Sample records for antigens

  1. Antigen

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  2. Carcinoma-associated antigens

    This invention relates to novel antigens associated with breast carcinoma, anti-sera specific to said antigens, 125I-labeled forms of said antigens and methods of detecting said antigens in serum or plasma. The invention also relates to a diagnostic kit containing standardised antigens or antisera or marked forms thereof for the detection of said antigens in human blood, serum or plasma. (author)

  3. Histocompatibility antigen test

    ... more common in certain autoimmune diseases . For example, HLA-B27 antigen is found in many people (but not ... More Ankylosing spondylitis Autoimmune disorders Bone marrow transplant HLA-B27 antigen Kidney transplant Reactive arthritis Update Date 2/ ...

  4. Cancer vaccine--Antigenics.


    Antigenics is developing a therapeutic cancer vaccine based on heat-shock proteins (HSPs). The vaccine [HSPPC-96, Oncophage] is in a pivotal phase III clinical trial for renal cancer at 80 clinical sites worldwide. The trial is enrolling at least 500 patients who are randomised to receive surgical removal of the primary tumour followed by out-patient treatment with Oncophage((R)) or surgery only. This study was initiated on the basis of results from a pilot phase I/II study and preliminary results from a phase II study in patients with renal cell cancer. In October 2001, Oncophage was designated as a fast-track product by the Food and Drug Administration in the US for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Oncophage is in phase I/II trials in Italy for colorectal cancer (30 patients) and melanoma. The trials in Italy are being conducted at the Istituto dei Tumouri, Milan (in association with Sigma-Tau). Preliminary data from the phase II trial for melanoma was presented at the AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference in Florida, USA, in October 2001. Oncophage is also in a phase I/II (42 patients) and a phase II trial (84 patients) in the US for renal cell cancer, a phase II trial in the US for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (35 patients), a phase II trial in the US for sarcoma (20-35 patients), a phase I/II trial in the US for melanoma (36 patients), and phase I/II trials in Germany for gastric (30 patients) and pancreatic cancers. A pilot phase I trial in patients with pancreatic cancer began in the US in 1997 with 5 patients enrolled. In November 2000, Antigenics announced that this trial had been expanded to a phase I/II study which would now include survival as an endpoint and would enroll 5 additional patients. The US trials are being performed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center. The trials in Germany are being carried out at Johannes Gutenberg-University Hospital, Mainz. Oncophage is an autologous vaccine consisting of

  5. Antigen smuggling in tuberculosis.

    Hudrisier, Denis; Neyrolles, Olivier


    The importance of CD4 T lymphocytes in immunity to M. tuberculosis is well established; however, how dendritic cells activate T cells in vivo remains obscure. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Srivastava and Ernst (2014) report a mechanism of antigen transfer for efficient activation of antimycobacterial T cells. PMID:24922567

  6. Antigen detection systems

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  7. Aspergillus antigen skin test (image)

    The aspergillus antigen skin test determines whether or not a person has been exposed to the mold aspergillus. It is performed by injecting an aspergillus antigen under the skin with a needle. After 48 ...

  8. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    ... All About Food Allergies Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size What's in ... sample is used to determine if H. pylori antigens are present in your child's gastrointestinal (GI) system. ...

  9. Immunoassay of antigens

    A method is described of immunoassay of an antigen in a liquid sample wherein a complex is formed between antigen contained in the said sample and two or more antibody reagents, and the said complex is bound to a solid support by non-covalent bonding as defined herein: and the amount of complex becoming bound to the support is determined; the process employing at least one monoclonal antibody reagent. Labelling methods including radioactive, fluorimetric and enzyme labelling may be used to effect determination of the binding ofthe complex to the solid support. The solid support may take the form of particles, beads, wall-coatings on the reaction vessel or an insert of large surface area. The method is particularly applicable to the assay of TSH, CEA, HCG, alphafeto protein, immunoglobulins, viruses, allergens, bacteria, toxins, drugs and vitamins. Use of monoclonal reagents improves the specificity of the process, and also decreases non-specific binding

  10. Carcino-Embryonic Antigen

    Tumour marker analysis has increased our understanding of the presence of tumours in the body. Carcino-embryonic antigen, CEA, is one of the best studied tumour markers and has proved an ideal diagnostic adjuvant. It has helped in quantifying the amount of disease present in a patient and thence to make accurate prognosis on the various diagnosed ailments. At UCH, it is observed that there is an increase in cancer related ailments and therefore the need for early diagnosis is more compelling in our environment to mitigate future cost of managing advanced manifestation

  11. Human leucocyte antigens in tympanosclerosis.

    Dursun, G; Acar, A; Turgay, M; Calgüner, M


    This study was designed to evaluate the association between certain HLA antigens and tympanosclerosis. The serum concentrations of HLA antigens were measured by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique in patients with tympanosclerosis and compared with a healthy control group. The serum levels of HLA-B35 and -DR3 were significantly higher in the patients with tympanosclerosis. This result suggests that certain types of HLA antigens may play an important role as an indicator or mediator in the pathogenesis of tympanosclerosis. PMID:9088683

  12. Antigenic variants of rabies virus

    Wiktor, TJ; Koprowski, H


    Antigenic variants of CVS-11 strain of rabies virus were selected after treatment of virus populations with monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoprotein antigen of the virus. These variants resisted neutralization by the hybridoma antibody used for their selection. Two independently mutating antigenic sites could be distinguished when five variants were tested with nine hybridoma antibodies. The frequency of single epitope variants in a cloned rabies virus seed was approximately 1:...

  13. 9 CFR 113.407 - Pullorum antigen.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pullorum antigen. 113.407 Section 113... and Reagents § 113.407 Pullorum antigen. Pullorum Antigen shall be produced from a culture of... standard for stained antigen K's and 50 ±10 times McFarland No. 1 standard for tube antigen....

  14. Antigen antibody interactions

    DeLisi, Charles


    1. 1 Organization of the Immune System One of the most important survival mechanisms of vertebrates is their ability to recognize and respond to the onslaught of pathogenic microbes to which they are conti- ously exposed. The collection of host cells and molecules involved in this recognition­ 12 response function constitutes its immune system. In man, it comprises about 10 cells 20 (lymphocytes) and 10 molecules (immunoglobulins). Its ontogenic development is c- strained by the requirement that it be capable of responding to an almost limitless variety of molecular configurations on foreign substances, while simultaneously remaining inert to those on self components. It has thus evolved to discriminate, with exquisite precision, between molecular patterns. The foreign substances which induce a response, called antigens, are typically large molecules such as proteins and polysaccharides. The portions of these with which immunoglobulins interact are called epitopes or determinants. A typical protein epitope m...

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi: circulating antigens

    V. Bongertz


    Full Text Available Circulating antigens were detected in sera of mice experimentally infected with a high close of Trypanosoma cruzi by reaction with sera from chronically infected mice. The immunodiffusion reaction between homologous acute and chronic sera produced four precipitation lines. By reaction with chronic mouse serum, circulating antingens were detected in sera from heavily infected hamsters, dogs, rabbits and in sera from chagasic patients. A reaction was also found in urine from acutely infected mice and dogs. Trypanosoma cruzi exoantigen was detected in trypanosome culture medium and in the supernatant of infected cell cultures. Attempts to isolate the antigens are described.Antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de camundongos infectados experimentalmente com elevadas doses de Trypanosoma cruzi pela reação com soros obtidos de camundongos em fase crônica de infecção. A reação de imunodifusão entre soros homólogos agudo e crônico produziu quatro linhas de precipitação. Por reação com soro crônico de camundongo antígenos circulantes foram detectados em soros de crícetos, cães e coelhos infectados com doses elevadas de Trypanosoma cruzi e em soros de pacientes chagásicos. Uma reação foi também observada com urina de camundongos e cães infectados de forma aguda. Exoantígeno de Trypanosoma cruzi foi detectado em meio de cultura de tripanosomas e em sobrenadantes de culturas de células infectadas. Tentativas de isolamento dos antigenos são descritas.

  16. Cancer antigen 125 and prognosis

    Høgdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review addresses recently reported progress in cancer antigen 125 as a prognostic marker in patients with ovarian cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Serum cancer antigen 125 levels measured preoperatively in both early and late stage ovarian cancer may be of prognostic value. Before...... cancer antigen 125 determination may be implemented into clinical practice, cut-off levels must be evaluated and internationally defined. Studies examining serum cancer antigen 125 levels after surgery but before, during, or after treatment confirmed that changes in serum levels are of prognostic value....... Furthermore, recent studies have shown that the level of expression of cancer antigen 125 in tissue may be an independent prognostic indicator in late stage ovarian cancer. SUMMARY: Prognostic markers may potentially help to individualize treatment within subgroups of patients. In a recent study the level of...

  17. [Antigenic response against PPD and antigen 60 in tubercular patients: single antigen versus the combined test].

    Máttar, S; Broquetas, J M; Gea, J; Aran, X; el-Banna, N; Sauleda, J; Torres, J M


    We analyze serum samples from 70 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 50 healthy individuals. The antigenic activity (IgG) against protein purified antigen (PPD) and antigen 60 (A60) from M. tuberculosis. Thirteen patients were also HIV infected, and three patients had AIDS defined by the presence of disseminated tuberculosis. The test using antigen alone showed a 77% sensitivity and 74% specificity when PPD is used. When A60 was used, both values improved (81% sensitivity, 94% specificity). The use of a combined test (PPD and A60) improves the sensitivity (89%) but reduces the specificity (82%). The HIV infected patients showed similar responses to those of other patients. The combined use of different antigens might be useful for diagnosing tuberculosis. PMID:1390996


    Rita G SOUSA


    Full Text Available Context Colonoscopy is essential for synchronous and metachronous cancer detection. Carcinoembryonic antigen is a colorectal cancer tumor marker, important as a follow-up tool in patients with previous colorectal cancer. False-positive carcinoembryonic antigen elevation results in multiples exams and in patient anxiety. In literature, there is reference to transient carcinoembryonic antigen increase with colonoscopy. Objective To evaluate the influence of bowel preparation and colonoscopy in carcinoembryonic antigen blood levels. Methods We prospectively studied subjects that underwent routine colonoscopy in our institution. Blood samples were collected (1 before bowel cleaning, (2 before colonoscopy and (3 immediately after colonoscopy. Blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels were determined by “Sandwich” immunoassay. The statistical methods used were the paired t-test and ANOVA. Results Thirty-seven patients (22M/15F were included; age range 28-84 (mean 56 years. Mean carcinoembryonic antigen values were 1.9, 2 and 1.8 for (1, (2 and (3, respectively. An increase in value (2 compared with (1 was observed in 20/37 patients (P = 0.018, mainly in younger patients and in patients requiring more endoluminal interventions. In 29/37 patients, the CEA value decreased from (2 to (3 (P = 1.3x10-7. Conclusions A trend for carcinoembryonic antigen increase after bowel cleaning was observed, especially in younger patients and in patients with more endoluminal interventions, but without clinical meaning.

  19. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J


    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer....../testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor...... immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic...

  20. Natural Selection Promotes Antigenic Evolvability

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P. D.; Brisson, D.


    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed ‘cassettes...

  1. Anvendelse af prostataspecifikt antigen. En oversigt

    Brasso, K; Skaarup, P; Roosen, Jens Ulrik; Iversen, Peter


    Since it was first introduced, measurement of prostate specific antigen has gained increasing interest, and prostate specific antigen is regarded as being the best tumour marker available. The antigen lacks cancer specificity, limiting the usefulness in early diagnosis, The use of prostate specific...... antigen in early diagnosis, staging, and in monitoring patients with prostate cancer is reviewed....

  2. [Farmer's lung antigens in Germany].

    Sennekamp, J; Joest, M; Sander, I; Engelhart, S; Raulf-Heimsoth, M


    Recent studies suggest that besides the long-known farmer's lung antigen sources Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula (Micropolyspora faeni), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, and Aspergillus fumigatus, additionally the mold Absidia (Lichtheimia) corymbifera as well as the bacteria Erwinia herbicola (Pantoea agglomerans) and Streptomyces albus may cause farmer's lung in Germany. In this study the sera of 64 farmers with a suspicion of farmer's lung were examined for the following further antigens: Wallemia sebi, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium amstelodami. Our results indicate that these molds are not frequent causes of farmer's lung in Germany. PMID:22477566

  3. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens

    Hála, K.; Plachý, Jiří; Kaufman, J.

    New York : Academic Press, 1998 - (Pastoret, P.; Griebel, P.; Bazin, H.; Govaerts, A.), s. 92-95 ISBN 0-12-546401-0 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/96/0670 Keywords : chicken MHC * histocompatibility antigens * disease resistance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  4. Genome Scale Identification of Treponema pallidum Antigens

    McKevitt, Matthew; Brinkman, Mary Beth; McLoughlin, Melanie; Perez, Carla; Howell, Jerrilyn K.; Weinstock, George M.; Norris, Steven J; Palzkill, Timothy


    Antibody responses for 882 of the 1,039 proteins in the proteome of Treponema pallidum were examined. Sera collected from infected rabbits were used to systematically identify 106 antigenic proteins, including 22 previously identified antigens and 84 novel antigens. Additionally, sera collected from rabbits throughout the course of infection demonstrated a progression in the breadth and intensity of humoral immunoreactivity against a representative panel of T. pallidum antigens.

  5. Detection of O antigens in Escherichia coli

    Lipopolysaccharide on the surface of Escherichia coli constitute the O antigens, which are important virulence factors that are targets of both the innate and adaptive immune system and play a major role in host-pathogen interactions. O antigens that are responsible for antigenic specificity of the ...

  6. Plague virulence antigens from Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Carter, P B; Zahorchak, R J; Brubaker, R R


    The virulence of Yersinia enterocolitica, biotype 2, serotype O:8, in mice is related to its ability to produce plague V and W antigens. V and W antigens in Y. enterocolitica are shown to be immunologically identical to the previously described V and W antigens of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

  7. Molecular characterization of common treponemal antigens.

    Hanff, P A; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A


    A molecular characterization of cross-reactive antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols and Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter that are reactive with normal and syphilitic human sera is described. At least 8 common polypeptides, 14 T. pallidum-specific antigens, and 2 T. phagedenis biotype Reiter-specific antigens were identified.

  8. Antigenic determinants and functional domains in core antigen and e antigen from hepatitis B virus

    The precore/core gene of hepatitis B virus directs the synthesis of two polypeptides, the 21-kilodalton subunit (p21c) forming the viral nucleocapsid (serologically defined as core antigen [HBcAg]) and a secreted processed protein (p17e, serologically defined as HBe antigen [HBeAg]). Although most of their primary amino acid sequences are identical, HBcAg and HBeAg display different antigenic properties that are widely used in hepatitis B virus diagnosis. To locate and to characterize the corresponding determinants, segments of the core gene were expressed in Escherichia coli and probed with a panel of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies in radioimmunoassays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blots, and competition assays. Three distinct major determinants were characterized. It is postulated that HBcAg and HBeAg share common basic three-dimensional structure exposing the common linear determinant HBe1 but that they differ in the presentation of two conformational determinants that are either introduced (HBc) or masked (HBe2) in the assembled core. The simultaneous presentation of HBe1 and HBc, two distinctly different antigenic determinants with overlapping amino acid sequences, is interpreted to indicate the presence of slightly differently folded, stable conformational states of p21c in the hepatitis virus nucleocapsid

  9. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals

  10. Histocompatibility antigens on astrocytoma cells.

    Hirschberg, H.; Endresen, L I; Wikeby, P


    Biopsies tumour cells from astrocytoma-bearing patients were grown in primary culture for 3-5 days. Both low and high grade tumours were represented in the study. The cultured cells could be shown to express the HLA-A and -B antigens using a multispecific allo-antiserum and a rabbit anti-beta-2 microglobulin antibody. The tumour cells were negative for the HLA-DR determinants when tested with either rabbit anti-Ia-like antisera or specific anti-HLA-DR allo-antisera. They also failed to stimul...

  11. The antigenic properties of human prolactin

    The antigenic properties of human prolactin (HPr) were studied using various methods of radio-immuno assay. The homologous system, the difficulty of which resides in the preparation of the tracer, easily permits measurement of physiological levels. In this system, blood prolactin in the monkey has an antigenicity comparable with that of human prolactin, whereas growth hormone and human chorionic somatotropin have feeble or nil antigenic relationship with HPr. Human, sheep and pig prolactins have variable antigenic cross-reactions depending on the immune serum used. These antigenic cross reactions may be applied to the isolation of amniotic prolactin. Human blood prolactin has several components of different molecular weight, but antigenicity comparable with that of pituitary HPr

  12. The antigenicity of tobacco mosaic virus.

    Van Regenmortel, M H


    The antigenic properties of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) have been studied extensively for more than 50 years. Distinct antigenic determinants called neotopes and cryptotopes have been identified at the surface of intact virions and dissociated coat protein subunits, respectively, indicating that the quaternary structure of the virus influences the antigenic properties. A correlation has been found to exist between the location of seven to ten residue-long continuous epitopes in the TMV coa...

  13. Histocompatibility antigens in coal miners with pneumoconiosis.

    Soutar, C A; Coutts, I.; Parkes, W R; Dodi, I. A.; Gauld, S; Castro, J E; Turner-Warwick, M


    Twenty-five histocompatibility antigens have been measured in 100 coal miners with pneumoconiosis attending a pneumoconiosis medical panel and the results compared with a panel of 200 normal volunteers not exposed to dust. Chest radiographs were read independently by three readers according to the ILO U/C classification. On a combined score, 40 men were thought to have simple pneumoconiosis and 60 men complicated pneumoconiosis. The number of antigens tested and associations between antigens ...

  14. Isolation of Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens.

    Hillyer, G. V.


    Fasciola hepatica tegument antigens were isolated from intact worms in the cold by using Nonidet P-40. Proof of the tegumental nature of the antigens was shown by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunocytochemical technique at the light microscope level. The potential of F. hepatica tegument antigens for the immunodiagnosis of rabbit and human fascioliasis was shown by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion, although cross-reactivity was evident in one of six serum samples from patients infected with Schi...

  15. Antigenic contents of Treponema pallidum preparations.

    Wos, S M; Wicher, K


    In investigations of syphilis various Treponema pallidum antigens are used to study the immune responses of naturally or experimentally infected hosts. In the past these antigen preparations have rarely been examined for their antigenic contents and activity. In the present study, supernatant, sediment, and solubilised preparations of T pallidum Nichols strain (20 X 10(9) organisms/ml) and T phagedenis biotype Reiter were examined by modified counterimmunoelectrophoresis and immunoblotting fo...

  16. Urinary IgG antibody against mixed heat-killed coliform antigen and lipopolysaccharide core antigen.

    Gibb, A P; Edmond, D. M.


    AIMS: To determine whether antibody to lipopolysaccharide-core (LPS-core) antigen is an important component of the antibody, detected by mixed heat-killed coliform antigen, in urine from patients with suspected urinary tract infection. METHODS: LPS-core antigen and mixed heat-killed coliform antigen were used in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure IgG antibody in midstream urine samples. Seventy two samples from students attending their general practitioner with symptoms s...

  17. Blastogenic response of human lymphocytes to early antigen(s) of human cytomegalovirus.

    Waner, J L; Kong, N; Biano, S


    The lymphocytes of asymptomatic, seropositive donors demonstrated blastogenic responses to early antigens of human cytomegalovirus whether or not antibodies to early antigens were detectable. The lymphocytes of six of nine patients with active cytomegalovirus infections gave stimulation indexes of greater than or equal to 2.00 with antigens of productively infected cells, whereas only two patients demonstrated comparable stimulation indexes with early antigens. Four patients with stimulation ...

  18. Combination of cancer antigen 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen can improve ovarian cancer diagnosis

    Sørensen, Sofie Sølvsten; Mosgaard, Berit Jul


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the tumour marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in combination with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) to differentiate between malignant ovarian and malignant non-ovarian disease.......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the tumour marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in combination with cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) to differentiate between malignant ovarian and malignant non-ovarian disease....

  19. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer of two antigenically distinct O antigens in Bordetella bronchiseptica

    Antigenic variation is one mechanism pathogens use to avoid immune-mediated competition between closely related strains. Here, we show that two Bordetella bronchiseptica strains, RB50 and 1289, express two antigenically distinct O-antigen serotypes (O1 and O2 respectively). When 18 additional B. b...

  20. Review of Mycobacteriumavium subsp. paratuberculosis antigen candidates with diagnostic potential

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    development of antibodies and shedding of detectable amounts of MAP. At present, available diagnostic assays are limited by the lack of MAP specific antigens included in these assays resulting in poor specificity. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic overview of diagnostic MAP antigen...... candidates described to date with special emphasis on antigen candidates tested for CMI responses. Relevant information on 115 different MAP antigens was systematically extracted from literature and summarized in 6 tables of CMI antigens, secreted antigens, cell wall and membrane antigens, lipoprotein...... antigens, heat shock antigens and hypothetical antigens. Strategies for evaluation of novel antigen candidates are discussed critically. Relatively few of the described antigens were evaluated for their use in CMI based diagnostic assays and so far, no obvious candidate has been identified for this...

  1. Further characterization of filarial antigens by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Dissanayake, S.; Galahitiyawa, S. C.; Ismail, M. M.


    SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of an antigen isolated from sera of Wuchereria bancrofti-infected patients and Setaria digitata antigen SD2-4 is reported. Both antigens showed carbohydrate (glycoprotein) staining. The W. bancrofti antigen had an apparent relative molecular mass of 35 000 while the S. digitata antigen SD2-4 migrated at the marker dye position on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. SDS treatment of these antigens did not abolish the precipita...

  2. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A.; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R.; Crispe, I. Nicholas


    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nano-scale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The con...

  3. Barriers to antigenic escape by pathogens: trade-off between reproductive rate and antigenic mutability

    Bush Robin M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A single measles vaccination provides lifelong protection. No antigenic variants that escape immunity have been observed. By contrast, influenza continually evolves new antigenic variants, and the vaccine has to be updated frequently with new strains. Both measles and influenza are RNA viruses with high mutation rates, so the mutation rate alone cannot explain the differences in antigenic variability. Results We develop a new hypothesis to explain antigenic stasis versus change. We first note that the antigenically static viruses tend to have high reproductive rates and to concentrate infection in children, whereas antigenically variable viruses such as influenza tend to spread more widely across age classes. We argue that, for pathogens in a naive host population that spread more rapidly in younger individuals than in older individuals, natural selection weights more heavily a rise in reproductive rate. By contrast, pathogens that spread more readily among older individuals gain more by antigenic escape, so natural selection weights more heavily antigenic mutability. Conclusion These divergent selective pressures on reproductive rate and antigenic mutability may explain some of the observed differences between pathogens in age-class bias, reproductive rate, and antigenic variation.

