Sample records for aphorisms and proverbs

  1. [Hippocrates. Aphorisms and Epidemics III. Two clinical texts].

    Frøland, Anders


    The two Hippocratic texts, Aphorisms and Epidemics III, have not been translated into Danish previously. The Aphorisms are 412 short, pithy statements, mostly on the prognosis in relation to certain symptoms in the course of the diseases, very often febrile. The Aphorisms begin with the famous words: "Life is short, the Art long, opportunity fleeting, experiment treacherous, judgment difficult." (Transl. W H S Jones [22]). Epidemics III consists of 28 case histories, again mostly of febrile patients, but also of observations on the connection of the seasons with general morbidity and mortality. The author describes an epidemic, which in some respects resembles Thucydides' report on the plague in Athens in 430 BC. It is suggested, that observations as have been recorded in the seven Hippocratic texts on epidemic diseases are the material on which prognostic statements as those collected in the Aphorisms are founded. PMID:27078984

  2. Cultural Connotation and Translation of English Proverbs



    There are more and more cross cultural communication nowadays. Different cultures have different features. Proverbs, as an essential part of language, reflecting the culture of a nation, have cultural connotations about geography, history, customs and religion. Therefore, in this paper I intend to analyze cultural connotations in English proverbs, and to discuss the translation strategy-Domestication and Foreignization, then to put forwards three aspects that should be paid attention to in English prov-erbs translation.

  3. Use of Proverbs and Narrative Thought

    Outi Lauhakangas


    Full Text Available The article is based on a research of the functions of proverbs insocial interaction. Academician Matti Kuusi’s characterization of proverbs as signs of situations and emotional loadings was a starting point for the writer to collect material of proverbs in their social contexts. The multicultural corpus consists of context examples borrowed from other scholars around the world, from Finnish folklore archives and fiction, from everyday situations and the media. The use of proverbs or proverb-like sayings deals with questions concerning the same themes as in folk narrative research in general: selective memory, reconstruction of experiences, explaining and reasoning about the past, giving instructions and warnings for the future, encouraging or amusing each other, etc. The speech where proverbs are used and its mode of rationality differ from logical and scientific argumentation. The point is in the narrative strength of proverbs in social contexts. Proverbs are multifunctional and flexible instruments of everyday reasoning, although they may maintain solidified attitudesor traditional modes of thought of a certain culture.

  4. The African Proverbs Project and After

    John S. Mbiti


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The Pew Charitable Trusts financed the African Proverbs Project with Dr Stan Nussbaum as co-ordinator, for three years (1993?1996. He assembled a number of scholars who had collected and studied proverbs. The purpose of the Project was to encourage further work of collecting, studying and publishing proverbs. It organised international and interdisciplinary symposia and embarked on three types of publications. One kind of publication was the African Proverbs Series, with Prof. John Mbiti as editor. Five volumes were published in 1997, each with proverbs from respectively Ethiopia, Uganda, Lesotho, Burkina Faso and Ghana. Their size ranged from 584 to 1 497 proverbs in African languages, with translations into English or French. Another set of publications with the Rev. Joshua Kudadjie as editor, covered proverbs for preaching and teaching purposes. Three volumes have come from Malawi, Ghana and Liberia. The Project also published an annotated bibliography by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. The report from one of the symposia appeared in 1997. The third manner of publication is in the form of a CD-ROM edited by Dr Stan Nussbaum and published in 1996. This is a very comprehensive collection and source of material that includes, inter alia, books from the Project, some 28 000 proverbs, a bibliography with 1 000 items, summaries and extracts from published collections, and a language survey of work on proverbs. The Project has generated both local and international interest in African paremiography and paremiology. Four academic institutions in South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, with links to others in Africa, Europe and America, are continuing this work on proverbs.


    Opsomming: Die African Proverbs Project en daarna. Die Pew Charitable Trusts het die African Proverbs Project, met dr. Stan Nussbaum as ko?rdineerder, vir drie

  5. Proverbs and Medicine: The Problem of Applied Folklore

    Larisa Fialkova


    Full Text Available The difference between medical proverbs and proverbs in medicinehas been largely ignored. The former are proverbs used for medical purposes even though they may have no medical content. The perception of a proverb as medical in content is flexible, varying from collection to collection. In thematic proverb collections the items are usually taken out of the context but their very inclusion is in itself a context-specifying factor. A new definition of appliedfolklore is proposed, stressing the role of non-folklorists. The wish to use proverbs for concrete purposes inheres in the material itself as much as the wish to reveal its universal formulas.

  6. Using Proverbs and Sayings in the ESL/EFL Classroom.

    Putnam, Mark Richard

    The use of proverbs and other sayings in English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction is discussed. The proverb is defined and its distinguishing characteristics are examined. The methods and reasons for using these characteristics today are discussed, and examples are given. The specific use of proverbs in teaching oral communication,…

  7. The Structure and Functions of Proverbs in African Societies.

    Egblewogbe, Eustace Yawo


    Presents and briefly explains 31 African proverbs which are used to guide the behavior of growing childern and to help them to mold their characters. The proverbs deal with knowledge, experience, hard work, and human relations. The author believes that a study of language and literature, including proverbs, can help students understand other…

  8. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

    刘雁; 雷丽娟


    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs, reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries. So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too. My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs, aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans, ...

  9. Les proverbes dans Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom par Mukumbuta Lisimba

    Ludwine Mabika Mbokou


    Full Text Available

    Résumé: On emploie tous les jours des proverbes, des maximes, des devinettes et des dictons.Malgré les progrès techniques des denières décénies en matière d'outils didactiques, le proverbefait partie du quotidien des sociétés africaines en particulier et de celles du monde en général. Ilreste un instrument d'éducation indispensable et vital pour les générations futures, et quiconquedésire un conseil ou une orientation dans une certaine situation s'y réfère. Il fait partie intégrantede l'acte de communication.À la lumière des analyses du Dr Lisimba de certains proverbes de la famille bantu, nousdécouvrons l'importance que revêt la dynamique du langage offert par les proverbes. Ils peuventainsi être employés comme données dans la compilation de dictionnaires. En effet, pour la disciplinedes sciences du langage qu'est la lexicographie, le traitement des proverbes et idiomes estd'une importance capitale parce que ces derniers sont le véhicule de la culture et des moeurs d'unpeuple. Ainsi, pour mener à bien une telle entreprise, le lexicographe devra choisir le traitement àl'intérieur de la liste centrale, sinon à l'extérieur de la liste centrale, l'option la plus profitable pourlui restant une classification thématique qui tient compte non seulement de l'aspect sémantique duproverbe, mais aussi de son aspect formel.


    Abstract: Proverbs according to Kongo Proverbs and the Origins of Bantu Wisdom by Mukumbuta Lisimba. Proverbs, maxims, riddles and sayings are used every day. In spite of the technical progress during the last decades as far as didactic tools are concerned, the proverb forms part of the daily life of African societies in particular and those of the world in

  10. About proverbs and sayings of the Persian language

    Mahdikhanli S. Q., Zahraee S. H.


    Full Text Available Each language has a certain number of proverbs and sayings that give it a distinctive flavor and Persian language is not an exception in this case. Born to popular wisdom proverbs is not just a combination of words, they’re art image, art painting in miniature. Proverbs and sayings of the Persian language, like any other, reflect its national identity and distinctiveness. In proverbs and reflected representations associated with work of the people, life, and culture. Proverbs and sayings are also a critical component of artistic expression. These units have long infiltrated the Persian literature – in prose and poetry. There was not a more or less well-known Persian poet, who did not give in to his works of proverbs and sayings.

  11. Selected Ika Proverbs: Their Aesthetics and Contexts of Usage

    Egede, Canon Benji


    The thrust of the paper is the contention that, in their general application, proverbs are to be understood as a communal property. In specific terms, however, and as Isidore Okpewho, in African Oral Literature... (1992) affirms, "every proverb must have started its life as the product of the genius of an individual oral artist. But it becomes…

  12. How Adolescents Comprehend Unfamiliar Proverbs: The Role of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Processes.

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.


    Relationships between word knowledge and proverb comprehension was examined in 150 typically achieving adolescents (ages 12, 15, and 18). Word knowledge was associated with proverb comprehension in all groups, particularly in the case of abstract proverbs. Results support a model of proverb comprehension in adolescents that includes bottom-up in…

  13. A Comparison on Culture Value Conception between Chinese and Americans Proverbs

    刘雁; 雷丽娟


    The abundant resources of proverbs illustrate their meaningful ideas both in Chinese proverbs and English proverbs,reflecting ordinary lives and regarded as the essence of culture in both countries.So American culture inherited many marvelous traditions from English proverbs and American proverbs must be influenced by English proverbs too.My paper will compare Chinese and American culture through proverbs,aiming at observing the differences of the culture value conception between Chinese and Americans,and hope that this study also can be regarded as a data to give referential meaning to the further research on cross-culture and language comparison.

  14. A Comparative Study of the Deep Structure of Culture Reflected in English and Chinese Social Proverbs

    Wen Zhao


    Social proverbs contain life philosophies and experience as well as moral standards; aspects of social life are reflected in the mirror of social proverbs. Social proverbs are of both language and culture. Because of their abundant cultural information, social proverbs have been studied from the point of culture in many researches. Although many researches have been done to reveal the cultural similarities and differences between English and Chinese proverbs, they hardly focus on the deep str...

  15. Linguistic Sexism Phenomenon in English and Chinese Proverbs



    The study of language and gender is a big issue that the linguists always pay attention to. Especially, more attention should be given to the gender difference and gender discrimination in some special language. Proverbs are the fixed sentences which are transmitted by mouths. They can reflect the true life and profound principles by simple words. The very wide origin of proverbs makes them have the strong representativeness and be easy to pronounce. Linguistic sexism phenomena in proverbs can raise people's consciousness of gender difference and discrimination so as to reduce and even eliminate the phenomenon of gender discrimination in our speech and daily life and regulate the language.

  16. Psalm 26 and Proverbs: Tracing wisdom themes

    Annette Potgieter


    Full Text Available The discernment of Psalm 26 as a cultic psalm has prevented noticing vital connections with wisdom literature. These connections with Proverbs and other known wisdom psalms provide clues for the composition of Psalm 26 to be set in the post-exilic period. The way in which wisdom literature is used conveys the religious ethos and daily life of a community. The fact that the wisdom character of Psalm 26 has been overlooked can be viewed as one of the main reasons why Psalm 26 has been interpreted solely in a cultic setting. The sapiential influence of this psalm has been confused to only reflect the cultic aspects. The psalmist wants to live a life according to wisdom as he seeks the rewards of being close to Yahweh.

  17. The testimony of the time: Aphorism

    Ivanović-Barišić Milina


    Full Text Available Short literary form known as aphorism in the beginning of its development relied on saying. Aphorism concisely expresses general experience, life philosophy, situation and position of a man in this world, socio-political and historical paradoxes etc. Although it is often taken as a criticism of society, it can also be understood as a testimony of time. This paper reveals one aspect of this phenomenon that was neglected by literary theory - aphorism as a form of expressing author’s attitude towards society and its reality.


    HUSSEIN, Jeylan W.


    Africa is a continent known for its rich oral arts. Proverbs are the most widely and commonly used in the continent's long-standing tradition of oral arts. Among such oral arts, the African proverbs have been facilitating the transmission of knowledge and conventions from generation to generation. This paper analyzes the role of African proverbs in creating and perpetuating gendered culture. The author analyzed the African sexist proverbs within the post-modern theory of power relationships b...

  19. Utilizing Proverbs as a Focal Point to Cultural Awareness and Communicative Competence: Illustrations from Africa.

    Richmond, Edmun B.


    Proposes a model of target- and native-language proverb comparison which can be used to assist proverb analysis in the language curriculum, using examples from Mandinka, a West African language. (Author/CB)

  20. Electrophysiological and Behavioral Measures of the Influence of Literal and Figurative Contextual Constraints on Proverb Comprehension

    Ferretti, Todd R.; Schwint, Christopher A.; Katz, Albert N.


    Proverbs tend to have meanings that are true both literally and figuratively (i.e., Lightning really doesn't strike the same place twice). Consequently, discourse contexts that invite a literal reading of a proverb should provide more conceptual overlap with the proverb, resulting in more rapid processing, than will contexts biased towards a…

  1. Cognitive, neurophysiological, and functional correlates of proverb interpretation abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    Kiang, Michael; Light, Gregory A; Prugh, Jocelyn; Coulson, Seana; Braff, David L; Kutas, Marta


    A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation, which could be due to: (1) aberrant activation of disorganized semantic associations, or (2) working memory (WM) deficits. We assessed 18 schizophrenia patients and 18 normal control participants on proverb interpretation, and evaluated these two hypotheses by examining within patients the correlations of proverb interpretation with disorganized symptoms and auditory WM, respectively. Secondarily, we also explored the relationships between proverb interpretation and a spectrum of cognitive functions including auditory sensory-memory encoding (as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related brain potential (ERP)); executive function; and social/occupational function. As expected, schizophrenia patients produced less accurate and less abstract descriptions of proverbs than did controls. These proverb interpretation difficulties in patients were not significantly correlated with disorganization or other symptom factors, but were significantly correlated (p proverb interpretation in schizophrenia, but implicate WM deficits, perhaps as a part of a syndrome related to generalized frontal cortical dysfunction. PMID:17521483

  2. Shared Wisdom: A Collection of Proverbs, Sayings and Quotations.

    Zmich, JoAnn, Comp.

    Based on the idea that there are universal beliefs that unite people from every part of the world, this collection illustrates common sayings, stories, proverbs, and quotations from students in English-as-a-Second-Language classrooms. During the classes, students talk about their families, countries, and customs, including traditional foods and…

  3. A Lexical and Syntactic Study of Persian Proverbs

    Hasan Zolfaghari


    Full Text Available Abstract   Proverbs along with metaphors, idioms, axioms and expressions are among the materials whose quality and quantity contribute to the enrichment of every language. In this article, the objective is, after defining it, to deal with this lingual category in two lexical and syntactic levels.   In the lexical level, the proverbial terms and lexicon will be investigated from different angles.  1. The usage frequency of alien, folkloric, or common terms, determined via the samples extracted from well-known proverbs, show that 14.4 percent is Arabic, two percent common and folkloric and about one percent others like "Shekasteh". Such studies are carried out comparatively to convey the frequency of the mentioned lexicon compared to the standard prose and other literary forms like legends, lullabies and proverbs.  2. Prohibited or taboo words form 2.75 percent of the total lexicon.  3. In the part of lingual advantage of proverbial terms, the function of proverbial lexicon and its influence on durability of Persian terms and in lingual studies are discussed.  4. Transformation and displacement of the terms in substitutive level is one of the features of proverbs whose causes will be studied in details.   In syntactic level, issues like proverbial expressions, the constituents of proverbial expressions and their sequence, verbal types, structure and mode will be studied.   Moreover, omission of constituents of proverbial expressions in eight grammatical types will be examined by presenting adequate evidence and also the quality and kinds of these omissions will be determined. In the end, the written and verbal categories will be rendered.   The methodology is descriptive-analytical based on the samples and case studies. 50 proverbs from five recorded proverbial sources in standard Persian have been provided. Therefore, spoken cases have not been included in this research.

  4. An FP7 "Space" project: Aphorism "Advanced PRocedures for volcanic and Seismic Monitoring"

    Di Iorio, A., Sr.; Stramondo, S.; Bignami, C.; Corradini, S.; Merucci, L.


    APHORISM project proposes the development and testing of two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data. The aim is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved GMES products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. The first method, APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping, concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. We can find a wide literature and projects concerning such issue, but usually the approach is only based on change detection techniques and classifications algorithms. The novelty of APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by InSAR time series to measure surface movements, shake maps obtained from seismological data, and vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms. The second method deals with volcanic crisis management. The method, MACE - Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation, concerns the exploitation of GEO (Geosynchronous Earth Orbit) sensor platform, LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite sensors and ground measures to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to characterize the volcanic ash clouds. The basic idea of MACE consists of an improvement of volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale by using both the LEO and GEO estimations and in-situ data. Indeed the standard ash thermal infrared retrieval is integrated with data coming from a wider spectral range from visible to microwave. The ash detection is also extended in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. APE and MACE methods have been defined in order to provide products oriented toward the next ESA Sentinels satellite missions.The project is funded under the European Union FP7

  5. Mexican Proverbs: The Philosophy, Wisdom and Humor of a People.

    Ballesteros, Octavio A.

    Careful reading of proverbs can aid an individual to develop self-awareness by providing insights into what one cultural group considers desirable human behavior. Respect for the elderly can be taught to the young through the study of proverbs. Through their proverbs, the Mexicans reveal their friendliness, love of animals, sense of humor, and…

  6. A Bird in the Hand and a Bird in the Bush: Using Proverbs to Teach Skills and Comprehension.

    Holden, Marjorie H.; Warshaw, Mimi


    Discusses objectives that can be accomplished through the study of proverbs. Suggests a number of exercises involving proverbs that can be used to improve reading comprehension and hone writing skills and to develop a vocabulary. (RBW)

  7. The Neurology of Proverbs

    Diana Van Lancker


    Full Text Available Although proverb tests are commonly used in the mental status examination surprisingly little is known about either normal comprehension or the interpretation of proverbial expressions. Current proverbs tests have conceptual and linguistic shortcomings, and few studies have been done to investigate the specific effects of neurological and psychiatric disorders on the interpretation of proverbs. Although frontal lobes have traditionally been impugned in patients who are “concrete”, recent studies targeting deficient comprehension of non literal language (e.g. proverbs, idioms, speech formulas, and indirect requests point to an important role of the right hemisphere (RH. Research describing responses of psychiatrically and neurologically classified groups to tests of proverb and idiom usage is needed to clarify details of aberrant processing of nonliteral meanings. Meanwhile, the proverb test, drawing on diverse cognitive skills, is a nonspecific but sensitive probe of mental status.

  8. Una miscelanea de refranes espanoles raros, curiosos, y jocosos (A Miscellany of Rare, Curious and Humorous Spanish Proverbs).

    Hayes, Francis

    This listing of unusual Spanish proverbs contains words of wisdom on money, doctors, agriculture, students, procrastination, pessimism, war, good and evil, religion, God, and a host of other topics. The topic of each proverb is given in English. (CHK)

  9. Proverbs Reveal Culture Diversity

    Hou, Rong


    Through the analysis of property of culture and proverb, it can be known that proverb can help one to understand a culture. The way proverb reveals culture diversity can be connected with the patterns of value dimension, which conveys the information of a culture’s deep meaning. From the perspective of uncertainty-avoidance, it can be seen that although Ireland and America both are low-uncertainty-avoidance cultures, they mainly have different life attitudes, because that Americans put more e...

  10. The Classification and Understanding of Korean Proverbs Representing a Parent-Child Relationship.

    Cho, Bok Hee; Lee, Jin Sook; Lee, Hong Sook; Ahn, Sun Hee

    This study investigated Koreans' understanding of and agreement with Korean proverbs concerning the parent-child relationship. Ninety-five proverbs were selected from literature and categorized into nine areas: value of a child, affection toward a child, boy-preference, positive or negative affection toward a daughter, importance of a child's…

  11. Mental Imagery of Concrete Proverbs: A Developmental Study of Children, Adolescents, and Adults

    Duthie, Jill K.; Nippold, Marilyn A.; Billow, Jesse L.; Mansfield, Tracy C.


    The development of mental imagery in relation to the comprehension of concrete proverbs (e.g., "one rotten apple spoils the barrel") was examined in children, adolescents, and adults who were ages 11 to 29 years old (n = 210). The findings indicated that age-related changes occurred in mental imagery and in proverb comprehension during the years…

  12. Proverbes anglo-americains (English/American Proverbs).

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    A collection of the 550 best-known English-language proverbs provides an explanation of their meanings in French and gives French-language equivalents. A list of proverbs categorized by key words is appended. (MSE)

  13. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    Hayes, Nicole C


    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all. PMID:26305155


    Fatma ÜNAL


    Full Text Available Language is the basic of culture. It is a bridge that helps us to carry cultural values which belong to past, to now and from now to the future. At this aspect, language appears with features of carrying culture in the continuing time line. This feature of it gives both itself and the community that speak the language to be alive. Vocabulary is the component that brings forth the language. All words which are used in one language are the basis of vocabulary. Proverbs and idoms are the most important resource. Richness of a language can not be measured by how many words a language has but new meanings of the words of the language that gain in time. The words can not have new meaning differences by themselves. Events that community experiences and how people name them are predicated on words and these words develop with new meaning differences. That means language gets rich. The importance of proverbs and idioms in vocabulary belonging to a language is undoubtedly very great. Proverbs are the hortative words which were attributed to public and told on the grounds of long lasting experiences and observations. On the other hand, idioms are the stereotyped phrases which are somewhat different from their real meanings and have an intriguing meaning. Our proverbs and idioms are the converted verbal forms of our view of life, values, traditions and beliefs. In fact, every proverb, every idiom is our cultural value. Turkish language is very rich in terms of proverbs and idioms. This shows that how various ways of life perception and view of the world Turkish nation has. Proverbs and idioms which are the intangible particles of culture of the society are important in terms of both enriching the narration and carrying the cultural elements from past to present as the words of wisdom reflecting the philosophy of the society. Because of it, it is necessary to let adolescent genarations aware of this heritage and protect it. Just as one of general purposes of

  15. Proverbs in Mexican American Tradition.

    Arora, Shirley L.


    Examines proverb use among 304 Mexican Americans (aged 16-85) of Los Angeles (California), assembling information on how or where particular proverbs were learned, with whom or what kind of individual their use is associated, the occasions on which they are used, and general attitudes toward the use of proverbs. (LC)

  16. Proverbal Understanding in a Pictorial Context

    Honeck, Richard P.; And Others


    The ability of 7-, 8-, and 9-year-olds to understand proverbs was examined by having subjects compare each proverb against two thematic pictures: a nonliteral correct interpretation of the proverb and a foil. The results, which contradict the literature, showed consistent above-chance performance across subjects, ages, and proverbs. (Author/JMB)

  17. The Peasant Poor and Images of Poverty: Finnish Proverbs as Discursive Representations of Cultural Knowledge

    Eija Stark


    Full Text Available This article examines the core idea of poverty proverbs as hints of cultural knowledge in old Finnish rural countryside. Until World War II, most of the Finns lived in a high-risk society with only few institutions to guarantee their safety and well-being. The continuous threat of absolute poverty was evident for the majority of the Finns. The basis of this research is 204 proverbs that contain the words poor, poverty, pity or unfortunate. The proverbs analyzed and classified here were collected in the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society between the years 1885 and 1950. The ideational level of the proverbs in the context of social history is crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about rural poverty.

  18. Proverb interpretation in schizophrenia: the significance of symptomatology and cognitive processes.

    Sponheim, Scott R; Surerus-Johnson, Christa; Leskela, Jennie; Dieperink, Michael E


    Although clinicians have patients interpret proverbs in mental status exams for psychosis, there are few empirical studies investigating the significance of proverb interpretation. In schizophrenia patients, we found abstraction positively correlated with overall intelligence but no symptom measures, concreteness negatively correlated with overall intelligence, executive functioning, attention, and memory, and bizarre-idiosyncratic responses associated with positive formal thought disorder but no cognitive functions. PMID:14630304


    Orlova, Tat'yana


    The article is devoted to the lexical-semantic analysis of English and Russian proverbs expressing the attitude of English and Russian people to labor, work, and business. The goal of the article is to show how the lexical-semantic differences of English and Russian proverbs influence the inadequacy of the expression of phraseological image, phraseological meaning and expressive-estimating connotations. The author also reveals paradigmatic relations in proverbs sphere, particularly synonymy p...

