Sample records for antioxidant-conjugated difluorodiarylidenyl piperidones

  1. Synthesis, antitumor activity evaluation of some new N-aroyl-α,β-unsaturated piperidones with fluorescence.

    Sun, Jufeng; Wang, Suwen; Li, Hongjuan; Jiang, Wenguo; Hou, Guige; Zhao, Feng; Cong, Wei


    Novel N-aroyl-α,β-unsaturated piperidones, series 1, series 2 and series 3 (featuring 2-bromo-4,5-dimethoxybenzylidene, 4-dimethylaminobenzylidene and 4-trifluoromethylbenzylidene, respectively), were synthesized as candidate cytotoxins. Most of the compounds displayed potent cytotoxicity against the human neoplastic cell lines SK-BR-3, PG-BE1, NCI-H460, MIA PaCa-2 and SW1990 in vitro, and approximately 64% of the IC50 values were lower than 5 μM. Among those tested, compound 1b of series 1, 3a, 3d and 3e of series 3 proved to be the most active. Importantly, 1b displayed marked inhibitory effects on tumor growth in vivo and had no apparent toxicity to mice; this was evaluated by a nude mouse PG-BE1 xenograft model. In addition, the fluorescent properties of compounds series 1-3 were investigated. The interesting fluorescence exhibited by these compounds could be useful for their visualization in tumor cells, permitting further studies on these α,β-unsaturated piperidones as candidates for novel fluorescent antitumor agents. PMID:26382011

  2. Nucleophilic addition to 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-3,5-dimethylene-4-piperidone

    Like branched primary amines, unbranched mercaptans react with 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-3,5-dimethylene-4-piperidone to give products of ring opening. On the basis of the data obtained, a reaction scheme that includes the intermediate formation of 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one seems less likely as compared with a scheme involving elimination from the monocyclic piperidene system. It is also shown that steric interaction of the vicinal substituents is one of the important factors that promote beta elimination. The PMR spectra of solutions of the compounds in CDCl3 were recorded with Varian T-60 and Varian HA-100 spectrometers with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) as the standard. The chemical-ionization mass spectra were obtained with a Finnigan 4021 mass spectrometer

  3. Supramolecular synthesis based on piperidone derivatives and pharmaceutically acceptable co-formers.

    Sandhu, Bhupinder; Draguta, Sergiu; Kinnibrugh, Tiffany L; Khrustalev, Victor N; Timofeeva, Tatiana V


    The target complexes, bis{(E,E)-3,5-bis[4-(diethylamino)benzylidene]-4-oxopiperidinium} butanedioate, 2C27H36N3O(+)·C4H4O4(2-), (II), and bis{(E,E)-3,5-bis[4-(diethylamino)benzylidene]-4-oxopiperidinium} decanedioate, 2C27H36N3O(+)·C10H16O4(2-), (III), were obtained by solvent-mediated crystallization of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (E,E)-3,5-bis[4-(diethylamino)benzylidene]-4-piperidone and pharmaceutically acceptable dicarboxylic (succinic and sebacic) acids from ethanol solution. They have been characterized by melting point, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. For the sake of comparison, the structure of the starting API, (E,E)-3,5-bis[4-(diethylamino)benzylidene]-4-piperidone methanol monosolvate, C27H35N3O·CH4O, (I), has also been studied. Compounds (II) and (III) represent salts containing H-shaped centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded synthons, which are built from two parallel piperidinium cations and a bridging dicarboxylate dianion. In both (II) and (III), the dicarboxylate dianion resides on an inversion centre. The two cations and dianion within the H-shaped synthon are linked by two strong intermolecular N(+)-H···(-)OOC hydrogen bonds. The crystal structure of (II) includes two crystallographically independent formula units, A and B. The cation geometries of units A and B are different. The main N-C6H4-C=C-C(=O)-C=C-C6H4-N backbone of cation A has a C-shaped conformation, while that of cation B adopts an S-shaped conformation. The same main backbone of the cation in (III) is practically planar. In the crystal structures of both (II) and (III), intermolecular N(+)-H···O=C hydrogen bonds between different H-shaped synthons further consolidate the crystal packing, forming columns in the [100] and [101] directions, respectively. Salts (II) and (III) possess increased aqueous solubility compared with the original API and thus enhance the bioavailability of the API. PMID:23579720

  4. Radiation-induced binding of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1,4-piperidone-N-oxyl to thymidine in oxygen-free aqueous solutions

    Steady-state γ-radiolysis of deaerated aqueous solutions of thymidine has been carried out in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1,4-piperidone-N-oxyl (TAN), a well known radiosensitizing agent. The eight main radiation-induced TAN addition products to thymidine have been isolated and characterized by sup(1)H and sup(13)C nmr, cd, and fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry measurements

  5. Conformational preferences for some 3-(4‧-substituted phenylsulfonyl)-1-methyl-2-piperidones through spectroscopic and theoretical studies

    Olivato, Paulo R.; Santos, Jean M. M.; Cerqueira, Carlos R.; Vinhato, Elisângela; Zukerman-Schpector, Julio; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.; Colle, Maurizio Dal


    The analysis of the infrared (IR) carbonyl band of some 3-(4'-substituted phenylsulfonyl)-1-methyl-2-piperidones 1-5 bearing as substituents: OMe 1, Me 2, H 3, Cl 4 and NO25, supported by B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations along with NBO analysis (for 1, 3 and 5) and X-ray diffraction (for 5), indicated the existence of three stable conformations i.e. quasi-axial (q-ax), syn-clinal (s-cl) and quasi-equatorial (q-eq). In the gas phase, the q-ax conformer is calculated as the most stable (ca. 88%) and the least polar, the s-cl conformer is less stable (ca. 12%) but more polar, and the q-eq conformer is the least stable (ca. 1%) and the most polar of the three conformers evaluated. The sum of the most important orbital interactions from NBO analysis and the trend of the electrostatic interactions accounts for the relative populations as well as for the νCO frequencies of the q-ax, s-cl and q-eq conformers calculated in the gas phase. The unique IR νCO band in CCl4 may be ascribed to the most stable q-ax conformer. The more intense (60%) high frequency doublet component in CHCl3 may be assigned to the summing up of the least stable q-eq and the less stable s-cl conformers, as their frequencies are almost coincident. The occurrence of only a single νCO band in both CH2Cl2 and CH3CN supports the fact that the νCO band of the two more polar conformers appear as a single band. Additional support to this rationalization is given by the single point PCM method, which showed a progressive increase of the q-eq + s-cl/q-ax population ratio going from the gas phase to CCl4, to CHCl3, to CH2Cl2 and to CH3CN. X-ray single crystal analysis of 5 indicates that this compound displays a quasi-axial geometry with respect to the [Odbnd Csbnd CHsbnd S] moiety, and that the 2-piperidone ring assumes a slightly distorted half-chair conformation. In the crystal packing, molecules of 5 are arranged into supramolecular layers linked through Csbnd H⋯O interactions along with

  6. Investigation of the role of stereoelectronic effects in the conformation of piperidones by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Cesar Garcias-Morales


    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis of a series of piperidones 1–8 by the Mannich reaction and analysis of their structures and conformations in solution by NMR and mass spectrometry. The six-membered rings in 2,4,6,8-tetraphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones, compounds 1 and 2, adopt a chair–boat conformation, while those in 2,4-diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-ones, compounds 3–8, adopt a chair–chair conformation because of stereoelectronic effects. These stereoelectronic effects were analyzed by the 1JC–H coupling constants, which were measured in the 13C satellites of the 1H NMR spectra obtained with the hetero-dqf pulse sequence. In the solid state, these stereoelectronic effects were investigated by measurement of X-ray diffraction data, the molecular geometry (torsional bond angles and bond distances, and inter- and intramolecular interactions, and by natural bond orbital analysis, which was performed using density functional theory at the ωB97XD/6311++G(d,p level. We found that one of the main factors influencing the conformational stability of 3–8 is the interaction between the lone-pair electrons of nitrogen and the antibonding sigma orbital of C(7–Heq (nN→σ*C–H(7eq, a type of hyperconjugative interaction.

