Sample records for anxiety

  1. Anxiety

    ... anxiety disorder. As many as 14% of older adults have anxiety disorders. These disorders are more common among older women than older men. In later life, people may develop anxiety disorders during stressful events such as a serious illness, the loss of ...

  2. Anxiety

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people in the United States, the anxiety does not ...

  3. Anxiety

    ... take a test or walk down a dark street. This kind of anxiety is useful - it can make you more alert or careful. It usually ends soon after you are out of the situation that caused it. But for millions of people ...

  4. Anxiety Disorders

    ... press the Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults Click for more information Studies estimate that anxiety ... anxiety symptoms or make them worse. In older adults, anxiety disorders often occur at the same time as depression, ...

  5. Test Anxiety

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  6. Performance Anxiety

    ÇİMEN, Gül


    Performance anxiety is an important professional matter effecting the musicians. In this article, with the reasons of performance anxiety, methods and techniques used to relieve the anxiety are discussed and some suggestions are introduced.

  7. Anxiety Disorders

    ... Therapies Join a Study Learn More Anxiety Disorders Definition Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. ... and sharing their problems and achievements with others. Internet chat rooms might also be useful, but any ...

  8. Anxiety Disorders

    Klein, Rachel G.


    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  9. Anxiety Disorders

    ... Databases International Annual Meeting Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students ... Information Anxiety is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It ...

  10. Anxiety disorders

    ... which may include: Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle Genetics. Anxiety disorders may run in families. Traumatic events. Experiencing abuse, an attack, or sexual assault can lead to serious health problems, including ...

  11. Anxiety Disorders

    ... situation, and affects a person's daily life and happiness. Symptoms of an anxiety disorder can come on ... letting go of worry allows space for more happiness and fun. Reviewed by: D'Arcy Lyness, PhD ...

  12. Genre Anxiety

    Alacovska, Ana


    This article explores how the concept of genre can enrich our understanding of gender inequality in media industries. All media work takes place within genre-specific production worlds, which seem to be gender-segregated. By examining the gendered and gendering ideology of genres, an outcome of g...... anxiety and constrains female travel writers’ biographical identity work. By treating genres as mediators of work experiences and practices, I elucidate how contemporary female travel writers experience and cope with genre-induced anxiety....

  13. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    ... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part of life, ... Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce Your Anxiety Anxiety and Stress in the Workplace Exercise for Stress and Anxiety ...

  14. Health Anxiety, Hypochondriasis, and the Anxiety Disorders

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Deacon, Brett J.


    Although clinical observations suggest that health-related anxiety is present, to some extent, in a number of anxiety disorders, this relationship has not been examined empirically. The present study therefore utilized the Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI) to elucidate the structure of such symptoms among patients with anxiety disorders and to…

  15. [Social anxiety].

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine


    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used. PMID:20623894

  16. Clinical Diagnosis of Anxiety

    Ghadirian, A M


    Although anxiety constitutes the chief symptom of neuroses and functional psychoses, there is little agreement on its definition. This article reviews such definitions, the epidemiology of anxiety, and distinguishes between anxiety, depression and stress.

  17. Stop Performance Anxiety!

    Ely, Mark C.


    Discusses how teachers can help music students overcome performance anxiety. Divides performance anxiety into four major components: physiological, cognitive, behavioral, and psychological. Suggests fighting anxiety with relaxation techniques, imagery, cognitive statements, positive thinking, practice, and preparation. Discourages use of…

  18. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. How Separation Anxiety Develops Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. ...

  19. Disability in anxiety disorders

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.


    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  20. Generalized anxiety disorder

    ... anxiety Generalized anxiety disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  1. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    ... and Thrive Managing Anxiety Exercise for Stress and Anxiety Main navigation Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce ... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part ...

  2. Anxiety as social practice

    Jackson, P.; Everts, J.


    This paper advances a theory of anxiety as social practice. Distinguishing between individual anxieties and anxiety as a social condition, the paper suggests that anxiety has not been subject to the same level of theoretical scrutiny as related concepts such as risk, trust, or fear. Drawing on the existential philosophy of Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger, the paper shows how contemporary anxieties involve the recognition of our own mortality and the destabilisation of established system...

  3. Anxiety at outpatient hysteroscopy

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan; Carli, Vladimir


    This review summarises current understanding and research on the association between anxiety and outpatient hysteroscopy. Women undergoing hysteroscopy suffer from significant levels of anxiety, with repercussions on pain perception, success rates and satisfaction. Using validated tools such as the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) or the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in the outpatient hysteroscopy setting, average state anxiety scores similar or greater than those m...


    ÖZTÜRK, Abdülkadir


    The communication process that influences human lives is negatively affected by social anxiety. There have been many studies conducted and perspectives introduced about social anxiety. The purpose of this study is to explain social anxiety through examining approaches regarding social anxiety and investigate the sufficiency of those approaches. In this study, approaches about social anxiety are categorized in five groups. These categories are biological approach, psychological approach, cult...


    Arya Ashwani; Kumar Tarun; Malik Ajay; Hooda Anil


    Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher prepo...

  6. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G


    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  7. anxiety disorders

    Stacey A. Hofflich


    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  8. Separation anxiety in children

    ... page: // Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage during which ...

  9. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...

  10. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    Staner, Luc


    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...


    Arya Ashwani


    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  12. Competitive Anxiety in Sport.

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…

  13. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Marly de Albuquerque


    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  14. Westside Test Anxiety Scale Validation

    Driscoll, Richard


    The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…

  15. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders

    Engel, Kirsten; Bandelow, Borwin; Gruber, Oliver; Wedekind, Dirk


    Neuroimaging studies have gained increasing importance in validating neurobiological network hypotheses for anxiety disorders. Functional imaging procedures and radioligand binding studies in healthy subjects and in patients with anxiety disorders provide growing evidence of the existence of a complex anxiety network, including limbic, brainstem, temporal, and prefrontal cortical regions. Obviously, “normal anxiety” does not equal “pathological anxiety” although many phenomena are evident in ...

  16. Oxidative stress and anxiety

    Bouayed, Jaouad; Rammal, Hassan; Soulimani, Rachid


    High O2 consumption, modest antioxidant defenses and a lipid-rich constitution make the brain highly vulnerable to redox imbalances. Oxidative damage in the brain causes nervous system impairment. Recently, oxidative stress has also been implicated in depression, anxiety disorders and high anxiety levels. The findings which establish a link between oxidative stress and pathological anxiety have inspired a number of other recent studies focusing on the link between oxidative status and normal ...

  17. Language Anxiety in English Learning



    This paper aims to discuss the language anxiety in English learning from the following two aspects: the definition of anxiety and the effects of language anxiety. Meanwhile, it provides some pedagogical implications to college English teachers and learners.

  18. Electrocardiographic anxiety profiles improve speech anxiety.

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seung Ae; Jung, Keun-Hwa


    The present study was to set out in efforts to determine the effect of electrocardiographic (ECG) feedback on the performance in speech anxiety. Forty-six high school students participated in a speech performance educational program. They were randomly divided into two groups, an experimental group with ECG feedback (N = 21) and a control group (N = 25). Feedback was given with video recording in the control, whereas in the experimental group, an additional ECG feedback was provided. Speech performance was evaluated by the Korean Broadcasting System (KBS) speech ability test, which determines the 10 different speaking categories. ECG was recorded during rest and speech, together with a video recording of the speech performance. Changes in R-R intervals were used to reflect anxiety profiles. Three trials were performed for 3-week program. Results showed that the subjects with ECG feedback revealed a significant improvement in speech performance and anxiety states, which compared to those in the control group. These findings suggest that visualization of the anxiety profile feedback with ECG can be a better cognitive therapeutic strategy in speech anxiety. PMID:22714138

  19. Anxiety in Children with Headaches

    Anita Vulić-Prtorić; Slavka Galić; Renata Coha; Marina Grubić; Josip Lopižić; Patricija Padelin


    The aim of this study was to examine the different aspects of anxiety symptoms: separation anxiety, social anxiety, test anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, worry, anxiety sensitivity, somatic symptoms in four groups of subjects: 1) children with headaches in pediatric care, 2) nonclinical headachers, 3) subjects with anxiety disorders, and 4) healthy controls. The sample consisted of 187 schoolchildren: 43 patients with headaches as a primary complaint, 59 headachers recruited from th...

  20. Test and Performance Anxiety

    Huberty, Thomas J.


    Test and performance anxiety is not recognized easily in schools, in large part because adolescents rarely refer themselves for emotional concerns. Not wanting to risk teasing or public attention, anxious adolescents suffer in silence and under perform on school-related tasks. In school, anxiety is experienced often by students when being…

  1. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment At around the age of 10, I ... navigation Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment End the Suffering: Triumph Over Anxiety and ...

  2. Is pregnancy anxiety a distinctive syndrome?

    Huizink, A.C.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Robles de Medina, P.G.R.; Visser, G.H.A.


    OBJECTIVE: Assessment of general anxiety during pregnancy may underestimate anxiety specifically related to pregnancy. Pregnancy anxiety rather than general anxiety has been shown to predict birth outcome and neuroendocrine changes during pregnancy. Therefore, a questionnaire on pregnancy anxieties

  3. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai


    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…


    Mathew, Roy J.


    Anxiety disorders are some of the commonest psychiatric disorders and anxiety commonly co-exists with other psychiatric conditions. Anxiety can also be a normal emotion. Thus, study of the neurobiological effects of anxiety is of considerable significance. In the normal brain, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism (CMR) serve as indices of brain function. CBF/CMR research is expected to provide new insight into alterations in brain function in anxiety disorders and other psychiatric disord...

  5. Castration anxiety and phobias.

    Cogan, Rosemary; Larrabee, Linda K; Wyatt, Ian M; Ontiberoz, Amanda; Waters, Stephanie K; Werner, Mitzi L; Miller, Andrea L; Lovelady, Adrianne C; Hurt, Tilmon J; Hardin, Edward D; Gonzalez, Patricia M


    Based on Freud's case study of "Little Hans," the authors tested the hypothesis that men with phobias would score higher on castration anxiety than men without phobias. College men with either average or high scores on the Fears Scale of the MMPI-2 (n = 10 men in each group) responded to the Thematic Apperception Test, which was scored for castration anxiety. Men with high scores on the Fears Scale had higher scores on castration anxiety than men with average scores on the Fears Scale. The findings are consistent with Freud's hypothesis about phobias. PMID:12585544

  6. Foreign and Second Language Anxiety

    Horwitz, Elaine K.


    The possibility that anxiety interferes with language learning has long interested scholars, language teachers, and language learners themselves. It is intuitive that anxiety would inhibit the learning and/or production of a second language (L2). The important term in the last sentence is "anxiety". The concept of anxiety is itself multi-faceted,…

  7. Social anxiety disorder

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Stein MB, Stein DJ. Social anxiety disorder. Lancet . 2008;371:1115- ...

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ... expect. For instance, a person who has generalized anxiety disorder may constantly worry about a child who is perfectly healthy. About 4 million adults in the United States have GAD. Women are ...

