Mathyssek, Christina M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Oort, Floor V. A.
We assessed if the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) measures anxiety symptoms similarly across age groups within adolescence. This is crucial for valid comparison of anxiety levels between different age groups. Anxiety symptoms were assessed biennially in a representative population sample (n = 2226) at three time points (age range 10–17 years) using the RCADS anxiety subscales (generalized anxiety disorder [GAD], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD], panic disorder [PD], sep...
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Straten, A.H.M.; Van de Ven, P.; Langerak, W.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.
BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cu...
Terluin, B.; Oosterbaan, D.B.; Brouwers, E.P.; Straten, A. van; Ven, P.M. van de; Langerak, W.; Marwijk, H.W.J. van
BACKGROUND: Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety
Watson, David; O'Hara, Michael W.; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin; Koffel, Erin; Chmielewski, Michael; Kotov, Roman; Stasik, Sara M.; Ruggero, Camilo J.
The original Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS) contains 11 nonoverlapping scales assessing specific depression and anxiety symptoms. In creating the expanded version of the IDAS (the IDAS-II), our goal was to create new scales assessing other important aspects of the anxiety disorders as well as key symptoms of bipolar disorder.…
Bredemeier, Keith; Spielberg, Jeffery M.; Silton, Rebecca Levin; Berenbaum, Howard; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.
The present study examined the utility of the anhedonic depression scale from the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-AD scale) as a way to screen for depressive disorders. Using receiver-operating characteristic analysis, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of the full 22-item MASQ-AD scale, as well as the 8- and 14-item…
Weems, Carl F.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Robbins, Michael S.
Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement…
Barbosa, Filipe; Freitas, João; Barbosa, António
Chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is a frequently disabling disease with a negative influence on the quality of life, and can cause psychopathological symptoms, such as anxiety. Our aim is to study further anxiety symptoms on CIU patients. Both CIU patients and the control group were studied by means of validated scales for psychopathology symptoms, psychological variables and quality of life. In this study, we reported high levels of anxiety symptoms. We found statistically significant correlations between anxiety symptoms, some personality dimensions, insecure attachment styles, alexithymia and with some quality of life dimensions. CIU patients exhibit high levels of psychological distress that could potentiate difficulties at several domains, namely social, emotional, general health perception and interpersonal relationships. PMID:21459916
LAYNE, ANN E.; Bernstein, Gail A.; March, John S.
The present study aimed to determine which anxiety symptoms in children are associated with teacher awareness and whether teacher awareness differs according to student age and gender. The Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) was completed by 453 second through fifth grade students and teachers nominated the three most anxious students in their classrooms. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted with MASC scale scores as the dependent variables. Children identified by ...
O Donnchadha, Seán
BACKGROUND: The validity of self-rated anxiety inventories in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is unclear. However, the appropriateness of self-reported depression scales has been widely examined. Given somatic symptom overlap between depression and MS, research emphasises caution when using such scales. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates symptom overlap between anxiety and MS in a group of 33 individuals with MS, using the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). METHODS: Participants underwent a neurological examination and completed the BAI. RESULTS: A novel procedure using hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three distinct symptom clusters. Cluster one (\\'wobbliness\\' and \\'unsteady\\') grouped separately from all other BAI items. These symptoms are well-recognised MS-related symptoms and we question whether their endorsement in pwMS can be considered to reflect anxiety. A modified 19-item BAI (mBAI) was created which excludes cluster one items. This removal reduced the number of MS participants considered \\'anxious\\' by 21.21% (low threshold) and altered the level of anxiety severity for a further 27.27%. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, it is suggested that, as with depression measures, researchers and clinicians should exercise caution when using brief screening measures for anxiety in pwMS.
Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole
general severity factor. Structural equation modeling of data on 120 patients with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and 207 patients with a primary diagnosis of panic disorder was used to examine the association between anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Temperament and Character......The association between anxiety disorders and different measures of personality has been extensively studied to further the understanding of etiology, course, and treatment, and to possibly prevent the development of anxiety disorders. We have proposed a hierarchical model of bodily anxiety...... symptoms with 1 second-order severity factor and 5 first-order factors: cardio-respiratory, gastro-intestinal, autonomic, vertigo, and tension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits were differentially related to distinct symptom subdimensions or exclusively related to the...
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated symptoms of anxiety and depression in relatives of patients admitted in the Intensive Care Unit and determined whether these symptoms were associated to the seriousness of the patients' condition. Metodology: A total of 102 patients' relatives were surveyed during the study. They were given a self-report questionnaire in order to assess demographic data, anxiety and depression symptoms. The symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Patient's condition was evaluated with A.P.A.CH.E II Score. Results: More than 60% of patients' relatives presented severe symptoms of anxiety and depression. No relation was found between symptoms of anxiety and depression of the relatives of patients and patients' condition of health. On the contrary, these feelings used to exist regardless of the seriousness of patient's condition. Conclusions: The assessment of these patients is recommended in order serious problems of anxiety and depression to be prevented.
Bára Fanney Hálfdanardóttir 1988
This study examined symptoms of general anxiety, sport performance anxiety and depression among 117 basketball players in the top league in Iceland. Furthermore, stigma towards anxiety and depression problems was explored. The Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS-2) was used to measure sport performance anxiety. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure symptoms for general anxiety and depression. The Depression Stigma Scale was used to measure both personal and perceived stigm...
C.M. Mathyssek (Christina)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders
The Westside Test Anxiety Scale is a brief, ten item instrument designed to identify students with anxiety impairments who could benefit from an anxiety-reduction intervention. The scale items cover self-assessed anxiety impairment and cognitions which can impair performance. Correlations between anxiety-reduction as measured by the scale and…
Sakineh - Mofrad; Rohani - Abdullah; Ikechkwu - Uba
Literature suggests that child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns related differently to separation anxiety symptoms (fear of being alone, and fear of abandonment). Three attachment patterns assessed were secure, avoidant and ambivalent attachment. Findings indicated that ambivalent attachment was most consistently related with higher separation anxiety symptom. And also, different associations were found bet...
Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L; Carver, Charles S.
The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. Afte...
Detecting depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients in primary care; comparative diagnostic accuracy of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS
Verhaak Peter FM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive and anxiety disorders often go unrecognized in distressed primary care patients, despite the overtly psychosocial nature of their demand for help. This is especially problematic in more severe disorders needing specific treatment (e.g. antidepressant pharmacotherapy or specialized cognitive behavioural therapy. The use of a screening tool to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders may be useful not to overlook such disorders. We examined the accuracy with which the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS are able to detect (more severe depressive and anxiety disorders in distressed patients, and which cut-off points should be used. Methods Seventy general practitioners (GPs included 295 patients on sick leave due to psychological problems. They excluded patients with recognized depressive or anxiety disorders. Patients completed the 4DSQ and HADS. Standardized diagnoses of DSM-IV defined depressive and anxiety disorders were established with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analyses were performed to obtain sensitivity and specificity values for a range of scores, and area under the curve (AUC values as a measure of diagnostic accuracy. Results With respect to the detection of any depressive or anxiety disorder (180 patients, 61%, the 4DSQ and HADS scales yielded comparable results with AUC values between 0.745 and 0.815. Also with respect to the detection of moderate or severe depressive disorder, the 4DSQ and HADS depression scales performed comparably (AUC 0.780 and 0.739, p 0.165. With respect to the detection of panic disorder, agoraphobia and social phobia, the 4DSQ anxiety scale performed significantly better than the HADS anxiety scale (AUC 0.852 versus 0.757, p 0.001. The recommended cut-off points of both HADS scales appeared to be too low while those of the 4DSQ anxiety
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Anxiety symptoms predict the onset of anxiety disorder and depression, and have been associated with lower levels of well-being even before they reach disorder status. Adolescence is a primary period of interest when it comes to anxiety research, since anxiety disorders most commonly have their onset at an early age, and they are the most frequent mental health problem in children and adolescents. The aim of this thesis is to further our knowledge of the developme...
Spurgeon, Laura; James, Gill; Sackley, Cath
Transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is often associated with anxiety and depression, which may precipitate secondary stroke and interfere with treatment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to assess these states and to inform the management of any associated psychological problems, but there is considerable debate about what it actually measures. The HADS scores from a range of different clinical groups have been reviewed in order to assess its psychometric properties, but so far, no research has examined either its latent structure when used with TIA patients, or the association between symptom severity and the test's validity. The aims of this study, therefore, were to investigate: (a) the underlying structure of the HADS when used with TIA patients; and (b) the impact of symptom severity on the validity of the HADS. The HADS and a functional capacity measure were administered by post to a sample of 542 confirmed TIA patients. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the HADS scores to establish its underlying structure for this clinical group, and then, sub-sample correlations were undertaken between the anxiety/depression scores for different levels of functional capacity. Two factors emerged, with 13 of the 14 HADS items loading significantly on both, suggesting there is a common affective state underlying the standard anxiety and depression scales. Further data-exploration indicated that convergence between these affective states increased as functional capacity deteriorated. The results suggest firstly that the HADS measures general subjective distress when used with TIA patients, and secondly that the higher reported symptom severity in this clinical group may be associated with reduced affective differentiation. As the ability to retain clear affective discrimination is associated with health and well-being, this could provide a focus for post-TIA rehabilitation. PMID:26291749
Hallett, Victoria; Ronald, Angelica; Colvert, Emma; Ames, Catherine; Woodhouse, Emma; Lietz, Stephanie; Garnett, Tracy; Gillan, Nicola; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Scahill, Lawrence; Bolton, Patrick; Happé, Francesca
Background: Although many children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) experience difficulties with anxiety, the manifestation of these difficulties remains unresolved. The current study assessed anxiety in a large population-based twin sample, aged 10-15 years. Phenotypic analyses were used to explore anxiety symptoms in children with ASDs,…
... of these conditions: Panic Disorder: "For me, a panic attack is almost a violent experience. I feel disconnected from reality. I feel like I'm losing control in a very extreme way. My heart ... / Studying Anxiety Disorders / Symptoms: Personal snapshots of anxiety ...
Johannessen, Tina Døvle
The current report examined if symptoms of anxiety and/or depression in parents could affect how the parents reported their adolescents anxiety symptoms, and if parental symptoms of depression and/or anxiety could affect the degree of agreement between parents and adolescents. The sample comprised 456 adolescents, 369 fathers and 481 mothers from the sixth round of collecting data in the Tracing Opportunities and Problem in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) study. The data used in this report...
Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole
A sample of 327 patients with primary panic disorder or social phobia completed a questionnaire comprising 77 emotional and cognitive anxiety symptoms from which 12 index scales were constructed. Explorative factor analysis yielded two factors, but confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the......, and anger), cognitions about cognitive dysfunction (difficulty concentrating, confusion, and loss of control) and social phobic cognitions. It was positively correlated with severity of bodily anxiety symptoms and with the neuroticism personality trait. The second factor, fear of physical sensations......, was positively correlated with a cardio-respiratory dimension of bodily anxiety symptoms in panic disorder, lending support to the hypothesis of specific threat-relevant links between bodily symptoms and catastrophic cognitions....
Seligman, Martin E P; Schulman, Peter; Tryon, Alyssa M
To prevent depression and anxiety, we delivered a brief, classroom-based cognitive-behavioral workshop along with ongoing Web-based materials and e-mail coaching to college students at risk for depression. At risk was defined as having mild to moderate depressive symptoms on a self-report measure of depression. Two hundred forty students were randomized into either an eight-week workshop that met in groups of 10, once per week for 2 h or into an assessment-only control group. We plan to track participants for 3 years after the workshop and here we report the 6 month preventive effects on depression and anxiety. The workshop group had significantly fewer depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms than the control group, but there was no significant difference between the conditions on depression or anxiety episodes at 6 month follow up. The workshop group had significantly better well being than the control group, and the workshop group had significantly greater improvement in optimistic explanatory style than the control group. Improved explanatory style was a significant mediator of the prevention effects from pre- to post-workshop for depressive and anxiety symptoms, as well as for improved well being. PMID:17074301
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a training program mindfulness to reduce anxiety levels. The sample consisted of 20 participants suffering from anxiety and high scores on ASI-3 and subscale of anxiety from SCL-90. A quasi-experimental comparison group design with pretest-posttest measurement with an experimental group and a control group with 10 participants each group was performed. As instruments of assessment questionnaires ASI-3, MAAS, and SCL-90 were used. Statistical analyzes show a reduction in all in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity factor and anxiety subscale of the SCL-90 once the interventions as well as improvement in the ability to be present or mindfulness measured by the MAAS scale. The results are consistent with other research which has show the effectiveness of mindfulness techniques in improving the symptoms of anxiety
ABALI, Osman; ZÜLFİKAR, Osman Bülent; DEMİRKAYA, Sevcan KARAKOÇ
Hemophilia is an inherited disease with serious repercussions. Psychiatric symptoms are frequently seen in children and adolescents with hemophilia. The aim of this study was to assess symptoms of anxiety in children with hemophilia and parental attitude towards children with hemophilia. Materials and methods: 42 boys were assessed according to child and adolescent psychiatry. Anxiety symptoms and parental attitude were obtained by the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Self-Report for Childhoo...
Full Text Available This study describes the psychometric properties of the Children's Separation Anxiety Scale (CSAS, which assesses separation anxiety symptoms in childhood. Participants in Study 1 were 1,908 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 11. Exploratory factor analysis identified four factors: worry about separation, distress from separation, opposition to separation, and calm at separation, which explained 46.91% of the variance. In Study 2, 6,016 children aged 8-11 participated. The factor model in Study 1 was validated by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency (α = 0.82 and temporal stability (r = 0.83 of the instrument were good. The convergent and discriminant validity were evaluated by means of correlations with other measures of separation anxiety, childhood anxiety, depression and anger. Sensitivity of the scale was 85% and its specificity, 95%. The results support the reliability and validity of the CSAS.
Torske, Magnhild Oust; Hilt, Bjørn; Glasscock, David; Lundqvist, Peter; Krokstad, Steinar
Agriculture has undergone profound changes, and farmers face a wide variety of stressors. Our aim was to study the levels of anxiety and depression symptoms among Norwegian farmers compared with other occupational groups. Working participants in the HUNT3 Survey (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, 2006-2008), aged 19-66.9 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. We compared farmers (women, n = 317; men, n = 1,100) with HUNT3 participants working in other occupational groups (women, n = 13,429; men, n = 10,026), classified according to socioeconomic status. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. Both male and female farmers had higher levels of depression symptoms than the general working population, but the levels of anxiety symptoms did not differ. The differences in depression symptom levels between farmers and the general working population increased with age. In an age-adjusted logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for depression caseness (HADS-D ≥8) when compared with the general working population was 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.83) in men and 1.29 (95% CI: 0.85-1.95) in women. Male farmers had a higher OR of depression caseness than any other occupational group (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.52-2.49, using higher-grade professionals as reference). Female farmers had an OR similar to men (2.00, 95% CI: 1.26-3.17), but lower than other manual occupations. We found that farmers had high levels of depression symptoms and average levels of anxiety symptoms compared with other occupational groups. PMID:26488439
Villadsen, Anna; Thorgaard, Mette V; Hybel, Katja A;
seen as part of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to construct overlap and the diagnostic uncertainty of HA in this age group. In the present study, the extent of HA symptoms was investigated in 94 children and adolescents with a primary ICD-10 diagnosis of OCD. Self-reported HA symptoms were...... assessed using the Childhood Illness Attitude Scales. Clinician-rated OCD symptoms and severity were measured using the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Information on socio-demographics was obtained from the child's/adolescent's medical record. The distribution of HA symptoms resembled a......-rated illness worries and comorbid anxiety disorder were associated with high self-reported HA symptoms. The results contribute to the understanding of how HA and OCD overlap conceptually in young patients and bring attention to the need for improved recognition of OCD patients dominated by illness worries...
S.M. Bogels; N. Snieder; M. Kindt
The present study investigated whether children with high symptom levels of either social phobia (SP), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), or generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are characterised by a specific set of dysfunctional interpretations that are consistent with the cognitive model of their s
Starr, Lisa R.; Davila, Joanne
The current research proposes that certain anxiety response styles (specifically, responding to anxiety symptoms with rumination or hopeless cognitions) may increase risk of depressive symptoms, contributing to anxiety-depression comorbidity. We delineate preliminary evidence for this model in three studies. In Study 1, controlling for anxiety response styles significantly reduced the association between anxiety and depressive symptoms in an undergraduate sample. In Study 2, these findings we...
Koh, Jun Sung; Ko, Hyo Jung; Wang, Sheng-Min; Cho, Kang Joon; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Soo-Jung; Pae, Chi-Un
This study investigated the relationship of personality, depression, somatization, anxiety with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). The LUTS/BPH patients were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), 44-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the PHQ-15, and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The LUTS/BPH symptoms were more severe in patients with depression (p=0.046) and ...
McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.
Anxiety sensitivity represents a robust risk factor for the development of anxiety symptoms among both adolescents and adults. However, the development of anxiety sensitivity among adolescents remains inadequately understood. In this study, the authors examined the role of stressful life events as a risk factor for the development of elevated anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety sensitivity was then examined in a longitudinal design as a mechanism linking stressful life events to changes in anxiety s...
Full Text Available The improvement of social support promotes the mental health and improves the health status. The study aimed to examine the influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis and provide the scientific basis to further alleviate anxiety and depression and to monitor their whole quality of life. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis between April 2011 and September 2011. The HADS (the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale was the major methodology used to evaluate anxiety and depression, and the MSPSS (the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support to evaluate the social support level. Among patients with silicosis, 99.1% had anxiety symptoms, and 86.1% had depression symptoms. Meanwhile, the social support significantly influenced symptoms of anxiety and depression. The study suggested that patients with silicosis presented more anxiety and depression symptoms, while the social support levels of the patients were relatively low. The influence of social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis implied that improving the level of social support and the effective symptomatic treatment might alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms and improve physical and mental status.