  7. 2-[3,5-Bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidon-1-yl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl-acetamide and Its Evaluation as an Anticancer Agent

    Pallavi Lagisetty


    Full Text Available Synthesis of 2-[3,5-bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidon-1-yl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl-acetamide, a derivative of 3,5-bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidone (EF24, as an antiproliferative and imageable compound is described. The radioactive derivative was synthesized in 40–45% radiochemical yield using N-[4-fluoro(18Fbenzyl]-2-bromoacetamide (NFLOBA as a radiolabeled synthon for coupling with EF24. Cell proliferation assays showed that 2-[3,5-bis-(2-fluorobenzylidene-4-piperidon-1-yl]-N-(4-fluorobenzyl-acetamide (NFLOBA-EF24 had antiproliferative efficacy similar to that of EF24 in lung adenocarcinoma H441 cells. 18F-NFLOBA-EF24 was investigated in normal rats for whole-body PET imaging and biodistribution. At necropsy after 1 h of injection, about 12% of injected compound was still circulating in blood; liver, kidney, and muscle were other tissues with moderate amounts of accumulation. In order to assess the tumor-suppressive activity, nonradioactive NFLOBA-EF24 was administered in nude rats carrying xenograft H441 tumor. After 15 days of treatment, the tumor size decreased by approximately 83% compared to the tumors in control rats. The tumor regression was also confirmed by molecular imaging of glucose metabolism with 18F- fluorodeoxyglucose. The results suggest that EF24 could be efficiently modified with 18F-labeled synthon NFLOBA for convenient PET imaging without altering the antitumor efficacy of the original compound. This study provides visual kinetics of synthetic curcuminoid EF24 by positron emission tomography for the first time.

  8. Tumour-specific cytotoxicity and structure-activity relationships of novel 1-[3-(2-methoxyethylthio)propionyl]-3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones.

    Hossain, Mohammad; Das, Umashankar; Umemura, Naoki; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Balzarini, Jan; De Clercq, Erik; Kawase, Masami; Dimmock, Jonathan R


    A series of 1-acyl-3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones 3-7 were designed and synthesized as novel cytotoxic agents. These compounds displayed potent cytotoxic properties towards human Molt4/C8, CEM, HSC-2, HSC-3 and HSC-4 neoplasms and also to murine L1210 cells. The majority of the compounds have sub-micromolar or very low micromolar IC50 and CC50 values and are significantly more potent than the reference alkylating drug melphalan. Evaluation of these compounds against non-malignant HGF and HPLF cells revealed the tumour-specific toxicity. In particular, 3e emerged as a promising lead cytotoxic agent which caused apoptosis and PARP1 cleavage in HSC-2 cells. PMID:27073056

  9. Spectroscopic and Theoretical Studies of Some 3-(4′-Substituted phenylsulfanyl-1-methyl-2-piperidones

    Julio Zukerman-Schpector


    Full Text Available The analysis of the IR carbonyl bands of some 3-(4′-substituted phenylsulfanyl-1-methyl-2-piperidones 1–6 bearing substituents: NO2 (compound 1, Br (compound 2, Cl (compound 3, H (compound 4 Me (compound 5 and OMe (compound 6 supported by B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p and PCM calculations along with NBO analysis (for compound 4 and X-ray diffraction (for 2 indicated the existence of two stable conformations, i.e., axial (ax and equatorial (eq, the former corresponding to the most stable and the least polar one in the gas phase calculations. The sum of the energy contributions of the orbital interactions (NBO analysis and the electrostatic interactions correlate well with the populations and the νCO frequencies of the ax and eq conformers found in the gas phase. Unusually, in solution of the non-polar solvents n-C6H14 and CCl4, the more intense higher IR carbonyl frequency can be ascribed to the ax conformer, while the less intense lower IR doublet component to the eq one. The same νCO frequency trend also holds in polar solvents, that is νCO (eq< νCO (ax. However, a reversal of the ax/eq intensity ratio occurs going from non-polar to polar solvents, with the ax conformer component that progressively decreases with respect to the eq one in CHCl3 and CH2Cl2, and is no longer detectable in the most polar solvent CH3CN. The PCM method applied to compound 4 supports these findings. In fact, it predicts the progressive increase of the eq/ax population ratio as the relative permittivity of the solvent increases. Moreover, it indicates that the computed νCO frequencies of the ax and eq conformers do not change in the non–polar solvents n-C6H14 and CCl4, while the νCO frequencies of the eq conformer become progressively lower than that of the ax one going from CHCl3 to CH2Cl2 and to CH3CN, in agreement with the experimental IR values. The analysis of the geometries of the ax and eq conformers shows that the carbonyl oxygen atom of the eq conformer is free

  10. A conformational study of the adducts of 2'-deoxythymidine and 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1,4-piperidone-N-oxyl by sup(1)H and sup(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance

    γ-Irradiation of oxygen-free, aqueous solutions of 2'-deoxythymidine in the presence of the organic nitroxide free radical, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1,4-piperidone-N-oxyl (TAN) leads to a complex mixture of products in which the TAN moiety is linked to the C5 or C6 position of a 5,6-saturated thymine ring. Extensive sup(1)H and sup(13)C nmr data are provided for the eight TAN-dT adducts which are produced in the largest amounts. The results show that the conformational properties of the sugar moiety are dependent on the point of attachment of the TAN group and the configuration of the standard thymine ring

  11. Synthesis of Anti-oxidant Conjugates with Choline as Potential Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Falé, P. L.; Santos, S.; Serralheiro, M. L. M.; Santos, M. A.