  20. Spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality: A case study in Proverbs

    Anneke Viljoen


    Full Text Available The article is positioned in the interface between Old Testament scholarship and the discipline of spiritual direction of which spiritual formation is a component. The contribution that a Ricoeurian hermeneutic may make in unlocking the potential which an imaginal engagement with the book of Proverbs may hold for the discipline of spiritual formation was explored. Specifically three aspects of the text of Proverbs illustrated the creative process at work in the text, and how it converges with the concept of spiritual formation and the nurturing of creative spirituality. These aspects were, the development in Lady Wisdom�s discourses, the functional definition of the fear of Yahweh (illustrated from Proverbs 10:1�15:33, and the paradigmatic character of the book of Proverbs.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is positioned in the interface between Old Testament studies and Practical Theology. The research results in the enhancement of the interdisciplinary dialogue and interchange of resources between the named disciplines with regard to the interest in formation of persons that the biblical book of Proverbs and the discipline of spiritual formation shares.Keywords: Spiritual formation; fear of Yahweh; Proverbs; Wisdom; Hermeneutics; Paul Ricoeur; Symbolic world; Textual reference

  1. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Adnan Akın


    Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exc...

  2. On the translation skills of English proverbs from the factors affecting the translation of English proverbs



    English proverb, the treasure of the English language, is the crystallization of English nation. The thesis introduces several methods to the translation of English proverb. The paper concludes the definition of English proverbs. English proverb has its own characteristics in form and content. This thesis also analyses the factors that affect the translation of English proverb. According to these factors, three translation methods are discussed in this paper, which are word-for-word translation, free translation, and applying translation.

  3. The gender in Bulgarian proverbs

    Uzeneva Elena


    Full Text Available We have chosen the paremiology as the object of this article because it is the area where phraseology and folklore are closely related. This fact makes the study of proverbs significant from the lingua-cultural point of view. The subject of the Bulgarian proverbs is an important source of interpretation because most proverbs are "prescriptions-stereotypes of folk self-consciousness" (Telija. We can see proverbs as cultural stereotypes reflected in common language. The analysis of different proverbs (more then 5000 makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the dominating tendencies and assessments. We concentrated on proverbs connected with the gender issues. They reflect the social aspects of relationships between a man and a woman. The analysis was seriously hampered by the natural semantic richness of proverbs. Our article focuses on the inner form of proverbs. Our first obvious conclusion will be as follows: the gender factor does not play the leading role in the majority of the Bulgarian proverbs. We can see in some proverbs the reflection of the masculine mentality and the power of man, which in itself is not the dominant factor. The negative female stereotype exists alongside the male one. At the same time the female character does not always have negative connotations. Very often the feminine beauty, mind, positive housewife image and patience are in focus. In addition, the indisputable fact of the presence of the „female“ voice, in which sorrow and suffering dominate, and the female consciousness becomes apparent in the understanding of the world created by Bulgarian proverbs. They characterize her emotional side and decisiveness, as well as her expression of resistance. The above in-depth analysis allows us to make the conclusion about certain independence of women even in those past times which are reflected in the proverbs. Confirmation of our main conclusion can be found in some historical facts such as: a married woman

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of Some Selected Arabic Proverbs and Their English Translation Equivalents: A Contrastive Approach

    Marwa Essam Eldin Fahmi


    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to examine some common proverbs in Arabic and their English counterparts to shed light on significant socio-cultural differences. The choice of sample proverbs is based upon thematic classification. Proverbs are words combined together to form larger semantic units which are encoded by the speaker and decoded by the hearer by means of their underlined knowledge of the language itself. Proverbs, as metaphoric expressions or as cultural discourse, are codified on semantic structures. Thereby, Proverbs are figural and signifying acts of meaning that mediate interpretation and negotiate pragmatic signification at linguistic, philosophical and cultural levels. While proverbs make up and reflect the cultural identity of a specific society, and despite the uniqueness of languages and the profound differences between cultures, there are proverbs that shed light on universal truths of human life, common traditions and beliefs. Such proverbs have bridged linguistic and cultural barriers throughout human history.Keywords: Equivalence – English/Arabic Proverbs–Intercultural competence – Phraseology –Socio-semiotics

  5. A Comparative Study of English and Chinese Animal Proverbs from Cultural Perspective



    Animals are human beings' friends. People associate an- imals with natural phenomena, personalities and emotions. Many ani- mals have become a kind of symbolism in people's thinking, which is reflected in, proverbs. Although proverbs are pithy, short and vivid, they can embody profound truth and wisdom. And animal proverbs, which are rich in excite imagination and wisdom, are of special in- terest to people. In daily life, it is easy to find that two identical animal words can share quite different connotations in the two cultures and two different animal words can also share similar cultural connotations. Then, how does this phenomenon happen? Culture works. Every country has its special background which has close re- lationship with the words which are related to geography, customs, and religion. In this paper, these factors causing differences of ani- mal words' cultural images will be discussed.

  6. Proverb preferences across cultures: dialecticality or poeticality?

    Friedman, Mike; Chen, Hsin-Chin; Vaid, Jyotsna


    Peng and Nisbett (1999) claimed that members of Asian cultures show a greater preference than Euro-Americans for proverbs expressing paradox (so-called dialectical proverbs; e.g., Too humble is half proud). The present research sought to replicate this claim with the same set of stimuli used in Peng and Nisbett's Experiment 2 and a new set of dialectical and nondialectical proverbs that were screened to be comparably pleasing in phrasing. Whereas the proverbs were rated as more familiar and (in Set 1) more poetic by Chinese than by American participants, no group differences were found in relation to proverb dialecticality. Both the Chinese and Americans in our study rated the dialectical proverbs from Peng and Nisbett's study as more likable, higher in wisdom, and higher in poeticality than the nondialectical proverbs. For Set 2, both groups found the dialectical proverbs to be as likable, wise, and poetic as the nondialectical proverbs. When poeticality was covaried out, dialectical proverbs were liked better than nondialectical proverbs across both stimulus sets by the Chinese and the Americans alike, and when wisdom was covaried out, the effect of dialecticality was reduced in both sets and groups. Our findings indicate that caution should be taken in ascribing differences in proverb preferences solely to cultural differences in reasoning. PMID:16893007

  7. Evidence of Pragmatic Impairments in Speech and Proverb Interpretation in Schizophrenia

    Haas, Marc H.; Chance, Steven A.; Cram, David F.; Crow, Tim J.; Luc, Aslan; Hage, Sarah


    Schizophrenia has been suggested to involve linguistic pragmatic deficits. In this study, two aspects of pragmatic ability were assessed; comprehension and production. Drawing on relevance theory and Gricean implicatures to assess shared attention and interpretation in a linguistic context, discourse samples and proverb interpretation were…

  8. Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Job

    Nielsen, Kirsten


    The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature.......The article consists of a literary reading of three Old Testament wisdom books, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and the Book of Job. The reading strategies employed are analysis of imagery and intertextual reading. The articles concludes in a presenatation of images of God in wisdom literature....

  9. "Eat, shut up and stand in the sun”. From the popular proverbs to the knowledge of vitamin D

    Rafael Crovetto-Martínez


    Full Text Available The Spanish language is rich in proverbs, many of which are related with food and health. The purpose in this paper is to evaluate the accuracy of some of those popular proverbs linking health and disease with the sun exposure. We describe the current knowledge about vitamin D, synthesis and mechanisms of action. The nurse should identify subjects at risk of hypovitaminosis D, and prevent nutrient solutions, since sun exposure is not an appropriate measure because of the side effects of ultraviolet radiation, which contradicts the knowledge derived from some classic Spanish proverbs and sayings.

  10. Tous les chemins menent a Rome avec des proverbes (All Roads Lead to Rome with Proverbs).

    Lamy, Yves


    Suggests activities for teaching proverbs, an important part of the cultural education of second language learners. Activities include identifying proverbs in common discourse, creating skits and cartoons or pictures based on them, creating puzzles, inventing original proverbs, and analyzing their practical value. (MSE)

  11. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Adnan Akın


    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are crtically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structue of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attemps to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.

  12. The cultural basis of Turkish Business System and a proposal of a model inspired by Turkish proverbs

    Adnan Akın


    Full Text Available Proverbs give instructions on how to behave in everyday life. They reflect common experiences of a society. Beliefs, thoughts and cultures of the past are critically evaluated by them. Those proverbs that include reflections of the past generations on business life may provide today’s business people for guidance. Considering this fact, it is possible to get information about “business culture” by studying proverbs. National business systems embodying the values of “exclusive business cultures” of a society form the economic organizational structure of that society. This articles aims at identifying basic characteristics of Turkish business system through studying proverbs. Besides, it attempts to propose a working model for Turkish business system. In connection with this, it is observed that strategic planning and discipline are important in business processes, common reason is taken into account in business operations, and productivity is determined by methods production and procurement processes.


    Abdullah ÖZBOLAT


    Economic ethic means sum of motifs and suggestions for the practical value and the preferred size in the regulating the daily lives of people. In this study that examines whether the attitude of economic ethic in proverbs, it has been argued in this study that proverbs have been inculcate an economic ethic to the Turkish society and proverbs that happen with influence of the culture of Sufism have not been consist of understanding of “a cardigan, a bite” (bir lokma, bir hırka). Economic ethic...

  14. Irony and Proverb Comprehension in Schizophrenia: Do Female Patients “Dislike” Ironic Remarks?

    Alexander M. Rapp


    Full Text Available Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r=-0.51 and proverb (r=0.56 comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia.

  15. Irony and proverb comprehension in schizophrenia: do female patients "dislike" ironic remarks?

    Rapp, Alexander M; Langohr, Karin; Mutschler, Dorothee E; Wild, Barbara


    Difficulties in understanding irony and sarcasm are part of the social cognition deficits in patients with schizophrenia. A number of studies have reported higher error rates during comprehension in patients with schizophrenia. However, the relationships of these impairments to schizotypal personality traits and other language deficits, such as the comprehension of proverbs, are unclear. We investigated irony and proverb comprehension in an all-female sample of 20 schizophrenia patients and 27 matched controls. Subjects indicated if a statement was intended to be ironic, literal, or meaningless and furthermore rated the meanness and funniness of the stimuli and certainty of their decision. Patients made significantly more errors than controls did. Globally, there were no overall differences in the ratings. However, patients rated the subgroup of stimuli with answers given incorrectly as having significantly less meanness and in case of an error indicated a significantly higher certainty than controls. Across all of the study participants, performances in irony (r = -0.51) and proverb (r = 0.56) comprehension were significantly correlated with schizotypal personality traits, suggesting a continuum of nonliteral language understanding. Because irony is so frequent in everyday conversations, this makes irony an especially promising candidate for social cognition training in schizophrenia. PMID:24991434


    Abdullah ÖZBOLAT


    Full Text Available Economic ethic means sum of motifs and suggestions for the practical value and the preferred size in the regulating the daily lives of people. In this study that examines whether the attitude of economic ethic in proverbs, it has been argued in this study that proverbs have been inculcate an economic ethic to the Turkish society and proverbs that happen with influence of the culture of Sufism have not been consist of understanding of “a cardigan, a bite” (bir lokma, bir hırka. Economic ethic that express an attitude against the world in the conceptual basis, on hand, is ascetism and fasting against leave from the path of God of goods of world on the other hand, is seeking of balance between for acquisition of property and maintaining a modest life as indispensable means. Individual in the economic ethic is in an effort to reconcile these two different poles relating to goods in the world. While forming the boundaries of this study proverbs that used in Turkey Turkish in the context of economic ethic, economic ethic in proverbs refers to properties such as halal earnings, frugality, thrift, temperance and diligence. It is possible to specify culture that inculcates accumulation and savings, it has been influence past experience such as hunger, famine and a religion that order to work in the forming of codes of historical and social meaning. Additionally it has been influence of seeking of balance of Sufi culture in the attitude against world and ethic in the proverbs. As a result, it refers to properties such as halal earnings frugality, thrift, temperance and diligence, proverbs in Turkey Turkish and it has not been with one-dimension of proverbs that happen with influence of the culture of Sufism.

  17. Morphosemantic Attributes of Meetei Proverbs

    Lourembam Surjit Singh


    Full Text Available This study proposes to investigate the functions of morphosemantic in Meetei proverbs, particularly the attribution of different meanings of the lexical items in Meetei Proverbial verbs. Meetei society has been using proverbs in the all ages, stages of development, social changes, and cultural diversifications to mark their wisdom of social expertise. Meetei used proverbs as an important aspect of verbal discourses within the socio-cultural and ethno-civilization contexts in which skills, knowledge, ideas, emotion, and experiences are communicating. The language used in proverbs reflects the Meetei’s status of life, food habits, belief systems, philosophy, cultural and social orientations. At the same time, various meanings attribute in Meetei proverbs in the forms of figurative, witty, pithy, didactic etc. The construction of these forms are grammatically insightful thereby creating spaces for a whole range of possibilities for investigating the features, functions and structure of verbal inflectional markers occurred in Meetei proverbial sentences.Keywords: Proverbs, morphosemantics, features of lexical items, attributes of meanings and language

  18. The Pragmatics of Chinese Proverb Quoting in the English and the Russian-Language Mass Media of PRC

    Olga V. Nikolaeva


    Full Text Available Mass media of PRC in languages others than Chinese native (in the present research English and Russian are aform of cross-cultural communication between China and the rest of the world. In other-language mass mediaChina not only presents its views and attitude to the events described, but also reveals China “the whole self” byemploying the fragments of its traditional verbal culture, proverbs in particular being the ways of self-expression.However, the research provided evidence that the foreign-language press of China carefully considers theappropriateness of proverb quotations, and thoroughly estimates the degree of transmitted by them informal andindirect culture-based information, which the target audience is capable or incapable to grasp, share, and abideby. Proverbs generally being among the most indirect strategies of reasoning and persuasion in some contextualuse may convey straightforward and strict judgments. The paper studies significant theoretical issues andapplication aspects of proverb quoting in the foreign-language press of PRC which depends on crucial questionsof cross-cultural pragmatics: first, the addressor’s natural urge for culture-based self-expression alongside withstriving for intelligibility to the foreign target audience, and second, the addressor’s choice of higher / lowercontext in communication with different cultures-addressees. This accounts for the discrepancy betweenpresentation of information in the English-language press of PRC and the Russian-language periodical of China. Both questions suggest a wide range of options in proverb quoting (preserving/omitting a proverb, originalproverb with glossing / loan translation, meaning / connotation modulation of a proverb, etc.

  19. Cien Refranes, Cien Verdades (Spanish Proverbs for Second Year Students).

    Fossum, Diane; Statz, Jerry

    This unit on Spanish proverbs for second year students includes five main lessons, each dealing with a different way of using proverbs to teach or reinforce certain grammatical points and vocabulary. Each exercise and suggested vocabulary list also has a corresponding transparency. Lesson one contains 18 Spanish proverbs which have a common…

  20. The Structure of the Russian Proverb.

    Levin, Maurice I.

    Bipartite and tripartite Russian proverbs are analyzed in terms of devices of repetition. Major attention is given to formulaic devices, including correlative, contrastive, and conjunctive formulas. Grammatical and phonetic devices are also discussed. An argument is advanced for the basic binary division of the Russian proverb, since even…

  1. Discussion on Sexism in English Proverbs



    This paper has penetrated into the sexism in English proverbs from different aspects to illustrate the sex discrimination in society. Now the phenomenon of sexism has got improved, but the work needs efforts and cooperation for long. Therefore we must adequately know the sexism in English proverbs especially in society and see it comprehensively.

  2. Proverbs as ethnolinguistic heritage

    Pejović Anđelka


    Full Text Available In this paper we have based our analysis on proverbs of Serbian and Spanish language in order to demonstrate the role of these linguistic and cultural constructions in the ethnolinguistic investigation. Relativism observed in them, often reflected as contradictions, is of a huge significance for the ethnolinguistic analysis, since it shows or it might show the ways in which certain society adjust or opposes to the changes, how it reacts, whether it changes only on the surface, or its deep and inside values change as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178014: Dinamika struktura savremenog srpskog jezika

  3. Old Proverbs in new Skins – An fMRI Study on Defamiliarization

    Isabel C Bohrn


    Full Text Available We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization contribute to the affective and aesthetic processing of reading in an event-related fMRI experiment with 26 participants. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a familiar German proverbs, (b unfamiliar proverbs, (c twisted variations which altered the concept of the original proverb (anti-proverbs, (d variations with incorrect wording but the same concept as the original proverb (violated proverbs, and (e non-rhetorical sentences. We report processing differences between anti-proverbs and violated proverbs. Anti-proverbs triggered a process of affective evaluation relying on self-referential thinking and semantic memory in contrast to violated proverbs, which recruited the frontotemporal attention and error detection network. In consistence with the coarse semantic coding theory, proverb familiarity affected lateralization: relative to non-rhetorical sentences highly familiar proverbs activated the left parahippocampal gyrus, whereas unfamiliar proverbs activated an extensive network, covering bilateral frontotemporal cortex. Despite affective processing being enhanced for anti-proverbs, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. Effects of familiarity and defamiliarization on the aesthetic perception of literature will be discussed.

  4. Proverbs in Inter-Cultural Communication



    Understanding the implied meanings of proverbs exactly is very significant in inter-cultural communication,for it determines whether the communication is successful or not. However,it is very difficult for people with different cultural backgrounds to master the very meaning of the proverbs.In this passage,I will focus on the inter-cultural communication between the English and the Chinese.I will analyze what contributes to the differences in inter-cultural communication and how to use proverbs exactly in the particular situation so that we can have a successful inter-cultural communication.

  5. Proverbs in Inter-Cultural Communication



    Understanding the implied meanings of proverbs exactly is very significant in inter-cultural communication,for it determines whether the communication is successful or not.However,it is very difficult for people with different cultural backgrounds to master the very meaning of the proverbs.In this passage,I will focus on the inter-cultural communication between the English and the Chinese.I will analyze what contributes to the differences in inter-cultural communication and how to use proverbs exactly in the particular situation so that we can have a successful inter-cultural communication.

  6. Cross-cultural study of representations of happiness in Russian and American proverbs: search for points of contact with Hofstede''s dimensions



    In this article, I present the results of research into cultural differences in the folk perceptions of happiness of the Russian and American people that enter into their actual happiness experiences. I started from the premise widely accepted in paremiology that proverbs are one of the important sources of such information. Based on this idea, I conducted a cross-cultural analysis of Russian and American proverbs on happiness. The research reveals differences in 1) emotional ratings of the h...

  7. The Use of Proverbs in the Poems of Persian Poets

    H Zolfaghari


    Not only the poets have benefited from the great treasure of proverbial literature, but also they have added to its wealth. This interaction has not been considered quantitatively and qualitatively up to now. In this article, a definition of the proverb and also its importance and background are presented. Then the usage manner of proverb in poets' poetry and Persian poetical proverbs and its position through paroemia are indicated. In addition, the difference between paroemia and comprehensive word, allusion, methods of equation and allegory are presented. With a quantitative and qualitative method, this article indicates the reflection of proverbs in poets' poetry of different centuries and analyzes the proverbs in poetry of the thirteen famous poets. In this way, we understand practically and theoretically the ways that poets have used the proverb and also its reflection in their poetry.

  8. Adequate proverb interpretation is associated with performance on the independent living scales.

    Ahmed, Fayeza S; Miller, L Stephen


    The purpose of this study was to examine proverb interpretation performance and functional independence in older adults. From the limited literature on proverb interpretation in aging and its conceptualization as an executive function, it was hypothesized that proverb interpretation would be related to functional independence similar to other executive functions. Tests of proverb interpretation, additional executive functions, and functional ability were administered to nondemented older adults. Results showed that proverb interpretation accounted for a significant amount of unique variance of functional ability scores. This supports including a measure of proverb interpretation to the assessment of older adults. PMID:25313441

  9. A componential analysis of proverb interpretation in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy: relationships with disease-related factors.

    McDonald, Carrie R; Delis, Dean C; Kramer, Joel H; Tecoma, Evelyn S; Iragui, Vicente J


    The ability to interpret nonliteral, metaphoric language was explored in patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and matched control participants, to determine (1) if patients with FLE were impaired in their interpretations relative to those with TLE and controls, and (2) if disease-related variables (e.g., age of seizure onset) predicted performances in either patient group. A total of 22 patients with FLE, 20 patients with TLE, and 23 controls were administered a test of proverb interpretation to assess their ability to grasp the abstract meaning of nonliteral language. Participants were presented with a series of proverbs and asked to provide an oral interpretation of each. Responses to each proverb were scored according to their accuracy and level of abstractness. Patients with FLE, but not TLE, were impaired relative to controls in their overall interpretation of proverbs. However, a subgroup analysis revealed that only patients with left FLE showed impaired interpretation accuracy relative to the other groups, whereas patients with both left FLE and left TLE showed impaired abstraction. Patients with FLE were also impaired when they were asked to select the best interpretation of the proverb from response alternatives. In patients with FLE, only a left-sided seizure focus was associated with poorer performance. In patients with TLE, both an early age of onset and a left-sided seizure focus predicted poorer performance. Overall, FLE patients exhibit greater impairment than TLE patients in interpreting proverbs. However, the nature and disease-specific correlates of impaired performances in proverb interpretation differ between the groups. PMID:17853125

  10. Old proverbs in new skins - an FMRI study on defamiliarization.

    Bohrn, Isabel C; Altmann, Ulrike; Lubrich, Oliver; Menninghaus, Winfried; Jacobs, Arthur M


    We investigated how processing fluency and defamiliarization (the art of rendering familiar notions unfamiliar) contribute to the affective and esthetic processing of reading in an event-related functional magnetic-resonance-imaging experiment. We compared the neural correlates of processing (a) familiar German proverbs, (b) unfamiliar proverbs, (c) defamiliarized variations with altered content relative to the original proverb (proverb-variants), (d) defamiliarized versions with unexpected wording but the same content as the original proverb (proverb-substitutions), and (e) non-rhetorical sentences. Here, we demonstrate that defamiliarization is an effective way of guiding attention, but that the degree of affective involvement depends on the type of defamiliarization: enhanced activation in affect-related regions (orbito-frontal cortex, medPFC) was found only if defamiliarization altered the content of the original proverb. Defamiliarization on the level of wording was associated with attention processes and error monitoring. Although proverb-variants evoked activation in affect-related regions, familiar proverbs received the highest beauty ratings. PMID:22783212


    Rezqan Noor Farid


    Full Text Available This study is aimed to reveal parts of Banjarese proverbs which contain wisdom values, to find kinds of wisdom values represented through the Banjarese proverbs, and to reveal social contexts influencing the producing and interpreting process of the proverbs. The data of this study are gathered and selected from several literatures of Banjarese which are then analyzed using critical linguistics.  The results of this study show that the parts which contain the wisdom values of the Banjarese people are the clues of interpretation. The wisdom values are also related to the good and the bad behaviours of Banjarese people. It is also found that Islam, as the religion followed by the majority of the Banjarese people, influences the Banjarese culture and Banjarese proverbs. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mencari tahu bagian mana saja dari peribahasa bahasa Banjar yang mengandung nilai kerarifan, menemukan bentuk nilai kearifan didalamnya, dan mengetahui apakah terdapat suatu konteks social yang mempengaruhi proses pembentukan dan penginterpetasian peribahasa itu sendiri. Data dalam studi ini dirangkum dari beberapa literatur yang ditulis oleh orang Banjar sendiri yang dipilih dengan alasan hanya literatur tersebut lah yang tersedia pada waktu studi ini dibuat. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisa dengan metode linguistic kritis. Studi ini menunjukkan bagian dari peribahasa Banjar yang cenderung mengandung nilai kearifan adalah penanda interpretasi. Hasil studi ini juga menunjukkan nilai kearifan dalam peribahasa Banjar terkait dengan sikap yang tidak patut ditiru dan sikap yang pantas untuk diikuti. Dan diasumsikan juga bahwa agama islam, yang terhitung sebagai agama yang dipeluk mayoritas penduduk Banjar, ternyata memiliki pengaruh terhadap kebudayaan dan peribahasa Banjar.