Smolderen, Kim G; Hoeks, Sanne E; Pedersen, Susanne S.;
were associated with mood states such as anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (i.e. lack of positive affect). A cohort of consecutive PAD patients (n = 628) from the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the San Diego...... Claudication questionnaire. The ankle-brachial index and clinical factors were assessed in all patients at baseline. Anxiety was present in 29%, depressive symptoms in 30%, and anhedonia in 28% of patients. Pain at rest was independently associated with anxiety, depressive symptoms, and anhedonia (ORs between...
Allan, Nicholas P.; Capron, Daniel W.; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B.
Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity...
Marianna de Abreu Costa; Giovanni Abrahão Salum Junior; Luciano Rassier Isolan; Jandira Rahmeier Acosta; Rafaela Behs Jarros; Carolina Blaya; Lísia Von Diemen; Gisele Gus Manfro
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, affecting approximately 10% of individuals throughout life; its onset can be detected since early childhood or adolescence. Studies in adults have shown that anxiety disorders are associated with alcohol abuse, but few studies have investigated the association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early ages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use in young subjects. METHODS: A...
Ranta, Klaus; Junttila, Niina; Laakkonen, Eero; Uhmavaara, Anni; La Greca, Annette M.; Niemi, Paivi M.
The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of social anxiety and the psychometric properties of the "Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents" (SAS-A) among Finnish adolescents, 13-16 years of age. Study 1 (n = 867) examined the distribution of SAS-A scores according to gender and age, and the internal consistency and factor structure of the…
Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Bulbena, Antonio; Pailhez, Guillem; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Critchley, Hugo D
Anxiety and somatic symptoms have a high prevalence in the general population. A mechanistic understanding of how different factors contribute to the development and maintenance of these symptoms, which are highly associated with anxiety disorders, is crucial to optimize treatments. In this article, we review recent literature on this topic and present a redefined model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms, with an emphasis on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Consideration is given to the role played in this interaction by predisposing physiological and psychological traits (e.g., interoception, anxiety sensitivity, and trait anxiety) and to the levels at which mindfulness approaches may exert a therapeutic benefit. The proposed model of mind-body interaction in anxiety and somatic symptoms is appraised in the context of joint hypermobility syndrome, a constitutional variant associated with autonomic abnormalities and vulnerability to anxiety disorders. PMID:26713718
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
Slattery, Marcia J.; Grieve, Adam J.; Paletz, Elliott M.; Kalin, Ned H.
Rationale/statement of the problem : Considerable research has focused on the relationship of anxiety with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) acute stress response. Findings, however, differ among studies on adults and children, and among different types of anxiety. This study investigates the relationship of anxiety symptom severity with HPA reactivity to the cold pressor task (CPT) in preadolescent children. We hypothesize that children with increased symptoms of anxiet...
Norton, Joanna; Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Stewart, Rob; BERR, Claudine; Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle
International audience BACKGROUND: In the elderly, little attention has been paid to anxiety both on a symptom dimension and as a disorder, as an independent risk factor for the incidence of activity limitations. METHODS: In a community-dwelling cohort of 1581 persons aged 65+, the association between trait anxiety symptoms (Spielberger Trait, third highest tertile) and baseline DSM-IV anxiety disorder, and 7-year incident activity limitations was determined using mixed logistic regression...
Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Met...
Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Jaume Aguado,3 Xiaomei Peng,4 Josep Maria Haro3 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA Objective: To investigate the impact of anxiety symptoms on depression outcomes in Asian patients with major depressive disorder (MDD (n=714. Methods: The 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17, overall severity, somatic symptoms, and quality of life (QOL (EuroQOL Questionnaire-5 Dimensions [EQ-5D] were assessed at baseline and 3 months. Anxiety was measured using items 10 and 11 from the HAMD-17. Linear, tobit, and logistic multiple regression models analyzed the impact of anxiety symptoms on outcomes. Baseline anxiety was related to age and the presence of pain symptoms at baseline. Results: Regression models showed that a higher level of anxiety was associated with a lower frequency of remission and lower QOL at 3 months. Patients with lower baseline anxiety symptoms had higher remission rates (odds ratio for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.829 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.723–0.951]. Patients with higher levels of baseline anxiety had a lower QOL at 3 months (a decrease in EQ-5D tariff score for each point of anxiety symptoms, 0.023 [95% CI: 0.045–0.001]. Conclusion: In conclusion, the presence of anxiety symptoms negatively impacts the outcomes of depression. Keywords: depression, anxiety, Asia, observational, outcomes
Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.
The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…
Bing Han; Bo Yan; Jian Zhang; Na Zhao; Jinkai Sun; Chao Li; Xibing Lei; Hongbo Liu; Jie Chen
The improvement of social support promotes the mental health and improves the health status. The study aimed to examine the influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis and provide the scientific basis to further alleviate anxiety and depression and to monitor their whole quality of life. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis between April 2011 and September 2011. The HADS (the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale) was the major meth...
Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Hale, William W.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Frijns, Tom; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Meeus, Wim H. J.
In this study, we prospectively examined developmental trajectories of five anxiety disorder symptom dimensions (generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, school anxiety, separation anxiety disorder, and social anxiety disorder) from early to late adolescence in a community sample of 239 adolesc
Save-Pédebos, Jessica; Bellavoine, Vanina; Goujon, Estelle; Danse, Marion; Merdariu, Dana; Dournaud, Pascal; Auvin, Stéphane
Many studies have shown that anxiety disorders are common in children with epilepsy. We explored symptoms of anxiety simultaneously in children and their parents. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale in children and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Adult in parents. We included 118 parents and 67 children, who were divided into three groups: (1) first seizure, (2) epilepsy, and (3) nonepileptic paroxysmal event. We found that the level of anxiety in parents and children differed. We observed a significant increase in the anxiety level of parents whose children have had a first seizure, while we found a significant increase in the anxiety level of children and adolescents followed for epilepsy. These findings suggest that there is no direct relationship in the anxiety of the parents and their child. Further studies are needed to understand this variation over time. PMID:24384381
Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza
Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.
Wu, Yi-Le; Zhao, Xue; Li, Yi-Feng; Ding, Xiu-Xiu; Yang, Hui-Yun; Bi, Peng; Sun, Ye-Huan
The aim of this study was to explore the change and associated risk and protective factors of social anxiety symptoms among Chinese children. A 2-year longitudinal study was performed in a general primary and secondary school population in Anhui Province, China including 816 children in grades 3, 4, and 7. Children's social anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Social Anxiety Scales for Children (SASC) at three assessments. The overall prevalence of children's elevated social anxiety symptoms ranged from 15.2% to 16.4% across three assessments. Children's overall mean SASC scores were 5.6 (SD =3.7), 5.3 (SD =3.8), and 5.3 (SD =4.1) at three assessments, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, children's social anxiety symptom levels and change among different subgroups was not stable across 2-year follow-up. Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that age, severe family dysfunction, quality of life, positive coping, negative coping, depressive symptoms and self-esteem were predictive factors for childhood elevated social anxiety symptoms. The findings suggested that the overall social anxiety symptoms showed a relatively stable pattern over time. The identified risk and protective factors may provide scientific evidence for school, family, and health authorities to conduct necessary intervention. PMID:27092863
Settipani, Cara A.; Puleo, Connor M.; CONNER, BRADLEY T.; KENDALL, Philip C.
There is limited information about the nature of anxiety among youth with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined (a) differences in the clinical characteristics of anxious youth with and without symptoms of ASD and (b) the symptoms of anxiety that best distinguish between these groups. Results indicated that anxious youth with elevated ASD symptoms had significantly more diagnoses (e.g., specific phobias), and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for so...
Full Text Available Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatients with a confirmed diagnosis of nephrolithiasis as per their case history, physical examination, image examination and other laboratory exams. Patients had a history of at least two episodes within a 3-year period, and were currently in an intercrisis interval. The control group consisted of subjects seen at the Ophthalmology Outpatient Clinic of this University Hospital with only eye refraction symptoms, and no other associated disease. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and symptoms of depression by the Beck Depression Inventory. Statistically significant differences were observed between patients with nephrolithiasis and controls for anxiety state (P = 0.001, anxiety trait (P = 0.005 and symptoms of depression (odds ratio = 3.74; 95%CI = 1.31-10.62. The Beck Depression Inventory showed 34.5% of respondents with moderate and 6% with severe levels of depression. There was a significant linear correlation between symptoms of anxiety (P = 0.002 and depression (P < 0.001 and the number of recurrent colic episodes (anxiety-state: P = 0.016 and anxiety-trait: P < 0.001. These data suggest an association between recurrent renal colic and symptoms of both anxiety and depression.
Volkovich, Ella; Tikotzky, Liat; Manber, Rachel
The aims of this paper are to study the associations between objective and subjective sleep in pregnant women, to examine which specific aspects of women's sleep are associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms and to test the moderating role of depressive and anxiety symptoms in the relations between objective and subjective sleep. The sample included 148 pregnant women. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy for five nights at the participants' home, and subjective sleep was measured with the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and anxiety symptoms with the Beck anxiety inventory. Significant associations were found between the subjective sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores, but there were no significant associations between actigraphic sleep measures and the depressive and anxiety scores. Depressive and anxiety scores emerged as significant moderators of the links between objective and subjective sleep. The findings suggest that emotional distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms severity) during pregnancy is associated with subjective sleep disturbances but not with objective sleep disturbances. Importantly, only among women with higher levels of emotional distress was subjective sleep quality associated with objective sleep quality. These findings may suggest that women with higher levels of emotional distress are not necessarily biased in their perception of sleep quality. However, they may perceive fragmented sleep as more detrimental to their wellbeing. PMID:26250541
Full Text Available Background Prior studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the link between antenatal depressive and anxiety symptomatology, with neonatal outcomes. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the possible association of prenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, in the third trimester of pregnancy, with perinatal outcomes (birth weight of the newborn, Apgar score and the newborn’s admission in neonatal intensive care unit in a sample of pregnant women, in Greece. Patients and Methods A total of 117 women from Athens, during the 32nd to 35th week of pregnancy, participated in the study. Demographic and obstetric history data, as well as neonatal outcomes, were recorded. Three self-administered psychometric scales (Beck depression inventory (BDI, Edinburg postnatal depression scale (EPDS and beck anxiety inventory (BAI were used to evaluate in detail the prenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms. Descriptive statistics, Spearman’s Rho coefficients, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis testes were applied to analyze the data. Results On the basis of BDI, 81.1% of the sample showed minimal, 15.4% mild, 2.6% moderate and 0.9% severe depressive symptoms, respectively. Furthermore, 80.3% of the participants, scored on EPDS below the cut-off point for a likely diagnosis of depression. According to BAI scale, 43.6% showed minimal, 42.7% women mild, 10.3% moderate and 3.4% severe anxiety symptoms. No statistically significant correlations were found between depressive and anxiety symptoms and neonatal outcomes (birth weight, Apgar score and admission in neonatal intensive care unit. Conclusions Limited levels of prenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms do not seem to be associated with neonatal outcomes. In clinical practice, pregnant women, who suffer from low levels of prenatal depressive and anxiety symptoms, may be reassured, in respect of the adverse outcomes of these mood symptoms on the neonate.
Aims: To study the impact of a treatment programme for flight anxiety on other anxiety symptoms, and to assess the impact of previous nervous problems and previous contact with a psychiatrist/psychologist on the degree of anxiety. Methods: The study followed a prospective longitudinal quasi-experimental design. There were 295 women and 128 men included in the study. The subjects for this cognitive behavioural treatment programme for flight anxiety were recruited by an advertisement in the...
Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L; Salters, Kristalyn; Roemer, Lizabeth
This study examined the relationships between experiential avoidance in general (and thought suppression in particular), posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization among a sample of individuals exposed to multiple potentially traumatic events. Although experiential avoidance was not associated with severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms beyond their shared relationship with general psychiatric symptom severity, it was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatization when controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Thought suppression, on the other hand, was associated with severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms when controlling for their shared relationship with general psychiatric symptom severity. No significant relationships were found between thought suppression and the presence of depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms when controlling for posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Results suggest the importance of separately examining the influence of different forms of experiential avoidance on posttraumatic psychopathology. PMID:15505519
Kłosowska, Joanna; Blaut, Agata; Paulewicz, Borysław
Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification - Attention). A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can train individuals to direct attention away from threatening stimuli, which in turn reduces symptoms of anxiety. This effect was observed in adults, adolescents and children suffering from social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and subclinical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effectiveness of this method constitutes the evidence for attentional bias being among the causes of anxiety disorders. The article also analyses the still not completely clear mechanisms of CBM-A and limitations of this method. PMID:25844410
Full Text Available Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification – Attention. A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can train individuals to direct attention away from threatening stimuli, which in turn reduces symptoms of anxiety. This effect was observed in adults, adolescents and children suffering from social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and subclinical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Effectiveness of this method constitutes the evidence for attentional bias being among the causes of anxiety disorders. The article also analyses the still not completely clear mechanisms of CBM-A and limitations of this method.
Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari
This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…
Bell, A F; Carter, C S; Davis, J M; Golding, J; Adejumo, O; Pyra, M; Connelly, J J; Rubin, L H
We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N = 4657-4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventive non-physiological), immediate postpartum complications, and maternal perception of the recent birth experience. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale assessed elevated symptoms of depression (score ≥ 13), and the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index assessed elevated symptoms of anxiety (score ≥ 9) at 2 and 8 months after delivery. A more negative perception of the recent birth experience was associated with elevated symptoms of anxiety at 2 months [odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.25-1.85] and 8 months (OR 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.60) postpartum but was not associated with elevated symptoms of depression at either time point. Type of delivery (physiological vs. non-physiological) and immediate postpartum complications were not associated with elevated symptoms of depression or anxiety. Our findings suggest that improving women's childbirth experience may decrease the likelihood of postpartum anxiety, but not postpartum depression. PMID:26202722
Elham Gholampoor; Mahdi Bina; Javad Mahmoudi-gharaei; S. Sajad Mousavi; Saeideh Eisar
Objective: Reports of the prevalence of PTSD has been variable between 28-70% after the earthquake disaster in the city of Bam, among children. Several studies in adults have shown a high comorbidity of anxiety disorders as well. In this study we evaluated the frequency of PTSD and anxiety symptoms among adolescents in the period of 7-9 months after a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake). Method: In an epidemiologic study, we evaluated the PTSD and the severity of general symptoms of anxiety...
D.H.M.P. Diniz; Blay, S. L.; Schor, N.
Several studies have reported that symptoms of anxiety and depression are significantly associated with diseases characterized by painful crises. However, there is little information about the psychological aspects of recurrent painful episodes of renal stone disease. Our objective was to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, depression and recurrent painful renal colic in a case-control study involving 64 subjects (32 cases/32 controls) matched for age and sex. Cases were outpatie...
Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Goldwin, Michelle; Towbin, Kenneth A.; Leibenluft, Ellen
A study compares the scores on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom scales in healthy children and in children with mood or anxiety disorders. It is observed that children with mood or anxiety disorders obtained higher scores on ASD symptom scales than healthy children.
To determine the pattern of somatic symptoms in anxiety and depressive disorders. Design: Cross Sectional Comparative study Place of Study: Department of Psychiatry Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Duration of Study: From May to November 2002. Patients and Methods: Patients were divided in Group I of anxiety and group II of depression. Fifty patients considered in each group by convenience sampling. The organic basis of their symptoms was ruled out. The patterns of their somatic symptoms and other information like educational and economic status were recorded on Semi Structured Proforma. The patient's diagnosis was made on schedule based ICD-10 research criteria. The severity of anxiety and depression was assessed by using HARS and HDRS respectively. The pattern of somatic symptoms in both groups was then analyzed by the urdu version of Bradford Somatic Inventory. Patterns of somatic complaints were then analyzed by chi square test. Results: Out of 100 patients we placed 50 each in group I (anxiety) and group II (Depression). Males were higher in depression whereas females were higher in anxiety disorder group. P-value for headache was 0.017 while in rest of the somatic symptoms it was insignificant ranging from 0.4 to 1. Conclusion: We found that the patterns of somatic symptoms are present in both the groups of anxiety and depression like symptoms related to musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal system were commonly observed in cases of depression whereas symptoms related to autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system is more significantly somatized in patients of anxiety. A larger sample is required for further studies to get better results. (author)
Moylan, Steven; Gustavson, Kristin; Karevold, Evalill; Øverland, Simon; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A.; Berk, Michael
Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP) Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18months to age 18–1...
Morylowska-Topolska, Justyna; Makara-Studzińska, Marta; Kotarski, Jan
Aim. The aim of the study was to research the effect of selected socio-demographic and medical variables on the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in different trimesters of pregnancy. Materials and methods. The study was prospective, longitudinal, the group consisted of 314 adult pregnant women. To assess the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used. The results were statistically analyzed. To assess the normal di...
Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278
Keough, Meghan E.; Timpano, Kiara R; Riccardi, Christina J.; Schmidt, Norman B.
Suppression is a commonly used strategy to manage unwanted thoughts by attempting to actively remove them from awareness. However, research has shown that this cognitive strategy often results in the paradoxical effect of increasing the frequency of unwanted thoughts. While the association between thought suppression and mood and anxiety symptoms has been repeatedly demonstrated, relations between this cognitive strategy and other anxiety risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity (AS) are unex...
