Lawrence, C.M.; Shuster, S.
1 The effect of topical arachidonic acid on anthralin inflammation was studied using sequential measurements of erythema (reflectance photometry) and oedema (calipers). 2 Topical arachidonic acid in concentrations which produced a small short-lived inflammatory response greatly augmented the initial phase and depressed the later phase of the inflammatory response to anthralin. 3 The initial augmentation was inhibited by concomitant administration of alpha-tocopherol. 4 It is suggested that fr...
Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens;
Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....
Schulze, H J; Schauder, S; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K
In 44 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis anthralin therapy was used as high-strength short-contact therapy in a bilateral comparison of anthralin versus 5% crude coal tar-anthralin combination. These two trials were undertaken with and without ultraviolet (UV) irradiation immediately after anthralin therapy. The combined tar-anthralin therapy was significantly less of an irritant during the first 3 weeks of treatment than anthralin alone, and it did not decrease the antipsoriatic efficacy. The use of UV irradiation, either with anthralin or tar-anthralin combination, did not produce an additional therapeutic effect. These findings lead us to prefer combined tar-anthralin therapy because of its lower irritancy in comparison with anthralin alone and they show the ineffectiveness of additional UV irradiation under the conditions of this study. PMID:3611453
Wemmer, U; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K
The effect of tar on anthralin-induced erythema was epicutaneously tested in ten patients. 3%, 5%, or 10% crude coal tar or coal tar solution was added to vaseline containing anthralin. A 5% or 10% tar preparation significantly suppressed the anthralin erythema induced by 0.5 to 1.0% anthralin having been applied for 24 hrs. In these concentrations, coal tar solution was at least as effective as coal tar itself. PMID:3751210
Mahrle, G; Bonnekoh, B; Wevers, A; Hegemann, L
Anthralin is still the most effective and safest therapeutic agent for treatment of psoriasis. Our data may assist toward an understanding of its mode of action and introduce new derivatives, more antiproliferative and less toxic than anthralin in vitro. Anthralin exerts a direct effect on keratinocytes and leukocytes. In time-lapse studies it significantly prolonged the prophase of mitotic keratinocytes in subtoxic doses and suppressed the expression of keratin 6 mRNA in the immediately suprabasal layer of psoriatic epidermis in vivo. Anthralin inhibits the transformation of lymphocytes and the release of reactive oxygen species from activated leukocytes, in vitro. We provide evidence that these effects of anthralin are mediated by protein kinase C. Twelve new hydrophilic derivatives of anthralin, including a 1,8-dimethoxy compound, as well as C-2 and C-10 substituted anthrones were tested on human keratinocytes. The antiproliferative effect of those derivatives bearing lacton rings at a C-10, consisting of 4, 5, or 6 C atoms, exceeded that of anthralin and were equally or less cytotoxic than the parent drug. These compounds had no pro-drug character in vitro, since they did not metabolize via anthralin, as shown by HPLC. These data indicate that there may be anthralin derivatives with more favourable properties for topical therapy than anthralin itself. PMID:8073848
Hegemann, L; Fruchtmann, R; van Rooijen, L A; Müller-Peddinghaus, R; Mahrle, G
In psoriatic patients, anthralin is known to attenuate lesional inflammation, but often generates perilesional dermatitis. This phenomenon is well reflected by the contrasting action of anthralin on human leukocytes. The release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is inhibited by anthralin in phorbol ester-activated leukocytes, whereas anthralin directly induces this cellular response in unstimulated cells. In order to elaborate further the underlying mechanisms, we compared the kinetics of anthralin and different well-characterized stimuli, including the phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, in this test system. Compared with standard stimuli, anthralin only marginally induced the release of ROS from human leukocytes and displayed different kinetics. Protein kinase C (PKC), the major cellular phorbol ester receptor, is considered to be involved in the regulation of this cellular response. Furthermore, its involvement in the pathophysiology of psoriasis has been suggested. Therefore, we also investigated the effects of anthralin on purified PKC. Anthralin was found to inhibit the enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner but not to display any stimulatory effects. The present results provide first evidence that the therapeutic activity of anthralin, at least in part, might be mediated by inhibition of PKC. PMID:1503504
Bunse, T; Mahrle, G
Two strains of Pityrosporum orbiculare/ovale were grown in a liquid medium and exposed to different concentrations of the imidazoles ketoconazole and clotrimazole as well as anthralin, liquor carbonis detergens and salicylic acid. With regard to growth inhibition of yeast cells, the efficacies of anthralin and the imidazoles were similar, a half-maximal inhibition being achieved with an anthralin concentration of 7 mg/l. Liquor carbonis detergens and salicylic acid also inhibited growth of Pityrosporum orbiculare/ovale, but only at much higher concentrations. The response to salicylic acid was mainly due to its acid pH. PMID:1350155
Bonnekoh, B; Tanzer, H; Seidel, M; Geisel, J; Merk, H F; Mahrle, G; Wiegrebe, W
HaCaT keratinocyte cultures were exposed to twelve hydrophilic anthralin derivatives 1 to 12 with substituents at C-1 and C-8 of the anthrone skeleton, of one H at C-10 and of both H's at C-10 by lacton rings. After 3 microM treatment growth was determined by cellular protein content, 3H-thymidine- and 14C-amino-acid-uptake and cytotoxicity by the release of cytoplasmic LDH into the culture medium. In comparison to acetone control (100%) anthralin suppressed mean protein content, as well as DNA- and protein-synthesis to 33, 28, and 21%, respectively, and the drug revealed an enzyme release of 660%. In relation to the parent drug we found similar cell growth inhibitory effects of compounds 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Deriv. 4, 8, and 10 were, however, to some extent less cytotoxic than anthralin, whereas deriv. 6, 9, and 12 were in the same range. An extreme suppression of growth parameters which differed from the anthralin effect by a factor 0.5-0.8 was caused by deriv. 11, showing the same cytotoxicity. Deriv. 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 did not demonstrate any cytotoxicity. Concerning growth parameters, deriv. 2 induced a slight stimulation, deriv. 3 and 7 were completely ineffective, deriv. 1 and 5 induced slightly to moderately inhibited proliferation but both being much less effective than anthralin. These data indicate that the "minimum structure" concept by Krebs and Schaltegger--claiming 1-hydroxy-9-anthrone as a precondition for clinical antipsoriatic potency--is not valid at least in cell-biological tests and point toward possible usefulness of some experimental model compounds as alternative antipsoriatics. PMID:1804068
Schauder, S; Mahrle, G
Coal tar applied simultaneously showed a suppressive effect on anthralin erythema. This effect was demonstrated by an epicutaneous test 24 hours (27 patients) and 1 hour (46 patients) after application of various concentrations of anthralin combined with tar 3%. In a clinical study on 9 patients, anthralin 3% alone or combined with tar 10% were administered in a right and left comparison on symmetrical chronic psoriatic lesions for 1 hour daily. Anthralin plus tar exhibited a stronger anti-psoriatic effect than anthralin alone did. Tar reduced the anthralin erythema in the perilesional skin. These findings favor the combination of coal tar and anthralin in the 1-hour treatment schedule of psoriasis. PMID:3160177
Eter, J; Schulze, H J; Mahrle, G
In a study on the effect of anthralin and infrared irradiation (IR) on the allergic patch test in vivo and the lymphocyte transformation test in vitro, we observed that anthralin enhanced the local test reaction. Our findings suggest an additive reaction of toxic anthralin dermatitis and allergic test reaction. Immunohistology showed that additional treatment with anthralin resulted in elevated numbers of the OKT-6+ dendritic cells in the epidermis. Anthralin in concentrations of greater than or equal to 10(-5) M inhibited the lymphocyte transformation in vitro. IR irradiation-either before or during patch testing-did not significantly influence the allergic test reaction or the lymphocyte transformation, if the temperature was adjusted to 37 degrees C. In comparison to convective heat, we found no specific effect of IR irradiation. PMID:2264370
Lowe, Nicholas J.
Psoriasis is a common papulosquamous skin disease which frequently presents a therapeutic challenge to physicians. Topical therapy with steroids, coal tars and anthralin are effective when used properly for many patients. More severely affected patients may require phototherapy using coal tars and anthralin plus ultraviolet radiation. Systemic methotrexate administration is indicated for some patients with severe skin and arthropathic psoriasis. Treatment using psoralen and long-wavelength ul...
Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Winther, Morten; Spanget-Larsen, Jens
dienol form of 1,3-dibenzoylacetone. But in these examples the two H-bonds are equivalent, while in the case of OHDBM they are chemically different, involving one enolic and one phenolic hydroxy group. OHDBM is thus an interesting model compound with two competing H-bonds to the same carbonyl group. In......In the stable enol tautomer of the title compound (OHDBM), one carbonyl group is flanked by two β-hydroxy groups, giving rise to bifold intramolecular H-bonding. A similar situation is found in other β,β'-dihydroxy carbonyl compounds like chrysazin, anthralin, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone, and the...
Psoriasis is characterized by excessive proliferation of keratinocytes accompanying acanthosis and incomplete differentiation. Prohibitin was investigated by examining its function of HaCaT as well as psoriasis. Psoriatic involved skin revealed high level of prohibitin in the basal layer. Prohibitin was analyzed by applying RNAi (PHBi) with HaCaT, which demonstrated increased S-phase. PHBi showed enhanced sensitivity to anthralin-mediated cell death due to enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting a protective role of prohibitin against apoptosis. Collectively, prohibitin plays a role both in cell cycle regulation and in maintaining mitochondrial integrity, implying its association with pathogenesis of psoriasis
Wozniacka, A; Szajerski, P; Adamus, J; Gebicki, J; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, A
The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), adenosine precursor, in 37 patients suffering from psoriasis. As NAD(+) is known to be relatively unstable, the second goal was to establish the proper conditions for the satisfactory stability of topical NAD(+) composition. In each patient, two matching plaques were selected for the study. Topical treatment with 1 or 0.3% NAD(+) in Vaseline ointment administered twice daily was compared with overnight therapy with 0.1% anthralin applied for 12 h and placebo. The enzymatic method was applied to determine the stability of NAD(+) in Vaseline ointment. After a 4-week application, the reduction in erythema, infiltration and desquamation caused by 1 or 0.3% topical NAD(+) composition was similar to the reduction caused by 0.1% anthralin. It was demonstrated that NAD(+) underwent a considerable decomposition at room temperature, while it was sufficiently stable at 5 degrees C; thus, for a longer use the agent should be stored at fridge temperature. NAD(+) therapy combines good efficacy, cosmetic acceptability and convenient twice-daily application. PMID:17035720
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata is one of the common causes of localized hair loss. Alopecia areata can have spontaneous remission or can follow unpredictable course with exacerbation. Due to which it can be a cause of cosmetic concern for the patient. AIM: To know the efficacy of various topical treatment modalities in Alopecia areata. METHODS: 100 patients presenting with alopecia areata to the dermatology outpatient department of Basaveshwar Teaching and General Hospital and Sangameshwar Hospital, Gulbarga, were included in this study. It was conducted as a randomized prospective study for a period of 12 weeks after taking an informed consent from the patient. Patients were randomly distributed into four treatment groups – A, B, C, D. Group. A were treated with 0.05% Betamethasone Dipropionate cream applied twice daily, Group. B were treated with 2% Minoxidil solution applied 1ml twice daily, Group. C was treated with 1.15% Anthralin ointment applied daily for 15 minutes and Group. D were treated with 0.03% Tacrolimus applied twice daily to the affected areas. Alopecia Grading Scale (AGS was calculated at first visit and 12 weeks. Regrowth Score (RGS was calculated at 12 weeks. Treatment outcome in different groups were compared using mean AGS at 12 weeks and RGS. RESULTS: Group A patients showed statistically significant clinical improvement when compared to all the other groups. Poorest response was seen in Group D. CONCLUSION : The study concluded that topical 0.05% betamethasone dipropionate is the most effective topical treatment modality in patients with alopecia areata. KEYWORDS: Alopecia areata; Betamethasone dipropionate; Minoxidil; Anthralin; Tacrolimus.