  12. Makin' a Way Outa No Way: The Proverb Tradition in the Black Experience.

    Daniel, Jack L.; And Others


    Argues that proverbs play an important role in the continuing development and survival of Africans and African descendants throughout the diaspora. Analyzes research of proverb studies conducted in Africa, the Caribbean, Pittsburgh, and Detroit. Provides recommendations for further research. (KH)

  13. Proverb Comprehension as a Function of Reading Proficiency in Preadolescents.

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Allen, Melissa M.; Kirsch, Dixon I.


    Proverb comprehension through reading was examined in 42 preadolescent students, 24 of whom were identified as "proficient readers," and 18 as "less proficient readers." Comprehension on both unfamiliar concrete and abstract proverbs was associated with reading proficiency, word knowledge, and analogical reasoning. (Contains references.)…

  14. Teaching the Old Testament Book of Proverbs via a Play

    Branch, Robin Gallaher


    As an Old Testament professor, I struggled with how to teach the Book of Proverbs and the genre of Wisdom Literature in general to my seminary students. As I read and re-read Proverbs, however, I saw it contained many character stereotypes. It is a very contemporary book, for it shows the qualities that contribute to success or failure in life…

  15. Development of Proverb Comprehension in Adolescents: Implications for Instruction.

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Hegel, Susan L.; Uhden, Linda D.; Bustamante, Silvia


    Comparison of the comprehension of proverbs of 200 students (50 each in Grades 6, 8, 10, and 12) found growth in proverb comprehension was most pronounced at two transitional points in development: when students move from late childhood into early adolescence, and again when they move from late adolescence into adulthood. Implications for…

  16. Utility of Hippocrates’ prognostic aphorism to predict death in the modern era: prospective cohort study

    St. John, Philip D.; Montgomery, Patrick R


    Objective To determine if one of Hippocrates’ aphorisms, identifying good cognition and good appetite as two prognostic factors, predicts death in community living older adults in the modern era. Design Secondary analysis of an existing population based cohort study. Setting Manitoba Study of Health and Aging. Participants 1751 community living adults aged more than 65 enrolled in the Manitoba Study of Health and Aging in 1991 and followed over five years. Main outcome measure Time to death. ...

  17. Women's Place in Finnish Proverbs from Childhood

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen


    The purpose of this article is to introduce some features of the relationship between proverbs and gender in Finnish folklore tradition. I focus on pedagogical speech using proverbs in the life-stories from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main interest is on bringing up children concentrating on the written memories and the everyday life of ordinary people. This deals with the private level of education in childhood memories.Kodin ilmapiiri oli lämmin ja...

  18. Viele "Vehikel" fuhren nach Rom: Sprichworter und Redensarten im Deutschunterricht (Many "Vehicles" Lead to Rome: Proverbs and Idioms in the German Language Class).

    Esa, Mohamed


    Describes how German proverbs and idioms can be purposefully and efficiently incorporated into the German foreign-language classroom. Presents a holistic model with exercises on lexical approximations, semantic understanding, and pragmatic usage. Eighteen "vehicles" (chain reactions, association games) are introduced. (Author/VWL)

  19. Proverb comprehension impairments in schizophrenia are related to executive dysfunction.

    Thoma, Patrizia; Hennecke, Marie; Mandok, Tobias; Wähner, Alfred; Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg; Daum, Irene


    The study aimed to investigate the pattern of proverb comprehension impairment and its relationship to proverb familiarity and executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. To assess the specificity of the impairment pattern to schizophrenia, alcohol-dependent patients were included as a psychiatric comparison group, as deficits of executive function and theory of mind as well as dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex, which have been related to proverb comprehension difficulties, are common in both disorders. Twenty-four schizophrenia patients, 20 alcohol-dependent patients and 34 healthy controls were administered a multiple-choice proverb interpretation task incorporating ratings of subjective familiarity and measures of executive function. Schizophrenia patients chose the correct abstract and meaningful interpretations less frequently and instead chose the incorrect concrete (both meaningless and meaningful) proverb interpretations more often than alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls. Relative to healthy controls, schizophrenia patients also chose more abstract-meaningless response alternatives and were impaired in all executive domains. Impaired divided attention was most consistently associated with proverb interpretation deficits in both patient groups. Taken together, schizophrenia patients showed a specific pattern of proverb comprehension impairments related to executive dysfunction and symptoms. The comparison with the alcohol-dependent subgroup suggests that a more comprehensive and severe impairment of complex higher-order cognitive functions including executive behavioural control and non-literal language comprehension might be associated with frontal dysfunction in schizophrenia as compared to alcohol use disorder. PMID:19906437

  20. The Style of ‘Lokaabharan’ in Indian Proverbs

    Biplab Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The changing pattern of Indian proverbs is very much reflected invarious literary creations, especially in modern Indian poetry. Proverbs are used in poetry as a mode of creative process which entails change. Indeed, it is mostly expressed in a poetic style of narration which may be termed as the style of ‘lokaabharan’. Various types of folk elements are used in the creative process and amongst such folk elements proverbs assume a very important position in the making of the style of ‘lokaabharan’.The central message of a proverb is often conveyed with a subtle touch of language use as a linguistic device. Patterns of changes in language use need to be examined with a view to measure the mode of expression of the proverb concerned. In order to understand the style of ‘lokaabharan’, we must examine how proverbs have been used as fixative factors. In this process, we need to compare and contrast the original proverbs used and their changing patterns available in the text of the poems concerned. Fixative factors are what may be called the core of folk elements used in a poem. This may be either a conscious creative effort or an unconscious artistic measure. It plays a vital role in conveying the central theme or message, whatever the case may be.

  1. Proverb Interpretation Changes in Aging

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene


    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three…

  2. Different Locks Must Be Opened with Different Keys: Using Chinese Proverbs for Teaching Finance to Chinese-Speaking Students

    Biktimirov, Ernest N.; Feng, Jingtao


    This paper suggests the use of Chinese proverbs in the teaching of finance to Chinese-speaking students. Familiar proverbs facilitate teaching to Chinese students by appealing to students' prior knowledge, improving retention of new material, and creating a friendlier classroom environment. Using Chinese proverbs in finance instruction also…

  3. The Expressions of Animal Words in Western Proverbs



    In the long course of the development of human history, animals usually keep a close relation with human beings. But the same animal may have different figurative meanings in proverbs of both nations. If we don't know the cultural information and only understand the proverbs according to our own cultural background, we would cause the deviation from information understanding and misunderstanding in intercultural communication.

  4. 谚语与日本商业文化的特性%Proverbs and Fundamental Features of Japanese Business Culture



    日语谚语是承载日本文化涵的一个重载体,同时也是反映日本文化特征的具体表现形式。本文从消费观、经商观、风险观等方面对日语谚语进行了归纳整理、试译与分析,并从中抽取出了日本传统商业意识与商业规范的特质。采用将语言、文化、经济、商业等多元因素相结合的手法,对日本谚语中所蕴涵和折射出的商业文化特征加以系统性论述。%Japanese proverbs are expressions of basic values created and passed down as wise or practical advice for living, and also specific forms presenting and revealing the essential characteristics of Japanese culture. This dissertation, from consumption attitudes, business view and risk view, sumarrizes and translates proverbs, from which Japan' s features of business consciousness and business norms are drawn. By integrating multiple aspects, such as linguistic, culture, economic and business factors, this dissertation mainly elaborates on the fundamental features of Japanese business culture contained and reflected in proverbs.

  5. Research on Language of Perception Still-Life as a Visual Aphorism

    Anatolij P. Suprun


    Full Text Available This article describes a categorical structure of perception of still-life painting. Analysis is done on the system of visual opposition elements in still-life. A still-life is considered a "perceptual statement about the world", and a "visual aphorism" The research is based on such methods as: semantic spaces constructing and their transformation at introduction of additional elements in still-lifes. It also gives full analysis of an interpretation of complex images and understanding of types of still-life as a visual hermeneutics.

  6. The Integration of Proverbs from Thai Didactic Literary Works for Secondary Students

    Suphapanyawut Kannika; Boonsom Yodmalee; Sunate Potisan


    Problem statement: The integration of proverbs from Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students has been prepared for building the body of knowledge. The process of managing human thoughts in behaving and doing well can increase quality and efficiency to students in terms of mind, conscience and correct actions. (1) This article aimed to examine histories of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs (2) conditions of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs at present. (3) The integration o...

  7. Research on Gender Discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs%浅谈汉英谚语中的性别歧视



    谚语是语言的特殊形式,是熟语的一种。古往今来,人们对谚语的评价向来很高。有人曾言:谚语乃语言中的盐,一束智慧的花。作为现实世界的一面镜子,语言真实地反映了各种社会习俗和价值观念。谚语作为语言的精华,浓缩了文化的内涵,涉及到社会生活的方方面面,从侧面反映了各民族的思维方式和价值观念。因而中西方文化中对女性带有贬义的看法和评价在汉英谚语中就会有所反映。笔者将以女性主义为视角分别探讨性别歧视在汉英谚语中的体现、性别歧视的根源及其发展趋势。%Proverbs are the special form of language and a type of idioms. All along people speak highly of proverbs. They are said to be the salt of language and a bunch of flowers of wisdom. Language,a mirror of the real world,,can truly reflect different kinds of social conventions and values. As the essence of language,proverbs enrich the cultural connotation,involve the social life and reflect a nation’s way of thinking,values and psychological characteristics from one side. Therefore many social views of women containing derogatory sense and evaluation are reflected in the proverbs. In this paper,the author will explore respectively the reflection of gender discrimination in English and Chinese proverbs,the deep-rooted causes of gender discrimination and its developing trend in the perspective of feminism.

  8. [Development of a proverb test for assessment of concrete thinking problems in schizophrenic patients].

    Barth, A; Küfferle, B


    Concretism is considered an important aspect of schizophrenic thought disorder. Traditionally it is measured using the method of proverb interpretation, in which metaphoric proverbs are presented with the request that the subject tell its meaning. Interpretations are recorded and scored on concretistic tendencies. However, this method has two problems: its reliability is doubtful and it is rather complicated to perform. In this paper, a new version of a multiple choice proverb test is presented which can solve these problems in a reliable and economic manner. Using the new test, it is has been shown that schizophrenic patients have greater deficits in proverb interpretation than depressive patients. PMID:11758092

  9. Some reflections on human needs, peace, transculturality and Igbo proverbs in the light of Emmanuel Edeh's African philosophy.

    Prstačić, Miroslav


    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh's concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some reflections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace... of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics; aspects of Edeh's philosophy and his work on the peace in the world; transculturality and Igbo proverbs shaped in form of Japanese Haiku poetry. These reflections emphasize the importance of induced aesthetic mental state in the subject, which derives from biological impulses but from archetypal and symbolic value of the object and continuously enter into a metaphysical experience as a form of life energy and human existential need. In this context, we discover also Edeh's philosophy as a new stimulus for further reflections and research on human life potentials, creativity, peace and Man's cosmic responsibility. PMID:26040105

  10. 两汉谣谚理论考论%Discussion and Textual Research on the Theory of Proverbs and Ballads of Han Dynasty



    汉代在谣谚理论研究方面成果卓然,主要包括两方面:一是谣谚起源学说,劳动起源说、“诗妖”说、“荧惑化童”说等三种最重要的谣谚起源理论在汉代就已经确立;二是谣谚文体观,“徒歌曰谣”“无章曲曰谣”,“传言”“俗语”为谚等关于谣谚文体、风格特征的重要理论也产生于汉代,体现了汉人明确的文体辨别意识。后世历代研究者提出的谣谚起源学说及有关谣谚文体、风格特征的观点实则只是对汉代研究成果的阐发或转述,未能超越汉人。%The Han Dynasty achieves great accomplishments in theoretical research of proverbs and bal-lads .The achievements include two parts :first is the theory of origins ,the most important theories of origin of proverbs and ballads have been established in Han Dynasty ,including the "labor origin","poetic misfor-tune origin","the planet Mars omen origin";the second is the style of proverbs and ballads ,some important theories about style have been proposed ,such as "folk singing becomes ballad","sing without composition becomes ballad","iryj and common saying makes proverb",which reflect the Han scholars'explicit con-sciousness of style .The theories and viewpoints of later generation researchers are just the elucidation or re-port of the achievements of Han Dynasty ,being unable to surpass the Han people .

  11. Discussion and Textual Research on the Theory of Proverbs and Ballads of Han Dynasty%两汉谣谚理论考论



    The Han Dynasty achieves great accomplishments in theoretical research of proverbs and bal-lads .The achievements include two parts :first is the theory of origins ,the most important theories of origin of proverbs and ballads have been established in Han Dynasty ,including the "labor origin","poetic misfor-tune origin","the planet Mars omen origin";the second is the style of proverbs and ballads ,some important theories about style have been proposed ,such as "folk singing becomes ballad","sing without composition becomes ballad","iryj and common saying makes proverb",which reflect the Han scholars'explicit con-sciousness of style .The theories and viewpoints of later generation researchers are just the elucidation or re-port of the achievements of Han Dynasty ,being unable to surpass the Han people .%汉代在谣谚理论研究方面成果卓然,主要包括两方面:一是谣谚起源学说,劳动起源说、“诗妖”说、“荧惑化童”说等三种最重要的谣谚起源理论在汉代就已经确立;二是谣谚文体观,“徒歌曰谣”“无章曲曰谣”,“传言”“俗语”为谚等关于谣谚文体、风格特征的重要理论也产生于汉代,体现了汉人明确的文体辨别意识。后世历代研究者提出的谣谚起源学说及有关谣谚文体、风格特征的观点实则只是对汉代研究成果的阐发或转述,未能超越汉人。

  12. A Linguistic Study of Cairene Proverbs. Indiana University Publications, Language Science Monographs Volume 1.

    Mahgoub, Fatma Mohammed

    This work presents a linguistic study of the proverbs indigenous to Cairo (Egypt) culture. These forms recur in the everyday speech of both learned and unlearned Cairene Arabic speakers. The 900 proverbs, which are presented in phonemic transcription, are analyzed according to their phonological and stylistic characteristics, and then their…

  13. Extending the search for folk personality constructs: the dimensionality of the personality-relevant proverb domain.

    Haas, Heather A


    College students (95 men and 264 women) rated how well 211 familiar proverbs described their behavior and beliefs. A factor analysis of these data yielded 7 major dimensions; many of the factors were similar to recognized lexical personality factors. Big Five Conscientiousness and Neuroticism were each strongly associated with a single proverb dimension (interpreted as Restraint and Enjoys Life, respectively). Big Five Agreeableness, Extraversion, and Intellect/Imagination were all associated with several proverb dimensions. Agreeableness was most strongly associated with proverb dimensions representing Machiavellian behavior and strong Group Ties, and both Extraversion and Intellect showed particularly notable associations with an Achievement Striving dimension. The 2 remaining proverb dimensions, which represented a belief that Life is Fair and an attitude of Cynicism, could not be accounted for by the Big Five. PMID:11999926


    Mehmet Emin BARS (M.A.H.


    Full Text Available The epic of Köroğlu is an epical work that left deep influencesall over the Turkish world and over the nations lived together withTurks for long centuries. Even today when taken into consideration ofthe wideness of its narrated and listened geopraphical area, itsimportance from the view of maintaining the cultural integritybetween Turks will be understood much better. Đt is difficult to comeacross such a work like the epic of Köroğlu which maintains itsimportance with a wide performance area, in the lives of other nations.As for proverbs they are the expressions which tell a nation’s standardof judgement. These expressions containing the acquirement of thelife experiences for centuries inform that nation’s thought, yearning,criticism, observation and ideas. They advise people the principles andthe rules aiming to teach the good, the beautiful and the truth. Đn ourwriting the proverbs which take place in Turkoman variant of Köroğluwill be discussed.


    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA


    The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations). The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motiv...

  16. Frames of Reference in African Proverbs on Disability.

    Devlieger, Patrick J.


    Fifty-five proverbs relating to disability were collected from sub-Saharan African countries and analyzed for larger frames of reference of personhood and cosmogony. Themes include warnings against laughing at a disabled person, personhood, existential insecurity, acceptance of what is, and the function and nature of disability. (DB)

  17. The Power of Proverbs: Dissonance Reduction through Common Sayings

    Stalder, Daniel R.


    After reading a detailed account of a serious mistake in which a similar-age other went against personal values or a prior commitment, undergraduates rated their feelings of dissonance (regret, hypocrisy, and stupidity) had they been in the actor's place. Relative to a control condition, reading relevant proverbs such as "everybody makes mistakes"…

  18. Aspects of Modern Egyptian Arabic: Its Structure, Humor, Proverbs, Metaphors, Euphemisms and Common Expressions.

    Greis, Naguib

    The Arabic language used in Egypt is traditionally divided into two major types: classical and colloquial. The idea is that classical or literary Arabic is to be found mostly in formal writing and speaking, whereas colloquial Arabic is used mainly in daily conversation. When it comes to actual usage, however, this distinction is not always clearly…


    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA


    Full Text Available The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations. The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motivation of proverbs is presented as a key aspect, which influences the frequency of their use as an argument. The author analyzes the differences between the definitions of a word’s motivation and a proverb’s motivation. The article contains the author’s definition of the paremiological motivation and author’s classification of proverbs’ motivation degrees (examples of motivation, partial motivation and demotivation in proverbs and their influence on the use of proverbs as an argument. The author highlights the interdependence of idiomatic and analytical meanings of proverbs’ components, the influence of demotivation of analytical components on gradual demotivation of idiomatic meaning of proverbs. Proverbs with archaisms and historicisms gradually become inefficient arguments, therefore they are rarely used during critical discussions because they can cause misunderstanding.

  20. Discursive Depiction of Customary Conflict Management Principles in Selected African Proverbs

    Mehari Yimulaw Gebregeorgis


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore how proverbs of traditional African societies contribute to depicting the communities’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. To this end, proverbs collected from different parts of Africa, mainly Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Ethiopia were analysed using socio-semiotic approach to discourse studies and interpretive analysis. The findings of the study show that the proverbs of traditional African societies are instrumental in depicting the societies’ conflict prevention and conflict management principles. Together with the ‘prevention is better than cure’ doctrine, taking communal responsibility, transparent truth-finding, participatory negotiation, win-win solution, and reconciliation and restoration of social harmony are among the traditional African conflict management principles that are portrayed through different African communities’ proverbs.

  1. Women's Place in Finnish Proverbs from Childhood

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to introduce some features of the relationship between proverbs and gender in Finnish folklore tradition. I focus on pedagogical speech using proverbs in the life-stories from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The main interest is on bringing up children concentrating on the written memories and the everyday life of ordinary people. This deals with the private level of education in childhood memories.Kodin ilmapiiri oli lämmin ja tunsimme koko perhe olevamme yhä. Tuimmeaina lasten kesken toinen toisiamme ja pienempää piti aina ohjata ja auttaa ja puolustaa. Äitini aina sanoikin että heikompaa on aina autettava ja että köyhän ainoa pääoma on rehellisyys, rehtiys ja oikeamielisyys, ja kun kasvatte suuriksi niin pitäkää itsenne miehinä, joihin voi luottaa. Eikä minunkaan ole sitten koskaan tarvinnut noista periaatteista luopua.‘The atmosphere at home was gentle and all the family felt to be one and same. We children gave our support to each other and we were supposed to guide and help and defend the smaller ones. My mother always said that you have to always help those who are weak and the only capital a poor person has is sincerity, honesty, and uprightness. When you’ll be grown-ups, see that you still are those ones to whom others can trust. I have never given up those principles.’

  2. Gender Difference in Proverbs

    DENG Jia


      The language research about gender has been a heated topic in linguistics. Gender difference and sexism in language is a natural phenomenon during its use and development. It is the fact that language is discriminatory against women.

  3. Pragmatic Functions of Crisis - Motivated Proverbs in Ola Rotimi's "The Gods Are Not to Blame"

    Odebunmi, Akin


    Full Text Available The paper examines the pragmatic functions that crisis-motivated proverbs play in Ola Rotimi's The Gods is not to Blame. It picks its inspiration from the little attention hitherto paid, in the linguistic literature, to both the specific proverbs that are spurred by crisis in the play and the pragmatic roles of such proverbs. For data, only the proverbs that are necessitated by the crisis-situations in the text are sampled, and these are analysed, using the recent theory of pragmatic acts (Mey 2001.The study reveals that crisis-motivated proverbs in The Gods are not to Blame, which are of two types: social and political, are characterized by practs such as those of counselling, cautioning, challenging, veiling, persuading, prioritizing, encouraging, threatening and admitting. These are psychological acts which exploit contextual features such as reference, metaphor, inference, shared situation knowledge, shared cultural knowledge and relevance. The paper concludes that studying literary proverbs used in crisis situations, from a pragmatic perspective, both throws additional insights into the paremiological pool and promises to provide a veritably helpful tool for language teaching.

  4. APhoRISM FP7 project: the Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure

    Merucci, Luca; Corradini, Stefano; Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore


    APHORISM is an FP7 project that aims to develop innovative products to support the management and mitigation of the volcanic and the seismic crisis. Satellite and ground measurements will be managed in a novel manner to provide new and improved products in terms of accuracy and quality of information. The Multi-platform volcanic Ash Cloud Estimation (MACE) infrastructure will exploit the complementarity between geostationary, and polar satellite sensors and ground measurements to improve the ash detection and retrieval and to fully characterize the volcanic ash clouds from source to the atmosphere. The basic idea behind the proposed method consists to manage in a novel manner, the volcanic ash retrievals at the space-time scale of typical geostationary observations using both the polar satellite estimations and in-situ measurements. The typical ash thermal infrared (TIR) retrieval will be integrated by using a wider spectral range from visible (VIS) to microwave (MW) and the ash detection will be extended also in case of cloudy atmosphere or steam plumes. All the MACE ash products will be tested on three recent eruptions representative of different eruption styles in different clear or cloudy atmospheric conditions: Eyjafjallajokull (Iceland) 2010, Grimsvotn (Iceland) 2011 and Etna (Italy) 2011-2012. The MACE infrastructure will be suitable to be implemented in the next generation of ESA Sentinels satellite missions.

  5. APhoRISM FP7 project: the A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping method

    Bignami, Christian; Stramondo, Salvatore; Pierdicca, Nazzareno


    The APhoRISM - Advanced PRocedure for volcanIc and Seismic Monitoring - project is an FP7 funded project, which aims at developing and testing two new methods to combine Earth Observation satellite data from different sensors, and ground data for seismic and volcanic risk management. The objective is to demonstrate that this two types of data, appropriately managed and integrated, can provide new improved products useful for seismic and volcanic crisis management. One of the two methods deals with earthquakes, and it concerns the generation of maps to address the detection and estimate of damage caused by a seism. The method is named APE - A Priori information for Earthquake damage mapping. The use of satellite data to investigate earthquake damages is not an innovative issue. Indeed, a wide literature and projects have addressed and focused such issue, but usually the proposed approaches are only based on change detection techniques and/or classifications algorithms. The novelty of APhoRISM-APE relies on the exploitation of a priori information derived by: - InSAR time series to measure surface movements - shakemaps obtained from seismological data - vulnerability information. This a priori information is then integrated with change detection map from earth observation satellite sensors (either Optical or Synthetic Aperture Radar) to improve accuracy and to limit false alarms.

  6. Reconsidering the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African proverb about the locust’s head in the context of poverty in South Africa

    Ndikho Mtshiselwa


    Full Text Available While South Africa attained liberation from the apartheid rule in 1994, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid – in the form of poverty and economic inequality – continues to haunt black South Africans. The aim of this article is to make a case for the equitable sharing of South Africa’s mineral wealth amongst all its citizens with the view to alleviate poverty. Firstly, this article provides a reflection on the Freedom Charter and suggests that the values of the Charter, for instance, the sharing of resources and wealth, are relevant in South Africa today. Secondly, it is argued in the present article that the preferential option for the poor which is upheld in the black theology of liberation is equally relevant in post-apartheid South Africa where many black South Africans remain poor. Thirdly, this article argues that the African proverb, Bana ba motho ba ngwathelana hlogo ya tšie [The siblings share the head of a locust], also echoes the idea of equitable sharing of resources with a view to alleviate poverty. Lastly, the author submits that the idea of equitable sharing of resources and wealth that is echoed in the Freedom Charter, the black theology of liberation and the African wise saying support the equitable redistribution of the mineral wealth to the benefit of all South Africans.