    Smolenice : -, 2010. s. 101-101. [Conference of Organic Chemists. Advances in Organic Chemistry /29./. 05.09.2010-09.09.2010, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : choline conjugates * AChE inhibitors * antioxidants * docking Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  12. Antioxidant-Conjugated Onto Gamma-Generated Chitosan Nanoparticle for Radiation Sterilized Medical Plastic

    The Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, mainly gives the course of study in the field of radiation and nuclear science and technology. The research actitivies relevant to the department are about nuclear instrument and analytical technique by nuclear methodology, radiation chemistry and processing technology, and radiation biology and agriculture. My work going on in the department is separated into two main responsibilities, i.e. (i) teaching courses and (ii) research activity. For (i), in the present time, there are 5 courses (i.e., radiation detection technique, radiation health protection, nuclear method of analysis, radioistope tracer techniques in biology and seminar) for bachelor degree and 4 courses (radiation chemistry and processing, radiation detection and dosimetry, nuclear facilities and utilization, research method in applied radiation and isotope) for master degree. In the case of (ii), my research interests head on the radiation chemistry and processing applicable to material and nanomaterial development for industrial applications, e.g. nanofilter and metal absorbent material; for medical applications, e.g. bio-additive for medical material, nanoparticle for drug delivery system, radiosensitizer for radiotherapy; for agricultural applications, e.g. pest controlled compound and plastic. The researches are also attended to biopolymer especially chitin-chiosan including functional polymer. The material for radiation dosimeter based on EPR is furthermore interesting to look for

  13. Effect of piperidones on hydrogen permeation and corrosion inhibition of mild steel in acidic solutions

    S Muralidharan; R Chandrasekar; S V K Iyer


    The influence of 3-methyl-2,6-diphenyl piperidin-4-one (MDPO) and 2-phenyl decahydroquinoline-4-one (PDQO) synthesised in the laboratory on hydrogen permeation and corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1N H2SO4 has been studied using weight loss and various electrochemical AC and DC corrosion-monitoring techniques. Both the compounds inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 Potentiodynamic polarisation studies clearly reveal that they behave predominantly as cathodic inhibitors. The extent of decrease in hydrogen permeation current through steel surfaces has been studied by the hydrogen electropermeation technique. Double layer capacitance () and charge transfer resistance () values are derived from Nyquist plots obtained from AC impedance studies. The adsorption of these compounds on mild steel surfaces from H2SO4 obeys Temkin’s adsorption isotherm.

  14. Asymmetric Synthesis Using Novel Cationic Diether-Coordinated Lewis Acid and Stereoselective Synthesis of Piperidones and 1,2-Amino Alcohols

    Ishimaru, Kaori


    CONTENTS Chapter 1.Asymmetric Synthesis Using Novel Cationic Diether-Coordinated Lewis Acids  1-1.Introduction / p1  1-2.Cationic Lewis Acids for [4+2]Type Cycloaddition of α-Chiral Aldimines / p12  1-3.Development of Novel Cationic Lewis Acids Coordinated by a Chiral Diether Ligand / p18  1-4.Attempt to Develop Novel Lewis Acids Bearinga Monoether-Coordinated Ligand / p31  1-5.Aldol Reaction by Using the Novel Cationic Lewis Acids / p39  1-6.Synthesis of the Modified Chi...

  15. Observation of kinetic networks of hydrogen-bond exchange using 2D IR echo spectroscopy

    Kim, Yung Sam; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    The ultrafast H-bond motion in acetonitrile/methanol and of methanol and water around a dicarbonyl (piperidone) dominates the mechanism of vibrational coherence transfer in linear and 2D IR echo spectra. Multiple state coherence transfer and energy transfer are seen at and between the two carbonyl groups of the piperidone in both water and methanol.

  16. 6-Membered ring intermediates in polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride-L-α-arginine in H2O


    In polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride-L-α-arginine(L-Arg-NCA) in H2O,nucleophilic reaction of guanidine group with the carbonyl group of L-Arg-NCA leads to quick intramolecular rearrangement,yielding a 6-membered ring intermediate 1-amidino-3-amino-2-piperidone,which is either elongated by another L-Arg-NCA yielding arginyl-1-amidino-3-amino-2-piperidone or hydrolyzed to L-α-arginine.The oligoarginines are formed mainly through hydrolysis of arginyl-1-amidino-3-amino-2-piperidones.This is a unique pathway in polymerization of L-Arg-NCA with regard to the usual pathway of elongations by reaction of N-carboxyanhydride-L-α-amino acid with L-α-amino acid or oligopeptides.

  17. Combinatorial Chemistry of Piperidine Based Carbohydrate Mimics

    Byrgesen, Elisabeth Vang; Nielsen, John; Willart, Marianne;


    Piperidine carboxylic acids and 4-hydroxypiperidine-3-carboxylic acid, the latter obtained from bakers yeast reduction of the corresponding piperidone, were coupled in solid-phase synthesis to form simplified oligosaccharide analogues. A split-and-mix synthesis approach was used to create small c...

  18. 3,5-Bis(2-hydroxybenzylidenepiperidin-4-one

    Yum Eryanti


    Full Text Available The title compound, 3,5-bis(2-hydroxybenzylidenepiperidin-4-one (3, was prepared via reaction of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1 and 4-piperidone (2 under microwave irradiation in the presence of 10% NaOH solution. The compound was fully characterized from its UV, IR, NMR and MS data.

  19. A general A{sup 3}: coupling reaction based on functionalized alkynes

    Wendler, Edison P.; Santos, Alcindo A. dos, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    A range of hydroxypropargylpiperidones were efficiently obtained by a one-pot three-component coupling reaction of aldehydes, alkynols, and a primary amine equivalent (4-piperidone hydrochloride hydrate) in ethyl acetate using copper(I) chloride as a catalyst. The developed protocol proved to be equally efficient using a range of aliphatic aldehydes, including paraformaldehyde, and using protected and unprotected alkynols. (author)

  20. Reaction of the nitroxyl radical TAN with glutathione

    Evidence for a stoichiometric reaction between 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl (TAN) and glutathione (GSH) in vitro has been provided by the results of e.s.r., spectrophotometric and enzymatic measurements. The addition of TAN to a suspension of isolated hepatocytes resulted in a rapid reduction in cellular GSH. Possible mechanisms are discussed. The results are in accordance with the rapid in vivo degradation of TAN. (U.K.)

  1. Total synthesis of (-)- and (+)-tedanalactam

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    , S. G. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 74, 3591. (b) Patre, R.; Gawas, S.; Sen, S.; Parameswaran, P. S.; Tilve, S. G. Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48, 3517. (c) Parvatkar, P.; Parameswaran, P. S.; Tilve, S. G. Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48, 7870. (d) Majik, M. S... for their therapeutic usage and a few are isolated as natural products. Tedanalactam, a cis-3,4-epoxy-2-piperidone 1 was first isolated from sponge Tedania ignis in 1994 by Cronan and Cardellina. 3 Recently in 2007, Lago and Kato 4 found it in leaves of Piper...

  2. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF NEW 3-METHYL-2- PHENYLSPIRO[PYRANO[2,3-f]CHROMONE-8,1'-CYCLOALKAN/8,4'-PIPERIDIN]-4,10-DIONES SYNTHESIS und antibakterielle Wirksamkeit von NEW 3-METHYL-2- PHENYLSPIRO [pyrano [2,3-f] chromon-8, 1'-CYCLOALKAN / 8,4 '-piperidin] -4,10 -DIONE

    Sreenivas Peddolla and David Krupadanam. G. L


    Full Text Available 3-Methyl-2-phenylspiro[pyrano[2,3-f]chromone-8,1'-cycloalkan/8,4'-piperidin]-4,10-diones (8a-e were synthesized from 8-acetyl-7-hydroxy-3-methylflavone and cycloalkanones/N-substituted piperidones with pyrrolidine as catalyst. All the compounds were tested in vitro for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three compounds 8c, 8d and 8e have displayed very good antibacterial activity.