Boomershine, Chad S.; Emir, Birol; Wang, Yi; Zlateva, Gergana
Objectives: We tested the ability of the VASFIQ, a seven-item scale composed of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) visual analog scales (VASs), to quantify fibromyalgia global disease severity and identify fibromyalgia patients with significant symptoms of fatigue, poor sleep, depression or anxiety. Methods: Spearman rank correlations were used to compare global VASFIQ, FIQ and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scores and individual FIQ VAS scores with full-length, validated questionnaire scores for fatigue (Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue—Global Fatigue Index [MAF-GFI]), poor sleep (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index [SPI]) and depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS]). Patient scores used in the analyses were derived from 2229 patients enrolled in three pregabalin fibromyalgia trials. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined VASFIQ cutoff scores identifying patients with clinically significant symptom levels using full-length, validated symptom questionnaires to define cases. Results: Global VASFIQ and FIQ scores correlated highly at baseline and study endpoints (ρ = 0.94 and 0.97, respectively; both p7.5, poor sleep by VASsleep >7.9, depression by VASdepression >5.8 and anxiety by VASanxiety >6.0. VASFIQ global scores ≥31.4 and ≥45.0 identified patients with moderate and severe global fibromyalgia symptoms, respectively. Conclusions: The VASFIQ scale accurately quantifies global fibromyalgia severity and identifies patients with significant symptoms of fatigue, poor sleep, depression or anxiety with brevity, enabling rapid patient assessment and informing treatment decisions in busy clinics. PMID:22870480
Saeed Shoar; Mohammad Naderan; Motahareh Aghajani; Elaheh Sahimi-Izadian; Negin Hosseini-Araghi; Zhamak Khorgami
Objectives: Mood disorders are prevalent in hospitalized patients. However, risk factors for early diagnosis have not been studied exclusively in surgical patients. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression and anxiety symptoms in surgical patients. Methods: We included 392 surgical patients in this prospective cross-sectional study, which took place between June 2011 and June 2012. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for ...
Gloster, Andrew T.; Rhoades, Howard M.; Novy, Diane; Klotsche, Jens; Senior, Ashley; Kunik, Mark; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda A.
The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was designed to efficiently measure the core symptoms of anxiety and depression and has demonstrated positive psychometric properties in adult samples of anxiety and depression patients and student samples. Despite these findings, the psychometric properties of the DASS remain untested in older adults, for whom the identification of efficient measures of these constructs is especially important.
O’Garro-Moore, Jared K.; Adams, Ashleigh Molz; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Background Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are highly comorbid with anxiety, which is associated with an extended duration and exacerbation of depressive symptoms. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms are not known. This study examined the role of maladaptive cognitive styles in the co-occurrence of BSDs and anxiety disorders and prediction of depressive symptoms. Methods Participants included 141 young adults (69.6% female, mean age= 20.24, SD= 2.11), in one of three groups: a BSD group (bipolar II, cyclothymia, n=48), a comorbid BSD/Anxiety group (n=50), and a demographically-matched healthy control group (n=43), who were followed prospectively. Participants completed the Cognitive Style Questionnaire (CSQ), Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ), Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), Sociotropy Autonomy Scale (SAS), Halberstadt Mania Inventory (HMI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the initial assessment. One year later, participants completed the BDI and HMI again to assess severity of depressive and hypomanic/manic symptoms. Results A Multivariate Analysis of Co-Variance (MANCOVA) revealed significant differences between the three groups on their DAS Perfectionism, DEQ Dependency, DEQ Self-Criticism, CSQ Negative, SAS Autonomy, and Time 2 BDI scores, with the BSD/Anxiety group scoring higher than the BSD only group on all measures except the CSQ. Preacher and Hayes' (2008) bootstrapping method was used to test for mediational effects of the significant cognitive style measures on depressive symptoms at follow-up. The 95% confidence intervals for the indirect effect of group on follow-up depressive symptoms through DAS Perfectionism did not include zero, indicating the presence of a significant mediating relationship for perfectionism. Limitations This study only used two waves of data; three waves of data would allow one to investigate the full causal effect of one variable on another. Further, a comorbid anxiety diagnosis consisted of any
Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette
Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed t...
Koh, Jun Sung; Ko, Hyo Jung; Wang, Sheng-Min; Cho, Kang Joon; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Soo-Jung; Pae, Chi-Un
This study investigated the relationship of personality, depression, somatization, anxiety with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). The LUTS/BPH patients were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), 44-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the PHQ-15, and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The LUTS/BPH symptoms were more severe in patients with depression (p=0.046) and somatization (p=0.024), respectively. Neurotic patients were associated with greater levels of depression, anxiety and somatisation (p=0.0059, p=0.004 and p=0.0095, respectively). Patients with high extraversion showed significantly low depression (p=0.00481) and anxiety (p=0.035) than those with low extraversion. Our exploratory results suggest patients with LUTS/BPH may need careful evaluation of psychiatric problem including depression, anxiety and somatization. Additional studies with adequate power and improved designs are necessary to support the present exploratory findings. PMID:25866530
Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…
Emons, Wilco H M; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.
The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined...... items each were found to be structurally sound and reliable. These scales covered the two key attributes of anxiety and (anhedonic) depression. The findings suggest that the HADS may be reduced to a 10-item questionnaire comprising two 5-item scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms....
Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.
The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although studies have shown an association between anxiety and depression and obesity, psychological health among obese women during and after pregnancy has not been carefully studied. The aim of this study was to investigate psychological well-being using symptoms of depression and/or anxiety among obese pregnant women attending a weight gain restriction program and to then compare this group with a control group receiving traditional antenatal care. Methods 151 obese pregnant women in an intervention group and 188 obese pregnant women in a control group answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Group differences between the two groups were estimated by using the χ2 - test on categorical variables. The Student's t-test on continuous, normally distributed variables measuring changes in mean score on BAI and EPDS over time was used. To make a more comprehensive assessment of group differences, between as well as within the two groups, logistic regressions were performed with the BAI and EPDS as dependent variables, measured at gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks postnatal. The grouping variable has been adjusted for socio-demographic variables and complications. Results The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy varied between 24% and 25% in the intervention group and 22% and 23% in the control group. The prevalence of symptoms of anxiety postnatally was 9% in the intervention group and 11% in the control group. Five percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% of the women in the control group showed symptoms of anxiety during the course of pregnancy and at the postpartum assessment. The prevalence of symptoms of depression during pregnancy varied between 19% and 22% in the intervention group but was constant at 18% in the control group. Postnatal prevalence was 11% in both groups. Six percent of the women in the intervention group and 4% in the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vulnerability to stress has been associated to distress, emotional distress symptoms and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients as well. Furthermore some conflicting results were noticed. We aimed to evaluate the effect over metabolic control in what concerns vulnerability to stress beyond depressive and anxiety symptoms. Findings This cross-sectional study assessed 273 T2DM patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS and the 23 Questions to assess Vulnerability to Stress (23QVS, along with demographic and clinical diabetes-related variables. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of poor glycemic control. The results showed an association of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.030 with increased risk of poor glycemic control. Anxiety symptoms and vulnerability to stress on their own were not predictive of metabolic control, respectively (odds ratio = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.84-1.00, P = 0.187 and odds ratio = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.95-1.01, P = 0.282. Conclusions Our data suggested that vulnerability to stress was not predictive of poor glycemic control in T2DM, but depressive symptoms were.
Roomruangwong, Chutima; Kanchanatawan, Buranee; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Maes, Michael
The aim of this study is to delineate the risk factors of antenatal depression and its consequences, including postnatal depression, and to examine whether the hematocrit (Hct) is associated with maternal depression. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Spielberger's State Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Kennerley and Gath Maternity Blues Assessment Scale (KGB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were assessed at the end of term (T1) and 2-3 days (T2) and 4-6 weeks (T3) after delivery in 126 women with and without antenatal depression. The Hct was measured at T1. Antenatal depression was significantly predicted by lifetime depression and premenstrual syndrome and less education. Antenatal depression was not associated with obstetric or neonatal outcomes. Antenatal depression symptoms strongly predict depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 and T3. The EPDS, KGB, STAI and BDI, but not the HAMD, scores, were significantly lower at T3 than before. The incidence of depression significantly decreased from T1 (23.8%) to T2 (7.8%) and T3 (5.3%). T1 Hct values significantly predicted the T3 postnatal EPDS, STAI, KGB and BDI scores. Delivery significantly improves depression and anxiety symptoms. Increased Hct in the third trimester is a biomarker of postpartum depression and anxiety symptoms. PMID:27086235
Psychological variables, such as depression and anxiety, are known as independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), suggesting the interaction of psychological and physiological factors in the development of CAD. In the present study, we analyzed the possible association between depressive and anxiety symptoms and major atherosclerotic risk factors in patients with chest pain warranting coronary angiography. The patients without CAD (n=159) and those with CAD (n=155) were evaluated for the severity of depression and anxiety by the symptom scales; high scores indicate severe symptoms. Age, male/female ratio, prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), and depression level were significantly higher in the CAD group. Among a total of 314 patients with chest pain, the mean depression score was higher in patients with DM (16.01±8.12 vs 13.01±9.6, p=0.01) and those with hypercholesterolemia (15.43±9.61 vs 12.53±9.61, p=0.02). The mean anxiety score was also higher in patients with DM (20.81±12.85 vs 16.51±12.09, p=0.008), hypercholesterolemia (20.67±13.11 vs 15.29±11.36, p=0.002), or hypertension (20.74±12.94 vs 14.1±10.8, p=0.001). Thus, DM and hypercholesterolemia are associated with depression and anxiety, while hypertension is only related to anxiety. In contrast, smoking and family history of atherosclerosis are not related to depression and anxiety scores. These results suggest depression and anxiety symptoms may contribute to the development and progression of CAD, especially in patients with DM or hypercholesterolemia. (author)
Jarrett, Matthew A
The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26121381
Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P
We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up. PMID:25782709
Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Martin E. P. Seligman
Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety (worry and oversensitivity, social concerns and concentration, and physiological anxiety) as well as total anxiety symptoms at an initial assessment an...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nurses are an indispensable component of the work force in the health care system. However, many of them are known to work in a stressful environment which may affect their mental well-being; the situation could be worse in rapidly transforming societies such as China. The purpose of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms and the associated factors in Chinese nurses working in public city hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed for Chinese nurses in public city hospitals of Liaoning Province, northeast China. Seven hospitals in different areas of the province were randomly selected for the study. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale was used to measure anxiety symptoms. Effort-reward imbalance questionnaire and Job Content Questionnaire were used to assess the work stressors. Univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety symptoms. Results All registered nurses in the seven city hospitals, totaling 1807 registered nurses were surveyed. Of the returned questionnaires, 1437 were valid (79.5% for analysis. Utilizing the total raw score ≥ 40 as the cut-off point, the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in these nurses was 43.4%. Demographic factors (education, chronic disease and life event, lifestyle factors (regular meals and physical exercise, work conditions (hospital grade, job rank, monthly salary, nurse-patient relationships, job satisfaction and intention of leaving, job content (social support and decision latitude, effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment were all significantly related to the anxiety symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed main factors associated with anxiety symptoms were lower job rank (OR 2.501, overcommitment (OR 2.018, chronic diseases (OR 1.541, worse nurse-patient relationship (OR 1.434, higher social support (OR 0.573, lower hospital grade (OR 0.629, taking regular
Mian, Nicholas D.; Wainwright, Laurel; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Carter, Alice S.
Childhood anxiety is impairing and associated with later emotional disorders. Studying risk factors for child anxiety may allow earlier identification of at-risk children for prevention efforts. This study applied an ecological risk model to address how early childhood anxiety symptoms, child temperament, maternal anxiety and depression symptoms,…
Lundqvist, C; Kenttä, G; Raglin, J S
The objective was to examine the differences in anxiety ratings of elite and sub-elite athletes when the relationship between intensity and direction scores of anxiety ratings is considered in analyses. Participants were 31 junior elite (Mean age: 17.7, SD=1.1) and 53 sub-elite (Mean age: 17.5, SD=1.1) cross country skiers and swimmers who completed the direction modified CSAI-2R before important competitions. Results showed that elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as facilitative to their performance whereas sub-elite athletes rated a higher percent of items as debilitative. No significant differences between the elite and sub-elite samples were displayed regarding rated direction scores of cognitive or somatic anxiety at moderate to high-intensity levels. A significant difference in facilitative anxiety ratings was displayed at a low anxiety intensity level (Z=-2.20, Panxiety direction ratings. The findings suggest that facilitative direction scores are a consequence of low anxiety intensity, possibly combined with high self-confidence levels. Directional anxiety researchers analyzing separate total scores of intensity and direction respectively, which is the traditional approach, may draw incorrect conclusions about the importance of facilitative ratings of anxiety symptoms. PMID:22126716
Broeren, Suzanne; Muris, Peter; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Baker, Jess R.
This three-wave longitudinal study explored developmental trajectories for various types of childhood anxiety symptoms (i.e., specific fears, social anxiety, generalized anxiety, and separation anxiety) and examined how these trajectories were associated with several factors thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of anxiety. Parents of a…
The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359
Pariante, F; Caddeo, S; Ecari, U
A double-blind study was carried out in 30 female patients with generalized anxiety disorders associated with depressive symptoms to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of etizolam and alprazolam. Patients were allocated at random to receive one or other drug at a dosage of 0.5 mg twice daily for 5 weeks. Assessments were made on entry and after 3 and 5 weeks of treatment using the Hamilton rating scales for anxiety and for depression. The results showed that both drugs had marked anxiolytic and antidepressive activity, there being significant reductions after treatment in mean total rating scores compared to baseline. Although there was no statistically significant difference between the two drugs, there was a trend for etizolam to be more effective in relieving anxiety somatization symptoms. Apart from moderate daytime drowsiness in a few patients, both drugs were considered to be extremely well tolerated. PMID:2692969
Melkevik, Ole; Hauge, Lars Johan; Bendtsen, Pernille;
BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression among adults with lower educational attainment. Delayed completion of high school (HS) is common and represents a potentially complicating factor in the relationship between educational attainment and anxiety and depression. This...... study aims to investigate whether delayed HS completion is associated with symptom levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood and whether it interacts with later educational attainment in predicting symptom-levels of anxiety and depression in adulthood. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 149...... participants from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT 3) between 30 and 46 years of age in 2006. The outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression as measured by the HADS scale. Variables measuring educational attainment were obtained from the National Educational Database in Norway. We used...
Schmitz, Julian; Blechert, Jens; Kramer, Martina; Asbrand, Julia; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna
Cognitive models of social phobia (SP) and empirical evidence in adults suggest that affected individuals overestimate arousal symptoms such as heart rate (HR) during social stress and worry about their visibility in public. To date, little is known about these aspects in childhood social anxiety, an important precursor of the disorder. We…
Mikaliūkštienė, Aldona; Žagminas, Kęstutis; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Narkauskaitė, Laura; Sąlyga, Jonas; Jankauskienė, Konstancija; Stukas, Rimantas; Šurkienė, Genė
Background Depression is associated with a variety of diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and macrovascular complications. The prevalence of the symptoms of anxiety (32%) and depression (22.4%) in patients with diabetes is considerably higher than in general population samples (10%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and determinants of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Material/Methods This survey was conducted during 2007–2010. In total, 1500 patients were invited to participate in the study. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure depression and anxiety for the evaluation of the depressive state and anxiety. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 17.0. Results More than 70% of all respondents who participated in the study had diabetes mellitus complications (72.2%). The prevalence of mild to severe depression score was 28.5% (95% CI 25.7–31.4). The prevalence of anxiety was 42.4% (95% CI 39.3–45.5). Anxiety was more frequent among females (46.8%) than among males (34.7%) (p<0.001). A significant negative trend was observed between prevalence of anxiety and depression, and age and education (p for trend <0.001). Conclusions A significant association between depression and diabetic complications was identified (p<0.05). Duration of diabetes was a risk factor significantly associated with higher scores of anxiety among the patients with T2DM. PMID:24492643
Dilek Sirvanli Ozen
Full Text Available The question if there is a valid distinction between depression and anxiety disorders remains controversial. These two disorders have various overlaps in the symptomatology and sometimes it is difficult to make a clear diagnosis. The difficulty in making a definite diagnosis destined researchers to determine the differences and the similarities between anxiety and depression. The negative affect which has multiple dimensions such as low self-esteem, negative mood and negative cognitions is seen as the common factor in both disorders. The positive affect which has been defined as the harmony and satisfaction with others and milieu, is regarded as the discriminating factor for the diagnosis of depression. Further research has characterized somatic arousal as the third dimension, a candidate to be the discriminating factor for anxiety disorders. Although phenotypic models appear to find a solution for this problem the facts that negative affect dimension is more loaded compared to the other two dimensions and predominance of negative affect on several symptom patterns prevent researchers to reach a conclusive results regarding the differences between these two disorders. In this review article, symptom similarities and differences of anxiety and depressive disorders are discussed within the frame of phenotypic models and some alternative ideas are provided for possible changes in upcoming versions of classification systems.
Choi, Hee-Yeon; Kim, Soo-In; Yun, Kyu Wol; Kim, Young Chul; Lim, Weon-Jeong; Kim, Eui-Jung; Ryoo, Jae-Hong
Objective In South Korea, the number of deaths from suicide has increased in the last two decades, and suicide has become both a social and political problem. In this study, after controlling the variables influencing suicidal ideation, it was expected that it would be determined if anxiety symptoms are independently related to suicidal ideation. Methods Data were obtained from 327 psychiatric outpatients accomplished a self-reported questionnaire that included sociodemographic characteristic...
Full Text Available Background: To examine the fear of pain, anxiety pain symptoms, heart focused anxiety, psychopathology and hostility between patients with infarction and angina. Method: Subjects were 104 patients with infarction or angina, who completed the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, the Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 and the Fear of Pain Questionnaire – III. Results: For all patients higher levels of fear and anxiety of pain, heart-focused anxiety psychopathology, and a tendency to develop a hostile attitude were observed. For angina group higher levels of fearfull thinking and total PASS-20, avoidance CAQ, somatization and anxiety (SCL-90. In addition, all patients were found to be significantly correlated (P< .005 with sex, fearfull PASS-20, physiological responses PASS-20, total PASS-20, avoidance CAQ, somatization SCL-90, anxiety SCL-90 Conclusion: There is a variety of general factors that may promote the development of cardiophobia. These processes are likely nonspecific in the sense that they increase the chance of negative emotional responding and poor affect regulatory strategies. For persons exposed to cardiac-related illnesses or persons who model the potential dangers of cardiac-related sensations, there may be an enhanced specificity to that general vulnerability.
Full Text Available Background: The cognitive behavioral interventions based on the transdiagnostic approach for emotional disorders have received useful empirical supports in recent years. Most of the researches on this area have been conducted without any control group. Moreover, little information about comparative effectiveness has reported. The current study was compared transdiagnostic group therapy with classical cognitive group therapy.Methods: Thirty three collages students with anxiety and depressive symptoms participated in eight two-hour sessions in Akhavan Hospital, Tehran, Iran during May and June 2011. The results were analyzed by The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, and Work and Social Adjustment Scale in pre and post intervention.Results: Both groups showed the significant difference in research variables pre and post test. However, there was no significant difference in the results analysis using ACOVAs except for anxiety symptoms.Conclusions: The effectiveness of transdiagnostic group therapy was confirmed in reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. Implications of the study are discussed.
Reyes-Zúñiga, Margarita; Castorena-Maldonado, Armando; Carrillo-Alduenda, José Luis; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Martínez-Estrada, Araceli; Gómez-Torres, Leonardo; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis
Introduction: Information concerning the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is controversial. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: determine the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with SDB; explore whether the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms rises with increasing parameters of SDB severity; and investigate the factors potentially associated with anxiety and depression. Materials and Methodol...
Cheung, WM; Lee, YL; Wu, Y.; Tsang, HWH; Leung, AY
Purpose: We reviewed studies from 1990 to 2010 on using aromatherapy for people with anxiety or anxiety symptoms and examined their clinical effects. Methods: The review was conducted on available electronic databases to extract journal articles that evaluated the anxiolytic effects of aromatherapy for people with anxiety symptoms. Results: The results were based on 16 randomized controlled trials examining the anxiolytic effects of aromatherapy among people with anxiety symptoms. Most of the...
Renata André Laurino
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to verify the degree of anxiety, respiratory distress, and health-related quality of life in a group of asthmatic patients who have experienced previous panic attacks. Additionally, we evaluated if a respiratory physiotherapy program (breathing retraining improved both asthma and panic disorder symptoms, resulting in an improvement in the health-related quality of life of asthmatics. METHODS: Asthmatic individuals were assigned to a chest physiotherapy group that included a breathing retraining program held once a week for three months or a paired control group that included a Subtle Touch program. All patients were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, the Quality of Life Questionnaire, and spirometry parameter measurements. RESULTS: Both groups had high marks for panic disorder and agoraphobia, which limited their quality of life. The Breathing Retraining Group program improved the clinical control of asthma, reduced panic symptoms and agoraphobia, decreased patient scores on the Sheehan Anxiety Scale, and improved their quality of life. Spirometry parameters were unchanged. CONCLUSION: Breathing retraining improves the clinical control of asthma and anxiety symptoms and the health-related quality of life in asthmatic patients.
Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Pedersen, Susanne S.
The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measures anxiety and depressive symptoms and is widely used in clinical and nonclinical populations. However, there is some debate about the number of dimensions represented by the HADS. In a sample of 534 Dutch cardiac patients, this study examined (a) the dimensionality of the HADS using Mokken…
Villabo, Marianne; Gere, Martina; Torgersen, Svenn; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometrics and clinical efficiency of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC), which measures physical symptoms, harm avoidance, social anxiety, and separation/panic. Using a sample of 190 treatment-seeking Norwegian youth (aged 7-13 years, M[subscript age] = 10.3 years, 62.1% male),…
KANEDA, Yasuhiro; FUJII, Akira
Objective:We investigated the associations between anxiety and depressive symptoms in normal subjects and patients with mood and/or anxiety disorders, using the Japaneses version of Spielberger's STAI and the Zung SDS. Methods:The subjects for the present study were 60 normal subjects, 15 patients with anxiety disorders and, 12 patients with mood disorders meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. Results:1) Both the mean total state-anxiety (S-a...
Van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.
Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and
F.V. van Oort; K. Greaves-Lord; F.C. Verhulst; J. Ormel; A.C. Huizink
Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and
Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.
Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and
Ferdinand, RF; van Lang, NDJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC
Studies aimed at anxiety symptoms in children from the general population samples often make distinctions between symptoms of Separation Anxiety, Social Phobia, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Given the high comorbidity rates between these disorders, the usefulness of such distinct
Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan
Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…
Van Oort, F. V. A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A. C.
Background: Little is known about the development of anxiety symptoms from late childhood to late adolescence. The present study determined developmental trajectories of symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SoPh), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a large…
Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.
Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to…
Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.
Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full school-age range of children and adolescents (age 6-18) with ASDs and IQs ≥ 70 (n=95), we also observed elevated rates of depression/anxiety symptoms, but...
Deardorff, Julianna; Hayward, Chris; Wilson, Kimberly A.; Bryson, Susan; Hammer, Lawrence D.; Agras, Stewart
This study examines direct and interactive effects of puberty and gender on social anxiety symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred-six participants were assessed at ages 9.5 and 11. Results suggest that gender and puberty interact to predict social anxiety symptoms. Advanced puberty was associated with increased symptoms for girls only.
Full Text Available Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two group treatments, behavioral activation (BA and cognitive therapy (CT, in reducing subsyndromal anxiety and depressive symptoms in a sample of Iranian university students.Method: Twenty-seven Iranian university students who scored 18 or higher on the depression subscale and 16 or higher on the anxiety subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were randomly assigned into treatment groups. One group received 8 sessions of BA (n = 14, and the other received 8 sessions of group CT (n = 13.Result: Analysis of covariance revealed that the BA group had a significantly greater reduction in depressive symptoms than the CT group. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the levels of anxiety, stress symptoms or functional impairment after treatment.Conclusion: This study found evidence for the effectiveness of BA in reducing anxiety, depressive and stress symptoms and functional impairment compared to CT. BA was more effective than CT in improving depressive symptoms and was as effective as CT in decreasing anxiety, stress and functional impairment. BA is also a cost-effective intervention, particularly in group formats.
Pardee, Carolyn Speidel; Colder, Craig R.; Bowker, Julie C.
The relationship between anxiety and alcohol use in adolescence remains unclear, with evidence for no association, as well as risk and protective effects of anxiety. Considering developmental trajectories may be important for understanding the association between anxiety and alcohol use, and may help clarify prior mixed findings. The present study examined trajectories of alcohol use, social anxiety and general anxiety symptoms in early to middle adolescence using univariate and parallel proc...
Dautovic, Elmedina; De Roos, Carlijn; Rood, Yanda; Dommerholt, Agnes; Rodenburg, Roos
Purpose: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design.Methods: Five children (aged 8–18) with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED) pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-m...
Feng, Xin; Shaw, Daniel S.; Silk, Jennifer S.
This study examined the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms among 290 boys and evaluated the association of trajectory groups with child and family risk factors and children’s internalizing disorders. Anxiety symptoms were measured using maternal reports from the Child Behavior Checklist (T. M. Achenbach, 1991, 1992) for boys between the ages of 2 and 10. A group-based trajectory analysis revealed 4 distinct trajectories in the development of anxiety symptoms: low, low increasing, hi...
Elmedina Dautovic; Carlijn de Roos; Yanda van Rood; Agnes Dommerholt; Roos Rodenburg
Purpose: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods: Five children (aged 8–18) with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED) pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-...
Shahla Mohamadirizi; Fatemeh Yousefi; Zahra Boroumandfar
Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random samplin...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anxiety is common, with significant morbidity, but little is known about presentations and recording of anxiety diagnoses and symptoms in primary care. This study aimed to determine trends in incidence and socio-demographic variation in General Practitioner (GP recorded diagnoses of anxiety, mixed anxiety/depression, panic and anxiety symptoms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Annual incidence rates of anxiety diagnoses and symptoms were calculated from 361 UK general practices contributing to The Health Improvement Network (THIN database between 1998 and 2008, adjusted for year of diagnosis, gender, age, and deprivation. Incidence of GP recorded anxiety diagnosis fell from 7.9 to 4.9/1000PYAR from 1998 to 2008, while incidence of anxiety symptoms rose from 3.9 to 5.8/1000PYAR. Incidence of mixed anxiety/depression fell from 4.0 to 2.2/1000PYAR, and incidence of panic disorder fell from 0.9/1000PYAR in 1998 to 0.5/1000PYAR in 2008. All these entries were approximately twice as common in women and more common in deprived areas. GP-recorded anxiety diagnoses, symptoms and mixed anxiety/depression were commonest aged 45-64 years, whilst panic disorder/attacks were more common in those 16-44 years. GPs predominately use broad non-specific codes to record anxiety problems in the UK. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GP recording of anxiety diagnoses has fallen whilst recording of anxiety symptoms has increased over time. The incidence of GP recorded diagnoses of anxiety diagnoses was lower than in screened populations in primary care. The reasons for this apparent under-recording and whether it represents under-detection in those being seen, a reluctance to report anxiety to their GP, or a reluctance amongst GPs to label people with anxiety requires investigation.
Li, Mengyao; Wang, Lie
Background The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in bladder and renal cancer patients are not well evaluated in China. Given the growing attention to positive psychological constructs in the field of oncology, it is necessary to explore the effects of these constructs on depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning province. 327 bladder cancer patients and 268 renal cancer patients completed questionnaires on demographic variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Resilience Scale-14, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 during the period from July 2013 to July 2014. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of resilience. Results The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 78.0% and 71.3% in bladder cancer patients, and 77.6% and 68.3% in renal cancer patients. Psychological stress was positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, while resilience was negatively related to these symptoms. Resilience partially mediated the relations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients should receive more attention from medical institutions and government agencies. In addition to reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience development should be included in depression and anxiety prevention and treatment strategies in China. PMID:27128438
Full Text Available The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and their associated factors in bladder and renal cancer patients are not well evaluated in China. Given the growing attention to positive psychological constructs in the field of oncology, it is necessary to explore the effects of these constructs on depressive and anxiety symptoms. This study aims to explore the associations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients and the mediating role of resilience in these relationships.A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning province. 327 bladder cancer patients and 268 renal cancer patients completed questionnaires on demographic variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Resilience Scale-14, and Perceived Stress Scale-10 during the period from July 2013 to July 2014. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of resilience.The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 78.0% and 71.3% in bladder cancer patients, and 77.6% and 68.3% in renal cancer patients. Psychological stress was positively related to depressive and anxiety symptoms, while resilience was negatively related to these symptoms. Resilience partially mediated the relations of psychological stress with depressive and anxiety symptoms.The high prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms among Chinese bladder and renal cancer patients should receive more attention from medical institutions and government agencies. In addition to reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms, resilience development should be included in depression and anxiety prevention and treatment strategies in China.
Edhborg, Maigun; Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms on maternal bonding to the infant 2-3 months postpartum and the influence of the mother's bonding to the infant during pregnancy and to her own caregiver during her childhood on maternal bonding 2-3 months postpartum. This study originated from a community-based cohort study carried out in rural Bangladesh. Trained staff collected data and administrated the questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy, at childbirth and 2-3 months postpartum. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the State Anxiety Inventory and the mother's emotional bonding to the infant with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. The results showed that 11% of the women reported depressive symptoms, 35% anxiety symptoms, 3.4% both depressive and anxiety symptoms and 51% neither depressive nor anxiety symptoms. Mothers with depressive symptoms were older, were poorer, fewer were literate, reported more intimate partner violence and showed lower emotional bonding to their infants 2-3 months postpartum compared to mentally well and anxious mothers. Approximately 11% of the mothers reported mild bonding disturbances and nearly one third of them showed depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms and giving birth to a girl were negatively associated to a mother's emotional bonding to her infant, while maternal anxiety symptoms and high bonding to the foetus during pregnancy were positively associated to the mother's emotional bonding to the infant 2-3 months postpartum. PMID:21626173
Frick, Andreas; Engman, Jonas; Alaie, Iman; Björkstrand, Johannes; Faria, Vanda; Gingnell, Malin; Wallenquist, Ulrika; Agren, Thomas; Wahlstedt, Kurt; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Morell, Arvid; Fredrikson, Mats; Furmark, Tomas
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with altered brain function and structure, but most structural studies include small samples and findings are mixed. This study compared regional gray matter volume between 48 SAD patients and 29 healthy controls (HC) as well as the relationship between volume and symptom severity. Structural magnetic resonance images from SAD patients and HC were evaluated using standard voxel-based morphometry (VBM) processing in the SPM8 software package. Social anxiety symptom severity was rated in SAD patients by a clinician using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). SAD patients had greater regional gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus and lateral occipital cortex than the controls, and within the SAD group a positive correlation was found between symptom severity and regional gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus and the retrosplenial cortex. These findings replicate and extend earlier reports of enlarged visual processing areas in SAD. Increased gray matter volume in regions involved in visual processing and self-consciousness could underlie, or be the result of, abnormal emotional information processing and self-focused attention previously demonstrated in patients with SAD. PMID:25258347
Stein, Dan J; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Lader, Malcolm
BACKGROUND: A previous factor analysis of pooled data demonstrated that the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) can be divided into six subscales. This paper examines data from a fixed-dose trial of escitalopram versus paroxetine, in order to determine the differential effects of these agents on...... symptom dimensions in social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: Data from a 24-week randomised, placebo-controlled, comparative study of fixed doses of escitalopram (5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg) versus paroxetine (20 mg) in SAD were examined. The six factors identified in a previous factor analysis of baseline data...... from escitalopram studies on the primary efficacy scale, the LSAS, were used to compute subscale scores. These were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and standardised effect sizes were calculated. RESULTS: The combined escitalopram data and the paroxetine data both demonstrated...
Brown, Ruth C; Clark, Shaunna L; Dahne, Jennifer; Stratton, Kelcey J; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W; Amstadter, Ananda B
Transactional models have been used to explain the relationship between maternal depression and child behavioral problems; however, few studies have examined transactional models for maternal depression and adolescent depression and anxiety. Using an autoregressive cross-lagged analysis, we examined the longitudinal association between maternal and adolescent depression to determine the extent to which maternal depression influences adolescent depression and anxiety, and vice versa, over the course of a 4-year period. Participants were a community sample of 277 mother-adolescent dyads with offspring 10 to 14 years of age at the 1st year used in the analyses (43.7% female; 35% African American, 2.9% Hispanic/Latino). Depressive symptoms were assessed using maternal self-report (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale; Radloff, 1977), and adolescent depression and anxiety were assessed by self-report (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale; Chorpita, Yim, Moffitt, Umemoto, & Francis, 2000). The final model, χ(2)(14) = 23.74, p = .05 (TLI = .97, CFI = .98, RMSEA = .05), indicated that maternal depression was significantly associated with adolescent depression 2 years later. Of interest, adolescent depression did not significantly predict maternal depression, and the association between maternal and adolescent depression was not moderated by gender, age, or ethnicity. The association between maternal depression and adolescent anxiety was weaker than that observed for adolescent depression. Results suggest that the transaction model of maternal depression may not extend to adolescent depression and anxiety. Furthermore, maternal depression can have an enduring effect on adolescent depression, and continued research and clinical monitoring over extended periods is warranted. PMID:24702257
Puleo, Connor M.; Kendall, Philip C.
Symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were assessed (Social Responsiveness Scale-Parent (SRS-P); coded in-session behavior) in typically-developing, anxiety-disordered children (N = 50) treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). "Study 1": children with moderate autistic symptomology (per SRS-P) were significantly more likely to improve…
Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.
Does anxiety lead to depression more for girls than for boys? This study prospectively examines gender differences in the relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms in early adolescence. One hundred thirteen 11- to 14-year-old middle school students complete questionnaires assessing depressive symptoms and three dimensions of anxiety…
Bekhuis, Ella; Boschloo, Lynn; Rosmalen, Judith G M; Schoevers, Robert A
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that depressive and anxiety disorders are strongly related to somatic symptoms, but much is unclear about the specificity of this association. This study examines the associations of specific depressive and anxiety disorders with somatic symptoms, and whether t
Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James
This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…
Davis, Kelly A.; Epkins, Catherine C.
We extended past research that focused on the relation between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 160 11- to 12-year-olds, we examined whether private religious practices moderated the relations between family conflict and preadolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms. Although preadolescents'…
Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.
Objective: To examine age differences in the expression of childhood fears and anxiety symptoms. Method: A cross-sectional design was used to test recently formulated developmental hypotheses regarding the differential expression of childhood anxiety symptoms and fears in a community sample of youths (N = 145). Three groups of youths were…
Lau, Winnie Yu-Pow; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiu, Yen-Nan; Wu, Yu-Yu
The link between parental autistic tendency and anxiety symptoms was studied in 491 Taiwanese couples raising biological children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Parental autistic tendency as measured by Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) was associated with anxiety symptoms across all domains. Large effect sizes were found in social phobia and…
Motoca, Luci M.; Williams, Sandra; Silverman, Wendy K.
The present study used a cross-sectional design to examine the relations among youth anxiety symptoms, positive and negative peer interactions, and social skills. Also examined was the mediating role of social skills in the relations between youth anxiety symptoms and positive and negative peer interactions. Youth sex and age were examined as…
Research has shown that Generalized Anxiety Disorder is one of the most common anxiety disorders found in adolescents today. Its main symptoms are disproportionate fear and anxiety (worrying) about work-related or school-related events or activities and social relations. Adolescents suffering from GAD symptoms have difficulty keeping fear and worries in check. This causes mounting stress and impairs their functioning. GAD sufferers tend to worry about issues stemming from social relationships...