  7. Setswana proverbs within the institution of lenyalo [marriage]: A critical engagement with the bosadi [womanhood] approach

    Itumeleng D. Mothoagae


    Full Text Available Setswana proverbs point to the rich oral history of the Batswana people, their cosmology, morality, indigenous knowledge system, rituals, drama, sayings and memo scripts which are deeply embedded in memory. They emerged from reflections on existential experiences and animal behaviour. In her analysis of Proverbs 31:10�31 found in the Hebrew text, Masenya rereads this text in conjugation with her Northern Sotho proverbs regarding women from a bosadi [womanhood] approach. It is in this approach that she attempts to engage structures of �patriarchy� and the marginalisation of women�s identities. In so doing, the approach grapples with issues such as the mythological thinking of male dominance, cultural subjugation, gender equality, political marginalisation and economic transaction. The decolonial turn as a theoretical framework acknowledges the particularity and universality of cultures and knowledge. Whilst there is particularity among African cultures, there is also universality. In this article I will refer to Setswana proverbs in the context of marriage to engage the bosadi approach. It is the intention of this article to argue that proverbs such as lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi need to be contextualised within their historical location as well as within the context of the institution of lenyalo that is anchored in the practice of bogadi. Furthermore, there is a need to critically engage with terms such as patriarchy, oppression, structure and hierarchy. The paper will use the decolonial turn as a theoretical framework. A conclusion will be drawn from the discussion above.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article has an interdisciplinary approach, it touches on Historical analysis of Setswana Proverbs, the missionary era and the transition between �Setswana traditional� worldview and �Euro-Christian� worldview. Furthermore, it pertains to the understanding of the Proverbs within the custom of Lenyalo


    Raoul David Findeisen


    This study takes as a point of departure a Chinese translation from one single chapter of Nietzsche's work Beyond Good and Evil (1886) prepared in 1925.It focuses on the controversy that soon broke out and resulted in not less than four different versions of one single Nietzsche aphorism published within one year.Closer scrutiny reveals that the yet unnoticed controversy may be seen as an indicator of a sociological shift in translation work, marked by the move to a paradigm of first-hand mediation. Briefly tracing the channel via Japanese and/or English intermediary sources, then well-established for some three decades, it concludes that despite contrary claim in contemporary discussions, conceptual and thus misreadings presented transcultural obstacles rather than linguistic obstacles. It therefore opts for reading translations as sources for the intellectual landscape in the target audience in a given historical moment, hitherto considered deficient.

  9. Le détournement de proverbes en FLE, transgression ou création ?

    Syrine Diaz-Daoussi


    Full Text Available Notre article portera sur la didactique d’unités phraséologiques, plus précisément les proverbes et leur détournement en Français Langue Étrangère (FLE dans un contexte d’enseignement/apprentissage à partir d’un niveau B1-B2. Il s’agira de familiariser les apprenants à la structure du proverbe puis de s’approprier ces structures afin de pouvoir les manipuler en transgressant la norme établie par le figement. Twisting proverbs in FLE, transgression or creation? Abstract: This article will focus on the teaching of phraseological units, specifically proverbs and the way to twist them through French Foreign Language (FLE in a context of teaching / learning from a B1 -B2 level. This will familiarize learners with the proverb structure and help them appropriating these structures in order to manipulate by transgressing the norm established by the frozenness.

  10. Concepções sobre relações amorosas / conjugais e sobre seus protagonistas: um estudo com provérbios Conceptions about conjugal/romantic relationships and about their protagonists: a study with proverbs

    Paulo Rogério Meira Menandro


    Full Text Available Os provérbios contêm informações culturalmente importantes sobre temas como casamento e relações de gênero, uma vez que constituem discurso autoritário e estereotipado aceito e memorizado pelas pessoas desde a infância. O presente estudo envolveu seleção e categorização de provérbios sobre relações amorosas, casamento, descasamento, bem como sobre as condições socioculturais que caracterizam a vida masculina e feminina com o objetivo de analisar singularidades e regularidades reveladoras das concepções presentes em tal modalidade de produção cultural. A seleção dos 569 provérbios examinados foi feita a partir de fontes documentais. Os provérbios foram classificados em 4 grandes temas (Amor, Casamento e Relações Conjugais, Homem, Mulher que comportaram 104 subcategorias de análise. Os resultados revelaram um universo cultural construído a partir da perspectiva masculina, no qual estão presentes concepções sobre a natureza feminina e sobre as relações amorosas que justificam o desequilíbrio de poder nas relações conjugais que se constata ainda hoje.Proverbs contain culturally important information about themes such as marriage and gender relations, since they constitute an authoritarian and stereotyped discourse which is accepted and memorized by people from early ages. The present study involved selection and categorization of proverbs about romantic relationships, marriage, separation, as well as about the socio-cultural conditions that characterize masculine and feminine life, with the objective of analyzing revealing singularities and regularities of the conceptions present in such modality of cultural production. The selection of the 569 examined proverbs was made from documental sources. The proverbs were classified in 4 broader themes (Love, Marriage and Conjugal Relations, Man, Woman which spanned 104 analysis sub-categories. The results revealed a cultural universe constructed upon the male

  11. The Integration of Proverbs from Thai Didactic Literary Works for Secondary Students

    Suphapanyawut Kannika


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The integration of proverbs from Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students has been prepared for building the body of knowledge. The process of managing human thoughts in behaving and doing well can increase quality and efficiency to students in terms of mind, conscience and correct actions. (1 This article aimed to examine histories of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs (2 conditions of the uses of Thai didactic proverbs at present. (3 The integration of proverbs in Thai didactic literary works for secondary school students is a qualitative research study Approach: The research data documents and fieldwork, were collected in Roi-Et, Mahasarakham and Kalasin. Province by using a basic surveying, observations interviews and focused group dissension. The samples were 150 people. Results: The research findings were presented in from of descriptive analysis. For histories of the uses of proverbs in Thai didactic literary works, the proverbs aimed to teach people involving honesty, discipline; love of the country, religion and the king; grateful to people to whom you are obligated and attention to learning. The proverbs teach us to live sufficiently, to intend to study, to love Thainess and to have public awareness. The proverbs teach us to have good behaviors, to talk politely, to speak straightforward the purpose needed, to teach about beliefs, merits, deeds, black magic and magic, to teach about association with other people, to keep cool, not to be frightened easily and not to believe rumor and bad news. The proverbs teach about forgiveness perseverance, cultures, traditions which are good to everyone in the society so that they will live happily together to have love and unity. For the current conditions of the uses of Thai didactic literary works, they are used for teaching at schools only. After graduation from their schools, these people seldom study further to increase knowledge of proverbs. The teachings

  12. Viejas historias de Castilla la Vieja (1969: proverbs in the literary texts of Miguel Delibes

    Marina García Yelo


    Full Text Available The author of the article presents the general classification of how proverbs are inserted into texts and analyzes three basic types of enunciation in literary text Viejas historias de Castilla la Vieja (1969 of Spanish writer Miguel Delibes. In the seventeen chapters we read about the everyday, iterative and timeless life of the geographical environment of the people of Castile, with special focus on their customs and language. The latter is characterized by all kinds of proverbs. Delibes employs proverbs to show a popular language, full of references to the collective knowledge, and inserts them in the discourses of the characters in two fundamental ways: directly without referring to the fact that this is a judgmental statement or indirectly.

  13. The (poetic rhetoric of wisdom in Proverbs 3:1-12

    J.H. Potgieter


    Full Text Available Proverbs 3:1-12 is a masterful example of Hebrew poetry. Failure to consider its poetic structure, is likely to result in incomplete and even incorrect interpretation. Many recent commentaries on Proverbs recognize the poetic character of the book, and even include a section on the poetic techniques present in the book, but ignore the relevance of these techniques as far as the interpretation of the individual poems and the book in general are concerned. This article argues that a comprehensive analysis of poetic features enhances the exegete’s ability to appreciate the rhetoric of wisdom. An intratextual approach towards Proverbs 3:1-12 provides a framework for the complete interpretation of the text.

  14. 英语谚语中的性别歧视%Sexism in English Proverbs

    许之所; 李丽芳; 李丽敏


    As is known to all that language & culture are closely related, culture influences and shapes language and language reflects culture. English proverbs, as an essential part of the vocabulary and as the sinew of the language, they can more or less reflect geography, history, views, behavior and system of the society and of course provide a little glimpse or clues to the sex discrimination. The author in this essay focuses on the study of sexism in English proverbs.%就英语谚语中存在的一些性别歧视问题进行了分析和探讨。

  15. The structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic employed in a reading of Proverbs 14:2

    Anneke Viljoen


    Full Text Available A Ricoeurian hermeneutic affords readers of the Old Testament an opportunity to access the biblical text anew as a source and norm for faith. Reese gave a convenient summarising description of Ricoeur’s hermeneutical approach. Ricoeur organised his considerations around four poles, namely distanciation, objectification, projecting of a world, and appropriation. These operate as the structuring considerations of a Ricoeurian hermeneutic and were illustrated with a sample proverb (i.e. Pr 14:2 from the collection Proverbs 10:1–15:33.

  16. Some Interlinguistic Relationships in the First Hungarian Proverb Collection of 1598

    Gyula Paczolay


    Full Text Available Following a short historical introduction, referring to more than athousand Hungarian students studying at Wittenberg and other universities in the 16th century, the article presents proverbs included in the first 1598 Hungarian collection, which was compiled by the Strasburg graduate schoolmaster János Baranyai Decsi and was based on the 1574 edition of Adagiorum Chiliades by Erasmus, and others. It includes universal proverbs like “What isn’t good for you, isn’t good for others”, European loan proverbs originating in the Greek classics, like “To keep a snake in the bosom” (Aesop, from Roman classics, like “To carry wood to the forest” (Horace, “Cobbler do not go beyond your last” (Pliny the Elder, “Go slowly, you arrive earlier” (Suetonius, proverbs from the Bible “He digs a pit for others and falls in himself” (Proverbs 26: 27 – “You see a splinter in another’s eye, but fail to see a beam in your own” (Matthew 7: 3.From Medieval Latin there is, for example, “One need not inspect the tooth of a gift horse”, “Where a pig is offered, be there with your bag”, “Where there are three women, there is a market.” There are also some Hungarian variants of European proverbs. Regional and sub-regional proverbs include those having Nordic (Slavonic, Baltic affiliations, like “Peel the lime tree until it peels”. “A cheap meat has a dilute broth” has Northern and Southern Slavonic, Baltic and Turkish equivalents (meat is replaced by fish in Estonian, Finnish, Zyryan and Ukrainian, “One stone is enough [to frighten] one thousand crows” can be found in Bulgarian, Turkish and Persian. “One sitting among the reeds can make a whistle of his choice” and “It does (not bring much to the kitchen” have earlier exact German equivalents, while “A liar is caught sooner than a lame man” is found in different Romance languages. There are a number of proverbs found only in Hungarian, like

  17. Proverbe et expression figée

    Laura Cîţu


    Full Text Available Les deux types d’énoncés sentencieux abordés dans cette étude ne feront pas l’objet d’une analyse formelle de type structural, se proposant de décrire une éventuelle architecture et des propriétés syntaxiques spécifiques. Il ne s’agira non plus d’une approche stylistique, rhétorique ou pragmatique. En revanche, c’est une vision de sémantique référentielle qui sera projetée sur ce type de séquences, laquelle essaiera de surprendre un trait fondamental et constant des proverbes, qui permet de le distinguer des expressions figées, et dont l’identification est apte aussi de prédire quelles phrases de la langue pourraient accéder au statut des proverbes.

  18. African Indigenous Proverbs and the Question of Youth Violence: Making the Case for the Use of the Teachings of Igbo of Nigeria and Kiembu of Kenya Proverbs for Youth Character and Moral Education

    Dei, George Sefa


    The historic and contemporary global concern over youth violence and indiscipline/subordination in schools has educators, school administrators and policy makers working hard to ensure that schools are welcoming and safe spaces for learners. Social harmony can only be achieved by understanding and addressing the causes of youth violence and…


    Zekerya BATUR


    Full Text Available Proverbs and idioms are seen as a data source shedding light on a society's social structure. These data sources reveal social relations, daily life and the cultural context. Proverbs and idioms are thought to hold an important place to understand the society’s views towards individual's attitude and behavior from the past to present. This study made by general scanning model. Proverbs and idioms were scanned and words, which included women, identified. After that, meaning and mission of woman in bloc words analyzed. In conclusion, women showed sometimes source of fidelity, sometimes dishonored affection, sometimes hostility and sometimes antagonism and repulsion in bloc words. Atasözü ve deyimler, bir toplumun sosyal yapısına ışık tutan birer veri kaynağı olarak görülmektedir. Bu veri kaynakları sosyal ilişkileri, günlük yaşamı ve kültürel yapıyı gözler önüne sermektedir. Toplumun geçmişten günümüze bireyin tutum ve davranışlarına ilişkin bakışını anlamak için atasözü ve deyimlerin önemli bir yer tuttuğu düşünülmektedir. Bu çalışma genel tarama modelinde yapılmıştır. Çalışmada atasözleri ve deyimler taranarak kadın kavramının geçtiği sözler tespit edilmiştir. Daha sonra kadının kalıp sözlerdeki anlamı ve görevi sözlerden hareketle incelenmiştir. Sonuçta kalıplaşmış sözlerde kadın, bazen sadakatin bazen karşılıksız sevginin bazen düşmanlığın bazen de kin ve nefretin kaynağı olarak gösterilmiştir.

  20. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa


    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  1. Proverbs as Theoretical Frameworks for Lifelong Learning in Indigenous African Education

    Avoseh, Mejai B. M.


    Every aspect of a community's life and values in indigenous Africa provide the theoretical framework for education. The holistic worldview of the traditional system places a strong emphasis on the centrality of the human element and orature in the symmetrical relationship between life and learning. This article focuses on proverbs and the…

  2. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Citizenship Education: Using African Proverbs as Tools for Teaching in Urban Schools

    Grant, Rachel A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis


    Preparing today's children to be tomorrow's global citizens will require social educators who have knowledge of the histories, experiences, and cultural practices of the children they teach. This article offers culturally responsive pedagogy and the African proverb as frames for teaching African American students to become engaged local and global…

  3. Some Reflections on Human Needs, Peace, Transculturality and Igbo Proverbs in the Light of Emmanuel Edeh’s African Philosophy

    Prstačić, Miroslav


    Within the framework of a transcultural, psychodynamic and holistic approach, Edeh’s concept of Man as Mma-di (in Igbo language in Nigeria, mma-di = good that is, and mma-ndu = the beauty of Life) is presented as the nucleus of his philosophical articulation from an African metaphysical-anthropological perspective. In this context, some refl ections are shown on the following topics: human creativity and peace… of mind, body and soul, as existential values and entity in bioethics;...

  4. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom


    Full Text Available L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour illustrer une situation, donner une leçon ou encore appuyer un discours, les proverbes sont un canevas linguistique dont on ne peut se passer dans les joutes oratoires. Pour ce qui concerne est des proverbes alimentaires, on peut se rendre compte qu’ils permettent d’observer comment les Bulu appréhendent le monde et montrent de ce fait la société dans sa dimension holistique. Cet article s’attèle à une analyse anthropologique de quelques proverbes alimentaires de la socioculture bulu. Ces parémies font intervenir la vision bulu de l’organisation politique, de l’économie, des relations de parenté, de la diplomatie, de l’education, de la mort, de la justice, de la construction de la personnalité,etc. Feeding in negro-cultures generally and particularly on Bulu’s people have an importance which goes beyond the biological needs. In fact, it intervenes in this society as a social total fact and permits to apprhehend it on political, economical, medical, religious, artistic, juridical, linguistic angle. From the linguistic point of view, proverbs constitute a favorable space to the demonstration of representations on food. Used to illustrate a situation, to give a learning or to support a speech, proverbs are a linguistic framework which is not possible to avoid during verbal sparrings. Concerning food proverbs, it can be realized that, they permit to observe how Bulu’s people apprehend world and show society in this


    Bülent ÖZKAN


    Full Text Available Culture, includes all the abstract and concrete structures institutions in a society. In this sense, „culture‟ can be defined as a social knowledge that is containing both nationality and universality. When considering about the culture, it can be seen some mutual determinations in a terms of gender mainstreaming roles. The gender stereotype creates the culture; and also the culture allows the transfer of interpersonal and intergenerational structures. In this context, an imminent structure of language descriptively has a translative role in all the cultural features as identifier. While doing this, it uses some forms of expression of the verbal culture traditions. These expression forms are proverbs and idioms. In cultural transmission, these are important as reflecting the point of view of society and perspectives of them.The purpose of this study, to present the role of man and woman in Turkish society by the direction of proverbs and idioms, and also the expectations of society from these roles. In this study, the proverbs and idioms are including notions of “girl, boy; woman, man” will be evaluated and these notions will be examined in the context of gender mainstreaming. Kültür, bir toplumda soyut ve somut bütün kurumları yapısında barındıran, hem ulusallığı hem evrenselliği içeren toplumsal birikim olarak tanımlanabilir. Kültür kavramı, toplumsal cinsiyet rolleri açısından ele alındığında, birtakım karşılıklı belirlemeler söz konusudur. Toplumsal cinsiyet kalıpları kültürü oluştururken kültür de söz konusu kalıpların bireylerarası ve kuşaklararası taşınmasını sağlar. Bu bağlamda dil kültürün tanımlayıcısı olarak içkin yapısında o toplumun kültürel tüm özelliklerinin taşıyıcısıdır. Bunu yaparken de sözlü kültür geleneği olan birtakım anlatım biçimlerini kullanmaktadır. Söz konusu anlatım biçimleri atasözleri ve deyimlerdir. Bu formlar kültürü ta

  6. Validity and reliability of the screening test for Alzheimer's disease with proverbs (STADP for the elderly Validade e confiabilidade do teste de rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com provérbios (TRDAP para idosos

    Mauricéa Tabosa Ferreira Santos


    Full Text Available The prevalence Alzheimer's disease with age compromises memory, language, executive functions, constructive praxis and abstraction, requiring early evaluation with standardized tests. OBJECTIVE: To validate the Screening Test for Alzheimer's Disease with Proverbs (STADP, elaborated using pieces from the proverb memory game. METHOD: The test contains three stages (A: short-term memory, B: executive functions and language and C: episodic memory. The sample consisted of 91 elderly individuals with minimum age of 60 years and one year of schooling, CDR of one or zero, cared for at specialized services of UFPE, HGA and private institutions. Sociodemographic data, habits and health perception were assessed. Among the tests used were MMSE (convergent validity and GDS (discriminating. RESULTS: A good correlation with standardized test was found, acceptable internal consistency (0.71, cutoff point for schooling of 6.49 (low (80% and 77.8% and 8.66 (high (84.6% and 86.1%; Kappa coefficient of 1 (p=0.000 inter-rater consistency. CONCLUSION: STADP is a valid test for screening Alzheimer's disease.A prevalência da doença de Alzheimer com o envelhecimento, que compromete memória, linguagem, funções executivas, praxia construtiva e abstração, necessita avaliação precoce com testes padronizados. OBJETIVO: Validação do Teste de Rastreio de Doença de Alzheimer com Provérbios (TRDAP, elaborado com pedras do jogo de memória de provérbios. MÉTODO: O teste contém três etapas (A: memória curto-prazo, B: funções executivas e linguagem e C: memória episódica. A amostra tinha 91 idosos com mínimos de 60 anos e de um ano de escolaridade, CDR (um ou zero, de serviços especializados da UFPE, HGA e particular. Avaliaram-se dados sociodemográficos, hábitos e percepção de saúde. Dentre os testes utilizados - MEEM (validade convergente, EDG (discriminante. RESULTADOS: Apontaram para boa correlação com testes padronizados, consistência interna

  7. 日语动物相关谚语汉译%On the Translation of Japanese Animal Proverbs



    谚语是民族智慧的结晶,更是传承民族文化的桥梁。翻译谚语则是构筑不同民族文化交流的桥梁之一。为进一步增进中日文化交流,以与人类关系最为密切的动物相关谚语为例,从句子成分省略、感情色彩差异方面来考虑日语动物谚语汉译时影响因素,探寻顺译、意译的汉译方法。%Most of sport tourism products in Hainan are experienced, introduce of wearable technology would enhance the experience and help improve the image recognition of Hainan tourism.The development of Hainan tourism should pay more attention to the need of experiential and combining with history, natural and cultural and sports culture in Hainan to achieve the goal of tourism destiny.The proverb is the expression of the cultural wisdom and bridge between different cultures .The translation of proverbs is one of ways for ex-change of different cultures.To improve further cultural exchange between China and Japan, the paper take the most closely related things with people, the animal-related proverbs as an example, to study the influen-cing factor of Japanese animals proverb translation from the perspective of sentence components, as well as o-mitted and emotional color differences.explore variety of proverb translation methods.

  8. A Study of Strategies for C-E Interpreting of Adages and Proverbs in Diplomatic Speeches from the Perspective of the Interpretive Theory%释意理论视角下的国家领导人外交讲话中俗语和谚语的口译探究

    罗嘉婧; 张婵; 景晨


    The state leaders of China, headed by President Xi Jinping, frequently adopt adages and proverbs in their speech as a way of bonding with the audience, which is also true in their diplomatic speeches. This paper intends to take President Xi as an ex⁃ample and study his diplomatic speeches for interpreting strategies for the adages and proverbs from the perspective of the interpre⁃tive theory. A quantitative analysis will also be conducted to examine how different strategies are being used.%以习近平主席为首的国家领导人讲话风格朴实,善用俗语和谚语等民间常用语表意和明理,拉近与听众的距离。外交讲话中,这种情况也很突出。该文从释意理论的角度入手,以习主席多次外交讲话为例,探究俗语和谚语的英译策略,并通过对语料进行量化分析,得出不同策略的运用情况,以图为俗谚语的口译提供有益启示。

  9. "Forget to whom you have told this proverb": directed forgetting of destination memory in Alzheimer's disease.

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gandolphe, Marie-Charlotte; Allain, Philippe; Fasotti, Luciano; Antoine, Pascal


    Destination memory is the ability to remember the receiver of transmitted information. By means of a destination memory directed forgetting task, we investigated whether participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) were able to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. Twenty-six AD participants and 30 healthy elderly subjects were asked to tell 10 different proverbs to 10 different celebrities (List 1). Afterwards, half of the participants were instructed to forget the destinations (i.e., the celebrities) whereas the other half were asked to keep them in mind. After telling 10 other proverbs to 10 other celebrities (List 2), participants were asked to read numbers aloud. Subsequently, all the participants were asked to remember the destinations of List 1 and List 2, regardless of the forget or remember instructions. The results show similar destination memory in AD participants who were asked to forget the destinations of List 1 and those who were asked to retain them. These findings are attributed to inhibitory deficits, by which AD participants have difficulties to suppress irrelevant information in destination memory. PMID:25918456

  10. Proverbs 30:18-19 in the Light of Ancient Mesopotamian Cuneiform Texts

    Böck, Barbara


    Full Text Available The meaning of Proverbs 30:18-19 has long been disputed. Most scholars interpret the Biblical couplets textually on stylistic features only; an explanation of the contextual association between the four motifs mentioned (eagle, serpent, boat, man and woman has not yet been undertaken. The present paper aims at shedding light on the motivation for this association, taking into consideration ancient Near Eastern cuneiform compositions for the first time. It is further suggested that Proverbs 30:18-19 derived originally from a riddle that had its setting in a wedding ceremony.El significado de Proverbios 30:18-19 sigue desafiando la exégesis de los biblistas. La mayoría de los comentaristas interpretan los versos bíblicos textualmente, ciñéndose al análisis de las figuras de estilo. Sin embargo, todavía no se ha dado ninguna explicación a la asociación contextual entre los cuatro motivos del proverbio (águila, serpiente, barco, hombre y mujer. Por primera vez, este artículo estudia composiciones de la literatura cuneiforme que ofrecen un telón de fondo para interpretar el sentido de los distintos elementos y del conjunto del proverbio bíblico. Según esta nueva lectura, Proverbios 30:18-19 describiría una adivinanza propuesta durante una ceremonia matrimonial.