  3. α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl System of Chalcone-Based Derivatives is Responsible for Broad Inhibition of Proteasomal Activity and Preferential Killing of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-Positive Cervical Cancer Cells

    Bazzaro, Martina; Anchoori, Ravi K.; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna R; Issaenko, Olga; Kumar, Srinivas; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Lin, Zhenhua; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Gavioli, Riccardo; Destro, Federica; Ferretti, Valeria; Roden, Richard BS; Khan, Saeed R.


    Proteasome inhibitors have potential for the treatment of cervical cancer. We describe the synthesis and biological characterization of a new series of 1,3-diphenylpropen-1-one (chalcone)-based derivatives lacking the boronic acid moieties of the previously reported chalcone-based proteasome inhibitor 3,5-bis-(4-boronic acid-benzylidene)-1-methyl-piperidin- 4-one and bearing a variety of amino acid substitutions on the amino-group of the 4-piperidone. Our lead compound 2 (RA-1) inhibits prote...

  4. Synthesis of novel precursors of Pfitzinger reaction: A facile one-pot strategy to the synthesis of quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives of pyrazolo-carbazoles and azacarbazoles

    Ruchi Tyagi; Bhawani Singh; D Kishore


    Interaction of 5-indazolyldiazonium chloride 2 with 2-hydroxymethylidene cyclohexanone 5 and -benzyl-3-hydroxymethylidene-4-piperidone 6 under the conditions of Japp-Klingemann reaction, followed by Fischer-indolization of the resulting hydrazones, formed the 5,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrazolo[4,3-b]carbazol- 6(1)-one 9 and 9-benzyl-5,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[2',3':4,5]pyrrolo[2,3-f]indazol-6(1)-one 10, respectively. Pfitzinger reaction of 9 and 10 with isatin in alkali afforded the corresponding quinoline carboxylic acid derivatives 12 and 13, respectively.

  5. Synthesis, structure, antitumor activity of novel pharmaceutical co-crystals based on bispyridyl-substituted α, β-unsaturated ketones with gallic acid

    Liu, Lian-Dong; Liu, Shu-Lian; Liu, Zhi-Xian; Hou, Gui-Ge


    Three novel pharmaceutical co-crystals, (A)·(gallic acid) (1), (B)·(gallic acid) (2), and (C)·(gallic acid) (3) were generated based on 2,6-bis((pyridin-4-yl)methylene)cyclohexanone (A), N-methyl-3,5-bis((pyridin-3-yl)methylene)-4-piperidone (B), N-methyl-3,5-bis((pyridin-4-yl)methylene)-4-piperidone (C) with gallic acid, respectively. They are characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, 1H NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analysis reveals that two pharmaceutical ingredients link each other into H-bonding-driven 3D network in 1, 2, or 2D plane in 3. In addition, their antitumor activities against human neoplastic cell lines A549, SGC-7901, MCF-7, OVCA-433, HePG2 and cytotoxicity for HUVEC cell lines by CCK-8 method were evaluated primarily. Compared with gallic acid and free A, B and C, their antitumor activities have improved distinctly, while cytotoxicities have reduced markedly, especially for co-crystal 1. This is mainly because of the synergistic effect between pharmaceutical ingredients A, B, and C and gallic acid.

  6. Photophysical properties of novel picrate derivatives--solvent effect.

    Jayabharathi, Jayaraman; Thanikachalam, Venugopal; Padmavathy, Manoharan; Perumal, Marimuthu Venkatesh


    H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded for some novel picrate derivatives derived from 3,3-dimethyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones and 3-benzyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one. The photophysical properties of the picrate derivatives were studied in several solvents, which include a wide range of apolar, polar and protic media. The observed lower fluorescence quantum yield may be due to an increase in the non-radiative deactivation rate constant. This is attributed due to the presence of increased electrostatic interaction between N-protonated piperidone ring and picryl anion ring so that the picryl anion ring lies perpendicular to the plane of the N-protonated piperidone ring i.e., non co-planarity. Such a geometrical change in the excited state leads to an important Stokes shift, reducing the reabsorption and reemission effects in the detected emission in highly concentrated solutions. The higher fluorescence quantum yield of the picrate derivatives are observed in polar media. PMID:21870074

  7. Early habituation of maize (Zea mays) suspension-cultured cells to 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile is associated with the enhancement of antioxidant status.

    Largo-Gosens, Asier; Encina, Antonio; de Castro, María; Mélida, Hugo; Acebes, José L; García-Angulo, Penélope; Álvarez, Jesús M


    The cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) has been widely used to gain insights into cell wall composition and architecture. Studies of changes during early habituation to DCB can provide information on mechanisms that allow tolerance/habituation to DCB. In this context, maize-cultured cells with a reduced amount of cellulose (∼20%) were obtained by stepwise habituation to low DCB concentrations. The results reported here attempt to elucidate the putative role of an antioxidant strategy during incipient habituation. The short-term exposure to DCB of non-habituated maize-cultured cells induced a substantial increase in oxidative damage. Concomitantly, short-term treated cells presented an increase in class III peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities and total glutathione content. Maize cells habituated to 0.3-1 µM DCB (incipient habituation) were characterized by a reduction in the relative cell growth rate, an enhancement of ascorbate peroxidase and class III peroxidase activities, and a net increment in total glutathione content. Moreover, these cell lines showed increased levels of glutathione S-transferase activity. Changes in antioxidant/conjugation status enabled 0.3 and 0.5 µM DCB-habituated cells to control lipid peroxidation levels, but this was not the case of maize cells habituated to 1 μM DCB, which despite showing an increased antioxidant capacity were not capable of reducing the oxidative damage to control levels. The results reported here confirm that exposure and incipient habituation of maize cells to DCB are associated with an enhancement in antioxidant/conjugation activities which could play a role in incipient DCB habituation of maize-cultured cells. PMID:26612685

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of certain alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones and their corresponding fused pyridines as antiviral and cytotoxic agents.

    El-Subbagh, H I; Abu-Zaid, S M; Mahran, M A; Badria, F A; Al-Obaid, A M


    A new series of 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones, as chalcone analogues carrying variety of aryl and heteroaryl groups, pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines, pyridolo[4,3-c]pyrimidines, and pyrido[4,3-c]-pyridines, carrying an arylidene moiety, and a series of pyrano[3,2-c]pyridines, as flavone and coumarin isosteres, were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antiviral and antitumor activities at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Compounds 9 and 18 proved to be active against herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), while compound 13 showed moderate activity against human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). Compounds 14, 26, 28, 33, and 35 exhibited a broad spectrum antitumor activity. In addition, compounds 26, 33, and 35 proved to be of moderate selectivity toward leukemia cell lines. The pyrano[3,2-c]pyridines heterocyclic system proved to be the most active antitumors among the investigated heterocycles. PMID:10956199

  9. 2-Hydroxy-16-[(E-4-methylbenzylidene]-13-(4-methylphenyl-12-phenyl-1,11-diazapentacyclo[,10.03,8.010,14]octadeca-3(8,4,6-triene-9,15-dione

    Raju Suresh Kumar


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C37H32N2O3, an intramolecular O—H...N hydrogen bond generates a five-membered ring, producing an S(5 motif. The piperidone ring adopts a half-chair conformation. The two fused pyrrolidine rings have similar envelope conformations. The interplanar angles between the benzene rings A/B and C/D are 75.68 (7 and 30.22 (6°, respectively. In the crystal structure, adjacent molecules are interconnected into chains propagating along the [010] direction via intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. Further stabilization is provided by weak C—H...π interactions.