Beaudreau, Sherry A.; O’Hara, Ruth
We examined the association of anxiety, depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence on cognitive processes in 102 community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed anxiety and depression questionnaires, and measures of episodic and semantic memory, word fluency, processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition. Participants with only increased anxiety had poorer processing speed/shifting attention, and inhibition, but depressive symptoms alone were not associated with any cognitive ...
Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.
Literature suggests that parent-child attachment and anxiety symptoms are related. One purpose of the present study was to assess whether attachment patterns relate differentially to social anxiety aspects (fear of negative evaluation, social anxiety and distress in new situations, and generalized anxiety and distress). The second purpose was to investigate these links both longitudinally and concurrently in middle childhood. Children in grades 3 and 5 (N = 74) completed measures of secure, a...
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Huang, Mei-Feng; Kim, Young Shin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Tang, Tze-Chun; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Tai-Ling; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen
Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional study were to examine the associations of various types of school bullying involvement experiences with different dimensions of anxiety symptoms on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and to examine the moderating effects of gender and age on the associations in Taiwanese adolescent…
Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J
The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress. PMID:25269759
Nillni, Yael I.; Berenz, Erin C.; Pineles, Suzanne L; Coffey, Scott F.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
Experience of premenstrual symptoms may be an important factor involved in understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom vulnerability. Correlations between PTSD and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) have been identified in epidemiological studies, however, the nature of this relation is not clear. The current study examined the incremental validity of premenstrual symptoms, as well as their interaction with anxiety sensitivity, in the prediction of PTSD symptom severity abo...
Arabiat, Diana H; Jabery, Mohammad Al; Wardam, Lina
This research aims to investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms in a group of children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan, and their relation to social desirability in a cultural sample not previously researched. Using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), anxiety and social desirability data were obtained from 114 children diagnosed with chronic illnesses and 162 healthy control participants. Based on children's self-report, participants were categorized according to their adaptive style paradigm as either high anxious, low anxious, or repressor. It was proposed that children who score high on social desirability and low on anxiety are repressors. The prevalence of these categories was compared across the two groups. Anxiety was reported in 9.64 percent of the chronic illnesses and 12.34 percent of the healthy peers. Using the data obtained in the present study, the rate and nature of anxiety in children with chronic illnesses were lower for children in Jordan when compared to previous studies. However, social desirability values were similar to those established in Western societies suggesting a significantly higher percentage of children identified as repressors in children with long-term illnesses. These results supported the hypothesis regarding the relationship between social desirability and expressed anxiety symptoms. PMID:23242812
Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to research the effect of selected socio-demographic and medical variables on the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in different trimesters of pregnancy. Materials and methods. The study was prospective, longitudinal, the group consisted of 314 adult pregnant women. To assess the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used. The results were statistically analyzed. To assess the normal distribution the Shapiro-Wilk test was used. Non-parametric tests: Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis ANOVA were used due to the distribution of the variables tested against the intergroup comparisons that deviate from the normal distribution. Results. Only the assessment of the financial and housing situation given by the respondents was related to the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the course of the entire pregnancy. The unmarried respondents had greater severity of depressive symptoms in the first and third trimesters. Other socio-demographic variables were not associated with the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression in different trimesters of pregnancy. Medical variables (associated with an obstetric-gynecological history, such as a history of miscarriage, complications in a previous pregnancy, the mode of delivery in a previous pregnancy, generally did not affect the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Only major symptoms of depression during the third trimester were associated with complications in a previous pregnancy. An unplanned pregnancy turned out to be one of the most crucial variables determining higher severity of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Conclusions. The knowledge of socio-demographic and medical factors associated with the severity of symptoms of anxiety and depression during pregnancy may facilitate better monitoring the groups of women being particularly vulnerable to
Tong, Lian; Shi, Hui-Jing; Zhang, Zhe; Yuan, Yuan; Xia, Zhi-Juan; Jiang, Xiao-Xiao; Xiong, Xu
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been often found to be comorbid with other disorders, including anxiety, depression, and unhealthy behaviors such as drinking alcohol and smoking. These factors were often discussed separately, and the mediating effects of mental health on substance use are unknown. To study the mediating effects of anxiety and depression on the relationship between ADHD and drinking/smoking behaviors, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1870 college students from Shanghai, China. The Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) and Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to identify the current and past ADHD. Structural Equation Modeling was carried out to clarify the mediating effect of anxiety and depression on the relationship between core ADHD symptoms and smoking/drinking behaviors. We found that inattention as one of the core symptoms of ADHD was associated with an increased risk of depression as a direct effect, as well as slightly increased risk of smoking/drinking behaviors by an indirect effect of depression. Hyperactivity-impulsivity, as another core symptom of ADHD had a robust impact on smoking and drinking behaviors, while being mediated by anxiety and depression. In conclusion, anxiety and depression was associated with further increased risk behaviors of smoking/drinking alcohol among those students with ADHD. PMID:26923609
Background Findings demonstrated that parents of children with cancer experience elevated levels of distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and subjective symptoms of stress. In this study, we determined effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on reduction of depression and anxiety symptoms in mothers of children with cancer. Methods Four mothers whose children had cancer were diagnosed to have depression and anxiety symptoms, using Beck Anxiety Inven...
Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit
High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression. PMID:16555263
S. Rietveld; P.J.M. Prins; I van Beest
Examined whether negative thoughts are different in anxious, depressed, and chronically ill children. Screening of 1,316 children on anxiety, depression, and asthma resulted in the selection of 118 children (aged 12-15 yrs). Four groups were formed: (1) a high anxiety group, (2) a high anxiety/depre
Silberg, Judy L.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Objective: We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8-13-year-old and 14-17-year-old twin girls. Methods: Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal anxiety and depression and breastfeeding cessation are significant public health problems. There is an association between maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression and early breastfeeding cessation. In earlier studies, the causality of this association was interpreted both ways; symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum significantly impacts breastfeeding, and breastfeeding cessation significantly impacts symptoms of anxiety and depression. First, we aimed to investigate whether breastfeeding cessation is related to an increase in symptoms of anxiety and depression from pregnancy to six months postpartum. Second, we also investigated whether the proposed symptom increase after breastfeeding cessation was disproportionately high for those women already suffering from high levels of anxiety and depression during pregnancy. Methods To answer these objectives, we examined data from 42 225 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Subjects were recruited in relation to a routine ultra-sound examination, and all pregnant women in Norway were eligible. We used data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and questionnaires both pre and post partum. Symptoms of anxiety and depression at six months postpartum were predicted in a linear regression analysis by WHO-categories of breastfeeding, symptoms of anxiety and depression prepartum (standardized score, and interaction terms between breastfeeding categories and prepartum symptoms of anxiety and depression. The results were adjusted for cesarean sections, primiparity, plural births, preterm births, and maternal smoking. Results First, prepartum levels of anxiety and depression were related to breastfeeding cessation (β 0.24; 95% CI 0.21-0.28, and breastfeeding cessation was predictive of an increase in postpartum anxiety and depression ( β 0.11; 95%CI 0.09-0.14. Second, prepartum anxiety and depression interacted with the relation between
Full Text Available Purpose: To examine the potential effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR in children with epilepsy-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms, using a case series design. Methods: Five children (aged 8–18 with epilepsy identified for seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms were treated with EMDR. To examine potential treatment effects, posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed (CRTI and SCARED pre- and post-EMDR and at 3-month follow-up. Normative deviation scores were calculated to examine the severity of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and anxiety symptoms over time. The reliable change index was calculated for pre- to posttreatment change of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety symptoms. Results: Before EMDR, overall or subscale scores indicated that all children had (subclinical seizure-related posttraumatic stress symptoms and/or anxiety symptoms. Directly after EMDR, most children showed significant and/or clinical individual improvement, and these beneficial effects were maintained or reached at follow-up. The mean number of sessions was 2 (range 1–3, 45 min per session. Conclusions: In case of seizure-related posttraumatic stress and/or anxiety, this study indicates that EMDR is a potentially successful quick and safe psychological treatment for children with epilepsy.
Meites, Karen; And Others
Examined the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS) for specificity and validity as measures of anxiety and depression with 170 undergraduate students. The BDI, SDS, and TMAS were intercorrelated significantly with the Eysenck Personality Inventory scale. Item content…
Joaquín Hernández-Palazón; Diego Fuentes-García; Luis Falcón-Araña; Antonio Rodríguez-Ribó; Carlos García-Palenciano; María José Roca-Calvo
Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A) and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitu...
Morrow, Sarah A; Rosehart, Heather; Pantazopoulos, Koula
Cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depressive symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and are known to interact in non-MS populations. This retrospective chart review examined this relationship in a relapsing-remitting MS population. A significant difference on measures of processing speed/working memory and visual-spatial memory was found in MS patients with anxiety compared with nonanxious MS patients, while a significant difference was found on measures of processing speed, visual-spatial memory and executive function in MS patients with depressive symptoms compared with those without. Further research is needed to determine the causal relationship between anxiety and depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment. PMID:26569152
Tearne, Jessica E; Robinson, Monique; Jacoby, Peter; Allen, Karina L; Cunningham, Nadia K; Li, Jianghong; McLean, Neil J
The evidence regarding older parental age and incidence of mood disorder symptoms in offspring is limited, and that which exists is mixed. We sought to clarify these relationships by using data from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. The Raine Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900 pregnancies, resulting in 2,868 live born children. A total of 1,220 participants completed the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) at the 20-year cohort follow-up. We used negative binomial regression analyses with log link and with adjustment for known perinatal risk factors to examine the extent to which maternal and paternal age at childbirth predicted continuous DASS-21 index scores. In the final multivariate models, a maternal age of 30-34 years was associated with significant increases in stress DASS-21 scores in female offspring relative to female offspring of 25- to 29-year-old mothers. A maternal age of 35 years and over was associated with increased scores on all DASS-21 scales in female offspring. Our results indicate that older maternal age is associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in young adult females. Further research into the mechanisms underpinning this relationship is needed. PMID:26569038
Cheung, Teris; Wong, Siu Yi; Wong, Kit Yi; Law, Lap Yan; Ng, Karen; Tong, Man Tik; Wong, Ka Yu; Ng, Man Ying; Yip, Paul S F
This study examines the prevalence of depression, anxiety and symptoms of stress among baccalaureate nursing students in Hong Kong. Recent epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of mild to severe depression, anxiety and stress among qualified nurses in Hong Kong stands at 35.8%, 37.3% and 41.1%, respectively. A total of 661 nursing students were recruited to participate in our cross-sectional mental health survey using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Working in general medicine, being in financial difficulty, having sleep problems, not having leisure activity and perceiving oneself in poor mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. Year of study, physical inactivity and family crisis in the past year correlated significantly with depression. Imbalanced diets significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with a lack of alone time. This is the first study to confirm empirically that clinical specialty, financial difficulties and lifestyle factors can increase nursing students' levels of depression and anxiety and symptoms of stress. Prevention, including the early detection and treatment of mental disorder, promises to reduce the prevalence of these indicators among this group. PMID:27527192
Birkett, Melissa; Shelton, Kerisa
To determine whether participation in a neuroscience course reduced neuroscience anxiety, a modified version of the Science Anxiety Scale was administered to students at the beginning and end of an introductory course. Neuroscience anxiety scores were significantly reduced at the end of the course and correlated with higher final grades. Reduced neuroscience anxiety did not correlate with reduced science anxiety, suggesting that neuroscience anxiety is a distinct subtype of anxiety.
Context: Relation of three dimensions of anxiety sensitivity (AS) (physical concerns [PC], cognitive concerns [CC] and social concerns [SC]) with anxiety or depression has been inconsistently reported. One possible explanation on the mixed findings is the lack of reliable measurement that assesses AS dimensions. Aims: This study was aimed to examine the specificity of dimensions of AS to anxiety and depression in a sample of Korean adults. Settings and Design: Participants included 426 Korean...
D'Arrigo Valentina; Passaniti Eleonora; Scoto Maria Cristina; Ducci Francesca; Mazzone Luigi; Vitiello Benedetto
Abstract Background Anxiety symptoms are relatively common among children and adolescents and can interfere with functioning. The prevalence of anxiety and the relationship between anxiety and school performance were examined among elementary, middle, and high school students. Methods Samples of elementary (N = 131, age 8–10 years), middle (N = 267, age 11–13 years), and high school (N = 80, age 14–16 years) children were recruited from four public schools in a predominantly middle-class comm...
Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21). Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire), perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlat...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning individual instrument performance anxiety of the students who are getting instrument training in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.Extended AbstractsIntroductionAnxiety is a universal phenomenon which people experience once or a few times during lives. It was accepted as concern for the future or as an unpleasant emotional experience regarding probable hitches of the events (Di Tomasso & Gosch, 2002.In general, the occasions on which negative feelings are experienced cause anxiety to arise (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000. People also feel anxious in dangerous situations. Anxiety may lead a person to be creative, while it may have hindering characteristics. Anxiety is that an individual considers him
Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.
Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to identify predictors of test anxiety in nursing students. Design: Cross sectional pilot study. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 112 students of an Austrian nursing school (mean age = 21.42, SD = 5.21. Test anxiety (measured by the standardized PAF Test Anxiety Questionnaire, perceived chronic stress, depressive symptoms, pathological eating and further psychological and health parameters were measured. Results: We found highly significant correlations between test anxiety and working hours (0.25, depression score (0.52, emotional stability (-0.31, and perceived chronic stress (0.65 (p < 0.01, for all. Regression analysis revealed chronic stress and emotional instability as best predictors for test anxiety. Furthermore, path analysis revealed that past negative academic performance outcomes contribute to test anxiety via depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress. Conclusion: Depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress are strongly related to test anxiety. Therefore therapy and training methods that address depressive symptoms and perceived chronic stress, and thereby aim to modify appraisal of potential stressful situations, may be successful in addressing test anxiety.
Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.
The purpose of this study was to test Manassis' proposal (Child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders, 255-272, 2001) that attachment patterns (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized) may relate to different types of anxiety symptoms, and that behavioral inhibition may moderate these relations. Using a story stem interview to…
Blouin, Brittany; Maddeaux, Cindy; Stanley Firestone, Jill; van Stralen, Judy
Objective: In this small pilot study, the association of comorbid anxiety with the treatment of ADHD is studied. Methods: Eighteen volunteers from a pediatric clinic are tested for ADHD and anxiety and assessed for behavioral and cognitive ADHD symptomology. Response to methylphenidate as treatment for ADHD symptoms is measured 2 to 3 weeks, and…
Cote, Sylvana M.; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.
Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the top ten leading causes of disabilities. We know little, however, about the onset, developmental course and early risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms (DAS). Objective: Model the developmental trajectories of DAS during early childhood and to identify risk factors for atypically…
Becker, Stephen P.; Luebbe, Aaron M.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Fite, Paula J.
Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of anxiety in the relation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and childhood aggression were evaluated. Two studies tested whether anxiety exacerbated, attenuated, or had no effect on the relation between ADHD and aggression subtypes among psychiatrically hospitalized…
Watts, Sarah E.; Weems, Carl F.
The purpose of this study was to examine the linkages among selective attention, memory bias, cognitive errors, and anxiety problems by testing a model of the interrelations among these cognitive variables and childhood anxiety disorder symptoms. A community sample of 81 youth (38 females and 43 males) aged 9-17 years and their parents completed…
Borneskog, C; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Lampic, C; Bladh, Marie; Svanberg, A.S.
Objective To investigate symptoms of anxiety and depression in lesbian couples undergoing assisted reproductive treatment (ART), and to study the relationship of demographic data, pregnancy outcome and future reproductive plans with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Design Descriptive, a part of the prospective longitudinal ‘Swedish study on gamete donation’. Setting All university clinics in Sweden performing gamete donation. Population A consecutive sample of 214 lesbian couples requestin...
Uhrlass, Dorothy J.; SCHOFIELD, CASEY A.; Coles, Meredith E.; Gibb, Brandon E.
The primary aim of the current study was to replicate and extend previous findings by examining the relation of self-perceived competence with symptoms of depression and social anxiety in older adolescents. Focusing first on cross-sectional relations, we found that older adolescents’ depressive symptoms were similarly related to levels of perceived scholastic competence and social acceptance, whereas social anxiety was significantly more strongly related to perceived social acceptance. Next, ...
Akram, Umair; Ellis, Jason; Barclay, Nicola
Objectives Individuals with insomnia often report aspects of perfectionism and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Investigation of these factors together has been limited. As such, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the association between perfectionism and insomnia symptoms was mediated by anxiety and depression, concurrently and longitudinally. Methods Seventy-six members from the general-population participated at baseline. Data from 57 participant...
Beebe, Beatrice; Steele, Miriam; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Kaitz, Marsha; Markese, Sara; Andrews, Howard; Margolis, Amy; Feldstein, Stanley
Associations of maternal self-report anxiety-related symptoms with mother–infant 4-month face-to-face play were investigated in 119 pairs. Attention, affect, spatial orientation, and touch were coded from split-screen videotape on a 1-s time base. Self- and interactive contingency were assessed by time-series methods. Because anxiety symptoms signal emotional dysregulation, we expected to find atypical patterns of mother–infant interactive contingencies, and of degree of stability/lability wi...
Mian, Nicholas D.; Godoy, Leandra; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Alice S. Carter
The degree to which young children’s anxiety symptoms differentiate according to diagnostic groupings is under-studied, especially in children below the age of 4 years. Theoretical (confirmatory factor analysis, CFA) and statistical (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) analytical methods were employed to test the hypothesis that anxiety symptoms among 2–3-year-old children from a non-clinical, representative sample would differentiate in a manner consistent with current diagnostic nosology. Anx...