  11. Counter-Storytelling with African Proverbs: A Vehicle for Teaching Social Justice and Global Understanding in Urban, U.S. Schools

    Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis


    Although the current demographics of urban schools in the United States reflect a rapid growth of culturally and linguistically diverse students, curricula continue to emphasize mainstream culture; cultural and linguistic experiences of these diverse students are ignored. In this article, the author examines how the use of counter storytelling in…

  12. Discussion on the Relationships between the Proverb of Good Doctor to Cure Fur and the Preventive or Therapeutic Strategies with Chronic Kidney Disease%试论“善治者治皮毛”与慢性肾脏病防治策略

    朱冬云; 毕礼明; 陈英兰


    “善治者治皮毛”是医家治疗疾病的最重要原则之一.慢性肾脏病(CKD)极为常见,其治疗目的包括延缓进展、需要评估心血管危险因素、鉴别和治疗相关的并发症,或者行肾脏替代治疗.综合的多重干预可延缓甚至阻断CKD进展,减少CKD死亡的首位原因心血管并发症的发生.本文试着讨论“善治者治皮毛”与CKD防治策略的关系.%The proverb of good doctor to cure fur was from "Internal Classic of Huang Di". It had been widely guided by the medical scientist as one of the most important therapeutic principles. And CKD ( chronic kidney disease )was very common. The objectives were to slow the progression of CKD to take all the cardiovascular risk factors into account,to screen for and treat specific complications and to prepare,if necessary,for renal replacement treatment. Comprehensive multidisciplinary management could slow or even stop the progression of CKD and reduce its cardiovascular complications,which was the leading cause of death in these patients. In this paper,we tried to discuss on the relationship between the proverb of good doctor to cure fur and the preventive or therapeutic strategies of chronic kidney disease.

  13. The impact of an indigenous proverb on women’s mental health: A phenomenological approach

    Seepaneng S. Phiri


    Full Text Available Background: Proverbs and idioms represent cultural and societal beliefs and values inherited from the forefathers. An example is lebitla la mosadi ke bogadi. Over many decades African people have used such ancient instructions to counsel women to be resilient in their marriages thus impacting on their mental health.Objective: The purpose of this article was to explore and describe that proverb and its impact on women’s mental health.Method: Hermeneutic phenomenology was used to explore and describe the prover band its impact on indigenous women’s mental health. The population included married, divorced, widowed and single women who were attending social clubs or networks in the cities of Tshwane and Johannesburg. Snowball and purposive sampling was used to select 57 participants. Five face-to-face interviews and eight focus groups interviews were conducted. Colaizzi’s data analysis method was used to analyse data.Results: Oppression and stigmatisation of women and their families and harmful effects that may result in death were identified as having an impact on women’s mental health. Some women shared that they were oppressed in many ways. In addition, they feared stigmatisation should they wish to divorce. They constantly lived in fear of being harmed or killed by their spouses.Conclusion: There was a need for nurses to develop awareness regarding cultural issues so that women are better served in primary healthcare settings. Women who are suspected of experiencing abuse, should be screened for abuse so that they can be assisted accordingly.

  14. Traduction et interprétation du livre des Proverbes à travers le Talmud et les commentaires juifs médiévaux

    Smilévitch, Éric


    Since the Greek Septuagint, the biblical book Mishlei is translated "Book of Proverbs". But in the Jewish hermeneutic tradition, the correct translation is "parables". This new meaning changes the meaning of the whole book. It was therefore necessary to translate the Hebrew text of Mishlei on a new basis, following the Talmudic and midrashic hermeneutics, extended and developed in medieval times by commentators, philosophers and Jewish grammarians. Thus, we propose a new translation, with com...

  15. Il Selvaggio 1926–1942: Architectural Polemics and Invective Imagery

    Michela Rosso


    Full Text Available Within the framework of a special collection dedicated to the study of image-word relations in the press and their impact upon the dissemination of architecture within the public realm, the story of 'Il Selvaggio', the magazine published from July 13, 1924, until five weeks before the fall of Mussolini in 1943, assumes a significant relevance. Since its inception, and increasingly from 1926, 'Il Selvaggio' hosts, alongside articles and polemic essays, a varied range of graphic materials in different genres and forms of artistic expression. This heterogeneous visual catalogue, an expression of the versatile and eclectic culture of its founder, the artist, writer and illustrator Mino Maccari, includes an equally varied ensemble of literary registers ranging from rhymes and aphorisms to brief polemic writings, ironic manipulation of proverbs, word plays and puns. The interest of a study about the representations of architecture within 'Il Selvaggio' lies in the non-specialist nature of a periodical whose cultural stances were predominantly elaborated outside the professional circles of the architectural work and its well-known authors. This article examines the rhetorical strategies and linguistic devices of the magazine, where caricatures and landscape scenes, still lives and urban views, photographs and mottoes, are intertwined in a set of varying relationships. It also elucidates the historical context in which the contemporary architectural debate unfolds and which constitutes the constant reference for Maccari and his collaborators, providing the source materials for the journal’s polemics.

  16. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    Mintz, Avi I.


    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…


    Ahmet AKÇATAŞ


    Full Text Available A relationship established by and between antonymous words is defined as antonymy. Such relationships are founded on the same logic; however, the building blocks and links between them are different. The present study on Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms aims to handle antonymous relations under five headings, namely structural, substitutional, reversive, converse (relational, and complementary. The headings were identified as: Structural antonymy, under which nouns and verbs are treated based on their affirmative and negative senses. Substitutional antonymy refers to replacement of a component in a sentence. Reversives means a relationship established between a verb/noun and its reverse counterpart. Converse antonymy is built upon the position of similar and different elements. Complementary antonymy rests on the elimination of deficiencies. Accordingly, Turkey Turkish proverbs and idioms have been examined and detailed under the corresponding headings. It can be concluded that antonymy fulfils such functions as organizing comparative narration at sentence level, structures of change, generalisation, and imperatives, agreement and links between constituents; as well as determining and ordering negated meaning, direction, communication, description, and preference. Anlamı birbirine karşıt olan sözcüklerin kurduğu ilişkiye, karşıt anlamlılık denir. Bu ilişkiler, aynı temel mantıkla kurulur. Ancak kurucu unsurlar ve bunların ilişkileri, farklıdır. Türkiye Türkçesi atasözü ve deyimleri üzerine yapılmış bu çalışma, karşıtlık ilişkilerini yapısal, değişimsel, çevriksel, konumsal ve bütüncül olmak üzere beş başlıkta incelemiştir. Bu beş başlık, şu şekilde belirlenmiştir: İsim ve fiillerin olumlu ve olumsuz yönleriyle ele alındığı yapısal karşıtlık. Başka bir unsurla yer değiştirme şeklindeki değişim tarzı karşıtlık. Bir isim veya fiille, onların tersinin kurduğu kar

  18. The problem of money in the hand of a fool

    James Alfred Loader


    Full Text Available This article focused on a single proverb, viz. Proverbs 17:16. The syntax and stylistic features were analysed to demonstrate the extreme polyvalence that can characterise terse aphorisms. Fifteen readings were examined and evaluated, resulting in the distillation of four equally valid clusters of meaning. This informed the argument that the terseness of aphorisms is con­ducive to multiple legitimate interpretations which constitute the ‘read ings’. The implications were considered in terms of intentionality and text­im man ence in detailed exegesis. It was concluded that a combination of sophisticated linguistics and styl istic sensitivity in proverb exegesis can, in the sense of Her derian and Gunkelian ‘Ein­füh­lung’ in minutiae, uncover a richness in ostensibly simple texts – which is to be distinguished from traditional methods claiming to probe ‘under the surface’.

  19. Exploration on Chinese-English Activities of Chinese Proverbs from the Perspective of Translation Features%翻译特性视阈下汉语谚语英译探析



    The proverbs are phrases which embody the living experience and folkways of the nations.This paper analyzes the effect of the Chinese-English translation of Chinese proverbs from the perspective of five translation features,social,cultural,symbolic transformational,creative and historical features.%谚语是凝聚一个民族生活经验和民俗文化的短语.在此从翻译的五大特性,社会性、文化性、符号转换性、创造性和历史性入手,分析翻译特性对汉语谚语英译的影响.

  20. The Base Text and Its Commentaries: Problems of Representing and Understanding the Cārvāka/Lokāyata

    Ramkrishna Bhattacharya


    Full Text Available The base texts of most of the philosophical systems of ancient India are in the form of a collection of aphorisms (sūtra-s. The aphorisms are so brief and tersely worded that their significance can seldom be understood without the help of a commentary or commentaries. Sometimes, the literal meaning of an aphorism needs to be qualified or modified by an explanation found in the commentary. If a reader relies exclusively on the literal meaning of the aphorisms in the base text without having recourse to any commentary or disregards all commentaries, he or she may miss the point. Contrariwise, if a reader relies exclusively on a commentary and disregards the literal meaning of an aphorism, he or she will commit another kind of blunder. Ideally, equal attention should be paid to the base text as well as the commentary or commentaries. Even then, all problems are not automatically solved, for it is an uphill task to decide when to go by the literal meaning of the aphorisms and when to follow the commentary. In their polemics against the Cārvāka/Lokāyata, Jayantabhaṭṭa (c. ninth century C.E. and Hemacandra (eleventh century C.E. erred because they did not follow the golden rule stated above and consequently misunderstood and misrepresented their opponents’ contentions.

  1. 湖南湘乡方言谚语的隐喻认知阐释%The Cognitive Metaphor Elucidation of Hunan Xiangxiang Dialectical Proverbs



    Xiangxiang dialectical proverbs are short and concise ,meaningful and profound ,vivid and popu-lar ,and easy to memorize and inherit .It not only reflects the characteristics of Xiangxiang dialect ,but also records the Xiangxiang unique productive and living mode ,the natural environment and the folk culture .It is the crystallization of people’s life experience and wisdom ,which holds Xiangxiang’s unique local culture .This paper elucidates the Xiangxiang dialectical proverbs and emphasizes its cognitive and linguistic functions from the per-spective of cognitive metaphor .%  湘乡方言谚语简短凝练、寓意深远、形象通俗易懂、便于记诵和传承,不仅反映了湘乡方言的特点,还记载了湘乡独特的生产生活方式、自然环境和民俗风情,承载着湘乡独特的地方文化。从隐喻认知的角度对湘乡方言谚语进行解读,着重指出其认知功能和语言学功能。




    Full Text Available Human being is in interaction with the place on which he lives. This interaction appears, in the way that environmental conditions determine and direct human life, human gives his environment a shape and predispose it in favour of himself. Environmental conditions have long had a significant impacts on human varying from dietary forms to wearings, daily behavioral forms to habitats, beliefs forms to art and culture, in various way. Proverbs are non-materialistic cultural documents that human has brought out with his experiences in the course of interaction of human with his environment. In the proverbs, the truths of which are approved by society, in which recommendations and messages are processed, the main target is simplifying comprehension, keeping permanence, affecting listeners and telling more with less. The proverbs used in all over the world concist of universal messages for human, whereas a great part are limited to local. Initial usage and transfer through generations are possible with long observations and experiences. These observations and experiences may be weathering events such as rain, heat, wind or natural marks such as mountain, hill, tree, water, or a human activity. In some proverbs, while the event is told directly, there is a deep meaning in statement. In our study, the proverbs of Erzincan and its surroundings are analyzed as to their geographical features. İnsanoğlu üzerinde yaşadığı mekân ile karşılıklı etkileşim halindedir. Bu etkileşim sürecinde çevresel şartlar insan hayatını çeşitli şekil ve boyutlarda etkilerken, insan da çevreyi değiştirmekte veya kendi yararına uygun hale getirmeye çalışmaktadır. Çevresel şartlar yüzyıllardır insanlar üzerinde beslenme kalıplarından giyimlerine, günlük davranış biçimlerinden yaşadıkları meskenlere, inanç biçimlerinden sanat ve kültürlerine kadar çok çeşitli yönlerden belirleyici olmaya devam etmektedir. Atasözleri de

  3. Language on Interpretation of the Proverb Semantic of "Nang" in Uighur%维吾尔“馕”谚语语义解读



    从语言学、民俗学、心理学的角度,对极具地域性、固化性、传承性和宗教性等特点的维吾尔馕谚语进行较为详细而全面的梳理和解构,阐述了维吾尔馕谚语中的馕是神圣的,是生命之本,是富足的标志,蕴含着丰富的人生哲理。维吾尔族人对馕的这些认知在日常的食馕过程中,会广泛而持久地在其心理层面不断积淀,产生模因效果,起着一定社会教育的心理暗示及强化的功能。%From the aspects of linguistics, folklore as well as psychology, by a detailed combing and destruction of Uighur proverbs about Nang, which are full of features of territoriality, curing property, consistency and the sacred, this paper elaborates that Nang in Uighur proverbs is sacred. It is life and symbol of wealthy, which contain philosophy of life. The cognition of Uighur people to these keep on resting upon their mind extensively in the daily eating of Nang and produce Meme effect with a function of social education, psychologi- cal implications and reinforcement.

  4. Dietary variation and overlap in Central and Northwest European Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus (Rhinocerotidae, Mammalia) influenced by habitat diversity. "You'll have to take pot luck!" (proverb)

    van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich


    To trace the dietary evolution of the two abundant Middle to Late Pleistocene rhinoceros species Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in Europe over several climatic cycles, we examined comprehensive material of stratigraphically well-defined palaeopopulations from different regions and interglacials. Using morphometrics and mesowear analysis, these reconstructions of Stephanorhinus diets indicate that habitat diversity and interspecific competition with closely related rhinoceros species induced variation in feeding behaviour. Although anatomical features of both species suggest significantly higher dietary specializations compared to the Early to early Middle Pleistocene Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis, their mesowear signals are characteristic of a mixed feeder diet, similar to that of extant mammal species in relatively open habitats. Both species retained a degree of dietary flexibility, enabling them to survive in a range of environments. Although each of these rhinoceroses preferred different habitats, species identity alone is not sufficient to establish the real dietary traits of a Stephanorhinus palaeopopulation. As a consequence, their occurrence in a faunal assemblage alone cannot be taken to indicate a specific habitat. S. kirchbergensis and S. hemitoechus were embedded in a dynamic process of temporo-spatial replacements and interspecific differentiation of rhinoceroses in the western Palaearctic. However, dietary specialization in these Middle to Late Pleistocene European rhinoceroses was not the result of a directed time-transgressive evolution. Rather, within the range of each species' ecological tolerance, it was controlled by environmental parameters, with habitat variability as the main factor.

  5. Bachirou, Mohamed. – Du côté des proverbes comoriens

    Hecquet, Vincent


    Dans cet ouvrage, les proverbes des Comores sont principalement analysés dans leur fonction sociale, l’auteur insistant sur leur rôle d’affirmation de la cohésion sociale et de rappel de la tradition. Une telle approche semble pertinente dans le contexte de la société comorienne, fortement stratifiée et marquée par une pression intense du groupe sur l’individu. Chaque personne s’inscrit dans un groupe social défini par le quadrillage de ses caractéristiques individuelles : âge et rang de nais...

  6. Educational and social values expressed by proverbs in two cultures

    Ahmed, Salwa


    Die Arbeit verfolgt zwei Ziele: Ein reichhaltiges und bisher nicht erforschtes Kulturerbe der Menschen im Sudan zu erschließen und den Sprichwortgebrauch in zwei Ländern zu vergleichen. Sprichwörter werden verstanden als Ausdruck der Lebenswelt und der Werte der Menschen in einer Gesellschaft und ihrer Einstellung zu ihrer Umgebung. Die Arbeit erforscht nach ethnographischem Ansatz den Sprichwortgebrauch, gestützt auf umfangreiche Feldarbeit im Sudan und in England. Ein Schatz von über 800 Sp...

  7. Review of the Dali' s Agricultural Civilizations Indicated in Proverbs%试论大荔俗语中的农耕文明



    大荔是黄河流域古老农耕文明发祥地之一。大荔先民在农业生产方面的探索大量渗透于日常俗语中,这些俗语探索自然规律,总结种植经验,反映农耕文明,其中人与自然的和谐,值得现代人借鉴。%Dali, a county in Shaanxi province, is one of the cradles of the ancient agricultural civilization in the Yellow River Basin. Volumes of farming exploration experiences were adopted into the everyday proverbs by ancient Dali residents. These pro- verbs reflected the agricultural civilization by summarizing laws of nature and experience of farming. The harmony between the nature human beings is worth learning for modern people.

  8. N. H. Heinen, Proverbes égyptiens relatifs aux poissons et aux oiseaux

    Zakharia, Katia


    Il s’agit d’un ouvrage agréable à lire, dans lequel sont consignés 369 proverbes ayant en commun la thématique annoncée dans le titre à savoir les poissons ou les oiseaux. Le corpus a été rassemblé, pour une petite part, lors d’une « enquête de terrain », spontanément entreprise par l’auteur durant un séjour d’apprentissage professionnel « à Maṭariyya, qui domine le lac Manzala » (p. 2). Il a été complété par des relevés effectués dans neuf sources manuscrites ou imprimées, s’étendant du ixe ...

  9. De la fraseologia a la lingüística aplicada

    Vicent Salvador


    This paper focuses on the fuzzy concept of phraseology and correlated notions (from interjections and true idioms to proverbs or aphorisms), as viewed from the viewpoint of Cognitive Linguistic and Discourse Analysis. Grammatical constructions, processes of grammaticalization, and discourse functions of lexical phrases are basic tools to deal with the field of idiomaticity, sociolinguistically relevant and indispensable in the framework of Applied Linguistics for tasks such as translations or...

  10. De la fraseologia a la lingüística aplicada

    Vicent Salvador


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the fuzzy concept of phraseology and correlated notions (from interjections and true idioms to proverbs or aphorisms, as viewed from the viewpoint of Cognitive Linguistic and Discourse Analysis. Grammatical constructions, processes of grammaticalization, and discourse functions of lexical phrases are basic tools to deal with the field of idiomaticity, sociolinguistically relevant and indispensable in the framework of Applied Linguistics for tasks such as translations or language teaching.

  11. Wisdom's Gift: Generation X and the Problem of Print-Oriented Religious Education.

    Hinds, Mark D.


    Discusses Proverbs as an approach to teaching, learning, speaking, and listening. Argues that using Proverbs is a means to meet the conventions of the Generation X community and to learn about the ambiguity and paradoxes of God. Suggests that how and when a teacher speaks can be formative and potentially transformative. (CAJ)

  12. The Role of Working Memory and Divided Attention in Metaphor Interpretation

    Iskandar, Sam; Baird, Anne D.


    Although several types of figurative language exist, neuropsychological tests of non-literal language have focused on proverbs. Metaphors in the form X is (a) Y (e.g., "The body's immunological response is a battle against disease.") place a lower demand on language skills and are more easily manipulated for novelty than proverbs.…


    İsrafil UÇAR


    Full Text Available Türk toplumları tarih boyunca ailenin toplumsal bir birim olarak yaşamasına önem vermişlerdir çünkü Türk kültüründe “aile” kavramı hususi önem arz etmektedir. Şüphesiz, bu durum Türklerin ulusal ve kültürel değerler sisteminden kaynaklanmıştır. Aile yapısında görülen düzen, aileye bağlılık, şeref ve onur kavramları, ailenin muhafazası ve kutsallığı, yüzyıllara dayalı oluşum ve kuşaklar boyu aktarılan geleneksel birikim şüphesiz atasözlerine de yansımıştır. Sözlü kültür ürünü olan ve hayatı doğru yaşamak için oluşturulmuş olan atasözleri; ders verme, yol gösterme gibi birçok anlamsal özellik taşımaktadır. “Aile” konusu da atasözlerinin anlamsal niteliğiyle ilgilidir. Bu makalede Kazak atasözlerinde aile konusu ele alınmış ve ayrıca Türk kültüründe atasözü, Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Kazak Türkçesinde atasözü kavramları, tarihten günümüze atasözünün adlandırılması, Kazak Türklerinde aile, Kazak Türkçesinde aile bireyleri ile ilgili atasözleri anlamsal açıdan incelenmiştir. / Throughout the history, Turkish Societies have given a importance to family so as to have it lived as a corporate element because the ‘family’ concept have a particular significance in Turkish culture. Inarguably, this circumstance has arisen from Turk’s national and cultural ethos. Order, dependence on family, honor and pride concepts, conservation and holiness of family, organism based on centuries and traditional accumulation transformed throughout the generations, which are observed in family structure, have been reflected to proverbs. Proverbs as a product of oral culture and having been formed to live life truthfully have the semantic features such as instructing and guidance. The issue of ‘family’ is also related to semantic value of proverbs. The ‘family’ matter throughout the proverbs in Kazak language were handled in this paper, and

  14. Alimentation et parémiologie dans la socioculture bulu (Sud-Cameroun) : ethnanalyse de quelques proverbes

    Paul Ulrich Otye Elom


    L’alimentation dans les négro-cultures en général et chez les Bulu en particulier revêt une importance qui va bien au-delà de la satisfaction organoleptique. En effet, elle intervient dans la société comme un fait social total permettant de l’appréhender sous l’angle politique, économique, médical, religieux, artistique, juridique, linguistique. Du point de vue linguistique, les proverbes constituent un espace propice à la démonstration des représentations autour de l’aliment. Utilisés pour...

  15. Massimo Montanari, Entre la poire et le fromage, ou Comment un proverbe peut raconter l’histoire

    Gautier, Alban


    Ce petit volume est la traduction d’un ouvrage du spécialiste bolonais d’histoire et d’anthropologie de l’alimentation médiévale, paru simultanément en plusieurs langues . À partir d’un proverbe italien a priori assez obscur – Al contadino non far sapere quanto è buono il formaggio con le pere, « Ne dis pas au paysan combien le fromage est bon avec les poires » –, l’auteur reconstitue, de l’Antiquité à l’époque moderne, toute l’histoire sociale, mentale et parfois même politique et économique...

  16. 维吾尔谚语中的价值准则浅析%A Brief Analysis on the Values in Uighur Proverbs



    党的十八大提出了社会主义核心价值观。从公民个人行为层面,倡导爱国、敬业、诚信、友善的价值准则。这也是我国公民应遵守的基本道德。文章以维吾尔谚语为切入点,透视其中蕴含的公民的基本价值观,以便使人们全面了解和认识维吾尔民族道德教育内核,进一步继承和发扬维吾尔族传统道德中的先进因素,将社会主义核心价值观转化为民族的道德信仰,改进社会风尚,推动社会进步。%The 18th National Congress of the CPC proposed core socialist values. From the level of citizens themselves, it advo-cates patriotism, dedication, integrity and friendship, which is al-so the basic morality Chinese citizens should observe. With Uighur proverbs as the breakthrough point, this paper analyzes the basic values embodied in it, so as to make people compre-hensively learn about the core of Uighur national moral educa-tion, further inherit and carry forward the advanced factors in Uighur traditional morality, transform core socialist values into national moral belief, improve social atmosphere and promote so-cial development.

