant policy of institutions fearful of expensive lawsuits or damaging public relations. Several trends are decreasing the likelihood that critical thinking is applied in the classroom to challenging topics: demands for increased accountability from legislatures; scrutiny of adopted content standards; oversight of Internet and other intellectual work of professors affiliated with the universities; student challenges to faculty instruction; and attempts to curtail ideological diversity. This paper describes these current dynamics which erode academic freedom and thus the ability to apply critical thinking to controversial topics. The paper also recommends that institutions and faculty adopt clearly delineated policies related to academic freedom in order to ensure faculty freedom to promote critical thinking. Awareness of how these trends impact the instructional climate enables teachers to design instruction and be more proactive in guaranteeing that critical thinking about controversial topics is able to flourish under academic freedom.
The Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) program uses microcomputers to help high risk students master basic thinking processes, grasp course content, and apply learned information in various problem-solving situations. Specifically, HOTS aids students with metacognition, inference from context, and generalization skills. It also improves…
Hill, Mark E.; McGinnis, John
This article identifies the curiosity in marketing thinking and offers ways to teach for marketing thinking through an environment that fosters students' curiosity. The significance of curiosity in its relationship with thinking is that when curiosity is absent, so is thinking. Challenges are discussed in recognizing the fragility of curiosity…
Full Text Available Many ELT experts believe that the inclusion of critical thinking skills in English classes is necessary to improve students’ English competence. Students’ critical thinking skills will be optimally increased if meaning is prioritized in English lessons. Those two inter-related elements can be implemented when teachers do collaborative activities stimulating students’ thinking process and meaning negotiation. Yet, the realization might be counter-productive if they are applied without careful consideration of task purposes and of students’ roles. Based on the consideration, this paper is focused on presenting how critical thinking skills and meaning should be properly incorporated in an English lesson.
Roberts, Jess P; Fisher, Thomas R; Trowbridge, Matthew J; Bent, Christine
The business community has learned the value of design thinking as a way to innovate in addressing people's needs - and health systems could benefit enormously from doing the same. This paper lays out how design thinking applies to healthcare challenges and how systems might utilize this proven and accessible problem-solving process. We show how design thinking can foster new approaches to complex and persistent healthcare problems through human-centered research, collective and diverse teamwork and rapid prototyping. We introduce the core elements of design thinking for a healthcare audience and show how it can supplement current healthcare management, innovation and practice. PMID:27001093
Basawapatna, Ashok Ram
Computational thinking aims to outline fundamental skills from computer science that everyone should learn. As currently defined, with help from the National Science Foundation (NSF), these skills include problem formulation, logically organizing data, automating solutions through algorithmic thinking, and representing data through abstraction. One aim of the NSF is to integrate these and other computational thinking concepts into the classroom. End-user programming tools offer a unique opportunity to accomplish this goal. An end-user programming tool that allows students with little or no prior experience the ability to create simulations based on phenomena they see in-class could be a first step towards meeting most, if not all, of the above computational thinking goals. This thesis describes the creation, implementation and initial testing of a programming tool, called the Simulation Creation Toolkit, with which users apply high-level agent interactions called Computational Thinking Patterns (CTPs) to create simulations. Employing Computational Thinking Patterns obviates lower behavior-level programming and allows users to directly create agent interactions in a simulation by making an analogy with real world phenomena they are trying to represent. Data collected from 21 sixth grade students with no prior programming experience and 45 seventh grade students with minimal programming experience indicates that this is an effective first step towards enabling students to create simulations in the classroom environment. Furthermore, an analogical reasoning study that looked at how users might apply patterns to create simulations from high- level descriptions with little guidance shows promising results. These initial results indicate that the high level strategy employed by the Simulation Creation Toolkit is a promising strategy towards incorporating Computational Thinking concepts in the classroom environment.
The thesis presents the critical analysis of the work Thinking in Education by M. Lipman It deals with the problemc of fostering thinking through education. It explains the reasons of the relevance of the dialoque ability, critical thinking and also use of the creative and caring thinking. Also it explains that the thinking skills should be the effect of the education not only as a preparation for a life in the democratic society. The thesis summarize the views of it's critics.
Alla Belousova; Vlada Pishchik
The results of psychometric analysis of the new technique of thinking styles diagnostics are presented. The fundamental principles of thinking style concept by A. Belousova, according to which the thinking style is determined by the dominance of a person’s function in the structure of thinking activity during the problem solving, are covered. In accordance with A. Belousova’s ideas that the collaborative thinking activity as a self-organizing system is carried out by means of functions assume...
Coffman, Diane M.