  9. Anxiety Around Medical Procedures

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  10. Sudanese library anxiety construct

    Abusin, K.A.; Zainab, A.N.; Abdul Karim, Noor Harun


    Library anxiety is manifested in the form of negative feelings, fear, stress, distress, confusion and has debilitating effects on students’ academic performance, which makes it a serious phenomenon for investigation. This study explores library anxiety amongst Sudanese university students and identifies factors that contribute to this phenomenon. The factors were identified using the diary approach collected from 51 third year undergraduate students who were taking the research method course ...

  11. Capsulotomy in anxiety disorders

    Rück, Christian


    Background Anxiety disorders are common and a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to conventional treatments such as SSRIs or CBT. Capsulotomy is a neurosurgical treatment for treatment refractory patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders. The aim of this thesis was to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of capsulotomy. Methods and results In Study I, 26 consecutive patients who underwent capsulotomy from 1975-...


    Avakyan, Tamara; Volikova, Svetlana


    Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanag...

  13. Anxiety and DSM-5

    Kupfer, David J


    The DSM-5 process, and the publication of DSM-5 in 2013, have had a considerable impact on the classification of anxiety disorders. Major changes included the reorganization of the chapter structure, individual groupings of disorders within each chapter from a life span viewpoint, and the use of specifiers. The DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders does not include obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. The chapter itself now reflects a developmental approach. The text ...

  14. Anxiety Sensitivity: Prospective Prediction of Anxiety among Early Adolescents

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Keough, Meghan E.; Mitchell, Melissa A.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Lejuez, C. W.


    Emerging evidence suggests that anxiety sensitivity (AS) predicts subsequent development of anxiety symptoms and panic attacks as well as clinical syndromes in adult samples. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether AS similarly acts as a vulnerability factor in the pathogenesis of anxiety symptoms among youth in early adolescence (ages 9-13). A large nonclinical community sample of youth (N = 277) was prospectively followed over one year. The Childhood Anxiety Sensitivit...

  15. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.


    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that ...

  16. Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress

    ... Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Tips to Manage Anxiety and Stress Main navigation Tips Severe Storms: How to Reduce Your Anxiety Anxiety and Stress in the Workplace Exercise for Stress and Anxiety ...

  17. Statistics Anxiety, State Anxiety during an Examination, and Academic Achievement

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai; Freudenthaler, H. Harald; Arendasy, Martin


    Background: A large proportion of students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their curriculum. Many students feel impaired by feelings of state anxiety in the examination and therefore probably show lower achievements. Aims: The study investigates how statistics anxiety, attitudes (e.g., interest, mathematical…

  18. Death Anxiety as a Function of Aging Anxiety

    Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.


    To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…

  19. Anxiety Disorders Information: Helping Others

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...

  20. Oxidative Imbalance and Anxiety Disorders

    R, Krolow; D. M, Arcego; C, Noschang; S. N, Weis; C, Dalmaz


    The oxidative imbalance appears to have an important role in anxiety development. Studies in both humans and animals have shown a strong correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress. In humans, for example, the increased malondialdehyde levels and discrepancies in antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes have been observed. In animals, several studies also show that anxiety-like behavior is related to the oxidative imbalance. Moreover, anxiety-like behavior can be caused by pharmacological-ind...

  1. Factors That Explains Student Anxiety toward Mathematics

    García-Santillán, Arturo; Escalera-Chávez, Milka Elena; Moreno-García, Elena; Santana-Villegas, Josefina del Carmen


    The aim of this research is to test whether anxiety toward mathematics is made up of a five-factor structure: anxiety toward evaluation, anxiety toward temporality, anxiety toward understanding of mathematical problems, anxiety toward numbers and operations, and anxiety toward mathematical situations in real life. Our study sample was formed of…

  2. The Effects of Math Anxiety

    Andrews, Amanda; Brown, Jennifer


    Math anxiety is a reoccurring problem for many students, and the effects of this anxiety on college students are increasing. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between pre-enrollment math anxiety, standardized test scores, math placement scores, and academic success during freshman math coursework (i.e., pre-algebra, college…

  3. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Williams, Amanda S.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  4. Anxiety in foreign language learning



    Among the affective emotional variables in foreign language learning and teaching, anxiety stands out as one of the main blocking factors for affective language learning. In this paper, the author comes up with some solutions in dealing with different types of anxiety. The author believes the facilitative anxiety may benefit a lot in language teaching and learning.

  5. Managing Presentation Anxiety

    Hartman, Jackie L.; LeMay, Elaine


    All business communication professors struggle with anxiety-ridden students when discussing public speaking. To alleviate students' fears of speaking in public a process was designed to allow business communication students to acknowledge, address, and annul their presentation fears. A six-year comparative study using qualitative methods and…

  6. Wedges of Anxiety

    Hellström, Maria; Brandt, Eva


    The Heraclitian notion of a reality in constant flux seems to have settled even in the public consciousness. We are, to an ever-increasing extent, on the move; in motion between different places of abode, between domiciles and places of residence, between temporary addresses and provisory settlem...... cones of light, as the cut their way into the unknown, like wedges of anxiety...

  7. Health Anxiety in Preadolescence

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Munkholm, Anja; Clemmensen, Lars;


    Epidemiological data on the distribution, persistence, and clinical correlates of health anxiety (HA) in childhood are scarce. We investigated continuity of HA symptoms and associated health problems and medical costs in primary health services in a general population birth cohort. HA symptoms were...

  8. Inflammation in anxiety.

    Salim, Samina; Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad


    The idea of the existence of an interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) has prompted extensive research interest into the subject of "Psychoneuroimmunology" taking the field to an interesting level where new hypotheses are being increasingly tested. Specifically, exactly how the cross talk of pathways and mechanisms enable immune system to influence our brain and behavior is a question of immense significance. Of particular relevance to this topic is the role of cytokines in regulating functions within the CNS that ultimately modulate behavior. Interestingly, psychological stress is reported to modulate cytokine production, suggesting potential relevance of this mediator to mental health. In fact, cytokine signaling in the brain is known to regulate important brain functions including neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, synaptic plasticity, as well as the neural circuitry of mood. It is rather obvious to expect an aberrant behavioral outcome as a result of a dysregulation in cytokine signaling which might lead to occurrence of depression, anxiety, and cognitive dysfunction. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system influences behavior would reveal targets for potential therapeutic development as well as strategies for the prevention of neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, the presence of inflammatory responses and the crucial role of cytokines in depression have received most attention. However, considering a big socioeconomic impact due to an alarming increase in anxiety disorder patients, there is an urgent research need for a better understanding of the role of cytokines in anxiety. In this review, we discuss recent research on the role of neuroimmunology in anxiety. At the end, we offer an "oxidative stress theory," which we propose works perhaps as a "sensor of distress," the imbalance of which leads to neuroinflammation and causes anxiety disorders. Much research is needed to extensively

  9. Autonomic arousal in childhood anxiety disorders: associations with state anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    Alkozei, Anna; Creswell, Catharine; Cooper, Peter; Allen, John


    Background Psychophysiological theories suggest that individuals with anxiety disorders may evidence inflexibility in their autonomic activity at rest and when responding to stressors. In addition, theories of social anxiety disorder, in particular, highlight the importance of physical symptoms. Research on autonomic activity in childhood (social) anxiety disorders, however, is scarce and has produced inconsistent findings, possibly because of methodological limitations. Method The ...


    Mohale Deepak S.


    Full Text Available Anxiety can be a core symptom of various mental/ behavioral disorders such as major depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, panic disorder, adaptive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social withdrawal disorder, and various phobias. The neuroanatomic circuits that support fear and anxiety behavior are modulated by a variety of neurochemicals, these include the peptidergic neurotransmitters, Corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF, neuropeptide Y (NPY, and substance P, the monoaminergic transmitters, Norepinephrine (NE, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT, and dopamine (DA, and the amino acid transmitters, Gamma Aminobuteric Acid (GABA and glutamate and many more. These neurochemical systems subserve important adaptive functions in preparing the organism for responding to threat or stress, by increasing vigilance, modulating memory, mobilizing energy stores, and elevating cardiovascular function. Nevertheless, these biological responses to threat and stress can become maladaptive if they are chronically or inappropriately activated.

  11. Death and Death Anxiety

    Gonca Karakus; Zehra Ozturk; Lut Tamam


    Although death and life concepts seem so different from each other, some believe that death and life as a whole that death is accepted as the goal of life and death completes life. In different cultures, societies and disciplines, there have been very different definitions of death which changes according to personality, age, religion and cultural status of the individual. Attitudes towards death vary dramatically according to individuals. As for the death anxiety, it is a feeling which start...

  12. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    Kotecha, Meena


    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  13. Creating Low-anxiety Learning Atmosphere



    Researches show that language class can be anxiety-provoking for students. This paper discusses from a general explanations of language anxiety, to five potential sources of students for language anxiety, to an argument of ways in which anxiety is manifested in learners, and finally to list of suggestions for reducing anxiety.

  14. Precompetitive state anxiety in judo

    Carlos Montero Carretero


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 in Spanish judokas, and calculate differences in pre-competitive state anxiety due the sport level, age and gender. We analyze these relationships using a multidimensional anxiety perspective.Method: A sample of 128 judokas from amateur to high performance level participated in our study. The intensity and directional somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and self confidence of the CSAI-2 were measured.Results: The results show that the questionnaire administered showed acceptable psychometric properties, and there are differences in directional somatic and cognitive anxiety for age, and in intensity self confidence for sport level. The implications of these findings for the process of training and competition are discussed in the document.

  15. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff;


    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training in a...... Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009 and...

  16. The measurement of preoperative anxiety.

    Hicks, J A; Jenkins, J G


    Preoperative anxiety was assessed using the hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale, multiple affect adjective check list (MAACL) and linear analogue anxiety scale (LAAS) in 100 consecutive day case patients undergoing termination of pregnancy. The HAD scale, a recently introduced self assessment scale comprising 7 multiple choice questions, was readily accepted and easily understood by patients. There was a high degree of correlation between the HAD scale and both the MAACL (correlation ...


    T K Mishra; Shankar, R.; Sharma, I.; P.K. Srivastava


    SUMMARY Serum cholesterol, total triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, free cholesterol and total phospholipids were studied in 36 patients of anxiety neurosis and 24 control subjects. Serum triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and free-cholesterol were found to be significantly raised while esterified cholesterol WJS significantly lowered in anxiety neurosis. A significant negative correlation was observed between the anxiety score and free cholesterol in ferrule pati...

  18. Anxiety and depression in migraine.

    Devlen, J


    The present study examined the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression among people with migraine. To obtain a spectrum of migraine experience two potentially different samples were identified: over 600 patients attending migraine clinics and 87 migraine sufferers in the general population. International Headache Society criteria were used to establish the diagnosis of migraine. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and studies using th...

  19. Neurobiology of Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Dominick, Kelli C.; Patino, Luis R.; Doyle, Christopher D.; Picard, Lara S.; Phan, K. Luan


    While the fear-based anxiety disorders (i.e., generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia and separation anxiety disorder) are among the most common psychiatric conditions in children and adolescents, only recently has an integrated understanding of the neurobiology of these disorders developed. In this regard, both structural and functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated neuroanatomic and functional abnormalities within the amygdala and prefrontal cortex in youth with fear-based anxi...