  17. Legislation on Freedom of Information : Trends and Standards

    Mendel, Toby


    Coined at the dawn of the scientific age, Bacon's aphorism has taken on new meaning today, when government agencies have at their disposal massive amounts of information about nearly every aspect of modern life. Striking an appropriate balance between the power of government and of citizens to control it demands widespread access to government-held information. As a result there is growing...

  18. "We Share the Same Biology..." Cultivating Cross-Cultural Empathy and Global Ethics through Multilingualism

    Rolbin, Cyrus; Chiesa, Bruno Della


    The "language-culture tesseract" hypothesized in the September 2010 issue of "Mind, Brain, and Education" suggests successive links between non-native language (NNL) acquisition, the development of cross-cultural empathy, and prosocial global ethics. Invoking Goethe's (1833/1999) aphorism, "those who do not know other languages know nothing of…

  19. Kırgız Atasözlerinin Cümle Yapısı Üzerinde Bazı Gözlemler Some Observations On The Sentence Structures of The Kirghiz Proverbs

    Mevlüt GÜLTEKİN


    Full Text Available Kirghiz Turks have a rich treasure of folklore. Their proverbs, the numbers of which are given in some litery works over ten thousands, build an essential part of this treasure. We explore 97 Kirghiz proverbs,most of them chosen from Bir Miñ Kırgız Eliniñ Makal-Lakaptarı (BM,published in Kirghizstan and Kırgız Atasözleri (KA, published inTurkey, regarding their sentence structure in our article. Kirghizproverbs are classified according to their sentence structure: 1. simple,2. complex: a. coordinated, b. proverbs presenting a subordinatedsentence structure having infinitive verb forms such as infinitives,participials or gerundial forms, c. conditional, d. proverbs presentingcomplex sentence structures with a direct quote and 3. proverbs havinga mixed sentence structure. Simple sentences (1-10 are classifiedaccording to their meaning as: declarative sentences and imperativesentences. Coordinated sentences (11-25 are also studied according totheir word order as sentences presenting regular turkic word order withpredicates placed at the end of the sentence in question and sentenceswith diversed word order. Conditional clauses (26-44 are examinedaccording to their functions as adverbials, subject clauses, concessiveclauses etc. Direct quote (45-55 embedded in main sentences arestudied regarding their functions as object clauses or relative clausesbuilded by degen. We study subordinated clauses formed by infinitiveverb forms such as infinitives, participials or gerundials (56-78 and tryto determine their functions in the main sentences they take part in.Sentences comprising two or more independent clauses, at least one ofwhich has one conditional clause or a clause builded by infinitive verbforms mentioned above are definited as mixed sentences (79-97. Kırgız Türkleri zengin bir folklor hazinesine sahiptir. Bu hazinenin önemli bir bölümünü de bazı çalışmalarda sayısı on bini aşan atasözleri oluşturmaktadır. Biz bu

  20. Rituaalse aasta kajastumine vanasõnades: üldisi tähelepanekuid

    Irina Sedakova


    Full Text Available The article discusses expressions of folk wisdom which allude to the concept of time, the system structured according to the calendar and the rituals, performed on certain dates. The yearly cycle has developed a system of folk aphorisms concerning almost every day in the calendar and covering all the activities of the man and of the nature in great detail. Terms like aphorisms, proverbs, sayings, etc. are used to denote various folklore (speech genres depicting the ritual year in a rather provisional manner. Apart from the genres mentioned, idioms, comparisons and some spells and curses are also examined.These speech folklore genres are a vast field of research. The question of whether we can speak of ethnic paremia, as asked by the prominent folklorist Dan Ben-Amos (1969 and supported by other scholars, is still very topical, especially in view of the type of proverbial sayings under discussion. The main issues that are examined in the paper are: what is universal and what is unique. The article mainly focuses on sayings which concern the ritual year and outlines the specific features of the folk perception of time as reflected in the calendar. Folk aphorisms reflect the ritual year through names of holidays, terms of ritual objects, food and participants, and through allusions to certain celebration throughout the year. The paremia can express direct meaning, appropriate for only one situation, or they can be of metaphorical nature, describing a set of situation. Each European culture has developed its own ways of seeing the ritual year through metaphorical proverbs, idioms and sayings. Although the set of holidays chosen by each folk paremiological tradition may be different, unique even, the major principles of mentioning a rite in a proverb have universal value and correspond to the structural and semiotic rules of the folklore genre.

  1. An exploration of the symbolic world of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to ‘the fear of the Lord’

    Anneke Viljoen


    Full Text Available Alternative approaches to text interpretation have introduced an opportunity to understand the biblical text afresh. One such an alternative approach is a Ricoeurian hermeneutic. Ricoeur’s understanding of the referential intention of poetic texts will be drawn on to explore its interpretive contribution to a reading of Proverbs 10:1–15:33 with specific reference to the phrase ‘the fear of the Lord’. It is suggested that the proposed reading strategy is a most productive effort.

  2. ‘Children and fools, they say, cannot lie’: un dicton tourné en plaisanterie dans Misogonus d’Anthony Rudd ‘Children and fools, they say, cannot lie’: a Proverb Turned Upside Down in Anthony Rudd’s Misogonus

    Pauline Blanc


    Full Text Available In the play entitled Misogonus that is attributed to Anthony Rudd by one of its editors, Lester E. Barber, the Vice-character, Cacurgus, stands out as a virtuoso performer even though he merely demonstrates a moral lesson. The double-dealing servant of two masters, Cacurgus goes out of his way to prove the ill-founded premises of the saying “Children and fools, they say, cannot lie”. He deceives both of his masters, but remains loyal to his audience for whom he performs a highly entertaining play. The two aspects of his role are shown to be quite distinct as he intervenes on the outside and inside of two separate plots in which the twists and turns of a devious mind are displayed as being a series of disagreeable tricks played upon a group of malleable, credulous victims.




    Full Text Available Discussion about the language and style of classic (Divan poem has always been one of the major discussion in literature. While the poets of XIV and XV centuries have kept significant distance with the meaning by focusing on the local matters, their successors have profoundly focused on the poems that attempt to explore the meaning further. However, the latter poems have been criticized for gradual engagement in exhibition of their ingenuities. On the contrary to the establishing era, in Gibb’s expression, “the İranization was more prominent”at XVI, XVII, and XVIII centuries. Although there were some efforts against this resignation in terms of localization during the following centuries, these have not been successful so far. Because, the indigenous attitudes of poets in exspressing their poems in Turkish at early stage have nearly been replaced by the artificial efforts right after the localization. This indigenous style initiated by Yunus and Sultan Veled at earlier era has been followed by Asik Pasa, Gulsehrî, Ahmedî and Kadı Burhaneddin. Right at the beginning of the XV century, Ahmed-i Daî has taken over the mission and turned it over to Necati. This article deals with Ahmed-i Dai’s efforts. Klasik (divan şiirin dil ve üslubu günümüze değin hep tartışılagelmiştir. Teşekkül (XIV-XV aşamasındaki şairler yerel malzemeye sarılıp satıhta dolaşmışlar; halefleri ise manayı daha derinleştirme gayretiyle aşkın şiirler söyleyerek, işi zamanla bir hüner gösterme yarışına dönüştürdükleri için eleştirilmişlerdir. Kuruluş döneminin aksine XVI-XVII-XVIII yüzyıllar Gibb’in deyimiyle Îranîleşmenin daha belirgin olduğu bir dönemdir. Her ne kadar daha sonraki yüzyıllarda bu teslimiyete mahallîleşme adında bir tepki çabası gösterilse de çok başarılı olduğu söylenemez. Zira ilk başlardaki şairlerin Türkçe söyleme konusundaki takındıkları tabiî tavır mahall


    Meryem EKER


    Full Text Available Quoted words are too few in Orkhon Turkic. However, in the period of Uygur Turkic quoted words have increased fairly in Turkish by the effect of different religions and cultures. Arabic and Persian words as defined “Eastern descent Words” have gained intensity in Turkish after Turks accepted Islam.To use a word in proverbs by people of the culture circle and adoption should be used for many years. Arabic and Persian words are used from immemorial time in Turkish, our language was also included in proverbs. During this study we has also benefited from the work Yazılı Türkçenin Kelime Sıklığı Sözlüğü of İlyas Göz. So, we have discussed proverb creatıng status of common highest-frequency seven words of eastern orıgın.7 words of 27 common highest-frequency quoted words of Arabic and Persian used in proverbs. This case shows that human, world, man, money, government, too, every words have been adopted and reflected to life despite the quoted words. Orhun Türkçesinde alıntı kelimeler yok denecek kadar azdır. Uygur Türkçesi döneminde ise değişik din ve kültürlerin etkisiyle Türkçede alıntı kelimelerin sayısı epeyce artmıştır. Türklerin İslamiyeti kabul etmelerinden sonra genel olarak “Doğu Kökenli Kelimeler” olarak da tanımlanan Arapça ve Farsça kelimeler Türkçe içerisinde yoğunluk kazanmıştır.Bir kelimenin atasözlerinde kullanılabilmesi için bulunduğu kültür dairesinin insanları tarafından uzun yıllar kullanılması ve benimsenmesi gerekir. Türkçede çok eskiden beri kullanılan Arapça ve Farsça kelimeler, dilimizde atasözleri içerisinde de yer almıştır.Biz bu çalışmamızda İlyas Göz’ün Yazılı Türkçenin Kelime Sıklığı Sözlüğü adlı eserinden de faydalanarak sıklığı en yüksek doğu kökenli yedi kelimenin atasözleri oluşturma durumlarını ele alacağız.Arapça ve Farsçadan dilimize geçen sıklığı en yüksek 27 kelimeden 7 kelime atasözleri i

  5. The mind is for seeing, the heart is for hearing (Saudi Arabian proverb).

    Lakhtakia, Ritu


    These "reflections" offer a glimpse into Cancer sociology, through the eyes of a pathologist intimately involved in interdisciplinary management, at an Oncology centre. The interaction of a specialist, usually relatively remote from direct patient contact with cancer patients, evolved from diagnostician to confidante and co-traveler along a difficult journey. The range of shared experiences, the mutual human and humane accruals of this camaraderie are traced through a quarter century of living within the world of cancer and with those afflicted by it. PMID:20532724

  6. Identifying the Evaluative Impulse in Local Culture: Insights from West African Proverbs

    Easton, Peter B.


    Attention to cultural competence has significantly increased in the human services over the last two decades. Evaluators have long had similar concerns and have made a more concentrated effort in recent years to adapt evaluation methodology to varying cultural contexts. Little of this literature, however, has focused on the extent to which local…

  7. Iron, hormesis, and protection in acute kidney injury.

    Swaminathan, Sundararaman


    Iron is critical for cellular, organismal, and possibly universal existence. Use of iron complexes to treat human diseases is ancient and is described in detail in Ayurveda/Siddha systems of medicine. Old aphorisms from Siddha medicine ("Alavukku Minjinal Amirdhamum Nanjagum," an elixir turns poisonous when taken in excess) and Paracelsus ("Die Dosis macht das Gift," the dose makes the poison) are of practical relevance in understanding the role of this ancient metal in acute kidney injury. PMID:27312440

  8. Seymour Sarason Remembered: "Plus ça change…", "Psychology Misdirected", and "Community Psychology and the Anarchist Insight".

    Trickett, Edison J


    The intellectual legacy of Seymour Sarason continues to serve as a critical resource for the field of community psychology. The present paper draws on one of Sarason's favorite aphorisms and two of his seminal writings to suggest the relevance of ideas articulated 35-40 years ago for the current time. Each in their own way highlights the importance of unearthing and interrogating core assumptions underlying our research and our efforts to make a positive difference. The aphorism reminds us that the rhetoric of change is far easier to articulate than to enact and all too often ignores or disguises issues of power among actors. The "misdirection" of Psychology reflected his assertion that the asocial, acultural, and ahistorical nature of American Psychology reflected American culture more generally and ill prepared it to understand and engage in social change, particularly with respect to educational reform. The "anarchist insight" articulated his belief in interrogating the implications of the increasingly interdependent relationship of science and the state for the autonomy of scientists and scientific inquiry. The evidence-based practice movement is offered as an example of the current day relevance of the aphorism and core insights of these two papers. The paper concludes with a plea to rekindle the discussion and continued examination of Sarason's paradigmatic insights for the intellectual and social development of the field. PMID:26263879

  9. Vygotsky and Bakhtin: The educational action as a dialogic project of meaning production

    Júlio Flávio de Figueiredo Fernandes


    Full Text Available This paper aims at establishing a dialogue between Vygotsky and Bakhtin, using Vygotsky’s concepts associated with the zone of immediate development and Bakhtin’s concepts related to dialogism as theoretical parameters. By using these parameters, it proposes to reflect upon the educational process through the theoretical principles or aphorisms which claim the specificity of the mediation that establishes the educator/educatee relation.

  10. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy) Acetamide Derivatives

    Priyanka Rani; Dilipkumar Pal; Rahul Rama Hegde; Syed Riaz Hashim


    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activ...

  11. Art as tragic overcoming. An approach to the philosophical problem of the origin of the tragic choir. Commentary on the paragraphs 7 and 8 of The birth of tragedy

    Oscar Quejido Alonso


    Full Text Available From Nietzsche's statement that "the tragedy born of the tragic chorus, and was originally chorus and nothing but chorus" (GT, 7, we will try to show how, since the first Nietzschean conception of tragedy, this fundamental element of his thought can be characterized, beyond next differences, as an ever transient overcoming of nihilism. Thus, by analyzing the aphorisms 7 and 8 of The Birth of Tragedy, we will show how these elements appear through Nietzsche's interpretation of the tragic chorus

  12. Tahsin Ömer’in “Darb-I Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” Adlı Atasözleri Seçkisi A Selection of Proverbs from Tahsin Ömer’s “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat”

    Abdulmuttalip İPEK


    Full Text Available Proverbs and idioms include very different matters ranging from the life styles of the societies they belong to to their frames of mind, from standards of judgements to moral insights due to the fact that they are based on lasting observations, experiences and lives of those societies. As a result, they are stereotyped words which are on the position of the soul of all the culture and value world of the nation they belong to. Proverbs, which make a short-cut and efficient expression possible, also reflect the philosophy of a nation. From this point of view, the realization and preservation of these verbal entities are of vital importance. From the time of Diwanu Lugat et-Turk, the oldest known dictionary of Turkish language, to our day, important dictionaries have been authored to preserve and record these verbal entities. Each of these dictionaries are very important resources as regards with Turkish language and culture. This manuscript will mention about an anthology of proverbs. According to the searches and surveys the anthology has been mentioned only in a few articles until today. The booklet “Darb-ı Mesellerimiz Hakkında Tahlili Tedkikat” was written by Tahsin Ömer and was printed in Evkaf Printing House in Şehzadebaşı, İstanbul between 1337 and 1340. The printed copy of the booklet in the library of the University of Toronto with the recording number of PN 6505 T8 035, is translated into Modern Turkish from Ottoman Turkish with an additional short review. As the result of a revisal of about 5000 proverbs used in our country, nearly 200 proverbs were sorted out according to their meanings and Tahsin Ömer says in the two and a half pages of foreword that this 16 pages booklet was written to make people learn and draw some lessons. The most exciting parts of this booklet are that the writer examines the proverbs in moral aspects and presents a sorting method. Another important part is the presented analytical assasments in the

  13. Kırım-Tatar Atasözlerinin Sentaksı Üzerine Bir Araştırma A Syntactic Study On The Crimean Tatar Proverbs

    Mevlüt GÜLTEKİN


    Full Text Available Crimean Tatar Turks live today mainly in Crimea, Uzbekistan, Rumania and Turkey. Crimean Tatar belongs to the northwestern (Kipchak group of Turkic languages. Crimean Tatar has become a written language in the 19th century and standardized in 1920’s. Inthis article, we explored 168 Crimean Tatar proverbs selected fromKırım-Tatar Atasözleri regarding their sentence structure. The proverbsstudied have been classified according to their sentence structure: I.simple, II. complex: 1. coordinated, 2. conditional, 3. proverbspresenting complex sentence structures with a direct quote, 4. proverbspresenting a subordinated sentence structure having infinitive verbforms such as infinitives, participials or gerundial forms, and III.proverbs having a mixed sentence structure. Simple sentences (1-23have been classified according to their predicate as verbal sentencesand nominal sentences etc. Compound sentences (24-61 have beendivided in a. compound sentences without any conjunctions, b.compound sentences introduced by coordinating conjunctions.Conditional clauses (62-83 have been examined according to theirfunctions as adverbials, object, subject, concessive clauses etc. Directquotes (84-96 embedded in main sentences have been studiedregarding their functions in the main clause. We studied subordinatedclauses built by infinitive verb forms such as infinitives, participials orgerundials (97-150 and tried to determine their functions in the mainsentences they take part in. Mixed sentences (151-168 are investigatedat the last part of this study. Kırım-Tatar Türklerinin çoğu, bugün Ukrayna’ya bağlı Kırım ile Özbekistan, Türkiye ve Romanya’da yaşamaktadır. Türk dilinin Kuzeybatı (Kıpçak grubuna giren Kırım-Tatar Türkçesi, 19. yüzyılda edebî dil olmuş ve 1920’lerde ise standartlaşmıştır. Kırım-Tatar atasözlerinin cümle bilgisi yönünden incelendiği bu çalışmada Kırım-Tatar Atasözleri adlı eserden seçilen 168

  14. Scrivere la vita di una donna nel XVII secolo

    Chava Turniansky


    Full Text Available In this paper, I wish to highlight some of the main characteristics of the autobiographic writing by Glikl Hamel (1645-1724, a German Jewess who wrote her memories. She knows she is doing something that no woman has done before in Yiddish literature. She carefully mingles several literary genres, mixing stories with practical suggestions, proverbs, aphorism, parables, and elements of the so called Muser-literatur, books of moral behavior and instructions on how to be an observant Jew. The author was forty-five years old when she began to write, and her maturity is clearly present in the text, where she presents herself as well aware of what she wants to write, why and how. Glikl often relates about historical events. In particular here two examples are given, one about the relation with some Christian merchants, and the second about the impact of the news on Shabbetay Zevi, the false messiah, on her community.  

  15. Creativity and the Young Child

    Mindham, Carole


    There is a Chinese proverb which tells that a child is like a piece of paper: everyone who touches it leaves a mark, so one should make sure those marks are positive. In this article, the author raises an issue which concerns providing for, recognizing and celebrating creativity in children's play. It involves challenging the set of ideas about…

  16. Mrs. Chase and her descendants: a historical view of simulation.

    Nickerson, Michael; Pollard, Melissa


    "I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I understand". This ancient proverb written by Confucius both sums up simulation and emphasizes the educational merits of performance practice and experiential learning. The history behind simulation shows a progression not only in technological advances but, more importantly, in promoting adult learning principles and improving patient safety. PMID:20879616

  17. Freeing Speech: Proverbial Wisdom and Faith Formation as Liberation

    Willhauck, Susan


    It is crucial to recover the practice of seeking and refining ways to speak of faith. Certain sayings, idioms, maxims, and proverbs constituting wisdom from various cultures help shape a faith that is liberative, particularly evident in undervalued and dominated cultures. This article examines proverbial wisdom and the patois of the street to…

  18. Paremiological Correspondence and its After-Thoughts

    Outi Lauhakangas


    Full Text Available Outi Lauhakangas had the privilege to communicate with academicianArvo Krikmann during the Finnish-Estonian project on common proverbtypes of the Balto-Finnic people, Proverbia Septentrionalia II. In the beginning of the project she was eager to ask, by e-mail, anything that seemed interesting for close differentiation and Krikmann was patient enough to answer her, often in thorough detail. Lauhakangas obtained a new approach to proverb types that differed from her routines for dealing with the international type-system ofproverbs by academician Matti Kuusi. She had to look at proverbs and the motives for using them from a closer perspective. Could we really understand the situations and archaic mentality connected to some cryptic texts without any further information or supporting evidence given by authentic users? And on the other hand, how exclusive has the use of some proverbs originally been? Lauhakangas re-examines and reappraises the intensive paremiological correspondence from a temporal distance after some experience of proverb studies.

  19. Fungi, Folkways and Fairy Tales: Mushrooms & Mildews in Stories, Remedies & Rituals, from Oberon to the Internet

    Fungi (true fungi and fungus-like organisms such as slime molds) are documented in miscellaneous folkways (such as remedies, crafts and foodstuffs) and in oral and written folk literature (such as proverbs, folktales, fairy tales, drama and fiction). The impact of fungal phytopathogens and clinical...




    Full Text Available Turkish Literature has made advice culture very important in essays and poems. One of the products is also Durub-ı Emsâl-i Osmânî (Ottoman’s Proverbs. The kaside of a poet; named Meâlî whose name isn’t mentiened in the sources is an interestry example for these literary products. This poem is a different kaside from the point of view of forming an example for young educaters. This poem takes place in Fâiz Efendi and Şâkir Bey meganere which we shorten it as FŞM, and it first meets the literature scholar. It is the first time it has met teh literative world. Türk Edebiyatı nasihat kültürünü nesirde ve nazımda ön plana çıkarmıştır. Bu mahsullerin biri de Durûb-ı Emsâl-i Osmânîyelerdir. Kaynaklarda adı geçmeyen Mealî adlı şâirin kasidesi, bu edebî verimlerin ilginç bir örneğidir ve genç eğitimcilere için örnek teşkil etmesi bakımından farklı bir kasidedir. Bu manzume, FŞM şeklinde kısalttığımız Fâiz Efendi ve Şâkir Bey Mecmuasında yer almakta ve edebiyat âlimi ile ilk kez tanışmaktadır.

  1. Transforming Energy Systems and Indian Initiatives in Intelligent Grid

    Razdan, Anil


    Ancient words of wisdom have remarkable clarity, brevity, universality and timelessness in their applicability. They cut across civilizations, systems, and situations, almost effortlessly. The positive take is that mistakes can be committed, but can be rectified. What may be appropriate in one situation, has to change in another context. Two proverbs from diverse civilizations are very relevant in the current context...

  2. Titu Maiorescu, Polyglot and Translator

    Bogdan Mihai DASCĂLU


    Full Text Available Since he was young, TM has studied the classical languages and many occidental languages, such as German, French and English. By means of these languages, he was directly connected with the great European cultures. Fond of literature and philosophy, he focused on some texts that he considered useful for the Romanians'spiritual progress. The most well-known text he translated was Aphorisms by Schopenhauer, a text which had a huge success and powerfully influenced some of the Romanian writers and thinkers.




  4. 'Yes' ifs, ands or buts: examining performance and correlates of the repetition task in the mini-mental state examination.

    Werner, P; Heinik, J; Lin, R; Bleich, A


    The aim of this study was to examine whether the type of sentence used in the repetition task included in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) affected performance in a group of 79 demented and 19 non-demented Hebrew-speaking elderly persons. The cognitive functioning of the participants was assessed using the MMSE and CAMCOG examinations. The performance of the repetition task was evaluated by using three sentences: the literal translation of the English language expression used in the original MMSE; a well-known Hebrew proverb consisting of monosyllabic words and rhythmic effects; and another well-known Hebrew proverb without such attributes. Only a third of the participants successfully repeated the literally translated expression. It showed low predictive value and was highly affected by education. The well-known Hebrew monosyllabic proverb showed moderate predictive value but no discriminatory ability. The other well-known Hebrew proverb performed the best. The translation of the repetition task in the MMSE to other languages is problematic. Strict adherence to the original language proved to be the least desirable choice. PMID:10479742

  5. Language Development during the Adolescent Years: Aspects of Pragmatics, Syntax, and Semantics.

    Nippold, Marilyn A.