Thinking skills have long been regarded as an essential outcome of the educational process. Yet, research shows that the teaching of thinking skills in K-12 education does not follow a coherent path. Several factors affect the teaching and use of thinking skills in the classroom, with teacher knowledge and beliefs about thinking skills among the…
McInerney, James; Cummins, Carla; Haggerty, Leanne
While it has become increasingly clear that the Tree of Life hypothesis has limitations in its ability to describe the evolution of all evolving entities on the planet, there has been a marked reluctance to move away from the tree-based language. Ironically, while modifying the idea of the Tree of Life to the extent that it is only very distantly related to its original descriptions, there has been a very careful attempt to retain the language of tree-thinking. The recent movement away from a...
Curtin, Charles G; Parker, Jessica P
Through 3 broad and interconnected streams of thought, resilience thinking has influenced the science of ecology and natural resource management by generating new multidisciplinary approaches to environmental problem solving. Resilience science, adaptive management (AM), and ecological policy design (EPD) contributed to an internationally unified paradigm built around the realization that change is inevitable and that science and management must approach the world with this assumption, rather than one of stability. Resilience thinking treats actions as experiments to be learned from, rather than intellectual propositions to be defended or mistakes to be ignored. It asks what is novel and innovative and strives to capture the overall behavior of a system, rather than seeking static, precise outcomes from discrete action steps. Understanding the foundations of resilience thinking is an important building block for developing more holistic and adaptive approaches to conservation. We conducted a comprehensive review of the history of resilience thinking because resilience thinking provides a working context upon which more effective, synergistic, and systems-based conservation action can be taken in light of rapid and unpredictable change. Together, resilience science, AM, and EPD bridge the gaps between systems analysis, ecology, and resource management to provide an interdisciplinary approach to solving wicked problems. PMID:24975863
Als, Benedikte Skibsted; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.
Constructive interaction provides natural thinking-aloud as test subjects collaborate to solve tasks. Since children may face difficulties in following instructions for a standard think-aloud test, constructive interaction has been suggested as evaluation method when usability testing with children....... However, the relationship between think-aloud and constructive interaction is still poorly understood. We present an experiment that compares think-aloud and constructive interaction in usability testing. The experiment involves 60 children with three setups where children apply think-aloud, and...... acquainted pairs reported that they had to put less effort into the testing than the think-aloud and non-acquainted children....
Rhombus thinking, a new creative thinking method,is the combination of divergent thinking process and convergent thinking process,in which qualitative analysis is carried out before quantitative analysis. This method tries to solve the bottle neck problem in intelligent CAD based on the extension theory. The rhombus thinking method to the scheme design of new products is applied. In this process, firstly, the matter-element expression for the know information are set up, and then a set of matter-elements are opened up by matter-elements extension method; Finally,the useful information are got by appraisal method of dependent degree. It has been successfully applied to the scheme design for the cutter-store of machining center. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrated fhat the method is much more accurate,objective and efficient than the traditional one.
Frins, E.; U. Platt; Wagner, T
Topographic Target Light scattering – Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS), also called Target-DOAS, is a novel experimental procedure to retrieve trace gas concentrations present in the low atmosphere. Scattered sunlight (diffuse or specular) reflected from natural or artificial targets located at different distances are analyzed to retrieve the spatial distribution of the concentration of different trace gases like NO2, SO2 and others. We report high s...
Budsankom, Prayoonsri; Sawangboon, Tatsirin; Damrongpanit, Suntorapot; Chuensirimongkol, Jariya
The purpose of the research is to develop and identify the validity of factors affecting higher order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. The thinking skills can be divided into three types: analytical, critical, and creative thinking. This analysis is done by applying the meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) based on a database of…
Schraw, Gregory, Ed.; Robinson, Daniel H., Ed.
This volume examines the assessment of higher order thinking skills from the perspectives of applied cognitive psychology and measurement theory. The volume considers a variety of higher order thinking skills, including problem solving, critical thinking, argumentation, decision making, creativity, metacognition, and self-regulation. Fourteen…
In his landmark bestseller The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within. Blink is a book about how we think without thinking, about choices that seem to be made in an instant-in the blink of an eye-that actually aren't as simple as they seem. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error? How do our brains really work-in the office, in the classroom, in the kitchen, and in the bedroom? And why are the best decisions often those that are impossible to explain to others?In Blink we meet the psychologist who has learned to predict whether a marriage will last, based on a few minutes of observing a couple; the tennis coach who knows when a player will double-fault before the racket even makes contact with the ball; the antiquities experts who recognize a fake at a glance. Her...