  10. Synthesis, bioassay, and QSAR study of bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles.

    Girgis, Adel S; Saleh, Dalia O; George, Riham F; Srour, Aladdin M; Pillai, Girinath G; Panda, Chandramukhi S; Katritzky, Alan R


    A statistically significant QSAR model describing the bioactivity of bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles (N = 41, n = 8, R(2) = 0.824, R(2)cv = 0.724, F = 18.749, s(2) = 0.0018) was obtained employing CODESSA-Pro software. The bronchodilatory active 4H-pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine-3-carbonitriles 17-57 were synthesized through a facile approach via reaction of 1-alkyl-4-piperidones 1-4 with ylidenemalononitriles 5-16 in methanol in the presence of sodium. The bronchodilation properties of 17-57 were investigated in vitro using isolated guinea pig tracheal rings pre-contracted with histamine (standard method) and compared with theophylline (standard reference). Most of the compounds synthesized exhibit promising bronchodilation properties especially, compounds 25 and 28. PMID:25462283

  11. Experimental and ab initio studies of the novel piperidine-containing acetylene glycols

    Mirsakiyeva, Amina; Elgammal, Karim; Ten, Assel; Hugosson, Håkan W; Delin, Anna; Yu, Valentina K


    Synthesis routes of novel piperidine-containing diacetylene are presented. The new molecules are expected to exhibit plant growth stimulation properties. In particular, the yield in a situation of drought is expected to increase. The synthesis makes use of the Favorskii reaction between cycloketones/piperidone and triple-bond containing glycols. The geometries of the obtained molecules were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The electronic structure and geometries of the molecules were studied theoretically using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The calculated geometries agree very well with the experimentally measured ones, and also allow us to determine bond lengths, angles and charge distributions inside the molecules. The stability of the OH-radicals located close to the triple bond and the piperidine/cyclohexane rings was proven by both experimental and theoretical analyses. The HOMO/LUMO analysis was done in order to characterize the electron density of t...

  12. Synthesis and analysis of the opioid analgesic [14C]-fentanyl

    The synthesis of [14C]-fentanyl, the radiolabelled congener of the potent opioid analgesic chosen for utilization in drug disposition studies, is described. [14C]-Labelling was achieved in the first of two steps, a room temperature reduction of the in situ generated Schiff base from 1-phenylethyl-4-piperidone and [UL-14C]-aniline hydrochloride with sodium triacetoxyborohydride. A nearly instantaneous production of fentanyl was accomplished at room temperature with the addition of propionyl chloride. The overall radiochemical yield was 18%. The method described is efficiently adaptable for submicromolar scale while yielding a product of sufficient specific activity for in vivo studies. Our solvent system for thin layer chromatography was superior to the USP system reported for chromatographic analysis of fentanyl. This is the first reported preparation of [14C]-fentanyl with the radiolabel in the aniline benzene ring. (author)

  13. Synthesis and analysis of the opioid analgesic [[sup 14]C]-fentanyl

    Bagley, J.R.; Wilhelm, J.A. (Anaquest Inc., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))


    The synthesis of [[sup 14]C]-fentanyl, the radiolabelled congener of the potent opioid analgesic chosen for utilization in drug disposition studies, is described. [[sup 14]C]-Labelling was achieved in the first of two steps, a room temperature reduction of the in situ generated Schiff base from 1-phenylethyl-4-piperidone and [UL-[sup 14]C]-aniline hydrochloride with sodium triacetoxyborohydride. A nearly instantaneous production of fentanyl was accomplished at room temperature with the addition of propionyl chloride. The overall radiochemical yield was 18%. The method described is efficiently adaptable for submicromolar scale while yielding a product of sufficient specific activity for in vivo studies. Our solvent system for thin layer chromatography was superior to the USP system reported for chromatographic analysis of fentanyl. This is the first reported preparation of [[sup 14]C]-fentanyl with the radiolabel in the aniline benzene ring. (author).

  14. Synthesis of 5-oxyquinoline derivatives for reversal of multidrug resistance

    Torsten Dittrich


    Full Text Available The inhibition of ABC (ATP binding cassette transporters is considered a powerful tool to reverse multidrug resistance. Zosuquidar featuring a difluorocyclopropyl-annulated dibenzosuberyl moiety has been found to be an inhibitor of the P-glycoprotein, one of the best-studied multidrug efflux pumps. Twelve 5-oxyisoquinoline derivatives, which are analogues of zosuquidar wherein the dibenzosuberyl-piperazine moiety is replaced by either a diarylaminopiperidine or a piperidone-derived acetal or thioacetal group, have been synthesized as pure enantiomers. Their inhibitory power has been evaluated for the bacterial multidrug-resistance ABC transporter LmrCD and fungal Pdr5. Four of the newly synthesized compounds reduced the transport activity to a higher degree than zosuquidar, being up to fourfold more efficient than the lead compound in the case of LmrCD and about two times better for Pdr5.

  15. Singlet oxygen generation during the oxidation of L-tyrosine and L-dopa with mushroom tyrosinase.

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Kohno, Masahiro; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Baba, Toshihide


    The generation of singlet oxygen during the oxidation of tyrosine and L-dopa using mushroom tyrosinase in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), the model of melanin synthesis in melanocytes, was examined. The reaction was performed in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (4-oxo-TEMP), an acceptor of singlet oxygen and the electron spin resonance (ESR) of the spin adduct, 4-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (4-oxo-TEMPO), was measured. An increase in the ESR signal attributable to 4-oxo-TEMPO was observed during the oxidation of tyrosine and L-dopa with tyrosinase, indicating the generation of singlet oxygen. The results suggest that (1)O2 generation via tyrosinase-catalyzed melanin synthesis occurs in melanocyte. PMID:26898801

  16. The role of weak intermolecular C-H…F interactions in supramolecular assembly: Structural investigations on 3,5- dibenzylidene-piperidin-4-one and database analysis

    R S Rathore; N S Karthikeyan; Y Alekhya; K Sathiyanarayanan; P G Aravindan


    The fluorinated and non-fluorinated dibenzylidene-4-piperidones were synthesized and their structures examined using X-ray crystallography. Interestingly, the para-fluorosubstituted dibenzylidene compound, in contrast to other analogs, is characterized by C-H…F bonded one-dimensional packing motif. To evaluate the ability of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors for forming interactions, in general and competitive situation, we have defined statistical descriptors. Analysis of Cambridge Structural Database using these newly defined parameters reveals high propensity of C-H…F interactions in organic crystals. The present structural study suggests much larger role of fluorine driven intermolecular interactions that are even though weak, but possess significant ability to direct and alter the packing.