    Aspects of language that develop during the adolescent years are discussed in the domains of pragmatics, syntax, and semantics. Selected topics include complex conversational behaviors that adolescents employ, syntactic attainments associated with persuasive writing; and the understanding of proverbs and figurative expressions. Relevant…

  6. The Family in Hawaiian Culture: Lessons from Nature [and] The Family in Brazil.

    Young, Wanda; Azevedo, Helen Selma


    Young discusses three functions of the Hawaiian family--environment, nourishment, and family relationships--using chants, proverbs, stories, oral histories, and readings as illustrations. Azevedo describes families in Brazil, where the extended patriarchy was predominant, but simple family models have prevailed among poor people and in the south.…

  7. Differences between Visual Style and Verbal Style Learners in Learning English

    Chen, Chiu-Jung


    English proverb is an interested part when learner applied it in real life situation. The participants of this study were chosen from a big university in the middle area of Taiwan. The researchers selected some learners from Department of Foreign Language (DFL) and Department of Non-Foreign Language (DNFL). 40 students were from DFL, and 40…

  8. The vox populi and structural elements of the book of Ezekiel

    H. F. van Rooy; E.J. Smit


    The authors study the influence of the vox pop~ as expressed by two proverbs (Ez 12:22 and 27; 18:2), on the structure of chapters 12 to 33. They conclude that Ezekiel 33 serves as a conclusion to this section, and forms a bridge to Ezekiel 34 onwards.

  9. Goals of Education in Asian and American Cultures. Reflective Essay #2

    Cummings, Alexandra


    Traditional Chinese proverbs such as: "The sea of learning knows no bounds; only through diligence may its shore be reached" and "If you don't succeed, try again." (p. 296) illustrate that educational success in the Asian culture is viewed as the result of a single notion--"hard work". This paper will examine how this and other key educational…


    Seena P Thomas


    Full Text Available “ The light of the eye Rejoices the heart” Proverb 15 : 30“Being blind in a rural village in the developing world leaves a person in darkness and dependence, often unable to earn a living or assist in the duties of their household”, William H. Gates.(2000.

  11. Les proverbes dans “El ingenioso hidalgo” don Quijote de La Mancha : des stéréotypes linguistiques et culturels révélateurs de la complexité du message cervantin

    Sonia Fournet-Perot


    Full Text Available Le « langage stéréotypique » représente généralement l’ensemble des structures de la langue mettant en avant le savoir partagé et la connaissance du monde d’une société linguistique. Or, les proverbes ont de tous temps constitué la sagesse des nations ou sagesse populaire. La matière proverbiale représente donc, pour reprendre les mots de Henri Meschonnic, « une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre ». Nous rejoignons ici la fonction fondamentale du stéréotype grâce à laquelle chaque individu a la possibilité de régler ses actions. Notre objectif est de tenter de démontrer que les proverbes, en tant que stéréotypes – à la fois linguistiques et culturels –, ne sont pas de simples ornements mais ont pour fonction de servir, en discours, la stratégie énonciative de l’œuvre littéraire au sein de laquelle ils sont incorporés. Nous avons choisi comme terrain d’analyse le Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantès.El “lenguaje estereotípico” suele representar el conjunto de las estructuras de la lengua que ponen de realce el saber compartido y el conocimiento del mundo de una sociedad linguística. Ahora bien, los refranes siempre constituyeron la sabiduría de las naciones o sabiduría popular. Dichos enunciados representan, pues, según Henri Meschonnic, “une tentative empirique de mettre le monde en ordre”. Coincidimos en este punto con la función básica del estereotipo mediante la cual cada individuo puede ajustar sus acciones. Nuestra meta es intentar demostrar que los refranes, como esteretipos – linguísticos y culturales a la vez –, no son meros adornos sino que tienen como función servir, en discurso, la estrategia enunciativa de la obra literaria a la cual se incorporan. Hemos elegido como corpus el Don Quijote de la Mancha de Miguel de Cervantes.

  12. On the efficient determination of most near neighbors horseshoes, hand grenades, web search and other situations when close is close enough

    Manasse, Mark S


    The time-worn aphorism ""close only counts in horseshoes and hand-grenades"" is clearly inadequate. Close also counts in golf, shuffleboard, archery, darts, curling, and other games of accuracy in which hitting the precise center of the target isn't to be expected every time, or in which we can expect to be driven from the target by skilled opponents. This lecture is not devoted to sports discussions, but to efficient algorithms for determining pairs of closely related web pages -- and a few other situations in which we have found that inexact matching is good enough; where proximity suffices.

  13. 「食」にかかわることわざの日中比較

    徐, 小艶


    The language is a mirror which reflects the national characteristic. The proverbs, which have concentrated people's intelligence, especially reflected the national personality. There are a large number of proverbs related to food in Japanese and Chinese. This paper lias collected some Japanese and Chinese proverbs related to food and analyzed the origins of the proverbs in the living environment and folk-custom, etc. Based on comparison and analysis of these proverbs, the culture background, ...

  14. Vanasõnad loomade identiteedist (Tüpoloogilisi memuaare)

    Arvo Krikmann


    The article focuses on some problems concerning the typology and taxonomy of animal proverbs. The term 'animal proverbs' denotes proverbs containing names of zoological creatures used in metaphorical or literal meaning.The article begins with a theoretical approach to the clarity/vagueness (discreteness/continuativity) of proverb typology and the phenomenon of "type thickets" on the basis of W. Anderson's law of folkloric feedback. Then follows a general discussion on animal proverbs: present...

  15. The Politics of Civil Society and Language

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman


    Within the past two decades Somalia became synonymous with everything from violence, famine to religious extremism. Somalia is a country with contradictions. On the one hand, it is a country with relatively homogeneous people in terms of language, ethnicity, culture and religion. On the other hand......, we see a nation that so far failed to translate the cultural and social relationship to a legitimate functioning political and institutional system. Contemporary experts of the Somali society underline the significance of the Somali language, especially in Somali proverbs, not only reflecting the...... essence of culture but also everything about the Somalis. For instance the nation’s short histories and proverbs contain not only description and analysis of the society, but also solutions to the numerous challenges facing the country (Kapchitz, 2010). Somalis themselves, as well as the rest of the world...

  16. 《金瓶梅俚语俗谚》疑义浅析%Analysis of Uncertainties about "Slangs and Proverbs of Jinpingmei"




  17. A Comparative Study of Gender Bias in Chinese and English Proverbs%汉英谚语中性别偏见的对比研究

    李茜; 卢志鸿; 王燕斐



  18. "No where no betta dan yard?": Negotiating ldentities and Sexualities between Jamaica and the Diaspora

    Rowe, Rochelle; Campbell, X


    Jamaican popular culture and literature are key sites for the representation and dissemination of Jamaican cultural identity, being located at the intersection of race, class, gender and sexuality. These identity concepts not only transmit a national self-confidence, which we find embodied in the international success of Jamaican athletes and artists, or expressed in the Jamaican proverb “we likkle but we tallawah”. They also need to be read as an empowerment of the young nation’s citizens, w...

  19. Development of coping with stress scale based on Turkish proverbs-CSSTPTürk atasözlerine dayalı stresle başa çıkma ölçeğinin (TASBÖ geliştirilmesi

    Kamile Bahar Aydın


    Full Text Available In this research, coping with stress scale was developed by utilizing Turkish proverbs. Data were collected in 2012 from 157 participants whose age average is 35,58, and have at least a bachelor’s degree. As a result of analyzing data through Explanatory Factor Analysis, the scale consists of 36-items and three factors were obtained. The factors (components are titled as 1 Inclination Religion, 2 Optimism, and 3 Acquiring Power. Also, in order to determine the relationships between CSSTP and personality type, Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI and Almost Perfect Scale- Revised (APS-R were utilized. The examination of data showed that there are significant positive correlations between all factors of the CSSTP and only extroverted factor of the FFPI. There are significant relationships in a positive direction and at low and medium levels between the religious inclination factor of the CSSTP and all factors (high standards, dissatisfaction, and discrepancy of the APS-R. According to internal consistency analysis, Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficients of the CSSTP ranged between 0.75 and 0.91. In conclusion, some suggestions were offered to counselors, researchers, Turkish language experts, and the politicians.  ÖzetBu araştırmada, Türk atasözlerinden yararlanılarak, Türk Atasözlerine Dayalı Stresle Başa Çıkma Ölçeği -TASBÖ geliştirildi. Veriler, 2012 yılında yaş ortalaması 35, 58 olan, en az üniversite mezunu 157 katılımcıdan toplandı. Elde edilen verinin Açıklayıcı Faktör Analizi yöntemiyle analiz edilmesi sonucunda, 36 maddelik ve üç faktörden oluşan bir ölçek elde edildi. Faktörler; 1 Dine Yönelme, 2 İyimserlik ve 3 Güç Elde Etmedir. Ayrıca, TASBÖ’nün kişilik tipiyle ilişkisini belirlemek amacıyla, Beş Faktörlü Kişilik Envanteri (BFKE ve Gözden Geçirilmiş Mükemmeliyetçilik Ölçeği (GMÖ kullanıldı. Bu inceleme sonucunda, TASBÖ’nün tüm faktörlerinin, BFKE’nin yalnızca,

  20. Postnatal infant crying and maternal tiredness : examining their evolution and interaction in the first 12 weeks postpartum

    Kurth, Elisabeth


    A new mother lazing in childbed is a blessing for her family” is an old Swiss proverb. Maternal rest and recuperation after birth was a common concern in the past and was frequently supported by the extended family. However, mothers today barely enjoy restful days after birth; instead they enter directly into the challenge of combining baby- and selfcare. They often struggle to soothe a crying baby, while coping with their own exhaustion, which can adversely affect family healt...


    Yrd.Doç.Dr.Bülent ÖZKAN


    To collect the main vocabulary of a language is the major aims of lexicology works. Lexicology looks after to prepare not only for general purpose lexicon for mother tongue users but also particular purpose lexicons for special aims (e.g. proverbs and idioms dictionary, terms dictionary, synonym words dictionary, antonym words dictionary, collocation dictionary etc.). Today, when the studies are considered about the vocabulary of Turkey Turkish, general purpose lexicon works, and particular p...

  2. Corporal punishment of children in England and the United States: current issues.

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh


    Proverbs has eight sets of instructions on beating children, but that book does not contain the often cited proverbial "spare the rod and spoil the child." This form of discipline, which is thousands of years old, has only recently been abandoned and forbidden in many states in the US, and in much of Europe. It is still legal in Britain and some US states, and remains a controversial issue. PMID:15682262

  3. Language policy and language learning in Macedonia Which lessons may be adopted from the Swiss model?

    Xhaferri, Gëzim


    The following paper will investigate the acquisition of Macedonian languages in public schools and universities, focusing on the Albanian and Macedonian languages. As the saying goes: "The more languages you speak, the more human you are". Abiding by this proverb, the citizens of the Republic of Macedonia should be encouraged to become multilingual by learning the national languages. The acquisition of the national languages in a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country like Macedo...


    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL


    Full Text Available According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.


    Dr. Mehmet İSMAİL


    According to the scientists punica’s native land isAzerbaijan. This fruit grows up in many countries allover the world and there are lots of kinds of it inAzerbaijan. This is a survey of pomegranate as it featuresin the folklore (tale, legend, myth, proverb, riddle, curse,praise, expression, folk song) of Azerbaijan. And alsosome examples of folk-literature is added in which punicaexists.

  6. Semantic and Rhetorical Shift as Stylistic Devices in Soyinka’s Dramatic Works

    K. B. C. Ashipu


    One of the major attributes of language is its creativity. Every natural language is capable of expressing a vast range of experiences both real and imaginary. Alongside this non controversial claim is the uncertainty concerning the exact nature of the creative attribute of language within the scope of translation, especially of proverbs. Since creative writers, for instance, have at some point, used the creative opportunities available in language as tools for encoding an already tangible pr...

  7. ‘Farm’ Animal Metaphors in Malay and Arabic Figurative Expressions: Implications for Language Learning

    Sabariah MD Rashid


    Full Text Available Animals are commonly used in figurative expressions, such as proverbs and idioms. Their features, characteristics, and/or behaviours are employed as metaphors to convey certain meanings. This study sought to examine animal metaphors of Malay and Arabic figurative expressions.  Data examined comprised Malay figurative expressions such as simpulan bahasa (two-word idioms and peribahasa (proverbs, as well as Arabic figurative expressions such as istiarah (proverbs containing ‘farm’ animals, such as cow, donkey, horse and goat. The analysis focused on the description of animal images used in the expressions and their connotations. Findings of the study revealed some similarities and differences, in terms of the images and connotations used in the expressions of the two languages, which may be attributed to cultural differences. The differences reflected in the Malay and Arabic figurative expressions may contribute to the difficulty in grasping the meanings of the expressions amongst learners of these languages.Thus, it is essential that learners of each language be exposed to the elements related to the cultural differences of the two languages to help them understand the expressions better and become effective language learners.Keywords: Animal metaphors, Images, Connotations, Language learning


    T. S. Ryabinskaya


    Full Text Available In this study the phenomenon of lies and deception is considered in the context of paremiological Soviet period of our country, leaving only a vast linguistic heritage. The destruction of the traditional foundations of the early twentieth century, and the construction of a new society and meant finding them new mental attitudes. The destruction of the traditional foundations of the early twentieth century, and the construction of a new society meant finding them new mental attitudes. "Soviet people" as a unique historical community, had an equally unique, ideologically adjusted moral reference which originally combines traditional Russian values with party views. This peculiarity is reflected in the fund of Soviet proverbs presented at many volumes known as "Proverbs of the Soviet people", an appeal to which the purpose of this study makes it possible to assess the originality of the Soviet approach to the phenomenon of lies and deceit with ideological positions to identify its characteristic features. This article analyzes the relevant thematic overview of the Soviet proverbs to assess the role of ideological beliefs in the moral education of the masses; marked features of the Soviet approach to the issues indicated; illustrative examples are given unique paremic hybrid embodying contamination "old" and "new" views on the eternal human vices; a comparison of the Soviet and pre-Soviet values approach, when we analyze the paremic card files.

  9. All good things come to those who wait.Time and tide wait for no man.%凡事都要肯等,久等必有一善。岁月不待人。



    牛顿第三定律:每一个作用力都有一个大小相等、方向相反的反作用力。以此推之,每甸谚语都有一句与其同样机智的、但意思相反的谚语和它相对。任何事情都有两个方面。%Newton's third law states: "To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction." So it would stand to reason that every proverb has an equal and opposite proverb. There always exist two sides of the same coin.

  10. Funny Talks



    @@ A Lady:Don't be afraid of the dog.You know the old proverb,"A barking dog never bites."(谚语:吠犬不咬人.) Sam:You know the proverb.I know the proverb.But does your dog know the proverb? B Diner:Bring me some soup and make sure a fly isn't in it.Yesterday there was a fly in my soup.

  11. Türkiye Türkçesinde ve Azerbaycan Türkçesinde “Su” Unsurlu Atasözlerinin Gramer Özellikleri

    Ahmet ÖKSÜZ


    , history and culture of a nation are all reflected in the language. Proverbs are the aphorisms transferred to us from our ancestors and reflect their opinions giving counsels and advices gathered with their observation for a long time. Proverbs are expressed with different terms in different languages; Kashkarli Mahmud expressed as "sav" in Turkish, but later in Ottoman Turkish it is expressed as "darb-ı mesel" or "durûb-i emsal". While it is denoted as "atasözü" in today's Turkish language, it is told as “atalar sözü” in Azerbaijani. Proverbs tell us the lessons to be drawn from the events happened in the community in terms of an advice or a counsel briefly. Therefore the most important aspect of the proverbs that distinguishes them from other expressions is that a judgment is mentioned in a proverb. On the other hand, various Turkish communities have gathered their own proverbs and have several works done on them. In this regard, investigation of proverbs and idioms are of special importance. Turkey and Azerbaijan are the states that have provided the coexistence of both culture and language from history up to this time. Although we speak the same language, there are slight differences in both culture and language depending on having different neighborly relations and influence from the different cultures and languages. These differences are also seen in proverbs. In this study, we will try to put forward different and similar aspects emphasizing the grammatical features of proverbs contain the word water in both languages. Keywords: Proverbs, Turkish, Azerbaijani Turkish, Turkish grammar, Turkish culture, Turkish language.


    Abdurrahman GÜZEL


    Full Text Available An Evaluatıon on Turkısh Proverbs in Accordance to Word Frequency. Proverbs; which are the products of the common mind of a society where they exist are among the elements of spoken culture. Societies have used conveying of meanings which they have got through experiences with proverbs as a method. Proverbs are the effective expressions where expressional arts are used. They become exist in sentences. In this respect each proverb explains one determination. When considered them one by one, it can be understood that they refer to a specific condition or an event an individual can go through. The words/concepts that build proverbs have an essential importance in exploring the common mind of a society. The studies on proverbs are very limited. Considering the vocabulary of proverbs as a whole is very important in finding out the sensitiveness of a society. The researches which will be done on quantity, frequency and parts of speech of their vocabulary can explore interesting findings. The aim of this study is to determine the word frequency of Turkish proverbs. For this reason, proverbs of Turkey Turkish have been determined and a proverb pool is formed. Vocabulary and word frequency of proverbs can be seen and the findings are evaluated according to fundamental measurements of word frequency and finally, they are compared with general word frequency lists and commented.

  13. Useful known and unknown views of the father of modern medicine, Hippocrates and his teacher Democritus.

    Grammaticos, Philip C; Diamantis, Aristidis


    Hippocrates is considered to be the father of modern medicine because in his books, which are more than 70. He described in a scientific manner, many diseases and their treatment after detailed observation. He lived about 2400 years ago. He was born in the island of Kos and died at the outskirts of Larissa at the age of 104. Hippocrates taught and wrote under the shade of a big plane tree, its descendant now is believed to be 500 years old, the oldest tree in Europe--platanus orientalis Hippocraticus--with a diameter of 15 meters. Hippocrates saved Athens from a plague epidemic and for that was highly honored by the Athenians. He considered Democritus--the father of the atomic theory--to be his teacher and after visiting him as a physician to look after his health, he accepted no money for this visit. Some of his important aphorisms were: "As to diseases, make a habit of two things -to help or at least to do no harm". Also: "Those by nature over weight, die earlier than the slim.", also, "In the wounds there are miasmata causing disease if entered the body". He used as a pain relief, the abstract from a tree containing what he called "salycasia", like aspirin. He described for the first time epilepsy not as a sacred disease, as was considered at those times, but as a hereditary disease of the brain and added: "Do not cut the temporal place, because spasms shall occur on the opposite area". According to Hippocrates, people on those times had either one or two meals (lunch and dinner). He also suggested: "...little exercise...and not eat to saturation". Also he declared: "Physician must convert or insert wisdom to medicine and medicine to wisdom". If all scientists followed this aphorism we would have more happiness on earth. PMID:18392218

  14. Anticancer, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Synthesized 2-(Substituted phenoxy Acetamide Derivatives

    Priyanka Rani


    Full Text Available The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy-N-(1-phenylethylacetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer, SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma, anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a–j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenylethyl-2-(4-nitrophenoxyacetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent.

  15. Anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of synthesized 2-(substituted phenoxy) acetamide derivatives.

    Rani, Priyanka; Pal, Dilipkumar; Hegde, Rahul Rama; Hashim, Syed Riaz


    The aphorism was to develop new chemical entities as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. The Leuckart synthetic pathway was utilized in development of novel series of 2-(substituted phenoxy)-N-(1-phenylethyl)acetamide derivatives. The compounds containing 1-phenylethylamine as basic moiety attached to substituted phenols were assessed for their anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma), anti-inflammatory activity, and analgesic activity. These investigations revealed that synthesized products 3a-j with halogens on the aromatic ring favors as the anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. Among all, compound 3c N-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl)-2-(4-nitrophenoxy)acetamide exhibited anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities. In conclusion, 3c may have potential to be developed into a therapeutic agent. PMID:25197642

  16. [Historical times, physical times, epidemiological times: probable contributions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine to epidemiological thinking



    The text is an approach on time as a scientific category in epidemiology. Considering the aphorism time-place-person, time is pointed out as an element with little theoretical concern, despite its presence in main epidemiological concepts. While a topic connected to important changes in other disciplines, such as history, geography, biology and physics, time represents an interesting point of view to the interdisciplinary dialogue and its relevance for a critical knowledge in epidemiology. To argue about this idea, the historical and physical time constructions of Fernand Braudel and Ilya Prigogine are presented. These time theoretical constructions are compared with a probable epidemiological time. Finally, using the emerging infectious diseases as an example, some considerations are made about an apparent epistemological inadequacy of the epidemiological time to recognize the social and historical aspects involved in the complexity of the disease expressions in human populations. PMID:10886816

  17. [Cancer and Malnutrition].

    Tsuzuki, Norimasa; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Ito, Akihiro; Ohara, Hiroshi; Futamura, Akihiko


    A Japanese proverb says that a balanced diet leads to a healthy body. However, the relation between healthy life and nutrition has not been established precisely and quantitatively. Cancer cachexia, which is malnutrition in cancer patients, has been studied extensively. Appropriate nutrition support can prevent the progression of malnutrition in cancer patients and advance the tolerance for anticancer therapy. In refractory cachexia (terminally cancer patients), we will judge the necessity of reduction of nutrition support, what it is called "gear-change", because the support is burden for the body. It is important to restrict the quantity of nutrition and to give medical treatment to retain bodily function in these patients. PMID:26197740

  18. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V


    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures. PMID:17434420

  19. English to Chinese Subtitling:A Skopos based Commentary Domestication and Foreignization



      Domestication and foreignization as translation strategies are used to achieve the purpose so as to fulfil the expectations and needs of target audience in target text. The research question is‘how does skopos theory lead the text in choosing the transla⁃tion strategies as domestication and foreignization?’In this essay the movie of Mulan was chosen and analyzed in terms of movie Titles, Names and Forms of Address, Proverbs and Idioms. The analysis of the translation shows how foreignization and domestication co-exist as co-strategies in order to convey the meaning clearer for the target audience.

  20. Excitability of the motor system: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on singing and speaking.

    Royal, Isabelle; Lidji, Pascale; Théoret, Hugo; Russo, Frank A; Peretz, Isabelle


    The perception of movements is associated with increased activity in the human motor cortex, which in turn may underlie our ability to understand actions, as it may be implicated in the recognition, understanding and imitation of actions. Here, we investigated the involvement and lateralization of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the perception of singing and speech. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied independently for both hemispheres over the mouth representation of the motor cortex in healthy participants while they watched 4-s audiovisual excerpts of singers producing a 2-note ascending interval (singing condition) or 4-s audiovisual excerpts of a person explaining a proverb (speech condition). Subjects were instructed to determine whether a sung interval/written proverb, matched a written interval/proverb. During both tasks, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral mouth muscle (orbicularis oris) of the stimulated motor cortex compared to a control task. Moreover, to investigate the time course of motor activation, TMS pulses were randomly delivered at 7 different time points (ranging from 500 to 3500 ms after stimulus onset). Results show that stimulation of the right hemisphere had a similar effect on the MEPs for both the singing and speech perception tasks, whereas stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly differed in the speech perception task compared to the singing perception task. Furthermore, analysis of the MEPs in the singing task revealed that they decreased for small musical intervals, but increased for large musical intervals, regardless of which hemisphere was stimulated. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation between the lateralization of M1 activity for speech perception and for singing perception, and that in the latter case its activity can be modulated by musical parameters such as the size of a musical interval. PMID:26116909

  1. 普世与特殊--论希伯来智慧思想的两极结构和教育空间%Universality and Particularity:The Two-Pole Structure and Pedagogic Space of Hebrew Wisdom



    This article is written out of the author’s interest in the interface between educational and biblical studies. It is part of his ongoing effort to develop a canonical perspective on education. Informed by contemporary studies in wisdom literature, the paper argues for a common pattern of thought between theBook of Proverbs and theWisdom of Ben Sira (Sirach in Greek and Ecclesiasticus in Latin), despite their universalistic and nationalistic outlook demonstrated most notably inProverbs 8 andSirach 24 respectively. Against a common view that Proverbs reflects the international outlook of sages in the First Temple period and Sirach “the nationalization of Wisdom” in the Second Temple period, this paper aims to demonstrate a subtle co-existence of universal and particular horizons in both books and an ever-present tension therein. Disclosing the dual horizons of sapiential practice that includes observing, reflecting and teaching is significant for three reasons. First, the universal perspective of Hebrew sages is an Axial-age breakthrough no less signiifcant than the contribution made by the prophets. Second, such a universal horizon in the wisdom literature, which is different from that associated with organized missionary movements, provides the impetus to recover the sapiential dimension of biblical ideas of education eclipsed by the instrumental notion of education as a proselytizing strategy. Finally, the reclamation of the dual horizons in sapiential practice is pivotal in the development of a wisdom approach to religious education that will enable the community of faith to engage the world in a prudent and authentic manner.