Ascenso, Andreia; Pinho, Sónia; Eleutério, Carla; Praça, Fabíola Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceição; Silva, Olga; Simões, Sandra
This experimental work aimed to develop a simple, fast, economic, and environmentally friendly process for the extraction of lycopene from tomato and incorporate this lycopene-rich extract into ultradeformable vesicular nanocarriers suitable for topical application. Lycopene extraction was conducted without a cosolvent for 30 min. The extracts were analyzed and incorporated in transfersomes and ethosomes. These formulations were characterized, and the cellular uptake was observed by confocal microscopy. Dermal delivery of lycopene formulations was tested under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Lycopene extraction proved to be quite safe and selective. The vesicular formulation was taken up by the cells, being more concentrated around the nucleus. Epicutaneous application of lycopene formulations decreased the level of anthralin-induced ear swelling by 97 and 87%, in a manner nonstatistically different from the positive control. These results support the idea that the lycopene-rich extract may be a good alternative to the expensive commercial lycopene for incorporation into advanced topical delivery systems. PMID:23826819
Stein Gold, Linda F
Psoriasis is a chronic disease that has a substantial effect on quality of life of patients and often needs long-term treatment. Topical treatments for psoriasis include corticosteroids, vitamin D derivatives, tazarotene, anthralin, tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, and newer formulations of tar. Although many of these treatments are effective, they must be prescribed appropriately and used consistently for a period of weeks to months before clinical evidence of improvement can be seen and patients perceive that the treatment is working. As such, medication dosage/schedule, choice of vehicle, and especially patient adherence to medication are key factors for a treatment to be effective. Addressing patient preferences about treatments and concerns about treatment-related toxicities and managing their expectations represent additional aspects of patient care. Therapies such as calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate (Cal/BD) fixed combination foam and new drugs and vehicles continuously enhance the treatment landscape for psoriasis. Because adherence to topical treatment can be a major difficulty, keeping the treatment regimen simple and using new and sophisticated treatment vehicles that are acceptable to patients can likely improve treatment outcomes. PMID:27074696
Menter, A.; Korman, N.J.; Elmets, C.A.; Feldman, S.R.; Gelfand, J.M.; Gordon, K.B.; Gottlieb, A.; Koo, J.Y.M.; Lebwohl, M.; Lim, H.W.; Van Voorhees, A.S.; Beutner, K.R.; Bhushan, R. [University of Texas South West Medical Center Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States)
Psoriasis is a common, chronic, inflammatory, multi-system disease with predominantly skin and joint manifestations affecting approximately 2% of the Population. In this third of 6 sections of the guidelines of care for psoriasis, we discuss the use of topical medications for the treatment of psoriasis. The majority of patients with psoriasis have limited disease (<5% body surface area involvement) and can be treated with topical agents, which generally provide a high efficacy-to-safety ratio. Topical agents may also be used adjunctively for patients with more extensive psoriasis undergoing therapy with either ultraviolet light, systemic or biologic medications. However, the use of topical agents as monotherapy in the setting of extensive disease or in the setting of limited, but recalcitrant, disease is not routinely recommended. Treatment should be tailored to meet individual patients' needs. We will discuss the efficacy and safety of as well as offer recommendations for the use of topical corticosteroids, vitamin D analogues, tazarotene, tacrolimus, pimecrolimus, emollients, salicylic acid, anthralin, coal tar, as well as combination therapy.