  4. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens

  5. Mapping Epitopes on a Protein Antigen by the Proteolysis of Antigen-Antibody Complexes

    Jemmerson, Ronald; Paterson, Yvonne


    A monoclonal antibody bound to a protein antigen decreases the rate of proteolytic cleavage of the antigen, having the greatest effect on those regions involved in antibody contact. Thus, an epitope can be identified by the ability of the antibody to protect one region of the antigen more than others from proteolysis. By means of this approach, two distinct epitopes, both conformationally well-ordered, were characterized on horse cytochrome c.


    Jaini, Ritika; Popescu, Daniela C.; Flask, Chris A.; Macklin, Wendy B.; Tuohy, Vincent K.


    This study was designed to understand the impact of self-antigen load on manifestation of organ specific autoimmunity. Using a transgenic mouse model characterized by CNS hypermyelination, we show that larger myelin content results in greater severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis attributable to an increased number of microglia within the hypermyelinated brain. We conclude that a larger self-antigen load affects an increase in number of tissue resident antigen presenting cells...

  7. Tales of Antigen Evasion from CAR Therapy.

    Sadelain, Michel


    Both T cells bearing chimeric antigen receptors and tumor-specific antibodies can successfully target some malignancies, but antigen escape can lead to relapse. Two articles in this issue of Cancer Immunology Research explore what effective countermeasures may prevent it. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 473-473. ©2016 AACRSee articles by Zah et al., p. 498, and Rufener et al., p. 509. PMID:27252092

  8. Antigen detection for human immunodeficiency virus.

    Harry, D J; Jennings, M B; Yee, J.; Carlson, J. R.


    The recent development of enzyme immunoassay procedures for the direct determination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigens has been of significant benefit in both clinical and research applications. The historical development of HIV antigen assays as well as their current and future applications for use in the clinical microbiology laboratory are reviewed. A detailed description of selected commercially available assays is presented, and a comparison is made of various parameters, in...

  9. Characterization of an antigenically distinct porcine rotavirus.

    Bridger, J C; Clarke, I. N.; McCrae, M A


    A porcine virus with rotavirus morphology, which was antigenically unrelated to previously described rotaviruses, is described. Particles with an outer capsid layer measured 75 nm and those lacking the outer layer were 63 nm in diameter. Particles which resembled cores were also identified. The virus was shown to be antigenically distinct from other rotaviruses as judged by immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy, and it failed to protect piglets from challenge with porcine rotaviru...

  10. Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens.

    Barbour, A. G.; Restrepo, B I


    Several pathogens of humans and domestic animals depend on hematophagous arthropods to transmit them from one vertebrate reservoir host to another and maintain them in an environment. These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of transmission. By convergent evolution, bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. Borrelia spp. and Anaplasma marg...

  11. Antigenic scheme for Citrobacter koseri (syn. C. diversus, Levinea malonatica); three new antigens recognized in strains from Israel.

    Gross, R. J.; Rowe, B; Sechter, I; Cahan, D.; Altman, G.


    An antigenic scheme for Citrobacter koseri was described previously and consisted of 14 'O' antigens. Three additional antigens are now added to the scheme and type strains for these antigens are designated. Their origins and their biochemical and serological reactions are described.

  12. Development of tools to target antigen through mannose receptor

    Abbas, Zaigham


    Dendritic cells (DC) are unique antigen presenting cells which play a major role in antigen presentation and initiation of the immune response by regulating B- and T- cell activation. Antigen targeting to DC receptors is an effective, safe and specific method for vaccine development. The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor expressed by subpopulations of DC and antigen targeting through MR leads to enhanced antigen uptake and presentation to T -cells. This makes MR a favourite recep...

  13. Beyond antigens and adjuvants: formulating future vaccines.

    Moyer, Tyson J; Zmolek, Andrew C; Irvine, Darrell J


    The need to optimize vaccine potency while minimizing toxicity in healthy recipients has motivated studies of the formulation of vaccines to control how, when, and where antigens and adjuvants encounter immune cells and other cells/tissues following administration. An effective subunit vaccine must traffic to lymph nodes (LNs), activate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system, and persist for a sufficient time to promote a mature immune response. Here, we review approaches to tailor these three aspects of vaccine function through optimized formulations. Traditional vaccine adjuvants activate innate immune cells, promote cell-mediated transport of antigen to lymphoid tissues, and promote antigen retention in LNs. Recent studies using nanoparticles and other lymphatic-targeting strategies suggest that direct targeting of antigens and adjuvant compounds to LNs can also enhance vaccine potency without sacrificing safety. The use of formulations to regulate biodistribution and promote antigen and inflammatory cue co-uptake in immune cells may be important for next-generation molecular adjuvants. Finally, strategies to program vaccine kinetics through novel formulation and delivery strategies provide another means to enhance immune responses independent of the choice of adjuvant. These technologies offer the prospect of enhanced efficacy while maintaining high safety profiles necessary for successful vaccines. PMID:26928033

  14. Antigen sampling in the fish intestine.

    Løkka, Guro; Koppang, Erling Olaf


    Antigen uptake in the gastrointestinal tract may induce tolerance, lead to an immune response and also to infection. In mammals, most pathogens gain access to the host though the gastrointestinal tract, and in fish as well, this route seems to be of significant importance. The epithelial surface faces a considerable challenge, functioning both as a barrier towards the external milieu but simultaneously being the site of absorption of nutrients and fluids. The mechanisms allowing antigen uptake over the epithelial barrier play a central role for maintaining the intestinal homeostasis and regulate appropriate immune responses. Such uptake has been widely studied in mammals, but also in fish, a number of experiments have been reported, seeking to reveal cells and mechanisms involved in antigen sampling. In this paper, we review these studies in addition to addressing our current knowledge of the intestinal barrier in fish and its anatomical construction. PMID:26872546

  15. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Harnessing Dendritic Cells for Tumor Antigen Presentation

    Nierkens, Stefan [Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Geert Grooteplein 28, Nijmegen 6525 GA (Netherlands); Janssen, Edith M., E-mail: [Division of Molecular Immunology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Research Foundation, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)


    Dendritic cells (DC) are professional antigen presenting cells that are crucial for the induction of anti-tumor T cell responses. As a consequence, research has focused on the harnessing of DCs for therapeutic interventions. Although current strategies employing ex vivo-generated and tumor-antigen loaded DCs have been proven feasible, there are still many obstacles to overcome in order to improve clinical trial successes and offset the cost and complexity of customized cell therapy. This review focuses on one of these obstacles and a pivotal step for the priming of tumor-specific CD8{sup +} and CD4{sup +} T cells; the in vitro loading of DCs with tumor antigens.

  17. Idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HLA antigens

    M. Gerbase-DeLima


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate a possible association between HLA class II antigens and idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS. HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ antigens were determined in 19 Brazilian patients (16 white subjects and three subjects of Japanese origin with biopsy-proven FSGS. Comparison of the HLA antigen frequencies between white patients and white local controls showed a significant increase in HLA-DR4 frequency among FSGS patients (37.7 vs 17.2%, P<0.05. In addition, the three patients of Japanese extraction, not included in the statistical analysis, also presented HLA-DR4. In conclusion, our data confirm the association of FSGS with HLA-DR4 previously reported by others, thus providing further evidence for a role of genes of the HLA complex in the susceptibility to this disease

  18. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)


    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  19. Cytostructural Localization of a Tumor-Associated Antigen

    Howard, Donald R.; Batsakis, John G.


    Tumor cell membrane glycoproteins may be involved in the induction of tumor immunity or in the escape of tumors from immunologic defense mechanisms. Forty-four benign and malignant breast lesions were examined for the presence of a carbohydrate precursor antigen (T antigen) of the human blood group system MN. T antigen was demonstrated by means of an immunohistochemical technique to detect tissue binding of peanut agglutinin, a plant lectin, with affinity for T antigen. Malignant breast lesions showed a pattern of T antigen expression different from that of benign breast tissues. A possible role for T antigen in the modulation of the immune response to breast carcinoma is suggested.

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs

  1. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Ernest Ngoepe


    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  2. Antigen dynamics of follicular dendritic cells

    Heesters, B.A.


    Stromal-derived follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a major depot for antigen that are essential for formation of germinal centers, the site where memory and effector B cells differentiate and high-affinity antibody production takes place. Historically, FDCs have been characterized as ‘accessory’

  3. Antigen expression on recurrent meningioma cells

    Meningiomas are intracranial brain tumours that frequently recur. Recurrence rates up to 20% in 20 years for benign meningiomas, up to 80% for atypical meningiomas and up to 100% for malignant meningiomas, have been reported. The most important prognostic factors for meningioma recurrence are meningioma grade, meningioma invasiveness and radicality of neurosurgical resection. The aim of our study was to evaluate the differences in antigenic expression on the surface of meningioma cells between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas. 19 recurrent meningiomas and 35 non-recurrent meningiomas were compared regarding the expression of MIB-1 antigen, progesterone receptors, cathepsin B and cathepsin L, using immunohistochemistry. MIB-1 antigen expression was higher in the recurrent meningioma group (p=0.001). No difference in progesterone receptor status between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas was confirmed. Immunohistochemical intensity scores for cathepsin B (p= 0.007) and cathepsin L (p<0.001) were both higher in the recurrent than in the non-recurrent meningioma group. MIB-1 antigen expression is higher in recurrent compared to non-recurrent meningiomas. There is no difference in expression of progesterone receptors between recurrent and non-recurrent meningiomas. Cathepsins B and L are expressed more in recurrent meningiomas

  4. Wegener's granulomatosis and autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens

    McCluskey, D R; Maxwell, A. P.; Watt, L


    We report five cases of Wegener's granulomatosis all of whom had clinical and histological evidence of disease activity at presentation and in whom autoantibodies to neutrophil antigens were detected. This test may prove useful for the diagnosis of this serious condition and help to monitor disease activity during treatment.

  5. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets

    One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen. Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le(a-b-) human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with 125I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with 125I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with 125I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter. Dose response and saturation curve analysis demonstrate the presence of Lewis a antigen on platelets from Lea+ donors. Furthermore, platelets from an Le(a-b-) donor incubated in Le (a+b-) plasma adsorb Lea antigen in a similar manner to red blood cells. The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined

  6. Cysteine proteases as potential antigens in antiparasitic DNA vaccines

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Buchmann, Kurt


    En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner.......En litteraturgennemgang af muligheder for at bruge cystein proteaser som antigener i antiparasitære vacciner....

  7. Multiple antigen glycopeptides (MAGs) with Tn tumour antigens and incorporated adjuvant: synthesis and immunobiological activities

    Ježek, Jan; Kelkar, Shripad; Vepřek, Pavel; Hajdůch, M.; Sejbal, J.; Trnka, T.

    Napoli : Edizioni Ziino, 2002 - (Benedetti, E.; Pedone, C.), s. 524-525 ISBN 88-900948-1-8. [Peptides 2002. European Peptide Symposium /27./. Sorrento (IT), 31.08.2002-06.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0690 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Tn antigen * multiple antigen glycopeptide * synthetic vaccine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  8. [Identification of serological antigens in excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae].

    Huang, Xuegui; He, Lifang; Yuan, Shishan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Xin


    Objective To isolate and identify serological antigens in the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by the combination of co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric technology. Methods The serum IgG of New Zealand rabbits infected with Trichinella spiralis was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Muscle larvaes were isolated from the infected muscle, and then purified and cultured to collect excretory-secretory antigens. Serological antigens in excretory-secretory antigens were isolated by co-immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE, and analyzed by Western blotting. Moreover, the protein bands in New Zealand rabbit sera infected with Trichinella spiralis were identified by mass spectrometric technology. Results Indirect ELISA showed that the titer of serum antibody of New Zealand rabbits infected with Trichinella spiralis was 1:6400. The rabbit serum IgG was effectively isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A total of four clear protein bands of the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis were obtained by electrophoresis. Among them, three clear protein bands with relative molecular mass (Mr) being 40 kDa, 50 kDa and 83 kDa were recognized by the rabbit sera infected with Trichinella spiralis but not recognized by the normal rabbit sera. The obtained four protein molecules were confirmed as serine protease, specific serine protease of muscle larvae, 43 kDa secreted glycoprotein and 53 kDa excretory-secretory antigen. Conclusion Four proteins were obtained from the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by combination of co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometric technique analysis, which provided new sources and insights for the diagnosis and vaccine candidates of Trichinellosis. PMID:27126943

  9. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    Lin, W.; Fung, B.; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H


    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the reg...

  10. A prospective study of serum tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigens 50 and 242, tissue polypeptide antigen and tissue polypeptide specific antigen in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer with special reference to multivariate diagnostic score.

    Pasanen, P. A.; Eskelinen, M.; Partanen, K.; Pikkarainen, P; Penttilä, I.; Alhava, E


    The aim of this study was to assess by a stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis the value of four current serum tumour markers - carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen (CA) 50 and CA 242 and tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) - and a new serum tumour marker, tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The serum values were measured in a prospective series of patients with jaundice, with unjaundiced cholestasis and with a suspicion of chro...

  11. Single-Antigen Serological Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis▿

    Green, Lawrence R.; Jones, Cynthia C.; Sherwood, Anne L.; Garkavi, Inna V.; Cangelosi, Gerard A.; Thacker, Tyler C.; Palmer, Mitchell V.; Waters, W. Ray; Rathe, Chris V.


    Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for such responses often use multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the use of multiple antigens increases costs and the risk of false-positive results. As an alternative, the SeraLyte-Mbv system detects responses to a single M. bovis antigen, MPB83, by using a chemiluminescent testin...

  12. Pneumocystis carinii from pigs and humans are antigenically distinct

    Christensen, C B; Settnes, Osvald Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind; Henriksen, S A; Lundgren, B


    The antigens of Pneumocystis carinii cysts isolated from pigs and humans were compared by the Western immunoblotting technique. Convalescent pig serum reacted with two antigens (approximately 78 kDa and 32.5 kDa) of porcine P. carinii cysts, whereas convalescent serum from humans did not react with...... porcine P. carinii cyst antigens. The results indicate that porcine and human P. carinii cysts are antigenically distinct....

  13. Characterization of antigens of the dog major histocompatibility complex

    Feltz, Machteld


    textabstractIn this thesis, an immunochemical analysis of dog Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) antigens, also called DLA antigens, is described. MHC antigens play a prominent role in the immune system, particularly in the recognition of foreign material. They can be divided into four classes. As only DLA class I antigens have been defined by well characterized reagents (antisera), they were chosen as the object of the investigation

  14. Detection of antigens in urine during acute toxoplasmosis.

    Huskinson, J; Stepick-Biek, P; Remington, J S


    Toxoplasma antigens were detected in sera and urine of mice acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The concentrations of antigens in the urine samples measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were similar to those detected in the sera of the corresponding mice. The major antigens were not dialyzable and were largely destroyed by treatment with trichloroacetic acid and heat (100 degrees C for 1 h). Toxoplasma antigens were demonstrable on Western blots (immunoblots) of the urine samples.

  15. Carbohydrate-functionalized nanovaccines preserve HIV-1 antigen stability and activate antigen presenting cells.

    Vela Ramirez, J E; Roychoudhury, R; Habte, H H; Cho, M W; Pohl, N L B; Narasimhan, B


    The functionalization of polymeric nanoparticles with ligands that target specific receptors on immune cells offers the opportunity to tailor adjuvant properties by conferring pathogen mimicking attributes to the particles. Polyanhydride nanoparticles are promising vaccine adjuvants with desirable characteristics such as immunomodulation, sustained antigen release, activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), and stabilization of protein antigens. These capabilities can be exploited to design nanovaccines against viral pathogens, such as HIV-1, due to the important role of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages in viral spread. In this work, an optimized process was developed for carbohydrate functionalization of HIV-1 antigen-loaded polyanhydride nanoparticles. The carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles preserved antigenic properties upon release and also enabled sustained antigen release kinetics. Particle internalization was observed to be chemistry-dependent with positively charged nanoparticles being taken up more efficiently by DCs. Up-regulation of the activation makers CD40 and CD206 was demonstrated with carboxymethyl-α-d-mannopyranosyl-(1,2)-d-mannopyranoside functionalized nanoparticles. The secretion of the cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α was shown to be chemistry-dependent upon stimulation with carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles. These results offer important new insights upon the interactions between carbohydrate-functionalized nanoparticles and APCs and provide foundational information for the rational design of targeted nanovaccines against HIV-1. PMID:25068589

  16. Photoaffinity labeling demonstrates binding between Ia and antigen on antigen-presenting cells

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) bind and present antigens to immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the context of Ia molecules: however, the molecular nature of the immunogenic complexes on the surface of these cells is unknown. They have used radioiodinated photoreactive Beef insulin (BI) derivatized in the B29 position with (n-[4-(4'-azido-3'-[125]iodophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropyl-n-oxy-succinimide) (B29-AZAP) as antigen to examine the nature of these molecular complexes. The probe was reacted with either of two B hybridoma APCs, TA3 (Ia/sup k/d/) and LB(Ia/sup d/b/) which present insulin on I-A/sup d/ and I-A/sub b/ respectively, to appropriately restricted, BI specific T helper lymphocytes (T/sub H/). Samples were photolyzed, solubilized and then analyzed by SDS-PAGE. Two protein bands of 36-kDa and 27-kDa were specifically labeled on TA3 and LB cells. Treatment of these bands with dithiothreitol or endo-N-β-glycosidase F demonstrates that each is composed of a single glycoprotein. These bands are immunoprecipitable with haplotype specific but not control anti-Ia antibodies. This identifies the labeled bands as the α- and β- subunits of class II MHC antigens. They conclude that a molecular complex may form between Ia and antigen on APCs and that formation of this complex does not require the presence of an antigen specific T/sub H/ cell receptor

  17. 21 CFR 866.3402 - Plasmodium species antigen detection assays.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. 866... Plasmodium species antigen detection assays. (a) Identification. A Plasmodium species antigen detection assay... malaria caused by the four malaria species capable of infecting humans: Plasmodium falciparum,...

  18. 9 CFR 113.408 - Avian mycoplasma antigen.


    ... with 9 CFR 114.8. If phenol is used, a direct titration with a standardized bromide-bromate solution... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian mycoplasma antigen. 113.408... Diagnostics and Reagents § 113.408 Avian mycoplasma antigen. Mycoplasma antigens shall be prepared...

  19. Mapping epitopes and antigenicity by site-directed masking

    Paus, Didrik; Winter, Greg


    Here we describe a method for mapping the binding of antibodies to the surface of a folded antigen. We first created a panel of mutant antigens (-lactamase) in which single surface-exposed residues were mutated to cysteine. We then chemically tethered the cysteine residues to a solid phase, thereby masking a surface patch centered on each cysteine residue and blocking the binding of antibodies to this region of the surface. By these means we mapped the epitopes of several mAbs directed to -lactamase. Furthermore, by depleting samples of polyclonal antisera to the masked antigens and measuring the binding of each depleted sample of antisera to unmasked antigen, we mapped the antigenicity of 23 different epitopes. After immunization of mice and rabbits with -lactamase in Freund's adjuvant, we found that the antisera reacted with both native and denatured antigen and that the antibody response was mainly directed to an exposed and flexible loop region of the native antigen. By contrast, after immunization in PBS, we found that the antisera reacted only weakly with denatured antigen and that the antibody response was more evenly distributed over the antigenic surface. We suggest that denatured antigen (created during emulsification in Freund's adjuvant) elicits antibodies that bind mainly to the flexible regions of the native protein and that this explains the correlation between antigenicity and backbone flexibility. Denaturation of antigen during vaccination or natural infections would therefore be expected to focus the antibody response to the flexible loops. backbone flexibility | Freund's adjuvant | conformational epitope | antisera

  20. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section 660.40...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this...

  1. Detection of Mycobacterial Antigens in Leprosy Serum Immune Complex


    The antigens from immune complexes of sera from patients with mycobacterial diseases were released by sodium dodecyl sulfate. The antigenic activity of the released proteins was tested by agar gel diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis. This simple method provided direct evidence for the presence of mycobacterial antigens in the immune complexes of sera from patients with leprosy and tuberculosis.

  2. Use of magnetic nanobeads to study intracellular antigen processing

    Magnetic nanobeads were covalently linked to antigens and used as a tool to simultaneously follow their intracellular transport into the cells and specifically purify the intracellular compartments implicated in antigen processing. The protein content of these vesicles was analysed by 2D-electrophoresis. Furthermore, nanobeads allowed intracellular localisation of the antigen in electron and fluorescence microscopy

  3. Use of magnetic nanobeads to study intracellular antigen processing

    Perrin-Cocon, Laure A.; Chesne, Serge; Pignot-Paintrand, Isabelle; Marche, Patrice N.; Villiers, Christian L. E-mail:


    Magnetic nanobeads were covalently linked to antigens and used as a tool to simultaneously follow their intracellular transport into the cells and specifically purify the intracellular compartments implicated in antigen processing. The protein content of these vesicles was analysed by 2D-electrophoresis. Furthermore, nanobeads allowed intracellular localisation of the antigen in electron and fluorescence microscopy.

  4. Overlapping antigenic repertoires of variant antigens expressed on the surface of erythrocytes infected by Plasmodium falciparum

    Giha, H A; Staalsoe, T; Dodoo, D; Elhassan, I M; Roper, C; Satti, G M; Arnot, D E; Hviid, L; Theander, T G

    antibodies to some combinations of variant antigens but not to others. These results indicate that (1) a single infection will induce the production of antibodies recognizing several variants of surface-expressed antigens, (2) the repertoire of variable antigens expressed by different parasites is...

  5. ABO blood group antigens in oral mucosa. What is new?

    Dabelsteen, Erik


    Histo-blood group ABH (O) antigens are major alloantigens in humans. These antigens are widely distributed in human tissues and undergo changes in expression during cellular differentiation and malignant development. The ABH antigens have been characterized as terminal disaccharide determinants...... healing show similarly decreased expression of A/B antigens on migrating epithelial cells. Some studies suggest that the relationship between expression of blood group antigens and cell motility can be explained by different degrees of glycosylation of integrins. Changes in ABO expression in tumours have...