  2. Etymological Aspects of Idiomatic and Proverbial Expressions in the Lexicographic Development of Sesotho sa Leboa ? A Semantic Analysis*

    V.M. Mojela


    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Idiomatic and proverbial expressions are important components of the oral traditionof Sesotho sa Leboa, and therefore a knowledge of the literal meaning of words as they appear indictionaries without inclusion of their figurative meaning seems to be a shortcoming. An idiom or aproverb possesses one basic meaning, i.e. the meaning to which the idiom or proverb is basicallymeant to refer, but each idiom or proverb is made up of several lexical items. Each of these lexicalitems has its own meaning, which usually differs from the figurative sense of the idiom or proverb.Even though the meaning of the words in an idiomatic or proverbial expression seems to differfrom the sense of the idiom or proverb, there is to a certain extent a relationship. It is this relationshipwhich lexicographers can assist to explain in their definitions in order to clarify both the literaland the figurative meanings of words in Sesotho sa Leboa.This article aims to stress the importance of having specialized dictionaries which will giveusers detailed etymological explanations of the meaning of idiomatic and proverbial expressions asused in Sesotho sa Leboa. The etymological analysis of the meaning of these lexical items (idiomsand proverbs will provide a better understanding of these expressions and enrich dictionarieswith detailed definitions. This will create a better understanding of the relationship between theliteral meanings of the expressions and their real (i.e. figurative meanings.


    Opsomming: Etimologiese aspekte van idiomatiese en spreekwoordelikeuitdrukkings in die leksikografiese ontwikkeling van Sesotho sa Leboa — 'nsemantiese ontleding. Idiomatiese en spreekwoordelike uitdrukkings is belangrike komponentevan die mondelinge tradisie van Sesotho sa Leboa en

  3. Documenting Spreadsheets with Pseudo-Code: an Exercise with Cash-Flow and Loans

    Paine, Jocelyn


    "Look before you leap"; "a stitch in time saves nine"; "more haste, less speed". Many proverbs declare the wisdom of planning before doing. We suggest how to apply this to Excel, by explaining and specifying spreadsheets before coding them, so there will always be documentation for auditors and maintenance programmers. The specification method uses "pseudo-code": code that, for precision and conciseness, resembles a programming language, but is not executable. It is, however, based on the notation used by our Excelsior spreadsheet generator, which is executable. This paper is structured as a tutorial, in which we develop a simple cash-flow and loans spreadsheet.

  4. The Justice of Proverbs in the Writings of A. Kourouma and A. Ryckmans. Towards a Deconstructive Reading of Bambara and Négropolitain

    Bojsen, Heidi

    Under henvisning til antropologers studie af juridisk praksis i fransk-sprogede kolonier i Afrika og i de efterfølgende uafhængige stater, foretages der en kritisk analyse af anvendelse af ordsprog i retspraksis og i den populære formidling af denne. Som eksempelmateriale tages der udgangspunkt i...

  5. 俄汉成语、谚语中动物形象的定型隐喻%Stereotypic Metaphor of Animal Images in Idioms and Proverbs of Russian and Chinese




  6. 从中英谚语看中西人际关系价值取向的差异%On the Value-oriented Discrepancy of Interpersonal Relations between China and West from the Angle of Chinese and English Proverbs




  7. Reculer Pour Mieux Sauter : A Review of Attachment and Other Developmental Processes Inherent in Identified Risk Factors for Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Offending

    Dianna T Kenny; Susan Blacker; Mark Allerton


    The task of this paper is to identify the causes of juvenile delinquency and juvenile offending. The French proverb chosen for its title ( Step back in order to jump better ) reflects the inherent challenge in this task; that is, how far back must we step in order to gain a complete understanding of these causes? Do we commence with adolescence, childhood, birth, pregnancy, conception, or the young person’s parents and their life experiences? How wide a net do we cast? Should we focus prima...

  8. Saying' s Semantic Leveles and Classification in Zen Books%禅籍俗语语义层次及其分类

    李艳琴; 李豪杰


    禅籍中保留了相当大一部分俗语俗谚,"除宋元评话、元明杂剧和明清小说而外,保存汉语民俗语言最富者,当属禅宗典籍和俗讲文献".[1](p101)禅录堪称唐宋时代俗语俗谚之宝库.本文将出现在禅籍中的俗语的语义层次分为一般义和宗门义两个层次,按此划分,将禅籍俗语分为三类:第一类是只具有一般义的俗语;第二类是同时具有一般义和宗门义的俗语;第三类是只具有宗门义的禅林生造俗语.同时重点讨论了第三类俗语.%It retains a considerable part of the proverb saying in Zen books."In addition to the Song and Yuan Storytelling,Yuan and Ming Dynasty and the Ming and Qing novels ,the richest saved Chinese folk language,un-doubtedly is Zen books and folk talking."[1](P101)Zen books can be called treasure trove of Tang and Song Dynas-ties. The proverb saying in this article will be divided into two levels :the general meaning and the munekado meaning. According to the division,the proverb saying in Zen books can be divided into three categories:the first kind is only has the general meaning of idioms;the second is have general meaning and munekado meaning at the same time;the third kind is only have munekado meaning. Meanwhile,the third type of slang is discussed emphat-ically in this article.

  9. Pagsusuri sa mga Balyung Nakapaloob sa mga Salawikain ng mga Tiruray Sa South Upi, Maguindanao, Philippines

    Maria Luz D. Calibayan


    Full Text Available This study sought to collect, record, translate, and analyze the Tiruray proverbs. Specifically the study aimed to find out the following: (1 What are the existing proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao? (2What are the values found as expressed in the proverbs of Tiruraythat have been successfully preserved from their ancestors? The scope of this study was confined to the collected proverbs of Tiruray in South Upi, Maguindanao. The gatheredproverbs were transcribed from Tiruray to Filipino languageand the analysis of values from the translated proverbs was in accordance with the ideas of Andres (1985 and Timbreza (2003. The research design adopted in the study is descriptive content analysis because the main objective of the study was to analyse the values found in Tiruray proverbs. Findings revealed that the Tiruray have rich in oral literary piecessuch as proverbs which are transmitted by word of mouth from generation to generation. The Tiruray proverbs contain differenthuman values that teach or remind people how to live godly lives. Further, Tiruray proverbs conveyed message on how they value peace and harmony in the community for they are peace-loving people. The study of Tiruray proverbs could increase the body of knowledge about the cultural traits of Tiruray who are unique people and have rich cultural heritage.

  10. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B


    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops". PMID:24001641

  11. Anything new under the sun of African Biblical Hermeneutics in South African Old Testament Scholarship?: Incarnation, death and resurrection of the Word in Africa

    Madipoane Masenya; Hulisani Ramantswana


    In this article, two lenses are used to engage the task of African Biblical Hermeneutics. The one lens is derived from African wisdom, i shavha i sia muinga i ya fhi?, in which there is a need for people to affirm their own roots. Drawing from the wisdom of the preceding proverb, we argue that, in their scholarship, African biblical scholars have to take seriously their own African heritage and thus do justice to their contexts rather than rely heavily on Western paradigms if their scholars...

  12. The african protoproverbial in a multipolar world

    Taiwo, Ọlọruntọba-Oju


    The proverb is a rhetorical universal and as such shares features across linguistic, ethnic and culture boundaries, thus making typological distinctions along ethnic or regional lines a daunting task. Further complicating this scenario within the African context is the relentless hybridization and subversion of the African proverb consequent on colonial contact and sundry postcolonial interventions. This twin trajectory, the conceptual universalism of the proverb and the relent...

  13. Definicja przysłowia w wybranych opracowaniach francuskich, niemieckich i polskich oraz próba konfrontatywnej analizy problemu

    Zakrzewski, Paweł


    In the paper Definition of proverb in selected French, German and Polish papers and an attempt of contrastive analysis of the issue, there is an attempt of creating a concise and clear definition of proverb, by comparing the definitions of different authors. Thus, proverb is a short and autonomous expression, with normative and didactic message, transferred metaphorically. In addition, the paper describes briefly the current results of sociolinguistic research, studying th...

  14. Interplay of Cognitive Efficiency, Cognitive Ability and Motivation

    Bruna Piks


    Full Text Available The current body of research often focuses on the problem of cognitive decline through ageing. People adapt to these changes of cognitive resources by using brain reserve. An overview of results of different studies on how cognitive abilities of older adults decline highlights high variability of conclusions and sometimes contradiction but it has been shown older adults can be as good as or even better than younger participants in specific domains. Among others, personal meaningfulness of a situation and closeness to the researcher can be strong factors when assessing cognitive abilities and the aim of this paper was to research how these effect cognitive efficiency. In the pilot study we eliminated the factor of laboratory setting and checked how cognitive efficiency and abilities change in relation to motivation. Forty-eight participants, divided into two age groups, were asked to pass a proverb interpretation test. The results showed that participant’s subjective view on the researcher, perceived closeness, correlated with the adequacy in proverb interpretation. Both groups scored higher on adequacy of interpretation when they perceived to be close to the researcher. The younger adults outperformed the older but those in the older adults’ group, who felt to be close to the researcher scored as well as younger adults who didn’t perceived to be close to the researcher. This motivational reserve might play a role in assessing cognitive abilities and pathologies that affect the outcome of neuropsychological tests.

  15. Aplikasi Kamus Digital Peribahasa Indonesia Menggunakan Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0

    Matondang, Nurhamidah


    This study aims to build applications that can be an invaluable tool in education, especially in the Indonesian field in which there Proverb. Digital Dictionary of Proverbs Indonesia was designed using the software Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 and other supporting software. The research method used is book study is research conducted by the library to obtain the theoretical data, such as collecting data retrieved from the dictionary many proverbs. Based on those writers intereste...

  16. Planning Argumentative Texts

    Huang, X


    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  17. Tarih Ve Günümüz Kültürü/// History and Today's Culture

    Fahri Sakal


    Full Text Available One of the basic issues of philosophy of history is about the thesis either the past brighten to-day or to-day explains the past. The social institutions of today, language and folklore largely bear the imprint of the past. Then we can say that the history is a continuous interaction between the past and today. We are trying to explain this by studying on our folklore products, on some concepts of our language and proverbs.The folkloric materials are signs of history of a society at present. The epics, historical anecdotes and proverbs give clues of historical events. Even folk music‟s and names can help a researcher if the research has ability to evaluate them. As known, some times the statesmen evade some documents, which may contain unpleasant information, to be put on the shelves of archives. In this case, the folkloric material can be very vital source of documents for a researcher to find out a historical event.

  18. Emsâl ü Nesâyih-i Türkî ve Dil Özellikleri Üzerine The Emsâl ü Nesâyih-i Türkî and Its Language Properties

    Talip DOĞAN


    Full Text Available The proverbs that reflect the characters of nations, their manner and mentality against life are connected to lots of fields such as language, literature, history, folklore, sociology, psychology and philosophy. Also these sayings are very important language characteristics in terms of strong expression and conceptual richness.When said in the right time, these sayings give power to the thoughtand we can see that they are made use of all the opportunity oflanguage. The proverbs which are one of the products of oral culturesetting have the power of expressing every kind of events about life withevery aspect and colorfulness. So we can see the religious, moral,understanding, common values, mental state, imagination andintelligence glitters of Turkish nation. Turkish proverbs show thecharacter of Turk beyond the differences like geography and dialect andalso they have the characteristics of a historical document. Proverb inTurkish language was called as the words like sav, mesel anddarbımesel. Today, Azerbaijan Turks use the terms like atalar sözü, atababa sözleri, emsâl, emsâl-i Türkân instead of proverb.Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì was written by Mìrzā ‘Elineḳì Merāġì inMeraga city of Iran Azerbaijan in the early years of 20th century. Thehandwritten literal work has Talîk-Divanî font style. Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-iTürkì is thirty three pages and includes proverbs. Proverbs were savedaccording to letters lined up of Arab Alphabet and their dialectcharacteristics were saved.In this study, spelling, voice and form properties of proverbs inThe Emåāl ü Neṣāyiḥ-i Türkì have been examined. In addition to this,language properties have been compared with historical dialects anddialects of Oguz group. Milletlerin karakterlerini, hayat karşısındaki tutum ve zihniyetlerini yansıtan atasözleri; dil, edebiyat, tarih, folklor, sosyoloji, psikoloji, felsefe gibi çeşitli alanlarla yakından ilgilidir. Bu sözler ayr

  19. Subjective preferences and alternative costs

    William Barnett II


    Full Text Available The present paper is an exploration of the economics of subjectivism and opportunity or alternative costs. Most contemporary economists pay lip service to these concepts, but when push comes to shove, all too often they jettison them. We shall illustrate this lapse from basic economics with a challenge that has been perplexing several modern economists: why do people always walk on staircases, but only sometimes on escalators. Landsburg (2002 misunderstood the reason people only sometimes walk on escalators, whereas they always walk on stairs. Garrison (2009 tackled the same problem, with somewhat different results. Both of them, however, are guilty of a failure to use what is perhaps the most fundamental concept in the economist’s toolkit – opportunity cost, known to an immense number of non-economists by the aphorism ‘There’s no such thing as a free lunch.’ This oversight resulted in his (their failure to explain why people only sometimes walk on escalators, in contradistinction to the fact that they always walk on staircases.

  20. D'un complex d'inferioritat proverbial

    Maria Conca


    Full Text Available This is is a paper about the history of Catalan proverbs borrowed by Spanish tradition and lost in modern Catalan. The authors give the real origin of such proverbs and stress the sociolinguistic relevance of this «oblivion», as a kind of inferiority complex, to the present-day consciousness of the Catalan speech community.

  1. Headache in the writings of Moses Maimonides and other Hebrew sages.

    Rosner, F


    In the history of philosophy, theology, and medicine, Maimonides shares the limelight with Arabic scholars such as Ibn Rushd, Ibn Sinna and Ibn Zuhr, chronologically between the great intellectuals of classical Greece and Rome and those of the later Middle Ages and early Renaissance. Maimonides was a very great philosopher and theologian, usually underrated by the historians. He was also an outstanding medical practitioner and teacher. Moses Maimonides had an incredible literary ability and an encyclopedic knowledge. He wrote extensively in the fields of theology, mathematics, law, philosophy, astronomy, ethics, and, of course, medicine. His medical writings are varied, comprising extracts from Greek medicine, a series of monographs on health in general and several diseases in particular, and a pharmacopoiea. The present essay extracts, primarily from Maimonides' medical writings, his pronouncements dealing with headache. Since most of Maimonides' pronouncements about headache in his Medical Aphorisms were derived from Graeco-Roman medical writers such as Hippocrates, and especially Galen, in regard to these statements Maimonides was merely a compiler--not an innovator. Some of his concepts about the causes of headaches being related to a dysequilibrium of the body humors are clearly medieval in origin. Other statements demonstrate this concern with preventive medicine and the maintenance of a healthy regimen of daily living. Medications to treat illness should only be used if non-medicinal means such as diet and exercise are not effective. The heritage of Maimonides' writings is being more and more appreciated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349474

  2. Vanasõnad pedagoogilises kõnes

    Liisa Granbom-Herranen


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between proverbs and pedagogical situations in bringing up children. The research deals with the life-stories that speak about the childhood in the early 20th century Finland. As research material two collections fromthe Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki have been used. The themes of the proverbs in pedagogical speech were the following: 1 control of one’s own life and living with others; 2 work; 3 livelihood, support and care; 4 Christian way ofliving, and 5 proverbs without a context. As a conclusion it can be said that for a child proverbs are combinations of socio-cultural contexts, people, emotions and information in various situations. For a child as a listener the content of the proverb is, above all,connected with the situation and the person involved, and it serves primarily as a piece of concrete advice.

  3. Design Trends in Gold Jewellery Making in Ghana and Global Cultural Influence.

    Peggy Ama Fening


    Full Text Available Although Ghana is the second largest producer of gold in Africa, its jewellery industry accounts for very little percentage of the world production total. This observation is partly attributed to the extent to which the Ghanaian jewellery products have been influenced by global culture. The objective of this paper was therefore to investigate the influence of global culture on gold jewellery designs. Data used in this study were collected mainly through direct observations at goldsmiths’ workshops and showrooms, jewellery retail shops, during festivals and durbars, and visits to chiefs and traditional rulers’ homes. Close and open ended questionnaires and personal interviews were also used to solicit information from 400 respondents comprising; jewellers/Goldsmith, Chiefs and traditional rulers, jewellery traders and the general public. The study showed that a new trend of jewellery design has evolved. There are new innovations in the production of old aphorisms and symbols that has been influenced by global culture. This is reflected in the usage of brand names and their logos as well as the initials of customers’ names in making jewellery. The craftsmen were of the view that technological advancement and the use of modern equipment, as well as global fashion have contributed immensely to this observation. On the other hand the chiefs and traditional rulers were of the view that the impact of globalisation if not checked will lead to the erosion of the rich cultural designs of the Ghanaian people.

  4. Is relevance theory applicable to proverbs’ translation?

    Pegulescu Anca-Mariana


    Full Text Available Translation, viewed as a multi-faceted task, can arise different types of difficulties. Proverbs have been considered special patterns, displaying sometimes hidden meanings or suggesting morals issuing from a particular example. These paremic units - the proverbs - conveyed feelings, states of mind, behaviours or ‘metaphorical descriptions of certain situations’(Krikmann. Starting from Savory’s list of pair-wise contradictory translation principles, I intend to prove that the link between different ‘forms’ and their ‘contents’ lies in the principle of relevance when referring to proverbs. Even if relevance theory is not a theory of linguistic structure - and many translation problems imply structural mismatches - relevance theory offers insights about contextual information. Proverbs are seen as texts in themselves. My analysis will target the ethnofields of ‘to buy’ and ‘to sell’ in English proverbs and their Romanian corresponding versions.

  5. The secret of the care of the patient is in knowing and applying the evidence about effective clinical communication.

    Frankel, R M; Sherman, H B


    American physicians and dentists conduct approximately 140 000-160 000 patient interviews in a practice lifetime, making the interview the most frequently performed medical procedure. Over the past 75 years, a steadily growing stream of scientific research has confirmed the fact that patient-clinician communication affects the course, direction, and both biomedical and functional outcomes of care. The field of clinical communication research has matured from anecdotes and aphorisms about 'bedside manner' to sophisticated randomized control trials and evidence-based outcomes that have been translated into reliable practice guidelines. Several key skills or habits of practice have been identified and studied in terms of their efficacy and effectiveness. These include the importance of agenda-setting, eliciting patients' perspectives about the nature of their ailments, communicating caring and concern, and testing for patient comprehension and agreement with proposed treatments. In addition to being effective, interpersonal communication can be deeply satisfying as well as offering a lower probability of law suits in the event of an adverse outcome. PMID:24725164

  6. Kenntnis und Gebrauch von Sprichwörtern bei zwei Gruppen österreichischer Jugendlicher

    Lipavic-Oštir, Alja


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results and findings of the study on the levels of knowledge and use of proverbs among students from two secondary education institutions in Austria (a comprehensive school in a small town in Styria and a general upper secondary school in Vienna based on a relevant survey. The students taking part in the study very surveyed on their knowledge of various proverbs (the proverb database in the questionnaire included 76 entries and on the meaning of the respective proverbs. Furthermore, the students were encouraged to estimate the frequency of their use of proverbs in speaking and writing. The results show that the "rural environment" factor is not statistically significant with reference to proverb preservation (both as part of the passive as well as the active vocabulary. The male and female students enrolled in the comprehensive school from a small town in Styria know less proverbs compared to their peers, enrolled in the general upper secondary school in Vienna included in the study. What is more, the students enrolled in the comprehensive school from a small town in Styria also know the meaning and use proverbs in speaking and/or writing less frequently than their peers from the general upper secondary school in Vienna included in the study. Rather than the aspect of "rural environment", the results hint at the aspect of "type of school" to be the determining factor (comprehensive school vs. general upper secondary school. Further analyses, including additional test subjects, would provide more insight on whether the relations between proverbs and the linguistic as well as intellectual education are prominent to such an extent that a distinct degree of reception and production of proverbs could be linked to a particular type of school. The study also features an analysis of the difference between the students with reference to gender (male vs. female, with the results showing a relatively consistent distribution.

  7. The learned physician as a charismatic healer: Urso of Salerno (flourished end of twelfth century) on incantations in medicine, magic, and religion.

    van der Lugt, Maaike


    Urso, the last of the great Salernitan physicians, was both an ardent defender of a theoretical, scientific medicine and the first in the medieval West to propose, in his aphorisms, a rational and naturalistic explanation of the healing power of incantations. The article explores this paradox and provides an in-depth analysis of Urso's highly original and hitherto ignored argument, as well as its intellectual and social background. According to Urso, the efficacy of incantations relies not on the power of words, but on the charismatic physician's "aura"-spirits emanating from his body-and the patient's confidence in and conformity with the physician. Urso compares medical incantations to teaching, fascination, demonic magic, sacraments, and prayer. It is argued that Urso's incursions into theology are both a tactic to defend his bold naturalism against accusations of unorthodoxy and a reflection of his ambition to create a comprehensive "science of everything." Urso's text and an English translation are provided in an appendix. PMID:24096557

  8. Climate Change: Past, Present, and Future

    Chapman, David S.; Davis, Michael G.


    Questions about global warming concern climate scientists and the general public alike. Specifically, what are the reliable surface temperature reconstructions over the past few centuries? And what are the best predictions of global temperature change the Earth might expect for the next century? Recent publications [National Research Council (NRC), 2006; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2007] permit these questions to be answered in a single informative illustration by assembling temperature reconstructions of the past thousand years with predictions for the next century. The result, shown in Figure 1, illustrates present and future warming in the context of natural variations in the past [see also Oldfield and Alverson, 2003]. To quote a Chinese proverb, “A picture's meaning can express ten thousand words.” Because it succinctly captures past inferences and future projections of climate, the illustration should be of interest to scientists, educators, policy makers, and the public.

  9. Policy Pathways: Q and A Fact Sheet



    There are two main messages for this series. First, with respect to energy efficiency, countries know what to do, but not necessarily how to do it. These Pathways try to fill this 'know-how' gap. Second, the IEA acknowledges that simply making recommendations to countries is not enough. We have made 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations, but we know that countries need assistance with how to implement them. We can reinterpret the proverb about teaching a man to fish. ''Give a country an energy efficiency recommendation, and you hold their attention for a day. Help a country to implement the recommendation, and you are more likely to launch energy savings that last for years.''

  10. Required developments towards ultra high pressure and temperature subsea tree system solutions

    Queseth, Per-Olaf


    For the subsea High Pressure High Temperature oil and gas production systems, the primary challenge is to provide good, reliable solutions for HPHT reservoir exploitation based on an overview of parameters for already discovered potential fields. The paper will present a resume of Aker Solutions' previous development in this area exemplified with experiences from testing and operator observations during production start of HPHT fields in the North Sea. Further improvements are required to comply with the extreme pressures and temperatures sought to overcome. 'The Devil is in the details' is a very relevant proverb. A program to qualify subsea production X-mas trees for Ultra HPHT use will be presented with highlight on sealing systems, feed-through solutions and materials as well as impact on interfacing systems. Preliminary and intermediate analytical and test results will be presented and remaining activities summarised. (Author)