Hausen, Harald zur; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Schmidt, Rainer; Hecker, Erich
The effect of various tumor initiators and promoters on induction of persisting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in different lines of lymphoblastoid cells was analyzed. Neither five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, amongst them potent tumor initiators (e.g., 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene), nor the potent (ultimate) liver carcinogen N-acetoxy-N-2-acetylamino-fluorene induced EBV. A series of compounds, representing three classes of tumor-promoting diterpene esters (e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), efficiently induced EBV in persistently infected cells. The concentration required for maximal induction ranged between 0.5 and 100 nM. Some nonpromoting diterpenes (phorbol, 4α-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, and ingenol) did not induce EBV. However, the nonpromoters, resiniferatoxin and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-decatrienoate, were effective, whereas anthralin, a tumor promoter, did not induce EBV. In three lines of EBV genome-carrying cells (Raji, NC-37, and RPMI 64-10) only abortive induction was noted, leading exclusively to synthesis of early antigen. In cells of lines with low spontaneous virus release (P3HR-1, B95-8, and QIMR-Wil), upon treatment with tetradecanoylphorbol acetate, approximately 20-40 times more viral DNA was recovered as compared to untreated controls. Viral DNA from tetradeca-noylphorbol acetate-induced cultures revealed the same restriction endonuclease cleavage pattern as viral DNA obtained from noninduced cells. Within 10 days after induction, release of infectious virus increased approximately by one order of magnitude. Prostaglandins, reported to be released after treatment with tumor promoters, were ineffective in virus induction under the conditions tested. Images PMID:218219
Full Text Available Background: Alopecia areata (AA shows several well-defined dermoscopic features which may help in confirming diagnosis in AA. Aims: We carried out a study to examine the dermoscopic features of AA and develop a protocol for diagnosis of AA by dermoscopy. Materials and Methods: Dermoscopy was performed in 66 patients with AA. Hanse HVS-500NP dermoscope (magnification of ×32 and ×140 was used. Results: The mean age of the patients (46 males and 20 females was 26.85 years. The mean age of onset was 25.15 years. The mean duration of alopecia was 10.3 months. Most common AA in our study was patchy type (57/66, 87.7%. Single patch was seen in 24 patients and multiple patches in 33 patients. Diffuse AA was seen in five patients. Ophiasis and alopecia universalis were seen in two patients each. Nail changes were fine pitting (4, ridging (2, thinning of nail plate (2. Twenty nail dystrophy, distal onycholysis, striate leukonychia and coarse pitting were seen in one patient each. Intralesional triamcinolone acetonide was the most common therapy offered. Others were oral betamethasone minipulse therapy, dexamethasone pulse, minoxidil, anthralin and corticosteroids. The most common dermoscopic finding was yellow dots seen in 54 patients (81.8%, followed by black dots (44 patients, 66.6%, broken hairs (36 patients, 55.4%, short vellus hair (27 patients, 40.9% and tapering hairs (8 patients, 12.1%. Conclusions: The most common dermoscopic finding of AA in our study was yellow dots, followed by black dots, broken hairs, short vellus hair and tapering hairs. Dermoscopic findings were not affected by the type of AA or the severity of the disease.
Full Text Available Background and design: Approximately 20% of alopecia areata (AA cases are children. There is limited information about childhood AA.We aimed to examine demographic features,treatments and diseases prognosis of child cases of AA that were followed in our clinic. Material and methods: Datas of 110 AA patients who are 16 and under 16 years old were examined retrospectively.The age,gender,disease onset age,duration of disease,types of AA and onset area,nail involvement, accompanying systemic and dermatological diseases,laboratory tests,treatments and the prognosis were evaluated in their follow-up time.Results: Female cases were 46,4%, male cases were 53,6%.The mean age was 10,35 years.The age of disease onset was 8,65 years.Primary onset areas of AA cases were scalp in 83,6%, eyebrows in 5,4%, body hair in 5,4%, eyelashes in 2,7%, eyebrows and eyelashes in 2,7%.Types of disease were AA in 73,4% cases,alopecia totalis in 19% cases, alopecia universalis in 5,4% cases,ophiaisis in 1,8% cases.Nail involvement was established in 36,3% cases. Nevus flammeus was established in 2,7% cases.Mean disease duration was 17,02 months.Accompaying dermatosis were vitiligo in 2,7% cases,atopic dermatitis in 6,3% cases. The accompaying systemic diseases were autoimmune thyroiditis in 1,8% cases and Down's Syndrome in 2,7% cases.Thyroid autoantibodies were high in 0,9% cases.We have treated 24,5% of cases with topical corticosteroid lotion, 30,9% of cases with anthralin, 0,9%of cases with 2% minoxidil lotion, 0,9% of cases with calcipotriol lotion, 1,8% of cases with topical calcineurin inhibitors, 10% of cases with intralesional corticosteroids.We have treated 15,4% of cases with systemic corticosteroids and PUVA therapy who were resistant to topical treatment.We have treated 14,5% of cases with different combinations of topical treatments.Remission was observed in 34,5% of cases.The mean remission duration was 12.2 months.Relapse was observed at a average of two