    Donka G. Kirova


    Dental anxiety and dental fear are major factors causing much troubles for the people attending to their own personal health. Statistics show that the 25-26-year-olds experience higher dental anxiety than others. This can be accounted for by the diverse, intense effects of a number of psychological factors in this age range that can cause dental fear and dental anxiety.The aim of the present study was to survey the dental anxiety levels among the students of the Faculty of Dentistry in Plovd...

  1. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    ... Anxiety in Migraine Patients Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, PhD and Steven M. ... health care provider if you experience these symptoms. Migraine, Depression, and Anxiety Many migraine patients suffer from ...

  2. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    ... other emotional difficulties” such as alcohol or drug abuse, depression, and other anxiety disorders. Symptoms My drinking was ... Social Anxiety Disorder Videos Social Anxiety and Alcohol Abuse Symptoms Treatment ... Donate Now Get "Triumph," Our E-News Therapist ...

  3. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients

    ... Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Print Email Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients ACHE Newsletter Sign ... newsletter by entering your e-mail address below. Depression and Anxiety in Migraine Patients Todd A. Smitherman, ...

  4. Dreams, katharsis and anxiety.

    Kilborne, Benjamin


    Over the centuries, the importance and the nature of the relationship of "inside" and "outside" in human experience have shifted, with consequences for notions of mind and body. This paper begins with dreams and healing in the Asklepian tradition. It continues with Aristotle's notions of psuche and how these influenced his conception of katharsis and tragedy. Jumping then to the 17th century, we will consider Descartes' focus on dreams in his theories of thinking. Finally, we will turn explicitly to Freud's use of dreams in relation to his theories of anxiety, of psychic processes and of the Oedipus Complex. PMID:23722398

  5. Analysis of test anxiety in medical students

    Pantić Marina; Latas Milan; Obradović Danilo


    Introduction. Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterized with somatic, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to a...

  6. A Review of Research on Language Anxiety

    WANG Tian-jian


    This paper is a review literature on language anxiety. It begins with a discussion of the concepts of general anxiety and language anxiety, and then continues with an introduction of the techniques for identifying language anxiety. Subsequently, litera-ture on the relationships of language anxiety to learner variables and language learning/using are covered. Finally the dispute and theories concerning language anxiety are presented.

  7. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

    ... Conference & Education Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) ...

  8. Antecedents of Maternal Separation Anxiety.

    Fein, Greta G.; And Others


    Examined antecedents of maternal separation anxiety in 83 Italian mothers prior to their infants or toddlers entering group care. Mothers' anxiety did not vary with the child's age. Anxious mothers were younger and less educated, received less support, had temperamentally negative infants, and provided less varied stimulation in the home. (MM)

  9. Social Anxiety among Chinese People

    Qianqian Fan


    Full Text Available The experience of social anxiety has largely been investigated among Western populations; much less is known about social anxiety in other cultures. Unlike the Western culture, the Chinese emphasize interdependence and harmony with social others. In addition, it is unclear if Western constructed instruments adequately capture culturally conditioned conceptualizations and manifestations of social anxiety that might be specific to the Chinese. The present study employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches to examine the assessment of social anxiety among the Chinese people. Interviews and focus group discussions with Chinese participants revealed that some items containing the experience of social anxiety among the Chinese are not present in existing Western measures. Factor analysis was employed to examine the factor structure of the more comprehensive scale. This approach revealed an “other concerned anxiety” factor that appears to be specific to the Chinese. Subsequent analysis found that the new factor—other concerned anxiety—functioned the same as other social anxiety factors in their association with risk factors of social anxiety, such as attachment, parenting, behavioral inhibition/activation, and attitude toward group. The implications of these findings for a more culturally sensitive assessment tool of social anxiety among the Chinese were discussed.

  10. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    J.A.J. Smits; A.C. Berry; D. Rosenfield; M.B. Powers; E. Behar; M.W. Otto


    Background: Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related conditio

  11. Anxiety and Second Language Learning



    Learning a second language is a tough journey which can be hindered by many factors. Anxiety is one of them. In order to improve the learning effect and benefit the learners, it is of great necessity to study learners’ anxiety during the second language learning process.

  12. Studying Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Studying Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... physical and psychological stress, and diet. 5 Major Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) : chronic anxiety, exaggerated ...

  13. Pharmacology of human experimental anxiety

    F.G. Graeff


    Full Text Available This review covers the effect of drugs affecting anxiety using four psychological procedures for inducing experimental anxiety applied to healthy volunteers and patients with anxiety disorders. The first is aversive conditioning of the skin conductance responses to tones. The second is simulated public speaking, which consists of speaking in front of a video camera, with anxiety being measured with psychometric scales. The third is the Stroop Color-Word test, in which words naming colors are painted in the same or in a different shade, the incongruence generating a cognitive conflict. The last test is a human version of a thoroughly studied animal model of anxiety, fear-potentiated startle, in which the eye-blink reflex to a loud noise is recorded. The evidence reviewed led to the conclusion that the aversive conditioning and potentiated startle tests are based on classical conditioning of anticipatory anxiety. Their sensitivity to benzodiazepine anxiolytics suggests that these models generate an emotional state related to generalized anxiety disorder. On the other hand, the increase in anxiety determined by simulated public speaking is resistant to benzodiazepines and sensitive to drugs affecting serotonergic neurotransmission. This pharmacological profile, together with epidemiological evidence indicating its widespread prevalence, suggests that the emotional state generated by public speaking represents a species-specific response that may be related to social phobia and panic disorder. Because of scant pharmacological data, the status of the Stroop Color-Word test remains uncertain. In spite of ethical and economic constraints, human experimental anxiety constitutes a valuable tool for the study of the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  14. Specificity of dysfunctional thinking in children with symptoms of social anxiety, separation anxiety and generalised anxiety

    S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt


    The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s

  15. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.


    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  16. Suicidal Ideation in Anxiety-Disordered Youth

    O'Neil, Kelly A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Podell, Jennifer L.; Kendall, Philip C.


    Evidence is mixed regarding an independent association between anxiety and suicidality in youth. Study 1 examined suicidal ideation in treatment-referred, anxiety-disordered youth (N = 312, aged 7-17). Forty-one percent of anxiety-disordered youth endorsed suicidal ideation. Anxiety disorder severity, global impairment, and current depressive…

  17. The Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents

    C.M. Mathyssek (Christina)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders

  18. Worry, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Statistics Anxiety

    Williams, Amanda S.


    Statistics anxiety is a problem for most graduate students. This study investigates the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry, and statistics anxiety. Intolerance of uncertainty was significantly related to worry, and worry was significantly related to three types of statistics anxiety. Six types of statistics anxiety were…

  19. Anxiety and EFL: Does Multilingualism Matter?

    Thompson, Amy S.; Lee, Junkyu


    The current study is motivated by the gap in the current literature about foreign language classroom anxiety, namely the underlying construct of FL anxiety with regard to the understudied relationship between anxiety, proficiency, and multilingualism. The evidence for the effect of language anxiety on achievement is well-documented. More recently,…

  20. Addressing Math Anxiety in the Classroom

    Finlayson, Maureen


    In today's educational systems, students of all levels of education experience math anxiety. Furthermore, math anxiety is frequently linked to poor achievement in mathematics. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of math anxiety and to explore strategies which pre-service teachers have identified to overcome math anxiety. The…

  1. Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

    Haciomeroglu, Guney


    The present study examined the structure of elementary pre-service teachers' mathematics anxiety and mathematics teaching anxiety by asking whether the two systems of anxiety are related. The Turkish Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale Short Version and the Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale were administered to 260 elementary pre-service…

  2. Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders, Tobacco Use, and Nicotine: A Critical Review of Interrelationships

    Morissette, Sandra Baker; Tull, Matthew T.; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Kamholz, Barbara Wolfsdorf; Zimering, Rose T.


    Smoking is highly prevalent across most anxiety disorders. Tobacco use increases risk for the later development of certain anxiety disorders, and smokers with anxiety disorders have more severe withdrawal symptoms during smoking cessation than smokers without anxiety disorders. The authors critically examined the relationships among anxiety,…

  3. Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Depression and Anxiety in Childhood:Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity and Rumination

    Brown, H. M.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Woods, H.; Lester, K.J.


    Background: Childhood anxiety and depression frequently co-occur. Exploring specificity in cognitive processes for anxiety and depression in childhood can provide insight into cognitive vulnerabilities contributing to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders and inform targeted psychological interventions. Anxiety sensitivity and rumination are robust cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety and depression, respectively. However, despite conceptual similarities, they are rarely consid...

  4. Thai University Student Schemas and Anxiety Symptomatology

    Douglas Rhein; Parisa Sukawatana


    This study explores how early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) contribute to the development of anxiety symptomologies among college undergraduates (N=110). The study was conducted by assessing the correlations between 18 schemas derived from Young’s model of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and anxiety symptoms using Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), self-reported anxiety assessment arranging severity into 4 indexes ranging from normal range, minimal to moderate anxiety, marked to severe anxie...

  5. Modelling Anxiety in Humans for Drug Development

    Siepmann, Martin; Joraschky, Peter


    Animal behavioural profiles are commonly employed to investigate new therapeutic agents to treat anxiety disorders as well as to investigate the mechanism of action of anxiolytic drugs. However, many clinically important symptoms of anxiety can not be modelled directly in animals. Human models of anxiety should bridge between animal models and anxiety disorders. Experimental anxiety states in humans can be induced by either pharmacological means such as CO2 inhalation or psychological means s...

  6. Familial aggregation of anxiety associated with bruxism

    David Gorski


    Background: This paper reports the co-occurrence of heritable anxiety-related disorders and awake bruxism in a family and discusses the heritability of anxiety and implications of awake bruxism as comorbidity to anxiety disorders. Subjects: Ten out of 14 members of an extended family reported having a professionally diagnosed anxiety-related disorder. All individuals with anxiety disorders also showed intraoral signs of wear from bruxism and reported being aware of grinding their teeth whi...