  6. A competitive-inhibiton radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens

    A double-antibody competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay for influenza virus envelope antigens is described. A viral antigen preparation from influenza A virus recombinant MRC11 [antigenically identical to A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2)] consisting of haemagglutinin and neuraminidase was labelled with radioiodine. Rabbit antisera were allowed to react with the labelled antigen and the resultant antigen-antibody complexes were precipitated with the appropriate antiglobulin. The competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay very sensitively elucidated differences even among closely related influenza virus strains. Attempts have been made to eliminate neuraminidase from radioimmunoprecipitation to obtain a competitive-inhibition radioimmunoassay system for haemagglutinin alone. (author)

  7. Classification of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) supertypes

    Wang, Mingjun; Claesson, Mogens H


    Identification of new antigenic peptides, derived from infectious agents or cancer cells, which bind to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules, is of importance for the development of new effective vaccines capable of activating the cellular arm of the immune response. However, the...... barrier to the development of peptide-based vaccines with maximum population coverage is that the restricting HLA genes are extremely polymorphic resulting in a vast diversity of peptide-binding HLA specificities and a low population coverage for any given peptide-HLA specificity. One way to reduce this...... complexity is to group thousands of different HLA molecules into several so-called HLA supertypes: a classification that refers to a group of HLA alleles with largely overlapping peptide binding specificities. In this chapter, we focus on the state-of-the-art classification of HLA supertypes including HLA...

  8. Radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological epidemiology

    The feasibility of tests using radionuclide-labelled antigens in serological surveys was studied, with particular attention to the likely availability of facilities and personnel in the tropics and arctics, where measurements may be disturbed by climatic influences. The methodology required was to be simple, rapid and suitable for examining large numbers of sera, as for epidemological surveys. In the introduction, limitations of labelled antigen tests are discussed, the choice of radionuclide and measurement methods, test procedures and evaluation of results. Collection, preservation and shipment of speciments (serum, faeces, cerebrospinal fluid, sputum, etc.) are described. Experiments with bacteria and bacterial toxins (Enterobacteriaceae, vibrios, staphylococci, meningococci, etc.), with protozoa and metazoa (Entamoeba hystolytica, Schistosoma mansoni, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodia and other parasites), with viruses (vaccinia, adeno-, polio-, and influenza viruses, etc.), and with fungi are discussed

  9. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Ernest Ngoepe; Christine Fehlner-Gardiner; Alex Wandeler; Claude Sabeta


    There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus anti...

  10. Antigenicity of low molecular weight surfactant species.

    Strayer, D. S.; Merritt, T A; Makunike, C.; Hallman, M


    The authors tested the antigenicity of human lung surfactant isolated from amniotic fluid. Mice and rabbits were immunized. Rabbit polyclonal antisera to these surfactant preparations were absorbed with normal human plasma proteins. Polyclonal antisera reacted with both high molecular weight (35 kd) surfactant apoprotein and to lower molecular weight species, both 18 kd and 9 kd. Mice were used to generate monoclonal antibodies to surfactant. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay was used to iden...

  11. Class II HLA antigens in multiple sclerosis.

    Miller, D H; Hornabrook, R W; Dagger, J; Fong, R


    HLA typing in Wellington revealed a stronger association of multiple sclerosis with DR2 than with DQw1. The association with DQw1 appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium of this antigen with DR2. These results, when considered in conjunction with other studies, are most easily explained by the hypothesis that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is influenced by multiple risk factors, with DR2 being an important risk factor in Caucasoid populations. PMID:2732726

  12. Yeast retrotransposon particles as antigen delivery systems.

    Kingsman, A J; Burns, N R; Layton, G T; Adams, S E


    The development of technologies to produce recombinant proteins for use in the pharmaceutical industry has made substantial advances, in particular in the area of generating antigens containing multiple copies of important immunological regions. One such antigen-carrier system is based on the ability of a protein encoded by the yeast retrotransposon, Ty, to self-assemble into virus-like particles. Ty-fusion proteins retain this ability to form particles, and a range of hybrid VLPs carrying a variety of heterologous antigens have been produced and shown to induce potent immune responses. In particular, hybrid VLPs carrying the core protein p24 of HIV (p24-VLPs) have been shown to induce antibody and T-cell proliferative responses in both experimental animals and human volunteers, and immunization of rabbits with VLPs carrying the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV (V3-VLPs) resulted in the induction of neutralizing antibody responses and T-cell proliferation. Further studies with V3-VLPs have shown that this particulate antigen stimulates enhanced V3-specific lymphoproliferative responses as compared to whole recombinant gp120 or to V3 peptide conjugated to albumin. The V3-VLPs also induce potent CTL responses following immunization of mice in the absence of adjuvant. These responses are MHC class I restricted and are mediated by CD8-positive cells. These observations therefore demonstrate that hybrid Ty-VLPs induce both humoral and cellular immune responses against HIV and suggest that these immunogens may be important in combatting AIDS and other infections. PMID:7625653

  13. Rationalisation of Legionella Urinary Antigen Testing.

    Lynch, Breda


    Introduction: Legionnaires’ is a severe pneumonia, the diagnosis of which can be confirmed by a positive Legionella Urinary Antigen (LUA) test. The British Thoracic Society has specific guidelines for its use. Incorrect LUA test requests can result in false-positive results while accumulating costs. Aims and Objectives: The aim is the rationalisation of LUA testing. The first objective is to educate clinicians on indications for testing reducing unnecessary orders. The second is to develop...

  14. The role of antigen in the development of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Hoogeboom, R.


    These studies strongly suggest that MALT-lymphomas and M-CLL in majority are highly selected for single extrinsic antigens and that these antigens can be both self-antigens and exo-antigens. Our finding that primary CLL cells are responsive to stimulation with their cognate antigen suggests that antigen-dependent BCR signaling may drive CLL expansion in vivo.

  15. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    吴勤动; 朱永良


    Objective:to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) infection.Methods:Serum soluble antigen of H.pylori was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H.pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test(RUT).histologic examination and serology,Results:The sensitivity,specificity,positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46% ,91.07%,91.67% and 76.12%,respectively.The prevalence rate of werum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergong endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT methods(P>0.05).Conclusions:The detection of serum H.pylori soluble antigen(HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate,and convenient,not affected by the memorizing raction of serum antibody;is more sensitive,more specific and suitable for dinical diagriosis,and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H.pylori as well as for detection in children and pregnant women.

  16. Study of serum Helicobacter pylori soluble antigen

    吴勤动; 朱永良


    Objective: to explore a new serological method for detecting Helicobac ter pylori ( H. pylori ) infection. Methods: Serum soluble antigen of H. p ylor i was detected by using avidin-biotin ELISA technique to evaluate the status of H. pylori infection and for comparison with rapid urease test ( RUT ), histo logi c examination and serology. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive pred ictive value and negative predictive value were 77.46%, 91.07%, 91.67% a nd 76.12 %, respectively. The prevalence rate of serum H. pylori soluble antigen in 138 patients undergoing endoscopy was similar to the rate obtained by 14 C-UBT met hods ( P>0.05 ). Conclusions: The detection of serum H. pylori solub le antigen( HpSAg) could be used as a new serological method which is accurate, and convenie nt, not affected by the memorizing reaction of serum antibody; is more sensitive , m ore specific and suitable for clinical diagnosis, and evaluation of eradication and for follow-up of H. pylori as well as for detection in children and pre gnant women.

  17. Neutrophil elastase enhances antigen presentation by upregulating human leukocyte antigen class I expression on tumor cells.

    Chawla, Akhil; Alatrash, Gheath; Philips, Anne V; Qiao, Na; Sukhumalchandra, Pariya; Kerros, Celine; Diaconu, Iulia; Gall, Victor; Neal, Samantha; Peters, Haley L; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A


    Neutrophil elastase (NE) is an innate immune cell-derived inflammatory mediator that we have shown increases the presentation of tumor-associated peptide antigens in breast cancer. In this study, we extend these observations to show that NE uptake has a broad effect on enhancing antigen presentation by breast cancer cells. We show that NE increases human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression on the surface of breast cancer cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. HLA class I upregulation requires internalization of enzymatically active NE. Western blots of NE-treated breast cancer cells confirm that the expression of total HLA class I as well as the antigen-processing machinery proteins TAP1, LMP2, and calnexin does not change following NE treatment. This suggests that NE does not increase the efficiency of antigen processing; rather, it mediates the upregulation of HLA class I by stabilizing and reducing membrane recycling of HLA class I molecules. Furthermore, the effects of NE extend beyond breast cancer since the uptake of NE by EBV-LCL increases the presentation of HLA class I-restricted viral peptides, as shown by their increased sensitivity to lysis by EBV-specific CD8+ T cells. Together, our results show that NE uptake increases the responsiveness of breast cancer cells to adaptive immunity by broad upregulation of membrane HLA class I and support the conclusion that the innate inflammatory mediator NE enhances tumor cell recognition and increases tumor sensitivity to the host adaptive immune response. PMID:27129972

  18. New diagnostic antigens for early trichinellosis: the excretory-secretory antigens of Trichinella spiralis intestinal infective larvae.

    Sun, Ge Ge; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Wang, Li; Liu, Xiao Lin; Liu, Chun Yin; Zhang, Xi; Cui, Jing


    The excretory-secretory (ES) antigens from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae (ML) are the most commonly used diagnostic antigens for trichinellosis, but anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies cannot be detected until 2-3 weeks after infection; there is an obvious window period between Trichinella infection and antibody positivity. Intestinal infective larvae (IIL) are the first invasive stage during Trichinella infection, and their ES antigens are firstly exposed to the immune system and might be the early diagnostic markers of trichinellosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early diagnostic values of IIL ES antigens for trichinellosis. The IIL were collected from intestines of infected mice at 6 h postinfection (hpi), and IIL ES antigens were prepared by incubation for 18 h. Anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies in mice infected with 100 ML were detectable by ELISA with IIL ES antigens as soon as 10 days postinfection (dpi), but ELISA with ML ES antigens did not permit detection of infected mice before 12 dpi. When the sera of patients with trichinellosis at 19 dpi were assayed, the sensitivity (100 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was evidently higher than 75 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05) The specificity (96.86 %) of ELISA with IIL ES antigens was also higher than 89.31 % of ELISA with ML ES antigens (P < 0.05). The IIL ES antigens provided a new source of diagnostic antigens and could be considered as a potential early diagnostic antigen for trichinellosis. PMID:26342828

  19. Exosome targeting of tumor antigens expressed by cancer vaccines can improve antigen immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy.

    Rountree, Ryan B; Mandl, Stefanie J; Nachtwey, James M; Dalpozzo, Katie; Do, Lisa; Lombardo, John R; Schoonmaker, Peter L; Brinkmann, Kay; Dirmeier, Ulrike; Laus, Reiner; Delcayre, Alain


    MVA-BN-PRO (BN ImmunoTherapeutics) is a candidate immunotherapy product for the treatment of prostate cancer. It encodes 2 tumor-associated antigens, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), and is derived from the highly attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus stock known as MVA-BN. Past work has shown that the immunogenicity of antigens can be improved by targeting their localization to exosomes, which are small, 50- to 100-nm diameter vesicles secreted by most cell types. Exosome targeting is achieved by fusing the antigen to the C1C2 domain of the lactadherin protein. To test whether exosome targeting would improve the immunogenicity of PSA and PAP, 2 additional versions of MVA-BN-PRO were produced, targeting either PSA (MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2) or PAP (MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2) to exosomes, while leaving the second transgene untargeted. Treatment of mice with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 led to a striking increase in the immune response against PAP. Anti-PAP antibody titers developed more rapidly and reached levels that were 10- to 100-fold higher than those for mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. Furthermore, treatment with MVA-BN-PAP-C1C2 increased the frequency of PAP-specific T cells 5-fold compared with mice treated with MVA-BN-PRO. These improvements translated into a greater frequency of tumor rejection in a PAP-expressing solid tumor model. Likewise, treatment with MVA-BN-PSA-C1C2 increased the antigenicity of PSA compared with treatment with MVA-BN-PRO and resulted in a trend of improved antitumor efficacy in a PSA-expressing tumor model. These experiments confirm that targeting antigen localization to exosomes is a viable approach for improving the therapeutic potential of MVA-BN-PRO in humans. PMID:21670078

  20. Genetic diversity and antigenicity variation of Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen-1 (MSA-1) in Thailand.

    Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Takemae, Hitoshi; Simking, Pacharathon; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki


    Babesia bovis, an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, causes severe clinical disease in cattle worldwide. The genetic diversity of parasite antigens often results in different immune profiles in infected animals, hindering efforts to develop immune control methodologies against the B. bovis infection. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of the merozoite surface antigen-1 (msa-1) gene using 162 B. bovis-positive blood DNA samples sourced from cattle populations reared in different geographical regions of Thailand. The identity scores shared among 93 msa-1 gene sequences isolated by PCR amplification were 43.5-100%, and the similarity values among the translated amino acid sequences were 42.8-100%. Of 23 total clades detected in our phylogenetic analysis, Thai msa-1 gene sequences occurred in 18 clades; seven among them were composed of sequences exclusively from Thailand. To investigate differential antigenicity of isolated MSA-1 proteins, we expressed and purified eight recombinant MSA-1 (rMSA-1) proteins, including an rMSA-1 from B. bovis Texas (T2Bo) strain and seven rMSA-1 proteins based on the Thai msa-1 sequences. When these antigens were analyzed in a western blot assay, anti-T2Bo cattle serum strongly reacted with the rMSA-1 from T2Bo, as well as with three other rMSA-1 proteins that shared 54.9-68.4% sequence similarity with T2Bo MSA-1. In contrast, no or weak reactivity was observed for the remaining rMSA-1 proteins, which shared low sequence similarity (35.0-39.7%) with T2Bo MSA-1. While demonstrating the high genetic diversity of the B. bovis msa-1 gene in Thailand, the present findings suggest that the genetic diversity results in antigenicity variations among the MSA-1 antigens of B. bovis in Thailand. PMID:27101782

  1. Abnormal antigens in breast cancer tissues and production of monoclonal antibodies against one of these antigens

    Breast cancer is associated with up regulation, down regulation of normal antigens or abnormal antigens. These antigens are very useful candidates as targets for the different breast cancer therapies and for vaccination trials. This study was done to characterize abnormal antigens, extract one of them and to produce monoclonal antibodies against the extracted antigen. One hundred and twenty Sudanese female patients were included in this study after informed consent. The mean age was 47. 2 years (16-80). Two tissue samples were obtained from each patient and they were confirmed as normal and cancerous breast tissues microscopically. 2D PAGE was used to analyze the protein content of samples. LC/MS and nr. fast a database search were used for separation and indentification of the abnormal proteins. Three different patterns of 2D Page results were obtained, the first pattern involved detection of four abnormal proteins in 26.7% of the patient cancerous tissues while they were undetected in the normal tissues of the same patients. In the second 2D PAGE result pattern the cancerous and the normal tissues of 67.5% patients were identical and they did not contain the four abnormal proteins while the third 2D PAGE pattern involved the presence of two abnormal antigens (from the four) in the cancerous tissues of 5.8% of the patients and they were absent from the normal tissues of the same patients. The four abnormal proteins were identified as, human Thioredoxin (D60nmutant), x-ray crystal structure of human galectin-1, retrocopy of tropomyosin 3(rc TPM3) and beta-tropomyosin (isoform 2). The primary and the secondary structures were obtained from the SWISSPROT and the PDB databases. Beta tropomyosin spot was extracted and used as antigen for monoclonal antibody production. Monoclonal antibody against beta- tropomyosin with a concentration of 0.35 mg/ml and a G11 anti beta-tropomyosin hybridoma cell line were produced. The monoclonal antibody was with single bad and

  2. Photoaffinity labeling demonstrates binding between Ia molecules and nominal antigen on antigen-presenting cells.

    Phillips, M L; Yip, C C; Shevach, E M; Delovitch, T L


    We have used radioiodinated photoreactive bovine insulin as antigen to examine the molecular nature of immunogenic complexes that form on antigen-presenting cells. The probe was allowed to bind to either insulin-presenting B-hybridoma cells, lipopolysaccharide-stimulated blasts, or bovine insulin-specific helper-T-hybridoma cells in the dark. Samples were then exposed to light to induce crosslinkage, solubilized, and analyzed by gel electrophoresis. Two protein bands at about 36 kDa and 27 kD...

  3. Seroreactivity of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen in comparison with lipopolysaccharide antigens

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Lind, Peter; Bell, M.M.; Thorns, C.J.


    The IgG seroreaction of Salmonella-infected cattle herds against a fimbrial antigen (SEF14) was compared with that against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens. Sera from 23 dairy herds (n = 205) from an island with no occurrence of salmonellosis, four herds (n = 303) with recent outbreaks of S....... dublin and four herds (n = 168) with recent outbreaks of S. typhimurium, were tested in a SEF14-ELISA, S. dublin LPS (0:1, 9, 12) ELISA and S. typhimurium LPS (0:1, 4, 5; 12) ELISA. At a cut-off OD of 0.5, only one of the animals tested from the salmonellosis-free island showed significant seroreaction...

  4. Human leukocyte antigen-DO regulates surface presentation of human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted antigens on B cell malignancies

    Kremer, A.N.; Meijden, E.D. van der; Honders, M.W.; Pont, M.J.; Goeman, J.J.; Falkenburg, J.H.F.; Griffioen, M.


    Hematological malignancies often express surface HLA class II, making them attractive targets for CD4+ T cell therapy. We previously demonstrated that HLA class II ligands can be divided into DM-resistant and DM-sensitive antigens. In contrast to presentation of DM-resistant antigens, presentation o

  5. Antigen-induced and non-antigen-induced histamine release from rat mast cells sensitized with mouse antiserum.



    Full Text Available Marked IgE-mediated histamine release from rat mast cells sensitized in vitro with mouse antiserum occurs in the presence of added Ca++ and phosphatidylserine (PS, although a considerable degree of antigen-induced histamine release which may utilize intracellular or cell-bound calcium is also observed. The decay in the responsiveness to Ca++ of the sensitized cells stimulated by antigen in Ca++-free medium in the presence of PS is relatively slow, and maximum release is produced by Ca++ added 1 min after antigen. Histamine release also occurs when Ca++ is added after PS in the absence of antigen to the sensitized cells suspended in Ca++-free medium. Unlike the antigen-induced release, the intensity of this non-antigen-induced release varies depending on both mast-cell and antiserum pools. A heat-labile factor(s, which is different from antigen-specific IgE antibody and is also contained in normal mouse serum, is involved in this reaction. In the antigen-nondependent (PS + Ca++-induced release, no decay in the responsiveness to Ca++ is observed after PS addition. Both the antigen-induced and non-antigen-induced release are completed fairly rapidly and are dependent of temperature, pH and energy.

  6. Galactosylated LDL nanoparticles: a novel targeting delivery system to deliver antigen to macrophages and enhance antigen specific T cell responses.

    Wu, Fang; Wuensch, Sherry A; Azadniv, Mitra; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Crispe, I Nicholas


    We aim to define the role of Kupffer cells in intrahepatic antigen presentation, using the selective delivery of antigen to Kupffer cells rather than other populations of liver antigen-presenting cells. To achieve this we developed a novel antigen delivery system that can target antigens to macrophages, based on a galactosylated low-density lipoprotein nanoscale platform. Antigen was delivered via the galactose particle receptor (GPr), internalized, degraded and presented to T cells. The conjugation of fluoresceinated ovalbumin (FLUO-OVA) and lactobionic acid with LDL resulted in a substantially increased uptake of FLUO-OVA by murine macrophage-like ANA1 cells in preference to NIH3T3 cells, and by primary peritoneal macrophages in preference to primary hepatic stellate cells. Such preferential uptake led to enhanced proliferation of OVA specific T cells, showing that the galactosylated LDL nanoscale platform is a successful antigen carrier, targeting antigen to macrophages but not to all categories of antigen presenting cells. This system will allow targeted delivery of antigen to macrophages in the liver and elsewhere, addressing the question of the role of Kupffer cells in liver immunology. It may also be an effective way of delivering drugs or vaccines directly at macrophages. PMID:19637876

  7. How to Make a Non-Antigenic Protein (Auto) Antigenic: Molecular Complementarity Alters Antigen Processing and Activates Adaptive-Innate Immunity Synergy.

    Root-Bernstein, Robert


    Evidence is reviewed that complementary proteins and peptides form complexes with increased antigenicity and/or autoimmunogenicity. Five case studies are highlighted: 1) diphtheria toxin-antitoxin (antibody), which induces immunity to the normally non-antigenic toxin, and autoimmune neuritis; 2) tryptophan peptide of myelin basic protein and muramyl dipeptide ("adjuvant peptide"), which form a complex that induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; 3) an insulin and glucagon complex that is far more antigenic than either component individually; 4) various causes of experimental autoimmune myocarditis such as C protein in combination with its antibody, or coxsackie B virus in combination with the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; 5) influenza A virus haemagglutinin with the outer membrane protein of the Haemophilus influenzae, which increases antigenicity. Several mechanisms cooperate to alter immunogenicity. Complexation alters antigen processing, protecting the components against proteolysis, altering fragmentation and presenting novel antigens to the immune system. Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). CIC stimulate innate immunity. Concurrently, complementary antigens stimulate multiple Toll-like receptors that synergize to over-produce cytokines, which further stimulate adaptive immunity. Thus innate and adaptive immunity form a positive feedback loop. If components of the complex mimic a host protein, then autoimmunity may result. Enhanced antigenicity for production of improved vaccines and/or therapeutic autoimmunity (e.g., against cancer cells) might be achieved by using information from antibody or TCR recognition sites to complement an antigen; by panning for complements in randomized peptide libraries; or using antisense peptide strategies to design complements. PMID:26179268

  8. Enhancing the recognition of tumor associated antigens

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Irvine, Kari R.; Minev, Boris R.; Taggarse, Akash S.; McFariand, Barbra J.; Wang, Michael


    Activated CD8+ T cells (TCD8+) can directly recognize malignant cells because processed fragments of tumor associated antigens (TAA), 8-10 amino acids in length and complexed with MHC class I molecules, are displayed on tumor cell surfaces. Tumor cells have been genetically modified in a variety of ways in efforts to enhance the immune recognition of TAA. An alternative strategy is the expression of TAA in recombinant or synthetic form. This has been made possible by the recent cloning of TAA...

  9. Tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens

    Ravn, V; Dabelsteen, Erik


    The introduction of immunohistochemical techniques and monoclonal antibodies to specific carbohydrate epitopes has made it possible to study in detail the tissue distribution of histo-blood group antigens and related carbohydrate structures. The present paper summarizes the available data...... concerning the histological distribution of histo-blood group antigens and their precursor structures in normal human tissues. Studies performed have concentrated on carbohydrate antigens related to the ABO, Lewis, and TTn blood group systems, i.e. histo-blood group antigens carried by type 1, 2, and 3 chain...... carrier carbohydrate chains. Histo-blood group antigens are found in most epithelial tissues. Meanwhile, several factors influence the type, the amount, and the histological distribution of histoblood group antigens, i.e. the ABO, Lewis, and saliva-secretor type of the individual, and the cell- and tissue...