Laura Beth Nielsen
Full Text Available This essay argues that one way to “think law” is to think “law in motion”. I will argue that a “law in motion” perspective embodies four core elements or ‘multiplicities’ which are: (1 multiple methodologies; (2 multiple perspectives; (3 multiple vocalities; and (4 multiple media including objects. As will become evident by the number of inspiring colleagues that have articulated rationales and perspectives for each of these multiplicities, these are not original ideas for which I can claim credit. And yet, the attempt to put them together in a comprehensive schema with consideration for all four of the multiplicities in the same project, demonstrates that a law in motion perspective can bear new fruit. To do this, my article combines analysis of some of the research in Law & Society that exemplifies these trends and my own research on employment civil rights litigation to interrogate the necessity of a “multiple” approach for our “multiple futures.”
José L. Villaveces
Full Text Available Mathematical chemistry is often thought to be a 20th-century subdiscipline of chemistry, but in this paper we discuss several early chemical ideas and some landmarks of chemistry as instances of the mathematical way of thinking; many of them before 1900. By the mathematical way of thinking, we follow Weyl's description of it in terms of functional thinking, i.e. setting up variables, symbolizing them, and seeking for functions relating them. The cases we discuss are Plato's triangles, Geoffroy's affinity table, Lavoisier's classification of substances and their relationships, Mendeleev's periodic table, Cayley's enumeration of alkanes, Sylvester's association of algebra and chemistry, and Wiener's relationship between molecular structure and boiling points. These examples show that mathematical chemistry has much more than a century of history.
Koray, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Özlem
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of science education based on creative thinking on creative thinking ability and sub dimensions of creative thinking (fluency, flexibility, elaboration, originality) of preservice science teachers (4th grade). This research is an experimental study, which includes pretest, posttest with control group. To collect data of this research, the instrument which is Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Figural Form A was applied on experimental and ...
The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is located in northeastern Taiwan and is rich in geothermal springs. The geothermal development of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region dates back to the 18th century and currently, the spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Because of the proximity of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to the metropolitan area of Taipei City, the hot spring resources in this region attract millions of tourists annually. Recently, the Taiwan government is paying more attention to surveying the spring water temperatures in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region because of the severe spring water overexploitation, causing a significant decline in spring water temperatures. Furthermore, the temperature of spring water is a reliable indicator for exploring the occurrence and evolution of springs and strongly affects hydrochemical reactions, components, and magnitudes. The multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. Therefore, accurately estimating the temperature distribution of the spring water is critical in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region to facilitate the sustainable development and management of the multipurpose uses of the hot spring resources. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by using ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and geographical information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial distributions and uncertainty of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures using GIS. A suitable development strategy
The main purpose of the author's research was to investigate whether thinking styles significantly contribute to critical thinking dispositions. Two samples of Chinese university students, one from Beijing and the other from Nanjing, participated in the study. The participants responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (R. J. Sternberg & R. K. Wagner, 1992) based on Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and to the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (P. Facione & N. Faci...
Full Text Available Tomographic Target Light scattering – Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (ToTaL-DOAS, also called Target-DOAS, is a novel experimental procedure to retrieve trace gas concentrations present in the low atmosphere. Scattered sunlight (partially or totally reflected from natural or artificial targets of similar albedo located at different distances is analyzed to retrieve the concentration of different trace gases like NO2, SO2 and others. We report high spatial resolution measurements of NO2 mixing ratios in the city of Montevideo (Uruguay observing three buildings as targets with a Mini-DOAS instrument. Our instrument was 146 m apart from the first building, 196 m from the second and 286 m from the third one. All three buildings are located along a main Avenue. We obtain temporal variation of NO2 mixing ratios between 30 ppb and 65 ppb (±2 ppb. Our measurements demonstrate that ToTaL-DOAS measurements can be made over very short distances. In polluted air masses, the retrieved absorption signal was found to be strong enough to allow measurements over distances in the range of several ten meters, and achieve a spatial resolution of 50 m approximately.
Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt
Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…
Scheffer, M.; Bascompte, J.; Bjordam, T.K.; Carpenter, S.R.; Clarke, L.; Folke, C.; Marquet, P.A.; Mazzeo, N.; Meerhoff, M.; Sala, O.; Westley, F.R.
Recent studies provide compelling evidence for the idea that creative thinking draws upon two kinds of processes linked to distinct physiological features, and stimulated under different conditions. In short, the fast system-I produces intuition whereas the slow and deliberate system-II produces rea
Bolor, B.; TSERENDULAM SH.
The article considers an understanding of the importance of entrepreneurship in the world and the need to improve the educational program of the Institute of business students to have interests and skills to successfully run the start -up business and eventually the widespread development of entrepreneurial thinking in Mongolia.
This paper describes some ideas and experiences with training student engineers in creativity and critical thinking. In our survey, a large majority (82%) of respondents felt that as compared to all other kind of academic engagements, their projects had contributed most to develop their creativity. About 50% had also felt that their projects were…
One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…