  7. Effects of dance on anxiety.

    Lesté, A; Rust, J


    The study investigated the effects of modern dance on anxiety. State anxiety was assessed before and after a 3-mo. education programme, using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The target group followed a class in modern dance. Control groups were (1) a physical education group to control for the effects of exercise, (2) a music group to control for aesthetic sensitivity training, and (3) a mathematics group. Several concomitant variables were measured: age, sex, attitude towards dance, and previous experience in sport, dance, and relaxation. Dance training significantly reduced anxiety, but no control activities did so. Examination of the concomitant variables showed that the result could not be accounted for by any obvious artifacts. PMID:6473025

  8. Anxiety and the Wounded Self.

    Alladin, Assen; Amundson, Jon K


    The self-wounds model of anxiety disorders based on the work of Wolfe (2005, 2006) is delineated here. The focal point of this model is the concept of wounded self or early unresolved emotional injuries. According to this view, anxiety disorders represent a chronic struggle with painful experiences. These emotional experiences are driven by two interrelated layers of psychological processes which arise from the wounded self. While the first layer of this process entails conscious awareness of symptoms resulting from cognitive distortions, the second layer comprises implicit or unconscious interpretations of what the symptoms mean to the patient. This article describes the components of the self-wounds model of anxiety disorders, which offers an integrative perspective on the development, onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. This model can be easily adapted to the understanding and treatment of other emotional disorders. PMID:27196008

  9. Regulating anxiety with extrasynaptic inhibition.

    Botta, Paolo; Demmou, Lynda; Kasugai, Yu; Markovic, Milica; Xu, Chun; Fadok, Jonathan P; Lu, Tingjia; Poe, Michael M; Xu, Li; Cook, James M; Rudolph, Uwe; Sah, Pankaj; Ferraguti, Francesco; Lüthi, Andreas


    Aversive experiences can lead to complex behavioral adaptations including increased levels of anxiety and fear generalization. The neuronal mechanisms underlying such maladaptive behavioral changes, however, are poorly understood. Here, using a combination of behavioral, physiological and optogenetic approaches in mouse, we identify a specific subpopulation of central amygdala neurons expressing protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) as key elements of the neuronal circuitry controlling anxiety. Moreover, we show that aversive experiences induce anxiety and fear generalization by regulating the activity of PKCδ(+) neurons via extrasynaptic inhibition mediated by α5 subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Our findings reveal that the neuronal circuits that mediate fear and anxiety overlap at the level of defined subpopulations of central amygdala neurons and demonstrate that persistent changes in the excitability of a single cell type can orchestrate complex behavioral changes. PMID:26322928

  10. Anxiety and Second Language Learning

    伍铃; 王劼


      Anxiety is one of the affective factors which are connected with second language learning. It has negative affects in learning language. It is necessary to know why it happens and how to solve it.

  11. [Workplace related anxiety and phobia].

    Linden, M; Muschalla, B


    Work is an important aspect of life. Problems at the workplace must therefore have negative consequences on the mental status and mental problems will interfere with the working place. The relation between anxiety and the workplace is especially important because the workplace causes anxiety due to its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general, and work related anxieties in particular, are workplace phobias, with panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This is a serious complication with negative consequences for the further course of illness. It makes special therapeutic intervention necessary. This paper describes the phenomenon of workplace related anxieties and phobia and provides a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:17106728

  12. Nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders

    Cottraux, Jean


    An evidence-based review of nonpharmacological treatments for anxiety disorders is presented. The vast majority of the controlled research is devoted to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and shows its efficiency and effectiveness in all the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) anxiety disorders in meta-analyses. Relaxation, psychoanalytic therapies, Rogerian nondirective therapy, hypnotherapy and supportive therapy were examined in a few controlled stu...

  13. Social exclusion anxiety

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie


    The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying . The ...... transformative effects of the many entangling forces that are involved in the enactment of bullying practices, and the chapter ends with a description of a few of these forces and how they may entangle.......The purpose of this chapter is to introduce a thinking technology that will foster a deeper understanding of some of the more complicated social processes that emerge in the day-to-day functioning of a school classroom, with a particular focus on the interactions that culminate in bullying . The...... concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces...

  14. [Social Anxiety Disorder].

    Nagata, Toshihiko


    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is not a rare psychiatric disorder, and the recent World Mental Health Japan Survey, Second (WMHJ2) reported the possibility that the twelve-month prevalence of SAD has increased from 0.7 to 2.3% over the last ten years. However, ten years have already passed since selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) were approved for the treatment of SAD in Japan, and not only laypersons but also mental health professionals still misunderstand SAD as public speech phobia. As a result, the boundary between normal shyness and SAD and threshold to start pharmacotherapy have been debated. Participants in most double-blind studies of SSRI were limited to those with a generalized subtype of SAD. While benzodiazepine led to a significantly more favorable response and symptom improvement and the effect size of benzodiazepine was larger than those of SSRI, it did not lead to a "cure" and is sometimes deleterious for atypical SAD patients. To sum up, a psychotherapeutic approach including cognitive behavioral therapy is suggested as first-line treatment for non-generalized SAD according to the NICE guidelines. On the other hand, patients with generalized SAD and secondary depression are still misunderstood (and under-recognized) as those with "treatment-resistant depression", and they suffer from severe impairment of the psycho-social function, including absences or withdrawal from working or schooling. They need more effective combination treatment of SSRI and cognitive behavioral therapy as generalized SAD patients. PMID:26524840

  15. Neuroimaging in anxiety disorders.

    Fredrikson, Mats; Faria, Vanda


    Neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to evaluate neurofunctional and neurochemical alterations related to the generation and control of affect in patients with anxiety disorders are reviewed. We performed a meta-analysis of symptom provocation studies, where neural activity was measured using fMRI, PET or SPECT to test the hypothesis that prefrontal regions modulate amygdala activity. Data revealed that reactivity in the amygdala was enhanced in patients with phobia as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was activated in concert with the amygdala, both in PTSD and in phobic states, suggesting a role in fear expression, rather than emotional control. Activity in emotion-regulating areas in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex including the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex and the medial orbitofrontal cortex was compromised in the symptomatic state in PTSD and phobic disorders, respectively. Increased amygdala reactivity was restored with psychological treatment. Treatment effects across different modalities including pharmacological and psychological interventions as well as with placebo regimens support that reduction of neural activity in the amygdala may be a final common pathway for successful therapeutic interventions irrespective of method, thereby linking neurotransmission to plasticity in a pivotal node of the core fear network of the brain. PMID:25225017

  16. The use of Study Anxiety Intervention in Reducing Anxiety to Improve Academic Performance among University Students

    Prima Vitasari; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Othman; Muhammad Ghani Awang


    Anxiety is one of the wide varieties of emotional and behaviour disorders, it is a major predictor of low academic performance. To this, anxiety should be taken seriously. Students needed some intervention to reduce anxiety in improving academic performance. Study anxiety intervention is designed to help students handling the problem regarding of their study process. In this paper, the study anxiety intervention to manage study anxiety in order to increase academic performance among students ...

  17. The Effects of Foreign Language Anxiety and Test Anxiety on Foreign Language Test Performance

    Masoomeh Salehi; Fahimeh Marefat


    This study aimed at investigating the effects of foreign language anxiety and test anxiety on foreign language test performance. Another purpose of this study was to see whether there is any relationship between foreign language anxiety and test anxiety. Two hundred students of English as a foreign language at pre-intermediate (Pre 1) level participated in this study. In the present study, the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale and the Test Anxiety Scale were used to measure foreign lan...

  18. Imaging genetics of anxiety disorders.

    Domschke, Katharina; Dannlowski, Udo


    Anxiety disorders are frequent and burdensome psychiatric diseases. Despite their moderate to strong heritabilities, the search for candidate genes has been limited by methodological shortcomings hitherto, e.g., the use of clinically defined, but neurobiologically heterogeneous categorical phenotypes. Investigating neurobiological response patterns associated with fear processing as an intermediate phenotype might aid in overcoming these difficulties. The existing imaging literature on the neurobiological correlates of fear processing and anxiety disorders points to a pivotal role of the amygdala in the human fear circuit. Therefore, amygdala responsiveness to anxiety-related stimuli was suggested as an intermediate phenotype for anxiety disorders. The present article provides an overview of imaging genetic studies investigating genetic effects on amygdala responsiveness with particular emphasis on recent imaging genetic findings in anxiety-related traits, panic disorder and social phobia. The existing studies consistently reveal strong genetic effects on the responsiveness of the fear circuit, particularly of genetic variants previously discussed as potential susceptibility variants for anxiety, e.g., the COMT 158val allele or the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Further research will be necessary involving larger sample sizes to allow for investigating gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. More evolved statistical and neuroimaging methods such as effective connectivity measures could lead to a better understanding of imaging endophenotypes and the nature of gene-brain relationships. Longitudinal studies in patient samples will be required to elucidate how genetically influenced neurobiological intermediate phenotypes are associated with subtype, severity and the course of anxiety disorders, thereby having the potential for developing individualized therapy regimes derived from neurobiological research. PMID:19944771

  19. Anxiety disorders in plastic surgery.

    Rankin, M; Borah, G L


    Surgery is a stressful event, with the potential for profound disturbance to the patient's psychological and physiologic homeostasis. Cosmetic surgery is a particularly intense psychological experience because, in addition to the usual concerns about surgical side effects, cosmetic patients bring their hopes and expectations for improved self-image, putting them at risk for the added anxiety of disappointment. High levels of anxiety coupled with the perception of vulnerability or threat to self can cause significant psychological reactions complicating care for the plastic surgical patient. This paper outlines the diagnostic features of the common types of anxiety disorders seen in plastic surgical patients, and it offers treatment strategies for the practitioner, delineating when referral to a mental health expert is advised. Specific clinical case studies of panic attack, posttraumatic stress disorder, and acute stress disorder are presented to illustrate the variety of abnormal anxiety responses that may be encountered in the perioperative setting. Interventions for the anxious patient are part science and part art. Careful questioning and psychosocial assessment can identify those patients who are at greater risk for psychological problems after surgery. However, some patients may mask or keep secret their concerns, which can be manifested with resulting anger and hostility. Plastic surgeons must use appropriate indicators of psychological anxiety and measure a specific patient's reactions to surgery to make the diagnosis of abnormal anxiety. Close follow-up by the plastic surgical team is an essential part of the anxiety disorder patient's psychological treatment, but it is imperative that these problematic patients be referred promptly to a qualified mental health professional to limit their adverse experience and promote their well-being. Patients who are less anxious during the perioperative period report less emotional distress and fewer defensive

  20. Anxiety disorders in dialysis patients

    Novaković Milan


    Full Text Available Introduction. Anxiety, as a primary symptom, includes all conditions of indefinite fear and psychic disorders dominated by fear. All dialysis patients suffer from anxiety as an independent phenomenon, or as part of another disease. Material and Methods. This study included 753 patients on chronic hemodialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H in the period 1999-2004. The patients were divided into two groups: the first group included 348 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, and the control group included 405 patients with other diagnoses causing renal insufficiency (N18. The study was designed as a comparative cross sectional study, and patients were tested using questionnaires assessing anxiety, depression and general mental health status. Statistical analysis was done using standard descriptive and analytical methods. Results. Socio-demographic data showed highly significant differences between BEN and N18 in relation to place of residence (urban/rural (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; in the incidence of renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; familial renal comorbidity (c2 = 23.970 p<0.01; and migrations (c2 = 4.874 p<0.01. Beck Anxiety Inventory Scores were highly significantly different between the two groups p<0.001, in regard to the incidence and variables. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale demonstrated a group significance p<0.001, and variables pointed to somatization, general anxiety and depression. This was confirmed by mini-mental state examination pointing to generalmental weakness. Conclusion. Anxiety appeared in all tested dialysis patients. It may be independent, somatized as part of another mental disorder or reinforced by a cognitive damage. Structured anxiety and depression result in pre-suicidal risk. .

  1. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort

    Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A. T. F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda


    Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety

  2. Trait anxiety among undergraduates according to the Implicit Association Test.

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia


    Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results. PMID:23045843

  3. Researches on Foreign Language Learning Anxiety



      Foreign language anxiety is one of the factors of affecting foreign language achievement. It is negatively associated with language skill learning. This article will show some researches on foreign language anxiety from certain aspects.