  10. Formaldehyde scavengers function as novel antigen retrieval agents

    Craig T. Vollert; Moree, Wilna J; Steven Gregory; Bark, Steven J.; Eriksen, Jason L.


    Antigen retrieval agents improve the detection of formaldehyde-fixed proteins, but how they work is not well understood. We demonstrate that formaldehyde scavenging represents a key characteristic associated with effective antigen retrieval; under controlled temperature and pH conditions, scavenging improves the typical antigen retrieval process through reversal of formaldehyde-protein adduct formation. This approach provides a rational framework for the identification and development of more...

  11. Novel selective inhibitors of aminopeptidases that generate antigenic peptides.

    Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Zervoudi, Efthalia; Theodorakis, Emmanuel A; Saveanu, Loredana; Stratikos, Efstratios; Vourloumis, Dionisios


    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases, ERAP1 and ERAP2, as well as Insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) play key roles in antigen processing, and have recently emerged as biologically important targets for manipulation of antigen presentation. Taking advantage of the available structural and substrate-selectivity data for these enzymes, we have rationally designed a new series of inhibitors that display low micromolar activity. The selectivity profile for these three highly homologous aminopeptidases provides a promising avenue for modulating intracellular antigen processing. PMID:23916253

  12. Characterization of Ewing sarcoma associated cancer/testis antigens

    Mahlendorf, Dorothea E.; Staege, Martin Sebastian


    The prognosis of patients suffering from tumors of the Ewing family (EFT) is still poor. Immunotherapy strategies are pursued and EFT-specific antigens have to be identified as targets for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Due to the lack of expression of cancer/testis antigens (CTA) in normal tissues, these antigens are partially able to induce immune responses in cancer patients. Therefore, they are promising targets for immunotherapy. EFT are characterized by chromosomal rearrangements involv...

  13. T-cell recognition of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in erythrocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii: inhibition of parasitemia by this antigen(s).

    Lucas, B.; Engels, A; Camus, D; Haque, A.


    In the current study, we investigated the presence of a cross-reactive antigen(s) in the erythrocyte stage from Plasmodium yoelii (265 BY strain) and Plasmodium falciparum through recognition by T cells primed in vivo with antigens from each of these parasites. BALB/c mice are naturally resistant to P. falciparum but are susceptible to P. yoelii infection. Mice that had recovered from P. yoelii primary infection became resistant to a second infection. A higher in vitro proliferative response ...

  14. Pneumocystis carinii antigen detection in rat serum and lung lavage.

    McNabb, S J; Graves, D C; Kosanke, S.D.; Moyer, M J; Ivey, M H


    We developed a modified double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detected relatively low concentrations of known Pneumocystis carinii antigen added to buffer or rat sera. Artificial immunization-derived polyclonal rabbit anti-P. carinii antibody was used on the solid phase to capture the antigen. Infection-derived (after P. carinii pneumonia) polyclonal rat anti-P. carinii antibody or a mixture of five murine monoclonal antibodies was used as the antigen detecto...

  15. Cancer-germline antigen vaccines and epigenetic enhancers

    Gjerstorff, Morten Frier; Burns, Jorge; Ditzel, Henrik Jorn


    can be achieved using epigenetic modifiers. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: We provide an overview of the potential of CG antigens as targets for cancer immunotherapy, including advantages and disadvantages. We also discuss the current state of development of CG antigen vaccines, and the potential...... synergistic effect of combining CG antigen immunotherapeutic strategies with epigenetic modifiers. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: The reader will gain an overview of the past, present and future role of CG antigens in cancer immunotherapy. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Chemoimmunotherapy using epigenetic drugs and CG...

  16. V-antigen homologs in pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.

    Sawa, Teiji; Katoh, Hideya; Yasumoto, Hiroaki


    Gram-negative bacteria cause many types of infections in animals from fish and shrimps to humans. Bacteria use Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) to translocate their toxins directly into eukaryotic cells. The V-antigen is a multifunctional protein required for the TTSS in Yersinia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. V-antigen vaccines and anti-V-antigen antisera confer protection against Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections in animal models. The V-antigen forms a pentameric cap structure at the tip of the Type III secretory needle; this structure, which has evolved from the bacterial flagellar cap structure, is indispensable for toxin translocation. Various pathogenic gram-negative bacteria such as Photorhabdus luminescens, Vibrio spp., and Aeromonas spp. encode homologs of the V-antigen. Because the V-antigens of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria play a key role in toxin translocation, they are potential therapeutic targets for combatting bacterial virulence. In the USA and Europe, these vaccines and specific antibodies against V-antigens are in clinical trials investigating the treatment of Yersinia or P. aeruginosa infections. Pathogenic gram-negative bacteria are of great interest because of their ability to infect fish and shrimp farms, their potential for exploitation in biological terrorism attacks, and their ability to cause opportunistic infections in humans. Thus, elucidation of the roles of the V-antigen in the TTSS and mechanisms by which these functions can be blocked is critical to facilitating the development of improved anti-V-antigen strategies. PMID:24641673


    T.R. Neyestani; M. Djalali M. I'ezeshki


    Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenicity of cow'...

  18. Antigenic composition of single nano-sized extracellular blood vesicles.

    Arakelyan, Anush; Ivanova, Oxana; Vasilieva, Elena; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid


    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important in normal physiology and are altered in various pathologies. EVs produced by different cells are antigenically different. Since the majority of EVs are too small for routine flow cytometry, EV composition is studied predominantly in bulk, thus not addressing their antigenic heterogeneity. Here, we describe a nanoparticle-based technique for analyzing antigens on single nano-sized EVs. The technique consists of immuno-capturing of EVs with 15-nm magnetic nanoparticles, staining captured EVs with antibodies against their antigens, and separating them from unbound EVs and free antibodies in a magnetic field, followed by flow analysis. This technique allows us to characterize EVs populations according to their antigenic distribution, including minor EV fractions. We demonstrated that the individual blood EVs carry different sets of antigens, none being ubiquitous, and quantified their distribution. The physiological significance of antigenically different EVs and their correlation with different pathologies can now be directly addressed. From the clinical editor: This study reports a nanoparticle-based technique for analyzing antigens on single nano-sized extracellular vehicles (EV). The technique consists of immuno-capturing of EVs with 15-nm magnetic nanoparticles, followed by staining the captured EVs with antibodies and separating them via a magnetic field, followed by flow analysis. This technique enables studies of antigenic properties of individual EVs that conventionally can only be studied in bulk. PMID:25481806

  19. Antigen-Specific versus Non-Antigen-Specific Immunoadsorption in ABO-Incompatible Renal Transplantation.

    Gerold Thölking

    Full Text Available ABO-incompatible (ABOi renal transplantation (RTx from living donors is an established procedure to expand the donor pool for patients with end stage renal disease. Immunoadsorption (IA is a standard procedure for the removal of preformed antibodies against the allograft. In this study, antigen-specific and non-antigen-specific IA in ABOi RTx were compared.10 patients underwent antigen-specific IA (Glycosorb group and 13 patients non-antigen-specific IA (Immunosorba group. The effects of both procedures regarding antibody reduction, number of treatments, complications, costs, as well as the allograft function and patient survival were compared between both groups.Although the IgG levels were reduced equally by both procedures (p=0.82, the reduction of the IgM level was more effective in the Glycosorb group (p=0.0172. Patients in both groups required a median number of 6 IA before ABOi RTx. Allograft function at one year after AB0i RTx was similar in both groups (estimated glomerular filtration rate: 66 vs. 64 ml/min/1.73m² respectively, with a death-censored graft survival of 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. Complication rates did not differ between procedures. Due to the reuse of non-antigen-specific Immunosorba columns, costs were considerably lower in this group; however, the use of the Immunosorba-based IA was less time-efficient.Considering upcoming alternatives as simultaneous performance of dialysis and IA or a possible reuse of Glycosorb columns, this might become less relevant in the future.

  20. Detection of peste des petits ruminants virus antigen using immunofiltration and antigen-competition ELISA methods.

    Raj, G Dhinakar; Rajanathan, T M C; Kumar, C Senthil; Ramathilagam, G; Hiremath, Geetha; Shaila, M S


    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is one of the most economically important diseases affecting sheep and goats in India. An immunofiltration-based test has been developed using either mono-specific serum/monoclonal antibodies (mAb) prepared against a recombinant truncated nucleocapsid protein of rinderpest virus (RPV) cross-reactive with PPR virus. This method consists of coating ocular swab eluate from suspected animals onto a nitrocellulose membrane housed in a plastic module, which is allowed to react with suitable dilutions of a mAb or a mono-specific polyclonal antibody. The antigen-antibody complex formed on the membrane is then detected by protein A-colloidal gold conjugate, which forms a pink colour. In the immunofiltration test, concordant results were obtained using either PPRV mAb or mono-specific serum. Another test, an antigen-competition ELISA which relies on the competition between plate-coated recombinant truncated 'N' protein of RPV and the PPRV 'N' protein present in ocular swab eluates (sample) for binding to the mono-specific antibody against N protein of RPV (in liquid phase) was developed. The cut-off value for this test was established using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive and negative oculo-nasal swab samples. Linear correlation between percent inhibition (PI) values in antigen-competition ELISA and virus infectivity titres was 0.992. Comparison of the immunofiltration test with the antigen-competition ELISA yielded a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. These two tests can serve as a screening (immunofiltration) and confirmatory (antigen-competition ELISA) test, respectively, in the diagnosis of PPR in sheep or goats. PMID:18182256

  1. Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells Recognize Epitopes of Protective Antigen following Vaccination with an Anthrax Vaccine

    Laughlin, Elsa M.; Miller, Joseph D.; James, Eddie; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C.; Mittler, Robert S.; Akondy, Rama; Kwok, William; Ahmed, Rafi; Nepom, Gerald,


    Detection of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells is facilitated by the use of fluorescently labeled soluble peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) multimers which mirror the antigen specificity of T-cell receptor recognition. We have used soluble peptide-MHC class II tetramers containing peptides from the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis to detect circulating T cells in peripheral blood of subjects vaccinated with an anthrax vaccine. PA-specific HLA class II-restricted T lympho...

  2. Antineutrophil antibodies associated with ulcerative colitis interact with the antigen(s) during the process of apoptosis

    Mallolas, J; Esteve, M; Rius, E; Cabre, E; Gassull, M


    BACKGROUND—Cell death by apoptosis seems to be an important mechanism for translocation to the cell surface of a variety of intracellular components capable of inducing autoantibody production.
AIMS—To identify the cellular location of antigen (Ag)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) in non-apoptotic human neutrophils, and to assess if ANCA associated with ulcerative colitis reacts with neutrophil antigen(s) during neutrophil apoptosis. The cellular distribution of Ag-ANCA in apoptot...

  3. Immunochemical properties of antigen-specific monkey T-cell suppressor factor induced with a Streptococcus mutans antigen.

    Lamb, J R; Zanders, E D; Kontiainen, S; Lehner, T.


    Antigen-specific suppressor factor could be released from monkey suppressor T cells induced in vitro with a protein antigen isolated from the carcinogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The suppressor activity was due to the factor itself and not to carryover of free antigen. Characterization of the monkey factor revealed it to have a molecular weight of ca. 70,000, and to contain a constant region and determinants encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. The presence of immunoglobul...

  4. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    Mayu Suzuki; Mutsuko Hara; Saori Ichikawa; Seiji Kamijo; Takuya Nakazawa; Hideki Hatanaka; Kazuo Akiyama; Hideoki Ogawa; Ko Okumura; Toshiro Takai


    Background: Patients with house dust mite (HDM) allergy or Ascariasis produce serum IgE specific to the antigens of HDM or nematode Ascaris, respectively. Although human IgE cross-reactivity has been reported between HDM and Ascaris antigens, it remains unclear whether it contributes to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. We herein investigated the induction of cross-reactive antibodies and T cells in mice and effects of airway exposure to HDM antigens after preimmunization with Ascaris an...

  5. CD133 antigen expression in ovarian cancer

    Much attention has been recently focused on the role of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the initiation and progression of solid malignancies. Since CSCs are able to proliferate and self-renew extensively, thus sustaining tumor growth, the identification of CSCs through their antigenic profile might have relevant clinical implications. In this context, CD133 antigen has proved to be a marker of tumor cells with stemness features in several human malignancies. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical role of the immunohistochemically assessed expression of CD133 in a large single Institution series of ovarian cancer patients. The study included 160 cases admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Catholic University of Campobasso and Rome. CD133 antigen was identified by the monoclonal mouse anti-CD133-1 antibody (clone CD133 Miltenyi biotec). In the overall series CD133 positive tumor cells were observed in 50/160 (31.2%) cases. A diffuse cytoplasmic pattern was identified in 30/50 (60.0%), while an apical cytoplasmic pattern was found in 20/50 (40.0%) of CD133 positive tumors. As of September 2008, the median follow up was 37 months (range: 2–112). During the follow up period, progression and death of disease were observed in 123 (76.9%), and 88 (55.0%) cases, respectively. There was no difference in TTP between cases with negative (median TTP = 23 months) versus positive CD133 expression (median TTP = 24 months) (p value = 0.3). Similar results were obtained for OS. When considering the TTP and OS curves according to the pattern of CD133 expression, a trend to a worse prognosis for cases with diffuse cytoplasmic versus the apical cytoplasmic pattern was documented, although the statistical significance was not reached. The immunohistochemical assessment of CD133 expression seems not to provide additional prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients. The role of the different pattern of CD133 immunoreaction deserves further investigation in a larger

  6. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen

    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, 32P/sub i/-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T antigen, which was only weakly phosphorylated, and a truncated form of large T antigen of 34,000 molecular weight which was heavily phosphorylated. Both showed phosphorylation patterns similar to that of large T antigen from infected cells. Peptide analyses of large T antigens encoded by the deletion mutants dl8 and dl23 or of specific fragments of wild-type large T antigen indicated that the phosphorylation sites are located in an amino-terminal region upstream of residue 194. The amino acid composition of the phosphopeptides as revealed by differential labeling with various amino acids indicated that several phosphopeptides contain overlapping sequences and that all phosphorylation sites are located in four tryptic peptides derived from a region between Met71 and Arg191. Two of the potential phosphorylation sites were identified as Ser81 and Thr187. The possible role of this modification of large T antigen is discussed

  7. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen

    Hassauer, M.; Scheidtmann, K.H.; Walter, G.


    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, /sup 32/P/sub i/-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T antigen, which was only weakly phosphorylated, and a truncated form of large T antigen of 34,000 molecular weight which was heavily phosphorylated. Both showed phosphorylation patterns similar to that of large T antigen from infected cells. Peptide analyses of large T antigens encoded by the deletion mutants dl8 and dl23 or of specific fragments of wild-type large T antigen indicated that the phosphorylation sites are located in an amino-terminal region upstream of residue 194. The amino acid composition of the phosphopeptides as revealed by differential labeling with various amino acids indicated that several phosphopeptides contain overlapping sequences and that all phosphorylation sites are located in four tryptic peptides derived from a region between Met71 and Arg191. Two of the potential phosphorylation sites were identified as Ser81 and Thr187. The possible role of this modification of large T antigen is discussed.

  8. Single-Antigen Serological Testing for Bovine Tuberculosis

    Antibody responses are useful indicators of Mycobacterium bovis infection of cattle. Tests for serological responses often use panels of multiple M. bovis antigens as detection probes. This is recommended because responses to single antigens may be too variable for consistent diagnosis. However, the...

  9. Protein antigen adsorption to the DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant

    Hamborg, Mette; Jorgensen, Lene; Bojsen, Anders Riber; Christensen, Dennis; Foged, Camilla


    Understanding the nature of adjuvant-antigen interactions is important for the future design of efficient and safe subunit vaccines, but remains an analytical challenge. We studied the interactions between three model protein antigens and the clinically tested cationic liposomal adjuvant composed...

  10. Expression of Treponema pallidum Antigens in Escherichia coli

    Walfield, Alan M.; Hanff, Philip A.; Lovett, Michael A.


    Treponema pallidum DNA was cloned in a bacteriophage. Clones were screened for expression of Treponema pallidum antigens by an in situ radio-immunoassay on nitrocellulose, with the use of subsequent reactions with syphilitic serum and radioiodinated Staphylococcus aureus protein A. One clone, which gave a strong signal, codes for at least seven antigens that react specifically with human antibodies to Treponema pallidum.

  11. Engineering antigen-specific immunological tolerance.

    Kontos, Stephan; Grimm, Alizee J.; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.


    Unwanted immunity develops in response to many protein drugs, in autoimmunity, in allergy, and in transplantation. Approaches to induce immunological tolerance aim to either prevent these responses or reverse them after they have already taken place. We present here recent developments in approaches, based on engineered peptides, proteins and biomaterials, that harness mechanisms of peripheral tolerance both prophylactically and therapeutically to induce antigenspecific immunological tolerance. These mechanisms are based on responses of B and T lymphocytes to other cells in their immune environment that result in cellular deletion or ignorance to particular antigens, or in development of active immune regulatory responses. Several of these approaches are moving toward clinical development, and some are already in early stages of clinical testing.

  12. Antigen handling in antigen-induced arthritis in mice: an autoradiographic and immunofluorescence study using whole joint sections

    Antigen localization after intraarticular antigen injection was studied in immune and nonimmune mice using autoradiographic and immunofluorescence techniques on whole joint sections. After intraarticular injection of radiolabeled methylated bovine serum albumin (125I-mBSA) in immune mice, labeling in the synovium and synovial exudate diminished rapidly, apart from some deposits in fibrinlike material present in the joint cavity. Long-term antigen retention was found in avascular and hypovascular structures lining the joint cavity, albeit not along the whole surface; eg, labeling remained present at the edges of the femoral condyle hyaline cartilage but not at the central weight-bearing region; long-term retention at ligaments was only found at the insertion sites. Immunofluorescence data in immune animals showed antigen retention together with the presence of immunoglobulins and complement, indicating that antigen is retained at least in part in the form of immune complexes. Nonimmune mice showed even higher long-term antigen retention than immune animals, probably related to physico-chemical properties of the antigen enabling nonimmune binding to articular structures, but also indicating that the presence of joint inflammation in the immune animals enhances antigen clearance. Histologic examination of the ligaments and patellar cartilage of immune mice did reveal that long-term antigen retention was not anatomically related to nearby inflammation or to local tissue damage. The importance of long-term antigen retention for the chronicity of arthritis may lie in the leakage of small amounts of this antigen to joint compartments where it does behave as an inflammatory stimulus; it may further be that it renders the joint a specifically hypersensitive area

  13. Expression and immunoactivity of chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of hepatitis B virus

    Hai-Jie Yang; Ning-Shao Xia; Min Chen; Tong Cheng; Shui-Zhen He; Shao-Wei Li; Bao-Quan Guan; Zi-Heng Zhu; Ying Gu; Jun Zhang


    AIM: To improve the immunogenicity of receptor binding site of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on preS1 antigen using HBV core antigen as an immuno-carrier.METHODS: One to 6 tandem copies of HBV preS1 (21-47)fragment were inserted into HBcAg at the sites of aa 78 and 82, and expressed in E. coli. ELISA, Western blot and animal immunization were used to analyze the antigenicity and immmunogenicity of purified particulate antigens. The ability to capture HBV by antibodies elicited by chimeric partides was detected with immuno-capture PCR.RESULTS: Recombinant antigens CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ carrying 1-3 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) individually could form viruslike particles (VLPs), similar to HBcAg in morphology. But recombinant antigens carrying 4-6 copies of HBV preS1 (21-47) were poorly expressed in E.coli. Chimeric antigens were lacking of immunoreactivity with anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies (McAbs), but still reserved good immunoreactivity with anti-HBe McAbs. CⅠ, CⅡ, CⅢ could strongly react with anti-preS1 McAb, suggesting that preS1 (21-47) fragment was well exposed on the surface of chimeric VLPs. Three chimeric VLP antigens (CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ) could stimulate mice to produce high-level antibody responses, and their immunogenicity was stronger than non-particulate antigen 21-47*6, containing 6 copies of preS1 (21-47). Mouse antibodies to CⅠ, CⅡ and CⅢ were able to capture HBV virions in immuno-capture PCR assay in vitro.CONCLUSION: Chimeric particulate antigens of receptor binding site-core antigen of HBV can elicit strong antibody responses to preS1. They have a potential to be developed into prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines against HBV infection.

  14. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky;


    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic...... potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  15. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J; Christensen, M; Dabelsteen, Erik


    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well-defined monoc......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... were predominantly observed in the cell cytoplasm, most often in the supranuclear area, suggesting localization to the Golgi region, whereas ductal contents were unstained. Mucous acinar cells expressed Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and H and A antigens, regardless of glandular location. Serous acinar cells, on the...

  16. [HLA and keloids: antigenic frequency and therapeutic response].

    Rossi, A; Bozzi, M


    Twenty keloid subjects were typed for class 1 (HLA-A, B and C) and class 2 (HLA-DR and DQ) histocompatibility antigens. Their frequencies were compared to those found in control populations. Of all the antigens belonging to class 1, B 21 was more prevalent in patients. The findings regarding class 2 antigens were noteworthy: in keloid patients there was a significant prevalence of DR 5 (RR = 3.54 and 7.93 respectively for the two control groups) and DQw 3 (RR = 16.8). The patients typed for HLA-antigens were treated with corticosteroid infiltrations. The responses to the treatments were no related to the histocompatibility antigens. PMID:2628278

  17. Methods for examination of antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin

    Objective: To choose and establish the methods for examination of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin in order to offer the reference for evaluating the antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin against human. Methods: Antigenicity of heterogeneous polymerized hemoglobin was examined for hypersensitivity, cell-mediated immunity reaction, humoral immunity reaction and cross-reaction of antigen. Results: The rabbit and guinea pig did not give rise to hypersensitivity. In immunized rabbits, the level of serum total IgG was normal, but the level of serum specific IgG was high. The examination of B lymphocytes showed that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in comparison with control. Cross-reaction of antigen proved that bovine hemoglobin had cross-reaction with human hemoglobin. Suggesting that they may be homologous, the level of the serum specific antibody is high in the immunized animal. According to the immunology theories, the polymerized hemoglobin has antigenicity. (authors)

  18. Localization of Enterobacterial Common Antigen: Immunogenic and Nonimmunogenic Enterobacterial Common Antigen-Containing Escherichia coli

    Rinno, J.; Golecki, J R; Mayer, H


    In rabbits immunized with intact bacteria, the immune response to the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA) predominantly consists of the production of immunoglobulin M antibodies. This is not dependent on whether the animals are immunized for a short (2 weeks) or a long (3 months) period of time. The highest ECA-specific immunoglobulin G titers were observed after a short immunization with living bacteria. ECA-specific antisera were obtained by absorption with appropriate ECA-negative mutants...