  17. The synthesis and preliminary pharmacological evaluation of the racemic cis and trans 3-alkylfentanyl analogues



    Full Text Available A general, five step method for the synthesis of 3-alkylfentanyl analogues (i.e., cis and trans 3-alkyl-4-anilidopiperidines 6.1–6.6 has been developed. The starting N-phenethyl-4-piperidone 1 was first converted into the cyclohexylimine derivative 2, a-deprotonated with butyllithium and the resulting imine anion efficiently monoalkylated with primary and secondary alkyl halides. After mild acid hydrolysis, the obtained 3-alkyl-4-piperidones 3.1–3.6 were isolated in good yields (79–85 %, then condensed with aniline to form imines 4.1–4.6. Subsequent reduction of the imines (LiAlH4/THF yielded cis/trans mixtures of 3-alkyl-4-anilinopiperidines 5.1–5.6. Quantitative separation of the diastereoisomers by column chromatography of Al2O3 gave pure cis 5.1–5.6 (29–51 % yield and trans 5.1–5.6 (19–27 % yield, with the cis/trans ratio in the range 7/3–6/4. The synthesis was concluded by N-acylation of the purified 5.1–5.6, with propionyl chloride, to afford cis and trans 3-alkyl-4-anilidopiperidines 6.1–6.6 (~95 % yield, as monooxalate salts. No enatioseparation was attempted at any stage. The relative cis/trans stereochemistry was provisionally assigned from the 1H-NMR spectra. Of the twelve synthesized 3-alkylfentanyls, ten compounds (two known and eight novel derivatives, all as the monooxalate salts were preliminarily tested as analgesics in rats, comparing the potency to fentanyl. Except for the known (±-cis-3-Me fentanyl 6.1cis, (8 × fentanyl, and the novel (±-cis-3-Et fentanyl 6.2cis, (1.5 × fentanyl, all of the others were less active than fentanyl or inactive. Some tentative conclusions on the structure-activity relationship (SAR in this series of derivatives have been made.

  18. [Milk fat - the only existing for any reason].

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Czeczot, Hanna


    The milk fat is characterized by an unique composition (over 400 different fatty acids) and stereospecific structure of triglycerides, similar to human milk fat. Almost entirely it is encircled by envelopes made of phosphorolipids and proteins, making the fat stabile oxidatively and resistant for hydrolysis. The envelope of fatty spherule ensures stability of emulsions, as well, as very high extent of dispersion, making milk fat the most easily digested fat in human diet. Phosphorolipids, proteins, peptides and numerous enzymes present inside the envelope are characterized by very high biological activity. All - without any exception - components of milk fat, also saturated fatty acids considered as atherogenic, are extremely biologically active. Lipophylic antioxidants (conjugated linoleic acid, α-tocopherol, vitamin A and β-carotene, coenzyme Q10, vitamin D3 and phospholipids) are efficient in inhibition of processes of lipids peroxidation within cell structures and of plasma lipoproteins. The unique components of milk fat i.e. conjugated linoleic acid and ether lipids (alkyloglyceroles and alkyloglycerophospholipids) possess the broadest spectrum of pro-health activity. PMID:25815621

  19. Secondary structure of synthetic oligopeptides

    Martinez-Insua, M


    The secondary structure of three hydrophobic peptides P2, PRMo and P4 was studied by a combination of Circular Dichroism (CD), Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) and Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET). These peptides were fluorescence labelled in the central part of the backbone and contained two modified glutamic acid residues (relative positions i, i+4): one conjugated with the fluorescence methoxynapththalene electron donor (DON) and the other with the piperidone electron acceptor (ACC). The three peptides were synthesised to study the length dependence of the switch between alpha-helix and the 3 sub 1 sub 0 -helix conformations, previously observed for peptide PRM1 (Hungerford et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., 1996, 35, 326-329). The CD and FTIR data indicated that peptides P2, PRMo and P4 adopt alpha-helical conformation in organic media in the temperature range studied and no conformational switch was detected. Furthermore, a mathematical correlation was observed in the PET data, questioning the ag...

  20. The formation of electronically excited species in the human multiple myeloma cell suspension.

    Rác, Marek; Sedlářová, Michaela; Pospíšil, Pavel


    In this study, evidence is provided on the formation of electronically excited species in human multiple myeloma cells U266 in the growth medium exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Two-dimensional imaging of ultra-weak photon emission using highly sensitive charge coupled device camera revealed that the addition of H2O2 to cell suspension caused the formation of triplet excited carbonyls (3)(R = O)*. The kinetics of (3)(R = O)* formation in the real time, as measured by one-dimensional ultra-weak photon emission using low-noise photomultiplier, showed immediate enhancement followed by a slow decay. In parallel to the formation of (3)(R = O)*, the formation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) in U266 cells caused by the addition of H2O2 was visualized by the imaging of (1)O2 using the green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Additionally, the formation of (1)O2 after the addition of H2O2 to cell suspension was detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping spectroscopy using 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone. Presented results indicate that the addition of H2O2 to cell suspension results in the formation of (3)(R = O)* and (1)O2 in U266 cell suspension. The contribution of the cell-free medium to the formation of electronically excited species was discussed. PMID:25744165

  1. N-(Substituted benzyl)-3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones: Synthesis and Preliminary Anti-leukemia Activity (I)%N-(Substituted benzyl)-3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones: Synthesis and Preliminary Anti-leukemia Activity (I)

    王静; 孟雯; 倪振杰; 薛思佳


    A series of novel N-(substituted benzyl)-3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones 5a--50 were synthesized with substituted benzylamines as raw materials via a series of Michael addition, Dieckmann condensation, hydrolysis decarboxylation and aldol condensation. The structures were confirmed by 1↑H NMR, IR, MS techniques and elemental analysis. Assay-based antiproliferative activity study using leukemic cell lines K562 revealed that most of the title compounds have high effectiveness in inhibiting leukemia K562 cells proliferation, among which the compounds 5g (IC50=7.81 μg·mL^-1), 5k (IC50=6.35μg·mL^-1), 51 (IC50=7.20 μg·mL^-1), and 50 (IC50=5.79 μg·mL^-1) have better inhibition activities than standard 5-fluorouracil (IC50=8.56 μg·mL^-1).

  2. Optimization and multigram scalability of a catalytic enantioselective borylative migration for the synthesis of functionalized chiral piperidines.

    Kim, You-Ri; Hall, Dennis G


    The development of new, efficient and economical methods for the preparation of functionalized, optically enriched piperidines is important in the field of drug discovery where this class of heterocycles is often deemed a privileged structure. We have optimized a Pd-catalyzed enantioselective borylative migration of an alkenyl nonaflate derivative of the simple precursor, N-Boc-4-piperidone. This anomalous borylation reaction lends access to a chiral optically enriched piperidinyl allylic boronate that can be employed in carbonyl allylboration and stereoselective cross-coupling to produce substituted dehydropiperidines related to numerous pharmaceutical agents. A systematic fine-tuning of reaction conditions revealed that diethyl ether and the green solvent cyclopentyl methyl ether are suitable reaction solvents providing the highest enantioselectivity (up to 92% ee) under a low catalyst loading of 3 mol%. Optimization of the aldehyde allylboration step led to higher yields with further solvent economy. The multigram-scalability of the entire process was demonstrated under the reaction conditions that provide optimal atom-economy and efficiency. PMID:27143333

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of [/sup 125/I]iodothienoperidol as a potential receptor site directed brain imaging agent

    This study was undertaken to design and evaluate radioligands for the noninvasive quantification of dopamine receptors in the brain. The approach involved the preparation of the iodothienyl analog I of haloperidol II, a well characterized dopamine antagonist which has been labeled with F-18 and C-11. The synthesis involved the addition of 5-trimethylstannyl-2-thienyllithium so the piperidone intermediate. The product was characterized by spectroscopic and analytic methods and radioiodinated via electrophilic iododestannylation to yield the product in 75-85% isolated yield. The tissue distribution of the radiochemical was evaluated in rats as a function of time, 0.25-2 hrs, and in the presence or absence of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) to measure receptor binding. The results indicated that the 0.25 h uptake in the brain was high (2.2% ID) and that the washout of the activity was relatively slow, 1.3% ID present at 2 hr. The Br/B1 values remained relatively constant over that time interval (9.3-12.1:1). Coadministration of 1 mg/kg haloperidol markedly reduced the uptake in the brain at 0.25 and 2 hr (55% and 62%) with much less of an effect on the nontarget tissues. The study indicates that the authors have prepared a radiotracer, labeled with iodine, that demonstrates both good brain uptake and selectivity as well as a specific binding site component

  4. Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production

    Highlights: ► Some photo-excited carotenoids have photosensitizing ability. ► They are able to produce ROS. ► Photo-excited fucoxanthin can produce singlet oxygen through energy transfer. -- Abstract: Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation energies are correlated with conjugation length. We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as β-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by photo-excited fucoxanthin or neoxanthin was confirmed using a reporter assay for ROS production with HeLa Hyper cells, which express a fluorescent indicator protein for intracellular ROS. Fucoxanthin and neoxanthin also showed high cellular penetration and retention. Electron spin resonance spectra using 2,2,6,6-tetramethil-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trapping agent demonstrated that singlet oxygen was produced via energy transfer from photo-excited fucoxanthin to oxygen molecules. These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease.

  5. Antitumor effect of sonodynamically activated pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene

    Iwase, Yumiko; Nishi, Koji; Fujimori, Junya; Fukai, Toshio; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Chen, Fu-shin; Momose, Yasunori; Umemura, Shin-ichiro


    In this study, the sonodynamically induced antitumor effect of pyrrolidine tris-acid fullerene (PTF) was investigated. Sonodynamically induced antitumor effects of PTF by focused ultrasound were investigated using isolated sarcoma-180 cells and mice bearing ectopically-implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Cell damage induced by ultrasonic exposure was enhanced by 5-fold in the presence of 80 µM PTF. The combined treatment of ultrasound and PTF suppressed the growth of the implanted colon 26 carcinoma. Ultrasonically induced 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-1-oxyl (4oxoTEMPO) production in the presence and absence of PTF was assessed, and it was shown that 80 µM PTF enhanced 4oxoTEMPO production as measured by ESR spectroscopy. Histidine, a reactive oxygen scavenger, significantly reduced cell damage and 4oxoTEMPO generation caused by ultrasonic exposure in the presence of PTF. These results suggest that singlet oxygen is likely to be involved in the ultrasonically induced cell damage enhanced by PTF.

  6. Biological evaluation of synthetic α,β-unsaturated carbonyl based cyclohexanone derivatives as neuroprotective novel inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and amyloid-β aggregation.

    Zha, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Cheng-Pan; Qin, Hua-Li; Jantan, Ibrahim; Sher, Muhammad; Amjad, Muhammad Wahab; Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Hussain, Zahid; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas


    A series of new α,β-unsaturated carbonyl-based cyclohexanone derivatives was synthesized by simple condensation method and all compounds were characterized by using various spectroscopic techniques. New compounds were evaluated for their effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). These compounds were also screened for in vitro cytotoxicity and for inhibitory activity for self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation. The effect of these compounds against amyloid β-induced cytotoxicity was also investigated. The findings of in vitro experiment revealed that most of these compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activity against AChE and self-induced Aβ1-42 aggregation. The compound 3o exhibited best AChE (IC50=0.037μM) inhibitory potential. Furthermore, compound 3o disassembled the Aβ fibrils produced by self-induced Aβ aggregation by 76.6%. Compounds containing N-methyl-4-piperidone linker, showed high acetylcholinesterase and self-induced Aβ aggregation inhibitory activities as compared to reference drug donepezil. The pre-treatment of cells with synthetic compounds protected them against Aβ-induced cell death by up to 92%. Collectively, these findings suggest that some compounds from this series have potential to be promising multifunctional agents for AD treatment and our study suggest the cyclohexanone derivatives as promising new inhibitors for AChE and BuChE, potentially useful to treat neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27083471

  7. E.s.r. study of decay of the nitroxyl free radical TAN in whole rats and rat-tissue homogenates

    The loss of the radical property of TAN (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl) in the blood of anaesthetized rats has been studied by e.s.r.. Some physiological techniques, such as ligating the portal vein and the abdominal aorta, and also sympathetic blockade, were used to elucidate possible mechanisms of the TAN decay process. Similar decay curves were obtained with rats at normal (370C) and lowered (27 to 280C) body temperatures, indicating the involvement of processes other than enzymic in the in vivo decay of TAN. The fast decay could not be explained by reaction of TAN with other components of blood, since in vitro TAN in blood lost its radical property very slowly. Evidence was obtained for the conversion of TAN to TMPN in the kidney of rats anaesthetized with ether, but not with Nembutal. The greater half-value time recorded in rats with interrupted portal circulation may indicate that the liver is an essential factor in the degradation of TAN. A temperature-dependent TAN decay was observed with in vitro mixtures with homogenates of organs and the decay was faster with homogenates of kidney and liver than brain, lungs and heart, suggesting that enzymic processes do control the in vitro decomposition of TAN. Consideration is given to implications of these results for the potential applications of TAN as a radiosensitizer. (U.K.)

  8. Scavengers in macromolecular crystallography. Do they help?

    Complete text of publication follows. Radiation damage continues to present a problem to macromolecular crystallographers using cryo-cooled protein crystals at synchrotrons where a linear decay in diffraction intensity is observed with increasing dose. Free radical scavengers and radioprotectants have been suggested as a possible means of reducing the rate of this damage. Early room temperature (RT) experiments seemed to show that styrene and PEG might have a positive effect on the dose tolerance of crystals, but the idea was not systematically pursued. We have previously reported that 0.5 M-1 M ascorbate incorporated by cocrystallisation was effective in quenching the disulphide breakage in lysozyme (HEWL) crystals during 100 K data collection. The screening of a large number of potential radioprotectants was then undertaken with an on-line microspectrophotometer using cystine and cysteine respectively to model protein disulphide bonds and thiol groups, and observe any quenching of the disulphide anion peak. Evidence for the potential of ascorbate as a radioprotectant was strengthened, and 1,4 benzoquinone, 2,2,6,6- tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TEMP) and reduced dithiothreitol also showed promise. In recent work to search for RT radiation damage mitigation strategies, three of these putative radioprotectants were tested. The results indicate that ascorbate and 1,4-benzoquinone are effective radioprotectants, whereas studies on TEMP were inconclusive. Ascorbate offered a 2x enhancement of crystal dose tolerance, whereas benzoquinone gave a >8x increase at the dose-rates used. The universally previously observed exponential form of the RT diffraction intensity decay was modified by the addition of scavengers to become linear as is observed at 100 K without scavengers present. The radiation damage mechanisms are elucidated by these results, which enable postulates to be made on the radical species causing damage at 100 K. Recent results using the electron scavenger

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some polymethoxylated fused pyridine ring systems as antitumor agents.