  4. Anxiety and Depression Association of America

    ... Guidelines Scientific Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer ... Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia Announcements Depression and Anxiety Podcasts & Videos Resources Clinical Practice Reviews & Teaching Tools ...

  5. How anxiety induces verbal hallucinations

    Ratcliffe, Matthew; Wilkinson, Sam


    Verbal hallucinations are often associated with pronounced feelings of anxiety, and it has also been suggested that anxiety somehow triggers them. In this paper, we offer a phenomenological or ‘personal-level’ account of how it does so. We show how anxious anticipation of one’s own thought contents can generate an experience of their being ‘alien’. It does so by making an experience of thinking more like one of perceiving, resulting in an unfamiliar kind of intentional state. This accounts for a substantial subset of verbal hallucinations, which are experienced as falling within one’s psychological boundaries and lacking in auditory qualities. PMID:26683229

  6. Anxiety, Mood, and Substance Use Disorders in Parents of Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica D.; Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.


    Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in…

  7. The Relationship between Language Anxiety, Interpretation of Anxiety, Intrinsic Motivation and the Use of Learning Strategies

    Nishitani, Mari; Matsuda, Toshiki


    Researches in language anxiety have focused on the level of language anxiety so far. This study instead, hypothesizes that the interpretation of anxiety and the recognition of failure have an impact on learning and investigates how language anxiety and intrinsic motivation affect the use of learning strategies through the recognition of failure.…

  8. Teachers' Knowledge of Anxiety and Identification of Excessive Anxiety in

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.


    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  9. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.


    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to further elucidate the relation between pubertal timing and social anxiety, with a focus on clarifying the role of gender. Participants were 138 adoles...

  10. Longitudinal genetic analysis of anxiety sensitivity

    Zavos, Helena M.S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C


    Anxiety sensitivity is associated with both anxiety and depression and has been shown to be heritable. Little, however, is known about the role of genetic influence on continuity and change of symptoms over time. The authors’ aim was to examine the stability of anxiety sensitivity during adolescence. By using a genetically sensitive design, the authors were also able to investigate the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence anxiety sensitivity over time. Self-reports of a...

  11. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    Hek, Karin


    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression in older adults. In particular, comorbidity, health care use, cortisol and atherosclerosis and genetic factors are studied in relation to anxiety and...

  12. Group treatment of general practice anxiety problems

    Trepka, Chris; Laing, Ingrid; Smith, Stan


    This study examined the effects on anxiety levels and primary care team workload of group psychological treatment for anxiety compared with individual treatment. Patients making high demands on primary care services were selected for group treatment, following which demands for services were considerably reduced. Two types of group treatment were used: the anxiety support group required less staff time to run than the anxiety management group but neither treatment had a clinically significant...


    Pradhan, N.


    SUMMARY The current psychobiology and the therapeutic principles of anxiety states have been reviewed. The seprohippocampal system probably operates as the organ of match-mismatch comparator. A dysfunction of this internal comparator could possibly be the source of anxiety. There seem to be two distinct psychobiologic models for pain disorder and chronic anxiety state. The therapeutic responses of panic disorder to TCA and MAOI and the response to the chronic anxiety state to benzodiazepines ...

  14. Social anxiety disorder in genuine halitosis patients

    Zaitsu Takashi; Ueno Masayuki; Shinada Kayoko; Wright Fredrick A; Kawaguchi Yoko


    Abstract Background There is a possibility that genuine halitosis patients' anxiety do not recover after oral malodor treatment due to their social anxiety disorder. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of social anxiety disorder on the level of anxiety in genuine halitosis patients before and after treatment for oral malodor. Methods The subjects were 262 genuine halitosis patients who visited the Fresh Breath Clinic from March, 2008 to October, 2009. The subjects who...

  15. The many faces of social anxiety disorder

    Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich


    Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders, affecting 7-13% of subjects in the community at some time in their lives. Despite being eminently treatable, it remains largely under-recognised and, therefore, undertreated. The disorder is characterized by a fear of scrutiny by others, with sufferers experiencing excessive anxiety in social and performance situations. This excessive anxiety usually leads to avoidance behaviour that can seve...

  16. The Essence of Anxiety and Morality



    in this paper, I meant to bring out problems about morality and anxiety through the point of view of Contradiction, to study Morality and Anxiety together, and at the same time we try to elucidate the essence of Morality and Anxiety and the rationality and value of their existence. In order to deal with the dilemma of Morality and Anxiety, we propose to seek the equivalence between man, society and nature with aesthetic attitude and the mental state of Wuwo.

  17. The Development of Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents

    Mathyssek, Christina


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders most commonly have their onset at an early age, and they are the most frequent mental health problem in children and adolescents. The aim of this thesis is to further our knowledge of the developme...

  18. Screening for anxiety disorders in children

    Simon, Ellin; Bögels, Susan Maria


    Abstract Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have negative consequences on individual and societal level. This study examined the usefulness of screening for anxiety disorders in primary school children. More specifically, the value of the screening method to discriminate between and to predict anxiety disorders was studied. Children and their parents were selected if the children had self-reported scores on the screening questionnaire Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotio...

  19. Neurostructural Abnormalities in Pediatric Anxiety Disorders

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Hamm, Lisa; Fitzgerald, Daniel A.; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Monk, Christopher S.; Phan, K. Luan


    Functional neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated abnormalities in fear and threat processing systems in youth with anxiety disorders; however, the structural neuroanatomy of these systems in children and adolescents remains largely unknown. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), gray matter volumes were compared between 38 medication-free patients with anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder; social phobia; separation anxiety disorder, mean age: 14.4 ± 3 years) and 27 comp...

  20. A Foucaultian Approach to Academic Anxiety

    Levine, Gavrielle


    Academic anxiety interferes with achievement and performance, as well as social and psychological development among children and adults. Although the writings of Michel Foucault do not address anxiety directly, his themes of knowledge and power have been applied to education and describe relationships that are likely to create anxiety among some…

  1. Thai University Student Schemas and Anxiety Symptomatology

    Rhein, Douglas; Sukawatana, Parisa


    This study explores how early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) contribute to the development of anxiety symptomologies among college undergraduates (N = 110). The study was conducted by assessing the correlations between 18 schemas derived from Young's model of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and anxiety symptoms using Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale…

  2. Anxiety and Attitudes Toward Visibly Disabled Persons

    Marinelli, Robert P.; Kelz, James W.


    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between attitudes toward visibly disabled persons and both trait and state anxiety. Results indicated that persons whose attitudes toward the cosmetically disabled were more negative showed more state anxiety in the interaction and more trait anxiety as measured by the MAS than students…

  3. Physician's Death Anxiety and Patient Outcomes.

    Schulz, Richard; Aderman, David


    It was shown that terminal patients of physicians with high death anxiety survive longer during their final hospital stay than terminal patients of physicians with low death anxiety. Physicians high in death anxiety seem to be less willing to accept patients' terminality and use heroic measures to keep them alive. (Author)

  4. Social Anxiety in Children with Disabilities

    Cowden, Peter A.


    Humans experience social anxiety to different degrees and in different areas. In school settings, this can be a barrier to learning. The school is a social place and to experience anxiety around peers can be challenging, especially if the student also has a learning disability. Social anxiety problems are often associated with learning…

  5. Anxiety Levels in Adolescents Who Stutter

    Blood, Gordon W.; Blood, Ingrid M.; Maloney, Kristy; Meyer, Crystal; Qualls, Constance Dean


    High levels of anxiety can negatively affect the lives of children and adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents who stutter and 36 adolescents who do not stutter were administered standardized scales for anxiety and self-esteem. Significant differences were found for the total T-scores for "Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale" for the two groups,…

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.


    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  7. Stereotype Threat, Test Anxiety, and Mathematics Performance

    Tempel, Tobias; Neumann, Roland


    We investigated the combined effects of stereotype threat and trait test anxiety on mathematics test performance. Stereotype threat and test anxiety interacted with each other in affecting performance. Trait test anxiety predicted performance only in a diagnostic condition that prevented stereotype threat by stereotype denial. A state measure of…

  8. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver


    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  9. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia


    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders an

  10. Longitudinal Genetic Analysis of Anxiety Sensitivity

    Zavos, Helena M. S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.


    Anxiety sensitivity is associated with both anxiety and depression and has been shown to be heritable. Little, however, is known about the role of genetic influence on continuity and change of symptoms over time. The authors' aim was to examine the stability of anxiety sensitivity during adolescence. By using a genetically sensitive design, the…

  11. Modulation of anxiety circuits by serotonergic systems

    Lowry, Christopher A; Johnson, Philip L; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;


    anxiety-related circuits. In particular, we explore the possibility that the regulation of anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior by serotonergic systems is dependent on a specific, topographically organized mesolimbocortical serotonergic system that originates in the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal...

  12. Developmental Trajectories of Anxiety Symptoms in Early Adolescence: The Influence of Anxiety Sensitivity

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.


    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity...

  13. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Wagner Renate; Marnane Claire L; Silove Derrick M; Manicavasagar Vijaya L; Rees Susan


    Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD) has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety...

  14. Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSM-V

    Beesdo, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Pine, Daniel S.


    This review summarizes findings on the epidemiology and etiology of anxiety disorders among children and adolescents including separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, also highlighting critical aspects of diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Childhood and adolescence is the core risk phase for the development of anxiety symptoms and syndromes, ranging from transient mild symptoms to full-blown anxiety disorde...

  15. Responding to Anxiety with Rumination and Hopelessness: Mechanism of Anxiety-Depression Symptom Co-Occurrence?

    Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne


    The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings we...

  16. Linking Stereotype Threat and Anxiety

    Osborne, Jason W.


    Claude Steele's stereotype threat hypothesis has attracted significant attention in recent years. This study tested one of the main tenets of his theory--that stereotype threat serves to increase individual anxiety levels, thus hurting performance--using real-time measures of physiological arousal. Subjects were randomly assigned to either high or…

  17. Dental Anxiety in Elementary Schoolchildren

    Elisabete Rabaldo BOTTAN


    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the percentage of students with dentalanxiety.Method: A transversal exploratory study was designed involving976 schoolchildren aged 9 to 17 years from three public schoolslocated in the urban perimeter of the city of Campos Novos (SC.Data collection instruments were questionnaires adapted from theDental Anxiety Scale (DAS and Dental Fear Survey (DFS.Results: 84% of the subjects manifested anxiety, most of thembeing classified as low-anxiety individuals. Girls were a little moreanxious than boys (87% versus 81%. The relationship betweenage group and percentage of anxious patients indicates a decreasein the frequency for older individuals. The most frequently mentionedphysiological responses were accelerated heart beat and tremors.The triggering factors were “to see” or “to hear the noise of” thedental bur and anesthesia. Most subjects (84.5% affirmed to havevisited a dental office in the past two years and 63.5% of themreported that the dental appointments were scheduled for restorativepurposes.Conclusion: Dental anxiety was present in this population in ahigh percentage.