Hrafnhildur Ólafsdóttir 1980
Age of onset for mental disorders such as depression and anxiety is usually in childhood or adolescence. These disorders can have a negative impact on adolescents' lives. Girls are more likely to show symptoms of depression and anxiety than boys and the trend in these symptoms seems to have been increasing. Changes in the social environment in which the adolescents grow up, can influence their health. The main focus of this study is to examine gender differences and trends in depression and a...
Noushin Bayat; Gholam Hossein Alishiri; Ahmad Salimzadeh; Morteza Izadi; Davoud Kazemi Saleh; Maryam Moghani Lankarani; Shervin Assari
Background: Although patients with chronic diseases are at high-risk for symptoms of anxiety and depression, few studies have compared patients with different chronic conditions in this regard. This study aimed to compare patients with different chronic medical conditions in terms of anxiety and depression symptoms after controlling for the effects of socio-demographic and clinical data. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 2234 adults, either healthy (n = 362) or patients with ch...
Guedes, Erika P; Madeira, Eduardo; Mafort, Thiago T; Madeira, Miguel; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Mendonça, Laura MC; Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Lopes, Agnaldo J.; Farias, Maria Lucia F
Background Several studies point to a correlation between obesity and the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adults, but there are still some controversial points about this association. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and the severity of anxiety/depressive symptoms in overweight and obese individuals with Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Methods Fifty patients, 18–50 years old, overweight or obese and with the diagnosis of MS...
Boelen, Paul A
Research has shown that prolonged grief disorder (PGD) is a disorder distinct from other disorders including major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to extend this research by examining the distinctiveness of symptoms of PGD relative to symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, also taking into account depression. Data were available from 205 bereaved individuals who completed measures tapping these symptoms together with a complementary measure of mental and physical health. Findings showed that symptoms of PGD, depression, and adult separation anxiety disorder were better conceptualized as distinct dimensions instead of a unitary dimension of distress. Correlations between the three symptom clusters were moderate to large. Cause of loss was the single variable that was associated with all three symptom clusters with loss due to violent cause giving rise to more severe symptoms. All three symptom clusters were associated with lower concurrent mental and physical health. PMID:23068081
Stein, Dan J; Kasper, Siegfried; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford;
Escitalopram has demonstrated efficacy for the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in two placebo-controlled trials and for long-term treatment in a relapse-prevention study. Social anxiety disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. This study questions whether this new selective serotonin...... reuptake inhibitor is effective across different subgroups of patients. Data from two randomised, placebo-controlled, 12-week escitalopram SAD trials were pooled. General linear models were used to determine the efficacy of escitalopram in different patient subgroups. Furthermore, a factor analysis of the...... primary efficacy scale, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), was undertaken, and a determination made of whether treatment effects were similar for the different symptom dimensions. Escitalopram was effective in both younger and older patients, in male and female patients, and in patients with more...
Rebecca J. Brooker
Full Text Available Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant fear-based negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant fear-based negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: As chest pain is an important symptom of coronary artery disease (CAD and other non - cardiac diseases , the presentation of the symptom often prompts referral to physicians for further investigation. Previous studies h ad shown significant as sociation between chest pain and D e pr e ssive and anxiety symptoms. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Evaluate and screen depressive symptoms , anxiety symptoms and somatic symptoms in patients with 1 st episode of chest pain attending medicine out - patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital. METHODOLGY : Cross - sectional observational study. Prior permission from institutional ethics committee of ‘SUMANDEEP VIDYAPEETH’ had been taken. 100 patients having first episosde of chest pain coming to M edicine opd of DHIRAJ HOSPITAL are recruited randomly after 1st December 2014. Each patient is given case r eport form containing sociodemographic data , patients medical history , depression and somatic symptoms scale and Hamilton’s anxiety scale (HAM - A. All data are entered in spss 16 and analysed with different ( S tatistical tests. Differences on categorical m easures will be reported as P value. The result is significant if P <0.05. RESULT: 38% & 49% patients have clinically significant depression and anxiety respectively. DSSS score is positively correlated with duration of chest pain. CONCLUSION : significant level of depression and anxiety found in 1 st episode of chest pain patients.
This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…
Wei, Chiaying; Hoff, Alexandra; Villabø, Marianne A.; Peterman, Jeremy; KENDALL, Philip C.; Piacentini, John; McCracken, James; Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Rynn, Moira; Sherrill, Joel; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Ginsburg, Golda; Keaton, Courtney
The present study examined the psychometric properties, including discriminant validity and clinical utility, of the youth self-report and parent-report forms of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) among youth with anxiety disorders. The sample included parents and youth (N= 488, 49.6% male) ages 7 – 17 who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS). Although the typical low agreement between parent and youth self-reports was found, the MASC eviden...
Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet
The current study examined the effects of maternal anxiety, worry, depression, child age and gender on mother and child reports of child anxiety using hierarchical linear modeling. Participants were 73 mother-child dyads with children between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Reports of child anxiety symptoms, including symptoms of specific disorders (e.g., social phobia) were obtained using concordant versions of the Screen for Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Children reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms relative to their mothers. Maternal worry and depression predicted for significantly lower levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and increasing discrepant reports. Maternal anxiety predicted for higher levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and decreasing discrepant reports. Maternal depression was associated with increased child-reported child anxiety symptoms. No significant effect of child age or gender was observed. Findings may inform inconsistencies in previous studies on reporter discrepancies. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:25863825
Lacroix, Franca; Zhou, Biru
Ce document contient la traduction en français de 6 échelles de mesure relatives à l'anxiété sociale et Taijin Kyofusho. Ces échelles traduites sont: Self Construal Scale (30 items), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (12 items), Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (20 items), Social Anxiety - Causing Discomfort to Others (26 items), Taijin Kyofusho Scale (31 items), Modified version of Taijin Kyofusho Questionnaire (40 items).
Joanna Kłosowska; Agata Blaut; Borysław Paulewicz
Anxiety is related to attentional bias, i.e. a tendency to pay attention to threatening stimuli. This occurs both in individuals suffering from anxiety disorders, and in healthy individuals with elevated levels of trait anxiety. This article is an analysis of a research paradigm, used to modify attentional bias (CBM-A Cognitive Bias Modification – Attention). A growing number of studies indicate that with the help of computer methods such as a modified version of the dot-probe task we can tra...
Jaquier, Véronique; Flanagan, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.
This study examines effects of psychological, physical, and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) to alcohol and drug problems through anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity among 143 community women currently experiencing IPV. Anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptom severity had unique effects on alcohol and drug problems. Higher anxiety symptom severity and higher physical IPV severity were associated with greater alcohol and drug problems. Higher posttraumatic stress symptom s...
Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong
The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sri Lanka recorded an extraordinary high suicide rate for adolescents aged 15 - 19 in the early 1990s (46.5/100,000. With this in perspective, the Ministry of Health in Sri Lanka recommends school programmes for adolescents by mental health units of local hospitals. Methods We conducted cross sectional surveys to screen for symptoms of anxiety and depression among students aged 14 - 18 during school mental health programmes. Two schools were randomly selected within the Ratnapura municipality (urban population of approx. 50,000, Sri Lanka and all students aged 14-18 were assessed with self administered (pre tested, Sinhalese translations questionnaires [Center for epidemiologic studies depression scale, Anxiety screening test of suicide and mental health association international]. Results A total of 445 students were assessed (male-54.4%, female 45.6%. Thirty six percent screened positive for depression (mild depression-17%, severe depression-19% and 28% screened positive for severe anxiety. Females screened positive for depression and anxiety significantly more than the males (p = 0.0001, 0.005 respectively. Students in classes facing barrier examinations at the end of the year had the highest positivity rates. Examination related issues (36% were the most commonly cited problem. Recommendations It is recommended that: 1. School mental health development programmes in Sri Lanka concentrate more on reducing examination related stress, and in particular focus on the female students 2. Policy decisions are made to reduce competition for higher education 3. A nationally coordinated survey on mental health of adolescent students is carried out utilizing the island-wide network of medical officers of mental health.
Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose
The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…
Sadi, Hana; Finkelman, Matthew; Rosenberg, Morton
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dental anxiety, salivary cortisol, and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) levels. Furthermore, the aim was to look into individual differences such as age, race, gender, any existing pain, or traumatic dental experience and their effect on dental anxiety. This study followed a cross-sectional design and included a convenience sample of 46. Every patient was asked to complete the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and a basic demographic/denta...
Landoll, Ryan R; La Greca, Annette M; Lai, Betty S; Chan, Sherilynn F; Herge, Whitney M
Peer victimization that occurs via electronic media, also termed cybervictimization, is a growing area of concern for adolescents. The current study evaluated the short-term prospective relationship between cybervictimization and adolescents' symptoms of social anxiety and depression over a six-week period. Participants were 839 high-school aged adolescents (14-18 years; 58% female; 73% Hispanic White), who completed measures of traditional peer victimization, cybervictimization, depression, and social anxiety at two time points. Findings supported the distinctiveness of cybervictimization as a unique form of peer victimization. Furthermore, only cybervictimization was associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms over time, and only relational victimization was associated with increased social anxiety over time, after controlling for the comorbidity of social anxiety and depression among youth. Cybervictimization appears to be a unique form of victimization that contributes to adolescents' depressive symptoms and may be important to target in clinical and preventive interventions for adolescent depression. PMID:25938204
Full Text Available AIM: Art is known to be a tool which provides relaxation and helps therapy especially in psychiatric diseases and in many other health problems. But the effect of art in artists is not known well. The aim of this study was to ascertain if there is a difference in anxiety and depression symptom scores between students of conservatoire and the other faculties. METHOD: In this study, anxiety and depression scores of volunteer students in conservatoire and other faculties were determined via a self administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Percentages, chi-square, student-t test and one-way ANOVA tests were used in statistical analyses. RESULTS: Study population was composed of 171 students in the ages of 1729 (mean=21.36±2.31 years and 89 (52% were female. Among 55 (32.2% conservatoire students and 116(67.8% other faculties students 104(60.8% were living in a hostel. Mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.21±3.37, 5.80±3.49 for conservatoire students and 7.56 ±3.62, 5.81±3.41 for the comparisons, respectively. There were symptoms above the cut off levels for anxiety in 28 students (16.4% and for depression in 47 students (27.5% in the whole group. While anxiety and depression symptoms percentages were 18.2 %( n=10 and 15.5 %( n=18 in conservatoire students, that were 32.7 %( n=18 and 25.0 %( n=29 in other students. The difference was not statistically significant for both anxiety and depression symptoms (p>0.05. CONCLUSION: We found that dealing with music as an art didnt made difference in anxiety and depression symptoms in this study population. Art is always accepted as a relaxation tool but individuals making art as a lesson, as a job or as a way to gain money can feel different. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(6.000: 465-472
Karevold, Evalill; Roysamb, Espen; Ystrom, Eivind; Mathiesen, Kristin S.
Data from a prospective 11-year longitudinal survey were used to identify early predictors and pathways to symptoms of anxiety and depression at 12-13 years of age, and to examine whether there were unique predictors of anxious versus depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling was used to explore longitudinal relations between contextual…
Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Garrison, Angela M.
Research suggests that individuals with heightened symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders engage in diminished emotional disclosure. On the basis of emotion regulation theories, the authors hypothesized that this symptom-disclosure relationship would be mediated by the avoidance of emotional experience and expression. In Study 1, college students…
Meijer, Judith L; Bockting, Claudi L H; Stolk, Ronald P; Kotov, Roman; Ormel, Johan; Burger, Huibert
OBJECTIVE: to investigate the association of life events during pregnancy with change in antenatal anxiety and depression symptoms. We distinguished pregnancy related and non-pregnancy related events and assessed specificity of these associations for depressive or anxious symptoms. In addition, we i
Thombre, Madhavi K.; Talge, Nicole M.; Holzman, Claudia
Background: Depression and anxiety symptoms have been linked with hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, but these associations have not been fully elucidated. Our objective was to consider hypertension in pregnancy and its subtypes (chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia) and evaluate whether the proximity of psychological symptoms to pregnancy informs any associations observed.
Aliasghar Asgharnejad Farid
Full Text Available Introduction: Although the effectiveness of paroxetine and Attention Modification Program has been studied separately in treating social anxiety disorder, there has been no research comparing them according to the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of paroxetine, Attention Modification Program (AMP and combination of both on improving the Social Anxiety Symptoms.Methods:33 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned in 3 groups: 11 in paroxetine group, 11 in AMP group and 11 in combined group. Treatment intervention was done during 8 weeks period. Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS were administered before and after treatment intervention. One-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was used to determine the differences and efficacy of treatment interventions between groups. Data analysis was done by SPSS-16 software.Results:28 participants completed the treatment period. One-way ANCOVA results showed statistically significant differences in post-treatment scores of social phobia (p=0/007, depressive symptoms (p=0.007 and daily life functioning (p=0.011 between three groups. Bonferroni correction showed that combined treatment is significantly more effective than AMP in reducing social phobia symptoms (p=0.007, depressive symptoms (p=0.022 and enhancing daily life functioning (0.019. Yet, there were no significant differences between Paroxetine and combined treatment in all post-treatment scores (p=0.890, p=1.000, p=1.000 for social phobia, depressive symptoms and daily life functioning respectively. Paroxetine showed more significant improvement of depressive symptoms (p=0.016 and enhancing daily life functioning (p=0.045 than AMP. Also, there were no significant differences between paroxetine and AMP in reducing social anxiety symptoms.Discussion:It seems that paroxetine has wider effect in reducing social
Thaler, Nicholas S.; Kazemi, Ellie; Wood, Jeffrey J.
Youth with learning disabilities (LD) are at an increased risk for anxiety disorders and valid measures of anxiety are necessary for assessing this population. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC; March in Multidimensional anxiety scale for children. Multi-Health Systems, North Tonawanda, 1998) in 41 adolescents (ages 11– 17 years) with LD. Youth and parents completed the MASC and were administered the semi-structured Anxiety Di...
Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Lie; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Hao, Chun; Zhou, Jinling; Zhang, Qun; Zhao, Qun
Anxiety symptoms are the prevalent mental disorders for transgender women. However, only a few studies are available pertaining to this problem among Chinese Transgender women. Chinese Transgender women are a vulnerable population which is exposed to discrimination and loss of social support due to their gender identity and transition. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with anxiety symptoms among Chinese transgender women. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling. This comprised of 209 Chinese transgender women in Shenyang, China. The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to assess anxiety symptoms for these transgender women. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the associated factors of SAS. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms in Chinese transgender women was found to be 34.5%. Regression analyses indicated that SAS was associated with casual partnership, friend discrimination and social support in the final model. Sexual partnership and discrimination contributed the most to the model, R-square, accounting for 19.2% and 15.5% of the total variance respectively. Chinese transgender women showed considerably high level of anxiety symptoms. It was also found that they were exposed to significant transition challenges, such as high risk sexual partnership, excessive discrimination and a reduction in social support. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms was best predicted by the absence or presence of a casual partner, friend discrimination and social support rather than the disclosure of their gender identity, knowledge of HIV prevention and health service. Improvement of social support, reduction of friend discrimination and determination of the characteristics of risky sexual partnerships especially for the casual partner can help to attenuate anxiety symptoms and increase mental well-being for transgender women. PMID:27267953
Donegan, Eleanor; Dugas, Michel J.
Objective: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessive worry and somatic symptoms of anxiety (e.g., restlessness, muscle tension). Several psychological treatments lead to significant reductions in GAD symptoms by posttreatment. However, little is known about how GAD symptoms change over time. Our main goal was to examine how…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The etiology of somatization is incompletely understood, but could be elucidated by models of psychosocial stress. Academic exam stress has effectively been applied as a naturalistic stress model, however its effect on somatization symptoms according to ICD-10 and DSM-IV criteria has not been reported so far. Baseline associations between somatization and personality traits, such as alexithymia, have been studied exhaustively. Nevertheless, it is largely unknown if personality traits have an explanatory value for stress induced somatization. METHODS: This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study assessed the effects of university exams on somatization - and the reversal of effects after an exam-free period. Repeated-observations were obtained within 150 students, measuring symptom intensity before, during and after an exam period, according to the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms 7-day (SOMS-7d. Additionally, self-reports on health status were used to differentiate between medically explained and medically unexplained symptoms. Alexithymia, neuroticism, trait-anxiety and baseline depression were surveyed using the Toronto-Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20, the Big-Five Personality Interview (NEO-FFI, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II. These traits were competitively tested for their ability to explain somatization increases under exam stress. RESULTS: Somatization significantly increased across a wide range of symptoms under exam stress, while health reports pointed towards a reduction in acute infections and injuries. Neuroticism, alexithymia, trait anxiety and depression explained variance in somatization at baseline, but only neuroticism was associated with symptom increases under exam stress. CONCLUSION: Exam stress is an effective psychosocial stress model inducing somatization. A comprehensive quantitative description of bodily symptoms under exam stress is supplied. The results do not
Reynolds, Cecil R.
In support of the construct validity of the revised scale, a high correlation was observed between the revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (CMAS) and the trait anxiety inventory, whereas there was no significant correlation with the state anxiety inventory. (Author)
Teris Cheung; Yip, Paul S. F.
Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine sign...