  19. A Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Secreting Adenocarcinoma Arising in Tailgut Cyst : Clinical Implications of Carcinoembryonic Antigen

    Cho, Byoung Chul; Kim, Nam Kyu; Lim, Beom Jin; Kang, Sang Ook; Sohn, Ju Hyuk; Roh, Jae Kyung; Choi, Sang Tae; Kim, Sung Ai; Park, Se Eun


    Tailgut cysts (TGCs) are rare congenital cysts that occur in the retrorectal or presacral spaces. Although most tailgut cysts have been reported as benign, there have been at least 9 cases associated with malignant change. We report herein on an unusual case of a 40-year-old woman with a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-producing adenocarcinoma arising within a TGC who underwent surgical resection and local radiation therapy. Despite the complete resection, metastatic adenocarcinoma developed f...

  20. Molecular identification and antigenic characterization of a merozoite surface antigen and a secreted antigen of Babesia canis (BcMSA1 and BcSA1)

    Zhou, Mo; Cao, Shinuo; Luo, Yuzi; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; IGUCHI, Aiko; Vudriko, Patrick; Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Löwenstein, Mario; Kern, Angela; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Ikuo


    Background Babesia canis is an apicomplexan tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan responsible for causing canine babesiosis in Europe and west Asia. Despite its importance, there is no known rapid diagnostic kit detection of B. canis infection in dogs. The present study identified two novel antigens of B. canis and used the recombinant antigens to establish a rapid, specific and sensitive serodiagnostic technique for detection of B. canis infection. Methods A complementary DNA (cDNA) expression libr...

  1. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand

    Nawtaisong, Pruksa; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Smith, Derek J.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Paris, Daniel H.


    Background Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation), in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera. Conclusions/Significance Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes. PMID:27248711

  2. Case of rhesus antigen weak D type 4.2. (DAR category detection

    L. L. Golovkina


    Full Text Available Serological methods of Rhesus antigens identification in humans cannot identify D-antigen variants. In this article the serological characteristics of Rhesus antigen D weak type 4.2. (Category DAR are described.

  3. Nomenclature for clusters of differentiation (CD) of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations*


    Evaluation of 139 monoclonal antibodies detecting human leukocyte differentiation antigens during the First International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens in 1982 permitted the designation of a nomenclature for the Clusters of Differentiation of antigens defined on human leukocyte populations.

  4. The chicken erythrocyte-specific MHC antigen. Characterization and purification of the B-G antigen by monoclonal antibodies

    Salomonsen, J; Skjødt, K; Crone, M;


    ), when labeled erythrocytes were the antigen source, or trimers (130 kd), when B-G was purified and precipitated from CEM. The B-G antigen was unglycosylated as studied by in vitro synthesis in the presence or absence of tunicamycin, binding experiments with lectin from Phaseolus limensis, and treatment...

  5. Expression of an antigen homologous to the human CO17-1A/GA733 colon cancer antigen in animal tissues.

    Zaloudik, J; Basak, S.; Nesbit, M.; Speicher, D W; Wunner, W H; Miller, E.; Ernst-Grotkowski, C.; Kennedy, R; Bergsagel, L. P.; Koido, T.; Herlyn, D


    The CO17-1A/GA733 antigen is associated with human carcinomas and some normal epithelial tissues. This antigen has shown promise as a target in approaches to passive and active immunotherapy of colorectal cancer. The relevance of animal models for studies of immunotherapy targeting this antigen in patients is dependent on the expression of the antigen on normal animal tissues. Immunohistoperoxidase staining with polyclonal rabbit antibodies to the human antigen revealed the human homologue on...

  6. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G; Abal, A T; Ravn, P; Oftung, F; Andersen, P


    GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well......-induced proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion showed that the most frequently recognized antigen was ESAT-6, followed by MPT59, GroES, MPB70, MPT64, DnaK, GroEL and PstS. The frequency of ESAT-6 responders, as measured both by proliferation (18/19) and secretion of IFN-gamma (16/19) was comparable to the results...

  7. Mucin associated Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen expression in colorectal polyps.

    Itzkowitz, S. H.; Bloom, E J; Lau, T. S.; Kim, Y. S.


    Sialosyl-Tn antigen and its immediate precursor, Tn antigen, are carbohydrate structures associated with the earliest steps of mucin O-linked glycosylation. Both antigens have been shown previously to be highly sensitive and specific markers of colorectal cancer. One hundred and three colorectal polyps (79 adenomatous; 24 hyperplastic) were examined for expression of Tn antigen using vicia villosa isolectin B4, and for sialosyl-Tn antigen by monoclonal antibody TKH2. Tn antigen was expressed ...

  8. Microglial MHC antigen expression after ischemic and kainic acid lesions of the adult rat hippocampus

    Finsen, B.R.; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev; Diemer, Nils Henrik;


    Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology......Leukocyte common antigen, macrophages, blood-brain barrier, neural degeneration, fascia dentata, neuropathology...

  9. Antigenic variation with a twist--the Borrelia story.

    Norris, Steven J


    A common mechanism of immune evasion in pathogenic bacteria and protozoa is antigenic variation, in which genetic or epigenetic changes result in rapid, sequential shifts in a surface-exposed antigen. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Dai et al. provide the most complete description to date of the vlp/vsp antigenic variation system of the relapsing fever spirochaete, Borrelia hermsii. This elaborate, plasmid-encoded system involves an expression site that can acquire either variable large protein (vlp) or variable small protein (vsp) surface lipoprotein genes from 59 different archival copies. The archival vlp and vsp genes are arranged in clusters on at least five different plasmids. Gene conversion occurs through recombination events at upstream homology sequences (UHS) found in each gene copy, and at downstream homology sequences (DHS) found periodically among the vlp/vsp archival genes. Previous studies have shown that antigenic variation in relapsing fever Borrelia not only permits the evasion of host antibody responses, but can also result in changes in neurotropism and other pathogenic properties. The vlsE antigenic variation locus of Lyme disease spirochaetes, although similar in sequence to the relapsing fever vlp genes, has evolved a completely different antigenic variation mechanism involving segmental recombination from a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes. These two systems thus appear to represent divergence from a common precursor followed by functional convergence to create two distinct antigenic variation processes. PMID:16796669

  10. Molecular mimics of the tumour antigen MUC1.

    Tharappel C James

    Full Text Available A key requirement for the development of cancer immunotherapy is the identification of tumour-associated antigens that are differentially or exclusively expressed on the tumour and recognized by the host immune system. However, immune responses to such antigens are often muted or lacking due to the antigens being recognized as "self", and further complicated by the tumour environment and regulation of immune cells within. In an effort to circumvent the lack of immune responses to tumour antigens, we have devised a strategy to develop potential synthetic immunogens. The strategy, termed mirror image phage display, is based on the concept of molecular mimicry as demonstrated by the idiotype/anti-idiotype paradigm in the immune system. Here as 'proof of principle' we have selected molecular mimics of the well-characterised tumour associated antigen, the human mucin1 protein (MUC1 from two different peptide phage display libraries. The putative mimics were compared in structure and function to that of the native antigen. Our results demonstrate that several of the mimic peptides display T-cell stimulation activity in vitro when presented by matured dendritic cells. The mimic peptides and the native MUC1 antigenic epitopes can cross-stimulate T-cells. The data also indicate that sequence homology and/or chemical properties to the original epitope are not the sole determining factors for the observed immunostimulatory activity of the mimic peptides.

  11. A 2-Step Laemmli and Antigen Retrieval Method Improves Immunodetection.

    Scalia, Carla R; Gendusa, Rossella; Cattoretti, Giorgio


    Detection by immunohistochemistry of antigens relies on reproducibly optimal preanalytical and analytical variables such as fixation conditions, antigen retrieval (AR), and the resolutive power of the detection system. There is a need to improve immunodetection on routinely fixed and embedded material, particularly for scarcely represented but relevant antigens. We devised a 2-step method and applied it to a panel of antigens of common use for diagnosis, prognosis, individualized therapy use, or research. The first step consists of a 10 minutes. Incubation at 95°C with a modified Laemmli extraction buffer. This was followed by a traditional AR method. Detection of the vast majority of antigens was improved over a simple AR with preservation of tissue integrity, as shown by quantitative image analysis. The mechanism underlying the improved detection may be controlled denaturation followed by heat-mediated retrieval, a method we dubbed "antigen relaxing" and which will improve routine detection of scarce antigens in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material. PMID:26067142

  12. Microbial antigenic variation mediated by homologous DNA recombination.

    Vink, Cornelis; Rudenko, Gloria; Seifert, H Steven


    Pathogenic microorganisms employ numerous molecular strategies in order to delay or circumvent recognition by the immune system of their host. One of the most widely used strategies of immune evasion is antigenic variation, in which immunogenic molecules expressed on the surface of a microorganism are continuously modified. As a consequence, the host is forced to constantly adapt its humoral immune response against this pathogen. An antigenic change thus provides the microorganism with an opportunity to persist and/or replicate within the host (population) for an extended period of time or to effectively infect a previously infected host. In most cases, antigenic variation is caused by genetic processes that lead to the modification of the amino acid sequence of a particular antigen or to alterations in the expression of biosynthesis genes that induce changes in the expression of a variant antigen. Here, we will review antigenic variation systems that rely on homologous DNA recombination and that are found in a wide range of cellular, human pathogens, including bacteria (such as Neisseria spp., Borrelia spp., Treponema pallidum, and Mycoplasma spp.), fungi (such as Pneumocystis carinii) and parasites (such as the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei). Specifically, the various DNA recombination-based antigenic variation systems will be discussed with a focus on the employed mechanisms of recombination, the DNA substrates, and the enzymatic machinery involved. PMID:22212019

  13. H-Y antigen expression in different tissues from transsexuals.

    Spoljar, M; Eicher, W; Eiermann, W; Cleve, H


    H-Y-antigen expression was analyzed in patients with transsexuality. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and various tissues were examined using the cytotoxicity assay of Goldberg et al. (1971). Peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy male and female subjects were used as controls as well as tissues from non-transsexual individuals and from male and female C57B1/6J mice. In three female-to-male transsexuals the peripheral blood lymphocytes were H-Y antigen positive. In these patients also their ovaries, uterus, and mammae were found to be H-Y antigen positive. Three male-to-female transsexuals were examined. The peripheral blood lymphocytes in two of these patients were found to be H-Y antigen negative. Their testes were also H-Y antigen negative, as well as the epididymus, the corpus cavernosum penis, and the cremaster muscle which was analyzed in one of them. One male-to-female transsexual had peripheral blood lymphocytes which were H-Y antigen positive; this patient had testis and corpus cavernosum penis which were also H-Y-antigen positive. PMID:7262869

  14. Does antibody binding to diverse antigens predict future infection?

    Owen, J P; Waite, J L; Holden, K Z; Clayton, D H


    We studied diverse antigen binding in hosts and the outcome of parasitism. We used captive-bred F1 descendants of feral rock pigeons (Columba livia) challenged with blood-feeding flies (Hippoboscidae) and a protozoan parasite (Haemoproteus). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunoblots were used to test (i) whether pre-infection IgY antigen binding predicts parasite fitness and (ii) whether antigen binding changes after infection. Assays used extracts from three pigeon parasites (northern fowl mite, Salmonella bacteria and avian pox virus), as well as nonparasitic molecules from cattle, chicken and keyhole limpet. Binding to hippoboscid and S. enterica extracts were predictive of hippoboscid fly fitness. Binding to extracts from hippoboscids, pox virus and nonparasitic organisms was predictive of Haemoproteus infection levels. Antigen binding to all extracts increased after parasite challenge, despite the fact that birds were only exposed to flies and Haemoproteus. Immunoblots suggested innate Ig binding to parasite-associated molecular markers and revealed that new antigens were bound in extracts after infection. These data suggest that host antibody binding to diverse antigens predicts parasite fitness even when the antigens are not related to the infecting parasite. We discuss the implications of these data for the study of host-parasite immunological interaction. PMID:25313676

  15. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C


    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  16. Detection of hepatitis A viral antigen by radioimmunoassay

    With coded samples, the effectiveness and specificity of a micro-SPIRA procedure for rapidly and quantitatively detecting type A hepatitis-associated antigen in large numbers of specimens from infected liver, stool, or serum has been demonstrated. Samples which were judged to be negative by IEM were found to contain significant levels of HAV antigen by this immunoradiometric technique. The detection of significant levels of HAV antigen in infected chimpanzees supports epidemiologic evidence of viremia during the acute stage of the disease. The results of this study suggest that the diagnosis of type A hepatitis by a convention serologic procedure may now be at hand. (auth)


    Djalali, M; T.R. Neyestani; M. Iezeshki


    Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenici...

  18. Immunofluorescence antigen mapping for hereditary epidermolysis bullosa

    Raghavendra Rao


    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa (EB is a group of inherited, mechanobullous disorders that are caused by mutations in the structural proteins in the epidermis or dermoepidermal junction. Characteristic clinical picture is the presence of blisters at trauma prone areas of the body, which develops at or soon after birth. Availability of specific monoclonal antibodies against the target proteins together with advances in the molecular genetics have led to the revision in the classification of EB. Now four major types of EB are recognized depending upon the level of blister and the location of target protein: EB simplex (epidermolytic, junctional EB (lucidolytic, dystrophic EB (dermolytic and Kindler′s syndrome (mixed cleavage plane. The laboratory tests not only help to confirm the diagnosis of EB but are also an important tool to classify (and subtype EB. These include immunofluorescence antigen mapping (IFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and mutation analysis. IFM is the most preferred method for final diagnosis of EB worldwide. It is relatively easy to perform and results can be obtained rapidly. This article describes the technicalities and significance of IFM in various types of EB.

  19. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in neutrophil fate.

    Witko-Sarsat, Véronique; Ohayon, Delphine


    The life span of a neutrophil is a tightly regulated process as extended survival is beneficial for pathogen elimination and cell death necessary to prevent cytotoxic content release from activated neutrophils at the inflammatory site. Therefore, the control between survival and death must be a dynamic process. We have previously described that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) which is known as a nuclear protein pivotal in DNA synthesis, is a key element in controlling neutrophil survival through its association with procaspases. Contrary to the dogma which asserted that PCNA has a strictly nuclear function, in mature neutrophils, PCNA is present exclusively within the cytosol due to its nuclear export at the end of the granulocytic differentiation. More recent studies are consistent with the notion that the cytosolic scaffold of PCNA is aimed at modulating neutrophil fate rather than simply preventing death. Ultimately, targeting neutrophil survival might have important applications not just in the field of immunology and inflammation, but also in hematology and transfusion. The neutrophil emerges as a unique and powerful cellular model to unravel the basic mechanisms governing the cell cycle-independent functions of PCNA and should be considered as a leader of the pack. PMID:27558345

  20. Designing malaria vaccines to circumvent antigen variability.

    Ouattara, Amed; Barry, Alyssa E; Dutta, Sheetij; Remarque, Edmond J; Beeson, James G; Plowe, Christopher V


    Prospects for malaria eradication will be greatly enhanced by an effective vaccine, but parasite genetic diversity poses a major impediment to malaria vaccine efficacy. In recent pre-clinical and field trials, vaccines based on polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum antigens have shown efficacy only against homologous strains, raising the specter of allele-specific immunity such as that which plagues vaccines against influenza and HIV. The most advanced malaria vaccine, RTS,S, targets relatively conserved epitopes on the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein. After more than 40 years of development and testing, RTS,S, has shown significant but modest efficacy against clinical malaria in phase 2 and 3 trials. Ongoing phase 2 studies of an irradiated sporozoite vaccine will ascertain whether the full protection against homologous experimental malaria challenge conferred by high doses of a whole organism vaccine can provide protection against diverse strains in the field. Here we review and evaluate approaches being taken to design broadly cross-protective malaria vaccines. PMID:26475447

  1. Pericyte Antigens in Perivascular Soft Tissue Tumors

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Asatrian, Greg; Mravic, Marco; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Dry, Sarah M.; Peault, Bruno; James, Aaron W.


    Introduction Perivascular soft tissue tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms of unclear line of differentiation, although most are presumed to originate from pericytes or modified perivascular cells. Among these, glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma share a spectrum of histologic findings and a perivascular growth pattern. In contrast, solitary fibrous tumor (previously termed hemangiopericytoma) was once hypothesized to have pericytic differentiation. Methods Here, we systematically examine pericyte immunohistochemical markers among glomus tumor (including malignant glomus tumor), myopericytoma, angioleiomyoma, and solitary fibrous tumor. Immunohistochemical staining and semiquantification was performed using well-defined pericyte antigens, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Results Glomus tumor and myopericytoma demonstrate diffuse staining for all pericyte markers, including immunohistochemical reactivity for αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Malignant glomus tumors all showed some degree of pericyte marker immunoreactivity, although it was significantly reduced. Angioleiomyoma shared a similar αSMA + CD146 + PDGFRβ+ immunophenotype; however, this was predominantly seen in the areas of perivascular tumor growth. Solitary fibrous tumors showed patchy PDGFRβ immunoreactivity only. Discussion In summary, pericyte marker expression is a ubiquitous finding in glomus tumor, myopericytoma, and angioleiomyoma. Malignant glomus tumor shows a comparative reduction in pericyte marker expression, which may represent partial loss of pericytic differentiation. Pericyte markers are essentially not seen in solitary fibrous tumor. The combination of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ immunohistochemical stainings may be of utility for the evaluation of pericytic differentiation in soft tissue tumors. PMID:26085647

  2. Radiolabelled parasite antigens as tools for diagnosis and identification of protective antigens

    Radiolabelling specific compartments and molecules of parasites provides a valuable tool for establishing parasite antigen-host response systems with utility and/or importance in protection, diagnosis and pathology. The combined immunological, biochemical and molecular biological expertise currently available forms a sufficient basis for a relatively logical and effective programme directed towards the ultimate eradication of tropical diseases. The organization of carefully selected and clinically well characterized sera and patients, representing the range of commonly occurring parasitic infections, would be of great practical value in the pursuance of this goal. (author)

  3. Presensitization to Ascaris antigens promotes induction of mite-specific IgE upon mite antigen inhalation in mice

    Mayu Suzuki


    Conclusions: We demonstrated that the immunization of naïve mice with Ascaris antigens induced production of antibodies and differentiation of Th2 cells, which were cross-reactive to HDM antigens, and accelerated induction of serum HDM-specific IgE upon subsequent airway exposure to HDM antigens in mice. These results suggest that sensitization to HDM towards IgE-mediated allergic diseases is faster in individuals with a previous history of Ascaris infection than in those without presensitization to Ascaris.

  4. Characterization of plant plasma membrane antigens. Progress report

    The library of monoclonal antibodies, which are directed against membrane bound antigens of protoplast plasma membrane, are being characterized by immunoprecipitation, immunoaffinity chromatography, and by Western blotting of SDS gels. Progress on these studies is reported here. (DT)

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to cell surface antigens of human melanoma

    The authors have worked with three human melanoma antigens which have been defined by monoclonal mouse antibodies: p97, a glycoprotein that is structurally related to transferrin, a proteoglycan, and a GD3 ganglioside that is slightly different from the GD3 of normal brain. All three antigens can be detected in frozen sections of melanoma, using immunohistological techniques. Antibodies and Fab fragments, specific for either p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, have been radiolabelled with 131I and successfully used for tumor imaging, and Phase I therapeutic trails are underway, using 131I-labelled Fab fragments, specific for p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, to localize a potentially therapeutic dose of radiation into tumors. It may be feasible to use the same monoclonal antibodies, or antibody fragments, as carriers of neutron capturers, such as boron, for possible use in tumor therapy. The initial experiments on this are best carried out by using nude mice (or rats) carrying human melanoma xenografts

  6. Aspergillus antigen testing in bone marrow transplant recipients

    Williamson, E; Oliver, D.; Johnson, E.; Foot, A.; D. Marks; Warnock, D.


    Aims—To assess the clinical usefulness of a commercial aspergillus antigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in bone marrow transplant recipients, and to compare it with a commercial latex agglutination (LA) test.

  7. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.


    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  8. Control of T cell antigen reactivity via programmed TCR downregulation.

    Gallegos, Alena M; Xiong, Huizhong; Leiner, Ingrid M; Sušac, Bože; Glickman, Michael S; Pamer, Eric G; van Heijst, Jeroen W J


    The T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is unique in that its affinity for ligand is unknown before encounter and can vary by orders of magnitude. How the immune system regulates individual T cells that display very different reactivity to antigen remains unclear. Here we found that activated CD4(+) T cells, at the peak of clonal expansion, persistently downregulated their TCR expression in proportion to the strength of the initial antigen recognition. This programmed response increased the threshold for cytokine production and recall proliferation in a clone-specific manner and ultimately excluded clones with the highest antigen reactivity. Thus, programmed downregulation of TCR expression represents a negative feedback mechanism for constraining T cell effector function with a suitable time delay to thereby allow pathogen control while avoiding excess inflammatory damage. PMID:26901151

  9. Brain antigens: components of subfractions from human grey matter

    Rajam, P. C.; Bogoch, S.


    1. Using chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, a neutral, low ionic strength extract of human grey matter has been separated into fractions of proteins with basic and progressively acidic groups. 2. The reactions of each group with rabbit antiserum against the original extract, in double-diffusion tests, suggest the presence of a minimum total of thirteen distinct antigens between them. These results are supported by immunoelectrophoretic findings, which indicate the basic group to contain five, and the progressively acidic group seven to eight distinct antigens. These antigens do not appear to be human serum proteins. 3. Antigens belonging to the BE class (resistant to boiling and relatively soluble in ethanol) are present among the progressively acidic proteins, and possibly among the basic proteins also. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:4958737

  10. DNA encoding individual mycobacterial antigens protects mice against tuberculosis

    C.L. Silva


    Full Text Available Over the last few years, some of our experiments in which mycobacterial antigens were presented to the immune system as if they were viral antigens have had a significant impact on our understanding of protective immunity against tuberculosis. They have also markedly enhanced the prospects for new vaccines. We now know that individual mycobacterial protein antigens can confer protection equal to that from live BCG vaccine in mice. A critical determinant of the outcome of immunization appears to be the degree to which antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells are generated by the immune response. Our most recent studies indicate that DNA vaccination is an effective way to establish long-lasting cytotoxic T cell memory and protection against tuberculosis.