  18. The relationship of anxiety to childhood depression.

    Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J


    In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression. PMID:3998984

  19. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in The Netherlands study of depression and anxiety (NESDA)

    Muntingh, Anna D. T.; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.


    Background: Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (so

  20. Anxiety disorders in people with epilepsy.

    Brandt, Christian; Mula, Marco


    Anxiety disorders are frequent, though probably underdiagnosed, comorbidities in epilepsy. Epilepsy and anxiety may share common neurobiological correlates as shown in animal models and suggested by studies demonstrating anxiety disorders before the manifestation of epilepsy. Comorbid anxiety disorders have a major impact on the affected patients' quality of life and may increase the risk for suicidality. Successful treatment of the epilepsy may alleviate anxiety symptoms. Treatment of anxiety is based on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines (although only as second-line choices), and psychotherapy. Specific AEDs (especially pregabalin) have been shown to have anxiolytic properties. This paper is aimed at reviewing anxiety disorders in patients with epilepsy discussing current scientific evidence about pathophysiology, clinical aspects, and treatment strategies. PMID:27116536

  1. Gaze perception in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder

    Lars eSchulze; Babette eRenneberg; Lobmaier, Janek S.


    Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhance...

  2. Palliative Care and Death Anxiety

    İnci, Figen; Öz, Fatma


    Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses' death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together ...

  3. Palliative Care and Death Anxiety

    Figen Inci; Fatma Oz


    Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses’ death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together with a dy...

  4. Stress and music performance anxiety

    Simoens, Veerle


    Acute and chronic stress, as well as accompanying changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, affect cognitive processes, including memory. In professional musicians occupational stress and music performance anxiety (MPA) are a major source of concern during a musical career, whereas a boost is to a certain extent necessary for a musical performance. ---------- A protocol was successfully designed to induce acute stress in healthy students while measuring electro-encephalography...

  5. Is the beck anxiety inventory a good tool to assess the severity of anxiety? A primary care study in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis Christina M; Muntingh Anna DT; van Marwijk Harm WJ; Spinhoven Philip; Penninx Brenda WJH; van Balkom Anton JLM


    Abstract Background Appropriate management of anxiety disorders in primary care requires clinical assessment and monitoring of the severity of the anxiety. This study focuses on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) as a severity indicator for anxiety in primary care patients with different anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, agoraphobia or generalized anxiety disorder), depressive disorders or no disorder (controls). Methods Participants were 1601 primary...

  6. Decreasing Neuroscience Anxiety in an Introductory Neuroscience Course: An Analysis Using Data from a Modified Science Anxiety Scale

    Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa


    To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety.

  7. A Validity Investigation of the Achievement Anxiety Test.

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    The concurrent validity of the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) and its factor structure are investigated to provide empirical evidence about the quality of AAT. State and trait anxiety were measured by State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), mathematics anxiety was assessed by a 24-item revised version of the 98-item Mathematics Anxiety Rating…

  8. Anxiety and threat perception abnormalities in normal children.

    P. Muris; M. Kindt; S. Boegels; H. Merckelbach; B, Gadet; V. Moulaert


    Examined the relationship between childhood anxiety and threat perception abnormalities. 105 children (aged 8-13 yrs) were exposed to stories reflecting 3 types of anxiety: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. From children's reactions to the stories, a number of threat perce

  9. Acupressure and Anxiety in Cancer Patients

    Beikmoradi, Ali; NAJAFI, Fatemeh; Roshanaei, Ghodratallah; Pour Esmaeil, Zahra; Khatibian, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Alireza


    Background: Anxiety has negative effects on mental and physical performance, quality of life, duration of hospitalization, and even on the treatment of patients with cancer. Objectives: Today acupressure is widely used to treat anxiety. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of acupressure on anxiety in patients with cancer. Patients and Methods: A double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 85 patients hospitalized with 3 groups including acupressure group (n = ...

  10. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim


    In several developmental theories separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate sepa...

  11. Mathematics anxiety in children with developmental dyscalculia

    Tannock Rosemary; Rubinsten Orly


    Abstract Background Math anxiety, defined as a negative affective response to mathematics, is known to have deleterious effects on math performance in the general population. However, the assumption that math anxiety is directly related to math performance, has not yet been validated. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the effects of math anxiety on numerical processing in children with specific deficits in the acquisition of math skills (Developmental Dyscalculia; DD) by using a ...

  12. Fear Inhibition in High Trait Anxiety

    Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter


    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear [1]. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...

  13. Childhood anxiety disorders. Approach to intervention.

    Manassis, Katharina


    OBJECTIVE: To present an approach to intervention in childhood anxiety disorders. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: This paper is based on selected findings from a MEDLINE search for recent literature on childhood anxiety disorders and on my experience as a child psychiatrist and researcher in a specialized anxiety disorders clinic. MAIN MESSAGE: Children with symptoms of high sympathetic arousal; persistent worries or intrusive thoughts; and extreme clinging, avoidance, or repetitive behaviours that i...

  14. Social Anxiety Disorder and Mood Disorders Comorbidity

    Zerrin Binbay; Ahmet Koyuncu


    Social Anxiety Disorder is a common disorder leading functional impairment. The comorbidity between mood disorders with social anxiety disorder is relatively common. This comorbidity impacts the clinical severity, resistance and functionality of patients. The systematic evaluation of the comorbidity in both patient groups should not be ignored and be carefully conducted. In general, social anxiety disorder starts at an earlier age than mood disorders and is reported to be predictor for subseq...

  15. Attachment patterns and separation anxiety symptom

    Sakineh - Mofrad; Rohani - Abdullah; Ikechkwu - Uba


    Literature suggests that child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns related differently to separation anxiety symptoms (fear of being alone, and fear of abandonment). Three attachment patterns assessed were secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment. Findings indicated that ambivalent attachment was most consistently related with higher separation anxiety symptom. And also, different associations were found bet...

  16. Ancient Anxiety Pathways Influence Drosophila Defense Behaviors

    Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam


    Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals [7], as observed by behavioral manifestations [8], physiological responses [9], and gene conservation [10]. Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a cho...

  17. Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorders

    Cuneyt Evren


    High rates of comorbidity were found between alcohol use disorders and social anxiety disorder in epidemiologic studies. Although many studies show strong relationship between social anxiety disorder and alcohol use disorder diagnosis, inconsistency about the causal relationship still remains. High rates of comorbidity is a subject of concern since patients with both alcohol use disorder and social anxiety disorder show more severe symptoms and more functional impairment than those patients w...

  18. Social anxiety in body dysmorphic disorder

    Pinto, Anthony; Phillips, Katharine A.


    Although clinical impressions suggest that patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) experience distress in social situations, social anxiety in BDD has received little investigation. This study examined social anxiety in 81 patients with BDD and change in social anxiety with pharmacotherapy. Subjects completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) and were assessed with measures of BDD symptomatology. Participants in a placebo-controlled fluoxetine trial completed measures at bas...

  19. Negative Generalization and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

    Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.


    The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. Afte...

  20. Manage Anxiety Through CBT: Teach Yourself

    Dryden, Windy


    Using the proven techniques of cognitive behavioural therapy, this book will show you how to manage your anxiety, in whatever form it appears, from phobias to panic attacks and general anxiety disorder. You will receive support for understanding with and coping with different types of anxiety, using CBT to manage your symptoms and alleviate much of your distress. You will also learn how to be more resilient and accepting of all your thoughts, fears and emotions, and discover new, healthier wa...

  1. Candidate gene studies in human anxiety disorders

    Donner, Jonas


    Anxiety disorders, such as panic disorder (PD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and phobias are common psychiatric disorders, characterized by exaggerated, prolonged and debilitating levels of anxiety. They are complex diseases with onset influenced by both environmental and genetic factors, but so far little progress has been made in identifying solid susceptibility genes. The aim of this study was to shed light on the genetic basi...

  2. Mother-Child Disagreement in Reports of Child Anxiety: Effects of Child Age and Maternal Anxiety

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique


    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is hi...

  3. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    Ya-Chin Tsai; Yi-Chih Li


    Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assesse...

  4. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    Ya-Chin Tsai


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.

  5. Negative Interpretation Bias Mediates the Effect of Social Anxiety on State Anxiety

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader


    Cognitive models of social anxiety predict that interpretation bias mediates the relationship between level of social anxiety and state anxiety in response to social-evaluative threat. We tested this prediction in 67 socially anxious undergraduates. Participants completed self-report measures of social anxiety and interpretation bias, and two days later they completed an impromptu speech. Mediational analyses supported the hypothesis that interpretation bias mediates the effect of social anxi...

  6. Does cognitive behavioural treatment for flight anxiety reduce the degree of other anxiety symptoms?


    Aims: To study the impact of a treatment programme for flight anxiety on other anxiety symptoms, and to assess the impact of previous nervous problems and previous contact with a psychiatrist/psychologist on the degree of anxiety. Methods: The study followed a prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental design. There were 295 women and 128 men included in the study. The subjects for this cognitive behavioural treatment programme for flight anxiety were recruited by an advertisement in the...

  7. Treatment response in child anxiety is differentially related to the form of maternal anxiety disorder

    Cooper, P. J.; Gallop, C.; Willetts, L.; Creswell, C


    An examination was made of the extent to which maternal anxiety predicted response to treatment of children presenting with an anxiety disorder. In a sample of 55 children referred to a local NHS CAMH service for treatment of an anxiety disorder, systematic mental state interview assessment was made of both mothers and children, and both completed self-report questionnaires to assess aspects of anxiety, both immediately before the children received treatment and following treatment. Children ...

  8. Anxiety sensitivity in anxious youth: Do children with separation anxiety differ?

    Sandra Björg Sigurjónsdóttir 1985


    Studies on the proposed link between separation anxiety disorder in childhood (SAD) and panic disorder (PD) have yielded mixed results, suggesting that there is perhaps a missing link between these disorders. We examined whether anxiety sensitivity could be a potential key element in the relationship between SAD and PD. Anxiety sensitivity levels of three hundred and fifteen clinic-referred children (ages 6-17) were evaluated, using the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI). One hundred ...

  9. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Catharine


    Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a so...

  10. Anxiety in older adults often goes undiagnosed.

    Koychev, Ivan; Ebmeier, Klaus P


    Anxiety disorder in the elderly is twice as common as dementia and four to six times more common than major depression. Anxiety is associated with poorer quality of life, significant distress and contributes to the onset of disability. Mortality risks are also increased, through physical causes, especially cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Diagnosing anxiety disorders in older adults remains a challenge because of the significant overlap in symptoms between physical disorders (shortness of breath; abdominal and chest pain; palpitations) and depression (disturbed sleep; poor attention, concentration and memory; restlessness). Good history taking is crucial in elucidating whether the complaint is of new onset or a recurrence of a previous disorder. The presence of comorbid depression should be clarified. If present, its temporal relationship with the anxiety symptoms will indicate whether there is an independent anxiety disorder. A medication review is warranted, as a number of drugs may be causative (calcium channel blockers, alpha- and beta-blockers, digoxin, L-thyroxine, bronchodilators, steroids, theophylline, antihistamines) or may cause anxiety in withdrawal (e.g. benzodiazepines). Substance and alcohol abuse should be excluded, as withdrawal from either may cause anxiety. A new or exacerbated physical illness may be related to anxiety. Medical investigations will help clarify the extent to which a particular somatic symptom is the result of anxiety. PMID:27180498

  11. The Influence of Anxiety on English Reading



    We always acquire knowledgeby reading,so reading plays a vital role in our daily life of language learning.But we found that it's difficult to improve your reading ability during English learning,There are many factors believed to influence reading efficiency.Among them,anxiety is considered to be one of the most significant factors.This paper analyzes the causes ofthe students'anxiety,puts forward some proper adjustments to reduce the anxiety and finally to achieve the aim of helping learners reduce their anxiety and promote their reading efficiency.

  12. The Essence of Anxiety and Morality



    in this paper,I meant to bring out problems about morality and anxiety through the point of view of Contradiction,to study Morality and Anxiety together,and at the same time we try to elucidate the essence of Morality and Anxiety and the rationality and value of their existence.In order to deal with the dilemma of Morality and Anxiety,we propose to seek the equivalence between man,society and nature with aesthetic attitude and the mental state of Wuwo.

  13. Cognitive content-specificity in anxiety and depression: a twin study of associations with anxiety sensitivity dimensions across development.

    Brown, H. M.; Waszczuk, M.A.; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Trzaskowski, M; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.


    Background The classification of anxiety and depressive disorders has long been debated and has important clinical implications. The present study combined a genetically sensitive design and multiple time points to investigate cognitive content specificity in anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms across anxiety sensitivity dimensions, a cognitive distortion implicated in both disorders. Method Phenotypic and genetic correlations between anxiety sensitivity dimensions, anxiety and depre...

  14. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.


    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  15. Self-Efficacy, Gender and Trait Anxiety as Moderators of Test Anxiety

    Onyeizugbo, Euckay U.


    Introduction: Test anxiety inhibits students from performing according to their full potential in academic setting. Objectives: This study investigated self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Method: Two hundred and forty nine (249) psychology majors drawn from a university in Eastern Nigeria participated in the…

  16. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok


    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  17. The Effects of Trait Anxiety and Dogmatism on State Anxiety During Computer-Assisted Learning.

    Rappaport, Edward

    In this study of the interaction between anxiety trait (A-trait), anxiety state (A-state), and dogmatism in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), subjects were selected on the basis of extreme scores on a measure of anxiety and on a measure of dogmatism. The subjects were presented with a CAI task consisting of difficult mathematical problems. The…

  18. Processing bias in children with separation anxiety disorder, social phobia and generalised anxiety disorder

    M. Kindt; S.M. Bögels; M. Morren


    The present study examined processing bias in children suffering from anxiety disorders. Processing bias was assessed using of the emotional Stroop task in clinically referred children with separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), and/or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) and normal co

  19. Relationship among Iranian EFL Students' Foreign Language Anxiety, Foreign Language Listening Anxiety and Their Listening Comprehension

    Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.


    Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…

  20. Anxiety Sensitivity and the Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate B.


    There has been significant interest in the role of anxiety sensitivity (AS) in the anxiety disorders. In this meta-analysis, we empirically evaluate differences in AS between anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and nonclinical controls. A total of 38 published studies (N = 20,146) were included in the analysis. The results yielded a large effect…

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity to the Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    Naragon-Gainey, Kristin


    There is a substantial literature relating the personality trait "anxiety sensitivity" (AS; tendency to fear anxiety-related sensations) and its lower order dimensions to the mood and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) disorders. However, particularly given the disorders' high comorbidity rates, it remains unclear whether AS is broadly related to these…

  2. Anxiety Disorders: Recognizing the Symptoms of Six of the Most Common Anxiety Disorders

    Cancro, Robert


    This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…

  3. Untangling genetic networks of panic, phobia, fear and anxiety

    Villafuerte, Sandra; Burmeister, Margit


    As is the case for normal individual variation in anxiety levels, the conditions panic disorder, agoraphobia and other phobias have a significant genetic basis. Recent reports have started to untangle the genetic relationships between predispositions to anxiety and anxiety disorders.

  4. Children Who Won't Go to School (Separation Anxiety)

    ... separation anxiety disorder. The potential long-term effects (anxiety and panic disorder as an adult) are serious for a child who has persistent separation anxiety and does not receive professional assistance. The child ...

  5. Treating Anxiety Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Phobias and Anxiety Disorders Treating Anxiety Disorders Past Issues / ... such as worry, they're most helpful for phobias, particularly social phobia and performance anxiety. Commonly prescribed: ...

  6. Understanding Anxiety Disorders: When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Understanding Anxiety Disorders When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm Many ... or help us focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, they can be overwhelming. Anxiety disorders affect ...

  7. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control

    ... to have GAD? For More Information Share Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): When Worry Gets Out of Control ... go badly? If so, you may have an anxiety disorder called generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). What is ...

  8. Anxiety disorders and inflammation in a large adult cohort

    Vogelzangs, N.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Jonge, P.; Penninx, Brenda


    Although anxiety disorders, like depression, are increasingly being associated with metabolic and cardiovascular burden, in contrast with depression, the role of inflammation in anxiety has sparsely been examined. This large cohort study examines the association between anxiety disorders and anxiety characteristics with several inflammatory markers. For this purpose, persons (18-65 years) with a current (N = 1273) or remitted (N = 459) anxiety disorder (generalized anxiety disorder, social ph...

  9. Stressful Life Events, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Internalizing Symptoms in Adolescents

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.


    Anxiety sensitivity represents a robust risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms among both adolescents and adults. However, the development of anxiety sensitivity among adolescents remains inadequately understood. In this study, the authors examined the role of stressful life events as a risk factor for the development of elevated anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety sensitivity was then examined in a longitudinal design as a mechanism linking stressful life events to changes in anxiety s...

  10. A research for identifying study anxiety sources among university students

    Prima Vitasari; Muhammad Nubli Abdul Wahab; Ahmad Othman; Muhammad Ghani Awang


    University students suffer to some levels of study anxiety, such as; have new experiences, environment and situation. Study anxiety is a real phenomenon. Campus environment has universal access to increase study anxiety among students. The prevalence of study anxiety has been acknowledged by students and educators. However, no current researches exist to identify the study anxiety sources among university students. In this research, we present a survey aimed to identify of study anxiety sourc...

  11. Science Anxiety among Form Four Students in Penang: A Gender Comparison

    Kuan, Foo Lay; Tek, Ong Eng


    This paper reports a causal-comparative study of science anxiety among Form Four students in Penang. The Wynstra's (1991) Science Anxiety Inventory (SAI), which consists of six factors (i.e., danger anxiety, science test anxiety, math and problem-solving anxiety, squeamish anxiety, performance anxiety, and science classroom anxiety), was…

  12. Psychotherapy for Anxiety in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder


    Autism Spectrum Disorders; Autism; Asperger's Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disability - Not Otherwise Specified; Obsessive-compulsive Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Specific Phobia; Separation Anxiety Disorder

  13. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control.

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.


    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  14. School-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety

    Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.


    Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…

  15. Development of the Sport Injury Anxiety Scale

    Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.


    The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…

  16. Depression and Anxiety in University Music Students

    Wristen, Brenda G.


    Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…

  17. Anxiety Disorders and Depression in Older Adults

    K. Hek (Karin)


    textabstractAnxiety disorders and depression are common and complex disorders. Despite decades of research, their etiology is largely unknown. Study of the occurrence and determinants, i.e. the epidemiology of anxiety disorders and depression, helps unravel their etiology. This thesis examines the e

  18. Internet Anxiety among Foreign Language Learners

    Aydin, Selami


    Little attention has been paid to the demotivating potential of new technologies in foreign language research. Thus, this study aims to investigate Internet anxiety among foreign language learners and to determine the relationships between Internet anxiety and certain variables. A background questionnaire, an Internet information test, and an…

  19. Anxiety disorders. Part 1: Diagnosis and treatment.

    Labelle, A.; Lapierre, Y. D.


    Anxiety disorders often take second priority in clinical practice because many physicians do not understand them or their treatment. This paper reviews the diagnostic groupings of anxiety disorders according to the American Psychiatric Association's Revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 3-R) and discusses differential diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Neuroendocrine models of social anxiety disorder

    van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A.; Terburg, David; Heany, Sarah; Stein, Dan J.


    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder with key behavioral traits of social fearfulness, social avoidance, and submissiveness. Here we argue that hormonal systems play a key role in mediating social anxiety, and so may be important in SAD. Hormonal alterations, of

  1. Symptoms: Personal Snapshots of Anxiety Disorders

    ... of these conditions: Panic Disorder: "For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart ... / Studying Anxiety Disorders / Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ...

  2. Reducing Mathematics Anxiety with Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Harris, Albert L.; Harris, Jacqueline M.


    Student, teacher, and teaching causes of mathematics anxiety are discussed. Computer-assisted instruction can reduce mathematics anxieties due to lack of confidence, negative attitudes, teacher bias, authoritarian teaching, lack of variety, lack of relationship with the real world, emphasis on memorization or on speed, or computer phobia. (MNS)

  3. Relationships between Learning Environment and Mathematics Anxiety

    Taylor, Bret A.; Fraser, Barry J.


    We investigated relationships between the learning environment and students' mathematics anxiety, as well as differences between the sexes in perceptions of learning environment and anxiety. A sample of 745 high-school students in 34 different mathematics classrooms in four high schools in Southern California was used to cross-validate the What Is…

  4. Parental Control in the Etiology of Anxiety

    Ballash, Natalie; Leyfer, Ovsanna; Buckley, Amy F.; Woodruff-Borden, Janet


    Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent forms of adult and childhood psychiatric disorders, and they are highly familial. However, the mechanisms of transmission remain unclear. One familial characteristic that may promote the development of anxiety is the construct of parental control. This paper provides a conceptual overview of the…

  5. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Adult Separation Anxiety

    Boelen, Paul A.; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R. Nicholas


    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)—the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain—is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater

  6. Test Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Bodas, Jaee; Ollendick, Thomas H.


    The present paper examines test anxiety from a cross-cultural perspective with specific reference to the Indian and American cultures. The construct of test anxiety has been examined in many cultures all over the world. In this review, the importance of understanding and incorporating contextual factors in cross-cultural research is emphasized.…

  7. Research Anxiety among Turkish Graduate ELT Students

    Merç, Ali


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level and predictors of research-related anxiety among graduate ELT students in the Turkish context. 81 MA and PhD students from 14 universities offering graduate programs in ELT responded to a background questionnaire, a research anxiety scale, and a research self-efficacy survey. The analysis of…

  8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew


    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  9. Familial aggregation of anxiety associated with bruxism

    David Gorski


    Practical Implications: Anxiety disorders are highly related to suicidal behaviors, particularly in children and adolescents. Additionally, awaken bruxism can often serve as an indicator of anxiety or stress. By recognizing bruxism as a possible manifestation of psychological distress, the dental practitioner may be able to direct patients to life-saving services like psychologists and crisis hotlines when appropriate.

  10. Assessment of anxiety disorders in asthmatic children.

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clémençon, C; de Blic, J; Falissard, B; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P


    The study's objective was to determine whether the State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children, Trait version (STAIC), is suitable for the assessment of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in asthmatic children and adolescents. Ninety-two outpatients were given a semistructured diagnostic interview. They completed STAIC; another questionnaire about anxiety, the Echelle Comportementale d'Anxiété et de Peurs (ECAP); and the Child Depression Inventory. The parents filled in the Child Behavior Check-List (CBCL) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). A group of healthy children was assessed with STAIC. Thirty asthmatic children had anxiety disorders. They had significantly higher STAIC scores than the nonanxious asthmatic and the nonasthmatic children. STAIC scores were independent of age and sex and were correlated with ECAP, CPRS anxiety subscore, CBCL total score, internalizing score, and CBCL anxiety-depression subscore. Internal consistency was 0.75. With a threshold value of 34 for anxiety disorders, this method had a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 70%. STAIC was thus a useful method for anxiety disorder screening in a pediatric population. PMID:10479945

  11. Language Anxiety among Gifted Learners in Malaysia

    Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hasrul; Ibrahim, Noraniza; Yunus, Melor Md; Ishak, Noriah Mohd


    Language anxiety has significantly sparked great concern in the second and foreign language learning world. Researches have found negative correlation between language anxiety and academic achievement of English language learners; and, most of the studies focus on average school students and tertiary level students. This paper, however, explores…

  12. Fasciculation anxiety syndrome in clinicians.

    Simon, Neil G; Kiernan, Matthew C


    The goal of this study is to define the clinical features, pathogenesis and key investigation findings of fasciculation anxiety syndrome in clinicians (FASICS). Twenty consecutive clinicians presenting with fasciculations were prospectively assessed with serial clinical and neurophysiological evaluations. Clinicians with fasciculations formed three groups: 70 % of clinicians experienced symptomatic fasciculations and anxiety about the possibility of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), termed FASICS; a further 15 % of clinicians experienced fasciculations associated with cramps and consistent with cramp-fasciculation syndrome (CFS). The final 15 % of clinicians presented with fasciculations associated with sensory symptoms or muscle weakness and were diagnosed with neuropathy (10 %) and ALS (5 %). In FASICS, fasciculations most often involved the lower limbs, without evidence of muscle weakness on clinical examination. Exercise, stress, fatigue and caffeine consumption were identified as common exacerbating factors. Neurophysiological studies confirmed normal nerve conduction studies and the presence of simple fasciculations, without acute denervation or neurogenic motor unit changes. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels were assayed in each clinician and were not detected, and systemic autoantibodies were detected only in clinicians with features of CFS. FASICS is a disorder common among physicians presenting for evaluation of fasciculations. The present study delineates the diagnostic features of FASICS and contrasts the clinical presentation with other causes of fasciculations in clinicians. PMID:23400500

  13. Severity of anxiety in mental health versus addiction treatment settings when social anxiety and substance abuse are comorbid

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Joshua P. Smith; Miller, Peter M.


    There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g. the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between...

  14. Resting Vagal Tone and Vagal Response to Stress: Associations with Anxiety, Aggression and Perceived Anxiety Control among Youth

    Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.


    This study tested the associations of both resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress with anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression among 80 youth (aged 11-17 years). Measures included physiological assessments of emotion regulation along with youth self-report of anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression and caregiver reports of their child's anxiety and aggression. Resting vagal tone was positively related to anxiety control beliefs, but negatively associated with anxiet...

  15. Does the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measure anxiety symptoms consistently across adolescence? The TRAILS study

    Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oort, Floor V. A.


    We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], sep...

  16. Emotional distress tolerance across anxiety disorders.

    Michel, Natalie M; Rowa, Karen; Young, Lisa; McCabe, Randi E


    Emotional distress tolerance (EDT) has increasingly been recognized as a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor. However, research assessing EDT in anxiety disorder populations is lacking. The current study addressed this gap in the literature by examining EDT in a sample of outpatients with panic, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or obsessive compulsive disorders (n=674), and by assessing its relationship to symptom severity and impairment. Results showed that poor EDT was common across diagnostic groups. However, correlation and regression analyses suggested that although EDT was associated with symptom severity and impairment, it did not account for unique variance in scores beyond the effect of negative affect, stress, intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS). IU and AS had a stronger relationship with overall symptom severity and impairment in the regression models. Together, findings suggest that although EDT may be transdiagnostic, IU and AS are more relevant to our understanding of anxiety disorders. PMID:27161839

  17. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole;


    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS: To...... assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years. The...... risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...

  18. Parental social anxiety disorder prospectively predicts toddlers' fear/avoidance in a social referencing paradigm

    E. Aktar; M. Majdandžić; W. de Vente; S.M. Bögels


    Background: Anxiety runs in families. Observational learning of anxious behavior from parents with anxiety disorders plays an important role in the intergenerational transmission of anxiety. We investigated the link between parental anxiety (parental lifetime anxiety disorders and expressed parental

  19. Heterogeneity in development of adolescent anxiety disorder symptoms in an 8-year longitudinal community study

    Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.


    In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc

  20. Nicotine modulation of fear memories and anxiety: Implications for learning and anxiety disorders.

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J


    Anxiety disorders are a group of crippling mental diseases affecting millions of Americans with a 30% lifetime prevalence and costs associated with healthcare of $42.3 billion. While anxiety disorders show high levels of co-morbidity with smoking (45.3% vs. 22.5% in healthy individuals), they are also more common among the smoking population (22% vs. 11.1% in the non-smoking population). Moreover, there is clear evidence that smoking modulates symptom severity in patients with anxiety disorders. In order to better understand this relationship, several animal paradigms are used to model several key symptoms of anxiety disorders; these include fear conditioning and measures of anxiety. Studies clearly demonstrate that nicotine mediates acquisition and extinction of fear as well as anxiety through the modulation of specific subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brain regions involved in emotion processing such as the hippocampus. However, the direction of nicotine's effects on these behaviors is determined by several factors that include the length of administration, hippocampus-dependency of the fear learning task, and source of anxiety (novelty-driven vs. social anxiety). Overall, the studies reviewed here suggest that nicotine alters behaviors related to fear and anxiety and that nicotine contributes to the development, maintenance, and reoccurrence of anxiety disorders. PMID:26231942

  1. Palliative Care and Death Anxiety

    Figen Inci


    Full Text Available Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses’ death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together with a dying patient. In terms of the end of life, it is expected that the nurse stands by patient’s family to help them in sustaining their psychosocial wellness. In order to meet this expectation, nurses should get a qualitative training for end of life care along with good interpersonal communication skills and coping strategies.

  2. Antidepressants in social anxiety disorder

    Nardi Antonio E.


    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD is a marked and persistent fear of doing almost everything in front of people due to concerns about being judge by others. An up-to-date review is needed in order to reach a practical judgement of all psychopharmacological data. Case reports, open and double-blind trials with SAD were described and commented upon from a clinical point of view. The MEDLINE system was searched from 1975 to 2001. The references from the selected papers were also used as a source. MAOIs (fenelzine, tranylcypromine, reversible monoamino oxidase-A inhibitors (moclobemide, brofaromine, SSRIs (paroxetine, sertraline, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine and some other antidepressants (venlafaxine, nefazodone have proven effective in several studies with various methodologies. The MAOIs have more serious adverse effects and the SSRIs have the best tolerance. SSRIs are efficacious and the first choice of treatment.

  3. Abortion and anxiety: what's the relationship?

    Steinberg, Julia Renee; Russo, Nancy F


    Using data from the United States National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS), we conducted secondary data analyses to examine the relationship of abortion, including multiple abortions, to anxiety after first pregnancy outcome in two studies. First, when analyzing the NSFG, we found that pre-pregnancy anxiety symptoms, rape history, age at first pregnancy outcome (abortion vs. delivery), race, marital status, income, education, subsequent abortions, and subsequent deliveries accounted for a significant association initially found between first pregnancy outcome and experiencing subsequent anxiety symptoms. We then tested the relationship of abortion to clinically diagnosed generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and social anxiety disorder, using NCS data. Contrary to findings from our analyses of the NSFG, in the NCS analyses we did not find a significant relationship between first pregnancy outcome and subsequent rates of GAD, social anxiety, or PTSD. However, multiple abortions were found to be associated with much higher rates of PTSD and social anxiety; this relationship was largely explained by pre-pregnancy mental health disorders and their association with higher rates of violence. Researchers and clinicians need to learn more about the relations of violence exposure, mental health, and pregnancy outcome to avoid attributing poor mental health solely to pregnancy outcomes. PMID:18468755


    Selma Arzu Vardar


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  5. Gender factors of social anxiety in adolescence

    Pavlova T.S.,


    Full Text Available Social anxiety in adolescence is one of the most important factors of social and psychological maladjustment. The data of Russian and international research of the differences in the severity of social anxiety in boys and girls is not uniform. In a study conducted by the authors, participants were 183 adolescents aged 12-16 years (90 boys and 93 girls, students of VII-X grades. We measured the level of social anxiety and defined the type of gender identity. The results showed that biological sex does not influence the severity of social anxiety: there were no differences in this indicator between boys and girls. The factor influencing the level of social anxiety was gender identity, and gender identity types (masculinity, femininity, androgyny have approximately the same distributions in both boys and girls. The level of social anxiety shows inversed connection with level of masculinity in adolescents of both sexes and direct connection with femininity index. The magnitude of the gap between the real and the ideal of masculinity of the Self is more pronounced in adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

  6. Gender factors of social anxiety in adolescence

    Pavlova T.S.,; Kholmogorova A.B.


    Social anxiety in adolescence is one of the most important factors of social and psychological maladjustment. The data of Russian and international research of the differences in the severity of social anxiety in boys and girls is not uniform. In a study conducted by the authors, participants were 183 adolescents aged 12-16 years (90 boys and 93 girls), students of VII-X grades. We measured the level of social anxiety and defined the type of gender identity. The results showed that biological...

  7. Anxiety and Related Disorders in Men

    Grant, Joe E.; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence


    those without an anxiety disorder. There are numerous risk factors implicated in the development of anxiety disorders, including low self-esteem, family history of depression, female sex, childhood sexual abuse, White race, years of education, number of traumatic experiences, and disturbed family...... (Baxter et al. 2013 ). Per year, the estimated cost (directly and indirectly) of anxiety disorders in the United States alone is over $42 billion (Greenberg et al. 1999 ). More than 50 % of these expenses are due to clinical care stemming from misdiagnosis, inadequate treatment, and emergency care...


    Hosamani Manilingappa


    A Study reveals that anxiety level of college male & fame students, the present study attempts that level of anxiety among college students the study shows that females have more anxiety then the male. The male have less anxiety then the Female.

  9. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.


    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  10. Emotional Intelligence Moderates Perfectionism and Test Anxiety among Iranian Students

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor


    Test anxiety is one of the common forms of anxiety for students. Thus, it is necessary to improve our knowledge regarding the etiology of test anxiety. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between perfectionism, emotional intelligence, and test anxiety among Iranian students. This study also was conducted to test emotional…