Becker, Mark W; Alzahabi, Reem; Hopwood, Christopher J
We investigated whether multitasking with media was a unique predictor of depression and social anxiety symptoms. Participants (N=318) completed measures of their media use, personality characteristics, depression, and social anxiety. Regression analyses revealed that increased media multitasking was associated with higher depression and social anxiety symptoms, even after controlling for overall media use and the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion. The unique association between media multitasking and these measures of psychosocial dysfunction suggests that the growing trend of multitasking with media may represent a unique risk factor for mental health problems related to mood and anxiety. Further, the results strongly suggest that future research investigating the impact of media use on mental health needs to consider the role that multitasking with media plays in the relationship. PMID:23126438
Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is an emotional state characterized by apprehension and fear resulting from anticipation of a threatening event. Objectives: The present study aimed to analyze the incidence and level of preoperative anxiety in the patients scheduled for cardiac surgery by using a Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS-A and Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS and to identify the influencing clinical factors. Patients and Methods: This prospective, longitudinal study was performed on 300 cardiac surgery patients in a single university hospital. The patients were assessed regarding their preoperative anxiety level using VAS-A, APAIS, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. Their demographic features as well as their anesthetic and surgical characteristics (ASA physical status, EuroSCORE, preoperative Length of Stay (LoS, and surgical history were recorded, as well. Then, one-way ANOVA and t-test were applied along with odds ratio for risk assessment. Results: According to the results, 94% of the patients presented preoperative anxiety, with 37% developing high anxiety (VAS-A ≥ 7. Preoperative LoS > 2 days was the only significant risk factor for preoperative anxiety (odds ratio = 2.5, CI 95%, 1.3 - 5.1, P = 0.009. Besides, a positive correlation was found between anxiety level (APAISa and requirement of knowledge (APAISk. APAISa and APAISk scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Moreover, the results showed that the most common anxieties resulted from the operation, waiting for surgery, not knowing what is happening, postoperative pain, awareness during anesthesia, and not awakening from anesthesia. Conclusions: APAIS and VAS-A provided a quantitative assessment of anxiety and a specific qualitative questionnaire for preoperative anxiety in cardiac surgery. According to the results, preoperative LoS > 2 days and lack of information related to surgery were the risk factors for high anxiety levels.
Facco, E; ZANETTE, G.; Favero, L; C. Bacci; Sivolella, S.; Cavallin, F.; Manani, G.
Anxiety is a relevant problem in dental practice. The Visual Analogue Scale for Anxiety (VAS‐A), introduced in dentistry in 1988, has not yet been validated in large series. The aim of this study is to check VAS‐A effectiveness in more than 1000 patients submitted to implantology. The VAS‐A and the Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) were administered preoperatively to 1114 patients (459 males and 655 females, age 54.7 ± 13.1 years). Statistical analysis was conducted with Pearson correlation coeffici...
Li Hongzheng; Wen Jian; Huang Pinde; Lei Meiying; Zhao Donghai; Zhao Liqiong; Ye Changqing; Zhou Hongkui; Liu Gen; Qin Mei; Li Jiefeng
Objective To investigate the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in army recruits and the effect of military training on anxiety.Methods A cluster sampling of 1431 new army recruits was conducted.The anxiety level of recruits was determined by Beck Anxiety Inventory(BAI) and Adult EPQ questionnaires prior to,one month after,and two months after entering basic military training.Self compiled biographic variables of the recruits were collected before the training.Results The highest BAI score (32.71±7.87) was observed 2 days before training,followed by 1 month after training (31.49±7.75) and 2 months after training (29.87±6.95).BAI score before training correlated with neuroticism and extraversion of recruits,the psychological trauma,suicide feeling and frequency of exercise before recruiting.A significant decrease in the percentage of severe symptom of wobbliness in legs,instability to relax,racing heart,dizziness,fear of the worst happening and trembling hands was observed after 1 month and/or 2 months of military training.Conclusion A higher BAI score and percentage of severe anxiety symptoms were observed before the training which correlated with psychological characteristics of recruits as well as the psychological experience before entering training.A combination of early psychological interference and physical exercise could reduce the anxiety.
Full Text Available Introduction: Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety can be occurring in the same time. Also social anxiety is one of the important factors predicting Eating Disorder symptoms which vary among different cultures and countries. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and social anxiety in school boys. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 361 high school boys in isfahan who were selected through two-step random sampling. The students completed a questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics, Eating Disorder Questionnaire and social anxiety. Data were analyzed by the statistical tests of Pearson correlation coefficient, Student’s t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and regression through SPSS version 14. Results: Based on the findings, the mean (SD value for age was 14.14 (1.2 years and for BMI was 23.25 (0.3.35.2% had eating disorder and 17.5% bulimia and30% had anorexia nervosa Symptoms. Also there was a positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms, bulimia and anorexia nervosa and social anxiety. (P=0.004, r= 0.287, P=0.001, r= 0.257, P=0.020, r= 0.242. Conclusions: There was correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and social anxiety in school boys.So educating people like caregivers by community health midwives regarding nutritional problems in during adolescence can be effective in early diagnosing and identifying such disorders.
Kim, Jong-Ho; Yang, Heewon; Schroeppel, Stephen
The effects of Kouk Sun Do (KSD), a mind-body exercise on mental health in university students, were investigated in this pilot study. University students (N = 30) with self-reported anxiety symptoms were randomly assigned to either the treatment group or the waiting list control group. Eighteen participants (N = 18; seven in the treatment group and 11 in the waiting list control group) completed a pre-test and a post-test, and 12 participants dropped out before or during the intervention. Ten 70-min KSD exercise sessions were conducted three times per week over a 4-week period. Trait anxiety, depressive symptoms and general self-efficacy in coping with stress were measured with the pre-test and the post-test. Qualitative data were collected using open-ended questions regarding benefits of KSD at the last session. A two (group) by two (time) repeated-measure analysis of variance was used to analyse the data. Trait anxiety and depressive symptoms decreased whereas general self-efficacy increased over a 4-week period. The treatment group had significantly reduced trait anxiety and depressive symptoms compared with the control group across time. Qualitative data provided support that the self-induced relaxation effects of KSD may lead to reduced anxiety. PMID:22674565
There are many patients with anxiety for radiotherapy though it is one of most important treatments for cancer, to which attention has not been fully paid. Authors investigated this anxiety to classify and quantitatively evaluate the problems. Firstly they asked 48 patients with various cancers about the concrete anxiety items related with radiotherapy, and the items were examined by the expert doctor of consultation-liaison psychiatry and of radiology to make up questions of 25 items about radiotherapy. Then those questions together with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) were asked to in-(52 subjects) and out-(133) patients (106 males and 79 females of the mean age 62.58 years) to classify anxiety and to see the reliability and validity of items included. Factor analysis of the results revealed that three kinds of anxiety, i.e., adverse effects of radiation, environments at irradiation and effect of radiotherapy, were significant. Based on this, authors arranged the Categorical Anxiety Scale about Radiotherapy composed from 17 items, of which reliability and validity in contents and in parallelism with HAD had been assured. (T.I.)
Kabir Zarina N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined the associated factors of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS in low-income countries, yet the World Health Organization identifies depressive disorders as the second leading cause of global disease burden by 2020. There is a paucity of research on mental disorders and their predictors among pregnant women in Bangladesh. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of rural Bangladeshi pregnant women. Methods The study used cross-sectional data originating from a rural community-based prospective cohort study of 720 randomly selected women in their third trimester of pregnancy from a district of Bangladesh. The validated Bangla version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to measure ADS, and a trait anxiety inventory to assess general anxiety symptoms. Background information was collected using a structured questionnaire at the respondents' homes. Results Prevalence of ADS was 18% and AAS 29%. Women's literacy (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.95, poor partner relationship (OR 2.23, 95% CI 3.37-3.62, forced sex (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-3.75, physical violence by spouse (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.02-2.80, and previous depression (OR 4.62 95% CI 2.72-7.85 were found to be associated with ADS. The associated factors of AAS were illiteracy, poor household economy, lack of practical support, physical partner violence, violence during pregnancy, and interaction between poor household economy and poor partner relationship. Conclusion Depressive and anxiety symptoms are found to occur commonly during pregnancy in Bangladesh, drawing attention to a need to screen for depression and anxiety during antenatal care. Policies aimed at encouraging practical support during pregnancy, reducing gender-based violence, supporting women with poor partner relationships, and identifying previous depression may ameliorate
Full Text Available Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales anxiety thoughts questionnaire and Maudsley obsessive- compulsive questionnaire. Data was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis. Results: Data analysis showed that obsessive- compulsive symptoms and anxiety ideas were positively related to the authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and negatively related to authoritative parenting style. Parenting style is able to predict the level of obsessive - compulsive symptoms and adolescent anxiety ideas. Conclusion: The results showed that parents' parenting style is one of the influencing factors on adolescent health. Parents with authoritative parenting style, have the children with lower obsessive - compulsive symptoms and anxious thoughts.
Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD, characterized by fear of being scrutinized by others, has features that that are closely linked to the concept of shame. Despite this, it remains to be investigated whether shame is elevated in persons with SAD, and if cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for SAD could reduce shame experience. In the present study, we focused on internal shame, i.e. the type of shame that pertains to how we judge ourselves. Although guilt is distinctly different from shame, we also viewed it as important to investigate its role in SAD as the two emotions are highly correlated. The aim of this study was to investigate: (I if persons with SAD differ from healthy controls on shame and guilt, (II if shame, guilt, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety are associated in persons with SAD, and (III if CBT can reduce internal shame in patients with SAD. Firstly, we conducted a case-control study comparing a sample with SAD (n = 67 with two samples of healthy controls, a main sample (n = 72 and a replication sample (n = 22. Secondly, all participants with SAD were treated with CBT and shame, measured with the Test of Self-Conscious affect, was assessed before and after treatment. The results showed that shame was elevated in person with SAD compared to the control replication sample, but not to the main control sample. In addition, shame, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were significantly associated among participants with SAD. After CBT, participants with SAD had significantly reduced their shame (Cohen's d = 0.44. Guilt was unrelated to social anxiety. We conclude that shame and social anxiety are associated and that it is likely that persons with SAD are more prone to experience shame than persons without SAD. Also, CBT is associated with shame reduction in the treatment of SAD.
Wijnhoven, L.A.M.W.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.
Background In the clinical setting, a large proportion of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience anxiety symptoms. Because anxiety is an important cause of impairment for children with an ASD, it is necessary that effective anxiety interventions are implemented for these children
Aasvik, Julie K.; Woodhouse, Astrid; Jacobsen, Henrik B.; Borchgrevink, Petter C.; Stiles, Tore C; Landrø, Nils I
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify symptoms associated with subjective memory complaints (SMCs) among subjects who are currently on sick leave due to symptoms of chronic pain, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, subjects (n = 167) who were currently on sick leave were asked to complete an extensive survey consisting of the following: items addressing their sociodemographics, one item from the SF-8 health survey measuring pain...
Z Khanjani; B Esmaeili Anamage; M Gholamzadeh
Introduction: Parents interaction styles with children or teens have an important impact on shaping their character and mental health and the incidence of some psychiatric symptoms. The aim of this study was to predict anxiety thought and obsessive - compulsive symptoms of the adolescents based on parents' parenting styles. Methods: This was a descriptive study. 180 male students in Marand were selected by cluster random sampling. We used Baumrind parents parenting style questionnaire, Wales ...
Nasreen Hashima E
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a high prevalence of antepartum depression and low birth weight (LBW in Bangladesh. In high- and low-income countries, prior evidence linking maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms with infant LBW is conflicting. There is no research on the association between maternal mental disorders and LBW in Bangladesh. This study aims to investigate the independent effect of maternal antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on infant LBW among women in a rural district of Bangladesh. Methods A population-based sample of 720 pregnant women from two rural subdistricts was assessed for symptoms of antepartum depression, using the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS, and antepartum anxiety, using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and followed for 6-8 months postpartum. Infant birth weight of 583 (81% singleton live babies born at term (≥37 weeks of pregnancy was measured within 48 hours of delivery. Baseline data provided socioeconomic, anthropometric, reproductive, obstetric, and social support information. Trained female interviewers carried out structured interviews. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and independent-sample t tests were done as descriptive statistics, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to identify predictors of LBW. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, depressive (OR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.37-3.68 and anxiety (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.30-3.25 symptoms were significantly associated with LBW (≤2.5 kg. Poverty, maternal malnutrition, and support during pregnancy were also associated with LBW. Conclusions This study provides evidence that maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy predict the LBW of newborns and replicates results found in other South Asian countries. Policies aimed at the detection and effective management of depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy may reduce the burden on mothers and also act as an important measure in the prevention of LBW
Robillard, Rébecca; Oxley, Cristal; Hermens, Daniel F; White, Django; Wallis, Ryan; Naismith, Sharon L; Whitwell, Bradley; Southan, James; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B
This study investigated the relative contribution of psychiatric symptoms and psychotropic medications on the sleep-wake cycle. Actigraphy and clinical assessments (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) were conducted in 146 youths with anxiety, depression or bipolar disorders. Independently of medications, mania symptoms were predictive of lower circadian amplitude and rhythmicity. Independently of diagnosis and symptoms severity: i) antipsychotics were related to longer sleep period and duration, ii) serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors to longer sleep period, and iii) agomelatine to earlier sleep onset. Manic symptoms and different subclasses of medications may have independent influences on the sleep-wake cycle of young people with mental disorders. PMID:27449011
Irons, C.; Gilbert, P.
One hundred and forty adolescent students were assessed on measures of attachment, social rank (social comparison and submissive behaviour), and depression and anxiety symptoms. Secure attachment was significantly correlated with positive social comparison and inversely with submissive behaviour, depression and anxiety symptoms. In contrast,…
Lin, Ashleigh; Yung, Alison R; Wigman, Johanna T W; Killackey, Eoin; Baksheev, Gennady; Wardenaar, Klaas J
The Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ) was developed to measure the symptom-dimensions of the tripartite model of anxiety and depression. A 30-item short adaptation of the MASQ (MASQ-D30) was previously developed and validated in adult psychiatric outpatients. The aim of the present stud
General anxiety, depression, and physical health in relation to symptoms of heart-focused anxiety- a cross sectional study among patients living with the risk of serious arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the role of three distinct symptoms of heart-focused anxiety (cardio-protective avoidance, heart-focused attention, and fear about heart sensations in relation to general anxiety, depression and physical health in patients referred to specialized cardio-genetics outpatient clinics in Norway for genetic investigation and counseling. Methods Participants were 126 patients (mean age 45 years, 53.5% women. All patients were at higher risk than the average person for serious arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD because of a personal or a family history of an inherited cardiac disorder (familial long QT syndrome or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Patients filled in, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, two weeks before the scheduled counseling session. Results The patients experienced higher levels of general anxiety than expected in the general population (mean difference 1.1 (p Conclusion Avoidance and fear may be potentially modifiable symptoms. Because these distinct symptoms may have important roles in determining general anxiety, depression and physical health in at-risk individuals of inherited cardiac disorders, the present findings may have implications for the further development of genetic counseling for this patient group.
Lavigne, Jill E; Heckler, Charles; Mathews, Jennifer L; Palesh, Oxana; Kirshner, Jeffrey J; Lord, Raymond; Jacobs, Andrew; Amos, Eric; Morrow, Gary R; Mustian, Karen
Gabapentin is used for the treatment of hot flashes and neuropathic pain in breast cancer survivors, and is commonly used off-label for the treatment of anxiety. Yet, clinical trial evidence to support the use of gabapentin for anxiety symptoms is lacking. In a randomized, double-blinded controlled trial we compared 300 mg gabapentin versus 900 mg gabapentin versus placebo. Subjects were 420 breast cancer patients who had completed all chemotherapy cycles. Anxiety traits and current (state) anxiety were measured using the Speilberger Strait-Trait Anxiety Inventory at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. Pain was measured at baseline using a 10-point scale. Analyses included analysis of covariance and ordinary least squares regression. At 4 weeks, state anxiety change scores were significantly better for gabapentin 300 and 900 mg (p = 0.005) compared to placebo. The magnitude of improvement was proportional to baseline state anxiety. At 8 weeks, the anxiolytic effects of gabapentin compared to placebo persisted (p drug price. For patients reluctant to take a controlled substance, such as a benzodiazepine, gabapentin may offer an alternative therapy. Similarly, patients with a history of substance use may benefit from gabapentin without risk of addiction or abuse. For cancer survivors experiencing both hot flashes and anxiety, gabapentin may provide a single effective treatment for both and is an alternative therapy for anxiety for patients unwilling to take a benzodiazepine or those with a history of substance use. PMID:23053645
Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Elberling, Hanne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette;
OBJECTIVES: Hypochondriasis, now often designated as health anxiety, is important in terms of prevalence, levels of suffering, and health services cost in adults. Whereas the DSM-IV-TR suggests that the condition primarily begins in adulthood, retrospective reports point to a possible origin in...... are associated with impairing child health problems in the area of FSS and internalizing disorders. These aspects may be important to understand and also to prevent the development of severe health anxiety....... childhood with onset as early as preschool age. However, little research has addressed health anxiety in children. In the present study we explored parental-reported health anxiety symptoms (HAS) and their association with physical and mental health in a population-based sample of 5- to 7-year-old children...
Schwartz, Orli S.; Dudgeon, Paul; Sheeber, Lisa B.; Yap, Marie B. H.; Simmons, Julian G.; Allen, Nicholas B.
This study investigated the prospective, longitudinal relations between parental behaviors observed during parent-adolescent interactions, and the development of depression and anxiety symptoms in a community-based sample of 194 adolescents. Positive and negative parental behaviors were examined, with negative behaviors operationalized to…
Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Belliston, Lara M.
This study examined the cultural and developmental significance of maternal and paternal parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, conflict, and peer approval) for measures of anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescents from Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States (N = 6,935). Across all cultural…
Baldwin, Jennifer S.; Dadds, Mark R.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is comorbid with a range of other disorders, including anxiety disorders. The aim was to examine different explanations for the covariation of these symptom domains in children according to the framework provided by (Lilienfeld, S. O. Comorbidity between and within childhood externalizing and…
This study examined the effects of pubertal status, pubertal timing (actual and perceived), and youth biological sex on symptom dimensions of anxiety (i.e., social, separation, harm avoidance, physical) in African Americans (n = 252; ages 8-12). For girls, results indicated that pubertal status and timing (actual) exerted similar effects for some…
Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim
This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1,106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated…
Lee, Adabel; Hankin, Benjamin L.
This study extends the existing adult literature on insecure attachment as a predictor of depression and anxiety by examining these pathways in a sample of adolescents. In addition, dysfunctional attitudes and low self-esteem were tested as mediators of the association between insecure attachment and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Youth (N =350; 6th–10th graders) completed self-report measures of attachment, dysfunctional attitudes, self-esteem, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in ...
Full Text Available The research which was realized belongs to one of three research fields within framework of rational-emotional-behavioral therapy (REBT - to the theory of emotional disorders. It was undertaken with the aim to establish presence and nature of relations between social anxiety, treated as dimension and the construct of irrational beliefs from REBT theory. The research was carried out on the sample of 261 students of Novi Sad University, both genders, age 18 to 26. First of all, the latent structure of newly constructed Scale of Social Anxiety (SA of the author Tovilović S. was tested. SA scale was proved to be of satisfying reliability (α =0.92. Principal-component factor analysis was conducted under gathered data. Four factors of social anxiety, which explain 44,09% of total variance of the items of SA scale, were named: social-evaluation anxiety, inhibition in social-uncertain situations, low self-respect and hypersensitivity on rejection. The other test that was used is Scale of General Attitudes and Beliefs of the author Marić Z. Reliability of the sub-scale of irrational beliefs that was got on our sample is α =0.91 yet the subscale of rational beliefs is α =0.70. Canonical correlational analysis was conducted under manifest variables of both scales. Three pairs of statistically significant canonical factors were got, with correlations within the span between Rc=0.78 and Rc=0.64. We discussed nature of correlation between social anxiety and irrational beliefs in the light of REBT model of social phobia, REBT theory of emotional disorder, researches and model of social anxiety in wider, cognitive-behavioral framework.
Wang, Wei; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang
The purpose of this study was to explore white matter microstructural alterations in the patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, and to assess neural associations with the symptom severity. Twenty-eight first-episode, treatment-naive GAD patients without co-morbidities and 28 matched healthy controls underwent DTI acquisition and clinical symptom assessments. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to analyze white matter microstructural abnormalities in patients with GAD, as well as their associations with clinical symptom scores in a voxel-wise manner. Compared to controls, patients showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in 7 clusters of white matter in bilateral uncinate fasciculus, body of corpus callosum, left middle cingulum (cingulate gyrus), bilateral anterior thalamic radiation and corona radiate, right anterior limb of internal capsule, bilateral inferior frontal-occipital fasciculus, bilateral superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity in widespread white matter regions. Reduced FA values in right uncinate fasciculus, left cingulum bundle showed significantly negative correlations with clinical symptom severity for Hamilton anxiety Rating Scale scores. Our findings suggest microstructural abnormalities in uncinate fasciculus and cingulum bundle play key roles in the underlying neural basis of GAD. PMID:27515289
Nillni, Yael I.; Rohan, Kelly J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.
The current study examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and anxiety-related sensations) and menstrual cycle phase (premenstrual phase vs. follicular phase) on panic-relevant responding (i.e., cognitive and physical panic symptoms, subjective anxiety, and skin conductance level). Women completed a baseline session and underwent a 3-minute 10% CO2-enriched air biological challenge paradigm during her premenstrual and follicular menstrual cycle phases. Part...
Wijnhoven, L.A.M.W.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Engels, R. C. M. E.; Granic, I.
Background In the clinical setting, a large proportion of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience anxiety symptoms. Because anxiety is an important cause of impairment for children with an ASD, it is necessary that effective anxiety interventions are implemented for these children. Recently, a serious game called Mindlight has been developed that is focused on decreasing anxiety in children. This approach is based on recent research suggesting that video games might be suit...
Wijnhoven, Lieke A. M. W.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Granic, Isabela
Background In the clinical setting, a large proportion of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience anxiety symptoms. Because anxiety is an important cause of impairment for children with an ASD, it is necessary that effective anxiety interventions are implemented for these children. Recently, a serious game called Mindlight has been developed that is focused on decreasing anxiety in children. This approach is based on recent research suggesting that video games might be suit...
Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli; Sultan, Al Amin Mohamed; Halim, Bushra Abdul; Ismail, Siti Fatimah; Mafazi, Nurul Wirdah
Mathematics is an essential and fundamental tool used by engineers to analyse and solve problems in their field. Due to this, most engineering education programs involve a concentration of study in mathematics courses whereby engineering students have to take mathematics courses such as numerical methods, differential equations and calculus in the first two years and continue to do so until the completion of the sequence. However, the students struggled and had difficulties in learning courses that require mathematical abilities. Hence, this study presents the factors that caused mathematics anxiety among engineering students using Abbreviated Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (AMARS) through 95 students of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). From 25 items in AMARS, principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that there are four mathematics anxiety factors, namely experiences of learning mathematics, cognitive skills, mathematics evaluation anxiety and students' perception on mathematics. Minitab 16 software was used to analyse the nonparametric statistics. Kruskal-Wallis Test indicated that there is a significant difference in the experience of learning mathematics and mathematics evaluation anxiety among races. The Chi-Square Test of Independence revealed that the experience of learning mathematics, cognitive skills and mathematics evaluation anxiety depend on the results of their SPM additional mathematics. Based on this study, it is recommended to address the anxiety problems among engineering students at the early stage of studying in the university. Thus, lecturers should play their part by ensuring a positive classroom environment which encourages students to study mathematics without fear.
Kirby, S.E.; Yardley, L.
This study assessed whether symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), health anxiety, and intolerance of uncertainty were associated with distress in members of the Ménière's Society (n = 800), and compared the extent of anxiety, depression, intolerance of uncertainty and health anxiety with a healthy control group (n = 484). PTSD symptoms were associated with anxiety, depression, and handicap. Health anxiety was associated with anxiety and depression. Intolerance of uncertainty was ...
Han, Georges; Helm, Jonathan; Iucha, Cornelia; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
The central objective of the current study was to evaluate how executive functions (EF), and specifically cognitive flexibility, were concurrently and predictively associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescence. Adolescents (N = 220) and their parents participated in this longitudinal investigation. Adolescents' EF was assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) during the initial assessment, and symptoms of depressive and anxiety disorders were reported by mothers and youths concurrently and 2 years later. Correlational analyses suggested that youths who made more total errors (TE), including both perseverative errors (PE) and nonperseverative errors (NPE), concurrently exhibited significantly more depressive symptoms. Adolescents who made more TE and those who made more NPE tended to have more anxiety symptoms 2 years later. Structural equation modeling analyses accounting for key explanatory variables (e.g., IQ, disruptive behavior disorders, and attention deficit hyperactive disorder) showed that TE was concurrently associated with parent reports of adolescent depressive symptoms. The results suggest internalizing psychopathology is associated with global (TE) and nonspecific (NPE) EF difficulties but not robustly associated with cognitive inflexibility (PE). Future research with the WCST should consider different sources of errors that are posited to reflect divergent underlying neural mechanisms, conferring differential vulnerability for emerging mental health problems. PMID:26042358
Duivis, Hester E.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kupper, Nina; de Jonge, Peter; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
Objective: Depression and anxiety have been suggested to be associated with systemic inflammation upregulation. However, results are not always consistent, which may be due to symptom heterogeneity of depression and anxiety. There are some indications that associations with inflammation are mainly d
Caporino, Nicole E.; Brodman, Douglas M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Piacentini, John; Sakolsky, Dara; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; March, John; Walkup, John T.
Objective: To determine optimal Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) percent reduction and raw score cut-offs for predicting treatment response and remission among children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Method: Data were from a subset of youth (N = 438; 7-17 years of age) who participated in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study…
The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.
Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. PMID:25023365
Contractor, Ateka A; Elhai, Jon D; Fine, Thomas H; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Cohen, Gregory; Shirley, Edwin; Chan, Philip K; Liberzon, Israel; Galea, Sandro; Calabrese, Joseph R
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comorbid with major depressive disorder (MDD; Kessler et al., 1995) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; Brown et al., 2001). We aimed to (1) assess discrete patterns of post-trauma PTSD-depression-GAD symptoms using latent profile analyses (LPAs), and (2) assess covariates (gender, income, education, age) in defining the best fitting class solution. The PTSD Checklist (assessing PTSD symptoms), GAD-7 scale (assessing GAD symptoms), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (assessing depression) were administered to 1266 trauma-exposed Ohio National Guard soldiers. Results indicated three discrete subgroups based on symptom patterns with mild (class 1), moderate (class 2) and severe (class 3) levels of symptomatology. Classes differed in symptom severity rather than symptom type. Income and education significantly predicted class 1 versus class 3 membership, and class 2 versus class 3. In conclusion, there is heterogeneity regarding severity of PTSD-depression-GAD symptomatology among trauma-exposed soldiers, with income and education predictive of class membership. PMID:26228395
Luminița Elena ALBERT
Full Text Available The lack of sufficient scientific evidence to support the role of occlusion as an etiologic factor in craniomandibular disorders gave credit to the role of the psycho-emotional factors able to predispose to this condition and to perpetuate it. Among them, anxiety holds a prioritary position. The aim of the research was to shed light on the signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disfunction manifested in a group of patients and on their possible association with psycho-emotional characteristics (stress, anxiety. Materials and method. A cross-sectional study was performed on a group of 54 subjects (16M, 38W, by means of a screening questionnaire for craniomandibular disfunction, containing 20 questions structured on five issues: pain, disfunction, parafunction, psycho-emotional status, trauma/iatrogenic condition. For psychological examination, the STAI I and II (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires were applied. These psychometric instruments, containing 20 items, provide the current level of anxiety scores of the subject and the degree to which he/she is prone to anxiety. The NCSS Dawson edition statistical program was used to analyze the collected data. Results. The score of psycho-emotional characteristics evaluation correlates with the severity of craniomandibular disfunction (r = 0.5743. The specific score of the signs and symptoms manifested in craniomandibular disfunctions shows a good correlation with the disfunctional condition (0.7737. In the investigated group, fewer subjects assessed anxiety, however the predisposition to anxiety is the dominant trend, more evident in male subjects. Conclusions. Within the limits of this investigation, the psycho-emotional factors included in the screening questionnaire appear to play a role in defining a prioritary craniomandibular disfunctional state. At the same time, the results provided by the used psychometric instruments are less conclusive. Further studies are required, on more
M. I. Castillo; Cooke, M. L.; Macfarlane, B.; Aitken, L. M.
Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are common after intensive care treatment. The influence of anxiety during critical illness on the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms needs to be investigated. Objective: To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness (state and trait components) and posttraumatic stress symptoms over six months after ICU discharge. Methods: Prospective study including 141 patients admitted ≥24. h to a closed mixed adult ICU in ...
Lucchesi, Cinzia; Baldacci, Filippo; Cafalli, Martina; Dini, Elisa; Giampietri, Linda; Siciliano, Gabriele; Gori, Sara
Migraine clinical presentation and life-time course can be highly heterogeneous, with a subgroup of patients developing chronic migraine; moreover, migraine clinical spectrum is expanded by the association with different coexisting conditions and interictal dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate migraine clinical features, daily functioning parameters, sleep pattern, presence of depressive-anxiety symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 75 episodic and 75 chronic migraine without aura patients. Migraine-related disability, fatigue, daily sleepiness, subjective sleep quality, anxiety and depressive symptoms were, respectively, evaluated using the following questionnaires: Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item Scale (PHQ-9). Mean FSS score (p anxiety-depressive symptoms and higher BMI score in chronic compared to episodic migraine patients; further investigation is certainly necessary to better define the biological basis and mechanisms associated with migraine transformation from episodic to chronic pattern. PMID:26879311
Alwash, R H; Hussein, M J; Matloub, F F
In Jordan, individuals with epilepsy commonly attend neuropsychiatric clinics. The objective of this study was to assess the psychosocial outcome of epilepsy among adolescents. The study included 101 epileptic adolescents who attended the neurology clinic at the Princess Basma Teaching Hospital in Northern Jordan and 101 non-epileptic controls. Sociodemographic characteristics and all relevant clinical data were collected through interviewing the cases and controls. Identification of the symptoms of anxiety and depression was made according to DSM-IV criteria. The patients were age and sex matched with the controls. The controls had achieved a significantly better education (> 12 years education) than the patients with epilepsy. The adolescents with epilepsy were also shown to be disadvantaged in their living circumstances. Some of them were dependent on their parents in some daily physical activities, such as bathing, which might be a sign of overprotection by their parents. Those with epilepsy had a significantly higher tendency to develop symptoms of anxiety and depression than the control group. Moreover these psychiatric symptoms, especially anxiety symptoms, were more likely to happen when seizures had not been properly medically controlled. Overprotective parental behaviour towards their ill children could also delay their psychosocial maturation. Therefore, counselling of patients and parents about epilepsy is an important factor in the control of seizures and their sequelae. PMID:10985998
Larsen, Karen Kjær; Christensen, Bo; Nielsen, Tine Jepsen;
blodprop i hjertet i perioden fra den 1. januar 2009 til den 31. december 2009. De inkluderede udfyldte en dansk udgave af spørge¬skemaet Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), som måler angst og depression. Follow-up blev gennemført frem til den 31. juli 2012. I analyserne er der taget højde for......Angst eller depression efter en blodprop i hjertet (myokardieinfarkt eller blot MI) er tidligere kædet sammen med en øget risiko for nye sygdomstilfælde eller endda dødsfald. Tidligere studier har dog kun i ringe grad taget forbehold for andre mulige årsagsfaktorer. Derfor er det stadig uvist, om...... af hjerte-kar-sygdom eller dødsfald. Derimod synes symptomer på depression at give denne gruppe af patienter en højere risiko for at dø. Studiet er gennemført som et populationsbaseret kohortestudie og inkluderer 896 personer (70 % af de patienter, der opfyldte inklusionskriterierne), som fik en...
Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura
Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160
Gallant, Jason; Storch, Eric A; Merlo, Lisa J; Ricketts, Emily D; Geffken, Gary R; Goodman, Wayne K; Murphy, Tanya K
The Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Symptom Checklist (CY-BOCS-SC; Scahill, L., Riddle, M. A., McSwiggin-Hardin, M., Ort, S. I., King, R. A., Goodman, W. K., et al. (1997). Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: Reliability and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 844-852) is widely used to assess the presence of obsessions and compulsions in youth. Although factor analytic studies have established symptom dimensions of the CY-BOCS-SC, little is known of its psychometric properties. The present study sought to examine the convergent and discriminant validity of the CY-BOCS-SC. Eighty-six youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their parents were administered the CY-BOCS-SC, the CY-BOCS severity items, and the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Parent Version (ADIS-IV-P). Children completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Internal consistency of CY-BOCS-SC symptom dimensions ranged from poor to good. The CY-BOCS-SC demonstrated good to excellent convergent validity, as demonstrated by large correlations with conceptually similar items on the ADIS-IV-P. The discriminant validity of the CY-BOCS-SC was also good, as evidenced by small, generally non-significant, correlations between the CY-BOCS-SC dimensions and depressive and anxiety symptoms, OCD symptom severity, and trichotillomania symptoms. These results provide initial psychometric support for the CY-BOCS-SC and support its use as a clinical and research instrument for assessing presence of a range of obsessive and compulsive symptoms in youth with OCD. PMID:18329843
Marganska, Anna; Gallagher, Michelle; Miranda, Regina
Differences in attachment style have been linked to both emotion regulation and psychological functioning, but the emotion regulatory mechanism through which attachment style might impact symptoms of depression and anxiety is unclear. The present study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the relation between adult attachment style and symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a sample of 284 adults. Secure attachment was associated with lower depression and GAD symptoms and lower emotion dysregulation, whereas insecure attachment styles were generally associated with higher depression and GAD scores and higher emotion dysregulation. Perceived inability to generate effective emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation between insecure attachment and both depression and GAD symptoms. Nonacceptance of negative emotions and inability to control impulsive behaviors emerged as additional mediators of the relation between insecure attachment styles and GAD symptoms. The differential contribution of attachment style and emotion regulation to the prediction of depression and GAD symptoms may reflect differences in vulnerability to depression and GAD. PMID:23330631
The correlation between emotional distress and aging males’ symptoms at a psychiatric outpatient clinic: sexual dysfunction as a distinguishing characteristic between andropause and anxiety/depression in aging men
Full Text Available Ching-Yen Chen,1,4,5 Chin-Pang Lee,1,4 Yu Chen,2,4,5 Jun-Ran Jiang,3,4,5 Chun-Lin Chu,1,4,5 Chun-Liang Chen3,4,5 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Urology, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 4Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taiwan; 5School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Andropause and psychiatric disorders are associated with various symptoms in aging males and are part of the differential diagnosis of depression and anxiety. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between symptoms of aging, anxiety, and depression, and to determine if sexual dysfunction could be a differentiating characteristic in the psychiatric outpatient clinic. Methods: One hundred seventy-six male psychiatric outpatients participated in the study and completed self-reported measures assessing symptoms of aging, depression, and anxiety. Symptoms of aging were assessed by the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Erectile dysfunction was considered if a response to item 15 on the Aging Males’ Symptoms scale (impaired sexual potency was rated with 4 or 5 points. Affective disturbance was assessed by the total scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results: Age was correlated with less anxiety and more sexual symptoms. Anxiety and depression were associated with more severe symptoms of aging, and depression was associated with more sexual symptoms than was anxiety. Impaired sexual potency was the only sexual symptom not significantly associated with depression and anxiety. Depression was associated with an interspousal age gap of ≥6 years. The point prevalence of erectile dysfunction was 28.4%, and age and affective disturbance were associated with the risk of erectile dysfunction. Conclusion: Impaired sexual potency should raise the suspicion of androgen deficiency rather than depression
Hullett, Michael A.
Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of logotherapy…