  11. Dendritic cell function and antigen presentation in malaria.

    Cockburn, Ian A; Zavala, Fidel


    Due to the diverse roles T cells play in protection against malaria as well as pathogenesis it is critical to know which cells present antigen and the nature of the antigens they present. During pre-erythrocytic stages of infection, cutting-edge imaging studies have shown how Plasmodium antigens are presented during both the priming and effector phases of the protective CD8+ T cell response. During blood stages, pathology is in part due to the loss of DC function and the action of pathogenic T cells in the brain. Recently endothelial cells presenting malaria antigen to cognate T cells have emerged as critical players in malaria pathogenesis. Manipulating these processes may inform both vaccine design and the development of therapies for cerebral malaria. PMID:26845735

  12. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    Dixit Alok; Srinivas C R; Balachandran C; Shenoi S D


    Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  13. Fragrance - The Commonest Antigen Testing Positive In Chronic Hand Dermatitis

    Dixit Alok


    Full Text Available Fifty cases of chronic hand dermatitis were patch tested with standard series using antigens from Chemotechnique. Cases with positive reaction to fragrance mix were tested with fragrance series. Results are reported here.

  14. Autoantibodies in autoimmune thyroid disease promote immune complex formation with self antigens and increase B cell and CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to self antigens

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Leslie, Robert Graham Quinton


    B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto's thyroidi......B cells are centrally involved as antigen-presenting cells in certain autoimmune diseases. To establish whether autoantibodies form immune complexes (IC) with self-antigens in autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and promote B cell uptake of self-antigen, sera from patients with Hashimoto...

  15. Facts on the fragmentation of antigens in presenting cells, on the association of antigen fragments with MHC molecules in cell-free systems, and speculation on the cell biology of antigen processing

    Werdelin, O; Mouritsen, S; Petersen, B L;


    The processing of a protein antigen is a multi-step event taking place in antigen-presenting cells. Processing is a prerequisite for the recognition of most antigens by T lymphocytes. The antigen is ingested by endocytosis, transported to an acid cellular compartment and subjected to proteolytic...... fragmentation. Some of the antigen fragments bind to MHC class II molecules and are transported to the surface of the antigen-presenting cell where the actual presentation to T lymphocytes occurs. The nature of the processed antigen, how and where it is derived and subsequently becomes associated with MHC...... molecules are the questions discussed in this review. To us, the entire concept of processing has appeal not only because it explains some hitherto well-established, but poorly understood, phenomena such as the fact that T lymphocytes focus their attention entirely upon antigens on other cells. It has...

  16. Antigenic distinctiveness, heterogeneity, and relationships of Methanothrix spp.

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E


    A detailed immunologic analysis of Methanothrix soehngenii Opfikon (the type species of the genus), Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1, and Methanothrix concilii GP6 was performed. A variety of poly- and monoclonal antibody probes for a comprehensive panel of reference organisms were used to determine immunogenicity, antigenicity, and relationships. The three organisms are antigenically distinct but interrelated, forming an immunologically cohesive group, weakly related to methanosarcinae. A prom...

  17. Antigen-specific immune reactions to ischemic stroke

    Xabier eUrra


    Full Text Available Brain proteins are detected in the CSF and blood of stroke patients and their concentration is related to the extent of brain damage. Antibodies against brain antigens develop after stroke, suggesting a humoral immune response to the brain injury. Furthermore, induced immune tolerance is beneficial in animal models of cerebral ischemia. The presence of circulating T cells sensitized against brain antigens, and antigen presenting cells (APCs carrying brain antigens in draining lymphoid tissue of stroke patients support the notion that stroke might induce antigen-specific immune responses. After stroke, brain proteins that are normally hidden from the periphery, inflammatory mediators, and danger signals can exit the brain through several efflux routes. They can reach the blood after leaking out of the damaged blood-brain barrier or following the drainage of interstitial fluid to the dural venous sinus, or reach the cervical lymph nodes through the nasal lymphatics following CSF drainage along the arachnoid sheaths of nerves across the nasal submucosa. The route and mode of access of brain antigens to lymphoid tissue could influence the type of response. Central and peripheral tolerance prevents autoimmunity, but the actual mechanisms of tolerance to brain antigens released into the periphery in the presence of inflammation, danger signals, and APCs, are not fully characterized. Stroke does not systematically trigger autoimmunity, but under certain circumstances, such as pronounced systemic inflammation or infection, autoreactive T cells could escape the tolerance controls. Further investigation is needed to elucidate whether antigen-specific immune events could underlie neurological complications impairing stroke outcome.

  18. Prevalence of Weak D Antigen In Western Indian Population

    Tanvi Sadaria


    Full Text Available Introduction: Discovery of Rh antigens in 1939 by Landsteiner and Weiner was the revolutionary stage in blood banking. Of these antigens, D, which decides Rh positivity or negativity, is the most antigenic. A problem is encountered when an individual has a weakened expression of D (Du, i.e., fewer numbers of D antigens on red cell membrane. Aims and Objectives: To know the prevalence of weak D in Indian population because incidence varies in different population. To determine the risk of alloimmunization among Rh D negative patients who receives the blood of weak D positive donors. Material and Methods: Rh grouping of 38,962 donors who came to The Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion of Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad from 1st January 2013 to 30th September 2014 was done using the DIAGAST (Automated Grouping. The samples that tested negative for D antigen were further analysed for weak D (Du by indirect antiglobulin test using blend of Ig G and Ig M Anti D. This was done using Column agglutination method in ID card (gel card. Results: The total number of donors studied was 38,962. Out of these 3360(8.6% were tested Rh D negative. All Rh D negative donors were tested for weak D (Du. 22 (0.056% of total donors and 0.65% of Rh negative donors turned out to be weak D (Du positive. Conclusion: The prevalence of weak D (Du in Western Indian population is 0.056 %, So the risk of alloimmunization in our setting due to weak D (Du antigen is marginal. But, testing of weak D antigen is necessary in blood bank because weak D antigen is immunogenic and can produce alloimmunization if transfused to Rh D negative subjects.

  19. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-3

    Amanda R Bitencourt; Elaine C Vicentin; Jimenez, Maria C.; Ricardo Ricci; Leite, Juliana A.; Fabio T Costa; Luis C Ferreira; Bruce Russell; François Nosten; Laurent Rénia; Galinski, Mary R.; Barnwell, John W.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M; Soares, Irene S


    A recent clinical trial in African children demonstrated the potential utility of merozoite surface protein (MSP)-3 as a vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The present study evaluated the use of Plasmodium vivax MSP-3 (PvMSP-3) as a target antigen in vaccine formulations against malaria caused by P. vivax. Recombinant proteins representing MSP-3α and MSP-3β of P. vivax were expressed as soluble histidine-tagged bacterial fusions. Antigenicity during natural infection was evaluated...

  20. Typing of murine cell-surface antigens by cellular radioimmunoassay

    A cellular radioimmunoassay utilizing 125I-labelled Protein A was used for detecting antigen-antibody complexes on gultaraldehyde fixed cells attached to microtiter plates. This method is rapid, sensitive and specific for revealing H-2 private and public specificities as well as Ia and Lyt antigens. As plates may be kept for months, several reactivities can be tested in one step on a large panel rendering a regular supply of animals unnecessary. (Auth.)

  1. Modeling Influenza Antigenic Shift and Drift with LEGO Bricks

    Boriana Marintcheva


    The concepts of antigenic shift and drift could be found in almost every microbiology and virology syllabus, usually taught in the context of Influenza virus biology. They are central to understanding viral diversity and evolution and have direct application to anti-flu vaccine design and effectiveness. To aid student understanding of the concepts, I have developed an exercise to visualize the mechanistic aspects of antigenic shift and drift using LEGO bricks. This hands-on/minds-on exercise ...

  2. Molecular detection, monitoring and modulation of antigen specific immune responses.

    Aubert, G


    Stem cell transplantati.on (SCT) represents the only curative treatment option for leukaemia. The bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells transferred in the transplant procedure restore immune functions, allowing the targeting of infected cells or cells expressing tumour antigens. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), key mediators of antigen specific killing, were investigated in the context of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). CMV infection after SCT in the abs...

  3. Mapping of phosphorylation sites in polyomavirus large T antigen.

    Hassauer, M; Scheidtmann, K H; Walter, G.


    The phosphorylation sites of polyomavirus large T antigen from infected or transformed cells were investigated. Tryptic digestion of large T antigen from infected, 32Pi-labeled cells revealed seven major phosphopeptides. Five of these were phosphorylated only at serine residues, and two were phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues. The overall ratio of phosphoserine to phosphothreonine was 6:1. The transformed cell line B4 expressed two polyomavirus-specific phosphoproteins: large T a...

  4. Immunogenicity of transgenic plant-derived hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Thanavala, Y; Yang, Y. F.; Lyons, P; Mason, H S; Arntzen, C


    The focus of the Children's Vaccine Initiative is to encourage the discovery of technology that will make vaccines more readily available to developing countries. Our strategy has been to genetically engineer plants so that they can be used as inexpensive alternatives to fermentation systems for production of subunit antigens. In this paper we report on the immunological response elicited in vivo by using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) purified from transgenic tobacco leaves...

  5. Differentiation of Rhizoctonia spp. Based on their antigenic properties

    Vico Ivana M.; Krstić Branka B.; Dukić Nataša


    Antigenic properties and serological relationship was investigated in binucleate and multinucleate Rhizoctonia spp. isolates from strawberries soybean, alfalfa and potato plants from Serbia, from Spain, anastomosis group testers and in strawberry roots inoculated with binucleate Rhizoctonia AG A and AG I. Two polyclonal antisera, unabsorbed and cross absorbed, were used in dot-immunobinding assay for these investigations. Antisera were produced against mycelial antigens of two isolates, which...

  6. Prevalence of Alloimmunization against RBC Antigens in Thalassemia Major Patients

    Amin Mirzaeian; Gholamhossein Tamaddon; Majid Naderi; Marziyeh Hosseinpour; Narges Sargolzaie


    Background: Regular blood transfusions to treat the patients with thalassemia major generate antibodies acting against red blood cells antigens. This immune response is called alloimmunity. This study was conducted with the purpose of determining the prevalence of alloantibodies and autoantibody, identifying the type of causative antigen, and recognizing the factors affecting alloimmunization among the patients with thalassemia major receiving blood. Materials and Methods: In this cross-secti...

  7. Antigenic Challenge in the Etiology of Autoimmune Disease in Women

    Mary A M Rogers; Levine, Deborah A.; Blumberg, Neil; Fisher, Gwenith G.; Kabeto, Mohammed; Kenneth M. Langa


    Infection has long been implicated as a trigger for autoimmune disease. Other antigenic challenges include receipt of allogeneic tissue or blood resulting in immunomodulation. We investigated antigenic challenges as possible risk factors for autoimmune disease in women using the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal study, linked to Medicare files, years 1991–2007. The prevalence of autoimmune disease (rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s disease, Graves’ disease,...

  8. Histocompatibility antigens in psoriasis, psoriatic arthropathy, and ankylosing spondylitis.

    Armstrong, R D; Panayi, G. S.; Welsh, K I


    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and psoriasis alone were typed for HLA A, B, Cw, and DR antigens, and the antigen frequencies were compared with those in a normal control population and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with psoriasis had a significantly raised frequency of Cw6. Those with arthritis in addition to their psoriasis also had raised frequencies of B27 and DR7. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis were characterised by the expected high fre...

  9. Nonprostatic sources of prostate-specific antigen.

    Diamandis, E P; Yu, H


    The name prostate-specific antigen has been given to a protein that now is known not to be prostate-specific; however, prostatic tissue does produces extremely high levels of PSA and secrets it into the seminal plasma. Seminal plasma contains about 1 million micrograms/L of PSA and is the richest source of PSA reported. The biologic fluid with the second highest PSA concentration, however, is nipple aspirate fluid from the female breast (up to about 5000 micrograms/L), and the third is milk from lactating women (up to 300 micrograms/L). Male serum PSA is usually less than 4 micrograms/L. In nonprostatic tissues, PSA exists mainly in its free molecular form, but PSA-ACT complex is also present in most of the fluids that contain PSA, such as breast secretions and amniotic fluid. The gene expression and protein production of PSA in nonprostatic tissues are under the regulation of steroid hormones via their receptors. Androgens, glucocorticoids, and progestins up-regulate the PSA gene expression, resulting in an increase of protein production. Estrogen by itself seems to have no effect on PSA regulation, but it can impair PSA production induced by androgen. It remains unknown whether PSA is enzymatically active and what is the physiologic role of PSA in nonprostatic tissues. It is speculated that PSA may be involved in the regulation of growth factors. Measuring PSA in breast cancer cytosol, breast-nipple aspirate fluid, and female serum may have potential clinical utilities, including breast cancer prognosis, breast cancer risk assessment, and evaluation of androgen excess. Further studies are needed to identify the exact function and regulation of PSA in nonprostatic tissues and to explore the clinical application of this protein. PMID:9126224

  10. Lipid peroxidation causes endosomal antigen release for cross-presentation.

    Dingjan, Ilse; Verboogen, Daniëlle Rj; Paardekooper, Laurent M; Revelo, Natalia H; Sittig, Simone P; Visser, Linda J; Mollard, Gabriele Fischer von; Henriet, Stefanie Sv; Figdor, Carl G; Ter Beest, Martin; van den Bogaart, Geert


    Dendritic cells (DCs) present foreign antigen in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic T cells in a process called cross-presentation. An important step in this process is the release of antigen from the lumen of endosomes into the cytosol, but the mechanism of this step is still unclear. In this study, we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the NADPH-oxidase complex NOX2 cause lipid peroxidation, a membrane disrupting chain-reaction, which in turn results in antigen leakage from endosomes. Antigen leakage and cross-presentation were inhibited by blocking ROS production or scavenging radicals and induced when using a ROS-generating photosensitizer. Endosomal antigen release was impaired in DCs from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients with dysfunctional NOX2. Thus, NOX2 induces antigen release from endosomes for cross-presentation by direct oxidation of endosomal lipids. This constitutes a new cellular function for ROS in regulating immune responses against pathogens and cancer. PMID:26907999

  11. Analysis of antigenic variation in equine 2 influenza A viruses.

    Hinshaw, V S; Naeve, C W; Webster, R G; Douglas, A; Skehel, J J; Bryans, J


    Influenza outbreaks involving viruses of the H3N8 subtype (equine 2) often occur in vaccinated horses. For this reason, a series of influenza viruses of the H3N8 subtype were examined to determine if antigenic variation could be detected in isolates during the period 1963-81. Antigenic analyses with post-infection ferret sera and monoclonal antibodies showed that the haemagglutinins of recent isolates were antigenically distinguishable from the prototype A/eq/Miami/1/63 and that antigenically distinguishable groups of equine 2 viruses co-circulate in the horse population. Based on these studies, it is recommended that a recent equine strain, A/equine/Fontainebleu/1/79 or A/equine/Kentucky/1/81, serve as an additional prototype strain for this subtype.Antigenic variation in equine 2 viruses may be of epidemiological significance, yet the overall conservation of these strains makes it unlikely that vaccine failures can be attributed solely to antigenic changes in these viruses. A sufficiently potent vaccine, containing a current representative of the most prevalent equine 2 strain, may improve the protection afforded by equine vaccines. PMID:6601538

  12. Targeting novel antigens in the arterial wall in thromboangiitis obliterans.

    Murat Akkus


    Full Text Available Thromboangiitis obliterans is an inflammatory disease possibly resulting from cigarette smoking as a primary etiologic factor, perhaps as a delayed type of hypersensitivity or toxic angiitis. As little is known about the pathogenesis of the disease, we aimed to determine novel antigens that might be responsible from the local inflammatory reactions and structural changes observed in this disease. An indirect immunoperoxidase technique is used to examine the tissue samples obtained from the dorsalis pedis artery of affected individuals with twenty monoclonal antibodies. Among these several antigens which are not previously reported in TAO like CD34, CD44 and CD90 were determined in the tissue samples examined. On the other hand, many other antigens like cytokine/chemokine receptors, several enzymes and leukocyte/lymphocyte antigens were lacking giving some clues about the local pathological reactions. We briefly discussed our findings for several critical antigens those first described in the present work, possibly having roles in the development of the disease. Expression of the CD90/CD11c receptor/ligand pair seems to play an important role in mononuclear cell recruitment to the damage site. Vascular invasion of not only tunica intima but also the tunica media in affected vessels is clearly demonstrated using endothelial cell specific antigens.

  13. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    A Halajian


    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  14. Partial purification and characterization of Ascaridia galli diagnostic worm antigen.

    Abdel Rahman, Eman H; Khalil, Fathia A M


    Partial purification of Ascaridia galli whole worm extract was conducted by Cyanogen bromide Sepharose 4B immunoaffinity column chromatography. The resulted fraction was characterized by sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and isoelectric focusing. The fraction was found to be consisted of six bands of 207 KDa, 157 KDa. 110 KDa, 103 KDa, 76 KDa and 41 KDa. This profile was compared with that of whole worm and excretory-secretory antigens. Both antigens were resolved into multiple bands in both high and low molecular weight ranges. The isoelectric focusing of the fraction displayed 8 bands of isoelectric points 7.5, 7.0, 6.8, 6.5, 6.2, 5.8. 5.3 and 4.6. The potency of this fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens was assessed by ELISA compared with that of whole worm and ES antigens. The affinity purified fraction showed higher potentials in the diagnosis of A. galli infection in chickens than whole worm antigen at any sera dilution and than ES antigen at high sera dilutions. While ES antigen of the worms revealed higher diagnostic capabilities than whole worm extract. The current research recommends utilization of the affinity isolated fraction in the diagnosis of natural ascaridiosis in chickens. PMID:16083065

  15. MAGE-A antigens in lesions of the oral mucosa.

    Krauss, Eva; Rauthe, Stephan; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Reuther, Tobias; Kochel, Michael; Kriegebaum, Ulrike; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A


    Oral squamous cell carcinoma develops continuously out of predamaged oral mucosa. For the physician and pathologist, difficulties arise in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. MAGE-A antigens are tumor antigens that are found solely in malignant transformed cells. These antigens might be useful in distinguishing precancerous from cancerous lesions. The aim of this study was to verify this assumption by comparing MAGE-A expression in benign, precancerous, and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. Retrospectively, biopsies of different oral lesions were randomly selected. The lesions that were included are 64 benign oral lesions (25 traumatic lesions (oral ulcers), 13 dental follicles, and 26 epulis), 26 oral lichen planus, 123 epithelial precursor lesions (32 epithelial hyperplasia found in leukoplakias, 24 epithelial dysplasia found in leukoplakias, 26 erythroplasia with oral epithelial dysplasia, and 41 carcinomas in situ in erythroleukoplakias). The lesions were immunohistochemically stained with the poly-MAGE-A antibody 57B, and the results were compared. Biopsies of oral lichen planus, oral ulcers, dental follicles, epulis, and leukoplakia without dysplasia showed no positive staining for MAGE-A antigens. Leukoplakia with dysplasia, dysplasia, and carcinomata in situ displayed positive staining in 33%, 65%, and 56% of the cases, respectively. MAGE-A antigens were not detectable via immunohistochemistry in benign lesions of the oral mucosa. The staining rate of dysplastic precancerous lesions or malignant lesions ranged from 33% to 65%. The MAGE-A antigens might facilitate better differentiation between precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa. PMID:20174843

  16. Novel vaccine strategies to T-independent antigens.

    Lesinski, G B; Westerink, M A


    T cell independent antigens do not require T cell help to induce an immune response, and are characterized by a lack of immunologic memory. These antigens can be divided into two classes, TI-1 or TI-2. TI-1 antigens, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, are potent B-cell mitogens, capable of non-specific, polyclonal activation of B cells. In contrast, TI-2 antigens can only activate mature B cells and consist of highly repetitive structures, such as capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from bacteria. Many vaccines currently in use consist of purified capsular polysaccharides from pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. These vaccines are efficacious in immune-competent adults, however, due to their TI-2 nature, are not effective in children <2 years of age. Converting polysaccharides into T cell dependent (TD) antigens, allows children, <2, to produce an effective immune response. This review focuses on various strategies used to convert the immune response to polysaccharide antigens from TI-2 to a TD response. Conjugate vaccines, anti-idiotypic antibodies, phage display library technology and DNA vaccines are discussed. PMID:11576678

  17. Double-antibody radioimmunoassay for factor VIII-related antigen

    A plasma protein required for the support of ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation was isolated from antihemophilic factor concentrate and radiolabeled with 125I. A double-antibody radioimmunoassay was developed, with use of specific rabbit anti-VIII related antigen serum and goat anti-rabbit globulin. The assay is sensitive, reproducible, and technically simple to perform. Values obtained in normal subjects ranged from 0.65 to 1.53 units, similar to our normal range for VIII coagulant activity (0.67 to 1.43 units). However, normal or increased values of VIII-related antigen were observed in VIII coagulant-deficient hemophiliacs. Also, concentrations of VIII-related antigen significantly exceeded coagulant concentrations in several patients with liver disease or disseminated intravascular coagulation, or both. Of a broad selection of congenital coagulation disorders examined, only patients with von Willebrand's disease had decreased VIII-related antigen concentrations, and these corresponded to the lowered concentration of ristocetin cofactor in the patients. In three transfused patients, VIII-related antigen values correlated with the concentration of the cofactor. Our results suggest that the radioimmunoassay of VIII-related antigen is a simple and valuable adjunct in the study of patients with clotting abnormalities

  18. Levels of estrogen, carcinoembryonic antigen and cancer antigen of breast in breast cancer patients

    This study was conducted during the period from february 2004 to July 2004; with the objective of measuring the levels of estrogen (E2), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen of breast (CA-15.3) so as to facilitate the early diagnosis of breast cancer and determine the involvement of these parameters as risk factors for breast cancer. Ninety blood samples were collected from Sudanese females, divided into two groups; control group and patient groups. The patients group was sixty Sudanese females visiting the Radio Isotope Center, Khartoum (RICK) and they were confirmed as breast cancer patient by histopathology. The levels of the above mentioned parameters were determined by using radioimmunoassay technique. The results showed that, no significant (p=0.05) difference between the levels of the estrogen in patients compared to the control, on the other hand there was non significant (p>0.05) elevation in CEA levels in the patients with breast cancer compared to the control. The level of CA15.3 was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in the breast cancer patients compared to the control.(Author)

  19. Genetic analysis of a Treponema phagedenis locus encoding antigenic lipoproteins with potential for antigenic variation.