    Rostom, Sherif A F; Hassan, Ghada S; El-Subbagh, Hussein I


    A series of 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones like chalcone analogues carrying variety of methoxylated aryl groups, pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines, pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines, and pyrido[3,2-c]pyridines, carrying an arylidene moiety, and some pyrano[3,2-c]pyridines, like flavone and coumarin isosteres, were synthesized and screened for their in-vitro antitumor activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). The tested compounds 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, and 19 exhibited a broad spectrum of antitumor activity. Compounds belonging to the pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridine series proved to be more active than those of the pyrido[3,2-c]pyridine and pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine analogues, in which the monomethoxylated derivatives showed better antitumor activity when compared with their corresponding dimethoxylated congeners. Compound 7 is considered to be the most active member identified in this study with a broad spectrum of activity against 22 different tumor cell lines belonging to the nine subpanels employed, and a particular effectiveness against the breast cancer T-47D cell line (GI 54.7%). The pyrano[3,2-c]pyridine heterocyclic system 19 proved to be the most active antitumor agent among the six-membered fused pyridines, with variable activity against 18 different tumor cell lines, and special activity against the non-small cell lung cancer Hop-92 and ovarian cancer OVCAR-4 cell lines (GI values 63.9 and 48.5%, respectively). PMID:19714673

  10. Chemical and biological characterization of wastewater generated from hydrothermal liquefaction of Spirulina.

    Pham, Mai; Schideman, Lance; Scott, John; Rajagopalan, Nandakishore; Plewa, Michael J


    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an attractive method for converting wet biomass into petroleum-like biocrude oil that can be refined to make petroleum products. This approach is advantageous for conversion of low-lipid algae, which are promising feedstocks for sustainable large-scale biofuel production. As with natural petroleum formation, the water in contact with the produced oil contains toxic compounds. The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify nitrogenous organic compounds (NOCs) in wastewater from HTL conversion of Spirulina; (2) characterize mammalian cell cytotoxicity of specific NOCs, NOC mixture, and the complete HTL wastewater (HTL-WW) matrix; and (3) investigate mitigation measures to reduce toxicity in HTL-WW. Liquid-liquid extraction and nitrogen-phosphorus detection was used in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which detected hundreds of NOCs in HTL-WW. Reference materials for nine of the most prevalent NOCs were used to identify and quantify their concentrations in HTL-WW. Mammalian cell cytotoxicity of the nine NOCs was quantified using a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell assay, and the descending rank order for cytotoxicity was 3-dimethylamino-phenol > 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone > 2,6-dimethyl-3-pyridinol > 2-picoline > pyridine > 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone > σ-valerolactam > 2-pyrrolidinone > ε-caprolactam. The organic mixture extracted from HTL-WW expressed potent CHO cell cytotoxic activity, with a LC(50) at 7.5% of HTL-WW. Although the toxicity of HTL-WW was substantial, 30% of the toxicity was removed biologically by recycling HTL-WW back into algal cultivation. The remaining toxicity of HTL-WW was mostly eliminated by subsequent treatment with granular activated carbon. PMID:23305492

  11. Photo-excitation of carotenoids causes cytotoxicity via singlet oxygen production

    Yoshii, Hiroshi, E-mail: [Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yoshii, Yukie, E-mail: [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Asai, Tatsuya [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Takaichi, Shinichi [Department of Biology, Nippon Medical School, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Eiheiji, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some photo-excited carotenoids have photosensitizing ability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They are able to produce ROS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photo-excited fucoxanthin can produce singlet oxygen through energy transfer. -- Abstract: Carotenoids, natural pigments widely distributed in algae and plants, have a conjugated double bond system. Their excitation energies are correlated with conjugation length. We hypothesized that carotenoids whose energy states are above the singlet excited state of oxygen (singlet oxygen) would possess photosensitizing properties. Here, we demonstrated that human skin melanoma (A375) cells are damaged through the photo-excitation of several carotenoids (neoxanthin, fucoxanthin and siphonaxanthin). In contrast, photo-excitation of carotenoids that possess energy states below that of singlet oxygen, such as {beta}-carotene, lutein, loroxanthin and violaxanthin, did not enhance cell death. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by photo-excited fucoxanthin or neoxanthin was confirmed using a reporter assay for ROS production with HeLa Hyper cells, which express a fluorescent indicator protein for intracellular ROS. Fucoxanthin and neoxanthin also showed high cellular penetration and retention. Electron spin resonance spectra using 2,2,6,6-tetramethil-4-piperidone as a singlet oxygen trapping agent demonstrated that singlet oxygen was produced via energy transfer from photo-excited fucoxanthin to oxygen molecules. These results suggest that carotenoids such as fucoxanthin, which are capable of singlet oxygen production through photo-excitation and show good penetration and retention in target cells, are useful as photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy for skin disease.

  12. Liposome-encapsulated EF24-HP{beta}CD inclusion complex: a preformulation study and biodistribution in a rat model

    Agashe, H.; Lagisetty, P.; Sahoo, K.; Bourne, D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States); Grady, B. [School of Chemical, Biological and Materials Engineering (United States); Awasthi, V., E-mail: [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (United States)


    3,5-Bis(2-fluorobenzylidene)-4-piperidone (EF24) is an anti-proliferative diphenyldifluoroketone analog of curcumin with more potent activity. The authors describe a liposome preparation of EF24 using a 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach. An aqueous solution of EF24 and hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{beta}CD) inclusion complex (IC) was used to prepare EF24 liposomes. The liposome size was reduced by a combination of multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Co-encapsulation of glutathione inside the liposomes conferred them with the capability of labeling with imageable radionuclide Tc-99m. Phase solubility analysis of EF24-HP{beta}CD mixture provided k{sub 1:1} value of 9.9 M{sup -1}. The enhanced aqueous solubility of EF24 (from 1.64 to 13.8 mg/mL) due to the presence of HP{beta}CD helped in the liposome preparation. About 19% of the EF24 IC was encapsulated inside the liposomes (320.5 {+-} 2.6 nm) by dehydration-rehydration technique. With extrusion technique, the size of 177 {+-} 6.5 nm was obtained without any effect on encapsulation efficiency. The EF24-liposomes were evaluated for anti-proliferative activity in lung adenocarcinoma H441 and prostate cancer PC-3 cells. The EF24-liposomes demonstrated anti-proliferative activity superior to that of plain EF24 at 10 {mu}M dose. When injected in rats, the Tc-99m-labeled EF24-liposomes cleared from blood with an {alpha}-t{sub 1/2} of 21.4 min and {beta}-t{sub 1/2} of 397 min. Tissue radioactivity counting upon necropsy showed that the majority of clearance was due to the uptake in liver and spleen. The results suggest that using 'drug-in-CD-in liposome' approach is a feasible strategy to formulate an effective parenteral preparation of EF24. In vitro studies show that the liposomal EF24 remains anti-proliferative, while presenting an opportunity to image its biodistribution.