    Mushtaq, Mamoona; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Loftsdottir, Heidur; Pringle, Märit; Segerman, Bo; Zuerner, Richard; Rosander, Anna


    Digital dermatitis (DD) is a painful and debilitating claw disease in cattle. Spirochetes of the genus Treponema are found in high numbers in the lesions and are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis. The occurrence of Treponema phagedenis in DD lesions, especially near the interface of healthy and diseased tissue, suggests that this species contributes to the development and/or progression of the lesions. In this study we characterized a genetic locus in T. phagedenis that contains coding regions for three antigenic proteins, PrrA, VpsA, and VpsB. Comparative analysis of homologous loci from fifteen strains suggests that prrA may be transposed into or out of this locus. Alterations in the copy number of TA repeats within the putative promoter region may regulate VpsA/B expression. The vpsA and prrA genes occur in allelic variants in different T. phagedenis isolates and may provide one explanation for the antigenic variation observed in T. phagedenis DD isolates. PMID:27259832

  20. Structure and antigenicity of the phosphorylated lipopolysaccharide antigens from the leprosy and tubercle bacilli.

    Hunter, S W; Gaylord, H; Brennan, P J


    A family of major arabinose- and mannose-containing phosphorylated lipopolysaccharides was isolated from Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The only antigenic member of the family, lipoarabinomannan (LAM)-B, was purified by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography in detergent and recovered in large quantities (15 mg/g of bacteria). It yielded a broad diffuse band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis but appeared homogeneous by this criterion and gel filtration. Besides arabinose and mannose, it contained glycerol and a polyol phosphate and was acylated by lactate, succinate, palmitate, and 10-methyloctadecanoate. The phosphate was released by alkalinolysis and identified by thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as myoinositol 1-phosphate. Thus, the group-specific "arabinomannan" of the genus Mycobacterium in the native state is acylated, contains the substituents of phosphatidylinositol, and is apparently membrane associated. LAM-B is one of the dominant immunogens of the leprosy bacillus reacting readily with antibodies from lepromatous leprosy patients and monoclonal antibodies in plate and nitrocellulose enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and on electrophoretic immunoblots. It is immunologically cross-reactive with a like product from M. tuberculosis. LAM-B is clearly the pervasive "glycoprotein" antigen of the leprosy bacillus and may be the long sought lipoteichoic acid-like polymer of Mycobacterium with a role in cell wall physiology, macrophage recognition, and perhaps an involvement in cross-protective immunity. PMID:3091602

  1. Soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens contain carbohydrate moieties important for immune reactivity

    Jakobsen, P H; Theander, T G; Jensen, J B;


    The importance of carbohydrate moieties for the antigenicity of purified soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens from the asexual blood stage was tested. Digestion of the soluble antigens with alpha-D-galactosidase clearly affected the ability of the antigen to react with malaria-immune sera from ....... The results might have important implications for the strategy of developing a malaria vaccine....

  2. A "new" primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) defined DP-antigen associated with a private HLA--DR antigen

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P;


    We have recently described a "new" private HLA-DR antigen, DR"LTM", which has a frequency of approximately 0.6% in Danes. Primed Lymphocyte Typing (PLT) cells directed towards DR"LTM"-associated determinants were generated in vitro by haplotype primings in two unrelated families with DR...... total agreement between the results obtained by HLA-DR typing with the antiserum "LTM" and by PLT-typing with these two haplotype primed PLT-cells. None of the DP"LTM"-positive individuals carried more than one of the antigens HLA-Dw/-DRw/DP1-8 and the local specificity D/DP"H". Accordingly, this "new......" PLT-defined antigen, DP"LTM", most probably belongs to the series of HLA-D/DR-associated DP-antigens previously described....

  3. H-Y antigen in transsexuality, and how to explain testis differentiation in H-Y antigen-negative males and ovary differentiation in H-Y antigen-positive females.

    Engel, W; Pfäfflin, F; Wiedeking, C


    H-Y antigen was determined in eight transsexual patients. Two of the four male-to-female transsexual patients typed as H-Y antigen-negative, while the other two typed as expected from their phenotypic and gonadal sex, namely H-Y antigen-positive. Of the four female-to-male transsexual patients, three typed as H-Y antigen-positive and one was H-Y antigen-negative, as expected. The presence of normal testes in H-Y antigen-negative males is assumed to result from a mutation of nucleotide sequences of the H-Y structural gene for antigenic determinants. Thus, an H-Y is produced with normal receptor-binding activity which can sustain the testis determination of the bipotent gonadal anlage. In the case of H-Y antigen-positive females with normal ovaries a deletion of the autosomally located H-Y structural gene is assumed. This deletion should affect sequences for repressor-binding (as was suggested for H-Y antigen-positive XX-males) and for receptor-binding activity of the H-Y antigen molecule. The resulting H-Y antigen is unable to bind to the gonadal receptor of the bipotent gonadal anlage. Thus an ovary is determined. The relevance of H-Y antigen for the aetiology of transsexualism is discussed. PMID:7203464

  4. Distribution of primed T cells and antigen-loaded antigen presenting cells following intranasal immunization in mice.

    Annalisa Ciabattini

    Full Text Available Priming of T cells is a key event in vaccination, since it bears a decisive influence on the type and magnitude of the immune response. T-cell priming after mucosal immunization via the nasal route was studied by investigating the distribution of antigen-loaded antigen presenting cells (APCs and primed antigen-specific T cells. Nasal immunization studies were conducted using the model protein antigen ovalbumin (OVA plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant. Trafficking of antigen-specific primed T cells was analyzed in vivo after adoptive transfer of OVA-specific transgenic T cells in the presence or absence of fingolimod, a drug that causes lymphocytes sequestration within lymph nodes. Antigen-loaded APCs were observed in mediastinal lymph nodes, draining the respiratory tract, but not in distal lymph nodes. Antigen-specific proliferating T cells were first observed within draining lymph nodes, and later in distal iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes and in the spleen. The presence at distal sites was due to migration of locally primed T cells as shown by fingolimod treatment that caused a drastic reduction of proliferated T cells in non-draining lymph nodes and an accumulation of extensively divided T cells within draining lymph nodes. Homing of nasally primed T cells in distal iliac lymph nodes was CD62L-dependent, while entry into mesenteric lymph nodes depended on both CD62L and α4β7, as shown by in vivo antibody-mediated inhibition of T-cell trafficking. These data, elucidating the trafficking of antigen-specific primed T cells to non-draining peripheral and mucosa-associated lymph nodes following nasal immunization, provide relevant insights for the design of vaccination strategies based on mucosal priming.

  5. The distribution of blood group antigens in experimentally produced carcinomas of rat palate

    Reibel, J; Philipsen, H P; Fisker, A V;


    It has been shown previously that rat oral epithelia express antigens cross-reacting with antibodies against human blood group antigen B and its structural precursor, the H antigen (Type 2 chain). In the present study we investigated the expression of these antigens in malignant changes in the rat....... The blood group antigen staining pattern in experimentally produced verrucous carcinomas showed an almost normal blood group antigen expression. This may have diagnostic significance. Localized areas of hyperplastic palatal epithelium with slight dysplasia revealed loss of H antigen and the presence of B...

  6. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    H Miranzadeh


    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  7. The role of FcRn in antigen presentation

    Kristi eBaker


    Full Text Available Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. The abundance specifically of the IgG subclass and the variety of signaling receptors to which it binds render this an important immunomodulatory molecule. In addition to the classical Fcγ receptors (FcγR which bind IgG at the cell surface, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn is a lifelong resident of the endolysosomal system of most hematopoietic cells where it determines the intracellular fate of both IgG and IgG-containing immune complexes (IgG IC. Crosslinking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DC initiates specific mechanisms which result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both MHC class I and II molecules. In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG-mediated antigen delivery system through which it operates. FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and

  8. Class II-targeted antigen is superior to CD40-targeted antigen at stimulating humoral responses in vivo.

    Frleta, D; Demian, D; Wade, W F


    We examined the efficacy of using monoclonal antibodies to target antigen (avidin) to different surface molecules expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC). In particular, we targeted CD40 to test whether the "adjuvant" properties of CD40 signaling combined with targeted antigen would result in enhanced serologic responses. We targeted avidin to class II as a positive control and to CD11c as a negative control. These surface proteins represent an ensemble of surface molecules that signal upon ligation and that are expressed on professional APC, in particular dendritic cells (DC). We observed that targeting class II molecules on APC was superior to targeting CD40, or CD11c. However, CD40 and CD11c could function as targets for antigen bound monoclonal antibodies under certain conditions. Interestingly, inclusion of anti-CD40 mAb with the targeting anti-class II-targeted antigens negatively affects humoral response, suggesting that CD40 signaling under certain conditions may suppress processing and/or presentation of targeted antigen. PMID:11360928

  9. Comparison of antigen-specific T-cell responses of tuberculosis patients using complex or single antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Mustafa, A S; Amoudy, H A; Wiker, H G; Abal, A T; Ravn, P; Oftung, F; Andersen, P


    We have screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis (TB) patients for proliferative reactivity and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) secretion against a panel of purified recombinant (r) and natural (n) culture filtrate (rESAT-6, nMPT59, nMPT64 and nMPB70) and somatic-derived (r......GroES, rPstS, rGroEL and rDnaK) antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The responses of PBMC to these defined antigens were compared with the corresponding results obtained with complex antigens, such as whole-cell M. tuberculosis, M. tuberculosis culture filtrate (MT-CF) and cell wall antigens, as well...... as the vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). In addition, M. tuberculosis and MT-CF-induced T-cell lines were tested in the same assays against the panel of purified and complex antigens. The compiled data from PBMC and T-cell lines tested for antigen...

  10. Original encounter with antigen determines antigen-presenting cell imprinting of the quality of the immune response in mice.

    Valérie Abadie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining a certain multi-functionality of cellular immunity for the control of infectious diseases is a burning question in immunology and in vaccine design. Early events, including antigen shuttling to secondary lymphoid organs and recruitment of innate immune cells for adaptive immune response, determine host responsiveness to antigens. However, the sequence of these events and their impact on the quality of the immune response remain to be elucidated. Here, we chose to study Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA which is now replacing live Smallpox vaccines and is proposed as an attenuated vector for vaccination strategies against infectious diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vivo mechanisms triggered following intradermal (i.d. and intramuscular (i.m. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA administration. We demonstrated significant differences in the antigen shuttling to lymphoid organs by macrophages (MPhis, myeloid dendritic cells (DCs, and neutrophils (PMNs. MVA i.d. administration resulted in better antigen distribution and more sustained antigen-presenting cells (APCs recruitment into draining lymph nodes than with i.m. administration. These APCs, which comprise both DCs and MPhis, were differentially involved in T cell priming and shaped remarkably the quality of cytokine-producing virus-specific T cells according to the entry route of MVA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study improves our understanding of the mechanisms of antigen delivery and their consequences on the quality of immune responses and provides new insights for vaccine development.

  11. Rapid profiling of the antigen regions recognized by serum antibodies using massively parallel sequencing of antigen-specific libraries.

    Domina, Maria


    There is a need for techniques capable of identifying the antigenic epitopes targeted by polyclonal antibody responses during deliberate or natural immunization. Although successful, traditional phage library screening is laborious and can map only some of the epitopes. To accelerate and improve epitope identification, we have employed massive sequencing of phage-displayed antigen-specific libraries using the Illumina MiSeq platform. This enabled us to precisely identify the regions of a model antigen, the meningococcal NadA virulence factor, targeted by serum antibodies in vaccinated individuals and to rank hundreds of antigenic fragments according to their immunoreactivity. We found that next generation sequencing can significantly empower the analysis of antigen-specific libraries by allowing simultaneous processing of dozens of library/serum combinations in less than two days, including the time required for antibody-mediated library selection. Moreover, compared with traditional plaque picking, the new technology (named Phage-based Representation OF Immuno-Ligand Epitope Repertoire or PROFILER) provides superior resolution in epitope identification. PROFILER seems ideally suited to streamline and guide rational antigen design, adjuvant selection, and quality control of newly produced vaccines. Furthermore, this method is also susceptible to find important applications in other fields covered by traditional quantitative serology.

  12. Cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression on human effector B cells depends on the site and on the nature of antigen encounter.

    Kantele, Anu; Savilahti, Erkki; Tiimonen, Heidi; Iikkanen, Katja; Autio, Soile; Kantele, Jussi M


    In contrast to T cells, information on skin-homing B cells expressing the cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) is sparse. CLA expression on human B cells was investigated among circulating immunoglobulin-secreting cells (ISC) and among antigen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) elicited by parenteral, oral or rectal primary immunization, or by parenteral or oral secondary immunization with Salmonella typhi Ty21a. CLA expression was examined by combining cell sorting with an enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Among all ISC, the proportion of CLA(+) cells was 13-21%. Parenteral immunization induced antigen-specific ASC of which 13% were CLA(+), while oral and rectal immunizations were followed by only 1% of CLA(+) ASC (p<0.001). Oral re-immunization was followed by an up-regulation of CLA (34-48%) regardless of the route of priming. Parenteral re-immunization elicited ASC of which 9-14% were CLA(+). In conclusion, the expression of CLA on human effector B cells depends on the site of antigen encounter: intestinal stimulation elicits cells with no CLA, while parenteral encounter elicits significant numbers of CLA(+) cells. Even though primary antigen encounter in the intestine failed to stimulate CLA expression, up-regulation of CLA was found upon intestinal antigen re-encounter. These findings may be of relevance in the pathogenesis of some cutaneous disorders. PMID:14635035

  13. Identification of a peptide binding protein that plays a role in antigen presentation.

    Lakey, E K; Margoliash, E.; Pierce, S K


    The helper T-cell response to globular proteins appears, in general, to require intracellular processing of the antigen, such that a peptide fragment containing the T-cell antigenic determinant is released and transported to and held on the surface of an Ia-expressing, antigen-presenting cell. However, the molecular details underlying these phenomena are largely unknown. The means by which antigenic peptides are anchored on the antigen-presenting cell surface was investigated. A cell surface ...

  14. Advances in identification and application of tumor antigen inducing anti-cancer responses


    @@ Tumor antigen is one of the important bases of tumor immunotherapy[1]. With the discovery of novel tumor antigens, interest in specific immunotherapy for treatment of malignancies has increased substantially. Nowadays more and more scientists paid close attention to various tumor antigens with their roles or/and applications in anti-cancer immune responses, immune tolerance, tumor markers, tumor immunotherapy and so on. Here we discussed the classification of tumor antigens and summarized the technologies of identification and application of tumor antigens.

  15. Identification of antigenic proteins of the nosocomial pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Sebastian Hoppe

    Full Text Available The continuous expansion of nosocomial infections around the globe has become a precarious situation. Key challenges include mounting dissemination of multiple resistances to antibiotics, the easy transmission and the growing mortality rates of hospital-acquired bacterial diseases. Thus, new ways to rapidly detect these infections are vital. Consequently, researchers around the globe pursue innovative approaches for point-of-care devices. In many cases the specific interaction of an antigen and a corresponding antibody is pivotal. However, the knowledge about suitable antigens is lacking. The aim of this study was to identify novel antigens as specific diagnostic markers. Additionally, these proteins might be aptly used for the generation of vaccines to improve current treatment options. Hence, a cDNA-based expression library was constructed and screened via microarrays to detect novel antigens of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a prominent agent of nosocomial infections well-known for its extensive antibiotics resistance, especially by extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL. After screening 1536 clones, 14 previously unknown immunogenic proteins were identified. Subsequently, each protein was expressed in full-length and its immunodominant character examined by ELISA and microarray analyses. Consequently, six proteins were selected for epitope mapping and three thereof possessed linear epitopes. After specificity analysis, homology survey and 3d structural modelling, one epitope sequence GAVVALSTTFA of KPN_00363, an ion channel protein, was identified harboring specificity for K. pneumoniae. The remaining epitopes showed ambiguous results regarding the specificity for K. pneumoniae. The approach adopted herein has been successfully utilized to discover novel antigens of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica antigens before. Now, we have transferred this knowledge to the key nosocomial agent, K. pneumoniae. By identifying several novel antigens

  16. The Impacts of Helicobacter Pylori Antigen Positivity on Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Esra Erkol Ižnal


    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to clarify the impacts of H. pylori infection on disease activity and clinical findings of AS. Material and Method: Forty-eight patients with AS were included in this study. The demographic data including age, sex, durations of the disease and medication of the patients were recorded. The laboratory analysis comprised Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP and H. pylori antigen determination in gaita. The disease activity, functional disability and clinical status were assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI, The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional index (BASFI and The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI respectively. We divided patients according to H. pylori antigen positivity in gaita as H. pylori positive and negative patients.Results: The mean age of patients was 41.9 11.8. CRP levels were slightly but not significantly higher in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients without H. pylori antigen in gaita (p=0.08. There was no significant difference in terms of ESR levels, BASDAI, BASFI and BASMI scores in patients with positive H. pylori antigen compared to those in patients with negative H. pylori antigen in gaita (p-values were >0.05 for all. In regression model BASDAI score was found to have no relationship with H. pylori antigen positivity, ESR and CRP levels (p-values were >0.05 for all. Discussion: H. pylori seemed to have probable impacts on the disease activity of AS. Studies with greater patient population and longer follow-up periods are warranted to enlighten this issue.

  17. Human epidermal Langerhans cells cointernalize by receptor-mediated endocytosis "nonclassical" major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (T6 antigens) and class II molecules (HLA-DR antigens).

    Hanau, D.; Fabre, M.; Schmitt, D A; Garaud, J C; Pauly, G; Tongio, M M; Mayer, S.; Cazenave, J. P.


    HLA-DR and T6 surface antigens are expressed only by Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells in normal human epidermis. We have previously demonstrated that T6 antigens are internalized in Langerhans cells and indeterminate cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. This process is induced by the binding of BL6, a monoclonal antibody directed against T6 antigens. In the present study, using a monoclonal antibody directed against HLA-DR antigens, on human epidermal cells in suspension, we show t...

  18. A rapid radioimmunoassay for determination of tumor antigens with reference to carcinoembryonic antigen

    A novel experimental procedure for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by a solid phase microradioimmunoassay has been developed. Goat anti-CEA antibodies were immobilized by coupling to cyanogen bromide activated filter paper discs. The inhibition of binding of radioiodinated CEA to the discs was proportional to the amount of unlabelled CEA present in the test sample. The experimental procedure involved two steps: (i) the test material containing unlabelled CEA was allowed to react with the antibody coated discs at 37 deg C for 2 hrs., and (ii) a standard amount of 125I-CEA was added to the reaction mixture and incubated for 24 hours at 37 deg C or room temperature. The discs were then washed 4 times and the radioactivity of each disc was determined. The sensitivity of the test in its present state of development was 2.5 ng/ml. (author)

  19. Antibody-antigen-adjuvant conjugates enable co-delivery of antigen and adjuvant to dendritic cells in cis but only have partial targeting specificity

    Kreutz, M.; Giquel, B.; Hu, Q.; Abuknesha, R.; Uematsu, S.; Akira, S.; Nestle, F.O.; Diebold, S.S.


    Antibody-antigen conjugates, which promote antigen-presentation by dendritic cells (DC) by means of targeted delivery of antigen to particular DC subsets, represent a powerful vaccination approach. To ensure immunity rather than tolerance induction the co-administration of a suitable adjuvant is par


    Shashi Ashok Gujar


    Full Text Available Anti-tumor immunity can eliminate existing cancer cells and also maintain a constant surveillance against possible relapse. Such an antigen-specific adaptive response begins when tumor-specific T cells become activated. T cell activation requires two signals on antigen presenting cells (APCs: antigen presentation through MHC molecules and co-stimulation. In the absence of one or both of these signals, T cells remain inactivated or can even become tolerized. Cancer cells and their associated microenvironment strategically hinder the processing and presentation of tumor antigens and consequently prevent the development of anti-tumor immunity. Many studies, however, demonstrate that interventions that overturn tumor-associated immune evasion mechanisms can establish anti-tumor immune responses of therapeutic potential. One such intervention is oncolytic virus (OV-based anti-cancer therapy. Here we discuss how OV-induced immunological events override tumor-associated antigen presentation impairment and promote appropriate T cell:APC interaction. Detailed understanding of this phenomenon is pivotal for devising the strategies that will enhance the efficacy of OV-based anti-cancer therapy by complementing its inherent oncolytic

  1. Production of Trichophyton mentagrophytes antigens and their characterization in mice

    J Venturini


    Full Text Available The participation of dermatophytic antigens in the host-parasite balance is still poorly understood. One of the difficulties encountered by researchers is the lack of dominant and specific antigens that can be used in such studies. In order to contribute to a better understanding of this aspect of infection, the present study identifies antigen fractions obtained from exoantigen and cytoplasmic extracts of Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of 13 proteins in the exoantigen extract, whose molecular weight ranged from 12.5 to 90 kDa. The cytoplasmic extract contained 18 protein fractions ranging from 11 to 110 kDa. Immunoblotting showed the presence of immunodominant antigens against IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. This affinity was observed in three proteins of the exoantigen extract and in three proteins of the cytoplasmic extract, with respective molecular weights of 33, 39 and 59, and 40, 55 and 82 kDa. These results are promising, especially when considering that these extracts contain antigenically distinct protein fractions which, once determined, may contribute to a better understanding of dermatophytoses, and may thus help in the development of alternative strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

  2. Pericyte antigens in angiomyolipoma and PEComa family tumors.

    Shen, Jia; Shrestha, Swati; Yen, Yu-Hsin; Scott, Michelle A; Asatrian, Greg; Barnhill, Raymond; Lugassy, Claire; Soo, Chia; Ting, Kang; Peault, Bruno; Dry, Sarah M; James, Aaron W


    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are an uncommon family of soft tissue tumors with dual myoid-melanocytic differentiation. Although PEComa family tumors commonly demonstrate a perivascular growth pattern, pericyte antigen expression has not yet been examined among this unique tumor group. Previously, we demonstrated that a subset of perivascular soft tissue tumors exhibit a striking pericytic immunophenotype, with diffuse expression of αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. Here, we describe the presence of pericyte antigens across a diverse group of PEComa family tumors (n = 19 specimens). Results showed that pericyte antigens differed extensively by histological appearance. Typical angiomyolipoma (AML) specimens showed variable expression of pericyte antigens among both perivascular and myoid-appearing cells. In contrast, AML specimens with a predominant spindled morphology showed diffuse expression of pericyte markers, including αSMA, CD146, and PDGFRβ. AML samples with predominant epithelioid morphology showed a marked reduction in or the absence of immunoreactivity for pericyte markers. Lymphangiomyoma samples showed more variable and partial pericyte marker expression. In summary, pericyte antigen expression is variable among PEComa family tumors and largely varies by tumor morphology. Pericytic marker expression in PEComa may represent a true pericytic cell of origin, or alternatively aberrant pericyte marker adoption. Markers of pericytic differentiation may be of future diagnostic utility for the evaluation of mesenchymal tumors, or identify actionable signaling pathways for future therapeutic intervention. PMID:26123600

  3. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L


    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: PMID:27113719

  4. Reassessing target antigens for adoptive T cell therapy

    Hinrichs, Christian S.; Restifo, Nicholas P.


    Adoptive T cell therapy can target and kill widespread malignant cells thereby inducing durable clinical responses in melanoma and selected other malignances. However, many commonly targeted tumor antigens are also expressed by healthy tissues, and T cells do not distinguish between benign and malignant tissues if both express the target antigen. As such, autoimmune toxicity from T-cell-mediated destruction of normal tissue has limited the development and adoption of this otherwise promising type of cancer therapy. A review of the unique biology of T-cell therapy and of recent clinical experience compels a reassessment of target antigens that traditionally have been viewed from the perspective of weaker immunotherapeutic modalities. In selecting target antigens for adoptive T-cell therapy, expression by tumors and not by essential healthy tissues is of paramount importance. The risk of autoimmune adverse events can be further mitigated by generating antigen receptors using strategies that reduce the chance of cross-reactivity against epitopes in unintended targets. In general, a circumspect approach to target selection and thoughtful preclinical and clinical studies are pivotal to the ongoing advancement of these promising treatments. PMID:24142051

  5. A new antigen retrieval technique for human brain tissue.

    Raúl Alelú-Paz

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemical staining of tissues is a powerful tool used to delineate the presence or absence of an antigen. During the last 30 years, antigen visualization in human brain tissue has been significantly limited by the masking effect of fixatives. In the present study, we have used a new method for antigen retrieval in formalin-fixed human brain tissue and examined the effectiveness of this protocol to reveal masked antigens in tissues with both short and long formalin fixation times. This new method, which is based on the use of citraconic acid, has not been previously utilized in brain tissue although it has been employed in various other tissues such as tonsil, ovary, skin, lymph node, stomach, breast, colon, lung and thymus. Thus, we reported here a novel method to carry out immunohistochemical studies in free-floating human brain sections. Since fixation of brain tissue specimens in formaldehyde is a commonly method used in brain banks, this new antigen retrieval method could facilitate immunohistochemical studies of brains with prolonged formalin fixation times.

  6. An antigen-specific, four-color, B-cell FluoroSpot assay utilizing tagged antigens for detection.

    Jahnmatz, Peter; Bengtsson, Theresa; Zuber, Bartek; Färnert, Anna; Ahlborg, Niklas


    The FluoroSpot assay, a variant of ELISpot utilizing fluorescent detection, has so far been used primarily for assessment of T cells, where simultaneous detection of several cytokines has allowed a more qualitative analysis of functionally distinct T cells. The potential to measure multiple analytes also presents several advantages when analyzing B cells. Our aim was to develop a B-cell FluoroSpot assay adaptable to studies of a variety of antigens. The assay utilizes anti-IgG antibodies immobilized in 96-well filter membrane plates. During cell culture, IgG antibodies secreted by antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) are captured in the vicinity of each of these cells and the specificity of single ASCs is defined using antigens for detection. The antigens were labeled with biotin or peptide tags enabling secondary detection with fluorophore-conjugated streptavidin or tag-specific antibodies. The assay, utilizing up to four different tag systems and fluorophores simultaneously, was evaluated using hybridomas and immunized splenocytes as ASCs. Assay variants were developed that could: i) identify multiple ASCs with different antigen specificities; ii) detect ASCs showing cross-reactivity with different but related antigens; and iii) define the antigen-specificity and, by including anti-IgG subclass detection reagents, simultaneously determine the IgG subclass of antibodies secreted by ASCs. As demonstrated here, the B-cell FluoroSpot assay using tag-based detection systems provides a versatile and powerful tool to investigate antibody responses by individual cells that can be readily adapted to studies of a variety of antigen-specific ASCs. PMID:26930550

  7. Relationship between antigen concentration and bacterial load in Pacific salmon with bacterial kidney disease.

    Hamel, Owen S; Anderson, James J


    Using data collected to test spawning female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch and O. tshawytscha for the presence and severity of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), a mathematical model of the relationship between bacterial load and antigen concentration in tissues and ovarian fluid is developed. Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of BKD, secretes large amounts of a 57 kDa protein ('p57'), its major soluble antigen, which eventually breaks down or is otherwise removed from free circulation. Bacterial load and soluble antigen concentration in tissues are strong indicators of fish health, while in ovarian fluid they are predictors of the success of offspring. Model results indicate either an exponentially increasing antigen removal rate or an exponentially decreasing per-bacterium antigen secretion rate with increasing antigen concentration. Possible mechanisms underlying the observed relationship include a nonlinear increasing autolytic rate of the 'p57' antigen and a bacterium-antigen interaction threshold which prevents bacterial antigen secretion. PMID:12363089

  8. Cross-reactive Legionella antigens and the antibody response during infection

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G; Pearlman, E;


    In order to define cross-reactive Legionella antigens suitable for diagnostic purposes, we investigated sonicate antigens from two Legionella species, including two serogroups of L. pneumophila. The antigens were reacted with heterologous and homologous rabbit antisera in Western blot. Sera from...... seven patients with culture-verified L. pneumophila infection and nine patients with serologically confirmed L. micdadei infection were also investigated for reactivity with the corresponding antigens. Among the cross-reactive Legionella antigens defined, non-specific reactivity in patients' sera with...... the 58-kDa common antigen (CA) was noted. Specific reactions were observed with the Legionella flagellum antigen and with the macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) protein; with both antigens, however, the reactive sera were too few to suggest the use of a single antigen in a diagnostic test....

  9. MHC Class Ⅰ Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    Barry Flutter; Bin Gao


    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅰ molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class Ⅰ molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class Ⅰ complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class Ⅰ expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class Ⅰ presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  10. Autoradiographic detection of IgG and viral antigens

    Autoradiographic methods can be used as an alternative to indirect immunofluorescence to detect viral antigen expression or the presence of IgG in tissue sections. Iodinated protein A isolated from Staphylococcus aureus detects an influx of IgG into the central nervous system of mice inoculated with the coronavirus SD. Antispecies antibody that has been iodinated detects coronavirus antigen expression for 24 days post-inoculation while it is only detectable for 10 days by immunofluorescence. A direct comparison of indirect fluorescence and autoradiographic methods indicates that the autoradiographic techniques are considerably more sensitive. This increased sensitivity is sufficient to permit the detection of viral antigen in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections. (Auth.)

  11. Artificial Loading of ASC Specks with Cytosolic Antigens.

    Ali Can Sahillioğlu

    Full Text Available Inflammasome complexes form upon interaction of Nod Like Receptor (NLR proteins with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAPMS inside the cytosol. Stimulation of a subset of inflammasome receptors including NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 triggers formation of the micrometer-sized spherical supramolecular complex called the ASC speck. The ASC speck is thought to be the platform of inflammasome activity, but the reason why a supramolecular complex is preferred against oligomeric platforms remains elusive. We observed that a set of cytosolic proteins, including the model antigen ovalbumin, tend to co-aggregate on the ASC speck. We suggest that co-aggregation of antigenic proteins on the ASC speck during intracellular infection might be instrumental in antigen presentation.

  12. A neuronal antigen in the brains of Alzheimer patients.

    Wolozin, B L; Pruchnicki, A; Dickson, D W; Davies, P


    A monoclonal antibody was prepared against pooled homogenates of brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. This antibody recognizes an antigen present in much higher concentration in certain brain regions of Alzheimer patients than in normal brain. The antigen appears to be a protein present in neurons involved in the formation of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and in some morphologically normal neurons in sections from Alzheimer brains. Partial purification and Western blot analysis revealed the antigen from Alzheimer brain to be a single protein with a molecular weight of 68,000. Application of the same purification procedure to normal brain tissue results in the detection of small amounts of a protein of lower molecular weight. PMID:3083509

  13. Detection of gonococcal antigens in urine by radioimmunoassay

    A method of detecting gonococcal antigens by solid-phase radioimmunoassay with radioactively labelled antibody is described. A specificity test has been developed that enables this method to be used to detect gonococcal antigens in urine sediments. When sediments from samples of urine from male patients with gonorrhoea were tested, 31 (74%) of 42 gave positive results, clearly distinguishing them from sediments from urine samples from men with non-specific urethritis, none of which was positive. Ten of 14 urine sediments from urine samples from women with gonorrhoea gave positive results, as did 3 of 18 sediments from urine samples from women patients without gonorrhoea.These experiments demonstrate that gonococcal antigens can be detected in urine by radioimmunoassay; the method could be useful in diagnosis if, after refinement, its sensitivity and specificity were to be increased. (author)

  14. MHC Class I Antigen Presentation- Recently Trimmed and Well Presented

    BarryFlutter; BinGao


    Presentation of antigenic peptide to T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is the key to the cellular immune response. Non-self intracellular proteins are processed into short peptides and transported into endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are assembled with class I molecules assisted by several chaperone proteins to form trimeric complex. MHC class I complex loaded with optimised peptides travels to the cell surface of antigen presentation cells to be recognised by T cells. The cells presenting non-self peptides are cleared by CD8 positive T cells. In order to ensure that T cells detect an infection or mutation within the target cells the process of peptide loading and class I expression must be carefully regulated. Many of the cellular components involved in antigen processing and class I presentation are known and their various functions are now becoming clearer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2004;1(1):22-30.

  15. Delayed type hypersensitivity to allogeneic mouse epidermal cell antigens, 2

    A low dose of ultraviolet B radiation impairs the effectiveness of epidermal cell antigens. We studied the effect of ultraviolet B radiation on the delayed type hypersensitivity induced by allogeneic epidermal cell antigen. The delayed type hypersensitivity response was assayed by footpad swelling in mice. When epidermal cells were exposed to ultraviolet B radiation (660 J/m2), their ability to induce T cells of delayed type hypersensitivity activation was markedly inhibited in any combination of recipient mice and allogeneic epidermal cells. The effect of ultraviolet B radiation on epidermal cells was observed before immunization and challenge. Ultraviolet B treated epidermal cells did not induce suppressor T cells in mice. These results indicate that ultraviolet B radiation destroys the antigenicity of epidermal cells. (author)

  16. Development of the Artificial Antigens for the Organophosphorus Insecticide chlorpyrifos

    ZHU Guo-nian; WU Gang; WU Hui-ming


    This study reported that the hapten of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos,O,Odiethyl-O-[3,5-dichloro-6-(2-carboxyethyl)thio-2-pyridyl]phosphorothioate(named AR) was synthesized by using technical grade chlorpyrifos reacted with 3-marcapropanoic acid in hot alkaline solution.The hapten was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the modified active ester method to form artificial immune antigen.The ratio of AR:BSA was 39:1.The artificial coating antigen for chlorpyrifos was synthesized by conjugating AR to ovalbumin (OVA) with the mixed-anhydride method,and the ratio was 13:1.The anti-chlorpyrifos polyclonal antibodies were obtained by using the artificial immune antigen (AR-BSA) to immune in the rabbits.

  17. Oxidative stress can alter the antigenicity of immunodominant peptides

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Schwanninger, Angelika; Weinberger, Birgit; Almanzar, Giovanni; Parson, Walther; Buus, Søren; Lindner, Herbert; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix


    APCs operate frequently under oxidative stress induced by aging, tissue damage, pathogens, or inflammatory responses. Phagocytic cells produce peroxides and free-radical species that facilitate pathogen clearance and can in the case of APCs, also lead to oxidative modifications of antigenic...... proteins and peptides. Little information is available presently about the consequences of such modifications on the immune response. To model oxidative modification of an immunodominant antigenic peptide, we oxidized the methionine residue of the human CMV pp65(495-503) (NLVPMVATV) peptide. Such...... modifications of an antigenic peptide can affect MHC binding or TCR recognition. Using binding and dissociation assays, we demonstrate that oxidative modification of the CMVpp65(495-503) peptide leads to a decreased binding of the pMHC complex to the TCR, whereas binding of the peptide to the MHC class I...

  18. Internalization and presentation of myelin antigens by the brain endothelium guides antigen-specific T cell migration

    Lopes Pinheiro, Melissa A; Kamermans, Alwin; Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van het Hof, Bert; Wierts, Laura; O'Toole, Tom; Boeve, Daniël; Verstege, Marleen; van der Pol, Susanne MA; van Kooyk, Yvette; de Vries, Helga E; Unger, Wendy WJ


    Trafficking of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells across the brain endothelium, an essential step in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), is suggested to be an antigen-specific process, yet which cells provide this signal is unknown. Here we provide direct evidence that under inflammatory conditions, brain endothelial cells (BECs) stimulate the migration of myelin-reactive CD4+ T-cells by acting as non-professional antigen presenting cells through the processing and presentation of myelin-derived antigens in MHC-II. Inflamed BECs internalized myelin, which was routed to endo-lysosomal compartment for processing in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, myelin/MHC-II complexes on inflamed BECs stimulated the trans-endothelial migration of myelin-reactive Th1 and Th17 2D2 cells, while control antigen loaded BECs did not stimulate T-cell migration. Furthermore, blocking the interaction between myelin/MHC-II complexes and myelin-reactive T-cells prevented T-cell transmigration. These results demonstrate that endothelial cells derived from the brain are capable of enhancing antigen-specific T cell recruitment. DOI: PMID:27336724

  19. T Cells Expressing CD19/CD20 Bispecific Chimeric Antigen Receptors Prevent Antigen Escape by Malignant B Cells.

    Zah, Eugenia; Lin, Meng-Yin; Silva-Benedict, Anne; Jensen, Michael C; Chen, Yvonne Y


    The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown remarkable curative potential against advanced B-cell malignancies, but multiple trials have also reported patient relapses due to the emergence of CD19-negative leukemic cells. Here, we report the design and optimization of single-chain, bispecific CARs that trigger robust cytotoxicity against target cells expressing either CD19 or CD20, two clinically validated targets for B-cell malignancies. We determined the structural parameters required for efficient dual-antigen recognition, and we demonstrate that optimized bispecific CARs can control both wild-type B-cell lymphoma and CD19(-) mutants with equal efficiency in vivo To our knowledge, this is the first bispecific CAR capable of preventing antigen escape by performing true OR-gate signal computation on a clinically relevant pair of tumor-associated antigens. The CD19-OR-CD20 CAR is fully compatible with existing T-cell manufacturing procedures and implementable by current clinical protocols. These results present an effective solution to the challenge of antigen escape in CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, and they highlight the utility of structure-based rational design in the development of receptors with higher-level complexity. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 498-508. ©2016 AACRSee related Spotlight by Sadelain, p. 473. PMID:27059623

  20. Kinetics of HBsub(s) antigen in man

    The metabolism of HBsub(s) antigen had been studied in three human volunteers. One had chronic hepatitis and two were silent carriers. The HBsub(s) antigen had been isolated and purified from the plasma of each of the three subjects and, after iodination, reinjected to the same donor. The parameters of plasma kinetics of 131I HBsub(s)Ag have been analyzed according to a two compartmental model on the basis of the radioactivity of TCA precipitate (TP) and immunoprecipitate (IP). The fast initial volume of distribution was approximately equal in the three subjects (46.6ml/kg). The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of IP was the very same in two subjects but is four times higher in one of the silent carrier. The total renewal time (TRT) was about 3.3 days. Assuming that the HBsub(s) antigen extraction was of the order of 65% the plasma HBsub(s) antigen concentration per liter of plasma would be 12 and 53mg/liter for two silent carriers and 61 mg/liter for the patient with chronic hepatitis. The radioactive efflux from the model (calculated as IP.MCR multiplied by HBsub(s) antigen concentration) was identical for the two silent carriers and 50% higher in the patient with chronic hepatitis. The increase possibly reflects an increased synthesis of HBsub(s) antigen in the patient with chronic hepatitis. The cumulative urinary radioactivity when added to the whole body counting demonstrated that radioactivity was excreted solely in the urine. The ratio of organ counting to precordium counting did not vary significantly with time in all subjects

  1. Antigenic properties of avian hepatitis E virus capsid protein.

    Zhao, Qin; Syed, Shahid Faraz; Zhou, En-Min


    Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design. Domains I and V induce strong immune response in chickens and are common to avian, human, and swine HEVs, indicating that the shared epitopes hampering differential diagnosis of avian HEV infection. Domains III and IV are not immunodominant and elicit a weak immune response. Domain VI, located in the N-terminal region of the capsid protein, can also trigger an intense immune response, but the anti-domain VI antibodies are transient. The protection analysis showed that the truncated capsid protein containing the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues expressed by the bacterial system can provide protective immunity against avian HEV infection in chickens. However, the synthetic peptides incorporating the different linear antigenic domains (I-VI) and epitopes are non-protective. The antigenic composition of avian HEV capsid protein is altogether complex. To develop an effective vaccine and accurate serological diagnostic methods, more conformational antigenic domains or epitopes are to be characterized in detail. PMID:26340899

  2. Functional Development of the T Cell Receptor for Antigen

    Ebert, Peter J.R.; Li, Qi-Jing; Huppa, Johannes B.; Davis, Mark M.


    For over three decades now, the T cell receptor (TCR) for antigen has not ceased to challenge the imaginations of cellular and molecular immunologists alike. T cell antigen recognition transcends every aspect of adaptive immunity: it shapes the T cell repertoire in the thymus and directs T cell-mediated effector functions in the periphery, where it is also central to the induction of peripheral tolerance. Yet, despite its central position, there remain many questions unresolved: how can one TCR be specific for one particular peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) ligand while also binding other pMHC ligands with an immunologically relevant affinity? And how can a T cell’s extreme specificity (alterations of single methyl groups in their ligand can abrogate a response) and sensitivity (single agonist ligands on a cell surface are sufficient to trigger a measurable response) emerge from TCR–ligand interactions that are so low in affinity? Solving these questions is intimately tied to a fundamental understanding of molecular recognition dynamics within the many different contexts of various T cell–antigen presenting cell (APC) contacts: from the thymic APCs that shape the TCR repertoire and guide functional differentiation of developing T cells to the peripheral APCs that support homeostasis and provoke antigen responses in naïve, effector, memory, and regulatory T cells. Here, we discuss our recent findings relating to T cell antigen recognition and how this leads to the thymic development of foreign-antigen-responsive αβT cells. PMID:20800817

  3. Identification of two new protective pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine antigen candidates

    Patterson Noelle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite years of effort, a licensed malaria vaccine is not yet available. One of the obstacles facing the development of a malaria vaccine is the extensive heterogeneity of many of the current malaria vaccine antigens. To counteract this antigenic diversity, an effective malaria vaccine may need to elicit an immune response against multiple malaria antigens, thereby limiting the negative impact of variability in any one antigen. Since most of the malaria vaccine antigens that have been evaluated in people have not elicited a protective immune response, there is a need to identify additional protective antigens. In this study, the efficacy of three pre-erythrocytic stage malaria antigens was evaluated in a Plasmodium yoelii/mouse protection model. Methods Mice were immunized with plasmid DNA and vaccinia virus vectors that expressed one, two or all three P. yoelii vaccine antigens. The immunized mice were challenged with 300 P. yoelii sporozoites and evaluated for subsequent infection. Results Vaccines that expressed any one of the three antigens did not protect a high percentage of mice against a P. yoelii challenge. However, vaccines that expressed all three antigens protected a higher percentage of mice than a vaccine that expressed PyCSP, the most efficacious malaria vaccine antigen. Dissection of the multi-antigen vaccine indicated that protection was primarily associated with two of the three P. yoelii antigens. The protection elicited by a vaccine expressing these two antigens exceeded the sum of the protection elicited by the single antigen vaccines, suggesting a potential synergistic interaction. Conclusions This work identifies two promising malaria vaccine antigen candidates and suggests that a multi-antigen vaccine may be more efficacious than a single antigen vaccine.

  4. Identification of a Carcinoembryonic Antigen Gene Family in the Rat

    Kodelja, Vitam; Lucas, Kurt; Barnert, Sabine; Kleist, Sabine von; Thompson, John A.; Zimmermann, Wolfgang


    The existence of a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-like gene family in rat has been demonstrated through isolation and sequencing of the N- terminal domain exons of presumably five discrete genes (rnCGM1-5). This finding will allow for the first time the study of functional and clinical aspects of the tumor marker CEA and related antigens in an animal model. Sequence comparison with the corresponding regions of members of the human CEA gene family revealed a relatively low similarity at the am...

  5. Cloning of a species-specific antigen of Mycobacterium bovis.

    Radford, A J; Duffield, B J; Plackett, P


    A DNA library from a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis was constructed in the expression vector lambda gt11, and the library was probed with antisera to M. bovis. Clones expressing M. bovis antigens were isolated and characterized by using M. bovis-specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize a 22,000-molecular-weight protein (MPB70). MPB70 is a major protein antigen of the vaccine strain of M. bovis BCG and of virulent M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis. Of 32 clones ...

  6. Antigenic constituents of basic proteins from human brain

    Rajam, P. C.; Bogoch, S.; Rushworth, Mary A.; Forrester, P. C.


    1. A minimum of three distinct basic proteins have been chromatographically separated from a neutral, low ionic strength extract of human grey matter, using a discontinuous eluant series. 2. These chromatographic subfractions have been characterized by gradient elution chromatography and each subfraction analysed for distinct antigenic characteristics. 3. Evidence was adduced for the presence of a minimum of three distinct basic protein antigens, all of which may be specific to human brain but not to human liver. None of them appear to be human serum proteins. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4958738

  7. Regulation of antigen presentation by acidic pH


    The effect of pH on functional association of peptide antigens with APC membranes was investigated by using aldehyde-fixed B cells and class II- restricted T cell hybridomas to assess antigen/MHC complex formation. The results indicated that the rate and extent of functional peptide binding was markedly increased at pH 5.0 as compared with pH 7.3. The pH dependence of binding was preserved after pretreatment of fixed APC with pH 5.0 buffer, suggesting that pH had a direct effect on the intera...

  8. Mite antigen and allergen contents of house dust samples.

    Ishii, Akira; Yatani,Toshiko; Abe, Tatsuya; Go,Han Jin


    The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) antigen and allergen contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with enzyme-labelled anti-human IgE and anti-mite rabbit IgG antibodies. Antigen content was high in dust samples from homes of patients with allergy but not in samples from homes of patients with Kawasaki disease or of normal control subjects. Allergen content was high in dust samples from homes of Kawasaki disease patients. However, the values overlap...

  9. State of the Art in Tumor Antigen and Biomarker Discovery

    Our knowledge of tumor immunology has resulted in multiple approaches for the treatment of cancer. However, a gap between research of new tumors markers and development of immunotherapy has been established and very few markers exist that can be used for treatment. The challenge is now to discover new targets for active and passive immunotherapy. This review aims at describing recent advances in biomarkers and tumor antigen discovery in terms of antigen nature and localization, and is highlighting the most recent approaches used for their discovery including “omics” technology



    Thirty patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Haradas disease were typed for HLA-A and HLA-B antigenic determinants by a microlymphocytotoxicity technique. HLA-B22 antigen showed an increased frequency of 43.3% in the patient group(relative risk=8.69; exact P<0.0001; corrected P<0.0025) compared with normal control group(frequency=7.69%). This association suggests that immunogenetic factor may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease.