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1

Low dose gamma ray effect on inhancer of anther culture response in some spring wheat genotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this investigation, the response of anther culture in three wheat genotypes (Tajan, Atila, R-12) after a treatment with a low dose of gamma ray was studied. Spikes of these genotypes were irradiated in doses of 2, 3 Gy, then cultured in the modified P4 medium, containing 200 mgl-1 Glutamine, 15% Ficol, 2 mgl-1 2,4-D, and 0.5 mgl-1 Kinitin. It was found that there is a significant difference between the genotypes, and also between the irradiated treatment levels and the non-irradiated treatment. All of the genotypes showed a low response to the anther culture meaning a decrease in the response with irradiation. 90% of Calli of Atila, 67% of R-12 and 46% of Tajan in control treatment produced plants. But the Calli of irradiated anthers did not produced any plant (green or albino). Generally by the gamma irradiation, we observed a low response in the Calli and plant let production

2

A survey on the response of some wheat genotypes to haploid production through anther culture system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experiment was carried out to investigate the response of five Iranian wheat cultivars (Tajan, Atila, Mahooti, red Bafghi and white Bafghi) and four segregating F 3 wheat lines compared to a tester genotype in another culture system for the purpose of haploid production. Anthers were planted in p 4 induction medium. Cold and gamma radiation pretreatments were also applied to study the stimulating effect on call i/plant lets production. Conventional growth conditions in the green house were not met du c to lack of mean; of controlling day temperature. None of the cultivars were produced call i in p 4 induction medium. The segregating F 3 lines increasing percentages of call i production belonged to lines 2044, 2208, and 2005, respectively. Cold pretreatment showed positive stimulating effect on call i production only in lines 2005, and 2097. The combined pretreatments of segregating lines before being plated in the induction medium had a significant effect in calc production regarding line 2005. In case of line 2044, however, only the gamma radiation dose of 2 Gy combined with the cold pretreatment was true. Line 2097 showed no positive effect of simulation in call i production because of the combined pretreatments. The highest plant let production percentage belonged to line 2005 and followed by lines 2208, and 2044. Considering that the conventional growth conditions for donor plants were not met in the greenhouse, the response to haploid production of wheat genotponse to haploid production of wheat genotypes used in this experiment can not necessarily be true. The optimum donor plant growth conditions is one the principal conditions for obtaining satisfactory results from another culture system to be used in the breeding scheme

3

Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

4

Study of genotype, cold pre-treatment, low-dosage Gamma irradiation and 2,4-D concentration effects on wheat anther culture response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study. effects of genotype, cold pre-treatment. low dosage Gamma irradiation and 2, 4-D concentration on response of three wheat genotypes (Atrak, F3 2005 and F3 2104) to anther culture were investigated. Seeds of donor genotypes were grown under field condition in early spring. Anthers from donor plants were collected and plated on modified CHB medium containing 2,4-D (2 and 4 mgl-1), 0.5 mgl-1 Kinetin and gl-1 Sucrose. Number of calli formed in 100 anthers and number of planet produced from 100 calli were counted. Results indicated that genotypes. cold pre-treatments and 2,4-D concentrations had significant effects on response of wheat genotypes to anther production, while F3 2104 the lowest. It would be concluded that androgenic traits are controlled by genotype and environmental factors. Furthermore this traits are controlled independently

5

Evaluation of effect of different gamma ray doses on anther culture response in two Iranian wheat landraces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wheat according to its importance as a source of food is the most important strategic agricultural product and has the highest level of under planting lands around the world. Double haploid induction methods are able to raise wheat breeding efficiency through decreasing length of breeding programming and increasing selection efficacy. In this experiment for determining the effect of gamma radiation of seeds on anther culture response of wheat, two recalcitrant Iranian wheat landraces, Graecum and Nigricum with no response to anther culture were chosen. Callus induction and plant regeneration traits from anther culture of these landraces and twenty of their random selected mutant genotypes which were produced through seed radiation with 100, 150, 200, 250Gy of gamma ray doses were evaluated. A factorial design based on completely randomized design with five replication was used to compare callus induction and plant regeneration percents of genotypes. Gamma ray doses levels and genotypes were two factors of this experiment which had a significant effect on both of callus induction and plant regeneration traits. An evaluation of the means revealed that the highest level of callus induction is noticed in 200Gy (12.5%) and that of plant induction is noticed in 150Gy (67.28%). the highest mean of callus induction (68.6%) was obtained in genotype L9.200.2 as a mutant of Nigricum landrace and The highest mean of plant induction (93.12%) was obtained in genotype L8.150.1 as a %) was obtained in genotype L8.150.1 as a mutant of Graecum landrace. (author)

6

Induction of Haploid Rice Plants Through in vitro Anther Culture  

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Full Text Available Anthers of three rice cultivars having late uninucleate microspores were studied for induction of haploid rice plants. Anthers were cultured on Z2 medium supplemented with various combinations and concentrations of auxins and kinetin (cytokinin. The best callusing from cultured anthers obtained in 2 medium containing 2,4-D 2 mg l-1, NAA 2.5 mg l-1 and kin 0.5 mg l-1. For regeneration of haploid plantlets anther derived calli were transferred to modified MS medium enriched with kin 1 mg l-1, NAA 1 mg l-1, BAP 1.0 ml l-1 and incubated at 25?1OC in light. BRRI Dhan-29 produced both green and albino plants while BR-3 produced green plants only. Green plantlets obtained from BRRI Dhan-29 were examined and found to be 69.2% haploid plants.

Sharmin Shahnewaz

2003-01-01

7

Ethylene precursors and antagonists increase embryogenesis of Hordeum vulgare L. anther culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of ethylene in microspore embryogenesis and regeneration was analyzed by studying the effects of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and the ethylene antagonists silver nitrate and silver thiosulphate on the androgenic response of in vitro cultured anthers of seven genotypes of barley. Incorporation of either ACC or silver salts in the culture medium lead to a significant increase in callus induction for five of the seven genotypes tested. The treatment that increased callus induction depended upon genotype. Only anthers cultured on 1 mg l(-1) silver thiosulphate gave rise to fertile plants in all seven genotypes tested. PMID:24193518

Evans, J M; Batty, N P

1994-09-01

8

Colchicine-mediated chromosome doubling during anther culture of maize (Zea mays L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient methods of chromosome doubling are critical for the production of microspore-derived, doubled-haploid (=DH) plants, especially if, as in maize anther culture, spontaneous chromosome doubling occurs infrequently. In the present study, colchicine (5-1000 mg/l) was added to the induction medium and maize anthers were incubated in the colchicine-containing medium for different durations (1-7 days). In order to improve overall anther culture response, the culture temperature was adjusted to 14°C during the first 7 days. Colchicine applied at low concentration, i.e. 5 mg/l (7 days), or for short duration, i.e. 1-3 days (250 mg/l), showed beneficial effects on the formation of embryolike structures (=ES) and thus led to increased plant production, but was comparatively ineffective regarding chromosome doubling. Optimal doubling effects were observed when anthers had been exposed to culture medium containing 250 and 1000 mg/l of colchicine (7 days); in these treatments the doubling index (=DI), defined as the quotient of the number of DH plants and the number of totally regenerated plants in a specific treatment, rose to 0.56 and 0.53, respectively, compared to 0.20 in the untreated control. However, colchicine administered at concentrations higher than 250 mg/l seemed to be detrimental to general plant production; thus, in spite of a high DI, the overall DH plant production was even lower than in the control treatment. Maximum DH plant production for three different genotypes was accomplished with culture medium containing 250 mg/l of colchicine (7 days). With the best-responding genotype (ETH-M 36) a DH plant production of 9.9 DH plants/100 anthers was accomplished, i.e. a 7-fold increase compared to the non-treated anthers. This is the first report on efficient chromosome doubling in anther culture by subjecting anthers to colchicinecontaining induction medium during a post-plating cold treatment. Chromosome doubling as described here becomes an integral part of the maize anther culture protocol and thus represents a rapid and economical way to produce DH plants. PMID:24166630

Saisingtong, S; Schmid, J E; Stamp, P; Büter, B

1996-06-01

9

Improvement of bananas (Musa cvs.) through in vitro anther culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Agricultural products play a great role in the Colombian economy, and the banana is one of the most important. Since 1981, one of the more serious problems effecting production of this crop is the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis sp. difformis, that causes black sigatoka disease. Most of the recent efforts to control this disease have been directed towards the identification of clones tolerant or resistant to this disease. One alternative approach is the use of anther culture to obtain resistant haploid plants. Diploid clones (Musa - AA) have been used as a model in this study. The results presented here identify the most appropriate stage of anther development for callus induction and proliferation, and treatments that reduce tissue browning. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

10

Microspore-derived embryos from Quercus suber anthers mimic zygotic embryos and maintain haploidy in long-term anther culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microspore-derived embryos produced from cork oak anther cultures after long-term incubations (up to 10-12 months) were analysed in order to determine the genetic variability and ploidy level stability, as well as morphology, developmental pattern and cellular organisation. Most of the embryos from long-term anther cultures were haploid (90.7%), corresponding to their microspore origin. The presence of a low percentage of diploid embryos (7.4%) was observed. Microsatellite analysis of haploid embryos, indicated different microspores origins of the same anther. In the diploid embryos, homozygosity for different alleles was detected from anther wall tissues, excluding the possibility of clonal origin. The maintenance of a high proportion of haploid embryos, in long-term anther cultures, is similar in percentage to that reported in embryos originating after 20 days of plating (Bueno et al. 1997). This suggests that no significant alterations in the ploidy level occurred during long incubations (up to 12 months). These results suggest that ploidy changes are rare in this in vitro system, and do not significantly increase during long-term cultures. Microscopical studies of the microspore embryos in various stages revealed a healthy and well developed anatomy with no aberrant or chimeric structures. The general morphology of embryos appearing at different times after plating, looked similar to that of earlier embryos, as well as the zygotic embryos, indicating that they represent high quality material for cork oak breeding. PMID:12964871

Bueno, Maria A; Gomez, Arancha; Sepulveda, Federico; Seguí, José M; Testillano, Pilar S; Manzanera, José A; Risueño, Maria-Carmen

2003-08-01

11

Evaluation of androgenic competence through anther culture in common eggplant and related species  

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Anther culture is a convenient technique to obtain androgenic haploid and doubled haploid (DH) plants. In common eggplant (Solanum melongena), this technique has been used to develop DH pure lines for producing uniform F1 hybrid seed of some commercial varieties. However, a comprehensive study of the variation of this useful trait among different materials of common eggplant and related species is still lacking. In this work, we studied the androgenic response of 12 accessions of common eggpl...

Pablo; Prohens Toma?s, Jaime; Segui?-simarro, Jose? M.; Salas Aragon, Pablo

2011-01-01

12

Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

13

Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L.) de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via ca [...] logênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias. Abstract in english Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture [...] by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.

Leonardo, Galli; Judith, Viégas; Eliane, Augustin; Marcia Ines, Eckert; João Baptista da, Silva.

1998-03-01

14

Cucumber mosaic virus resistant mutant from tobacco's anthers treated with ? ray through anther culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flower buds of Nicotiana tabacum cv. K326, NC89 and 8611, in which the microspore is in the phase of single nucleus and the nucleus is on the side, were irradiated with 60Co ?-ray. Plant lets from anther culture were transplanted and inoculated with poisonous fluid of CMV. The results showed that there was an orientation relation between the variation of disease resistance of plants of NC89, 8611 and the dose of 60Co ?-ray. The variation of leaves of plants was analogous to symptom of CMV when the dose was equal to or more than 4, which caused difficulty for selection. When dose was less than 2krad, there was no difference in disease resistance between the plants induced from irradiation of 60Co ?-ray and the control. However, when dose was equal to 2krad, the difference of disease resistance was at the level of significance. CMV-resistant mutants were selected from the population of haploid plant of NC89 and 8611 induced by 2.0 krad of 60Co ? ray

15

The Influence of Genotype and Induction Medium on Efficiency of Anther Culture of Hetrotic Indica × Indica Rice Hybrids  

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This study was set up in the research station of Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII) to determine the response of three hetrotic Indica × Indica rice hybrids (Bahar1, IR75221H and IR69688H) to anther culture on four induction media (N6, modified N6, chu and modified chu). To evaluate hybrids, the percentage of calluses which had been made from anthers in early uni- to mid- uninucleate stage and the number of regenerated plantlets of calluses in those media were determined. The results ind...

Ebadi, A.; Joharali, A.; Soloki, M.; Kh, Alizadeh; Torabi, A.

2009-01-01

16

Increased doubled haploid plant regeneration from rice (Oryza sativa L.) anthers cultured on colchicine-supplemented media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plating rice anthers on a semisolid induction medium containing 250 or 500 mg/l colchicine for 24 or 48 h-incubations followed by transfer to colchicine-free medium and standard anther culture procedures resulted in overall 1.5- to 2.5- fold increases in doubled haploid green plant productions compared to control anther cultures. The addition of colchicine had no detrimental effects on the different anther culture efficiency parameters, but in some treatments led to significant enhancement of anther callusing frequency or callus green plant regenerating ability. The most efficient treatment raised doubled haploid plant recovery from 31% to 65.5%. These results suggest that post-plating colchicine treatment of anthers, since it was found to improve both anther culture efficiency and doubled haploid plant recovery frequency, could be integrated into rice doubled haploid plant production programmes. PMID:24194020

Alemanno, L; Guiderdoni, E

1994-05-01

17

The Influence of Genotype and Induction Medium on Efficiency of Anther Culture of Hetrotic Indica × Indica Rice Hybrids  

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Full Text Available This study was set up in the research station of Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII to determine the response of three hetrotic Indica × Indica rice hybrids (Bahar1, IR75221H and IR69688H to anther culture on four induction media (N6, modified N6, chu and modified chu. To evaluate hybrids, the percentage of calluses which had been made from anthers in early uni- to mid- uninucleate stage and the number of regenerated plantlets of calluses in those media were determined. The results indicated that genotype, composition of callus induction medium and their interactions significantly affected callus percentage, total plant regeneration and production of green and albino plants. IR75221H hybrid was considerably superior for callus induction (1/64% and Bahar1 hybrid was the most desirable for producing of green plants (3/43% and total regeneration (12/24%. IR75221H hybrid produced higher albino plant (10/66% and IR69688H hybrid produced lower albino plant (6/45%. The best medium culture in the case of callus induction was modified N6 (2% and total regeneration (21/82% produced green plant (5/6%, and albino plant (16/22% was modified Chu among all media culture. However, genotypes showed different results in each media culture, and responses to hybrid of anther culture was low, but by changing the media culture we increased the response of culture.

A Ebadi

2009-04-01

18

Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of ?-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of ?-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

19

Induced mutations and Anther culture for sesame improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of two Sri Lankan sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars MI 2 and MI 3 and of UCR82-203 NS which has indehiscent capsules were treated with gamma rays, ethyl methanesulphonate and diethyl sulphate. Selections were made in segregating populations for improved yield components and morphological characters. Radiation sensitivity studies indicated that the seeds of MI 3 variety were more resistant to irradiation than MI 2. The M1 plants also showed varietal differences in growth reduction. Fifty percent growth reduction for plant height in MI 2 was in the range of 500 - 600 Gy and that for MI 3 was 750 - 1000 Gy. Promising mutants after screening in preliminary trials were tested for yield and adaptability in multilocational trials in different agro-climatic zones. A wide variation and increased mean values of yield and components were recorded in selected mutants in the preliminary trials. Two mutants, MB 29 and MB 33, consistently outyielded the recommended cultivar MI 3 in regional trials. The mutant MB 13 was also promising. MB 29 and MB 29w have a brittle seed coat easy for decortication. A number of mutants with improved characters have been isolated, characterized and included in the cross-breeding programmes. Mutants MB 29 and MB 33 recorded better germination than MI 2 under high osmotic pressure and should be tested for tolerance to drought at early growth phases. The shoot/root ratio was lease in MB 29, MB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synMB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synchronous flowering period recorded in MB 29 and C 10 is important in reducing shattering losses and escaping from drought at flowering stage, Two mutants which have lost the undesirable effects associated with the indehiscent character in UCR82-203 NS were later found to have lost the indehiscent character too, suggesting that the undesirable effects of the indehiscent (id id) locus are pleiotropic. Anther culture studies were undertaken with the objective of using doubled haploids for sesame improvement. 25 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

20

In vitro Regeneration of Four Ethiopian Varieties of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L. using Anther Culture  

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Full Text Available The study aimed at developing a suitable and reproducible protocol of in vitro regeneration of haploid sesame (Sesamum indicum L. plantlets using anther culture. Anthers of four Ethiopian varieties, namely: Hirhir, Humera-1, Setit-1 and Non-Shatter were cultured in vitro to study their regenerating ability. Murashige and Skoog (MS media supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs were used. The highest callusing (56.20% and callus weight (8.33 g were observed in Hirhir cultured in MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at 2.0 mg L-1 + BAP (benzylaminopurine at 1.0 mg L-1. Shooting response was studied using green/friable calli of the varieties cultured in MS medium supplemented with BAP at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1 + NAA (naphthalene acetic acid at 1.0 mg L-1. Calli of Hirhir cultured in MS medium supplemented with BAP at 2.0 mg L-1 + NAA at 1.0 mg L-1 were the best in terms of percentage shooting and number of days to shooting. Non-Shatter showed the weakest response to the same treatment. Rooting of shoots was studied with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg L-1 of IBA + 0.5 mg L-1 of NAA. In this case too, whereas Hirhir cultured in MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L-1 IBA (indole-3-butyric acid +0.5 mg L-1 NAA showed the best response –87.15% in mean rooting, 11.66 mm in mean root length and 17.80 in mean days to rooting; Non-Shatter cultured in the same medium yield weakest response. Acclimatization responses of rooted in vitro seedlings were studied in coco peat and soil medium (comprising sand, cow dung and garden soil at a ratio of 2:1:1. Seedlings of Hirhir planted in both media gave better survival rate than that of the other varieties. The survival rates of Hirhir planted in coco peat and soil media were 66.7 and 50.0%, respectively.

M. Yifter

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Efficiency of anther culture technique in the production of wheat double haploids  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate efficiency of anther culture in the production of spontaneous double haploids from randomly selected heterozygous genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Anthers of 20 F1 wheat combinations were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 medium. All of the examined genotypes have shown the ability to produce pollen calluses as well as to regenerate green plants. On average for the whole experiment material, 47.2 calluses were produced per 100 cultured anthers. The green plant regeneration ranged from 0.8 to 13.4 green plants per spike, with an overall mean of 5.8. From the total of 582 regenerated green plants, 47.9% (279 were spontaneous double haploids. The final average yield from the study was 2.8 double haploids per spike.

Kondi?-Špika Ankica ?.

2008-01-01

22

A Comparison between Wheat and Maize Cross and Anther Culture Method for Production of Wheat Haploid Plants  

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Full Text Available The significance of haploid plants as genetic and plant breeding tools has been recognized for a long time. Haploid production techniques including anther culture, isolated microspore culture and intergeneric hybridization between wheat × Hordeum bulbosum and wheat × maize have been used to produce homozygous lines which accelerate breeding programs. In this study, wheat × maize hybridization and anther culture techniques were used for haploid production in six wheat genotypes. The results showed that 70.7% of regenerated plants through anther culture were albino plants and only 29.2 % were green, while the plants produced through wheat × maize method were all green. Ploidy variation was not observed in plants regenerated through wheat × maize hybridization. It was concluded that wheat × maize crosses would be an appropriate and practical method for haploid production in different wheat genotypes, which in comparison with the anther culture method has a higher efficiency.

C. Ghobadi

2004-10-01

23

Induction of pollen callus in anther cultures of Feijoa sellowiana Berg. (Myrtaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthers of Feijoa sellowiana Berg. (feijoa) produced pollen callus when cultured in Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzyladenine or in nurse cultures. Somatic callus was also formed in large amounts from the connective and from the cut end of the filament. Anthers containing microspores at the stage immediately prior to the first pollen mitosis cultured in the presence of 3% sucrose, presented the highest frequencies of induction. Androgenetic divisions were initiated by the formation of two morphologically equal cells, the so-called B-pathway. Attempts to regenerate pollen plants were unsuccessful but leaf-like structures could be obtained in regeneration media containing combinations of gibberellic acid and benzyladenine. PMID:24196182

Canhoto, J M; Cruz, G S

1993-11-01

24

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF ANTHER CULTURE DERIVED RICE PLANTS USING MOLECULAR MARKERS  

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Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) primers were used to determine the occurrence and extent of variation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants regenerated from anther culture. Genetic diversity among 27 regenerants of the cross CO43/Nootripathu and their parents were assessed using 25 RAPD primers and 19 ISSR primers. RAPD primers used in the study produced 285 polymorphic markers (81.65% polymorphism) and ISSR primers produced 201 polymorphic...

Hemaprabha K; Hemalatha T; UmaMaheswari T; Anbukkarasi K; Shanmugasundaram P

2013-01-01

25

Antimitotic agents increase the production of doubled-haploid embryos from cork oak anther culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to induce the nuclear DNA duplication of anther-derived embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to obtain doubled-haploid plants. Anther culture of this species produces a low percentage (7.78%) of spontaneous diploids, as assessed by flow cytometry. Therefore, three antimitotic agents, colchicine, oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM), were applied in vitro to anther-derived cork oak haploid embryos from six genotypes at different concentrations and for different treatment durations. Antimitotic toxicity was determined by embryo survival. Efficiency in inducing chromosome doubling of haploid embryos was evaluated by flow cytometry measurements and differences were observed between treatments. Nuclear DNA duplication and embryo survival of cork oak haploid embryos was most efficiently induced with oryzalin 0.01 mM for 48 h. Around 50% diploid embryos were obtained. The rate of chromosome duplication induced by APM 0.01 mM was also acceptable but lower than that induced by oryzalin, regardless of the duration of the treatment. Colchicine 1.3 or 8.8 mM was the least efficient, with the induction of necrosis and only a small rate of nuclear DNA duplication. PMID:17485138

Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose A; Bueno, Maria A

2007-12-01

26

Genetic and nongenetic factors influencing callus induction in Miscanthus sinensis (Anderss.) anther cultures.  

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Miscanthus sinensis is a promising species for biomass production. Influences of genetic and nongenetic factors on androgenesis induction efficiency were investigated. This is the first report on successful induction of pollen-derived callus in M. sinensis. The callus yield was strongly affected by genotype. A beneficial influence of cold pretreatment of spikes on androgenesis induction was observed. The highest yield of calli was obtained in cultures on a modified C17 medium. The results suggest that the high callus yield might be caused by the late culture initiation. The beginning of anther culture at the end of the flowering season caused a 17-fold increase in callus yield, in comparison to culture initiated at the height of the flowering season (August). It is likely, however, that the efficiency of androgenesis induction in the case of M. sinensis anther culture beginning in October could be related to a positive influence of growing donor plants in conditions of cooler and shorter day, i.e. 11-h day with temperature around 11xC and 13-h night with temperature around 5xC. Results of this study can significantly support the development of effective methods of M. sinensis haploidization, which could be used in crop improvement by breeding. PMID:19875884

Glowacka, K; Jezowski, S

2009-01-01

27

In vitro Plant Regeneration Through Anther Culture of Some Iranian Local Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In this study, effect of different genotypes, different callus induction and regeneration media were investigated using seven Iranian local rice. Anthers were cultured on N6, Fj and L8 media containing the same hormonal combination 3 mg L-1 NAA, 0.5 mg L-1 Kn and 0.5 mg L-1 2, 4-D and incubated at 25± 1° C in dark for callus induction. All varieties in L8 medium, five varieties in Fj medium and six varieties in N6 medium produced highest percentage of callus. Calli induced in different induction media were transferred to SK 11 and N 19 medium and incubated at 25± 1° C in light for plantlet regeneration. Among seven varieties upon transfer to SK 11 medium, highest percentage (40% of green plants were produced in Hassani and in N 19 medium the highest percentage (15.78 of green plants and albino plants (21.05 were produced in Anbarbo. The finding in the present investigation showed that the successfully emberyogenesis and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture dependent on medium culture components and are affected by the genetic mack-up of the plants.

Reza Talebi

2007-01-01

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Stimulation effects of ?-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of ?-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of ?-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of ?-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of ?-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

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Initial segmentation patterns of microspores and pollen viability in soybean cultured anthers: indication of chromosome doubling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Anteras obtidas de botões florais da cultivar IAS-5 de soja foram cultivadas em dois meios de cultura basais (B5 e B5 longo). Análises citológicas das anteras cultivadas in vitro foram realizadas durante os primeiros 20 dias de cultura, a fim de avaliar a viabilidade (por testes de carmim propiônico [...] e FDA) e o estágio de desenvolvimento dos grãos de pólen. As freqüências de grãos de pólen viáveis variaram significativamente entre os tamanhos de botões florais na análise com carmim propiônico. O meio de cultura basal e o tamanho do botão floral não têm um claro efeito nas freqüências de pólens binucleados simétricos e multinucleados. Contagens cromossômicas de micrósporos metafásicos ao longo do período de cultura mostraram nível de ploidia superior ao normal (n=20). Abstract in english Anthers obtained from flowers buds of soybean cultivar IAS-5 were cultured in two basal culture media (B5 and B5 long). Cytological examinations of the in vitro anthers were performed during the first 20 days of culture to assay the viability (by propionic-carmine and fluorescein diacetate tests) an [...] d the stage of development of pollen grains. The frequencies of viable pollen grains varied significantly between bud sizes on the propionic-carmine analysis. The basal culture media and bud size had no clear effect on the frequencies of binucleate symmetrical and multinucleate pollen grains. Chromosome counts of metaphasic microspores throughout the culture period showed microspores with higher ploidy level in addition to normal chromosome number (n=20).

Milena Barcelos, Cardoso; Eliane, Kaltchuk-Santos; Elsa Cristina de, Mundstock; Maria Helena, Bodanese-Zanettini.

2004-09-01

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Molecular characterization of three anther tissue culture varieties of tobaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. using RAPD analysis  

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Full Text Available Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPO analysis was used to characterize two new Flue Cured and one black tobacco type varieties derived from in vitro anther tissue culture technique. RAPOs are proposed as an appropriate complement of the morphoagronomic characteristics evaluations to fulfil international seed registration standards established for the identification of tobacco varieties. The identification of three tobacco varieties and their parents was carried out using the RAPO analysis with 64 random primers. Polymorphic products, 214 in number, were amplified only from 14 primers. Statistical analysis realized with the NTSYS program version 1.2 using the Jaccard similarity coefficient. The visual inspection revealed that five primers allowed the separation of the varieties in two groups, according to the type of tobacco: the Flue Cured and Black; while a group of nine primers separates each variety and establish its genetic relationship with their parents. The results obtained show that this technique is appropiated to establish genetic differences between tobacco varieties.

Gloria Azucena Fernández B.

2011-12-01

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Ensuring Reproduction at High Temperatures: The Heat Stress Response during Anther and Pollen Development  

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Full Text Available Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is very sensitive to environmental stresses, particularly to thermal insults which frequently occur when plants grow in field conditions in the warm season. Although abnormalities in both male and female reproductive organs due to high temperatures have been described in several crops, the failure to set fruits has mainly been attributed to the high sensitivity of developing anthers and pollen grains, particularly at certain developmental stages. A global view of the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to high temperatures in the male reproductive organs will be presented in this review. In addition, transcriptome and proteomic data, currently available, will be discussed in the light of physiological and metabolic changes occurring during anther and pollen development. A deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the stress response to high temperatures in flowers and, particularly, in the male reproductive organs will be a major step towards development of effective breeding strategies for high and stable production in crop plants.

Filomena Giorno

2013-07-01

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GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF ANTHER CULTURE DERIVED RICE PLANTS USING MOLECULAR MARKERS  

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Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR primers were used to determine the occurrence and extent of variation in rice (Oryza sativa L. plants regenerated from anther culture. Genetic diversity among 27 regenerants of the cross CO43/Nootripathu and their parents were assessed using 25 RAPD primers and 19 ISSR primers. RAPD primers used in the study produced 285 polymorphic markers (81.65% polymorphism and ISSR primers produced 201 polymorphic markers (79.37% polymorphism. The number of markers produced per primer ranged from 4-27 in case of RAPD with a mean of 14.04 and 7-23 in case of ISSR with a mean of 13.05. Dendrograms were constructed using similarity index values. RAPD markers grouped the 27 regenerants (A0 generation and their parents into four clusters and ISSR markers into three clusters. The Polymorphism information content (PIC values ranged from 0.702 to 0.952 with a mean of 0.887 for RAPD markers. In ISSR analysis, the mean PIC value was 0.891 and the highest and lowest PIC values were 0.940 and 0.832 respectively. In the present study, RAPD markers were able to reveal greater genetic diversity among the regenerants screened than ISSR markers.

Hemaprabha K

2013-07-01

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Effects of Genotype on Induction of Callus and Plant Regeneration Potential in vitro Anther Culture of Rice (Oryza sativa L.  

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Full Text Available The present studies were carried out to evaluate the response of anthers of six rice genotypes to callus induction and plant regeneration. For callus induction Z2 media supplemented with 2, 4-D 0.5 mg l-1, NAA 2.5 mg l-1 and Kinetin 0.5 mg l- was used. Of the six genotypes, five gave good callusing response. Highest callus induction was observed in BRRI Dhan-29 (8.06% and lowest in BR-10 (1.42%. Callus induction frequency varied from 1.42-8.06% depending on genotypes. Modified MS medium supplemented with Kinetin 0.5 mg l-1, BAP 2 mg l-1 and NAA 1.0 mg l-1 was used for plant regeneration. The results showed a significant genotypic difference in callus induction and plant regeneration. The regeneration of plantlet from anther derived calli ranged from 57-75% conclusion.

Sharmin Shahnewaz

2004-01-01

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Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

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Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted to find the effects of different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators viz. 2, 4 D, IAA, ?-NAA and Kinetin on callus induction from the anthers of a commercial hybrid rice line IR-69690, developed by Bangladesh Rice Research Institute and subsequent plant regeneration. N6 medium was used as basal medium. Callus induction frequencies in different media combinations ranged from 1.2 to 35.5%. The medium supplemented with 2, 4 D 1 mg L-1<...

Md. Monirul Islam; Sanjay Kumar Adhikary; Purnendu Gain; Md.Mizanur Rahman; Noor-e-Alam Siddique

2004-01-01

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Linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de antera Dihaploid wheat lines developed via anther culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Realizaram-se quatro experimentos de campo no Estado de São Paulo, tanto em condição de sequeiro como de irrigação por aspersão, empregando o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, visando a comparação de 20 genótipos de trigo, sendo 18 linhagens diaplóides obtidas e dois cultivares, IAC-24 e Anahuac, quanto à produção de grãos, características agronômicas, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e outros componentes da produção. Também estudou-se a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides 11, 12, 14, 17 e 18, originárias do cruzamento IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24, de porte baixo, com resistência ao acamamento, com ciclo precoce da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos quatro experimentos. A linhagem 8 mostrou ser fonte genética de espiga comprida; a 15, de maior número de espiguetas por espiga; o cultivar Anahuac de maior número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, e as linhagens 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 e 18 de grãos mais pesados. Todos os genótipos foram tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exceto a linhagem 5, sendo que o cultivar Anahuac exibiu elevada sensibilidade. A técnica de obtenção de linhagens diaplóides via cultura de anteras de plantas em geração F1 de cruzamentos de trigo foi eficiente originando genótipos produtivos, com características agronômicas desejáveis e com tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, num menor período de tempo em relação ao método convencional de melhoramento genético do Instituto Agronômico.Four field experiments were carried out at two locations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, under upland and sprinkler irrigation conditions, using a randomized block design, to evaluate 18 dihaploid wheat lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac for grain yield, with respect to agronomic characteristics, resistance to leaf rust and other yield components. Under laboratory conditions, the genotypes were analysed for their Al3+ toxicity tolerance in nutrient solutions. The dihaploid lines 11, 12, 14, 17 and 18 derived from the hybrid IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24 , demonstrated a short-plant type, resistance to lodging, early cycle from emergence to flowering as well as from emergence to maturity and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In addition these lines showed high average productivity in the four experiments. Line 8 was a good genetic source for long spike, while line 15 was good for large number of spikelets per spike. The cultivar Anahuac produced a large number of grains per spike and per spikelet, while lines 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 and 18 had high grain weight. All genotypes were tolerant to aluminum toxicity except line 5. Anahuac cultivar exhibited high Al3+ sensitivity. The technique used to obtain wheat dihaploid lines via anther culture from plants in the F1 generation after a cross, was efficient in originating productive genotypes, with desirable agronomic characteristics and with tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in a short period of time in relation to the traditional method of genetic breeding used at the Instituto Agronomico.

Luis Carlos da Silva Ramos

2000-03-01

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Linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de antera / Dihaploid wheat lines developed via anther culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizaram-se quatro experimentos de campo no Estado de São Paulo, tanto em condição de sequeiro como de irrigação por aspersão, empregando o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, visando a comparação de 20 genótipos de trigo, sendo 18 linhagens diaplóides obtidas e dois cultivares, IAC- [...] 24 e Anahuac, quanto à produção de grãos, características agronômicas, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e outros componentes da produção. Também estudou-se a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides 11, 12, 14, 17 e 18, originárias do cruzamento IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24, de porte baixo, com resistência ao acamamento, com ciclo precoce da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos quatro experimentos. A linhagem 8 mostrou ser fonte genética de espiga comprida; a 15, de maior número de espiguetas por espiga; o cultivar Anahuac de maior número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, e as linhagens 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 e 18 de grãos mais pesados. Todos os genótipos foram tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exceto a linhagem 5, sendo que o cultivar Anahuac exibiu elevada sensibilidade. A técnica de obtenção de linhagens diaplóides via cultura de anteras de plantas em geração F1 de cruzamentos de trigo foi eficiente originando genótipos produtivos, com características agronômicas desejáveis e com tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, num menor período de tempo em relação ao método convencional de melhoramento genético do Instituto Agronômico. Abstract in english Four field experiments were carried out at two locations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, under upland and sprinkler irrigation conditions, using a randomized block design, to evaluate 18 dihaploid wheat lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac for grain yield, with respect to agronomic characte [...] ristics, resistance to leaf rust and other yield components. Under laboratory conditions, the genotypes were analysed for their Al3+ toxicity tolerance in nutrient solutions. The dihaploid lines 11, 12, 14, 17 and 18 derived from the hybrid IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24 , demonstrated a short-plant type, resistance to lodging, early cycle from emergence to flowering as well as from emergence to maturity and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In addition these lines showed high average productivity in the four experiments. Line 8 was a good genetic source for long spike, while line 15 was good for large number of spikelets per spike. The cultivar Anahuac produced a large number of grains per spike and per spikelet, while lines 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 and 18 had high grain weight. All genotypes were tolerant to aluminum toxicity except line 5. Anahuac cultivar exhibited high Al3+ sensitivity. The technique used to obtain wheat dihaploid lines via anther culture from plants in the F1 generation after a cross, was efficient in originating productive genotypes, with desirable agronomic characteristics and with tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in a short period of time in relation to the traditional method of genetic breeding used at the Instituto Agronomico.

Luis Carlos da Silva, Ramos; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo; Antonio Wilson Penteado, Ferreira Filho; Erica Yumi, Yokoo; Jairo Lopes de, Castro; Armando, Pettinelli Júnior; Marcos Roberto da, Silva.

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Callus and Green Spot Formation From Anther Culture of Chili Mutant Lines (Capsicum Annum.L) Using in-vitro Culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Callus and green spot formation from anther culture of chili mutant lines (Capsicum annum.L) were carried out using in-vitro culture. Two kinds of different media based on hormonal composition were used for callus induction. A half of an quantities were directly cultured on callus induction medium, while rest of them were treated with cold shock (4oC) for 3 and 6 days subsequently cultured on callus induction medium. The highest callus formation was observed in culture from Ac medium containing I mg/l 2,4-D and 0,1 mg/l kinetin and were obtained from 0 days cold shock with chili without irradiation (Kr 0) 30%, chili mutant lines with irradiation dose 20 Krad (Kr 20) 25% and chili mutant lines with irradiation dose 40 Krad (Kr 40) 30% respectively. While cold shock for 3 days increasing 15 % callus formation from Kr 40 mutant lines

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Adequação de meios de cultura de anteras e testes de genótipos de trigo / Culture medium, microenvironment and genotype effects on wheat anther culture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Realizaram-se dois experimentos, o primeiro visando conhecer a capacidade androgênica de variedades de trigo e identificar as melhores condições para alcançar aquele objetivo, em termos de meios de cultura e microclima. No segundo, estudou-se maior número de variedades. No primeiro experimento, fora [...] m testadas as seguintes: PF 853031 e IAC 24, a primeira, usada como padrão; dois meios de cultura básicos, batata-2 e N6; duas auxinas, IAA e 2,4-D, nas doses de 3, 9 e 27 ìmol/L, e cinetina, nas doses de 2, 6, 12 e 24 ìmol/L. As anteras plaqueadas foram acondicionadas em sala fotoperiódica: (a) com 14 h de luz, 60 ìmol.m-2.s-1 (3.200 lux), à temperatura de 25°C, e (b) submetidas a pré-tratamento por quatro dias a 6°C e, em seguida, retornadas à condição a. Notou-se que a melhor combinação de tratamentos para a variedade IAC 24 foi o meio batata-2, 2,4-D a 27 .ìmol/L e cinetina 2 a 6 ìmol/L, por promover maior indução de estruturas androgênicas. Já para a variedade PF 853031, a mesma combinação de tratamentos, exceto 2,4-D a 9 µmol/L, promoveu também maior indução de estruturas androgênicas. Por outro lado, o pré-tratamento de quatro dias de frio causou maior indução de estruturas androgênicas em ambas as variedades. No segundo experimento, foram estudadas cinco variedades: PF 853048, usada como padrão, IAC 21, BH 1146, IAC 60 e Anahuac; dois meios de cultura básicos: batata-2 e N6; duas combinações hormonais: CH1 (10 µmol/L IAA e 30 ìmol/L de cinetina), e CH2 (10 ìmol/L de 2,4-D e 3,0 ìmol/L de cinetina). Observou-se maior indução de estruturas androgênicas para a 'PF 853048', seguida da 'Anahuac'. Todavia, somente foram obtidas plantas para a primeira. Essa constatação sugere que a capacidade androgênica seja controlada geneticamente no trigo. Na combinação hormonal 10 ìmol/L de 2,4-D e 3 ìmol/L de cinetina houve maior formação de estruturas androgênicas. Transplantaram-se as plantas regeneradas para vasos contendo solo, alocando-as em casa de vegetação para aclimatação, crescimento e florescimento. As plantas mostraram-se inférteis, mas produziram sementes após a duplicação pela técnica da colchicina. Abstract in english Experiments were carried out to establish conditions and to access varietal effects for wheat androgenesis. The varieties PF 853031, a standard known for androgenic capacity, and the IAC 24 of high agronomic value, were tested in two culture mediums, potato-2 and N6, including two auxins, IAA and 2. [...] 4-D, at 3, 9 and 27 ìmol/L, and kinetin, at 2, 6, 12 and 24 µmol/L. The experiment was installed in factorial design with six blocks and 20 anthers per plate (a block). About 5,760 anthers were plated per variety. The experiment was left in a photoperiodic room with (a) 14 h of cool fluorescent light, 60 ìmol.m-2.s-1 (3,200 lux), at temperature of 25°C, and (b) pretreated in dark at 6°C for four days, then backed to a. The variety IAC 24 showed higher androgenic capacity than the PF 853031 variety, in medium potato-2, 2.4-D at 27 ìmol/L and kinetin from 2 to 6 µmol/L. Cold treatment for four days was beneficial in improving androgenesis to both varieties. Five other varieties were studied, PF 853048, as a androgenic control, IAC 21, BH 1146, IAC 60 and Anahuac; two culture mediums, potato-2 and N6, along with two hormonal combinations, CH1 (IAA 10 µmol/L and kinetin 30 µmol/L) and CH2 (2.4-D 10µmol/L and kin 3 .mol/L) in the condition as (b) above. The standard variety PF 853048 ranked first and Anahuac, the second in terms of androgenic response. However, plants were only obtained from PF 853048. It is likely that the androgenic effect is under genotype control in wheat. The hormonal combination 10 µmol/L of 2.4-D and 3 µmol/L of kinetin were observed to induce higher androgenic response. Regenerated plants were potted and left to flower. All of them showed to be infertile, but produced seeds after colchicine treatment.

Luis Carlos da Silva, Ramos; Erica Yumi, Yokoo; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo.

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Cultivo in vitro de anteras de lino (Linum usitatissimum L.) / In Vitro Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Anthers Culture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El cultivo de lino (Linum usitatissimum L.) es una alternativa productiva de interés para Entre Ríos y sus cualidades nutricionales hacen prever un incremento de la demanda en el mercado nacional e internacional. El mejoramiento genético es un instrumento que permite obtener nuevos genotipos adaptad [...] os a las condiciones constantemente cambiantes. El cultivo de anteras es considerado el método más eficiente de producción de plantas doble haploides de lino, y puede utilizarse como una biotecnología que asista a los programas de mejoramiento a fin de incrementar su eficiencia al permitir la obtención de líneas puras en un corto tiempo. Si bien el lino se ha mostrado recalcitrante para esta técnica, a través de la investigación que se presenta se lograron ajustes en el protocolo de cultivo de anteras in vitro, se llegó al correcto desarrollo de la etapa de callogénesis y se redujo sustancialmente la oxidación de los callos durante la etapa de regeneración. Abstract in english Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important oil crop and an interesting agriculture production activity in Entre Ríos. Its nutritional qualities provide a high expectation for an increased national and international commercial demand. Crop genetic improvement is a tool that allows obtaining new ge [...] notypes adapted to constantly changing conditions. Consumers look for better nutrition qualities and farmers needs new genotypes adapted to the ecological and climatic requirements. Anther culture is considered the most successful method of producing doubled haploid plants in flax and it can be used in flax breeding programs to increase the efficiency and obtain lines in a short time. Although flax appeared to be recalcitrant to this technology through the study here presented some adjustments in the protocols that allowed obtaining a suitable growth at callus stage and reduced in a significant manner the calluses oxidation during the regeneration stage were made.

Sergio, Lassaga; Adriana, Bretón; Lucrecia, Gieco; Héctor, Milisich; Alberto, Dittrich.

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
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Investigation of the effect of 137Cs treatment on callus induction and plant regeneration anther culture in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthers at a single-nucleus stage of dihaploid L44 line have been treated with 1000, 2000 and 3000 R (137Cs). Irradiation has shown general inhibition effect on the induction of callus of the anthers inoculated. It is thought that the treatment effect is connected with the switching of the microspores from gametophytous to sporophytous type of development. The number of the albino regenerates increases along with the increase in irradiation dose. It could be explained by the mutation effect of 137Cs on the multiple genes controlling the pigment-protein complex. 2 tabs., 10 refs

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Identification of anther-specific/predominant genes regulated by gibberellin during development of lily anthers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We successfully identify anther-specific/predominant genes induced by gibberellin (GA) at the microspore stage of lily (Lilium longiflorum) anthers. We used a suppression-subtractive hybridization strategy to identify 22 individual cDNAs followed by a reverse RNA dot plot to determine their specificities at the microspore stage. Of the 22 genes, 12 are clearly anther-specific and three are anther-predominant. Sequence analysis revealed that five anther-specific/predominant genes are novel. The transcripts of anther-specific/predominant genes were differentially detected at the microspore development phase; some began accumulating in level as early as the occurrence of meiosis. When uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis was applied in young lily plants we found that all of the anther-specific/predominant genes, with the exception of LLA-139, were up-regulated by GAs in the anther while only some were responsive to the exogenous addition of 100 microM GA3. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes of selected genes in the anther showed a strong signal localized to the tapetal layer. The different actions of GA on gene expression in anthers are discussed. PMID:17391804

Hsu, Yi-Feng; Tzeng, Jhih-Deng; Liu, Ming-Che; Yei, Fung-Ling; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Co-Shine

2008-01-01

43

Support Culturally Responsive Teaching!  

Science.gov (United States)

Within today's changing society, teachers must meet the needs of culturally diverse students. Beyond cultural awareness, teachers must identify cultural implications and modify instructional approaches to address both the students' academic and cultural needs. To do so will create culturally responsive classrooms and promote student success.…

Martins-Shannon, Janine; White, Meg

2012-01-01

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Nuevos genotipos de arroz resistentes a la Piriculariosis obtenidos por cultivo de anteras / New blast resistant rice genotypes obtained by and anthers culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la Estación Experimental del Arroz Los Palacios, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas de Cuba (INCA), se efectuaron cruzamientos entre cuatro cultivares resistentes a la Piriculariosis y seis de buen comportamiento agronómico y las anteras de las plantas F2 fueron cultivadas [...] in vitro para evaluar la formación de callos en tres medios líquidos: N6-1, N6-m y NL, así como la regeneración de plantas verdes y albinas, en el medio MS. Las dos primeras generaciones de las nuevas líneas obtenidas fueron evaluadas para caracteres agronómicos y la segunda generación, además, para resistencia frente a la Piriculariosis. Las líneas que combinaron resistencia a la Piriculariosis y buenos caracteres agronómicos fueron evaluadas en condiciones de infección natural, con alta presión del patógeno. La utilización de la técnica del cultivo de anteras mostró alta dependencia del genotipo y el medio de cultivo. Con el medio NL se lograron los valores más altos para la formación de callos. Se obtuvieron nuevos genotipos resistentes a la Piriculariosis y de alto rendimiento agrícola. Abstract in english Crosses were made between four blast resistant and six rice varieties of good agronomic performance, at the Los Palacios Rice Research Station of the National Agricultural Sciences Institute of Cuba (INCA) and the anthers from F2 plants were in vitro culture using three liquid media: N6-1, N6m, and [...] NL, for callus formation and after plants regenerations using MS medium. The first two generations of breeding lines were evaluated for agronomic characters and the second generations, also, for Blast resistant. The lines that combined resistance to Blast and good agronomic performance were evaluated under high pressure of natural Blast infection conditions. The success rate of anther culture was highly dependent on the genotype and culture media used. NL medium led to the highest callus formation values. In the process, new blast resistant and high yielding genotypes were obtained.

Noraida de Jesús, Pérez; María Caridad, González; Rodolfo I, Castro; Manuel, Aguilar.

45

Nuevos genotipos de arroz resistentes a la Piriculariosis obtenidos por cultivo de anteras / New blast resistant rice genotypes obtained by and anthers culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la Estación Experimental del Arroz Los Palacios, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas de Cuba (INCA), se efectuaron cruzamientos entre cuatro cultivares resistentes a la Piriculariosis y seis de buen comportamiento agronómico y las anteras de las plantas F2 fueron cultivadas [...] in vitro para evaluar la formación de callos en tres medios líquidos: N6-1, N6-m y NL, así como la regeneración de plantas verdes y albinas, en el medio MS. Las dos primeras generaciones de las nuevas líneas obtenidas fueron evaluadas para caracteres agronómicos y la segunda generación, además, para resistencia frente a la Piriculariosis. Las líneas que combinaron resistencia a la Piriculariosis y buenos caracteres agronómicos fueron evaluadas en condiciones de infección natural, con alta presión del patógeno. La utilización de la técnica del cultivo de anteras mostró alta dependencia del genotipo y el medio de cultivo. Con el medio NL se lograron los valores más altos para la formación de callos. Se obtuvieron nuevos genotipos resistentes a la Piriculariosis y de alto rendimiento agrícola. Abstract in english Crosses were made between four blast resistant and six rice varieties of good agronomic performance, at the Los Palacios Rice Research Station of the National Agricultural Sciences Institute of Cuba (INCA) and the anthers from F2 plants were in vitro culture using three liquid media: N6-1, N6m, and [...] NL, for callus formation and after plants regenerations using MS medium. The first two generations of breeding lines were evaluated for agronomic characters and the second generations, also, for Blast resistant. The lines that combined resistance to Blast and good agronomic performance were evaluated under high pressure of natural Blast infection conditions. The success rate of anther culture was highly dependent on the genotype and culture media used. NL medium led to the highest callus formation values. In the process, new blast resistant and high yielding genotypes were obtained.

Noraida de Jesús, Pérez; María Caridad, González; Rodolfo I, Castro; Manuel, Aguilar.

2012-06-01

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Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background The quality of wheat grain depends on several characteristics, among which the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits, encoded by Glu-1 loci, are the most important. Application of biotechnological tools to accelerate the attainment of homozygous lines may influence the pr [...] oportion of segregated genotypes. The objective was to determine, whether the selection pressure generated by the methods based on in vitro cultures, may cause a loss of genotypes with desirable Glu-1 alleles. Results Homozygous lines were derived from six winter wheat crosses by pollination with maize (DH-MP), anther culture (DH-AC) and single seed descent (SSD) technique. Androgenetically-derived plants that originated from the same callus were examined before chromosome doubling using allele-specific and microsatellite markers. It was found that segregation distortion in SSD and DH-MP populations occurred only in one case, whereas in anther-derived lines they were observed in five out of six analyzed combinations. Conclusions Segregation distortion in DH-AC populations was caused by the development of more than one plant of the same genotype from one callus. This distortion was minimized if only one plant per callus was included in the population. Selection of haploid wheat plants before chromosome doubling based on allele-specific markers allows us to choose genotypes that possess desirable Glu-1 alleles and to reduce the number of plants in the next steps of DH production. The SSD technique appeared to be the most advantageous in terms of Mendelian segregation, thus the occurrence of residual heterozygosity can be minimized by continuous selfing beyond the F6 generation.

Tadeusz, Adamski; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Anetta, Kuczynska; Krzysztof, Mikolajczak; Piotr, Ogrodowicz; Aleksandra, Ponitka; Maria, Surma; Aurelia, Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina.

2014-01-15

47

Gibberellin regulates post-microsporogenesis processes in petunia anthers.  

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Previous studies have suggested that gibberellins (GAs) are produced in petunia anthers and transported to the corolla to induce growth and pigmentation. In this work, we studied the role of GA in the regulation of anther development. When petunia plants were treated with the GA-biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, anther development was arrested. Microscopic analysis of these anthers revealed that paclobutrazol inhibits post-meiotic developmental processes. The treated anthers contained pollen grains but the connective tissue and tapetum cells were degenerated. A similar phenotype was obtained when the Arabidopsis GA-signal repressor, SPY, was over-expressed in transgenic petunia plants, i.e. anther development was arrested following microsporogenesis. The expression of the GA-induced gene, GIP, can be used in petunia as a molecular marker to study GA responses. GA3 treatment of young anthers promoted, and paclobutrazol inhibited, GIP expression, suggesting that the hormone controls the natural activation of the gene in the anthers. Analyses of GIP expression during anther development revealed that the gene is induced only after microsporogenesis. This observation further suggests a role for GA in the regulation of post-meiotic processes during petunia anther development. PMID:12081537

Izhaki, Anat; Borochov, Amihud; Zamski, Eliezer; Weiss, David

2002-07-01

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Cultura in vitro de sementes e anteras de Sesamum indicum L. / Callus cultures from seeds and anthers of Sesamum indicum L.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Sementes de gergelin (Sesamum indicum L.) foram cultivadas in vitro em meio de cultura de Wetherall contendo 0,5 mg/l de 2,4-D e em seguida transferidas para meio de Murashige e Skoog (MS) contendo 0,1 mg/l de 2,4-D e 100 mg/l de inositol. Ambos, 2,4-D e inositol mostraram-se ser necessários para o [...] desenvolvimento de calos a partir de sementes, do mesmo modo que para o contínuo crescimento dos meios em cultura. Foram também obtidos calos de explantes de anteras, cotiledones e de hipocotilo de Sesamum utilizando-se o meio MS com a ocorrência de estruturas globulares. Abstract in english Continuously growing Sesamum hypocotyl callus cultures were successfully initiated from hypocotyl tissues of seeds cultured on Wetherall's Medium containing 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and subcultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.1 mg/1 2,4-D and 100 mg/l inositol. Both 2,4-D and inositol appe [...] ar to be essential for maintenance of continous growth. Callus cultures were likewise established from explants of anthers, cotyledon, and hypocotyl on the MS medium with the occurrence of arrested globular structures in some cultures.

L.S., Caldas; W.R., Sharp; O.J., Crocomo.

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AMS-dependent and independent regulation of anther transcriptome and comparison with those affected by other Arabidopsis anther genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the development of male reproductive organs is controlled precisely to achieve successful fertilization and reproduction. Despite the increasing knowledge of genes that contribute to anther development, the regulatory mechanisms controlling this process are still unclear. Results In this study, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles of early anthers of sterile mutants aborted microspores (ams and found that 1,368 genes were differentially expressed in ams compared to wild type anthers, affecting metabolism, transportation, ubiquitination and stress response. Moreover, the lack of significant enrichment of potential AMS binding sites (E-box in the promoters of differentially expressed genes suggests both direct and indirect regulation for AMS-dependent regulation of anther transcriptome involving other transcription factors. Combining ams transcriptome profiles with those of two other sterile mutants, spl/nzz and ems1/exs, expression of 3,058 genes were altered in at least one mutant. Our investigation of expression patterns of major transcription factor families, such as bHLH, MYB and MADS, suggested that some closely related homologs of known anther developmental genes might also have similar functions. Additionally, comparison of expression levels of genes in different organs suggested that anther-preferential genes could play important roles in anther development. Conclusion Analysis of ams anther transcriptome and its comparison with those of spl/nzz and ems1/exs anthers uncovered overlapping and distinct sets of regulated genes, including those encoding transcription factors and other proteins. These results support an expanded regulatory network for early anther development, providing a series of hypotheses for future experimentation.

Ma Xuan

2012-02-01

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Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

Rossiter, Penelope

2012-01-01

51

Microarray and differential display identify genes involved in jasmonate-dependent anther development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Jasmonate (JA) is a signaling compound essential for anther development and pollen fertility in Arabidopsis. Mutations that block the pathway of JA synthesis result into male sterility. To understand the processes of anther and pollen maturation, we used microarray and differential display approaches to compare gene expression pattern in anthers of wild-type Arabidopsis and the male-sterile mutant, opr3. Microarray experiment revealed 25 genes that were up-regulated more than 1.8-fold in wild-type anthers as compared to mutant anthers. Experiments based on differential display identified 13 additional genes up-regulated in wild-type anthers compared to opr3 for a total of 38 differentially expressed genes. Searches of the Arabidopsis and non-redundant databases disclosed known or likely functions for 28 of the 38 genes identified, while 10 genes encode proteins of unknown function. Northern blot analysis of eight representative clones as probes confirmed low expression in opr3 anthers compared with wild-type anthers. JA responsiveness of these same genes was also investigated by northern blot analysis of anther RNA isolated from wild-type and opr3 plants, In these experiments, four genes were induced in opr3 anthers within 0.5-1 h of JA treatment while the remaining genes were up-regulated only 1-8 h after JA application. None of these genes was induced by JA in anthers of the coil mutant that is deficient in JA responsiveness. The four early-induced genes in opr3 encode lipoxygenase, a putative bHLH transcription factor, epithiospecifier protein and an unknown protein. We propose that these and other early components may be involved in JA signaling and in the initiation of developmental processes. The four late genes encode an extensin-like protein, a peptide transporter and two unknown proteins, which may represent components required later in anther and pollen maturation. Transcript profiling has provided a successful approach to identify genes involved in anther and pollen maturation in Arabidopsis. PMID:13677466

Mandaokar, Ajin; Kumar, V Dinesh; Amway, Matt; Browse, John

2003-07-01

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Efeitos de meios de cultura na formação de calos a partir de anteras de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L.) / Effects of the culture media on the calli formation from Asparagus officinalis L. anthers  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Técnicas auxiliares, como a cultura de anteras, possibilitam melhor eficiência na obtenção de novos genótipos de aspargo. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas anteras contendo grãos de pólen, no estágio uninucleado, dos híbridos 56x22-8 e 47x22-8, em meio MS, semi-sólido e líquido, com diferentes concen [...] trações de reguladores de crescimento: meio A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 20 g/l sacarose + 20 g/l glicose; meio B - 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 30 g/l sacarose; meio C - 3,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose e meio D - 2,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose. A formação de calos variou com o genótipo e o meio. Os meios líquidos apresentaram melhor eficiência na indução de calos do que os meios semi-sólidos. Para o híbrido 56x22-8 os melhores meios foram o A2 (líquido) com 80,5% de indução de calos e dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o meio D1 com 41,6% de calos formados. Para o híbrido 47x22-8, o mais eficiente foi o meio D2 (líquido), com 68,1% de calos formados e, dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o D2, com 15,2%. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas, estatisticamente, entre os meios líquidos nem entre os meios semi-sólidos. Abstract in english Anther culture is an auxiliary technique to obtain new genotypes. In this work, anthers with pollen grains in the uninucleated stage of hybrids 56x22-8 and 47x22-8 were cultured in MS medium, semi-solid and liquid, with different concentrations of growth regulators: medium A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/ [...] l NAA + 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 20 g/l sucrose + 20 g/l glucose; medium B - 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 30 g/l sucrose; medium C - 3,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose and medium D - 2,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose. Callus formation varied with the genotype and the medium. Liquid media showed more efficiency in callus development than the semi-solids. For the hybrids 56x22-8 the best media were the liquid A2 with 80,5% of callus induction and among the semi-solids the D1, with 41,6%. For the hybrid 47x22-8 were liquid D2 with 68,1% and semi solid D1 with 15,2%. No significant differences were observed among the liquid media nor among the semi-solidones.

Vera Lúcia, Bobrowski; José Antônio, Peters; Eliane, Augustin; Judith, Viégas.

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Estudios preliminares referidos a la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis de líneas isogénicas de arroz obtenidas por cultivo de anteras / Piriculariosis resistance inheritance of rice isogenic lines obtained from anthers culture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el campo experimental de la Unidad Científico Tecnológica de Base «Los Palacios» fueron sembradas semillas de las plantas cosechadas de la primera generación de líneas isogénicas de arroz, procedentes del cultivo in vitro de anteras de plantas F2 de los cruces Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Am [...] istad´82/IR759-54-2-2 y Moroberekan/Amistad´82, con el objetivo de evaluar su comportamiento frente a infecciones naturales de P. grisea. Al parecer, no hay presencia de genes dominantes actuando en la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis y el comportamiento pudiera estar regido por la acción de genes mayores en homocigosis y de genes menores con efecto aditivo, lográndose la selección de cuatro líneas isogénicas resistentes a la enfermedad y de buen comportamiento agronómico, las que constituyen la base para la obtención de nuevos cultivares. Abstract in english In the Base Technological Scientist Unit «Los Palacios» seeds first generation of harvested rice isogenic lines, coming from F2 in vitro anthers culture from crossings Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Amistad´82/IR759-54-2-2 and Moroberekan/Amistad´82, were sowed in field, with the objective to eva [...] luate their behaviour in natural Blast field infection. The absence of dominant genes in heterocigosis involved in the inheritance to Blast was confirmed and, apparently, the behaviour could be governed by major genes in homocigosis and small genes with additive effect. Four isogenic lines wit good agronomic behaviour and Blast resistant were selected. The same will be very useful to obtain new varieties.

Noraida de J, Pérez León; Rodolfo, Castro Menduiña; Maria Caridad, González Cepero; Marta, Álvarez Gil; Manuel, Aguilar Portero.

54

Estudios preliminares referidos a la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis de líneas isogénicas de arroz obtenidas por cultivo de anteras / Piriculariosis resistance inheritance of rice isogenic lines obtained from anthers culture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el campo experimental de la Unidad Científico Tecnológica de Base «Los Palacios» fueron sembradas semillas de las plantas cosechadas de la primera generación de líneas isogénicas de arroz, procedentes del cultivo in vitro de anteras de plantas F2 de los cruces Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Am [...] istad´82/IR759-54-2-2 y Moroberekan/Amistad´82, con el objetivo de evaluar su comportamiento frente a infecciones naturales de P. grisea. Al parecer, no hay presencia de genes dominantes actuando en la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis y el comportamiento pudiera estar regido por la acción de genes mayores en homocigosis y de genes menores con efecto aditivo, lográndose la selección de cuatro líneas isogénicas resistentes a la enfermedad y de buen comportamiento agronómico, las que constituyen la base para la obtención de nuevos cultivares. Abstract in english In the Base Technological Scientist Unit «Los Palacios» seeds first generation of harvested rice isogenic lines, coming from F2 in vitro anthers culture from crossings Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Amistad´82/IR759-54-2-2 and Moroberekan/Amistad´82, were sowed in field, with the objective to eva [...] luate their behaviour in natural Blast field infection. The absence of dominant genes in heterocigosis involved in the inheritance to Blast was confirmed and, apparently, the behaviour could be governed by major genes in homocigosis and small genes with additive effect. Four isogenic lines wit good agronomic behaviour and Blast resistant were selected. The same will be very useful to obtain new varieties.

Noraida de J, Pérez León; Rodolfo, Castro Menduiña; Maria Caridad, González Cepero; Marta, Álvarez Gil; Manuel, Aguilar Portero.

2013-03-01

55

Ação do etileno em combinação com thidiazuron, nitrato de prata e ácido acetilsalicílico na cultura de anteras de pimentão / Ethylene action in combination with Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and acetylsalicylic acid on sweet pepper anther culture  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Verificou-se o efeito do etileno em combinação com o thidiazuron (TDZ), nitrato de prata (AgNO3) e ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), na indução e regeneração de embriões em anteras de pimentão, genótipos F1 (PIX21C12#35 x Agronômico 08), (PIX21C04#4 x Linha 004), (PIX22C#31 x Linha 004), (PIX21C15#45 x [...] Ikeda) e (PIX22C#21 x Ikeda). Os botões foram coletados quando sépalas e pétalas tinham tamanhos aproximadamente iguais, correspondendo ao estádio de anteras com micrósporos uninucleados. As anteras foram inoculadas em placa de Petri contendo meio de cultura C adicionado de 4,5 mM de TDZ; meio C acrescido de 0,05 mM de 2,4-D, 0,05 mM de cinetina e 88,8 mM de AAS; meio C acrescido de 0,05 mM de 2,4-D, 0,05 mM de cinetina e 5,0 mg/L de AgNO3. Em seguida, foram colocadas em ambiente escuro a 35ºC durante oito dias e enriquecido com ethephon, por 0; 2; 4; 6 ou 8 dias num esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, sendo cada placa considerada uma parcela contendo 20 a 24 anteras.O período de permanência de quatro dias, em ambiente enriquecido com ethephon, e os meios com TDZ e AgNO3, foram os mais favoráveis à indução de anteras. O TDZ também promoveu maior indução de calos embriogênicos. As maiores taxas de necrose ocorreram no meio com AAS. Só ocorreu regeneração direta em plântulas no meio C acrescido de 5 mg/L de AgNO3, sendo oito dias o melhor período. Os genótipos mais responsivos foram PIX22C#31 x linha 004 e PIX22C#21 x Ikeda. Observou-se a formação de plântulas haplóides e diplóides mediante análise da ponta de raíz. Considerando-se que a regeneração foi direta, sem passar por calos, supõe-se que as plântulas diplóides obtidas sejam provenientes dos micrósporos, devendo portanto ter ocorrido uma diploidização in vitro. Abstract in english The influence of ethylene used in combination with Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was evaluated on sweet pepper androgenesis of F1 genotypes (PIX21C12#35 x Agronômico 08, PIX21C04#4 x Line 004, PIX22C#31 x Line 004, PIX21C15#45 x Ikeda and PIX22C#21 x Ikeda) [...] . Floral buds were collected when sepals and petals were approximately of equal size, corresponding to the uninucleated stage of microspores. Anthers were placed in Petri dishes containing three mediums: C medium supplemented with TDZ (4.5mM); C medium plus 2,4-D (0,05mM), Kinetin (0.5mM) and ASA (88,8mM) or AgNO3 (5.0 mg/L). After inoculation, the anthers were kept in the environment with ethephon for 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 days at 35ºC for eight days in the dark. The experiment was conducted in a factorial design with four replications. Each replicate consisted of one Petri dish containing 20-24 anthers. TDZ and AgNO3 were most effective for inducing somatic embryos after four days with Ethrel. The greatest rates of necrosis took place on the medium with AAS. Direct regeneration of plantlets occurred only on medium supplemented with 5 mg/L of AgNO3 after an eight-day treatment with Ethrel. The most responsive genotypes were PIX22C#31 x Line 004 and PIX22C#21 x Ikeda. Chromosome number of the seedlings was verified through the root tip analysis which indicated the presence of haploid and diploid chromosome number. Since regeneration was direct, ie without going through callus phase, it is hypothesized that the diploid seedlings came from in vitro diploidization.

José Magno Q., Luz; José Eduardo B. P., Pinto; Polyana Aparecida D., Ehlert; Estér Solange, Cerqueira; Ivan, Bedin.

1999-11-01

56

In Vitro ANTHER CULTURE OF RICE HYBRIDS  

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Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Mejoramiento de Arroz y Maíz del CIFA "Las Torres", en Sevilla, España, auspiciado por un proyecto de investigación, comenzó a desarrollarse un programa de obtención de variedades, que incluía en sus objetivos la utilización del cultivo de anteras de híbridos. Para ello se evaluaron diferentes medios para la formación de callos y regeneración de plantas verdes así como anteras de híbridos F1, provenientes de 15 cruzamientos. Los resultados mostraron que los más altos porcentajes de callos y plantas verdes como proceso continuo fueron obtenidos con los medios N6m y MS respectivamente. La mejor respuesta a la formación de callos fue obtenida por el cruce Puntal/Thaibonnet y regeneración de plantas verdes Doñana/V7876 y Lemont/Newbonnet.

Noraida P\\u00E9rez

2003-01-01

57

Culturally Responsive Leadership in School Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

Students need culturally responsive teacher-librarians who focus on 21st century skills for all students. Basic principles for culturally responsive leadership in school libraries are articulated by multicultural educators who know that social equity is more important than ever, as the number of diverse and underserved students increase each year.…

Summers, Laura L.

2010-01-01

58

Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.  

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Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. PMID:16663273

Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

1983-11-01

59

Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag 1  

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Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. `Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16663273

Bhaskaran, Shyamala; Smith, Roberta H.; Finer, John J.

1983-01-01

60

Over-expression of a flower-specific transcription factor gene AtMYB24 causes aberrant anther development.  

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In plants, MYB transcription factors play important roles in many developmental processes and various defense responses. AtMYB24, as a member of R2R3-MYB gene family in Arabidopsis, was found mainly expressed in flowers, especially in microspores and ovules using Northern blots and in situ hybridization. It was further found that the expression of AtMYB24 was tightly regulated during anther development. Over-expression of AtMYB24 in transgenic plants resulted in pleiotropic phenotypes, including dwarfism and flower development defects, in particular, producing abnormal pollen grains and non-dehiscence anthers. Further analysis showed that the anther development of the AtMYB24-ox lines was retarded starting from the anther developmental stages 10-11. At stages 12 and 13, the septum and stomium cells of anthers would not break, and fewer or no fibrous bands were found in the endothecium and connective cells in the AtMYB24-ox plants. Similar aberrant anther phenotype was also observed in the AtMYB24-GR-ox lines treated with dexamethasone (DEX). Quantitative real-time PCR showed expression of genes involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as CHS and DFR, and AtGTP2 were altered in AtMYB24-ox lines. These results suggest an important role of AtMYB24 in the normal development of anthers in Arabidopsis. PMID:16972096

Yang, X Y; Li, J G; Pei, M; Gu, H; Chen, Z L; Qu, L-J

2007-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).  

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Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

62

Culture and Listeners' Gaze Responses to Stuttering  

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Background: It is frequently observed that listeners demonstrate gaze aversion to stuttering. This response may have profound social/communicative implications for both fluent and stuttering individuals. However, there is a lack of empirical examination of listeners' eye gaze responses to stuttering, and it is unclear whether cultural background…

Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph

2012-01-01

63

Toward a More Culturally Responsive General Music Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This article seeks to characterize culturally responsive teaching; consider how it differs from other pedagogical approaches in music education informed by culture, such as multicultural music education; and offer ideas for making the general music classroom more culturally responsive.

Abril, Carlos R.

2013-01-01

64

Culturally divergent responses to mortality salience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments compared the effects of death thoughts, or mortality salience, on European and Asian Americans. Research on terror management theory has demonstrated that in Western cultural groups, individuals typically employ self-protective strategies in the face of death-related thoughts. Given fundamental East-West differences in self-construal (i.e., the independent vs. interdependent self), we predicted that members of Eastern cultural groups would affirm other people, rather than defend and affirm the self, after encountering conditions of mortality salience. We primed European Americans and Asian Americans with either a death or a control prime and examined the effect of this manipulation on attitudes about a person who violates cultural norms (Study 1) and on attributions about the plight of an innocent victim (Study 2). Mortality salience promoted culturally divergent responses, leading European Americans to defend the self and Asian Americans to defend other people. PMID:21705518

Ma-Kellams, Christine; Blascovich, Jim

2011-08-01

65

Biosynthesis of anther cuticle and pollen exine in rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lipidic structures, anther cuticle (outer anther surface) and pollen exine (outer pollen wall), play a key protective role for the male gametophyte and pollen grain development. We recently identified ancient cytochrome P450 family member CYP704B2 in rice and proposed a common fatty acid ?-hydroxylation pathway for synthesizing anther cuticle and pollen exine during plant male reproductive development. Here, we propose developmental model of pollen exine formation and discuss key genes r...

Li, Hui; Zhang, Dabing

2010-01-01

66

Structural organization of the Oxytropis baschkiriensis Knjaz. developing anther  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On the base of accurate anatomic-morphological data the formation and development of anther of Oxytropis baschkiriensis, rare endemic species from the South Ural flora, were investigated at the first time. It has been demonstrated that the anther and pollen grain developments are typical for the family Fabaceae.

Kruglova, Anna E.

2013-01-01

67

Organizational culture during the accident response process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

1992-01-01

68

Organizational culture during the accident response process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

1992-08-01

69

Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Teachers in a multicultural society need to respect cultural differences, know the cultural resources their students bring to class, and be skilled at tapping into learners' cultural resources in the teaching-learning process. They must believe that all students are capable of learning, and they must implement an enriched curriculum for all…

Pewewardy, Cornel D.

70

Culturally Responsive: Art Education in a Global Era  

Science.gov (United States)

Facing the era of globalization, culturally responsive art teachers must recognize that students' home culture, including local artistic expression, is inevitably influenced by global forces. They should strive to engage with students systems and issues of globalization and its impact on their community culture and art. In this article, the author…

Lai, Alice

2012-01-01

71

Unresolved issues in pre-meiotic anther development  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared to the diversity of other floral organs, the steps in anther ontogeny, final cell types, and overall organ shape are remarkably conserved among Angiosperms. Defects in pre-meiotic anthers that alter cellular composition or function typically result in male-sterility. Given the ease of identifying male-sterile mutants, dozens of genes with key roles in early anther development have been identified and cloned in model species, ordered by time of action and spatiotemporal expression, and used to propose explanatory models for critical steps in cell fate specification. Despite rapid progress, fundamental issues in anther development remain unresolved, and it is unclear if insights from one species can be applied to others. Here we construct a comparison of Arabidopsis, rice, and maize immature anthers to pinpoint distinctions in developmental pace. We analyze the mechanisms by which archesporial (pre-meiotic) cells are specified distinct from the soma, discuss what constitutes meiotic preparation, and review what is known about the secondary parietal layer and its terminal periclinal division that generates the tapetal and middle layers. Finally, roles for small RNAs are examined, focusing on the grass-specific phasiRNAs. PMID:25101101

Kelliher, Timothy; Egger, Rachel L.; Zhang, Han; Walbot, Virginia

2014-01-01

72

Ethylene regulates the timing of anther dehiscence in tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the involvement of ethylene signaling in the development of the reproductive structures in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) by studying flowers that were insensitive to ethylene. Ethylene-insensitivity was generated either by expression of the mutant etr1-1 ethylene-receptor allele from Arabidopsis thaliana or by treatment with the ethylene-perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP). Development of ovaries and ovules was unaffected by ethylene-insensitivity. Anther development was also unaffected, but the final event of dehiscence was delayed and was no longer synchronous with flower opening. We showed that in these anthers degeneration of the stomium cells and dehydration were delayed. In addition, we found that MCP-treatment of detached flowers and isolated, almost mature anthers delayed dehiscence whereas ethylene-treatment accelerated dehiscence. This indicated that ethylene has a direct effect on a process that takes place in the anthers just before dehiscence. Because a similar function has been described for jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis, we suggest that ethylene acts similarly to or perhaps even in concurrence with jasmonic acid as a signaling molecule controlling the processes that lead to anther dehiscence in tobacco. PMID:12721857

Rieu, I; Wolters-Arts, M; Derksen, J; Mariani, C; Weterings, K

2003-05-01

73

Culturally responsive instruction for english language learners with learning disabilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused on how one teacher's knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy affected her special education instruction. Findings resulted in three major themes that were aligned with the current literature in this area: Cultural Aspects of Teaching Reading, Culturally Relevant Skills-Based Instruction, and Collaborative Agency Time. The results indicated that the success of special education with ELLs at the elementary education level might be dependent on how well the special education teacher integrates culturally responsive instruction with ELLs' cultural and linguistic needs. PMID:23407658

Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda

2014-11-01

74

Organizational culture during the accident response process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

inal validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research

75

Voting behavior is reflected in amygdala response across cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Voting to determine one's leaders is among the most important decisions we make, yet little is known about the brain's role in how we come to these decisions. Behavioral studies have indicated that snap judgments of political candidates' faces can predict election outcomes but that the traits that lead to these judgments differ across cultures. Here we sought to investigate the neural basis for these judgments. American and Japanese natives performed simulated voting judgments of actual American and Japanese political candidates while neural activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Candidates for whom participants chose to vote elicited stronger responses in the bilateral amygdala than candidates for whom participants chose not to vote. This was true regardless of either the participant's culture or the target's culture, suggesting that these voting decisions provoked the same neural response cross-culturally. In addition, we observed a participant culture by target culture interaction in the bilateral amygdala. American and Japanese participants both showed a stronger response to cultural outgroup faces than they did to cultural in group faces, however this was unrelated to their voting decisions. These data provide insight to the mechanisms that underlie our snap judgments of others when making voting decisions and provide a neural correlate to cross-cultural consensus in social inferences. PMID:19966327

Rule, Nicholas O; Freeman, Jonathan B; Moran, Joseph M; Gabrieli, John D E; Adams, Reginald B; Ambady, Nalini

2010-06-01

76

The Skin That We Sing: Culturally Responsive Choral Music Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes ways that music education can be made more culturally responsive, or congruent with the orientations of culturally diverse students. Music education in the United States has historically been based on Eurocentric frameworks that may no longer be applicable in an increasingly multicultural society. For the many teachers…

Shaw, Julia

2012-01-01

77

Cultured articular chondrocytes sheets for partial thickness cartilage defects utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of articular cartilage has several functions that are unique to joints. Although a technique for transplanting cultured chondrocytes has already been introduced, it is difficult to collect intact ECM when using enzymes to harvest samples. Temperature-responsive culture dishes have already been clinically applied in the fields of myocardial and corneal transplantation. Earlier studies have shown that a sheet of cultured cells with intact ECM and adhesive factors can be harvested using such culture dishes, which allow the surface properties of the dish to be reversibly altered by changing the temperature. Human chondrocytes were subjected to enzymatic digestion and then were seeded in temperature-responsive culture dishes. A sheet of chondrocytes was harvested by only reducing the temperature after the cultured cells reached confluency. A real-time PCR analysis of the chondrocyte sheets confirmed that type II collagen, aggrecan, and fibronectin were present. These results suggested that, although chondrocytes undergo dedifferentiation in a monolayer culture, multilayer chondrocyte sheets grown in a similar environment to that of three-dimensional culture may be able to maintain a normal phenotype. A histological examination suggested that multilayer chondrocyte sheets could thus prevent the loss of proteoglycans because the area covered by the sheets was well stained by safranin-O. The present experiments suggested that temperature-responsive culture dishes are useful for obtaining cultured chondrocytes, which may then be clinically employed as a substitute for periosteal patches because such sheets can be applied without a scaffold.

N Kaneshiro

2007-05-01

78

Early anther ablation triggers parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fruit set and fruit development in tomato is largely affected by changes in environmental conditions, therefore autonomous fruit set independent of fertilization is a highly desirable trait in tomato. Here, we report the production and characterization of male-sterile transgenic plants that produce parthenocarpic fruits in two tomato cultivars (Micro-Tom and Moneymaker). We generated male-sterility using the cytotoxic gene barnase targeted to the anthers with the PsEND1 anther-specific promoter. The ovaries of these plants grew in the absence of fertilization producing seedless, parthenocarpic fruits. Early anther ablation is essential to trigger the developing of the transgenic ovaries into fruits, in the absence of the signals usually generated during pollination and fertilization. Ovaries are fully functional and can be manually pollinated to obtain seeds. The transgenic plants obtained in the commercial cultivar Moneymaker show that the parthenocarpic development of the fruit does not have negative consequences in fruit quality. Throughout metabolomic analyses of the tomato fruits, we have identified two elite lines which showed increased levels of several health promoting metabolites and volatile compounds. Thus, early anther ablation can be considered a useful tool to promote fruit set and to obtain seedless and good quality fruits in tomato plants. These plants are also useful parental lines to be used in hybrid breeding approaches. PMID:23581527

Medina, Mónica; Roque, Edelín; Pineda, Benito; Cañas, Luis; Rodriguez-Concepción, Manuel; Beltrán, José Pío; Gómez-Mena, Concepción

2013-08-01

79

75 FR 76997 - Public Consultation on Personnel Reliability and Culture of Responsibility Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

...reliability and enhance the culture of responsibility regarding...personnel reliability, and a culture of responsibility; (2) Encouraging...Assessment of effectiveness and impact of practices for strengthening personnel reliability and culture of responsibility. Each...

2010-12-10

80

Legal Response to the Destruction of Cultural, Religious and Historical  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Now, certainly, we know that since ancient times, humans experience their own personal and work them into forms that our cultural, religious, historical know have reflected and also know that it works, and plays an important role in human social life. Cultural, historic and religious monuments in the definition shooting, said: Construction works and objects that are placed on them due to the relatively long time interest in history has a nation belongs to them, cultural, religious, historical, say. In this research, the legal response to the destruction of cultural, historic and religious studies, which have included the following cases: Part I: Defining cultural, religious, and historical examples of it, Part II: cultural, religious, and historical background, Part III: Cultural Heritage, Part IV: cultural, religious, historical association and dissociation with the heritage – religious, Part V: The ways of identifying cultural, religious, historical. So, must be said that the cultural, religious and historical heritage of the people who understand the law and the media to inform the public and appropriate legislation should be prevented from destroying them.

Amir Ahmadi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Essay: Creating Culturally Responsive Learning Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The population of the United States is more ethnically and racially diverse than ever, a fact particularly evident among young and school-age children. This presents today's elementary schools--including teachers, administrators, and policy makers--with an enormous challenge: promoting educational equity in the classroom and educating all students in order to achieve high academic standards. How can educators best meet this challenge? The answer the authors propose in this essay is: Create responsive learning communities.

Eugene E. Garc�a, Arizona S.; Okhee Lee, University O.

2008-01-01

82

Faithfulness--Translator’s Responsibility in Cross-Cultural Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New trends in translation have led to a mistaken notion that faithfulness is obsolete. This article argues that faithfulness should be highlighted in cross-cultural communication to promote better understanding. As a result, a translator should cultivate a strong sense of responsibility, keeping in mind that faithfulness is the guarantee of successful cross-cultural communication. Erroneous translation, either because of incautious, incompetent translation ending in misinformation, or because of deliberate reading into the source language text the translator’s own ideas, ending in disinformation, is detrimental to effective cross-cultural communication. Faithful translation can never be overemphasized.

Feng WU

2014-06-01

83

Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

Devier Benjamin

2007-08-01

84

A culturally responsive counter-narrative of effective teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

How do you recognize an effective teacher's sociocultural consciousness? Tamara Wallace's and Brenda Brand's argument that sociocultural consciousness is the "brain" of effective culturally responsive instruction for students of color comes at a time when the system of teacher evaluation is being overhauled nationwide. Teacher observation tools are being piloted to develop a common language of effective instruction but often there is little attention given to sociocultural consciousness in these frameworks. This article develops a culturally responsive counter-narrative to explore the complexity of a teacher's racial consciousness during a teaching episode.

Gist, Conra D.

2014-02-01

85

Desempenho de linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de anteras quanto à tolerância ao alumínio, produção de grãos e altura de planta / Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture in relation to the aluminum tolerance, grain yield and plant height  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se 18 linhagens diaplóides de trigo, obtidas via cultura de anteras in vitro oriundas de híbridos F1, e dois cultivares IAC-24 e IAC-289, nos anos de 1999 e 2000, em dois locais do Estado de São Paulo: Capão Bonito (solo ácido, sem aplicação de calcário e em condição de sequeiro) e em Tatu [...] í (solo ácido, com aplicação de calcário e em condição de irrigação por aspersão). Em cada experimento avaliaram-se a produção de grãos e a altura das plantas. Foi, também, avaliada a tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, empregando-se soluções nutritivas contendo 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg.L-1, em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides consideradas mostraram grande variabilidade para os caracteres agronômicos avaliados. Destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos experimentos de Capão Bonito, as linhagens 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/ IAC-24), 4 (PF70402/ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S" /3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60) e 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24). Em Tatuí, considerando-se a média dos dois anos, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos as linhagens 4 e 5, oriundas do mesmo cruzamento. A linhagem 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24) apresentou as plantas mais baixas nos quatro experimentos. Todos os genótipos, com exceção da cultivar IAC-289 e da linhagem 13, foram considerados tolerantes a 10 mg.L-1 de Al3+, quando avaliados em soluções nutritivas. Os resultados reforçam a possibilidade de selecionar os genótipos tolerantes ao alumínio, em condição de laboratório, antes que sejam avaliados em campo, em solo ácido, tornando o processo de obtenção de linhagens tolerantes mais eficiente. Abstract in english Eighteen dihaploid wheat lines originated via anther culture from F1 hybrid plants and two cultivars IAC-24 and IAC-289 were evaluated in 1999 and 2000, at two locations of the State of São Paulo: Capão Bonito (acid soil without lime application and upland condition) and Tatuí (acid soil with lime a [...] pplication and sprinkler irrigation condition). In each trial the genotypes were evaluated for grain yield and plant height. Aluminum toxicity tolerance was also evaluated in the laboratory in nutrient solutions containing 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg.L-1 of aluminum. The evaluated dihaploid lines showed high variability for the considered agronomic characters. The lines 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/IAC-24), 4 (PF70402/ ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S"/3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60) and 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24) displayed good performance in relation to grain yield considering the means of the Capão Bonito trials. In Tatuí the lines 4 and 5 originated from the same cross showed good behaviour for grain yield taking into account the means of the trials. The line 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24) exhibited short plants in all trials. All genotypes, except the cultivar IAC-289 and the line 13 were considered tolerant at 10 mg.L-1 to Al3+, in nutrient solution. The results indicated the possibility to select tolerant genotypes to aluminum toxicity in laboratory condition before they are evaluated in acid soil, making the process of obtaining tolerant lines more efficient.

Marcus Vinicius, Salomon; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo; Antonio Wilson Penteado, Ferreira Filho; Armando, Pettinelli Júnior; Jairo Lopes de, Castro.

86

The aortic intima in organ culture. Response to culture conditions and partial endothelial denudation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A culture technique for whole blood vessel wall that preserves an intact and regenerative endothelium has been developed. The retention of an intact endothelium allows careful observation of the tissue as it responds to culture conditions, responses that include a change of replication timing and the induction of particulate endocytosis. Complete and normal regeneration of the endothelium in explants has made possible evaluation of the differences between the regeneration of endothelial cell ...

Jackman, R. W.; Anderson, S. K.; Sheridan, J. D.

1988-01-01

87

Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure  

Science.gov (United States)

The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N = 32), African American (N = 63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N = 54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and…

Lewis, Michael; Takai-Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

2010-01-01

88

A Systemic Approach to Culturally Responsive Assessment Practices and Evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

In an earlier paper, Slee and Keenan demonstrated that it was possible for tertiary education institutions to design culturally responsive assessment procedures that complied with standardised assessment policy. The authors' paper described "Growing Our Own," an initiative between Charles Darwin University and Northern Territory Catholic…

Slee, June

2010-01-01

89

Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Students. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

Culturally responsive teaching cannot be approached as a recipe or series of steps that teachers can follow to become effective with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. Instead, it relies on the development of certain dispositions toward learners and a holistic approach to curriculum and instruction. This digest draws on a…

Pewewardy, Cornel; Hammer, Patricia Cahape

90

A novel lily anther-specific gene encodes adhesin-like proteins associated with exine formation during anther development.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anther-specific gene LLA1271 isolated from lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) anthers is novel and exists in two forms. The protein encoded by LLA1271 may represent an adhesin-like protein first found in higher plants. The protein contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide followed by a highly conserved repeat domain. The LLA1271 gene is temporally expressed at the phase of microspore development. RNA blot and RNA in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that the gene was expressed both in the tapetum and in the microspore. The gene is endo- and exogenously induced by gibberellin. Studies with the gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole and an inhibitor of ethylene activity, 2,5-norbornadien (NBD), revealed that LLA1271 is negatively regulated by ethylene, and a cross-talk of regulation between gibberellin and ethylene occurs in young anthers. The treatment with NBD caused the tapetum to become densely cytoplasmic and highly polarized, whereas uniconazole arrested tapetal development in a state close to that of a tapetum without treatment. The LLA1271 protein is heat stable and heterogeneous. An immunoblot of separated protein fractions of the anther revealed that the LLA1271 protein was detected in protein fraction of the microspore released from the cell wall by treatment with either 0.5% or 2% Triton X-100. Ectopic expression of LLA1271 resulted in impaired stamen and low pollen germination. Scanning electron microscopy of TAP::LLA1271 pollen showed distorted exine formation and patterning. The LLA1271 protein once synthesized in both the tapetum and microspore is secreted and deposited on the surface of microspores, moderately affecting exine formation and patterning. PMID:24591055

Liu, Ming-Che; Yang, Cheng-Shou; Yeh, Fang-Ling; Wei, Chi-Hsuan; Jane, Wann-Neng; Chung, Mei-Chu; Wang, Co-Shine

2014-05-01

91

Creating Culturally Responsive Gifted Education Classrooms: Understanding "Culture" is the First Step  

Science.gov (United States)

Educators need to be more aware of and sensitive to the implications of diversity for themselves and their students. The student population is becoming more diverse at a faster rate than the teacher population. Teachers must understand other cultures in terms of concept of self, concept of time, personal vs. social responsibility, locus of…

Ford, Donna Y.; Moore III, James L.

2004-01-01

92

Rat Sertoli cells acquire a ?-adrenergic response during primary culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the radioligand (-)-[125I]iodopindolol (125I-Pin) have been used to study isoproterenol-dependent protein phosphorylation and ?-adrenergic receptor availability, respectively, in cultured Sertoli cells and freshly isolated seminiferous tubular segments of sexually immature and mature rats. Sertoli cells prepared from sexually immature rats show progressive 125I-Pin binding in primary cultures that correlates with isoproterenol-induced cell shape changes, redistribution of immunoreactive vimentin, and phosphorylation of this intermediate filament protein. Seminiferous tubules do not show significant isoproterenol-dependent vimentin phosphorylation nor 125I-Pin binding. However, vimentin phosphorylation can be induced by follicle-stimulating hormone or a cyclic nucleotide analog. This study stresses the need for correlating pharmacological-induced responses observed in Sertoli cell primary cultures with those in the intact seminiferous tubule

93

A Teacher's Perspective: Creating Culturally Responsive Learning Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

In their essay, "Creating Culturally Responsive Learning Communities," page 151, Eugene Garc�a and Okhee Lee begin with the idea that human beings construct knowledge by "applying knowledge of previous concepts to the new information that is presented." They use this as a jumping-off point for a discussion of the idea of responsive learning communities, which are learning environments in which students' out-of-school knowledge, values, experiences, beliefs, and histories are used as a foundation for learning academic subject matter. Ana Vaisenstein, a former first-grade teacher in a two-way bilingual school, shares her perspective.

Ana Vaisenstein, Sumner Elementary School, Boston Public Schools

2008-01-01

94

Beyond self-assessment--assessing organizational cultural responsiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

While there is growing recognition of the need for health care organizations to provide culturally responsive care, appropriate strategies for assessing organizational responsiveness have not been determined. A document review assessment instrument was designed to assess best practice within eight domains, and along seven dimensions of organizational approach to diversity. Results obtained from the pilot of the instrument were congruent with data collected from key informant interviews, a focus group, observational methods and organizational feedback session; however, they were not consistent with self-assessment results at the same site. A larger pilot is required to determine generalizability of results. PMID:19172974

Bowen, Sarah

2008-01-01

95

Electrical responses of cultured porcine thyroid cells to adrenergic agents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The membrane potential of cultured porcine thyroid follicular cells depolarized by up to 20 mV from the resting value of about -73 mV on exposure to beta-adrenoceptor agonists. A similar response was induced by TSH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. alpha-Adrenoceptor agonists were without effect. The receptor subtype was shown to be (at least predominantly) beta 2 by the order of potency for beta-agonists (isoprenaline approximately equal to fenoterol much greater than adrenaline greater than noradrenaline) and by the relative potency of selective beta-antagonists (ICI 118,551 much greater than atenolol). The alpha-agonist phenylephrine had no effect on the TSH response but weakly inhibited the beta-agonist response. Rather than a physiological antagonism between alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated responses, this effect was shown to be due to the weak beta-antagonist effect of phenylephrine since the alpha-antagonist phentolamine failed to potentiate the depolarizing response to the mixed agonist noradrenaline, and also failed to block the inhibitory action of phenylephrine on the beta-agonist effect. Sensitivity to beta-agonist was enhanced by omission of serum from the culture medium and reduced by exposure to beta-agonists or a high concentration of TSH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. PMID:2864382

McGrath, P A; Bourke, J R; Huxham, G J; Manley, S W

1985-10-01

96

Aquaporins of the PIP2 class are required for efficient anther dehiscence in tobacco.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several processes during sexual reproduction in higher plants involve the movement of water between cells or tissues. Before flower anthesis, anther and pollen dehydration takes place before the release of mature pollen at dehiscence. Aquaporins represent a class of proteins that mediates the movement of water over cellular membranes. Aquaporins of the plasmamembrane PIP2 family are expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) anthers and may therefore be involved in the movement of water in this organ. To gain more insight into the role these proteins may play in this process, we have analyzed their localization using immunolocalizations and generated plants displaying RNA interference of PIP2 aquaporins. Our results indicate that PIP2 protein expression is modulated during anther development. Furthermore, in tobacco PIP2 RNA interference plants, anther dehydration was slower, and dehiscence occurred later when compared with control plants. Together, our results suggest that aquaporins of the PIP2 class are required for efficient anther dehydration prior to dehiscence. PMID:15734911

Bots, Marc; Vergeldt, Frank; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Weterings, Koen; van As, Henk; Mariani, Celestina

2005-03-01

97

The NAC-like gene ANTHER INDEHISCENCE FACTOR acts as a repressor that controls anther dehiscence by regulating genes in the jasmonate biosynthesis pathway in Arabidopsis.  

Science.gov (United States)

ANTHER INDEHISCENCE FACTOR (AIF), a NAC-like gene, was identified in Arabidopsis. In AIF:GUS flowers, ?-glucuronidase (GUS) activity was detected in the anther, the upper parts of the filaments, and in the pollen of stage 7-9 young flower buds; GUS activity was reduced in mature flowers. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)+AIF-C fusion proteins, which lacked a transmembrane domain, accumulated in the nuclei of the Arabidopsis cells, whereas the YFP+AIF fusion proteins accumulated in the membrane and were absent in the nuclei. Further detection of a cleaved AIF protein in flowers revealed that AIF needs to be processed and released from the endoplasmic reticulum in order to function. The ectopic expression of AIF-C caused a male-sterile phenotype with indehiscent anthers throughout flower development in Arabidopsis. The presence of a repressor domain in AIF and the similar phenotype of indehiscent anthers in AIF-C+SRDX plants suggest that AIF acts as a repressor. The defect in anther dehiscence was due to the down-regulation of genes that participate in jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, such as DAD1/AOS/AOC3/OPR3/OPCL1. The external application of JA rescued the anther indehiscence in AIF-C and AIF-C+SRDX flowers. In AIF-C+VP16 plants, which are transgenic dominant-negative mutants in which AIF is converted to a potent activator via fusion to a VP16-AD motif, the anther dehiscence was promoted, and the expression of DAD1/AOS/AOC3/OPR3/OPCL1 was up-regulated. Furthermore, the suppression of AIF through an antisense strategy resulted in a mutant phenotype similar to that observed in the AIF-C+VP16 flowers. The present data suggest a role for AIF in controlling anther dehiscence by suppressing the expression of JA biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:24323506

Shih, Ching-Fang; Hsu, Wei-Han; Peng, Yan-Jhu; Yang, Chang-Hsien

2014-02-01

98

[The cytochemical observation of anthers of Chinese cabbage's male-sterile].  

Science.gov (United States)

A Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis Makino) produces 1/4 male sterile and 3/4 fertility in offspring. The sterile plant can be identified from the color of corolla that is some white when it grows out. The fertile and sterile anthers were researched using cytological and cytochemical methods. Thick sections of both anthers of different developmental stages were stained with Toluidine blue for general cytological observation and stained with the periodic-acid-Schiff's (PAS) technique to detect polysaccharides (red), with Sudan black B (SBB) to detect lipids (black). Before meiosis of microspore mother cells, connective tissue of both fertile and sterile anthers stored a lot of starch grains. Neither starches nor lipid drops were in tapetal and microspore mother cells. The only difference of both anthers was that the tapetal cells of sterile anthers contained more vacuoles than those of fertile anthers. After meiosis of microspore mother cells, the starch grains in connective tissue of fertile anthers disappeared, the tapetal cells synthesized abundant lipid drops, and the microspores also began to accumulate lipid drops. In sterile anthers, the starch grains in connective tissue also disappeared, but only a few lipid drops appeared in tapetal cells. The tapetal cells, however, became red, suggesting the cell contained some polysaccharide material. Pollen abortion in sterile anthers occurred in this stage. The aborting microspores accumulated very less lipid drops in its cytoplasm than those in fertile the starch This result suggested that in the cabbage, the starch grains in connective tissue were transformed into polysaccharide and transported to tapetal cells, then these cells transformed polysaccharide into lipid material that was absorbed by developing microspore. In sterile anthers, however, polysaccharide in the tapetal cells could not be transformed to lipid. The functional default of tapetal cells during lipid metabolism led to microspore abortion. This is new sample in which the functional default of tapetal cells will make pollen abort, and will enhance research field in male sterile in higher plants. PMID:15511072

Xie, Chao Tian; Yang, Yan Hong; Zhu, Xue Yi; Tian, Hui Qiao

2004-08-01

99

Responses of cultured neuronal network to different electrical stimuli patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning a new behavioral task is an exploration process that involves the formation and modulation of sets of associations between stimuli and network's responses. The dissociated rat hippocampal neurons were cultured on a multi-electrode array (MEA) substrate. So the electrophysiological activity can be extracellularly recorded, the response of network dynamics induced by electrical pulse stimulation can be analyzed using the recorded data. The test stimuli patterns were different interval twice stimuli. Each stimulus is voltage-controlled pulses (100?s at +0.6V, followed by 100?s at -0.6V). With the intervals between two stimuli decreasing such as a series of 100ms, 50ms, 20ms and 10ms, the response duration of cultured neuronal network increased. The firing rate of neuronal network was affected by the stimuli patterns: compare with the spontaneous firings of neurons, after the quick electrical stimulation (10ms interval stimuli pattern), the firing rate of neuronal network increases. On the contrary, the slow electrical stimulation (100ms interval stimuli pattern) depresses the firing rate of neuronal network.

Chen, Lin; Chen, Chuanping; Lin, Yunsheng; Zeng, Shaoqun; Luo, Qingming

2006-02-01

100

Cyclic responses of cultured 9L cells to radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several responses of cultured 9L rat brain tumor cells to ionizing radiation were investigated as a function of their position in the cell cycle. The mitotic selection procedure for cell cycle analysis was utilized to study the blockade of progression of cells through G2 and the resultant division delay. The transition point for this blockade (i.e., the last point in the cell cycle at which cells are blocked, and after which they are refractory to delay) was located approximately at the G2/M boundary 35 min prior to selection. The duration of division delay was a linear function of the x-ray dose, 33 min of delay/Gy. The survival of cells following exposure to a constant dose of x rays at varous times after incubation of mitotically selected cells demonstrated a definite resistance during the G1 phase and slight resistance during the S phase, relative to the level of survival at the G1/S boundary. As shown with other cell lines there was maximum radiosensitivity during G2 and mitosis. Thus the response of 9L rat brain tumor cells in culture to ionizing radiation is similar to that of other cultured mammalian cell lines in regard to induction and duration of division delay, and the sensitivity of M and G2 cells to radiation-induced cell lethality. However, the radioresistance exhibited over the remainder of the cell cycle results in a relatively flat age response for radiation-induced lethality. This may for radiation-induced lethality. This may in part explain the radiation resistance observed for the 9L gliosarcoma in situ

 
 
 
 
101

Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

102

Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui (Charles A. Dana Laboratory of Toxicology, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-03-01

103

Hemopoietic cell precursor responses to erythropoietin in plasma clot cultures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The time dependence of the response of mouse bone marrow cells to erythropoietin (Ep) in vitro was studied. Experiments include studies on the Ep response of marrow cells from normal, plethoric, or bled mice. Results with normal marrow reveal: (1) Not all erythroid precursors (CFU-E) are alike in their response to Ep. A significant number of the precursors develop to a mature erythroid colony after very short Ep exposures, but they account for only approx. 13% of the total colonies generated when Ep is active for 48 hrs. If Ep is active more than 6 hrs, a second population of erythroid colonies emerges at a nearly constant rate until the end of the culture. Full erythroid colony production requires prolonged exposure to erythropoietin. (2) The longer erythropoietin is actively present, the larger the number of erythroid colonies that reach 17 cells or more. Two distinct populations of immediate erythroid precursors are also present in marrow from plethoric mice. In these mice, total colony numbers are equal to or below those obtained from normal mice. However, the population of fast-responding CFU-E is consistently decreased to 10 to 20% of that found in normal marrow. The remaining colonies are formed from plethoric marrow at a rate equal to normal marrow. With increasing Ep exposures, the number of large colonies produced increases. From the marrow of bled mice, total erythroid colony production is equal to or above that of normal marrow. Two populations of colony-forming cells are again evident, with the fast-responding CFU-E being below normal levels. The lack of colonies from this group was compensated in bled mice by rapid colony production in the second population. A real increase in numbers of precursors present in this pool increased the rate of colony production in culture to twice that of normal marrow. The number of large colonies obtained from bled mice was again increased as the Ep exposure was lengthened. (ERB)

Kennedy, W.L.

1979-01-01

104

Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. / In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução d [...] esses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta), buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1) x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1) e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1) x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1) mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1) e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1) x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1). Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1) + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1) e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1) + AIB (1 mg.L-1)+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1); para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1) e cinetina (4 mg.L-1). Abstract in english The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aime [...] d to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis) aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce callogenesis in anthers of the 'Acaiá Cerrado' there were tested 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1) x kinetin (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg.L-1) and 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 and 2mg.L-1) x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 and 2mg.-1) plus 2 iP (2 mg.L-1) concentrations and for the 'Rubi' 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1) x kinetin (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg.L-1) concentrations. It was observed that the highest percentage of callogenesis induction in anthers of the 'Acaiá Cerrado' was provenient from 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1) + kinetin (1,9 mg.L-1) and 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1) + AIB (1 mg.L-1)+ 2iP (2mg.L-1) combinations for 'Rubi' 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1) and kinetin (4 mg.L-1).

Ednamar Gabriela, Palú; Adriano Bortolotti da, Silva; Moacir, Pasqual.

2004-08-01

105

Microspore embryogenesis in barley: anther pre-treatment stimulates plant defence gene expression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microspore embryogenesis (ME) is a process in which the gametophytic pollen programme of the microspore is reorientated towards a new embryo sporophytic programme. This process requires a stress treatment, usually performed in the anther or isolated microspores for several days. Despite the universal use of stress to induce ME, very few studies have addressed the physiological processes that occur in the anther during this step. To further understand the processes triggered by stress treatmen...

Jacquard, C.; Mazeyrat-gourbeyre, F.; Devaux, P.; Boutilier, K. A.

2009-01-01

106

The response of human glioblastoma in culture to radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cells from two human glioblastoma multiforme and one mouse glioma were grown in tissue cultures and their X-ray survival curve parameters were determined under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. These were compared with the survival parameters for mouse fibroblasts (L5) and established cell lines from human carcinoma coli (HeLa S3) irradiated under identical conditions. There was no significant difference in response among the cell lines used. Repair of potentially lethal damage for human glioblastoma and HeLa S3 was assessed by the increase in survival which occurred as the cells were held in density inhibited stationary phase. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage (slope modifying factors) for the glioblastoma and HeLa were 1.9 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

107

Gibberellin modulates anther development in rice via the transcriptional regulation of GAMYB.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gibberellins (GAs) play important roles in regulating reproductive development, especially anther development. Our previous studies revealed that the MYB transcriptional factor GAMYB, an important component of GA signaling in cereal aleurone cells, is also important for anther development. Here, we examined the physiological functions of GA during anther development through phenotypic analyses of rice (Oryza sativa) GA-deficient, GA-insensitive, and gamyb mutants. The mutants exhibited common defects in programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetal cells and formation of exine and Ubisch bodies. Microarray analysis using anther RNAs of these mutants revealed that rice GAMYB is involved in almost all instances of GA-regulated gene expression in anthers. Among the GA-regulated genes, we focused on two lipid metabolic genes, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase CYP703A3 and beta-ketoacyl reductase, both of which might be involved in providing a substrate for exine and Ubisch body. GAMYB specifically interacted with GAMYB binding motifs in the promoter regions in vitro, and mutation of these motifs in promoter-beta-glucuronidase (GUS) transformants caused reduced GUS expression in anthers. Furthermore, a knockout mutant for CYP703A3 showed gamyb-like defects in exine and Ubisch body formation. Together, these results suggest that GA regulates exine formation and the PCD of tapetal cells and that direct activation of CYP703A3 by GAMYB is key to exine formation. PMID:19454733

Aya, Koichiro; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Kondo, Maki; Hamada, Kazuki; Yano, Kentaro; Nishimura, Mikio; Matsuoka, Makoto

2009-05-01

108

Large-scale mining co-expressed genes in Arabidopsis anther: from pair to group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on gene co-expression not only plays an important role in understanding the complex regulatory relationships, but also contributes to our understanding of gene regulatory network. Beyond the co-expression knowledge between two genes, investigating the co-expression relationships among multiple target genes is more informative for understanding the basic working mechanisms in a cell. In this paper, all the Arabidopsis anther genes and every gene's potential co-expressed partners are collected by cross-database search. By combining simple pair gene co-expression networks, a complex Arabidopsis anther co-expression network is constructed. Maximum-clique algorithm is then applied to mine the groups reflecting co-expression relationships among multiple Arabidopsis anther genes that are represented by completely connected graphs. As a result, 254 Arabidopsis anther complete co-expression groups are obtained and our analysis shows that all the genes in the same group have high propensity to be functionally related and co-expressed together. We also demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed maximum-clique algorithm by comparing its results with the known Arabidopsis genome pathways, K-means clustering algorithm derived results and randomized data. It is expected that the 254 Arabidopsis anther complete co-expression groups generated in this paper can be a valuable knowledge source for further studies of molecular mechanisms of anther and its transcription regulations. PMID:21349769

Jiao, Qing-Ju; Huang, Yan; Shen, Hong-Bin

2011-04-01

109

The mac1 mutation alters the developmental fate of the hypodermal cells and their cellular progeny in the maize anther.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In angiosperm ovules and anthers, the hypodermal cell layer provides the progenitors of meiocytes. We have previously reported that the multiple archesporial cells1 (mac1) mutation identifies a gene that plays an important role in the switch of the hypodermal cells from the vegetative pathway to the meiotic (sporogenous) pathway in maize ovules. Here we report that the mac1 mutation alters the developmental fate of the hypodermal cells of the maize anther. In a normal anther a hypodermal cell...

Sheridan, W. F.; Golubeva, E. A.; Abrhamova, L. I.; Golubovskaya, I. N.

1999-01-01

110

The "Simmie" Side of Life: Old Order Amish Youths' Affective Response to Culturally Prescribed Deviance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyzed the counterintuitive affective response Old Order Amish youth make to unique cultural prescriptions for adolescent deviance (constructed by adult Amish culture). Interview data supported the basic principles of Terror Management Theory in an unexpected, indirect fashion. Rather than functioning as a specialized cultural-anxiety buffer…

Reiling, Denise M.

2002-01-01

111

The Elusiveness of Workplace Culture: Response to "Technical Communication: The Cultural Context."  

Science.gov (United States)

Responds to C. Lipson's article on the cultural context of technical communication by criticizing her lack of definition of the term "corporate culture," and suggesting that analyzing corporations as cultures is naive, simplistic, and would probably have little value for students of business communication. (SKC)

Parsons, Gerald M.

1987-01-01

112

Legal Response to the Destruction of Cultural, Religious and Historical  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Now, certainly, we know that since ancient times, humans experience their own personal and work them into forms that our cultural, religious, historical know have reflected and also know that it works, and plays an important role in human social life. Cultural, historic and religious monuments in the definition shooting, said: Construction works and objects that are placed on them due to the relatively long time interest in history has a nation belongs to them, cultural, religious, historical...

Amir Ahmadi; Alireza Shakarbigi; Yoseph Niazi

2013-01-01

113

Culturally responsive health promotion in puerto rican communities: a structuralist approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This literature review discusses the value of the structuralist approach as an integrated theoretical and methodological framework for participatory cultural assessments designed to capture the cultural dynamics of those affected by health disparities. Drawing from principles of the Lévi-Straussian strand of structural anthropology found in contemporary cultural studies, and using the Puerto Rican cultural experience as an example, the authors present the distinction between deep and surface structures of cultural knowledge and meaning and highlight information-processing and behavioral systems influenced by the complexity of cognitive and social representations of cultural structures. To understand and address the deeply rooted web of ideology, norms, and practices that influence health decision making and behavioral responses, the authors show the need for ethnographic narrative inquiry beyond surface manifestations of culture. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of the structuralist approach for culturally responsive health education and other health promotion interventions. PMID:18340090

Idalí Torres, María; Marquez, David X; Carbone, Elena T; Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R; Foster, Jennifer W

2008-04-01

114

Culturally Responsive Teaching as an Ethics- and Care-Based Approach to Urban Education  

Science.gov (United States)

Research shows culturally responsive teaching affects urban students positively. Current literature is an excellent resource for urban teacher preparation and provides definitions, models, and examples to help preservice teachers recognize the "how" and "what" of culturally responsive teaching. Missing, however, is an accessible, in-depth…

Shevalier, Rae; McKenzie, Barbara Ann

2012-01-01

115

Qualifying Sociopolitical Consciousness: Complicating Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Faith-Based Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and faith-based schooling. The author presents a portion of a larger ethnographic research project conducted at a Catholic elementary school that serves a predominantly Latino population in urban Chicago. This work contributes to theories of culturally responsive education by…

Dallavis, Christian

2013-01-01

116

Toward a Conception of Culturally Responsive Classroom Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the increasing diversity of our classrooms, a lack of multicultural competence can exacerbate the difficulties that novice teachers have with classroom management. Definitions and expectations of appropriate behavior are culturally influenced, and conflicts are likely to occur when teachers and students come from different cultural

Weinstein, Carol S.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra; Curran, Mary

2004-01-01

117

Expression and regulation of two novel anther-specific genes in Lilium longiflorum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two stage-specific genes have been isolated from a subtractive cDNA library constructed from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum). The proteins encoded by the two genes have a strong hydrophobic region at the N-terminus, indicating the presence of a signal peptide. The deduced LLA-67 is a new type of small cysteine-rich protein whose sequence exhibits four consecutive CX(3)CX(6-10) repeats that could form signal-receiving finger motifs, while the deduced LLA-115 protein shows significant similarities to a rice unknown protein, and putative cell wall proteins of Medicago truncatula and Arabidopsis. The transcripts of LLA-67 and LLA-115 were anther specific and differentially detected at the phase of microspore development. In situ hybridization with antisense riboprobes of the two genes in the anther showed strong signals localized to the tapetal layer of the anther wall. The LLA-67 mRNA was also detected in the microspore at the phase of microspore development but the LLA-115 mRNA was not. The LLA-115 gene can be exogenously induced by gibberellin (GA), whereas the LLA-67 gene cannot be induced. Studies with the GA biosynthesis inhibitor uniconazole and an inhibitor of ethylene activity, 2,5-norbornadien (NBD), revealed that the two genes were negatively regulated by ethylene and a cross-talk between GA and ethylene was involved in the regulation of the two genes occurring in young anthers. The treatment of NBD caused the tapetum to become densely cytoplasmic and highly polarized, whereas uniconazole arrested tapetal development to a status close to that of control. DNA blots of lily genomic DNA indicated that the two genes were encoded by a small gene family. The different actions of hormones on gene expression and the possible function of the gene products in young anthers are discussed. PMID:19013663

Tzeng, Jhih-Deng; Hsu, Ssu-Wei; Chung, Mei-Chu; Yeh, Fung-Ling; Yang, Chin-Ying; Liu, Ming-Che; Hsu, Yi-Feng; Wang, Co-Shine

2009-03-01

118

Transcriptomes and proteomes define gene expression progression in pre-meiotic maize anthers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants lack a germ line; consequently, during reproduction adult somatic cells within flowers must switch from mitotic proliferation to meiosis. In maize (Zea mays L.) anthers, hypoxic conditions in the developing tassel trigger pre-meiotic competence in the column of pluripotent progenitor cells in the center of anther lobes, and within 24 hr these newly specified germinal cells have patterned their surrounding neighbors to differentiate as the first somatic niche cells. Transcriptomes were analyzed by microarray hybridization in carefully staged whole anthers during initial specification events, after the separation of germinal and somatic lineages, during the subsequent rapid mitotic proliferation phase, and during final pre-meiotic germinal and somatic cell differentiation. Maize anthers exhibit a highly complex transcriptome constituting nearly three-quarters of annotated maize genes, and expression patterns are dynamic. Laser microdissection was applied to begin assigning transcripts to tissue and cell types and for comparison to transcriptomes of mutants defective in cell fate specification. Whole anther proteomes were analyzed at three developmental stages by mass spectrometric peptide sequencing using size-fractionated proteins to evaluate the timing of protein accumulation relative to transcript abundance. New insights include early and sustained expression of meiosis-associated genes (77.5% of well-annotated meiosis genes are constitutively active in 0.15 mm anthers), an extremely large change in transcript abundances and types a few days before meiosis (including a class of 1340 transcripts absent specifically at 0.4 mm), and the relative disparity between transcript abundance and protein abundance at any one developmental stage (based on 1303 protein-to-transcript comparisons). PMID:24939185

Zhang, Han; Egger, Rachel L; Kelliher, Timothy; Morrow, Darren; Fernandes, John; Nan, Guo-Ling; Walbot, Virginia

2014-06-01

119

IAA-peroxidase relation in the microsporocytes and anther wall during successive stages of meiosis in Larix europaea L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During anther meiosis in Larix europaea considerable variations in the level of peroxidase activity and endogenous auxin content occur both in the microsporocytes and in the anther wall. However, the IAA-peroxidase relations are different in each of these two parts of the anther. In the anther wall characterized by the occurrence of anodic isoperoxidases, the changes in peroxidae activity show a positive correlation with those in endogenous auxin content. In the microsporocytes containing almost only cathodic asoperoxidases the levels of endogenous auxin content and peroxidase activity show a reverse correlation. Thus a preponderance of isoperoxidases showing IAA-oxidase properties occur only in the microsporocytes. These results suggest the important role of the IAA=peroxidase system in the mechanism of differentiation of cells undergoing anther meiosis.

Alicja Górska-Brylass

1981-06-01

120

Thermo-responsive surfaces for enzyme free mammalian cell culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Embryonic stem cells are of great interest to scientists as they can differentiate into any somatic cell lineage making them excellent candidates for tissue regeneration and cell based treatment therapies. Currently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are cultured using feeder fibroblasts or protein substrates such as matrigel, fibronectin or laminin in conditioned media. hESCs are then subcultured using enzymes to detach them from the culture substrate. However, the use of the xenosupport sy...

Dey, Sabrina

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Electroolfactogram responses from organotypic cultures of the olfactory epithelium from postnatal mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Organotypic cultures of the mouse olfactory epithelium connected to the olfactory bulb were obtained with the roller tube technique from postnatal mice aged between 13 and 66 days. To test the functionality of the cultures, we measured electroolfactograms (EOGs) at different days in vitro (DIV), up to 7 DIV, and we compared them with EOGs from identical acute preparations (0 DIV). Average amplitudes of EOG responses to 2 mixtures of various odorants at concentrations of 1 mM or 100 microM decreased in cultures between 2 and 5 DIV compared with 0 DIV. The percentage of responsive cultures was 57%. We also used the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to trigger the olfactory transduction cascade bypassing odorant receptor activation. Average amplitudes of EOG responses to 500 microM IBMX were not significantly different in cultures up to 6 DIV or 0 DIV, and the average percentage of responsive cultures between 2 and 5 DIV was 72%. The dose-response curve to IBMX measured in cultures up to 7 DIV was similar to that at 0 DIV. Moreover, the percentage of EOG response to IBMX blocked by niflumic acid, a blocker of Ca-activated Cl channels, was not significantly different in cultured or acute preparations. PMID:18303030

Pinato, Giulietta; Rievaj, Juraj; Pifferi, Simone; Dibattista, Michele; Masten, Lara; Menini, Anna

2008-04-01

122

Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

S Poonam

2002-04-01

123

Cultural Variations in Shame's Responses: A Dynamic Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diverse literature on shame has led to disparate and often contradictory conclusions regarding the emotion's nature and consequences. The article proposes a motivational theory of shame that accounts for these discrepant findings. The first part of the article uses the concept of active avoidance to outline a dynamic motivational perspective in which shame is based initially in behavioral inhibition that then incorporates subsequent behavioral activation. The motivational shift is guided by shame's relational phenomenology and the normative beliefs associated with shame. In the second part, the motivational perspective is used to account for variations in shame's consequences. Externalizing and restorative tendencies of shame are culturally variable and due to differences in behavioral activation associated with the emotion. However, withdrawal tendencies occur across cultural contexts because of shame's basis in inhibition. Issues in conducting cross-cultural studies on emotion and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:25074027

Sheikh, Sana

2014-11-01

124

Collaborative Voices Exploring Culturally and Socially Responsive Literacies  

Science.gov (United States)

This piece shares preservice teachers and instructors reflections on their perceptions of a course on Spanish language arts methods in Puerto Rico. The course was redesigned to focus on interrelated curricular and pedagogical aspects such as literacies as situated social practice, funds of knowledge, popular culture and critical literacy. In…

Medina, Carmen L.; del Rocio Costa, Maria

2010-01-01

125

Introducing Charly Palmer: Tar Baby and Culturally Responsive Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

According to a report by the Congressional Research Service, the U.S. population is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. This increasing change is reflected in every aspect of people's lives, including the classroom. Now more than ever it is necessary for art educators to address the needs of the steadily increasing numbers of culturally

Jackson, Tanisha

2012-01-01

126

Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

2011-01-01

127

Dose responses for Colletotrichum lindemuthianum elicitor-mediated enzyme induction in French bean cell suspension cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The induction of L-phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) and flavanone synthase in French bean cell suspension cultures in response to heat-released elicitor from cell walls of the phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is highly dependent upon elicitor concentration. The elicitor dose-response curve for PAL induction shows two maxima at around 17.5 and 50 ?g elicitor carbohydrate per ml culture, whereas the flavanone synthase response shows one maximum at around 100 ?g ml(-1). The PAL response is independent of the elicitor concentration present during the lag phase of enzyme induction; if the initial elicitor concentration is increased after 2 h by addition of extra elicitor, or decreased by dilution of the cultures, the dose response curves obtained reflect the concentration of elicitor present at the time of harvest. PAL induction is not prevented by addition of methyl sugar derivatives to the cultures; ?-methyl-D-glucoside, itself a weak elicitor of PAL activity, elicits a multiphasic PAL response when increasing concentrations are added in the presence of Colletotrichum elicitor. Eight fractions with different monosaccharide compositions, obtained from the crude elicitor by gel-filtration, each elicit different dose-responses for PAL induction; the response to unfractionated elicitor is not the sum of the response to the isolated fractions. There is no correlation between the ability of the fractions to induce PAL in the cultures and their ability to act as elicitors of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation in bean hypocotyls. PMID:24301854

Dixon, R A; Dey, P M; Murphy, D L; Whitehead, I M

1981-03-01

128

The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

2014-01-01

129

Effects of Culturally-Responsive Teaching Practices on First Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Gains  

Science.gov (United States)

Accumulating research reveals that children's reading comprehension is influenced by a reader's experiences, knowledge, language structure, and vocabulary. Thus, this researcher investigated the construct, culturally-responsive practice, as a way to provide effective learning opportunities for children from non-mainstream cultures, including…

Underwood, Phyllis Swann

2009-01-01

130

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Citizenship Education: Using African Proverbs as Tools for Teaching in Urban Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Preparing today's children to be tomorrow's global citizens will require social educators who have knowledge of the histories, experiences, and cultural practices of the children they teach. This article offers culturally responsive pedagogy and the African proverb as frames for teaching African American students to become engaged local and global…

Grant, Rachel A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

2006-01-01

131

How Cultural Differences Affect Written and Oral Communication: The Case of Peer Response Groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer response groups contribute to students' effectiveness as writers in any field, but cultural differences in communication affect interactions within the group. Culture-based dimensions on which communication may differ include individualism/collectivism, power distance, concept of "face," and communication style. Recommendations are made for…

Nelson, Gayle L.

1997-01-01

132

Social Justice and Cultural Responsiveness: Innovative Teaching Strategies for Group Work  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a teaching strategy for group work that enhances the social justice consciousness of course participants by increasing their knowledge of their own cultural identity, worldview, acculturation, privilege, and oppression to improve their cultural responsiveness and understanding of social justice issues. The focus is on group…

Ibrahim, Farah A.

2010-01-01

133

Secondary English Learners: Strengthening Their Literacy Skills through Culturally Responsive Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

In high school English classrooms where English language learners may be at risk of academic failure, Culturally Responsive Teaching can help educators build an inclusive community in which all students can improve their literacy skills.

Ramirez, Pablo C.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

2014-01-01

134

The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.

Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril

2012-01-01

135

Empowerment and responsibility of the culture of peace through education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article seeks to highlight the possibilities of empowering the culture of peace in the society in general, so it is necessary a joint work of different actors and social institutions. In this perspective each individual must transcend commitment to the peace of the personal to the social, also the State specifically in the case of Colombia must be monitored for compliance with the legislation in story to the compulsory education for educational institutions peace through public policies. Similarly, we emphasize that when they achieve consistently develop the principles and methodologies of education for peace, in institutions both family, school and University, this facilitates the strengthening of the culture for peace in the country.

Mariela Inés Sánchez Cardona

2012-01-01

136

Culturally Responsive Work with Indigenous Children and Youth  

Science.gov (United States)

Educators and practitioners carry heavy obligations of responsibility for identifying knowledge and skills needed to assist those seeking to chart Response Ability Pathways toward reclaiming children, young people, and families who face some of society's greatest challenges. Teachers, social workers, and youth workers require dedicated education…

Fulcher, Leon C.

2012-01-01

137

Cartilage responses to a novel triaxial mechanostimulatory culture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a novel mechanically active cartilage culture device capable of modulating the interplay between compression and shear, at physiologic stress levels (2-5 MPa). This triaxial compression culture system subjects cylindrical cartilage explants to pulsatile axial compression from platen contact, plus pulsatile radially transverse compression from external fluid compression. These compressive loads can be independently modulated to impose stress states that resemble normal physiologic loading, and to investigate perturbations of individual components of the multi-axial stress state, such as increased shear stress. Based on the observation that joint incongruity predisposes cartilage to premature degeneration, we hypothesized that cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis would be inhibited under conditions of low transverse buttressing (high shear stress). To test this hypothesis, we compared ECM synthesis in human cartilage explants exposed to axial compression without transverse compression (high shear stress), versus explants exposed to axial compression plus an equal level of transverse compression (low shear stress). Both total (35)SO(4) incorporation and aggrecan-specific (35)SO(4) incorporation were significantly inhibited by axial compression, relative to axial plus transverse compression. PMID:15046998

Heiner, A D Anneliese D; Martin, J A James A

2004-05-01

138

Effects of cell type and culture media on Interleukin-6 secretion in response to environmental particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kaolin particles along with soluble vanadium and lipopolysaccharide, applied to airway-derived cells grown in submerged culture. Cell types included A549, BEAS-2B, RAW 264.7, and primary macrophages. The cell culture models (specific combinations of cell types and culture conditions) were reproducibly different in the cytokine signaling responses to the suite of treatments. Further, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) response to the treatments changed when the same cells, BEAS-2B, were grown in KGM versus LHC-9 media or in media containing bovine serum. The effect of changing media composition was reversible over multiple changes of media type. Other variables tested included culture well size and degree of confluence. The observation that sensitivity of a cell type to environmental agonists can be manipulated by modifying culture conditions suggests a novel approach for studying biochemical mechanisms of particle toxicity.

Veranth, J.M.; Cutler, N.S.; Kaser, E.G.; Reilly, C.A.; Yost, G.S. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2008-03-15

139

Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/106 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

140

Characterization of callase (?-1,3-d-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of thre...

Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-s?cise?, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. PMID:23067337

Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

2012-11-01

142

Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view. PMID:24419543

C De, Bidhan; Meena, D K; Behera, B K; Das, Pronob; Das Mohapatra, P K; Sharma, A P

2014-06-01

143

Optimization of Lycopene Extraction from Tomato Cell Suspension Culture by Response Surface Methodology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Radioisotope-labeled lycopene is an important tool for biomedical research but currently is not commercially available. A tomato cell suspension culture system for the production of radioisotope-labeled lycopene was previously developed in our laboratory. In the current study, the goal was to optimize the lycopene extraction efficiency from tomato cell cultures for preparatory high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation. We employed response surface methodology (RSM), which combi...

Lu, Chi-hua; Engelmann, Nancy J.; Lila, Mary Ann; Erdman, John W.

2008-01-01

144

Effect of 60Co ?-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60Co ?-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60Co ?-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

145

PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporins are differentially expressed during tobacco anther and stigma development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several processes during sexual reproduction in higher plants involve the movement of water between cells or tissues, such as occurs during dehiscence of the anther and hydration of the pollen grain after it is deposited on a stigma. To get more insight in these processes, a set of putative aquaporins was cloned and it was found that at least 15 are expressed in reproductive organs, which indicates that the control of water flow is important for reproduction. Functional studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two of the cDNAs showed that NtPIP2;1 is an efficient aquaporin, whereas NtPIP1;1 is not. Expression studies on RNA and protein levels showed that PIP1 and PIP2 genes are differently expressed in reproductive organs: PIP1 RNA accumulates in the stigma, and PIP1 and PIP2 RNA can be detected in most tissues of the anther. PMID:15520027

Bots, Marc; Feron, Richard; Uehlein, Norbert; Weterings, Koen; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Mariani, Titti

2005-01-01

146

Various Spatiotemporal Expression Profiles of Anther-Expressed Genes in Rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The male gametophyte and tapetum play different roles during anther development although they are differentiated from the same cell lineage, the L2 layer. Until now, it has not been possible to delineate their transcriptomes due to technical difficulties in separating the two cell types. In the present study, we characterized the separated transcriptomes of the rice microspore/pollen and tapetum using laser microdissection (LM)-mediated microarray. Spatiotemporal expression patterns of 28,141...

Hobo, Tokunori; Suwabe, Keita; Aya, Koichiro; Suzuki, Go; Yano, Kentaro; Ishimizu, Takeshi; Fujita, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Shunsuke; Hamada, Kazuki; Miyano, Masumi; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Kaneko, Fumi; Kazama, Tomohiko; Mizuta, Yoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu

2008-01-01

147

Emergence and patterning of the five cell types of the Zea mays anther locule  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One fundamental difference between plants and animals is the existence of a germ-line in animals and its absence in plants. In flowering plants the sexual organs (stamens and carpels) are composed almost entirely of somatic cells, a small subset of which switch to meiosis, however, the mechanism of meiotic cell fate acquisition is a long-standing botanical mystery. In the maize (Zea mays) anther microsporangium the somatic tissues consist of four concentric cell layers which surround and supp...

Kelliher, Timothy; Walbot, Virginia

2011-01-01

148

Digital Repatriation: Constructing a Culturally Responsive Virtual Museum Tour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

???14-18

This paper describe a project that involved educators and three Native American communities in the construction of a virtual tour now available on the Web site of the National Museum of the American Indian(http://www. conexus.si.edu/. In fall 1998, the Pueblo of Laguna Department of Education, the College of Education and Graduate School of Library and Information Science at The University of Texas at Austin, and the Smithsonian?s National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI began the first collaboration that brought Native American students, teachers, and cultural representatives to the NMAI George Gustav Heye Center in New York City. The virtual tour makes extensive use of QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR. The panoramas of the exhibition space serve as an interface for accessing the featured objects selected by the students. Clicking on a hot spot over the museum display of a featured object causes the QTVR object to load in a separate Webpage frame accompanied by an interpreted essay written by a student. Clickable floor plans of the exhibition- space offer another method of navigating the virtual tour and accessing the virtual objects.

Loriene Roy?Mark Christal

2002-04-01

149

Adaptive response of yeast cultures (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was planned as follows: (i) setting up of standard experimental conditions for investigation of radio-induced adaptive response in lower Eucaryotes; (ii) developing of procedures for synchronizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae X 310 D cell cultures and cell cycle stages monitoring; (iii) investigation of gamma (Co-60) and UV irradiation effects on the viability of synchronized and non-synchronized cell cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the effects were correlated with the cell density and cell cycle stage; (iv) study of the adaptive response induced by irradiation and setting up of the experimental conditions for which this response is optimized. The irradiations were performed by using a Co-60 with doses of 102 - 104 Gy and dose rates ranging from 2.2 x 102 Gy/h to 8.7 x 103 Gy/h. The study of radioinduced adaptive response was performed by applying a pre-irradiation treatment of 100-500 Gy, followed by challenge doses of 2-4 kGy delivered at different time intervals, ranging from 1 h to 4 h. The survival rate of synchronized and non-synchronized cultures as a function of exposure dose shows an exponential decay shape. No difference in viability of the cells occurred between synchronized and non-synchronized cultures. The pre-irradiation of cells with 100 and 200 Gy were most efficient to induce an adaptive response for the yeast cells. In this stage of work we proved the occurrence of the adaptive response in the case of synchronized yeast cultures exposed to gamma radiation. The results will be used in the future to investigate the dependence of this response on the cell cycle and the possibility to induce such a response by a low level electromagnetic field. (authors)

150

Tomato Male sterile 1035 is essential for pollen development and meiosis in anthers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male fertility in flowering plants depends on proper cellular differentiation in anthers. Meiosis and tapetum development are particularly important processes in pollen production. In this study, we showed that the tomato male sterile (ms10 (35) ) mutant of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) exhibited dysfunctional meiosis and an abnormal tapetum during anther development, resulting in no pollen production. We demonstrated that Ms10 (35) encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is specifically expressed in meiocyte and tapetal tissue from pre-meiotic to tetrad stages. Transgenic expression of the Ms10 (35) gene from its native promoter complemented the male sterility of the ms10 (35) mutant. In addition, RNA-sequencing-based transcriptome analysis revealed that Ms10 (35) regulates 246 genes involved in anther development processes such as meiosis, tapetum development, cell-wall degradation, pollen wall formation, transport, and lipid metabolism. Our results indicate that Ms10 (35) plays key roles in regulating both meiosis and programmed cell death of the tapetum during microsporogenesis. PMID:25262227

Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Jin-Ho; Zhao, Meiai; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Choi, Hak-Soon; Bae, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Joung, Young-Hee; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

2014-12-01

151

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

Zhiming Wu

2013-11-01

152

Characterization of three anther-specific genes isolated from Chinese cabbage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cDNA libraries were constructed from poly(A)+ RNAs isolated from each of immature flowers (less than 2.0 mm long buds) and anthers (2.0-5.0 mm long buds) of Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis). Using dot-differential hybridization, three cDNA clones, designated BIF38, BAN54, and BAN237, have been isolated from the constructed cDNA libraries and sequenced completely in both directions. Northern blot analyses indicate that all three cDNA clones are abundantly expressed in anther, but not in leaf or other floral organs. The deduced amino acid sequences of BIF38, BAN54, and BAN237 showed high identity with those of known anther-specific genes. Especially the deduced amino acid sequence of BIF38 has 98% identity with that of a phospholipid protein gene (E2) from Brassica napus. Also, the deduced amino acid sequences of BAN54 and BAN237 are similar to the sequences of microspore-specific genes (Bp4A and Bp4C) and pollen oleosins (13, pol3 and C98), respectively. Southern blot analyses revealed that all three genes belong to multiple gene families in the Chinese cabbage genome. PMID:9037172

Kim, H U; Chung, T Y

1997-01-01

153

Characterization of the global transcriptome for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) anther and development of SSR marker.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotton is an important fiber plant, and it's attractive to elucidate the molecular mechanism of anther development due to the close relationship between the anther fertility and boll-setting, and also fiber yield. In the present paper, 47.2million paired-end reads with average length of 82.87bp from the anthers of TM-1 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a genetic standard line, were generated through transcriptome sequencing, and 210,965 unigenes of more than 100bp were obtained. BLAST, KEGG, COG, and GO analyses showed that the genes were enriched in the processes of transcription, translation, and post-translation as well as hormone signal transduction, the transcription factor families, and cell wall-related genes mainly participating in cell expansion and carbohydrate metabolism. Further analysis identified 11,153 potential SSRs. A suit of 5122 primer pair sequences were designed, and 82 of 300 randomly selected primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 22 cotton accessions from G. hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium arboreum. The UPGMA clustering analysis further confirmed high quality and effectiveness of these novel SSR markers. The present study provided insights into the transcriptome profile of the cotton and established a public information platform for functional genomics and molecular breeding. PMID:25178523

Zhang, Xianwen; Ye, Zhenwei; Wang, Tiankang; Xiong, Hairong; Yuan, Xiaoling; Zhang, Zhigang; Yuan, Youlu; Liu, Zhi

2014-11-10

154

Differential proteomic analysis of anthers between cytoplasmic male sterile and maintainer lines in Capsicum annuum L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS), annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper. PMID:24264042

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

155

Cultural Responsibility of Subjects in Moral Education in Colleges and Universities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a new era, to come to full understanding of the cultural responsibility of subjects in moral education in colleges and universities is an internal demand of modern educational theory for overall development of both teachers and students, and is the premise to play the leading role of teachers and mobilize the subjectivity of university students. At the same time, this also guides the direction for teachers and students to carry out moral education activities in colleges and universities. This article explains the responsibility of subjects in moral education in colleges and universities from the perspective of culture.

Chunyan Chen

2011-07-01

156

Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:14681123

Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

2003-11-01

157

[Cytological observation of anther abortion and starch distribution of a cytoplasm male sterile pepper (Capsicum annum L.)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A cytoplasm male sterile pepper (Capsicum annum L.) was examined using cytochemical method to study its pollen abortion. Thick sections of both anthers of male sterility line 8214A and its maintainer 8214B at different stages were stained using Periodic Acid-Schiff's (PAS) reaction to detect starch distribution. Anther structure and starch distribution in both anthers of male sterility and maintainer line were similar before the meiosis of microspore mother cells. After meiosis, the size of tapetal cells of fertile anthers of maintainer line increased and became high vacuolation. Abundant small starches appeared in the connective cells from tetrad stage to early stage of microspore development. At the late stage of microspore, the tapetal cells began to degenerate and the starches in the connective cells became large. Bi-cellular pollen synthesized starches after the large vacuole of vegetative cell disappeared, and abundant starches were stored in the mature pollen. In the anthers of male sterile line, meiosis of microspore mother could occurred and the tetrads could be formed in the locule, but the tetrads were extruded together because the locule could not enlarge its space. Finally, the tetrad microspores degenerated. The development of vascular tissue of the sterile anthers was normal and abundant starches were stored in the connective cells, which suggested that the function of plant transporting polysaccharide into anther was normal but tapetum could not transport the polysaccharide into locule. According to our result, the pollen abortion occurred in the tetrad stage and the abnormal development of tapetal cells might be the reason which induced tetrad microspore abortion in this male sterile pepper. PMID:18959002

Qiu, Yi Lan; Liu, Zhu Li; Li, Hong; Chen, Song; Chen, Liang Bi; Tian, Hui Qiao

2008-08-01

158

A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression  

Science.gov (United States)

The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural

Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

2014-01-01

159

(Re) Claiming Native Youth Knowledge: Engaging in Socio-Culturally Responsive Teaching and Relationships  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reveals Native youth perspectives on socio-culturally responsive education. The authors draw on two studies conducted in the Southwest among Navajo and Pueblo students. Youth convey the importance of meaningful, reciprocal, and transformative learning experiences and relationships at school. The article ends with suggestions for…

Lee, Tiffany S.; Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.

2010-01-01

160

Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Teaching across the Lines: Adapting Scripted Programmes with Culturally Relevant/Responsive Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

The American legislation of No Child Left Behind resulted in a boom in scripted, prepackaged curricula for improving student outcomes. At the same time, greater attention to the needs of diverse populations also took prominence, resulting in a new area of study, culturally relevant/responsive pedagogy. The current view is that scripted curriculum…

Wyatt, Tasha R.

2014-01-01

162

Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

2012-01-01

163

Culturally Responsive Caring and Expectations for Academic Achievement in a Catholic School  

Science.gov (United States)

This article draws from a larger dissertation study that applied ethnographic and historical research methods to explore the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and Catholic schooling in immigrant communities. In particular, this article presents qualitative data analysis to describe student achievement expectations at a contemporary…

Dallavis, Christian

2014-01-01

164

The Coconut Wireless Project: Sharing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy through the World Wide Web.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beginning in the 1997-98 school year, WestEd staff, with the support of the Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), worked intensively with a group of five Chamorro teachers from Rota Elementary School (Hawaii) to develop culturally responsive, standards-based science units. The larger goal was to develop Web-based case examples of…

Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise; Wenn, Richard

165

Making String Education Culturally Responsive: The Musical Lives of African American Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to explore the violin experiences of African American students at an Elementary School in northern Florida to consider the potential for culturally-responsive string education. The hermeneutical approach was used to answer the research questions: (1) What are the personal musical worlds of these African American…

Boon, Ebru Tuncer

2014-01-01

166

Responsividade materna: aspectos biológicos e variações culturais Maternal responsiveness: biological aspects and cultural variations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente alguns aspectos biológicos e variações culturais relativos ao conceito de responsividade materna. Está subdividido em duas partes. A primeira delas trata da responsividade e seus aspectos biológicos e variações culturais. A segunda apresenta duas grandes tendências de pesquisa sobre responsividade materna e variações culturais. As considerações finais sistematizam os argumentos críticos apresentados e destacam que as iniciativas de investigar este tema devem estar pautadas pelo reconhecimento de que a responsividade materna é uma das características das interações adulto-criança que tem origens e influências múltiplas. Nesse sentido, a sua compreensão deve estar incluída em um sistema amplo de referência que envolva, por exemplo, variáveis biológicas, contextuais, da história da díade e culturais.The purpose of this article was to critically discuss some biological aspects and cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. It consists of two parts. The first discusses responsiveness and its biological aspects and cultural variations. The second part presents two major research tendencies in the investigations of cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. Our conclusion presents a brief of the critical arguments and highlights the need to recognize that maternal responsiveness is one of the adult-child interaction characteristics that has multiple origins and influences, from which any investigation in this theme must be based on. As a consequence, those initiatives should be included in a wide reference system that involves, for example, biological, contextual, dyads previous history, and cultural variables.

Adriana Ferreira Paes Ribas

2007-01-01

167

Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain  

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The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

Godsland, Shelley

2012-01-01

168

Urban Teachers' Professed Classroom Management Strategies: Reflections of Culturally Responsive Teaching  

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Thirteen urban educators teaching from 1st through 12th grade selected from 7 cities across the United States were interviewed in this qualitative research study to determine if the classroom management strategies they use reflect the research on culturally responsive teaching. Participants revealed using several management strategies that reflect…

Brown, Dave F.

2004-01-01

169

Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

2012-06-01

170

Culturally responsive middle school science: A case study of needs, demands, and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Culturally responsive programming has been proposed as a remedy for the well-documented disconnect between schools and the ethnically and culturally diverse students who attend them. These programs often focus on creating instructional materials and pedagogical practices that are aligned with the knowledges, perspectives and practices of these students. This study builds on that literature and examines the needs, demands, and challenges of developing a culturally responsive health science program for ethnically and culturally diverse urban middle school students. I approached this problem through a content analysis of the intended curriculum and a microethnography of the enacted curriculum. In my analysis of the intended curriculum, I adapted a science textbook analysis instrument created by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to include criteria related to identified features of culturally responsive education. Using these modified analytic criteria, I found that the pilot drafts of the curricular materials excelled in the areas of engaging students in relevant phenomenon but lacked many of these specifically culturally responsive elements. Recommendations were made to redress these deficiencies. In my analysis of the enacted curriculum, I observed in five eighth grade classrooms where the program was being implemented. I used participant observation, audio and video tape recordings, artifacts, and interviews over a six-month period to investigate teacher/student interactions, the social organization of the classrooms, and students' culturally distinctive knowledge resources---or what is sometimes referred to as their "funds of knowledge." I found that the affective interactions between teachers and students were precursors to any reform, and that students and teachers similarly defined these interactions as "teacher care." In addition, I found that the social organization of the classroom often privileged official content and ways of knowing while limiting students' ability to publicly draw on their unique funds of knowledge or to access their scientific sensemaking resources. Through the use of data accumulated from my curriculum analysis and classroom observations, I concluded that culturally responsive program development must incorporate both curricular development and inservice professional development focused not only on science but also on fundamental aspects of classroom interactions.

Woodrow, Kelli Ellen

171

Carbon starved anther encodes a MYB domain protein that regulates sugar partitioning required for rice pollen development.  

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In flowering plants, sink tissues rely on transport of carbohydrates from photosynthetic tissues (sources) for nutrition and energy. However, how sugar partitioning in plants is regulated at the molecular level during development remains unknown. We have isolated and characterized a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant, carbon starved anther (csa), that showed increased sugar contents in leaves and stems and reduced levels of sugars and starch in floral organs. In particular, the csa mutant had reduced levels of carbohydrates in later anthers and was male sterile. The csa mutant had reduced accumulation of (14)C-labeled sugars in anther sink tissue. CSA was isolated by map-based cloning and was shown to encode an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that was expressed preferentially in the anther tapetal cells and in the sugar-transporting vascular tissues. In addition, the expression of MST8, encoding a monosaccharide transporter, was greatly reduced in csa anthers. Furthermore, CSA was found to be associated in vivo and in vitro with the promoter of MST8. Our findings suggest that CSA is a key transcriptional regulator for sugar partitioning in rice during male reproductive development. This study also establishes a molecular model system for further elucidation of the genetic control of carbon partitioning in plants. PMID:20305120

Zhang, Hui; Liang, Wanqi; Yang, Xijia; Luo, Xue; Jiang, Ning; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dabing

2010-03-01

172

Expression of an anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene is correlated with uninucleate microspore development in Nicotiana sylvestris.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cDNA clones, specifically expressed in Nicotiana sylvestris anthers during uninucleate microspore development, were isolated using a subtractive hybridization approach. Sequence analysis showed that one of them, NSCHSLK, displayed a high level of similarity to several anther-specific chalcone synthase-like (CHSLK) proteins and an ORF from chromosome I of Arabidopsis thaliana. A lower, but significant, similarity to chalcone synthases and closely related enzymes (CHSRE) was also detected. The structure of the nschslk gene was found to be typical of the chalcone (chs)/stilbene (sts) synthase family. Expression of NSCHSLK mRNA was confined to microspores and tapetal cells. UV-irradiation or infection with Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae of transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants carrying a chimeric nschslk/GUS gene indicated that the nschslk promoter exhibits the same anther-specific, developmentally regulated expression pattern. Comparison of CHSRE and CHSLK polypeptide sequences revealed some important similarities and differences between the two groups. The data presented in this study, suggest that the anther-specific chslk genes represent a separate sub-family of plant polyketide synthases related to chs/sts in terms of gene structure, polypeptide sequence and the possible catalytic mechanism, but differing in substrate/product specificity. The putative role of CHSLK enzymes in anther development and particularly in exine synthesis is discussed. PMID:9869422

Atanassov, I; Russinova, E; Antonov, L; Atanassov, A

1998-12-01

173

Microbotryum heliospermae, a new anther smut fungus parasitic on Heliosperma pusillum in the mountains of the European Alpine System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The members of the smut genus Microbotryum are pathogens of a wide range of host plant species from nine dicotyledonous families. Within the genus, the species sporulating in anthers of Caryophyllaceae form a monophyletic group that in recent years attracted much interest in various biological studies. The phylogenetic framework developed for species delimitation within Microbotryum revealed that high level host-specificity is a major feature of most caryophyllaceous anther smuts. However, the great number of anther smut specimens on diverse host plant species reported worldwide has still not been included in phylogenetic analyses due to the inaccessibility of recently collected specimens, and thus many species remain still undiscovered. In this study, anther smut specimens on Heliosperma pusillum originating from all main mountain ranges of the European Alpine System were examined using partial rDNA sequence and/or morphological analyses. The investigation revealed that all specimens are morphologically uniform and phylogenetically represent a monophyletic lineage, sister to Microbotryum lagerheimii complex on Atocion rupestre/Silene lacera/Silene vulgaris/Viscaria vulgaris. This lineage cannot be attributed to any of the previously described species, and therefore the smut in anthers of H. pusillum is described and illustrated here as a new species, Microbotryum heliospermae. The species is known from subalpine zone of the Alps, the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps, and the Pyrenees, inhabiting host plants growing in open spring communities or semihumid mountain meadows. PMID:22289764

Pi?tek, Marcin; Lutz, Matthias; Ronikier, Anna; Kemler, Martin; ?widerska-Burek, Urszula

2012-02-01

174

Modified cyclodextrins are chemically defined glucan inducers of defense responses in grapevine cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), defense responses after microbial infection or treatment with elicitors involve accumulation of phytoalexins, oxidative burst, and the synthesis of pathogenesis-related proteins. Oligosaccharide fractions from fungal or algal cell walls efficiently induce the defense responses, but a detailed analysis of the elicitor-plant cell surface interaction at the molecular level is precluded by the lack of chemically pure oligosaccharide elicitors. A grapevine liquid cell culture system was used to examine the properties of cyclodextrins (CDs) as inducers of defense responses. This work shows that the chemically pure heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-betaCD caused a dramatic extracellular accumulation of the phytoalexin resveratrol and changes in peroxidase activity and isoenzymatic pattern. Other modified CDs tested on several grapevine cell lines resulted in different eliciting capacities of CDs and different sensibilities of the cell lines. The spent medium of elicited cultures was shown to disturb Botrytis cinerea growth in a plate assay. PMID:16390179

Bru, Roque; Sellés, Susana; Casado-Vela, Juan; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Pedreño, Maria Angeles

2006-01-11

175

Biolistic expression of the macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor in organotypic cultures induces an inflammatory response.  

Science.gov (United States)

The receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSFR; c-fms) is expressed at increased levels by microglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in mouse models for AD. Increased expression of M-CSFR on cultured microglia results in a strong proinflammatory response, but the relevance of this cell culture finding to intact brain is unknown. To determine the effects of increased microglial expression of M-CSFR in a complex organotypic environment, we developed a system for biolistic transfection of microglia in hippocampal slice cultures. The promoter for the Mac-1 integrin alpha subunit CD11b is active in cells of myeloid origin. In the brain, CD11b expression is restricted to microglia. Constructs consisting of the promoter for CD11b and a c-fms cDNA or an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) cDNA were introduced into monotypic cultures of microglia, neurons, and astrocytes. Strong CD11b promoter activity was observed in microglia, whereas little activity was observed in other cell types. Biolistic transfection of organotypic hippocampal cultures with the CD11b/c-fms construct resulted in expression of the c-fms mRNA and protein that was localized to microglia. Furthermore, biolistic overexpression of M-CSFR on microglia resulted in significantly increased production by the hippocampal cultures of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1alpha macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1alpha), and trends toward increased production of IL-6 and M-CSF. These findings demonstrate that microglial overexpression of M-CSFR in an organotypic environment induces an inflammatory response, and suggest that increased microglial expression of M-CSFR could contribute to the inflammatory response observed in AD brain. PMID:15248298

Mitrasinovic, Olivera M; Robinson, Christopher C; Tenen, Daniel G; Lee, Yuen Ling; Poon, Clara; Murphy, Greer M

2004-08-01

176

Endothelial invasive response in a co-culture model with physically-induced osteodifferentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manipulation of stem cells using physicochemical stimuli has emerged as an important tool in regenerative medicine. While 2D substrates with tunable elasticity have been studied for control of stem cell differentiation, we recently developed a stratified co-culture model of angiogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) that differentiate on a tunable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, thereby creating a physiologic context for elasticity-induced differentiation. Endothelial cells (EC) were cultured on top of the hMSC construct on a collagen gel to monitor network formation. Media composition influenced EC invasion due to the conditioning media, the reduction of serum and supplemental growth factors, and the addition of recombinant growth factors. Conditioned media, recombinant growth factors and direct co-culture were compared for endothelial cell invasive response using quantitative image analysis. As anticipated, use of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced the deepest EC invasions while direct co-culture caused shallow invasions compared to other conditions. However, endothelial cells displayed lumen-like morphology, suggesting that cell-cell interaction in the co-culture model could mimic sprouting behaviour. In summary, an engineered suitable biochemical and physical environment facilitated endothelial cells to form 3D vessel structures onto hMSCs. These structures were plated on a stiff surface known to induce osteodifferentiation of stem cells. This low cost co-culture system, with its minimal chemical supplementation and physically controllable matrix, could potentially model in vivo potential in engineered and pre-vascularized bone grafts. PMID:22696416

Traphagen, Samantha B; Titushkin, Igor; Sun, Shan; Wary, Kishore K; Cho, Michael

2013-08-01

177

Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 ?g g-1 dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 ?g g-1 dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish

178

Small Business Responsiveness and Organizational Culture in the Context of a Developing Economy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between two important variables that define small and medium-sized enterprises: organizational culture and responsiveness. Firms operating in Romania were selected for the study. The country offers a business context with many changes over the last two decades, a challenge and an opportunity for researchers. Results show that the combination of entrepreneurial characteristics and planning and goal oriented managerial styles suits best successful companies. The market-driven type of culture has the best coordination and is best positioned to deliver customer-centered versatility, while adhocracy helps businesses respond fast to changes in the market environment.

Michael STOICA

2012-12-01

179

On the Value of Traditional Confucian Culture And the Value of Modern Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The core values of the Chinese Confucian Culture such as “humanity, righteousness, harmony, courtesy, honesty and cleanness” represent the soul of five-thousand-years Chinese traditional culture, which may represent the value of maintaining the balanced social benefits and harmonious development of the whole society from the prospective of a whole society, and which may also have some important uses for reference and roles of enlightenment for establishing the values of modern corporate social responsibility if it is effectively integrated into the practice of modern business management.

Wenzhong Zhu

2009-02-01

180

In vitro culture in barley breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

 
 
 
 
181

Measuring Pre-Service Master's of School Administrator's Candidates' Social Capital as a Predictor of Culturally Responsive Leadership  

Science.gov (United States)

This study measured Pre-Service Masters of School Administrators' candidates' social capital as a predictor of culturally responsive leadership. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the MSA Pre-service candidates' social capital and their propensity to become culturally responsive leaders. The 23 participants in…

Taliaferro, Alisa; Seigler, Timothy

2012-01-01

182

Investigation of urban science teachers' pedagogical engagements: Are urban science teachers culturally responsive?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study utilized mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative research approach to explore the current pedagogical engagements of twenty middle school urban science teachers in the Midwest region of the United States. It qualitatively examined twelve of these teachers' knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy. The study investigated the following questions: What are the current pedagogical practices of urban middle school science teachers? To what extent are middle school science teachers' pedagogical practices in urban schools culturally responsive? What are urban students' perspectives of their teachers' current pedagogical engagements? The design of the study was qualitative and quantitative methods in order to investigate these teachers' pedagogical practices. Data collections were drawn from multiple sources such as lesson plans, students' sample works, district curriculum, surveys, observational and interview notes. Analysis of collected data was a mixed methodology that involved qualitative and quantitative methods using descriptive, interpretative, pattern codes, and statistical procedures respectively. Purposeful sampling was selected for this study. Thus, demographically there were twenty participants who quantitatively took part in this study. Among them were seven (35%) males and thirteen (65%) females, three (15%) African Americans and seventeen (85%) Caucasians. In determining to what extent urban science teachers' pedagogical practices were culturally responsive, eight questions were analyzed based on four cluster themes: (a) teachers' social disposition, (b) culturally responsive curriculum, (c) classroom interactions, and (d) power pedagogy. Study result revealed that only five (25%) of the participants were engaged in culturally responsive pedagogy while fifteen (75%) were engaged in what Haberman (1991) called the pedagogy of poverty. The goal was to investigate urban science teachers' pedagogical engagements and to examine urban students' perspective of their science teachers' pedagogical practices, and ensure that all students have a sense of ownership of their knowledge, a sense that is empowering and liberating. The implications of these findings were to promote urban students' achievements in science and see them employed in science and engineering. I hope this study helps in developing better professional development that will be culturally responsive and to ensure that all students have a sense of ownership of their knowledge.

Udokwu, Chukwudi John

183

Indução de calos e regeneração de embriões em anteras de Coffea arabica L. por nitrato de prata e etileno / Callus induction and embryo regeneration in Coffea arabica L. anthers by silver nitrate and ethylene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para aquisição de uma nova cultivar. Através da cultura de anteras podem-se obter linhagens homozigóticas rapidamente, oriundas de dihaplóides. O objetivo foi utilizar na cultura de anteras na cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 [...] de Coffea arabica L., nitrato de prata (AgNO3) e etileno para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas dihaplóides. As anteras foram inoculadas em meio MS acrescido de 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D com e sem AgNO3 (5 mg L-1), juntamente com etileno por diferentes dias: (testemunha; 2; 4; 6, e 8). Ao final de 12 dias, estas foram transferidas para o meio de regeneração, acrescido de 0,108 mg L-1 de cinetina. Foi observada uma oxidação e intumescimento maior nos primeiros dias de inoculação em exposição ao etileno, e a cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 respondeu a formação de calos e também a embriogênese direta na presença do etileno. Abstract in english The genetic breeding of coffee by conventional methods to obtain new cultivars is time-consuming. Anther culture can yield homozygous lines quickly from bi-haploids. This study used anther cultures of Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99, and tested the effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ethyl [...] ene in callus-formation induction and bi-haploid seedling regeneration. The anthers were inoculated in MS to which 2 mg L-1 2,4-D had been added with AgNO3 (5 mg L-1) together with ethylene being introduced or not, for different periods (the control, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). At the end of 12 days, the anthers were transferred to the regeneration medium, to which 0.108 mg L-1 kinetin had been added. Greater oxidation and intumescence were observed in the first days after exposure to ethylene; the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho 99 responded to callus formation and also direct embryogenesis in the presence of ethylene.

Adelaide Siqueira, Silva; José Magno Queiroz, Luz; Tatiana Michlovská, Rodrigues; Cecília Alves, Bittar; Leandro de Oliveira, Lino.

2011-12-01

184

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.  

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Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its ma...

Zhiming Wu; Jiaowen Cheng; Cheng Qin; Zhiqun Hu; Caixia Yin; Kailin Hu

2013-01-01

185

Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when determining plant potential to remediate polluted sites. Multidisciplinary research teams can therefore increase our knowledge and promote a practical application of phytoremediation. (orig.)

Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

2004-07-01

186

Responsive hydrogels produced via organic sol-gel chemistry for cell culture applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we report the synthesis of novel environmentally responsive polyurea hydrogel networks prepared via organic sol-gel chemistry and demonstrate that the networks can stabilize pH while releasing glucose both in simple aqueous media and in mammalian cell culture settings. Hydrogel formulations have been developed based on the combination of an aliphatic triisocyanate with pH-insensitive amine functional polyether and pH-sensitive poly(ethyleneimine) segments in a minimally toxic solvent suitable for the sol-gel reaction. The polyether component of the polyurea network is sufficiently hydrophilic to give rise to some level of swelling independent of environmental pH, while the poly(ethyleneimine) component contains tertiary amine groups providing pH sensitivity to the network in the form of enhanced swelling and release under acidic conditions. The reaction of these materials to form a network is rapid and requires no catalyst. The resultant material exhibits the desired pH-responsive swelling behavior and demonstrates its ability to simultaneously neutralize lactic acid and release glucose in both cell-free culture media and mammalian cell culture, with no detectable evidence of cytotoxicity or changes in cell behavior, in the case of either SA-13 human hybridomas or mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, pH is observed to have a clear effect on the rate at which glucose is released from the hydrogel network. Such characteristics promise to maintain a favorable cell culture environment in the absence of human intervention. PMID:22561670

Patil, Smruti; Chaudhury, Pulkit; Clarizia, Lisa; McDonald, Melisenda; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Gaines, Peter; Schmidt, Daniel F

2012-08-01

187

Enzymatic responses to radiation in cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells were exposed to 0-5.0 Gy of 60Co ? rays. From 0 to 72 hr after irradiation, the monolayer and culture medium were analyzed for cell (nuclei) number, DNA and protein content, the activities of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and LDH isoenzyme profile. Irradiated endothelial cells exhibited a time- and dose-dependent increase in cell detachment, decreased DNA and protein content and reduced ACE activity per attached cell, increased LDH and SOD activities per microgram of DNA, and increased LDH activity in the culture medium. The release of LDH activity, observed after 0.5 Gy, was the most sensitive endothelial response, and occurred independent of or preceding cell detachment. Vascular smooth muscle cells contained two or three times more SOD activity than did endothelial cells and exhibited no significant responses to 5.0 Gy

188

Response of Cultured Hepatocytes to a Hepatomitogen after Initiation by Conditioned Medium or Other Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Injection of a substantially purified hepatomitogen into recipient rats that had 40% of their liver removed resulted in a significant stimulation of hepatic DNA synthesis as determined by the labeling index and the mitotic index. Normal or sham-operated rats did not respond to the injection of the mitogen. The extraction and partial purification of this hepatomitogen have previously been reported (A. Francavilla et al., Cancer Res., 47: 5600–5605, 1987). Addition of the factor to an epithelial-like liver-derived cell line in culture (clone 9) or to a hepatoma cell line (HTC-SR) resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of DNA synthesis. Hepatocytes in primary culture, on the other hand, were not stimulated by the addition of the factor. However, when the mitogen was added to hepatocytes in primary culture, together with conditioned medium, obtained from the responsive cell lines, a significant stimulation of DNA synthesis could be demonstrated in hepatocytes in culture. The stimulation was dose dependent with respect to the mitogen, was abolished by 10 mM hydroxyurea, and was independent of epidermal growth factor. The conditioned medium could be replaced by a protein factor extracted from the two cell lines as previously reported (P. Ove et al., J. Cell. Physiol., 131: 165–174, 1987). It appears that a cofactor is provided by the conditioned medium or by the cell extract, enabling the hepatomitogen to act on hepatocytes in primary culture. PMID:2783246

Ove, Peter; Francavilla, Antonio; Coetzee, Mona L.; Makowka, Leonard; Starzl, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

189

Contrasting Nephropathic Responses to Oral Administration of Extract of Cultured Penicillium polonicum in Rat and Primate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distortion became striking on account of karyocytomegaly, but even treatment for nearly two years remained asymptomatic. Extract from a batch of solid substrate fermentation of P. polonicum on shredded wheat was incorporated into feed for rats during four consecutive days, and also given as an aqueous solution by oral gavage to a vervet monkey daily for 10 days. Treatment was asymptomatic for both types of animal. Rat response was evident as the typical renal apoptosis and karyomegaly. In contrast there was no such response in the primate; and neither creatinine clearance nor any haematological characteristic or serum component concentration deviated from a control or from historical data for this primate. The contrast is discussed concerning other negative findings for P. polonicum in pigs and hamsters. Renal karyomegaly, as a common rat response to persistent exposure to ochratoxin A, is not known in humans suspected as being exposed to more than the usual trace amounts of dietary ochratoxin A. Therefore the present findings question assumptions that human response to ochratoxin A conforms to that in the rat.

John E. Fincham

2010-08-01

190

The Effect of Institutional Culture on Change Strategies in Higher Education: Universal Principles or Culturally Responsive Concepts?  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the impact of institutional culture on the change process in colleges and universities. Using an ethnographic approach and two-tiered cultural framework, investigated comprehensive change at six institutions. Results suggest that campuses should conduct audits of their institutional culture before engaging in the change process. (EV)

Kezar, Adrianna; Eckel, Peter D.

2002-01-01

191

Localization of arabinogalactan proteins in anther, pollen, and pollen tube of Nicotiana tabacum L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Western blot analysis indicated the presence of two epitopes recognized by the anti-arabinogalactan protein antibodies JIM13 and LM2 and the absence of the JIM4 epitope in mature tobacco anthers. Immunoenzyme localization of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) with JIM13 showed that AGPs accumulate mainly at the early stages of anther development. AGP content and distribution were also investigated at the ultrastructural level in pollen tubes grown in vivo and in vitro. Abundant AGPs were present in the transmitting tissue of styles, and the AGP content of the extracellular matrix changed during pollen tube growth. In pollen tubes, immunogold particles were mainly distributed in the cell wall and cytoplasm, especially around the peripheral region of the generative-cell wall. beta-D-Glucosyl Yariv reagent, which specifically binds to AGPs, caused slow growth of pollen tubes and reduced immunogold labeling of AGPs with JIM13 in vitro. These data suggest that AGPs participate in male gametogenesis and pollen tube growth and may be important surface molecules in generative and sperm cells. PMID:17602278

Qin, Y; Chen, D; Zhao, J

2007-01-01

192

Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The phenology and pollination ecology of the Australian endemic species Pseuduvaria mulgraveana are studied in detail, including evaluations of floral scent chemistry, pollen viability, and floral visitors. Results showed that the flowers are pollinated by small diurnal nitidulid beetles and are protogynous. Pollen from both hermaphroditic and staminate flowers are shown to be equally viable. The structurally hermaphroditic flowers are nevertheless functionally pistillate as anther dehiscence is delayed until after petal abscission and hence after the departure of pollinators. This mechanism to achieve functional unisexuality of flowers has not previously been reported in angiosperms. It is known that protogyny is widespread amongst early-divergent angiosperms, including the Annonaceae, and is effective in preventing autogamy. Delayed anther dehiscence represents a further elaboration of this, and is effective in preventing geitonogamy since very few sexually mature flowers occur simultaneously in an individual. We highlight the necessity for field-based empirical interpretations of functional floral sex expression prior to evaluations of evolutionary processes. PMID:23555844

Pang, Chun-Chiu; Scharaschkin, Tanya; Su, Yvonne C F; Saunders, Richard M K

2013-01-01

193

[Functions of ANAC092 involved in regulation of anther development in Arabidopsis thaliana].  

Science.gov (United States)

NAC family is a class of transcription factors that have been typically found in plant with various functions. This type of genes plays a key regulatory role in secondary plant growth, cell division, senescence, especially in the hormone and signaling pathways. ANAC092 was reported to function in relation to lateral root development and senescence. The promoter and in situ hybridization analyses showed that ANAC092 was expressed temporally in the process of anther development. The gene was expressed in tapetum at stages 8-11 of anther development and reached the highest amount at stages 9-10, which was overlapped with the expression period of AMS (Aborted microspores). In this study, we constructed ANAC092 over-expression system, and identified homozygous transgenic lines. Compared with the wild type, the number of pollen grains in the transgenic line was decreased significantly, but the length of pollen grain was increased. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of genes related to pollen development, e.g., SPL, EMS1, DYT1, and AMS was in-creased in the over-expression plants. Bioinformatics results showed that ANAC092 promoter sequence possessed seven AMS binding sites. All the results showed that ANAC092 is possibly located in the downstream of AMS and plays an im-portant role in the process of pollen development. PMID:23853363

Li, Jie; Chen, Xu; Luo, Li-Qiong; Yu, Jing; Ming, Feng

2013-07-01

194

On the nature and origin of the oxalate package in Solanum sisymbriifolium anthers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a detailed study carried out in Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. on the development of the circular cell cluster (CCC) during crystal deposition, as well as the composition of the crystals. Light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize tissue throughout anther development. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) allowed the determination of the elemental composition of crystals that form in the CCC region, and infrared and x-ray diffraction analysis were used to specify the crystal salt composition. TEM analysis revealed that the crystals originated simultaneously within the vacuoles in association with a paracrystalline protein. Prior to the appearance of protein within vacuoles, protein paracrystals were visible in both rough endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles with ribosomes on their membranes. In vacuoles, paracrystals constitute nucleation sites for druse crystals formation. EDAX revealed that C, O, and Ca were the main elements, and K, Cl, Mg, P, S, and Si, the minor elements. X-ray powder diffraction of crystals detected the predominant presence of calcium oxalate, but also vestiges of calcite, quartz, and sylvite. The calcium oxalate coexisted in the three chemical forms, that is, whewellite, weddellite, and caoxite. Infrared spectrophotometry identified bands that characterize O-C-O, H-O, C-H bonds, all of calcium oxalate, and Si-O-Si, of quartz. These results were compared with studies of anthers carried out in other Solanaceae genera. PMID:20372946

Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; López-Fernández, María Paula; Láinez, Verónica; Montenegro, Teresita; Maldonado, Sara

2010-11-01

195

Physiological and transcriptional responses of anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to diurnal temperature cycles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and the yeast transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinusoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12°C and 30°C, were imposed on anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After three diurnal temperature cycles (DTC), concentrations of glucose and extracellular metabolites as well as CO2 production rates showed regular, reproducible circadian rhythms. DTC also led to waves of transcriptional activation and repression, which involved one-sixth of the yeast genome. A substantial fraction of these DTC-responsive genes appeared to respond primarily to changes in the glucose concentration. Elimination of known glucose-responsive genes revealed an overrepresentation of previously identified temperature-responsive genes as well as genes involved in the cell cycle and de novo purine biosynthesis. In-depth analysis demonstrated that DTC led to a partial synchronization of the cell cycle of the yeast populations in chemostat cultures, which was lost upon release from DTC. Comparison of DTC results with data from steady-state cultures showed that the 24-h DTC was sufficiently slow to allow S. cerevisiae chemostat cultures to acclimate their transcriptome and physiology at the DTC temperature maximum and to approach acclimation at the DTC temperature minimum. Furthermore, this comparison and literature data on growth rate-dependent cell cycle phase distribution indicated that cell cycle synchronization was most likely an effect of imposed fluctuations of the relative growth rate (?/?max) rather than a direct effect of temperature. PMID:24814792

Hebly, Marit; de Ridder, Dick; de Hulster, Erik A F; de la Torre Cortes, Pilar; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

2014-07-01

196

A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms. PMID:25204750

Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

2014-12-01

197

Calcium signaling in response to fluid flow by chondrocytes in 3D alginate culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantifying the effects of mechanical loading on the metabolic response of chondrocytes is difficult due to complicated structure of cartilage ECM and the coupled nature of the mechanical stimuli presented to the cells. In this study we describe the effects of fluid flow, particularly hydrostatic pressure and wall shear stress, on the Ca(2+) signaling response of bovine articular chondrocytes in 3D culture. Using well-established alginate hydrogel system to maintain spherical chondrocyte morphology, we altered solid volume fraction to change scaffold mechanics. Fluid velocities in the bulk of the scaffolds were directly measured via an optical technique and scaffold permeability and aggregate modulus was characterized to quantify the mechanical stimuli presented to cells. Ca(2+) signaling response to direct perfusion of chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds increased monotonically with flow rate and was found more directly dependent on fluid velocity rather than shear stress or hydrostatic pressure. Chondrocytes in alginate scaffolds responded to fluid flow at velocities and shear stresses 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than seen in previous monolayer studies. Our data suggest that flow-induced Ca(2+) signaling response of chondrocytes in alginate culture may be due to mechanical signaling pathways, which is influenced by the 3D nature of cell shape. PMID:22042743

Degala, Satish; Williams, Rebecca; Zipfel, Warren; Bonassar, Lawrence J

2012-05-01

198

Ethylene is involved in stress responses induced by fusicoccin in sycamore cultured cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytohormone ethylene is involved in many physiological and developmental processes of plants, as well as in stress responses and in the development of disease resistance. Fusicoccin (FC) is a well-known phytotoxin, that in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, induces a set of stress responses, including synthesis of ethylene. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of ethylene in the FC-induced stress responses of sycamore cells by means of Co(2+), a well-known specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. Co(2+) inhibited the accumulation of dead cells in the culture, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and of the molecular chaperone Binding Protein (BiP) in the endoplasmic reticulum induced by FC. By contrast, Co(2+) was ineffective on the FC-induced accumulation of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and only partially reduced the accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol. In addition, we compared the effect of FC on the above parameters with that of the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon (2-chloroethane phosphonic acid). The results suggest that ethylene is involved in several stress responses induced by FC in sycamore cells, including a form of cell death that does not show apoptotic features and possibly involves NO as a signaling molecule. PMID:20630615

Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

2010-11-15

199

Organizational Institutions and Their Responsible Behavioral-Cultural Gene Codes and A Measurement for Organizational Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay has two goals. The first is to classify two different types of organizational institutions from the four-dimensional system-thinking perspective, and to identify the relationship between such organizational institutions and their relevant behavioral-cultural gene codes embedded within their (P-individuals. Unlike the popular belief that authoritarian or totalitarian institutions are caused by ideologies or created/dominated by tyrannical leaders, the author defines a concept of behavioral-cultural gene code and extends the application of self-organization theory to suggest that behavioral-cultural gene codes carried by the members of the organization are responsible for the formation of, either democratic or authoritarian, institutions. Therefore, transformation of an authoritarian organization into a democratic one, no matter at the level of groups, of business enterprises, or of a government, must start from transforming behavioral-cultural gene codes. The second goal is to define Organizational Friction Coefficient for capturing the characteristics of these two types of organizational institutions, thus adding clarity to the widely used concept of organizational efficiency in the contexts of both business organizations and systems of government.

Jason Jixuan

2010-10-01

200

Research ethics in global mental health: Advancing culturally responsive mental health research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice. PMID:24668025

Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Counter-storying the grand narrative of science (teacher) education: towards culturally responsive teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

John Settlage's article— Counterstories from White Mainstream Preservice Teachers: Resisting the Master Narrative of Deficit by Default—outlines his endeavour to enable pre-service teachers to develop culturally responsive science teaching identities for resisting the master narrative of deficit thinking when confronted by the culturally different `other.' Case study results are presented of the role of counterstories in enabling five pre-service teachers to overcome deficit thinking. In this forum, Philip Moore, a cultural anthropologist and university professor, deepens our understanding of the power and significance of counterstories as an educational tool for enabling students to deconstruct oppressive master narratives. Jill Slay, dean of a science faculty, examines her own master narrative about the compatibility of culturally similar academics and graduate students, and finds it lacking. But first, I introduce this scholarship with background notes on the critical paradigm and its adversary, the grand narrative of science education, following which I give an appreciative understanding of John's pedagogical use of counterstories as a transformative strategy for multi-worldview science teacher education.

Taylor, Peter Charles

2011-12-01

202

Consortia modulation of the stress response: proteomic analysis of single strain versus mixed culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high complexity of naturally occurring microbial communities is the major drawback limiting the study of these important biological systems. In this study, a comparison between pure cultures of Pseudomonas reinekei sp. strain MT1 and stable community cultures composed of MT1 plus the addition of Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain MT3 (in a steady-state proportion 9:1) was used as a model system to study bacterial interactions that take place under simultaneous chemical and oxidative stress. Both are members of a real community isolated from a polluted sediment by enrichment in 4-chlorosalicylate (4CS). The analysis of dynamic states was carried out at the proteome, metabolic profile and population dynamic level. Differential protein expression was evaluated under exposure to 4CS and high concentrations of toxic intermediates (4-chlorocatechol and protoanemonin), including proteins from several functional groups and particularly enzymes of aromatic degradation pathways and outer membrane proteins. Remarkably, 4CS addition generated a strong oxidative stress response in pure strain MT1 culture led by alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, while the community showed an enhanced central metabolism response, where A. xylosoxidans MT3 helped to prevent toxic intermediate accumulation. A significant change in the outer membrane composition of P. reinekei MT1 was observed during the chemical stress caused by 4CS and in the presence of A. xylosoxidans MT3, highlighting the expression of the major outer membrane protein OprF, tightly correlated to 4CC concentration profile and its potential detoxification role. PMID:20406297

Bobadilla Fazzini, Roberto A; Preto, Maria J; Quintas, Ana C Poucas; Bielecka, Agata; Dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins

2010-09-01

203

The metabolic incorporation of label from myoinositol-2-3H by the growing young anther of Lilium lorlgiflorum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fine structural autoradiography involving the incorporation of myo-inositol-2-3H (MI-2-3H unto lily anther during development has been used to explore the metabolic processes of microspore development and the interation between the devlaping microspore and degenerating tapetal cells.

H. Miki-Hirosige

1981-06-01

204

Importance of pre-anthesis anther sink strength for maintenance of grain number during reproductive stage water stress in wheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive stage water stress leads to spikelet sterility in wheat. Whereas drought stress at anthesis affects mainly grain size, stress at the young microspore stage of pollen development is characterized by abortion of pollen development and reduction in grain number. We identified genetic variability for drought tolerance at the reproductive stage. Drought-tolerant wheat germplasm is able to maintain carbohydrate accumulation in the reproductive organs throughout the stress treatment. Starch depletion in the ovary of drought-sensitive wheat is reversible upon re-watering and cross-pollination experiments indicate that the ovary is more resilient than the anther. The effect on anthers and pollen fertility is irreversible, suggesting that pollen sterility is the main cause of grain loss during drought conditions in wheat. The difference in storage carbohydrate accumulation in drought-sensitive and drought-tolerant wheat is correlated with differences in sugar profiles, cell wall invertase gene expression and expression of fructan biosynthesis genes in anther and ovary (sucrose : sucrose 1-fructosyl-transferase, 1-SST; sucrose : fructan 6-fructosyl-transferase, 6-SFT). Our results indicate that the ability to control and maintain sink strength and carbohydrate supply to anthers may be the key to maintaining pollen fertility and grain number in wheat and this mechanism may also provide protection against other abiotic stresses. PMID:20199626

Ji, Xuemei; Shiran, Behrouz; Wan, Jianlin; Lewis, David C; Jenkins, Colin L D; Condon, Anthony G; Richards, Richard A; Dolferus, Rudy

2010-06-01

205

Construção e avaliação de um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras / Construction and evaluation of an anther collector prototype machine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras foi projetado e construído, e seu desempenho foi avaliado, comparando - se com o método de coleta manual, em flores rosáceas e campanuladas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica). O trabalho foi conduzido utilizando-se do delineamento experimental inteiramente ao [...] acaso, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial (2 métodos de remoção x 2 formas florais), com 12 repetições de 30 balões florais. O protótipo apresentou maior velocidade de processamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do pólen, mesmo sendo armazenadas anteras com maior quantidade de filetes e descartado maior número de anteras do que o método manual. Abstract in english An anther collector prototype machine was projected and built. Its performance was evaluated by comparisons between the use of the prototype and the traditional manual method, both for showy and non-showy peach-tree flowers (Prunus persica). The study was accomplished in August 2011 using a complete [...] ly randomized experimental design, arranged in a bi-factorial scheme (2 collection methods x 2 flower forms), with 12 repetitions, each consisted by 30 flowers. The prototype proved to be faster in the anther extraction time without losses in the pollen quality, even harvesting anthers with higher fillet amounts and discarding a higher quantity of anthers than the manual method.

Rodrigo, Tonet; Marcos Robson, Sachet; Idemir, Citadin; Alcir José, Modolo.

2013-03-01

206

Construção e avaliação de um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras Construction and evaluation of an anther collector prototype machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras foi projetado e construído, e seu desempenho foi avaliado, comparando - se com o método de coleta manual, em flores rosáceas e campanuladas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica. O trabalho foi conduzido utilizando-se do delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial (2 métodos de remoção x 2 formas florais, com 12 repetições de 30 balões florais. O protótipo apresentou maior velocidade de processamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do pólen, mesmo sendo armazenadas anteras com maior quantidade de filetes e descartado maior número de anteras do que o método manual.An anther collector prototype machine was projected and built. Its performance was evaluated by comparisons between the use of the prototype and the traditional manual method, both for showy and non-showy peach-tree flowers (Prunus persica. The study was accomplished in August 2011 using a completely randomized experimental design, arranged in a bi-factorial scheme (2 collection methods x 2 flower forms, with 12 repetitions, each consisted by 30 flowers. The prototype proved to be faster in the anther extraction time without losses in the pollen quality, even harvesting anthers with higher fillet amounts and discarding a higher quantity of anthers than the manual method.

Rodrigo Tonet

2013-03-01

207

Defective pollen wall is required for anther and microspore development in rice and encodes a fatty acyl carrier protein reductase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots. PMID:21705642

Shi, Jing; Tan, Hexin; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Yuanyun; Liang, Wanqi; Ranathunge, Kosala; Franke, Rochus Benni; Schreiber, Lukas; Wang, Yujiong; Kai, Guoying; Shanklin, John; Ma, Hong; Zhang, Dabing

2011-06-01

208

Alteration of Cellular Behavior and Response to PI3K Pathway Inhibition by Culture in 3D Collagen Gels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D) tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS hu...

Fallica, Brian; Maffei, Joseph S.; Villa, Shaun; Makin, Guy; Zaman, Muhammad

2012-01-01

209

Taking It to the Bone: The Cohort as Context for Novice Teachers Validating Culturally Responsive Beliefs and Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the experiences of a cohort of seven beginning high school teachers, all of whom were in their first year of teaching in schools where low performing students were at the greatest risk and where a culture of professional learning communities was rare. Teachers were struggling with what it meant to be a culturally responsive

Canniff, Julie G.

210

X-ray responses of human colon tumor cells grown in artificial capillary culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clone A human colon adenocarcinoma cells were grown in three-dimensional artificial capillary culture (ACC) to determine responses of capillaries treated 3 weeks after tumor cell inoculation with a specific, easily quantifiable cytotoxic agent, ionizing radiation. Changes in extracapillary space (ECS) fluid concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) and the utilization of glucose in circulating medium were monitored after a supralethal radiation dose (90 Gy) of X-rays. Immediately after irradiation, increased levels of LDH and GOT were found that reached maximum levels about four to five times those found in nonirradiated control capillaries at 10-13 days post irradiation and then declined. Patterns of enzyme production appeared to correlate with the numbers of nonviable tumor cells collected from the ECS of the artificial capillaries. In contrast, glucose utilization showed little correlation with either enzyme concentration or dead cell production. In other studies, tumor cells were removed from unirradiated capillaries by trypsinization and used to obtain complete survival curves after graded doses of X-radiation. The dose-response curves obtained indicate that clone A colon tumor cells grown in ACC show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate sublethal radiation injury as compared to responses of these cells growing exponentially in asynchronous monolayer cultures, to synchronized mid-G1 tumor cells, or to tumor cells in stationary growth phase. These data suggest that ACC is a potentially useful model to study the effects of cytotoxic agents on human tumor cells

211

Responses to social exclusion in cultural context: evidence from farming and herding communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a series of studies, we investigated the role of economic structures (farming vs. herding) and source of ostracism (close other vs. stranger) in social exclusion experiences. We first confirmed that herders rely on strangers to a greater extent than do farmers for economic success (validation study). Next, we verified that farmers and herders understand the concept of ostracism, and its emotional consequences, in similar ways (Study 1). The studies that followed provided converging evidence that cultural group membership shapes sensitivity and responses to social exclusion. Using different methodologies, in Studies 2 and 3, we showed that, whereas the psychological consequences of ostracism by close others are similar for farmers and herders, herders are more strongly affected by ostracism from strangers. The last two studies demonstrated that herders recommend more affiliative responses to ostracism by strangers than do farmers both to those involved in the ostracism event (Study 4) and to naïve individuals (Study 5). Moreover, Study 5 revealed that the amount of time spent with strangers mediated cultural group differences in the extent to which affiliative and aggressive actions are recommended following social exclusion by strangers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the economic systems on which communities are based shape how their members interact with others and that this, in turn, can shape individuals' responses to social exclusion. PMID:24749821

Uskul, Ayse K; Over, Harriet

2014-05-01

212

The role of Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinase 1 in controlling pollen production of the Gossypium anther.  

Science.gov (United States)

In flowering plants, male gametophytes are generated in anthers from microsporocytes. However, more evidence is needed to reveal the genetic mechanisms which regulate the differentiation and interaction of these highly specialized cells in anthers. Here we report the characterization of a series of male-sterile cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) mutants, including mutants with normal fertility, semi-sterility and complete sterility. These mutants are forms of transgenic cotton containing RNAi vectors with partial cDNA fragments of GhSERK1. The GhSERK1 gene encodes a putative leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase (LRR-RLK), and generally has 11 domains. In previous research, we found plants containing GhSERK1 produce an abundance of male reproductive tissue. In this paper, three RNAi constructs were designed separately to analyze its function in anther. After the three RNAi vectors were transformed into the cotton, transgenic plants with the specialized fragment exhibited normal fertility or the pollen energy decreased slightly, as ones with the homologous fragments exhibited various degrees of male sterility with different expression levels of GhSERK1 mRNA. In conclusion, for the transgenic plants with conserved fragments, lower expression levels of GhSERK1 mRNA were in transgenic plants, and a higher degree of male sterility was observed. Taking together, these findings demonstrate the GhSERK1 gene has a role in the development of anthers, especially in the formation of pollen grains. Also, we infer there must be another homolog of GhSERK1 in cotton, and both of GhSERK1 and its homolog function redundantly as important control points in controlling anther pollen production. PMID:24276918

Shi, Ya-li; Guo, San-dui; Zhang, Rui; Meng, Zhi-gang; Ren, Mao-zhi

2014-01-01

213

Dismantling Cultural Prejudice: Responses to Huntington’s Thesis in the Indonesian Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ideas contained in Huntington's article, "Clash of Civilization?", are provoking. Since its publication in Foreign Affairs (summer 1993, several responses have appeared in the media world-wide. In this home country, Huntington's article was critized from various angles.  His assumptions, model, data and even his potition were scrutunized mostly by social scientists and Islamicist. These criticisms, however, highlight the article's significant importance in the debates of political and cultural problems faced in the post-cold war world.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v1i1.869

Hendro Prasetyo

2014-05-01

214

The Generation X Librarian Essays on Leadership, Technology, Pop Culture, Social Responsibility and Professional Identity  

CERN Document Server

Generation X includes individuals born roughly between 1961 and 1981. This generation has faced major advances in technology, environmental degradation, and widening economic injustice, all of which affect libraries and librarians. This collection of critical essays highlights the special challenges that face Generation X librarians. Topics covered include management and leadership, rapidly changing technology, social attitudes and stereotypes within popular culture, and how Generation X librarians have responded to or developed in response to those themes. This work fills many of the gaps pre

Wallace, Martin K,; Estep, Erik Sean

2011-01-01

215

Starvation Response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grown in Anaerobic Nitrogen- or Carbon-Limited Chemostat Cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaerobic starvation conditions are frequent in industrial fermentation and can affect the performance of the cells. In this study, the anaerobic carbon or nitrogen starvation response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated for cells grown in anaerobic carbon or nitrogen-limited chemostat cultures at a dilution rate of 0.1 h?1 at pH 3.25 or 5. Lactic or benzoic acid was present in the growth medium at different concentrations, resulting in 16 different growth conditions. At steady sta...

Thomsson, Elisabeth; Gustafsson, Lena; Larsson, Christer

2005-01-01

216

[Improvement of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of total proteins from rice anthers].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reported an improvement in 2-D gel electrophoresis of the proteome in Honglian cytoplasmic male sterile rice. An IPGphor unit with immobile pH gradient strips was used as the first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second. The total anther proteins were extracted using TCA/acetone and then were washed 5-6 times with acetone till the proteins were white and clean, and then tributylphosphine and DTT were added into the rehydration buffer to improve the solubility of the proteins. The 2-D gel was stained by both methods of coomassie blue G-250 and silver. Extraction of proteins, pH of the strips and rehydration of the strips were optimized and compared. Higher repeatability and better separating protein pattern could be gained by this technique. PMID:17117559

Wen, Li; Liu, Gai; Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiao Jue; Wan, Cui Xiang; Li, Guo Min; Tao, Jun; Zhu, Ying Guo

2006-10-01

217

Leiomyoma cells in 3-dimensional cultures demonstrate an attenuated response to fasudil, a rho-kinase inhibitor, when compared to 2-dimensional cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uterine leiomyomata are common benign tumors in women of reproductive age and demonstrate an attenuated response to mechanical signaling that involves Rho and integrins. To further characterize the impairment in Rho signaling, we studied the effect of Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, on extracellular matrix production, in 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Leiomyoma 2D cultures demonstrated a rapid decrease in gene transcripts and protein for fibronectin, procollagen 1A, and versican. In 3D cultures, fibronectin and procollagen 1A proteins demonstrated increased levels at lower concentrations of fasudil, followed by a concentration-dependent decrease. Versican protein increased up to 3-fold, whereas fibromodulin demonstrated a significant decrease of 1.92-fold. Myometrial 2D or 3D cultures demonstrated a decrease in all proteins after 72 hours of treatment. The 3D leiomyoma cultures demonstrated a significant increase in active RhoA, followed by a concentration-dependent decrease at higher concentrations. A concentration-dependent increase in phospho-extracellular regulated signal kinase and proapoptotic protein Bax was observed in 3D leiomyoma cultures. Fasudil relaxed the contraction of the 3D collagen gels caused by myometrium and leiomyoma cell growth. These findings indicate that the altered state of Rho signaling in leiomyoma was more clearly observed in 3D cultures. The results also suggest that fasudil may have clinical applicability for treatment of uterine leiomyoma. PMID:25084783

Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Segars, James; Catherino, William H

2014-09-01

218

Transcription of storage protein genes in cultured Brassica napus embryos in response to exogenous abscisic acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two major seed storage proteins, cruciferin and napin, accumulate during embryogeny in Brassica napus. We are determining whether the levels of storage protein mRNAs in cultured embryos are controlled at the transcriptional level in response to ABA. The nuclei were isolated from the embryos and incubated in a transcription mix with 32P-GTP, and the incorporation into specific RNAs was determined by DNA excess filter hybridization. The transcription rate of cruciferin increased about 2-fold, and the transcription rate of napin increased about 3- to 4-fold in ABA-treated embryos compared to embryos cultured on basal medium. This increase in transcription rate is consistent with the increases in RNA levels which are seen in parallel experiments. In the same experiments, the transcription rates of actin and the rRNA genes were unaffected by ABA. In reinduction experiments, embryos which were switched from basal medium to medium containing ABA at 12 or 24 h showed an increase in transcription rate of the seed storage protein genes to the same level as those which were cultured on ABA at time 0

219

Phenotypic stress response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa following culture in water microcosms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential behavioural changes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa following growth in different aquatic environmental conditions. To achieve this, P. aeruginosa was cultured in various water microcosms for 12 months under fixed (pH, nutrients and temperature) factors. P. aeruginosa responses to these conditions were investigated using colony morphotype, biochemical and enzymatic characterisation, pyocin typing, serotyping, sensitivity to different classes of antibiotics and molecular identification. Results show that starvation in water microcosms lead to unusual phenotypes. Of interest is that the pyocin changed from 24/n in the wild type to 83/a following culture in the water microcosms, and the serotype changed from O6 in the wild type to O1 in microcosm-cultured P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the starvation period in various aquatic microcosms enhanced the resistance of P. aeruginosa against beta-lactam antibiotics. Compared to the other aquatic environments, the seawater microcosm produced the greatest amount of variations in P. aeruginosa. Overall, data demonstrated a high adaptability of P. aeruginosa to environmental changes. This may explain the unusual antibiotic-resistant phenotypes belonging to P. aeruginosa species, and their capacity for spreading that leads to human infections. PMID:22361708

Cheriaa, Jihane; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Maatallah, Makaoui; Bakhrouf, Amina

2012-03-01

220

Effect of dexamethasone on the cytotoxic and enzymatic response of cultured endothelial cells to radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted to determine (1) whether glucocorticoids directly protected endothelial cells (EC) from radiation and (2) if angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, known to be increased by glucocorticoid, played a role in the EC response to radiation. Confluent monolayers of EC cultured from bovine aorta EC were treated with dexamethasone (10-6 M); after irradiation (5.0 Gy, 60Co ?) ACE and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, DNA and protein contents, and nuclei number were measured. Combined dexamethasone treatment and radiation increased cellular ACE activity at a time when neither agent alone had an effect (24-hr dexamethasone exposure before 5 Gy and assayed 24 hr after 5 Gy). This interaction between radiation and dexamethasone treatment suggests that the glucocorticoid modifies the cell's response to injury. Although this interaction does not ameliorate radiation cytotoxicity, maintenance of ACE levels in injured vessels by hormones may have physiological significance in the hemodynamics of irradiated tissues

 
 
 
 
221

Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras / Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina [...] , e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catar [...] ina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination capacity. The cv. Condessa, although having high pollen germination capacity, produces less anthers and less pollen grains per anther than the others. Princesa is the cultivar of best pattern as pollinizer, once it combines number of anthers/flower, number of pollen grains/anther and pollen germination capacity in a better satisfactory level.

Celso Lopes de, Albuquerque Junior; Frederico, Denardi; Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; Rubens Onofre, Nodari.

1255-12-01

222

Responses in animals vaccinated with the Theileria annulata (Hisar) cell culture vaccine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bovine tropical theileriosis caused by Theileria annulata is an economically important disease of cattle in India. The disease has assumed paramount importance with the intensification of cross-breeding programmes aimed at enhancing milk production in the country. To control this disease, a cell culture vaccine was developed in this department by continuous passaging of T. annulata (Hisar) schizonts in vitro. Current work in this department has concentrated on the epidemiology of theileriosis: development of the cell culture vaccine for very young calves and pregnant cows; evaluation of serological responses using immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) tests and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent antibody assays (ELISA); studies on the duration of immunity stimulated by the cell culture vaccine; the immune/susceptible status of calves born to vaccinated dams. Results have shown the following. Clinical cases of theileriosis were mainly observed in young calves below two months of age followed by adults in exotic and cross-bred animals. Amongst indigenous animals, only young calves below two months of age suffered from clinical disease. Clinical cases of theileriosis mainly occurred between the months of April to October. The T. annulata schizont cell culture vaccine developed in the department was extensively used in the susceptible calves and pregnant/lactating cows in the field. Sufficiently high antibody titres were detected by both schizont as well as piroplasm antigen using both ELISA and IFAT. The results indicated that the vaccine was safe, potent and effective for all breeds and age groups of cattle under field conditions. ELISA was standardised for T. annulata using three antigens, viz.: soluble piroplasm, soluble schizont and cellular schizont antigens. Comparison of results with IFAT showed that ELISA is more sensitive, objective, reliable and specific as well as less cumbersome than IFAT. Piroplasm, cellular schizont and soluble schizont antigens were found to be suitable for the detection of antitheilerial antibodies as per their order in ELISA. Studies on the duration of immunity stimulated by the T. annulata schizont cell culture vaccine indicated that immunity started waning after six months. Calves born of dams immunised against T. annulata with the cell culture vaccine were found to be fully susceptible to theileriosis soon after birth. This indicated that there was no passive transfer of immunity from dams to their offspring through colostrum. PMID:9512755

Beniwal, R K; Nichani, A K; Sharma, R D; Rakha, N K; Suri, D; Sarup, S

1997-11-01

223

Effect of yeast culture supplementation on carcass yield and humoral immune response of broiler chicks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental yeast culture (Diamond V XPC Yeast Culture; YC in broiler diets on carcass characteristics and humoral immune response. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to four YC dietary treatments of 60 birds each. The dietary treatments were 0 (control, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 g YC/kg diet over 42 d. Results: The results revealed that the birds fed yeast cultures had statistically increased (P < 0.05 body weight from control birds only at 5-6 weeks of age. The highest inclusion level (1.5g/kg recorded the best weight. The broiler chicks fed a diet supplemented with 1.25g/kg had the lowest mortality rate over the whole period of the experiment. The birds given the highest level of yeast (1.5g/kg had significantly (P < 0.05 higher percentage of major and minor breast muscles compared with the others that fed a basal diet. A significantly (P < 0.01 increase in IgM titer was noticed in birds fed diet containing YC levels more than 1g/kg at 7 days post-injection with sheep red blood cells. Likewise, broilers fed a diet containing 1.25g/kg exhibited a higher level of antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus at latter age (on d 42 compared with the other groups. Conclusion: The data suggest improvement in growth performance, carcass yield and humoral immunity of broilers fed yeast culture supplementation diet. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 651-657

M M Fathi

224

Induction of DNA synthesis in Anopheles albimanus tissue cultures in response to a Saccharomyces cerevisiae challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA synthesis was detected by the incorporation of 5-bromo-2' deoxy-uridine (BrdU) in adult Anopheles albimanus organs in culture in response to a challenge with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Abdomens of mosquitoes inoculated with Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI, control) or yeast were cultivated in RPMI plus ConA and BrdU for 5 days. DNA was obtained by phenolic extraction and the incorporated BrdU was quantified by ELISA using anti-BrdU peroxidase-labeled antibodies. Abdomen tissues of mosquitoes inoculated with yeast showed higher DNA synthesis than controls. Organs from untreated mosquitoes cultured in the presence of zymosan also synthesized DNA but at a lower level than tissues from yeast-inoculated mosquitoes. In similar experiments, DNA synthesis was inhibited by the addition of colchicine. DNA synthesis, evidenced by epifluorescence using an anti-BrdU fluorescein-labeled antibody, occurred in fat body, epithelial cells in pleural membranes, and the dorsal vessel. Pleural membranes showed the highest number of labeled cells. These tissues were also labeled with anti-PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) antibodies, two of which were able to produce polytene chromosomes under yeast stimulation. These results demonstrate that different An. albimanus tissues undergo DNA synthesis in response to foreign particles. PMID:17103404

Hernández-Martínez, S; Román-Martínez, U; Martínez-Barnetche, J; Garrido, E; Rodríguez, M H; Lanz-Mendoza, H

2006-12-01

225

The implications of extreme response style (ERS for cross-cultural and comparative research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cross-cultural research in which fivepoint, Likert-type and semantic-differential scales are utilized, is a popular research practice. Extreme response style (ERS may contaminate the validity of research results, however this possibility is often ignored in behavioural science research. In this study, the influence of biographical variables on extreme response style and the contaminating effect thereof on the validity of research results is investigated. The results of the study reveal that culture separately, and interaction with age and gender has a meaningful influence on ERS when five-point scales are utilized. The underlying causes of the phenomenon can however not exclusively be ascribed to biographical variables.

Opsomming
Kruiskulturele navorsing waarin vyfpunt, Likerttipe- en semanties-differensiale skale benut word, is 'n bekende navorsingspraktyk. Ekstreme responsiestyl is egter daartoe in staat om die geldigheid van sondanige navorsingsresultate te kontamineer, maar hierdie moontlikheid word dikwels in die gedragswetenskaplike navorsingspraktyk geignoreer. In hierdie studie word ondersoek ingestel na die invloed van biografiese faktore op ekstreme responsiestyl en die kontaminerende effek daarvan op die geldigheid van navorsingsresultate. Daar is gevind dat kultuur in interaksie met ouderdom en geslag, ERS betekenisvol beinvloed wanneer vyfpuntskale gebruik word. Die onderliggende oorsake van die verskynsel kan egter nie uitsluitlik aan biografiese veranderlikes toegeskryf word nie.

M. L. Watkins

1992-06-01

226

Ionizing radiation-induced adaptive response in human fibroblasts under 3-dimensional culture condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To observe the adaptive response induced by ionizing radiation in human fibroblasts under 3-dimensional culture condition. Methods: Human fibroblasts were cultured under 3-D condition. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of p53 and p21. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to detect the morphological changes. Results: The structures of the cells under 2-D and 3-D conditions were fundamentally different, the cells under 3-D condition stretched out and formed microspikes, the proportions of normal, abnormal and in between were 87.05%, 6.1% and 6.85%, respectively. After the treatment of 2 Gy(D2) most of the fibroblasts shrank and the microspikes disappeared, while the pre-treatment of 0.1 Gy(D1) pulsing the challenging dose of 2 Gy(i. e., D1 + D2) caused the decrease of abnormal cells and the increase of the normal cells and in between (35.5%:34.7%:30.4%). Conclusions: Under the 3-D conditions pretreatment with low dose radiation could attenuate the morphological changes induced by high dose. i. e. induced the adaptive response. (authors)

227

Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases, the RAPEX 2012 Annual Report, the 2012-2013 Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Reporting Initiative database. We used the multifactorial regression and the Wald significance test to demonstrate that organisations operating in countries characterised by low power distance, individualism, femininity, tolerance of unknown and long-term orientation pay more attention to responsible corporate behaviour towards customers. The study highlights theoretical considerations that support the influence of the national cultural framework on responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers. The methodology for calculating the index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers can become a basis of analysis of responsible corporate behaviour towards local consumers or other stakeholders.

Cristina G?nescu

2014-02-01

228

A Letter of Apology Nearly 50 Years in the Making: How We've Failed to Solve the Cultural Bind of the American Male. Response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the author's letter of apology as a response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male". In the letter, the author offers his apologies because educators have failed to solve the cultural bind of the American male.

McCandless, Greg

2012-01-01

229

Temperature stress differentially modulates transcription in meiotic anthers of heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive tomato plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in temperature occur naturally during plant growth and reproduction. However, in the hot summers this variation may become stressful and damaging for the molecular mechanisms involved in proper cell growth, impairing thus plant development and particularly fruit-set in many crop plants. Tolerance to such a stress can be achieved by constitutive gene expression or by rapid changes in gene expression, which ultimately leads to protection against thermal damage. We have used cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses to compare the early response of the tomato meiotic anther transcriptome to moderate heat stress conditions (32°C in a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype. In the light of the expected global temperature increases, elucidating such protective mechanisms and identifying candidate tolerance genes can be used to improve breeding strategies for crop tolerance to heat stress. Results The cDNA-AFLP analysis shows that 30 h of moderate heat stress (MHS alter the expression of approximately 1% of the studied transcript-derived fragments in a heat-sensitive genotype. The major effect is gene down-regulation after the first 2 h of stress. The microarray analysis subsequently applied to elucidate early responses of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype, also shows about 1% of the genes having significant changes in expression after the 2 h of stress. The tolerant genotype not only reacts with moderate transcriptomic changes but also exhibits constitutively higher expression levels of genes involved in protection and thermotolerance. Conclusion In contrast to the heat-sensitive genotype, the heat-tolerant genotype exhibits moderate transcriptional changes under moderate heat stress. Moreover, the heat-tolerant genotype also shows a different constitutive gene expression profile compared to the heat-sensitive genotype, indicating genetic differences in adaptation to increased temperatures. In the heat-tolerant genotype, the majority of changes in gene expression is represented by up-regulation, while in the heat-sensitive genotype there is a general trend to down-regulate gene expression upon MHS. The putative functions associated with the genes identified by cDNA-AFLP or microarray indicate the involvement of heat shock, metabolism, antioxidant and development pathways. Based on the observed differences in response to MHS and on literature sources, we identified a number of candidate transcripts involved in heat-tolerance.

Pezzotti Mario

2011-07-01

230

Studies in tissue culture of some indigenous rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) accessions in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p?0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p?0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneratio and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice accessions evaluated, N/4 was the most promising accession in terms of callus induction frequency and regeneration ability. The three accessions of O. glaberrima were again studied for their response to anther culture in terms of callus induction and frequency of plant regeneration using N, Garfish and D oy, MS and Nis tch tissue culture media, and supplemented with 2,4-D (1:(0-5) mg/l) were used for callus induction. No response to callus formation was obtained after 16 weeks of culture and a conclusion was drawn that all three accessions were recalcitrant to anther culture. (au)

231

Dedifferentiation of intrinsic response properties of motoneurons in organotypic cultures of the spinal cord of the adult turtle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Explant cultures from the spinal cord of adult turtles were established and used to study the sensitivity of the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons to the changes in connectivity and milieu imposed by isolation in culture. Transverse sections 700 microm thick were explanted on cover slips and maintained in roller-tube cultures in medium containing serum and the growth factors brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). The gross morphology of acute sections was maintained after 4 weeks in culture. Cell bodies of motoneurons remained stainable in fixed cultures with an antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) throughout the culture period. During culture, motoneurons maintained stable resting membrane potentials and were contacted by functional synapses. The ability to generate action potentials was also preserved as was delayed inward rectification and generation of calcium spikes in the presence of tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA). In response to depolarization, however, motoneurons presented strong outward rectification, and only 41% of the cells recorded from maintained the ability to fire repetitively. By the second week in culture, a fraction of motoneurons displayed fast and slow transient outward rectification and low-threshold calcium spikes, features not seen in turtle motoneurons in acute slices. On the other hand, properties mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels disappeared during the first few days in culture. Our observations show that the phenotypical intrinsic response properties of mature spinal motoneurons are modified in explant cultures. The properties acquired resemble the properties in juvenile motoneurons in several species of terrestrial vertebrates.

Perrier, J F; Noraberg, J

2000-01-01

232

Upregulation of the AT-hook DNA binding gene BoMF2 in OguCMS anthers of Brassica oleracea suggests that it encodes a transcriptional regulatory factor for anther development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility (OguCMS) is the most important CMS system used for F1 hybrid cabbage production worldwide. The anther abortion and defective pollen development exhibited in OguCMS are coordinately regulated by the mitochondrial male sterile gene orf138 and many nuclear transcriptional regulatory factors. AT-hook DNA binding proteins regulate cell-specific gene expression. In this study, we cloned the gene encoding the AT-hook DNA binding protein BoMF2 using the cDNA-AFLP TDF sequence, which was upregulated in OguCMS cabbage flower buds, as a querying probe. BoMF2 contains a 783-nt continuous complete open reading frame encoding a 260 amino-acid polypeptide. In vivo transient expression assays using GFP fusions showed that BoMF2 protein was located in the nucleus. BoMF2 was preferentially expressed in cabbage stamens, with a short expression window at anther development stage 7-8. However, in OguCMS flowers, BoMF2 expression continued into the mature pollen stage and was concomitant with the continued proliferation of tapetum cells exhibited in this mutant. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing BoMF2 showed significantly shorter siliques than the wild type, as well as decrease of pollen viability. These results suggest that BoMF2, a transcriptional regulatory factor, might regulate tapetum proliferation during anther development. PMID:24443226

Kang, Jungen; Guo, Yingying; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Hailong; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Haixia

2014-04-01

233

Defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, non-toxic, and inexpensive compound obtained by partial alkaline deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and other arthropods. The unique physiological and biological properties of CHT make this polymer useful for a wide range of industries. In agriculture, CHT is used to control numerous pre- and postharvest diseases on various horticultural commodities. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to CHT as an elicitor of defense responses in plants, which include raising of cytosolic Ca(2+), activation of MAP kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonate, phytoalexins, and pathogenesis-related proteins. In this work, we investigated the effects of different CHT concentrations on some defense/stress responses of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells. CHT induced accumulation of dead cells, and of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and nitric oxide, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol and of HSP70 molecular chaperone binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, accompanied by marked modifications in the architecture of this cell organelle. PMID:21327845

Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

2012-01-01

234

Convulsant-induced depression of amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal neurones studied under voltage clamp.  

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A two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique was used to record membrane current responses induced by the application of the neutral amino acids, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine, to mouse spinal neurones maintained in cell culture. Membrane current responses to GABA were depressed by the convulsant agents, bicuculline, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazole. Membrane current responses to glycine were depressed by the convulsant compound, strychnine. Analysis of the fluctuations in membr...

Barker, J. L.; Mcburney, R. N.; Mathers, D. A.

1983-01-01

235

Mixed culture optimization for marigold flower ensilage via experimental design and response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endogenous microorganisms isolated from the marigold flower (Tagetes erecta) were studied to understand the events taking place during its ensilage. Studies of the cellulase enzymatic activity and the ensilage process were undertaken. In both studies, the use of approximate second-order models and multiple lineal regression, within the context of an experimental mixture design using the response surface methodology as optimization strategy, determined that the microorganisms Flavobacterium IIb, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Rhizopus nigricans are the most significant in marigold flower ensilage and exhibit high cellulase activity. A mixed culture comprised of 9.8% Flavobacterium IIb, 41% A. anitratus, and 49.2% R. nigricans used during ensilage resulted in an increased yield of total xanthophylls extracted of 24.94 g/kg of dry weight compared with 12.92 for the uninoculated control ensilage. PMID:12670157

Navarrete-Bolaños, José Luis; Jiménez-Islas, Hugo; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro

2003-04-01

236

PRELIMINARY DATA OF THE IN VITRO CULTURE RESPONSE OF ROSA CANINA L. SPECIES  

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Full Text Available The in vitro cultures of Rosa canina L. were initiated starting from shoot tips harvested during various periods of the vegetative season. The first observations ascertained that the offshoots cut off at the beginning of July offred a bestin vitro response, and the MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg/l and IBA (0.5 mg/l induced both the multiple shooting and the formation of callus surrounding the shoots’ base. Some of the shoots provided roots on this mediumformula (sporadically. The hormone-free MS medium stimulated the rooting of the shoots, and scarcely the production of callus at the stem base. The future tests aim to fiind out the best medium variants to enhance the direct caulogenesis,the rooting of the in vitro shoots, and the survival of the regenerants during the ex vitro environment.

Ioan Daniel Maftei

2012-06-01

237

The HD-ZIP IV transcription factor OCL4 is necessary for trichome patterning and anther development in maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the genes controlling the differentiation and maintenance of epidermal cell fate are members of the HD-ZIP IV class family of plant-specific transcription factors, most of which are specifically expressed in the epidermis of tissues. Here, we report the functional analysis of the maize HD-ZIP IV gene OCL4 (outer cell layer 4) via the phenotypic analysis of two insertional mutants, and of OCL4-RNAi transgenic plants. In all three materials, the macrohairs, one of the three types of trichomes present on adult maize leaf blades, developed ectopically at the margin of juvenile and adult leaves. Consistent with this phenotype, OCL4 is expressed in the epidermis of the leaf blade, with a maximum at the margin of young leaf primordia. Expression of OCL4 in the model plant Arabidopsis under the control of the GLABRA2 (GL2) promoter, a member of the Arabidopsis HD-ZIP IV family involved in trichome differentiation, did not complement the gl2-1 mutant, but instead aggravated its phenotype. The construct also caused a glabrous appearance of rosette leaves in transformed control plants of the Ler ecotype, suggesting that OCL4 inhibits trichome development both in maize and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, insertional mutants showed a partial male sterility that is likely to result from the presence of an extra subepidermal cell layer with endothecium characteristics in the anther wall. Interestingly, the epidermis-specific OCL4 expression in immature anthers was restricted to the region of the anther locule where the extra cell layer differentiated. Taken together these results suggest that OCL4 inhibits trichome development and influences division and/or differentiation of the anther cell wall. PMID:19453441

Vernoud, Vanessa; Laigle, Guillaume; Rozier, Frédérique; Meeley, Robert B; Perez, Pascual; Rogowsky, Peter M

2009-09-01

238

Rice CYP703A3, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, is essential for development of anther cuticle and pollen exine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anther cuticle and pollen exine act as protective envelopes for the male gametophyte or pollen grain, but the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. Previously, a tapetum-expressed CYP703A3, a putative cytochrome P450 fatty acid hydroxylase, was shown to be essential for male fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the biochemical and biological roles of CYP703A3 has not been characterized. Here, we observed that cyp703a3-2 caused by one base insertion in CYP703A3 displays defective pollen exine and anther epicuticular layer, which differs from Arabidopsis cyp703a2 in which only defective pollen exine occurs. Consistently, chemical composition assay showed that levels of cutin monomers and wax components were dramatically reduced in cyp703a3-2 anthers. Unlike the wide range of substrates of Arabidopsis CYP703A2, CYP703A3 functions as an in-chain hydroxylase only for a specific substrate, lauric acid, preferably generating 7-hydroxylated lauric acid. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analyses revealed that the expression of CYP703A3 is directly regulated by Tapetum Degeneration Retardation, a known regulator of tapetum PCD and pollen exine formation. Collectively, our results suggest that CYP703A3 represents a conserved and diversified biochemical pathway for in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid required for the development of male organ in higher plants. PMID:24798002

Yang, Xijia; Wu, Di; Shi, Jianxin; He, Yi; Pinot, Franck; Grausem, Bernard; Yin, Changsong; Zhu, Lu; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

2014-10-01

239

Isolation and characterization of CaMF3, an anther-specific gene in Capsicum annuum L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Previous work on gene expression analysis based on RNA sequencing identified a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum L. In this work, we examined the accumulation of one of the transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), CaMF3 (ma [...] le fertile 3), in the flower buds of a fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF3 was 1,951 bp long and contained 6 exons and 5 introns, with the complete sequence encoding a putative 25.89 kDa protein of 234 amino acids. The predicted protein of CaMF3 shared sequence similarity with members of the isoamyl acetate-hydrolyzing esterase (IAH1) protein family. CaMF3 expression was detected only in flower buds at stages 7 and 8 and in open flowers of a male fertile line; no expression was observed in any organs of a male sterile line. Fine expression analysis revealed that CaMF3 was expressed specifically in anthers of the fertile line. These results suggest that CaMF3 is an anther-specific gene that may be essential for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

Xuefeng, Hao; Changming, Chen; Guoju, Chen; Bihao, Cao; Qinghua, Chen; Jianjun, Lei.

240

Fermentation and growth response of a primary poultry isolate of Salmonella typhimurium grown under strict anaerobic conditions in continuous culture and amino acid-limited batch culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella typhimurium is a significant hazard to consumer health that is carried asymptomatically in poultry gastrointestinal tracts. Nurmi cultures may prevent Salmonella colonization in young chicks, but the mechanism of competitive exclusion is unclear. Modeling Salmonella's metabolism in pure culture may allow for greater definition in choosing strains for Nurmi cultures. The growth rates and affinity constants of S. typhimurium growing in amino acid-limited conditions were determined in batch culture and compared to primary poultry isolates of cecal strains. Serine and NH4Cl were the best N sources for growth of all organisms tested in this study. The fermentation response of S. typhimurium was also monitored in continuous culture at a slow dilution rate of 0.021 h-1. S. typhimurium was found to adapt to VL media, with trends in protein disappearance, Yglucose, and Yprotein. This may show that amino acid or protein concentrations may be an integral component of the initial establishment of S. typhimurium in the cecum. PMID:9192013

Maciorowski, K G; Nisbet, D J; Ha, S D; Corrier, D E; DeLoach, J R; Ricke, S C

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia  

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Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

Dietmar Sternad

2012-01-01

242

Transient responses of nitrogenase to acetylene and oxygen in actinorhizal nodules and cultured Frania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nitrogenase activity in root nodules of four species of actinorhizal plants showed varying declines in response to exposure to acetylene (10% v/v). Gymnostoma papuanum (S.Moore) L. Johnson. and Casuarina equisetifolia L. nodules showed a small decline (5-15%) with little or no recovery over 15 minutes. Myrica gale L. nodules showed a sharp decline followed by a rapid return to peak activity. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) Clausen. nodules usually showed varying degrees of decline followed by a slower return to peak or near-peak activity. We call these effects acetylene-induced transients. Rapid increases in oxygen tension also caused dramatic transient decreases in nitrogenase activity in all species. The magnitude of the transient decrease was related to the size of the O{sub 2} partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) rise, to the proximity of the starting and ending oxygen tensions to the pO{sub 2} optimum, and to the time for which the plant was exposed to the lower pO{sub 2}. Oxygen-induced transients, induced both by step jumps in pO{sub 2} and by O{sub 2} pulses, were also observed in cultures of Frankia. The effects seen in nodules are purely a response by the bacterium and not a nodule effect per se. Oxygen-induced nitrogenase transients in actinorhizal nodules from the plant genera tested here do not appear to be a result of changes in nodule diffusion resistance.

Silvester, W.B.; Winship, L.J. (Harvard Univ., Petersham, MA (USA))

1990-02-01

243

An Evaluation Of Response Scale Formats Of The Culture Assessment Instrument  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate which response scale, of the four, five, or six-point response scales would yield the best metric properties on the Culture Assessment Instrument. This was achieved by utilising data sets where the respective scales were used. The subjects included participants of various organisations, ages, educational levels, language and gender groups. No one scale could be identified as having the better metric properties. The lack of conclusive results is attributed to differences in education, aggregation effect, possibility of different units of measurement being measured and the manner in which Cronbach Alpha is calculated Opsomming
Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel watter responsskaal, van ‘n vier-, vyf-, of sespuntskaal die beste metriese eienskappe sou oplewer op die Kultuurtakseringinstrument. Dit is bereik, deur gebruik te maak van datastelle waar die skale toegepas is. Deelnemers was afkomstig uit verskeie organsisasies, ouderdomsgroepe, opvoedkundige agtergronde, taalgroepe en geslagte. Geen skaal kon gëidentifiseer word met onderskeidende metriese eienskappe nie. Die gebrek aan beduidende resultate word toegeskryf aan die verskille in die opvoedkundige agtergronde van deelnemers, samevoegingseffek, die moonlikheid van verskillende eenhede van meting en die wyse waarop Cronbach Alpha bereken is.

Gert Roodt

2003-11-01

244

Effect of genotype, Culture medium and cold pretreatment on another culture of wheat (T. aestivum L.) mutant lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine in the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 1996-1997. The objective was to investigate the effect of genotype, culture medium and cold pretreatment in calli production from anthers. Anthers of four mutant lines obtained from three cvs, (Omid, Tabassi and Roshan) were produced in the Nuclear Agriculture Center and two check cvs, (Omid and Tabassi) were cultured in two media PII and modified C17. Some of the spikes before plating were kept in dark at 4-5 deg C for one week. The result indicated that the genotype of donar plants had a significant effect on the calli and plants formation. Cold pre-treatment and medium type had no effect on the calli formation, but interaction between the two factors was very significant, and the best result was obtained when anthers were cultured in modified C17 medium without cold pre-treatment

245

Cross-cultural adaptation, evaluation and validation of the Spouse Response Inventory: a study protocol  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Since the response of spouses has been proven to be an important reinforcement of pain behaviour and disability it has been addressed in research and therapy. Fordyce suggested pain behaviour and well behaviour be considered in explaining suffering in chronic pain patients. Among existing instruments concerning spouse's responses the aspect of well behaviour has not been examined so far. The SRI (Spouse Response Inventory) tries to consider pain behaviour and well behaviour and appears to be acceptable because of its brevity and close proximity to daily language. The aim of the study is the translation into German, followed by evaluation and validation, of the SRI on a German sample of patients with chronic pain. Methods and analyses The study is comprehensively designed: initially, the focus will lie on the translation of the instrument following the guidelines for cross-cultural translation and adaptation and evaluation of the German version according to the source study. Subsequently, a validation referring to predictive, incremental and construct validation will be conducted using instruments based on similar or close but different constructs. Evaluation of the resulting SRI-G (SRI-German) will be conducted on a sample of at least 30 patients with chronic pain attending a comprehensive pain centre. For validation at least 120 patients with chronic headache, back pain, cancer related pain and somatoform pain disorder shall be included, for a total of 480 patients. Separate analyses according to specific pain diagnoses will be performed to ensure psychometric property, interpretability and control of diagnosis of specific limitations. Analyses will include comprehensive investigation of psychometric property of the scale by hierarchical regression analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate analysis of variance and exploratory factor analyses (SPSS). Ethics The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Dresden (EK 335 122008) based on the Helsinki declaration.

Kaiser, Ulrike; Steinmetz, Dorit; Scharnagel, Rudiger; Jensen, Mark P; Balck, Friedrich; Sabatowski, Rainer

2014-01-01

246

The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

lly caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of individual in vitro culture plants by the DAF technique revealed genetic heterogeneity among these plants. Differences in DNA profiles between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants were also detected. In general, more somaclonal variations were detected in anther-derived than ovule-derived plants. When the DAF technique was applied to DNA obtained from leaves of irradiated budded stumps, DNA profiles were shown to be different from non irradiated controls. Whilst DNA patterns of samples irradiated at the same dosage displayed similar DNA patterns, these varied with increasing dosage. Examination of in vitro culture plants by AFLPs confirmed earlier results that somaclonal variations were present in Hevea. (author)

247

Culture Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology for in vitro Shoot Bud Development of Solanum melongena L. for Micropropagation  

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Response surface methodology was used for the optimization of shoot bud response and shoot bud induction in leaf explants of Solanum melongena cultivar Arka Shirish. Three independent variables were evaluated for shoot bud response and shoot bud induction. The variables include the concentrations of nitrogen (N2), sucrose and growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ). The shoot bud response for cultured explant was optimized at 4.34 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.65% of sucrose and 0.67 mg/l of TDZ with 9...

Sila Bhattacharya; Padma Mallaya Naveenchandra; Gokare Aswathanarayana Ravishankar

2011-01-01

248

Response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to conditioned medium from cultured oral squamous cell carcinomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study investigated the capacity for tumor factors secreted by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines, KB, KB16, and HEP, to induce the secretion of various cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were isolated from blood samples collected from six healthy volunteers and these cells were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 72 hours in the presence of 50% conditioned medium collected from cultured cell lines pretreated with, or without, stimulants such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Aliquots of each supernatant were then assayed for levels of IFN-?, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF-?, and IL-4 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Data collected were analyzed using Student's t-test, an ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test, and tests of Pearson's Correlation. PBMCs cultured with KB16-conditioned medium produced the highest levels of IFN-?. VEGF was also detected in conditioned media collected from all of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines used, and a significant difference in VEGF levels between control and KB- or KB16-conditioned media was observed. TNF-? was secreted by all PBMC groups within 6 hours of receiving conditioned media, and these levels increased up to the 24 hour timepoint, after which levels of TNF-? stabilized. In contrast, none of the supernatant samples contained detectable levels of IL-4. In combination, these data suggest that direct contact between fresh human PBMCs and conditioned media from tumor cells induces the secretion of TNF-? and VEGF by PBMCs, and this represents an initial angiogenic response. PMID:22031054

França, Cristiane Miranda; Barros, Fabiana Mesquita; Lotufo, Monica Andrade; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Borra, Ricardo Carneiro

2011-01-01

249

Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light  

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Full Text Available The development of methods for the off–on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of three disulfide compounds containing (i a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, (ii nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA and (iii hepta(ethylene glycol (EG7. Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7–10 to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin—a major serum protein—was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

Jun Nakanishi, Hidekazu Nakayama, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Andres J Garcia and Yasuhiro Horiike

2011-01-01

250

Variability of in vitro culture response in wheat genotypes, genotype and environmental effects  

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Full Text Available The tissue culture response (TCR of immature embryos, evaluated according to callus formation, percentage of regenerative green-spotted calli and the number of plants per embryo, was investigated in 96 wheat genotypes of worldwide origins. Immature embryos were collected 12-15 DAP from field-grown plants during three successive years 2003, 2004 and 2005. Year 2003 was with high air temperatures and tropical days during a period of vegetation, while the environmental conditions were more favorable for plant growth in the next two years, 2004 and 2005. Embryos were cultured on standard MS medium containing 2 mg l-1 2, 4-D. In all genotypes calli were efficiently induced, ranging from 36.7 to 100% (2003, 68.4 to 100% (2004, and 94.3 to 100% (2005. The calli occasionally formed green spots, but frequencies markedly differed among genotypes that varied from 0 to 72.5% (2003, 0 to 97.9% (2004, and 0 to 94.0% (2005. Coefficient of variation was highest in term of percent of regenerative calli (66.7% following by a number of plants per embryo (35.6% and callus formation (5.1%. Components of phenotypic variance showed that factor year (71.4% had the highest impact on expression of callus formation, genetic factor (47,1% on percentage of regenerative green-spotted calli and interaction year/genotype (30.3% on number of plants per embryo. The results indicated factor genotype as the most important for determining regeneration potential in wheat.

Miti? Nevena

2006-01-01

251

Response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to conditioned medium from cultured oral squamous cell carcinomas  

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Full Text Available The current study investigated the capacity for tumor factors secreted by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC cell lines, KB, KB16, and HEP, to induce the secretion of various cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. PBMCs were isolated from blood samples collected from six healthy volunteers and these cells were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 72 hours in the presence of 50% conditioned medium collected from cultured cell lines pretreated with, or without, stimulants such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA or lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Aliquots of each supernatant were then assayed for levels of IFN-?, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, TNF-?, and IL-4 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. Data collected were analyzed using Student's t-test, an ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test, and tests of Pearson's Correlation. PBMCs cultured with KB16-conditioned medium produced the highest levels of IFN-?. VEGF was also detected in conditioned media collected from all of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cell lines used, and a significant difference in VEGF levels between control and KB- or KB16-conditioned media was observed. TNF-? was secreted by all PBMC groups within 6 hours of receiving conditioned media, and these levels increased up to the 24 hour timepoint, after which levels of TNF-? stabilized. In contrast, none of the supernatant samples contained detectable levels of IL-4. In combination, these data suggest that direct contact between fresh human PBMCs and conditioned media from tumor cells induces the secretion of TNF-? and VEGF by PBMCs, and this represents an initial angiogenic response.

Cristiane Miranda França

2011-10-01

252

Response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to conditioned medium from cultured oral squamous cell carcinomas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The current study investigated the capacity for tumor factors secreted by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines, KB, KB16, and HEP, to induce the secretion of various cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were isolated from blood samples collected from s [...] ix healthy volunteers and these cells were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 72 hours in the presence of 50% conditioned medium collected from cultured cell lines pretreated with, or without, stimulants such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Aliquots of each supernatant were then assayed for levels of IFN-?, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF-?, and IL-4 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Data collected were analyzed using Student's t-test, an ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test, and tests of Pearson's Correlation. PBMCs cultured with KB16-conditioned medium produced the highest levels of IFN-?. VEGF was also detected in conditioned media collected from all of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines used, and a significant difference in VEGF levels between control and KB- or KB16-conditioned media was observed. TNF-? was secreted by all PBMC groups within 6 hours of receiving conditioned media, and these levels increased up to the 24 hour timepoint, after which levels of TNF-? stabilized. In contrast, none of the supernatant samples contained detectable levels of IL-4. In combination, these data suggest that direct contact between fresh human PBMCs and conditioned media from tumor cells induces the secretion of TNF-? and VEGF by PBMCs, and this represents an initial angiogenic response.

Cristiane Miranda, França; Fabiana Mesquita, Barros; Monica Andrade, Lotufo; Kristianne Porta Santos, Fernandes; Ricardo Carneiro, Borra.

253

Creation of Culturally Responsive Classrooms: Teachers' Conceptualization of a New Rationale for Cultural Responsiveness and Management of Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, there are a growing number of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong schools. This article examines teachers' views of the cross-cultural experience of ethnic minority students, their influence on the performance of these students, and how the diverse learning needs of these students are being addressed. Qualitative data were collected…

Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry J.

2012-01-01

254

Learning to Be a Culturally Responsive Teacher through International Study Trips: Transformation or Tourism?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent rapid changes in the ethnic and cultural make-up of school communities have highlighted the need for teacher education to prepare teachers for culturally diverse contexts. International study trips provide direct experience and interaction with culturally diverse "others" as a way to extend pre-service teachers' understandings of difference…

Santoro, Ninetta; Major, Jae

2012-01-01

255

Societal Culture and Teachers' Responses to Curriculum Reform: Experiences from China  

Science.gov (United States)

Educational change is intrinsically bound to the cultural characteristics of the society. However, the relationship between educational change and societal culture is rarely explored, especially in the context of mainland China. Following a 3-year qualitative research project, the present study explored the influence of societal culture on…

Yin, Hong-biao

2013-01-01

256

A New Model of School Culture: A Response to a Call for Conceptual Clarity  

Science.gov (United States)

Van Houtte (2005) called for clarification of the terms "school culture" and "school climate" and the role of each in school effectiveness research. This article presents a theoretical framework for school culture that asserts that it is a context-specific branch of organizational culture comprised of 4 dimensions and 3 levels. This…

Schoen, La Tefy; Teddlie, Charles

2008-01-01

257

Teaching Culture as National and Transnational: A Response to "Teachers' Work."  

Science.gov (United States)

Comments on "Teachers' Work: Institutional Isomorphism and Cultural Variation in the U.S., Germany and Japan" (LeTendre, Baker, Akiba, Goesling, and Wiseman, 2001), applauding the blend of global culture and national culture perspectives, proposing a more systematic synthesis, discussing what it means to take both transnational parallels and…

Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

2002-01-01

258

Corporate Social Responsibility : WalMart, Maersk and the Cultural Bounds of Representation in Corporate Web Sites  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in cultural systems highlights the connections between institutional and cultural structures of nation states and business' commitment to CSR as reflected in the strategies used to communicate CSR to public audiences via the Internet.  To frame CSR from a situated perspective (Matten & Moon 2005) implies a shift in understanding relations between corporations and their stakeholders from a corporate-centered model to a cultural systems perspective.  This paper describes an approach to cultural systems in which can be used to frame our understanding of implicit norms with respect to CSR, and demonstrates how these norms result in different practices of communicating CSR in the WalMart and Maersk corporate websites.

Kampf, Constance

2007-01-01

259

Milk protein synthesis, gene expression, and hormonal responsiveness in primary cultures of mammary cells from lactating sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

A ruminant mammary cell culture that accurately reproduces mammary function in vitro would be a valuable tool in studies of ruminant lactation. With this in mind, we have examined milk protein synthesis and secretion, milk protein mRNA abundance, and hormonal responsiveness in primary cultures of mammary acini from lactating sheep. alpha- and beta-casein protein synthesis, beta-lactoglobulin synthesis, and alpha-casein, beta-casein, and beta-lactoglobulin secretion are maintained at high levels for 8 h in culture, but then decline to approximately 25% of maximal rates between 8 and 24 h in culture, whereas synthesis of other proteins remains unaltered. The relative abundance of alpha-S1-casein, beta-lactoglobulin, and alpha-lactalbumin mRNAs similarly decline between 8 and 24 h in culture. Extracellular labeled alpha-casein is increased fourfold in the presence of fetal calf serum (FCS). In total, FCS alters the abundance of 47 of 68 secreted proteins detected by two-dimensional electrophoresis. However, FCS and lactogenic/galactopoietic hormones had no effect on the rate of decline of mammary function and did not promote any regaining of function when present for up to 9 days in culture. These results suggest that providing its limitations are recognized, this primary cell culture system may be useful in studying some aspects of ruminant mammary function in vitro. PMID:7698235

Wheeler, T T; Callaghan, M R; Davis, S R; Prosser, C G; Wilkins, R J

1995-04-01

260

Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

 
 
 
 
261

Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

Chiu, Mei-Shiu

2010-01-01

262

Workforce Education and Development Curriculum Responsiveness to Culturally and Internationally Diverse Graduate Students: A Mixed Methods Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This descriptive study used a mixed methods design and sought to examine students' perceptions on workforce education and development (WED) curriculum responsiveness to culturally and internationally diverse graduate students at a Midwestern university on four dimensions: "teaching strategies (to include delivery)," "curriculum inclusiveness,"…

Ferdinand, Debra

2009-01-01

263

A Case Study of Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings and Actions Related to the Culturally Responsive Teaching of "Other" Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this explanatory case study using critical theory as a philosophical lens was to focus on two science teacher candidates' understandings of Otherness and their culturally responsive teaching (or the lack thereof) of students they believe are the "Others". The researchers found that even though the participants had different goals…

Atwater, Mary M.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Draper-Morris, Jessie

2010-01-01

264

Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

2012-01-01

265

Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

2012-01-01

266

Identification of the tapetum/microspore-specific promoter of the pathogenesis-related 10 gene and its regulation in the anther of Lilium longiflorum.  

Science.gov (United States)

A tapetum/microspore-specific pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene was previously identified in lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) anthers. In situ hybridization and RNA blot analysis indicated that the lily PR10 genes are expressed specifically and differentially in the tapetum of the anther wall and in microspores during anther development. The accumulation of PR10 transcripts was exogenously induced by gibberellic acid (GA) and was suppressed by ethylene. Studies using inhibitors of GA and ethylene revealed that the lily PR10 is modulated by an antagonistic interaction between GA and ethylene. The treatment of norbornadien, an ethylene inhibitor, caused the tapetum to become densely cytoplasmic and highly polarized, whereas uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, arrested tapetal development to a status close to that of control. The expression of the lily PR10g promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis was determined using the ?-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene indicated that the decisive fragment required for anther specificity is located -1183 bp to -880 bp upstream of the transcription start site. The PR10gPro::barnase transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility because of the disruption of the tapetum and the deformation of microspore/pollen. The anther specificity of lily PR10 highlights the importance of the tapetum/microspore-specific PR10g promoter for future biotechnological and agricultural applications. PMID:24388523

Hsu, Ssu-Wei; Liu, Ming-Che; Zen, Kuo-Chang; Wang, Co-Shine

2014-02-01

267

Regeneração in vitro de anteras de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) e mapeamento de QTL associado / In vitro regeneration of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) anthers and detection of associated QTL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A baixa taxa de regeneração in vitro de alguns cultivares de arroz da subespécie indica limita a utilização de técnicas de cultura de anteras como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares. A identificação de regiões genômicas associadas à formação de calos e regeneração de plantas, a pa [...] rtir do cultivo de anteras, poderá permitir a transferência do caráter por seleção assistida. Duas populações de retrocruzamento foram utilizadas para o mapeamento genético e estudo destes caracteres, sendo Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genótipos) e BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genótipos). Duzentas anteras imaturas de cada genótipo utilizado no estudo foram inoculadas em meio NL líquido e, após 40 dias, os calos formados foram transferidos para o meio MS sólido para regeneração de plantas. Todas as plantas doadoras de anteras foram usadas na extração de DNA genômico e sete primers RAPD foram utilizados na geração de marcadores para a construção dos mapas de ligação dos retrocruzamentos estudados. A taxa de formação de calos variou de 2,27 a 3,36% e a taxa de regeneração de plantas 1,38 a 1,82%, não se diferenciando significativamente. Seis grupos de ligação foram obtidos, três em cada população. Um QTL com LOD 3,10 foi detectado para o caráter formação de calos na população Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. Nenhum QTL foi detectado para a característica regeneração de plantas. Abstract in english The low in vitro regeneration of some indica rice cultivars, limits the use of anther culture techniques as a tool to reduce the time for releasing new cultivars. The identification of genomic regions associated with callus formation and in vitro regeneration from anther culture, will facilitate sel [...] ection of these traits through marker assisted techniques. Two backcross populations were used to study and map these traits, Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genotypes) and BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genotypes). Two hundred immature anthers, from each genotype used in this study, were inoculated in liquid NL medium for callus induction and, after 40 days, the formed callus were transferred to solid MS medium for plant regeneration. Each anther donor plant was used for DNA extraction and seven RAPD primers were used to assess genomic regions associated to callus formation and plant regeneration. As results, callus formation ranged from 2.27 up to 3.36% and plant regeneration ranged from 1.38 up to 1.82%, no significant differences were observed. Six linkage groups were obtained, being three from each population. One QTL was detected associated to callus formation, with LOD score 3.10, in the population Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. No QTL association was detected to the trait plant regeneration.

Sérgio Dias, Lannes; Paulo Dejalma, Zimmer; Antonio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Eduardo Alano, Vieira; Ariano Martins de, Magalhães Junior; Maurício Marini, Kopp; Fábio Almeida de, Freitas.

1355-13-01

268

Characterization of a Collection of Brassica carinata Genotypes for in vitro Culture Response and Mode of Shoot Regeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brassica carinata, a natural alloploid formed between B. oleracea and B. nigra, is a potential oil crop for the Mediterranean area in which genetic transformation could help to breeding. In vitro culture and shoot regeneration are key factors in developing an efficient transformation method in the genus Brassica. However, the studies for in vitro culture and shoot regeneration in B. carinata are limited to only a few genotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro culture response and shoot regeneration in a collection of B. carinata accessions to identify promising genotypes with high shoot regeneration for genetic transformation experiments. Cotyledonary explants from 51 genotypes were cultured in vitro and callus formation and swelling as well as the mode of shoot regeneration evaluated. A highly positive response to in vitro culture, i.e. callus formation or swelling, was observed in all the genotypes tested. Tissue blackening occurred only in eleven genotypes. Parameters like callus formation and swelling, and number of shoots per explant were highly variable among genotypes. Fourteen genotypes regenerated only via callus formation, whereas only one regenerated only via swelling. Most genotypes showed a higher percentage of callus formation than swelling. The average number of shoots regenerating per explant among genotypes was the most variable factor measured. Six genotypes regenerated more than 6 shoots per explant via callus phase. These genotypes have been identified as having a high regeneration potential and can be used in genetic transformation via Agrobacterium.

Antonio Martín

2011-03-01

269

Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

Kinsella, Paula, E-mail: paula.kinsella@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Howley, Rachel, E-mail: rhowley@rcsi.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Doolan, Padraig, E-mail: padraig.doolan@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clarke, Colin, E-mail: colin.clarke@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Madden, Stephen F., E-mail: maddens@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clynes, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Clynes@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Farrell, Michael, E-mail: michaelfarrell@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Amberger-Murphy, Verena, E-mail: Verena.Murphy@icorg.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2012-03-10

270

Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-? expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: ? Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-?, and a low proliferation rate. ? PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. ? Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. ? Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-?. ? Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

271

How cultural capital, habitus and class influence the responses of older adults to the field of contemporary visual art?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the responses of 38 older people to contemporary visual art through the results of a 28-month study entitled, Contemporary Visual Art and Identity Construction: Wellbeing amongst Older People. A framework for the analysis is provided by previous work on the consumption of art and by Bourdieu's constructs of cultural capital, habitus and field. Five groups of older people, with a range of different backgrounds, were taken to galleries and their responses were recorded, transcribed and analysed. It is concluded that participants’ responses are influenced by their cultural capital, habitus and class—which, in turn, are affected by their life course experiences. Those who could not recognise the field (e.g., did not view contemporary art as “art”) created their own meanings that they associated with the artworks. Evidence indicates that group dynamics and class mobility are likewise important. Participants also used the experience to respond to real or anticipated age-associated deficits. PMID:24748712

Newman, Andrew; Goulding, Anna; Whitehead, Christopher

2013-01-01

272

La mujer responsable de la salud de la familia: Constatando la universalidad cultural del cuidado Women in charge of family health-verifying cultural universality of care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La reducida familiarización de los prestadores de cuidados a la salud sobre el proceso socio-cultural que orienta el comportamiento de los individuos en el cuidado de su salud, motivó este estudio. Objetivo: Identificar factores culturales presentes en las acciones de la mujer al cuidar al familiar con afecciones físicas y o mentales. Método: Se trata de un estudio transcultural formado por dos investigaciones que adoptaron la Antropología cultural y el método etnográfico. Uno de los estudios fue realizado con 6 mujeres que vivían en una comunidad urbano marginal de São Paulo-Brasil y otro con mujeres de 6 familias de dos provincias de Lambayeque-Perú. Resultados: Ambas investigaciones mostraron que, frente a una enfermedad física o mental del familiar, la mujer se responsabiliza de su tratamiento empleando prácticas domésticas, místicas o buscando atención médica rápida y eficaz. Mostraron que es la mujer la que percibe alteraciones en el estado de salud del familiar. Conclusión: Los diferentes contextos culturales presentan semejanzas que los aproximan y apuntan la necesidad de atención, de los profesionales de salud, al cuidado centrado en la mujer, considerando su cultura.Introduction: Health Care Providers' little familiarization with the socio-cultural process that directs the behavior of individuals concerning their health care brought about this study. Objective: To identify the cultural factors present in the woman's action when taking care of a family member with either physical or mental disability. Method: This is a transcultural study made up of two researches that adopted the Cultural Anthropology and ethnographic study as well. One of the studies was carried out with six inhabitants in a slum in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil and the other with women from six families of two provinces in Lambayeque, Peru. Results: Both researches showed that, in the face of either a physical or mental disability of a family member, the woman takes responsibility for their treatment adopting domestic, mystic practices and/or searches for prompt and effective medical service. The researches also showed that it is the woman who notices alterations in their health pattern. Conclusion: The different cultural contexts have similarities that approximate them and both indicate the need for health care providers' attention towards a kind of care focused on the women considering their culture.

María Concepción Pezo Silva

2004-11-01

273

La mujer responsable de la salud de la familia: Constatando la universalidad cultural del cuidado / Women in charge of family health-verifying cultural universality of care  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La reducida familiarización de los prestadores de cuidados a la salud sobre el proceso socio-cultural que orienta el comportamiento de los individuos en el cuidado de su salud, motivó este estudio. Objetivo: Identificar factores culturales presentes en las acciones de la mujer al cuida [...] r al familiar con afecciones físicas y o mentales. Método: Se trata de un estudio transcultural formado por dos investigaciones que adoptaron la Antropología cultural y el método etnográfico. Uno de los estudios fue realizado con 6 mujeres que vivían en una comunidad urbano marginal de São Paulo-Brasil y otro con mujeres de 6 familias de dos provincias de Lambayeque-Perú. Resultados: Ambas investigaciones mostraron que, frente a una enfermedad física o mental del familiar, la mujer se responsabiliza de su tratamiento empleando prácticas domésticas, místicas o buscando atención médica rápida y eficaz. Mostraron que es la mujer la que percibe alteraciones en el estado de salud del familiar. Conclusión: Los diferentes contextos culturales presentan semejanzas que los aproximan y apuntan la necesidad de atención, de los profesionales de salud, al cuidado centrado en la mujer, considerando su cultura. Abstract in english Introduction: Health Care Providers' little familiarization with the socio-cultural process that directs the behavior of individuals concerning their health care brought about this study. Objective: To identify the cultural factors present in the woman's action when taking care of a family member wi [...] th either physical or mental disability. Method: This is a transcultural study made up of two researches that adopted the Cultural Anthropology and ethnographic study as well. One of the studies was carried out with six inhabitants in a slum in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil and the other with women from six families of two provinces in Lambayeque, Peru. Results: Both researches showed that, in the face of either a physical or mental disability of a family member, the woman takes responsibility for their treatment adopting domestic, mystic practices and/or searches for prompt and effective medical service. The researches also showed that it is the woman who notices alterations in their health pattern. Conclusion: The different cultural contexts have similarities that approximate them and both indicate the need for health care providers' attention towards a kind of care focused on the women considering their culture.

María Concepción, Pezo Silva; Neide de, Souza Praça; Maguida, Costa Stefanelli.

274

Customer’s Responses to Crowded Restaurant Environment: Cross Cultural Differences between American and Chinese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study aims at demonstrating cultural differences between Americans and Chinese in terms of customer's perceptions and satisfaction of crowded environments within the context of restaurant settings. It has been noted that culture has a substantial impact on customer affection and judgment, and crowding in service environments is a critical antecedent of customer satisfaction. Considering these main themes, this study examined how cultural differences play a role in predicting customer sati...

Kim, Dae-young; Park, Sangwon

2008-01-01

275

Floral Transcriptomes in Woodland Strawberry Uncover Developing Receptacle and Anther Gene Networks1[W][OPEN  

Science.gov (United States)

Flowers are reproductive organs and precursors to fruits and seeds. While the basic tenets of the ABCE model of flower development are conserved in angiosperms, different flowering plants exhibit different and sometimes unique characteristics. A distinct feature of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) flowers is the development of several hundreds of individual apocarpous (unfused) carpels. These individual carpels are arranged in a spiral pattern on the subtending stem tip, the receptacle. Therefore, the receptacle is an integral part of the strawberry flower and is of significant agronomic importance, being the precursor to strawberry fruit. Taking advantage of next-generation sequencing and laser capture microdissection, we generated different tissue- and stage-transcriptomic profiling of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) flower development. Using pairwise comparisons and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we identified modules of coexpressed genes and hub genes of tissue-specific networks. Of particular importance is the discovery of a developing receptacle-specific module exhibiting similar molecular features to those of young floral meristems. The strawberry homologs of a number of meristem regulators, including LOST MERISTEM and WUSCHEL, are identified as hub genes operating in the developing receptacle network. Furthermore, almost 25% of the F-box genes in the genome are transiently induced in developing anthers at the meiosis stage, indicating active protein degradation. Together, this work provides important insights into the molecular networks underlying strawberry’s unique reproductive developmental processes. This extensive floral transcriptome data set is publicly available and can be readily queried at the project Web site, serving as an important genomic resource for the plant biology research community. PMID:24828307

Hollender, Courtney A.; Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Matthews, Benjamin F.; Slovin, Janet; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

2014-01-01

276

Within-host competitive exclusion among species of the anther smut pathogen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Host individuals represent an arena in which pathogens compete for resources and transmission opportunities, with major implications for the evolution of virulence and the structure of populations. Studies to date have focused on competitive interactions within pathogen species, and the level of antagonism tends to increase with the genetic distance between competitors. Anther-smut fungi, in the genus Microbotryum, have emerged as a tractable model for within-host competition. Here, using two pathogen species that are frequently found in sympatry, we investigated whether the antagonism seen among genotypes of the same species cascades up to influence competition among pathogen species. Results Sequential inoculation of hosts showed that a resident infection most often excludes a challenging pathogen genotype, which is consistent with prior studies. However, the challenging pathogen was significantly more likely to invade the already-infected host if the resident infection was a conspecific genotype compared to challenges involving a closely related species. Moreover, when inter-specific co-infection occurred, the pathogens were highly segregated within the host, in contrast to intra-specific co-infection. Conclusion We show evidence that competitive exclusion during infection can be greater among closely related pathogen species than among genotypes within species. This pattern follows from prior studies demonstrating that genetic distance and antagonistic interactions are positively correlated in Microbotryum. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a likely mechanism of direct competitive interference, and has been shown in some fungi to be effective both within and across species boundaries. For systems where related pathogen species frequently co-occur in the same host populations, these competitive dynamics may substantially impact the spatial segregation of pathogen species.

Giraud Tatiana

2009-05-01

277

A refined in vitro model to study inflammatory responses in organotypic membrane culture of postnatal rat hippocampal slices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Propagated tissue degeneration, especially during aging, has been shown to be enhanced through potentiation of innate immune responses. Neurodegenerative diseases and a wide variety of inflammatory conditions are linked together and several anti-inflammatory compounds considered as having therapeutic potential for example in Alzheimer's disease (AD. In vitro brain slice techniques have been widely used to unravel the complexity of neuroinflammation, but rarely, has the power of the model itself been reported. Our aim was to gain a more detailed insight and understanding of the behaviour of hippocampus tissue slices in serum-free, interface culture per se and after exposure to different pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds. Methods The responses of the slices to pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli were monitored at various time points by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and the release of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? and nitric oxide (NO from the culture media. Histological methods were applied to reveal the morphological status after exposure to stimuli and during the time course of the culture period. Statistical power analysis were made with nQuery Advisor®, version 5.0, (Statistical Solutions, Saugus, MA computer program for Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Results By using the interface membrane culture technique, the hippocampal slices largely recover from the trauma caused by cutting after 4–5 days in vitro. Furthermore, the cultures remain stable and retain their responsiveness to inflammatory stimuli for at least 3 weeks. During this time period, cultures are susceptible to modification by inflammatory stimuli as assessed by quantitative biochemical assays and morphological characterizations. Conclusion The present report outlines the techniques for studying immune responses using a serum-free slice culture model. Statistically powerful data under controlled culture conditions and with ethically justified use of animals can be obtained as soon as after 4–5 DIV. The model is most probably suitable also for studies of chronic inflammation.

Miettinen Riitta

2005-11-01

278

Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes ae genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level

279

Integrating Collectivist Values into Career Counseling with Asian Americans: A Test of Cultural Responsiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

Asian American undergraduates received career counseling from European American female counselors using either a collectivist or an individualist orientation. Counselors using the collectivist approach were perceived as more cross-culturally competent but equally credible as counselors using the individualist approach. Implications for culturally

Lowe, Susana M.

2005-01-01

280

Intercultural learning as a strategic response to socio-cultural differences in global software development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we conceptualize the relationships between software developers’ socio-cultural differences, global distribution, intercultural learning and interpretation of information in the organization of GSD. Our discussions are centred on the idea that the combination of global distribution and different socio-culturally-based perceptions will lead to interlocutors’ heterogeneous interpretation information. Such interpretation contributes largely to several organizing ...

Wiredu, Gamel O.; Sullivan, Daniel K.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Keeping up the Conversation on Culture: A Response to Robert Courchene and Others  

Science.gov (United States)

Robert Courchene's 1996 article entitled "Teaching Canadian Culture: Teacher Preparation" sparked a conversation in the pages of the "TESL Canada Journal" that continues today. From advocating the teaching of significant historical events and icons to encouraging second-language learners to embrace cultural ambiguity, there is a wide spectrum of…

Walsh-Marr, Jennifer

2011-01-01

282

Regenerated extracellular NH4+ affects the motile chemosensory responses of batch-cultured Oxyrrhis marina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Regenerated extracellular NH4+in laboratory batch-cultures of the heterotrophic marine microzooplankter Oxyrrhis marina affects the strength and consistency of chemotaxes elicited by synthetic and biogenic chemoattractants. The ecological relevance of experiments with batch-cultured O. marina and limitations of the microcapillary assay for the study of chemosensory behaviours are discussed.

Claire M. Martel

2010-06-01

283

Tamoxifen Induces Expression of Immune Response-Related Genes in Cultured Normal Human Mammary Epithelial Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of tamoxifen (TAM) is associated with a 50% reduction in breast cancer incidence and an increase in endometrial cancer incidence. Here, we documented TAM-induced gene expression changes in cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells (NHMEC strains numbered 5, 16 and 40), established from tissue taken at reduction mammoplasty from 3 individuals. Cells exposed to 0, 10 or 50 ?M TAM for 48 hours were evaluated for (E)-?-(deoxyguanosin-N2-yl)-tamoxifen (dG-N2-TAM) adduct formation by TAM-DNA (DNA modified with dG-N2-TAM) chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA), gene expression changes using NCI DNA-oligonucleotide microarray, and real time (RT)-PCR. At 48 hr, cells exposed to 10 ?M and 50 ?M TAM were 85.6% and 48.4% viable, respectively, and there were no measurable dG-N2-TAM adducts. For microarray, cells were exposed to 10 ?M TAM and genes with expression changes of ? 3-fold were as follows: thirteen genes up-regulated and one down-related for strain 16; seventeen genes up-regulated for strain 5; and eleven genes up-regulated for strain 40. Interferon-inducible genes (IFITM1, IFIT1, IFNA1, MXI and GIP3), and a potassium ion channel (KCNJ1) were up-regulated in all 3 strains. No significant expression changes were found for genes related to estrogen or xenobiotic metabolism. RT-PCR revealed up-regulation of interferon ? (IFNA1) and confirmed the TAM-induced up-regulation of the genes identified by microarray, with the exception of GIP3 and MX1, which were not up-regulated in strain 40. Induction of interferon-related genes in the three NHMEC strains suggests that, in addition to hormonal effects, TAM exposure may enhance immune response in normal breast tissue. PMID:19155303

Schild-Hay, Laura J.; Leil, Tarek A.; Divi, Rao L.; Olivero, Ofelia, A.; Weston, Ainsley; Poirier, Miriam C.

2008-01-01

284

A sensitive sensor cell line for the detection of oxidative stress responses in cultured human keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B' promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B'. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B' gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B' promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS) that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings. PMID:24967604

Hofmann, Ute; Priem, Melanie; Bartzsch, Christine; Winckler, Thomas; Feller, Karl-Heinz

2014-01-01

285

Population dynamics among the Totos of West Bengal: a positive response to culture contact.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population structure of the Toto tribe at Totopara, a small village in West Bengal, District Jalpaiguri, is studied in this report. Since 1951 the Totos have been coming more and more in contact with the outside world and undergoing a process of cultural and developmental change. Using data from census records for the years 1901, 1911, 1921, 1931, 1951 and 1979-80, as well as interviews with all Toto heads of families or their wives, demographic data was collected on age sex structure, marital status, fertility, birth rate, death rate and population growth trends in the precontact and contact era. A total of 130 families and 697 people were recorded for 1980. 48% were under age 15; 44% were between 15 and 50 years old; and only 7% were over 50. No marriage was reported in the age group below 10 to 14 years. The male sex ration in 1980 was 104:100. Traditional practices still play a role in population structure. Individuals below 12 years of age are not considered responsible enough to be entrusted with tasks needing efficiency and experience on the part of the performer. Since most of the marriages are arranged on the basis of bringing in additional household help, this limits marriages in the younger age groups, starting from 10 to 14. Reproductive maturity appears rather late in both sexes of the Totos, confirmed by low fertility rates in the age groups 15 to 19 and 20 to 24. The crude birth rate has increased from 36.1/1000 in 1959 to 43.0/1000 in 1980. The Totos have a higher rate of fertility in the age groups 35 to 39, attributed to not using any known conventional contraceptive. The data are compared to fertility and demographic variables for other isolated groups, including the Asmats, Australian migrants, Hutterites and populations at West Bengal, Assam, and Mipur. At present the Toto population shows a trend towards increase. PMID:6841387

Sinha, D; Pal, B C

1983-04-01

286

A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

Ute Hofmann

2014-06-01

287

Culturable bacteria in Himalayan glacial ice in response to atmospheric circulation  

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Full Text Available Only recently has specific attention been given to culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers, but their relation to atmospheric circulation is less understood yet. Here we present the results of culturable bacteria preserved in an ice core drilled from the East Rongbuk (ER glacier, Himalayas. The average concentrations of culturable bacteria are 5.0, 0.8, 0.1 and 0.7 CFU mL?1 for the glacier ice deposited during the premonsoon, monsoon, postmonsoon and winter seasons, respectively. The high concentration of culturable bacteria in ER glacier deposited during the premonsoon season is attributed to the transportation of continental dust stirred up by the frequent dust storms during spring. This is also confirmed by the spatial distribution of culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers. Continental dust originated from the Northwest China accounts for the high abundance of culturable bacteria in the northern Tibetan Plateau, while monsoon moisture exerts great influence on culturable bacteria with low abundance in the southern plateau. The numbers of representatives with different ARDRA patterns from RFLP analysis are 10, 15, 1 and 2 for the glacial ice deposited during the premonsoon, monsoon, postmonsoon and winter seasons, respectively, suggesting that culturable bacteria deposited in ER glacier during monsoon season are more diverse than that deposited during the other seasons, possibly due to their derivation from both marine air masses and local or regional continental sources, while culturable bacteria deposited during the other seasons are from only one possible origin that is transported by westerlies. Our results show the first report of seasonal variations of abundance and species diversity of culturable bacteria recovered from glacial ice in the Himalayas, and we suggest that microorganisms in Himalayan ice might provide a potential new proxy for the reconstruction of atmospheric circulation.

S. Zhang

2007-01-01

288

Transformation and analysis of tobacco plant var Petit havana with T-urf13 gene under anther-specific TA29 promoter  

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T-urf13, a well-documented cms-associated gene from maize, has been shown to render methomyl sensitivity to heterologous systems like rice, yeast and bacteria when expressed constitutively. Since these transgenic plants were fertile, it was hypothesized that T-urf13 gene if expressed in anthers may result in male sterility that could be used for hybrid seed production. Hence, this work was aimed at analysing whether T-urf13 gene when expressed in anthers can result in male sterile plants or r...

Arun, V.; Kuriakose, Boney; Sridhar, Vaniyambadi V.; Thomas, George

2011-01-01

289

Randomised Response Technique-An Innovative Method To Measure Culturally Sensitive Variables : Results From A Pilot Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research questions: What is the advantage of Randomized Response Technique (RRT over the conventional Direct Interview (DI and Anonymous Questionnaire (AQ in the assessment of culturally sensitive variables? Objectives: To compare the efficacy of the three methods, namely RRT, DI and AQ in the measurement of prevalence of Pre/Extra marital sex. Study design: Cross sectional study, using the three methods. Setting: A pilot study in a given community in Pondicherry. Statistical analysis: Probability equations. Results: The prevalence of pre/extra marital sex in the study population by the DI, AQ and RRT methods were 0%, 6% and 10% respectively in this pilot study. Conclusion: RRT improves validity of measurement of culturally sensitive variables both by ensuring a high participation in the study and by enabling a true response by assuring full confidentiality of information.

Soudarssanane M. B

2003-01-01

290

RESPONSE OF EMBRYOS OF SOME VARIETIES OF RICE FOR THEIR CALLUSING AND DIFFERENTIATION  

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Full Text Available Rice is the main food of most of the countries of the world. To cope with the population explosion, conventional method of rice production seems inadequate. Hense, for this purpose; tissue culture technology has been introduced. Before applying any advanced study, such as anther culture, protoplast culture or genetic engineering etc., it is essential to work on the rice varieties from its embryo level. In this perspective, four varieties of rice had been undertaken for the response of their embryos on different concentrations of 2,4D, for their callusing and upon different concentrations of IAA and KN for differentiation. Out of the four varieties of rice, Tulsi and Kanak embryos showed the best response for their callusing at the strength 6 mg/l of 2,4D - 40% and 22% respectively, which is followed by Pusa-Basmati and Birsa 101 embryos. Almost all the varieties showed their callusing more or less at all the strength of 2,4D taken into investigation. But the strength 6 mg/l was the best strength of 2,4D as upon this strength, all the varieties showed their callusing response. On the other hand, embryo derived callus when transferrred to differentiating medium MS + IAA (2 mg/l + KN(4mg/l gave the best result.

R.P.SINGH

2007-01-01

291

Transcriptional immune response of cage-cultured Pacific bluefin tuna during infection by two Cardicola blood fluke species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections by two blood fluke species, Cardicola orientalis and Cardicola opisthorchis, currently present the greatest disease concern for the sea-cage culture of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT) - a species of high global economic importance and ecological concern. In this study, we aimed to rapidly, quantitatively, and differentially identify infections by these two parasite species in cultured PBT as well as identify potential host immune responses. Using real-time qPCR, we were successful in quantitatively detecting parasite-specific DNA from within host blood, gill, and heart tissues; positively identifying parasitic infections 44 days earlier than microscopy methods previously employed. Both gill and heart became heavily infected by both parasite species in PBT within two months of sea-cage culture, which was only mitigated by the administration of anthelmintic praziquantel. Nevertheless, fish were observed to mount an organ specific transcriptive immune response during infection that mirrored the relative quantity of pathogenic load. In heart, significant (3-6 fold) increases in IgM, MHC2, TCR?, and IL-8 transcription was observed in infected fish relative to uninfected controls; whereas in the gills only IgM transcription was observed to be induced (11 fold) by infection. Interestingly, the relative quantity of IgM transcription was highly correlated to the relative abundance of C. orientalis but not C. opisthorchis DNA in the gill samples, even though this organ showed high prevalence of DNA from both parasite species. Taken together, these findings indicate that although ineffective at combating infection during primary exposure, a cellular immune response is mounted in PBT as a potential rejoinder to future Cardicola exposure, particularly against C. orientalis. Although future investigation into antibody effectiveness will be needed, this work provides valuable preliminary insight into host responsiveness to Cardicola infection as well as additional support for the need of anthelmintic treatment following primary parasite exposure during PBT culture. PMID:24161760

Polinski, Mark; Shirakashi, Sho; Bridle, Andrew; Nowak, Barbara

2014-01-01

292

Randomised Response Technique-An Innovative Method To Measure Culturally Sensitive Variables : Results From A Pilot Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research questions: What is the advantage of Randomized Response Technique (RRT) over the conventional Direct Interview (DI) and Anonymous Questionnaire (AQ) in the assessment of culturally sensitive variables? Objectives: To compare the efficacy of the three methods, namely RRT, DI and AQ in the measurement of prevalence of Pre/Extra marital sex. Study design: Cross sectional study, using the three methods. Setting: A pilot study in a given community in Pondicherry. Statistical analysis: Pro...

Soudarssanane M. B; Naik Balaji; Sahai Ajit; Bazroy Joy

2003-01-01

293

Ca2+ responses to interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Possible implications for Reye syndrome.  

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Elevated concentrations of cytokines were found in the plasma of patients acutely ill with Reye syndrome (RS) but not in control subjects or recovered RS patients. To determine whether this disorder involves a genetically determined abnormal response to cytokines, the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1 on intracellular free Ca2+ were compared in cultured skin fibroblasts from control subjects and patients with RS. IL-1 and TNF caused rapid, transient, and concentration-dependent ...

Corkey, B. E.; Geschwind, J. F.; Deeney, J. T.; Hale, D. E.; Douglas, S. D.; Kilpatrick, L.

1991-01-01

294

Physiological and Transcriptional Responses to High Concentrations of Lactic Acid in Anaerobic Chemostat Cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae?  

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Based on the high acid tolerance and the simple nutritional requirements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, engineered strains of this yeast are considered biocatalysts for industrial production of high-purity undissociated lactic acid. However, high concentrations of lactic acid are toxic to S. cerevisiae, thus limiting its growth and product formation. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high concentrations of lactic acid were studied in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures gr...

Abbott, Derek A.; Suir, Erwin; Maris, Antonius J. A.; Pronk, Jack T.

2008-01-01

295

Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems  

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Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of h...

McDermott Jason E; Shankaran Harish; Eisfeld Amie J; Belisle Sarah E; Neuman Gabriele; Li Chengjun; McWeeney Shannon; Sabourin Carol; Kawaoka Yoshihiro; Katze Michael G; Waters Katrina M

2011-01-01

296

Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contributi...

Comiskey, Christina Pryor; Schutte, Kelli J.; Scarfino, Deborah Reed; Campbell, Tanna White

2012-01-01

297

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced cytotoxicity in cultured rat Sertoli cells involves differential apoptotic response.  

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants. Some PAHs are carcinogens and may affect the male reproductive system. Therefore, we exposed cultured rat Sertoli cells to a variety of PAHs to determine possible direct toxic effects on the cells of the seminiferous epithelium. Sertoli cells were chosen because they support germ cell development and maintain spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells were isolated from 19-21-day-old male rats and cultured i...

Raychoudhury, Samir S.; Kubinski, Dana

2003-01-01

298

Rat Sertoli cells acquire a beta-adrenergic response during primary culture.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the radioligand (-)-[125I]iodopindolol (125I-Pin) have been used to study isoproterenol-dependent protein phosphorylation and beta-adrenergic receptor availability, respectively, in cultured Sertoli cells and freshly isolated seminiferous tubular segments of sexually immature and mature rats. Sertoli cells prepared from sexually immature rats show progressive 125I-Pin binding in primary cultures that correlates with isoproterenol-induced ...

Kierszenbaum, A. L.; Spruill, W. A.; White, M. G.; Tres, L. L.; Perkins, J. P.

1985-01-01

299

Isolation and promoter analysis of anther-specific genes encoding putative arabinogalactan proteins in Malus x domestica.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we searched for anther-specific genes involved in male gametophyte development in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) by differential display-PCR. Three full-length cDNAs were isolated, and the corresponding genomic sequences were determined by genome walking. The identified genes showed intronless 228- to 264-bp open reading frames and shared 82-90% nucleotide sequence. Sequence analysis identified that they encoded a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP) and were designated MdAGP1, MdAGP2, and MdAGP3, respectively. RT (reverse transcriptase)-PCR revealed that the MdAGP genes were selectively expressed in the stamen. Promoter analysis confirmed that the MdAGP3 promoter was capable of directing anther- or pollen-specific expression of the GUS reporter in tobacco and apple. Furthermore, expression of ribosome-inactivating protein under the control of the MdAGP3 promoter induced complete sporophytic male sterility as we had expected. PMID:19890636

Choi, Yeon-Ok; Kim, Sung-Soo; Lee, Sanghyeob; Kim, Sunggil; Yoon, Gi-Bo; Kim, Hyojeong; Lee, Young-Pyo; Yu, Gyung-Hee; Hyung, Nam-In; Sung, Soon-Kee

2010-01-01

300

Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a global level beyond known immune signaling cascades. Results In the present study, we employed a multivariate modeling approach to characterize and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks between these three model systems after infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype. Using this approach we identified functions and pathways that display similar behavior and/or regulation including the well-studied impact on the interferon response and the inflammasome. Our results also suggest a primary response role for airway epithelial cells in initiating hypercytokinemia, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses. We further demonstrate that we can use a transcriptional regulatory model from the human cell culture data to make highly accurate predictions about the behavior of important components of the innate immune system in tissues from whole organisms. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a global regulatory network modeling conserved host response between in vitro and in vivo models.

McDermott Jason E

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth

302

Response of normal human dermal fibroblasts in culture to very low dose rates of chronic irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vitro cell cultures were submitted to low doses of chronic external irradiation. Cultures were exposed for 8 days to 60 Co source by growing the cells in culture flasks, 10 cm above the irradiation source (dose rate: 6.25 mGy/day, i.e. 50 mGy/8 days). Human dermal fibroblast proliferation, protein and DNA contents were undisturbed under irradiation. In the same way, the transmembrane resting potential values of about 200 single cells, measured with a glass microelectrode, were similar in irradiated cells (9.4±4.9 eV) and controls (10.2±2.0 eV) on the 7th day of the culture. Glucose metabolism was investigated through the activity of G6P-DH (a key enzyme of the pentose phosphate shunt) and the activities of GAP-DH and pyruvate kinase (key enzymes of glycolysis pathway). Assays performed over a complete growth curve showed that chronic irradiation did not induce significant change of G6P-DH but GAP-DH and pyruvate kinase appeared transiently inhibited (up to 25%) during the early exponential growth phase. Catalase activity was not significantly perturbed under irradiation. A correlation between the increase of total catalase activity in cultures and the GAP-DH normal activity restoration was observed, probably related to a decrease of SH-group oxidation

303

Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contribution to our understanding of the cross-cultural implications on ethical values in the business context. This understanding provides unique insights into ethics education and the need for a contextual understanding of applied ethics.

Comiskey, Christina Pryor

2012-01-01

304

In vivo-like drug responses of human tumors growing in three-dimensional gel-supported primary culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in vitro test of cell sensitivity to drugs that indicates in vivo response is an important need in cancer therapy and cancer drug development. Toward this end, the authors previously developed a collagen gel-supported culture system for growth of human tumors. This three-dimensional culture system is general and grows tumors at high frequency directly from surgery or biopsy that maintain important in vivo properties in vitro, including tissue architecture. They report here that with autoradiographic techniques measuring cellular DNA synthesis the drug responses of individual cells within the tissue structure of in vitro-grown tumors can be determined. Twenty tumor classes, including all the major ones, have been measured in toto at >50% frequency. Quantitative and qualitative results show increasing cell kill with rising cytotoxic drug concentration, differential drug sensitivities of multiple cell types within individual cultured tumors, differential sensitivities of a series of tumors of the same histopathological classification to a single drug, differential sensitivities of individual tumors to a series of drugs, and sensitivity patterns of various tumor types similar to the sensitivities found in vivo. Therefore, the results indicate that potentially important therapeutic data can be obtained from tumor specimens growing in vitro for the individual cancer patient as well as for rational and relevant screening for new agents active against human solid tumorsgents active against human solid tumors

305

A noninvasive transfer system for polarized renal tubule epithelial cell sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes  

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Full Text Available We used temperature-responsive culture dishes onto which the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(Nisopropylacrylamide, was covalently grafted for tissue engineering. Confluent cells harvested as intact sheets from these surfaces by simple temperature reduction can be transferred to various surfaces including additional culture dishes, other cell sheets, and tissues. In order to examine the maintenance of cell polarity, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and human primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells which had developed apical-basal cell polarity in culture, were subjected to cell sheet transfer. This functional and structural cell polarity, which is susceptible to treatment with trypsin, was examined by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Using our cell-sheet method, the noninvasive transfer of these cell sheets retaining typical distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, GLUT-1, SGLT-1, aquaporin-1, neutral endopeptidase and dipeptidylendopeptidase IV, could be achieved. The transferred cell sheets also developed numerous microvilli and tight junctions at the apical and lateral membranes, respectively. For biochemical analysis, immunoblotting of occludin, a transmembrane protein that composes tight junctions, was conducted and results confirmed that occludin remained intact after cell sheet transfer. This two-dimensional cell sheet manipulation method promises to be useful for tissue engineering as well as in the investigation of epithelial cell polarity.

Kushida A.

2005-08-01

306

The Role of Spirituality in Irish Adult Education in Culturally Responsive Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirituality, religion, and culture are complicated subjects. Indeed, they are fundamental socialising forces that affect how adult learners make meaning in the world. While there has been considerable discussion of the spiritual and religious dimensions of adult learning in North America and to some extent in England, there has been little direct…

Tisdell, Elizabeth J.

2010-01-01

307

A Culturally Responsive Literacy Program for Hispanic Fathers and Their Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined a language and cultural literacy program for Hispanic fathers to promote their children's literacy development. This study had two phases: (a) training the teachers and (b) educating the fathers. The results indicated that the fathers learned how to promote their Hispanic children's literacy development using their family's…

Saracho, Olivia N.

2010-01-01

308

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Connecting New Zealand Teachers of Science with Their Maori Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper illustrates how important changes can occur in science learning and teaching if teachers take the trouble to understand and respect the cultural worlds of Indigenous students, and incorporate something of this understanding within their teaching practice. Ten teachers participated in a specially-designed one-year university postgraduate…

Glynn, Ted; Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Macfarlane, Angus

2010-01-01

309

OKSALE: Building a Culturally Responsive Virtual Library of Education Resources for a Tribal College.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the development of a virtual library of education resources for preservice teachers at a tribal college, the Northwest Indian College, to help increase the number of Native American teachers. Discusses content, including links and pathfinders; graphics and design that are culturally sensitive and appropriate; and communication and…

Roy, Loriene

2002-01-01

310

Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tanacetum parthenium produces biologically active sesquiterpene lactones (SL). Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor known to activate a series of genes termed the antioxidant response element (ARE). Activation of Nrf2/ARE may be useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we isolated 11 SL from T. parthenium with centrifugal partition chromatography and semipreparative HPLC. Compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to activate the ARE on primary mouse cortical cultures as well as for their toxicity towards the cultures. All SL containing the ?-methylene-?-lactone moiety were able to activate the ARE and cause cellular toxicity. The structure-activity relationship among the SL isolated indicates that the guaianolides were more active and when lacking the endoperoxide functionality less toxic then the germacranolides. PMID:22923197

Fischedick, Justin T; Standiford, Miranda; Johnson, Delinda A; De Vos, Ric C H; Todorovi?, Sla?ana; Banjanac, Tijana; Verpoorte, Rob; Johnson, Jeffrey A

2012-11-01

311

A comparison of cytokine production in 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures of bone marrow stromal cells of multiple myeloma patients in response to RPMI8226 myeloma cells.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We examined cytokine production by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs of patients with multiple myeloma (MM in response to contact with myeloma RPMI8226 cells in standard 2-dimensional (2D cultures and in 3-dimensional (3D cultures on a gelatine sponge scaffold. It was detected that BMSCs in the 3D cultures produced more IL-11 and HGF and less IL-10 than in the 2D cultures. Moreover, RPMI8226 cells after contact with BMSCs in 3D cultures produced more sIL-6R than in the classic 2D cultures. We concluded that 3D cultures of BMSCs with myeloma cells offered a promising model for in vitro examination of interactions between myeloma cells and the bone marrow stroma and for examination of potent antimyeloma agents.

Jacek Roli?ski

2009-05-01

312

Cultura organizacional y la responsabilidad social en las universidades públicas / Organizational Culture and Social Responsibility in Public Universities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito del artículo es determinar la relación entre la cultura organizacional y la responsabilidad social en las universidades públicas de la Costa Oriental del Lago del estado Zulia (COL). La población estuvo conformada por el personal Directivo, Docente y Administrativo de las universidades [...] públicas de la Costa Oriental del Lago, así como también los representantes de las Asociaciones de Vecinos. Los resultados encontrados evidencian que existe una relación directamente proporcional y moderada entre los elementos de la cultura y la responsabilidad social de las universidades en estudio, situación que explica la relación positiva fuerte. Considerando estos hallazgos, se sugieren una serie de lineamientos estratégicos direccionados hacia cuatro categorías: funcionamiento, de educación, cognoscitivos y epistemológicos y sociales. Concluyéndose que existen deficiencias en la presencia de elementos como: creencias, valores, rituales, lenguaje e historia, que conforman la cultura, lo cual refleja que la percepción que el personal posee, es el de una cultura corporativa moderadamente débil. Abstract in english The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between organizational culture and social responsibility in public universities on the C.O.L. The population consisted of directive, educational and administrative personal from public universities on the East Coast of Lake Maracaibo, plus repre [...] sentatives from neighbors’ associations. Results showed that a directly proportional and moderate relationship exists between elements of the culture and social responsibility at the universities under study, a situation that explains the strong, positive relation. Considering these findings, a series of strategic guidelines was suggested, directed toward four categories: functional, educational, cognitive, epistemological and social. Conclusions were that some deficiencies exist in the presence of elements that constitute culture, such as beliefs, values, rituals, language and history, indicating that the perception the personnel holds is that of a slightly weak corporative culture.

Cira de, Pelekais; Mariela, Rivadeneira.

2008-04-01

313

Cultura organizacional y la responsabilidad social en las universidades públicas / Organizational Culture and Social Responsibility in Public Universities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El propósito del artículo es determinar la relación entre la cultura organizacional y la responsabilidad social en las universidades públicas de la Costa Oriental del Lago del estado Zulia (COL). La población estuvo conformada por el personal Directivo, Docente y Administrativo de las universidades [...] públicas de la Costa Oriental del Lago, así como también los representantes de las Asociaciones de Vecinos. Los resultados encontrados evidencian que existe una relación directamente proporcional y moderada entre los elementos de la cultura y la responsabilidad social de las universidades en estudio, situación que explica la relación positiva fuerte. Considerando estos hallazgos, se sugieren una serie de lineamientos estratégicos direccionados hacia cuatro categorías: funcionamiento, de educación, cognoscitivos y epistemológicos y sociales. Concluyéndose que existen deficiencias en la presencia de elementos como: creencias, valores, rituales, lenguaje e historia, que conforman la cultura, lo cual refleja que la percepción que el personal posee, es el de una cultura corporativa moderadamente débil. Abstract in english The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between organizational culture and social responsibility in public universities on the C.O.L. The population consisted of directive, educational and administrative personal from public universities on the East Coast of Lake Maracaibo, plus repre [...] sentatives from neighbors’ associations. Results showed that a directly proportional and moderate relationship exists between elements of the culture and social responsibility at the universities under study, a situation that explains the strong, positive relation. Considering these findings, a series of strategic guidelines was suggested, directed toward four categories: functional, educational, cognitive, epistemological and social. Conclusions were that some deficiencies exist in the presence of elements that constitute culture, such as beliefs, values, rituals, language and history, indicating that the perception the personnel holds is that of a slightly weak corporative culture.

Cira de, Pelekais; Mariela, Rivadeneira.

314

An Investigation into the Relationship between Culturally Responsive Teaching and Fourth-, Fifth-, and Sixth-Grade Student Performance on the California Standards Tests: Teacher Perceptions, Definitions, and Descriptions  

Science.gov (United States)

This mixed-methods study is an investigation into the relationship between culturally responsive teaching and fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade student performance on the California Standards Tests (CSTs). The significance of this research lies in its evaluation of the way that the self-perceived cultural proficiency level of the teacher and…

Coghlan, Robert R.

2011-01-01

315

A Story within a Story: Culturally Responsive Schooling and American Indian and Alaska Native Achievement in the National Indian Education Study  

Science.gov (United States)

There have been numerous calls to increase quantitative studies examining the role of culturally responsive schooling (CRS) on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) achievement. The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is the only large-scale study focused on (AIAN) students' cultural experiences within the context of schools. Given…

Lopez, Francesca A.; Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Schram, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

316

Plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. In contrast to the plant, cell cultures of opium poppy do not accumulate alkaloids constitutively but produce sanguinarine in response to treatment with certain fungal-derived elicitors. The induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis provides a model platform to characterize the regulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid pathways and other defense responses. Proteome analysis of elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures by two-dimensional denaturing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of 219 of 340 protein spots based on peptide fragment fingerprint searches of a combination of databases. Of the 219 hits, 129 were identified through pre-existing plant proteome databases, 63 were identified by matching predicted translation products in opium poppy-expressed sequence tag databases, and the remainder shared evidence from both databases. Metabolic enzymes represented the largest category of proteins and included S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, several glycolytic, and a nearly complete set of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, one alkaloid, and several other secondary metabolic enzymes. The abundance of chaperones, heat shock proteins, protein degradation factors, and pathogenesis-related proteins provided a comprehensive proteomics view on the coordination of plant defense responses. Qualitative comparison of protein abundance in control and elicitor-treated cell cultures allowed the separation of induced and constitutive or suppressed proteins. DNA microarrays were used to corroborate increases in protein abundance with a corresponding induction in cognate transcript levels. PMID:18682378

Zulak, Katherine G; Khan, Morgan F; Alcantara, Joenel; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

2009-01-01

317

Regulation of gonadotropin receptors, gonadotropin responsiveness, and cell multiplication by somatomedin-C and insulin in cultured pig Leydig cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author have investigated the effects of insulin and somatomedin-C/insulin like growth factor I(Sm-C) in purified porcine Leydig cells in vitro on gonadotrophins (hCG) receptor number, hCG responsiveness (cAMP and testosterone production), and thymidine incorporation into DNA. Leydig cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, vitamin E, and insulin (5 ?g/ml) maintained fairly constant both hCG receptors and hCG responsiveness. When they were cultured for 3 days in the same medium without insulin, there was a dramatic decline (more than 80%) in both hCG receptor number and hCG responsiveness. However the cAMP but not the testosterone response to forskolin was normal. Both insulin and Sm-C at nanomolar concentrations prevent the decline of both hCG receptors and hCG-induced cAMP production. At nanomolar concentrations, Sm-C and insulin enhanced hCG-induced testosterone production but the effect of Sm-C was significantly higher than that of insulin. However, the effect of insulin at higher concentrations (5 ?g/ml) was significantly higher than that of Sm-C at 50 ng/ml. In contrast, at nanomolar concentrations only Sm-C stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell multiplication, the stimulatory effect of insulin on these parameters, was seen only at micromolar concentrations. These results indicate that both Sm-C and insulin acting through the receptors increase Leydig cell steroidogenic responsiveness to hCG by increasing hCG receptor number and improving some step beyond cAMP formation. In contrast, the mitogenic effects of insulin are mediated only through Sm-C receptors

318

Enhanced triterpene production in Tabernaemontana catharinensis cell suspension cultures in response to biotic elicitors  

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Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Tabernaemontana catharinensis were treated with autoclaved homogenates of Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium avelanium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects caused by the concentration, exposure time and the type of elicitor on the accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenes were monitored. When exposed to biotic elicitors for longer periods, some cell lines redoubled the production of those triterpenes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae homogenate was the best elicitor of triterpenes in all cell lines investigated.

Paulo Sérgio Pereira

2007-01-01

319

Investigating Apology Response Strategies in Australian English and Bahasa Indonesia: Gender and Cultural Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on apologies have proliferated in pragmatics research, but little research has been conducted on apology responses (ARs). The present inquiry contributes to filling the gap in the literature, and it does so by examining such responses in two languages, Australian English (AE) and Bahasa Indonesia (BI). The study ultimately focuses on two…

Adrefiza; Jones, Jeremy F.

2013-01-01

320

Effect of diclofenac and antidepressants on the inflammatory response in astrocyte cell culture.  

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Central nervous system (CNS) has a completely separate immune system that communicates with the neurons by small molecules called cytokines. Cytokines are involved in many crucial processes in neuron including cell metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. It has been reported that cytokine imbalance is involved in the progression of many CNS diseases such as neuropsychiatric disorders (depression, schizophrenia, autism, and bipolar disorder) and neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease). Here, the effects of diclofenac, different antidepressants (sertraline, venlafaxine, and fluvoxamine), and vitamin B? (pyridoxine) on IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) change with and without immune challenges with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated in in vitro culture of astrocytes from 2-day-old Swiss-Albino mice. Diclofenac and Sertraline significantly (p 0.05) TNF-? in the astrocyte culture. Antidepressant (sertraline) showed positive effects (increased IL-10 and reduced TNF-? level) possibly through the suppression of Th1 lymphocytes and monocytes and stimulation of Th2 lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. NSAID (diclofenac) showed positive immune regulation effect possibly through the inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase enzyme. Based on these findings, it may conclude that, diclofenac and antidepressants (sertraline) may positively contribute in the cytokine production in astrocyte cell culture. PMID:23896940

Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Rana, Md Sohel

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in, cultured and wild, white seabream from Northwest Atlantic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metals are environmentally ubiquitous and can be found at high concentrations in seawater and subsequently in marine organisms. Metals with high redox potential can trigger oxidative stress mechanisms with damaging effects in biological tissues. In aquatic species, oxidative stress has been evaluated by assessing antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative damages in tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers and metal residues in white seabream (Diplodus sargus), a species entering aquaculture production in Portugal. Metal residues (Cu, Cd, As and Pb), in liver and muscle, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed at different stages in the life cycle of white seabream under culture conditions and in wild specimens, of a marketable size. Metal concentrations in tissues were low, and below the established limits. However, wild white seabream showed higher accumulation than cultured ones. Antioxidant enzymes, namely catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were correlated with metal accumulation. Oxidative damages to tissues were low, with wild white seabream showing lower levels than cultured fish. This study showed that white seabream has a good antioxidant defense system, capable of reducing oxidative damages in tissues resulting from the presence of metals. PMID:18783819

Ferreira, Marta; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Joana; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Vale, Carlos; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda

2008-12-15

322

Polyamine oxidase 7 is a terminal catabolism-type enzyme in Oryza sativa and is specifically expressed in anthers.  

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Polyamine oxidase (PAO), which requires FAD as a cofactor, functions in polyamine catabolism. Plant PAOs are classified into two groups based on their reaction modes. The terminal catabolism (TC) reaction always produces 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP), H2O2, and the respective aldehydes, while the back-conversion (BC) reaction produces spermidine (Spd) from tetraamines, spermine (Spm) and thermospermine (T-Spm) and/or putrescine from Spd, along with 3-aminopropanal and H2O2. The Oryza sativa genome contains seven PAO-encoded genes termed OsPAO1-OsPAO7. To date, we have characterized four OsPAO genes. The products of these genes, i.e. OsPAO1, OsPAO3, OsPAO4 and OsPAO5, catalyze BC-type reactions. Whereas OsPAO1 remains in the cytoplasm, the other three PAOs localize to peroxisomes. Here, we examined OsPAO7 and its gene product. OsPAO7 shows high identity to maize ZmPAO1, the best characterized plant PAO having TC-type activity. OsPAO7 seems to remain in a peripheral layer of the plant cell with the aid of its predicted signal peptide and transmembrane domain. Recombinant OsPAO7 prefers Spm and Spd as substrates, and it produces DAP from both substrates in a time-dependent manner, indicating that OsPAO7 is the first TC-type enzyme identified in O. sativa. The results clearly show that two types of PAOs co-exist in O. sativa. Furthermore, OsPAO7 is specifically expressed in anthers, with an expressional peak at the bicellular pollen stage. The physiological function of OsPAO7 in anthers is discussed. PMID:24634478

Liu, Taibo; Kim, Dong Wook; Niitsu, Masaru; Maeda, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Masao; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Berberich, Thomas; Kusano, Tomonobu

2014-06-01

323

Rice improvement, involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plantlets in comparison with the control. Irradiation with 30 Gy of rice callus increased also the percentage of regenerated green plantlets. For indica rice, the combination of the suitable dose of gamma rays irradiation on seeds and an improved medium, increased the percentage of callus induction. This approach made it possible to use anther culture in indica rice breeding. Somatic tissue cultures combined with radiation-induced mutagenesis led to the development of a number of promising mutants including some new cytoplasm-nucleus interacting male-sterile lines with almost 100% stigma exertion. Their development would be of practical significance for increasing the genetic diversity for production of hybrid rice. (author)

324

Evaluation of Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cultivars Response to Salinity Stress Through Greenhouse Experiment and Tissue Culture Technique  

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Full Text Available The response to salinity stress of 4 rice cultivars was evaluated through a greenhouse experiment and a tissue culture technique at Agricultural College, Mazandaran University, Sari, Iran, during 2003. In the first experiment, carried out at seedling stage, three salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mmol NaCl were used, pots arranged as a split plot based on completely randomized design with four replications and traits including seedling dry weight, wet weight, shoot length and root length were measured. In the second experiment, cultivars were callus induced trough the seed culture and calli placed in LS mediums containing four salinity levels (0, 75, 112.5 and 150 mmol NaCl. The experimental lay-out was factorial based on completely randomized design with 6 replications and callus volume of cultivars was measured according to Hooker and Nabors scale. The results indicated that all cultivars were influenced by increasing salinity level from 0 to 150 mmol NaCl in all traits. Tichung-65 distinguished the most salt-tolerant cultivar, showed the lowest reduction in evaluated traits by increasing salinity stress, whereas Tarom chaloosi was the salt-sensitive one. Moreover, cultivars including Tarom chaloosi and Binam chaloosi, exhibiting low salt tolerance characteristic in seedling stage generated tolerant calli through tissue culture technique as the salinity level increased from 0 to 150 mmol NaCl.

Sahab Rahmanzadeh

2008-01-01

325

Purification and partial characterisation of two abscisic-acid-responsive proteins induced in cultured embryos ofPisum sativum L.  

Science.gov (United States)

When pea (Pisum sativum L.) embryos were cultured on low osmotica, with or without added abscisic acid (ABA), there was very little change in the total mRNA translation products resolved by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The only marked alteration was an increase in production of two low-molecular-weight proteins. The purification and partial characterisation of these two ABA-responsive seed proteins (ABR17 and ABR18) is described. Both proteins were purified to homoeneity, as judged by SDS-PAGE, from embryos cultured in the presence of ABA. Antisera were raised against both proteins. Each serum cross-reacted with the other protein, indicating that the proteins are closely related. Their apparent molecular masses (Mrs) were estimated to be 17200 (ABR17) and 18100 (ABR18) by SDS-PAGE, and 26000 by gel filtration. Both proteins were heterogeneous on isoelectric focusing. Neither protein was detected (by immunoblotting or immunoprecipitation of cell-free translation products) in embryos grown in vivo at early to mid-development stages but both were present in embryos late in development. These proteins appear to be produced late in seed development but are capable of being induced early in development by culturing embryos in vitro and are markedly enhanced by ABA. PMID:24201839

Barratt, D H; Domoney, C; Wang, T L

1989-12-01

326

Response surface methodology for the optimization of keratinase production in culture medium containing feathers produced by Kocuria rosea.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 43-fold increase in keratinase production by Kocuria rosea was achieved in batch fermentation using response surface methodology. Factorial designs were used to select the components of a culture medium that showed a significant effect on keratinase production. An orthogonal-central composite experimental design was performed, with only two (feathers and magnesium) from nine initial compounds being further analyzed by response surface methodology. An optimum keratinase production of 14 886.9 U/mg was obtained with the following medium composition (per litre): NH4Cl, 0.3 g; NaCl, 0.3 g; K2HPO4, 3.2 g; KH2PO4, 4.0 g; MgSO4.6H2O, 0.5 g; yeast extract, 0.1 g; and finely milled feathers, 30 g. The medium was shaken at 400 r/min with an incubation period of 14 h at 40 degrees C. PMID:16699569

Bernal, C; Diaz, I; Coello, N

2006-05-01

327

Enhanced triterpene production in Tabernaemontana catharinensis cell suspension cultures in response to biotic elicitors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cell suspension cultures of Tabernaemontana catharinensis were treated with autoclaved homogenates of Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium avelanium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects caused by the concentration, exposure time and the type of elicitor on the accumulation of penta [...] cyclic triterpenes were monitored. When exposed to biotic elicitors for longer periods, some cell lines redoubled the production of those triterpenes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae homogenate was the best elicitor of triterpenes in all cell lines investigated.

Paulo Sérgio, Pereira; Fábio Kiss, Ticli; Suzelei de Castro, França; Camila Moniz de Souza, Breves; Miriam Verginia, Lourenço.

328

Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions  

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Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

D. Christopher Rogers

2014-02-01

329

Comparative study of proliferation of suckling and adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture in response to growth-stimulating factors.  

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Full Text Available The replicative responses of suckling and adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture to growth-stimulating factors were compared. By addition of L-proline alone, the [3H]-thymidine labeling of suckling rat hepatocytes was dramatically enhanced, but that of adult ones was not. Epidermal growth factor (EGF, insulin, triiodothyronine (T3 and glucagon also enhanced the labeling of suckling rat hepatocytes regardless of the presence or the absence of L-proline. On the other hand, in the absence of L-proline, only EGF enhanced the labeling of adult rat hepatocytes, and, in the presence of L-proline, insulin as well as EGF enhanced the labeling. In the presence of growth factors and L-proline, the number of suckling rat hepatocytes increased up to about 143%, whereas that of adult rat hepatocytes hardly increased. Thus, a remarkable difference in replicative responses to growth factors and L-proline was observed between suckling and adult rat hepatocytes in primary culture.

Handa,Yoshihiko

1986-12-01

330

Morphogenetic responses of embryo culture of wheat related to environment culture conditions of the explant donor plant Respostas morfogenéticas de embriões de trigo em função do ambiente de cultivo da planta doadora de explantes  

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Availability of immature embryos as explants to establish wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by tissue culture can be limited by climatic factors and the lack of high quality embryos frequently hampers experimentation. This study evaluates the effects of rainfall, various temperature-based variables and sunshine duration on tissue culture response (TCR) traits including callus formation (CF), regenerating calli (RC), and number of plants per embryo (PPE) for 96 wheat genotypes of worldwide origin. ...

Dejan Dodig; Miroslav Zori?; Nevena Miti?; Radomirka Nikoli?; King, Stephen R.; Blažo Lalevi?; Gordana Šurlan-Momirovi?

2010-01-01

331

Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth [...] and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p

Beatriz de Oliveira, Costa; Ely, Nahas.

2012-03-01

332

Fish cell cultures as in vitro models of inflammatory responses elicited by immunostimulants. Expression of regulatory genes of the innate immune response.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the differential expression of various genes related to the regulation of the innate immune responses, including pro-inflammatory (IL-1?1, IL-8, TNF-?1, TNF-?2) and immune-suppressing (IL-10) cytokines, interferon-induced Mx-1 protein, enzymes regulating nitric oxide (inducible nitric oxide synthase, arginase-2) and eicosanoid (COX-2) production, and Toll-like pathogen pattern-recognition receptors TLR-3, TLR-5 and TLR-9, in two lympho-haematopoietic stromal cell lines derived from the spleen (trout splenic stroma, TSS) and the pronephros (trout pronephric stroma-2, TPS-2) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as well as in primary cultures of rainbow trout head kidney macrophages, after their exposure to the well-known immunostimulants LPS, levamisole and poly I:C. Although there were differences in the responses between the two stromal cell lines, using reverse transcription followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) we demonstrated that exposure to the immunostimulants, particularly poly I:C and LPS, resulted in significant changes in the expression of the immunoregulatory genes in the two stromal cell lines in many cases their responses resembling in fold change magnitudes and in response profiles to those observed in the primary macrophage cultures. Exposure to poly I:C and, with lower fold change values, to LPS produced upregulation of the pro- (IL-1?, IL-8, TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine genes, as well as of the Mx-1 gene. Furthermore, the immunostimulation elicited the upregulation of COX-2, iNOS and arginase-2 genes in the cell lines. Likewise, the TSS and TPS-2 cell lines significantly upregulated the expression of TLR-3, TLR-5 and TLR-9 genes after exposure to the immunostimulants, thus explaining the ability of the stromal cells to recognise and respond to the immunostimulants. Such results give support to an important role of lympho-haematopoietic stromal cells in the development and control of pro-inflammatory responses in fish. The upregulation of genes of pro-inflammatory cytokines and of mediators of the innate immune responses correlates well with the previously demonstrated functional capacities, including phagocytosis, microbicidal activity and NO production, exhibited by the TSS and TPS-2 stromal cell lines when exposed to the same immunostimulants. On the other hand, the expression of immunosuppressing genes (IL-10, COX-2 and arginase-2) demonstrate that the lympho-haematopoietic stromal cells are also able to contribute to the control of inflammatory responses. This study reinforce the possibility of using histotypic cell cultures, as those formed by the TSS and TPS-2 cell lines, formed by heterogeneous cell populations that partially replicates the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, to develop cost-effective and repetitive in vitro systems for the screening of immunostimulant candidates for aquaculture, as they are able to replicate in vitro immune regulatory networks occurring in vivo. PMID:23872473

Fierro-Castro, C; Barrioluengo, L; López-Fierro, P; Razquin, B E; Villena, A J

2013-09-01

333

Does culture matter?: a cross-national investigation of women's responses to cancer prevention campaigns.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined how culture influences the persuasive effects of health campaigns that promote early screening for cancers that occur in women. Two message dimensions were included: individualistic vs. collectivistic appeal and gain vs. loss frame. A total of 955 females from three countries-the United States, South Korea, and Japan-participated in the experiment. From the results, we found that message framing alone did not significantly influence the effectiveness of public campaigns for women's cancer prevention; and this tendency was similar across the three countries. Gain-framed messages are likely to be more persuasive when combined with a collectivistic appeal, however, whereas loss-framed messages tend to be more effective when combined with an individualistic appeal in both the United States and South Korea; but this result was not the case for Japan. Based on the findings, we suggested theoretical and managerial implications as well as several directions for future research. PMID:22150267

Han, Kyoo-Hoon; Jo, Samsup

2012-01-01

334

Response of Grape Explants (cv. Bidaneh Soltani to Different Culture Media  

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Full Text Available To study the effects of different combinations of auxin (IBA, NAA and cytokinin (BAP, TDZ regulators, basal salts (MS, WPM, NN and gelling agents (Gelrite and Plant Agar on the growth and development of seedless grape explants (cv. Bidaneh Soltani, a factorial experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized design. The number and length of grown shoots were analyzed as two main characteristics. Growth regulators and salts had significant effects (at %1 on the shoot proliferation. The highest number of shoots was observed on MS salts combined with BAP (2.2 mg/l and IBA (0.5 mg/l on the 18th days of culture. Compared to Plant Agar, Gelrite had a better effect on the normal growth of the shoots. Based on the new shoots, combinations of MS salts and hormones may be used for micropropagation of seedless grape cultivars in the in vitro condition.

GH. Garousi

2008-10-01

335

Multicultural Education Applications for Teachers of the Deaf: Creating Culturally Responsive Curriculum.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes Project THREADS (Transformations for Humanistic and Responsive Education for All Deaf Students), a program to develop a model for increasing the multicultural competence of inservice teachers of the deaf. Project THREADS is designed to facilitate changes in individual teachers and changes in their institutions while working to…

deGarcia, Barbara Gerner

336

Cultural Transferability of Socially Responsible Leadership: Findings from the United States and Mexico  

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The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in students' capacities for socially responsible leadership as well as significant predictors of its development at a higher education institution in Mexico as compared with US schools. Results revealed that Mexican students both entered and left college with significantly…

Dugan, John P.; Rossetti Morosini, Ana M.; Beazley, Michael R.

2011-01-01

337

Using Mathematics Strategies in Early Childhood Education as a Basis for Culturally Responsive Teaching in India  

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The objective of this small study was to elicit responses from early childhood teachers in India on mathematics learning strategies and to measure the extent of finger counting technique adopted by the teachers in teaching young children. Specifically, the research focused on the effective ways of teaching mathematics to children in India, and…

Guha, Smita

2006-01-01

338

Confronting the Social Context of the Classroom: Media Events, Shared Cultural Experience, and Student Response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses teaching current events in sociology with a focus on events in the mass media and the responses of students to those events. Describes three teaching strategies recommended for teaching current events because they enable students to understand the media's role in society. Includes references. (CMK)

Sobieraj, Sarah; Laube, Heather

2001-01-01

339

Educational Leadership in the Age of Diversity: A Case Study of Middle School Principals' Cultural Awareness and Influence in Relation to Teachers' Cultural Awareness and the Use of Culturally Responsive Curriculum and Pedagogy in Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This embedded case study examined middle school principals' self-reported cultural awareness, teachers' self-reported cultural awareness, and principals' influence on cultural awareness in the school. In addition, the study focused on how principals influenced teachers' cultural awareness and implementation of multicultural education, and…

Robinson, Lynda Marie Cesare

2010-01-01

340

The Response of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) to Heavy Metals in Pure Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dark septate endophytes (DSE) occur widely in association with plants exposed to heavy metal stress. However, little is known about the response of DSE exposed to heavy metals. In this study, five DSE were isolated from the roots of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. seedlings growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in China. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as Gaeumannomyces cylindrosporus, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora mustea, Exoph...

Ban, Yihui; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Xu, Zhouying; Zhang, Haihan; Yang, Yurong

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Transcriptomic Response of Lactococcus lactis in Mixed Culture with Staphylococcus aureus? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mechanisms of interaction between Lactococcus lactis and the food pathogen Staphylococcus aureus are of crucial importance, as one major role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in fermented foods is to inhibit undesirable and pathogenic flora. It was never questioned if the presence of a pathogen can actively modify the gene expression patterns of LAB in a shared environment. In this study, transcriptome and biochemical analyses were combined to assess the dynamic response of L. lactis in a mi...

Nouaille, Se?bastien; Even, Sergine; Charlier, Cathy; Le Loir, Yves; Cocaign-bousquet, Muriel; Loubie?re, Pascal

2009-01-01

342

Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Callus Growth Rate (CGR, Relative Fresh Weight Growth (RFWG, Relative Growth Rate (RGR and Percentage of Callus Induction (PCI indicating the presence of genetic variability, different responses of bread wheat genotypes to callus induction and possible selection of callus induction at in vitro level using immature embryos. Mean comparison of the traits measured in callus induction showed that genotypes 1 and 6 had the highest PCI (100%. Analysis of variance for CGR, RFWG and RGR, Relative Water Content (RWC, Percent of Callus Chlorosis (PCC and Proline Content (PC exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters in the stress condition (15% PEG. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes (6, (19 and (1 as the most drought tolerant.

Parvin Elyasi

2012-07-01

343

Tissue Culture response of Local Varieties of Rice (Oryza sativa L. of NWFP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four rice genotypes i.e. Swat I, Swat II, Dilrosh 97 and Pakhal were tested for their callus induction frequency and their subsequent regeneration from different explants on a variety of media combinations. Swat I appeared to be the most responsive genotype to callus induction followed by Swat II, Dilrosh 97 and Pakhal respectively. Swat I and Swat II produced high amount of callus compared to other genotypes. Callus induction frequencies ranged from 68.88 to 57.70 percent in Swat I, 60.00 percent in Swat II, 52.20 percent in Dilrosh 97 and 40.00 to 42.20 percent in Pakhal from scutella on two different media. Similar response was also found for root induced calli. However, N6 medium containing 2 mg/l of 2,4-D was found to be optimum for callus induction irrespective of the genotypes and explant studied. All varieties showed significant differences in regeneration from two and three week old calli. RM medium containing MS salts and vitamins, 2 gm casamino acid, 1 mg/l NAA, 2 mg/l BAP and 30 gm sorbitol gave comparatively higher regeneration response than the other two media tested. Plants regenerated were grown in harmone free MS medium for vigorous rooting and subsequent transfer to soil.

Asad Jan

2001-01-01

344

Characterization of a lily anther-specific gene encoding cytoskeleton-binding glycoproteins and overexpression of the gene causes severe inhibition of pollen tube growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work characterizes an anther/pollen-specific gene that encodes potential intermediate filament (IF)-binding glycoproteins in lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. Snow Queen) anthers during the development and pollen germination. LLP13 is a single gene that encodes a polypeptide of 807 amino acids, and a calculated molecular mass of 91 kDa. The protein contains a predicted transmembrane domain at the N-terminus and a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF)593 at the C-terminal half of the polypeptide. Sequence analysis revealed that LLP13 shares significant identity (37-41 %) with two intermediate filament antigen-binding proteins, representing a unique subgroup of DUF593 domain proteins from known rice and Arabidopsis species. The expression of LLP13 gene is anther-specific, and the transcript accumulates only at the stage of pollen maturation. Both premature drying and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment of developing pollen indicated that LLP13 was not induced by desiccation and ABA, but by other developmental cues. Antiserum was raised against the overexpressed LLP13C fragment of the protein in Escherichia coli and affinity-purified antibodies were prepared. Immunoblot analyses revealed that the LLP13 protein was a heterogeneous, anther-specific glycoprotein that accumulated only at the stage of pollen maturation. The protein is not heat-soluble. The level of LLP13 protein remained for 24 h during germination in vitro. Overexpression of LLP13-GFP or GFP-LLP13 in lily pollen tubes caused severe inhibition of tube elongation. The LLP13 protein codistributed with mTalin in growing tubes, suggesting that it apparently decorates actin cytoskeleton and is likely a cytoskeleton-binding protein that binds with IFs that potentially exist in pollen tubes. PMID:24944111

Wang, Bing-Jyun; Hsu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Yun-Chu; Wang, Co-Shine

2014-09-01

345

Reflexiones sobre la actualidad del relativismo cultural: respuesta a Nicolás Sánchez Durá / Considerations about the Pertinence of Cultural Relativism: Response to Nicolás Sánchez Durá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este ensayo propone entablar una discusión con las tesis contenidas en el artículo de Nicolás Sánchez Durá, "Actualidad del relativismo cultural". En primer lugar, se analizan el etnocentrismo y el relativismo como dos respuestas éticas distintas al fenómeno de la diversidad cultural. En segundo lug [...] ar, se desarrollan la formulación del relativismo y el concepto de cultura propuestos por Sánchez Durá para analizarlos a la luz de la epistemología elaborada por el Wittgenstein tardío. En tercer lugar, se agregan argumentos a favor del relativismo cultural. El relativismo cultural, visto como una doctrina, tropieza con dilemas lógicos y conceptuales; considerado como una actitud contextual de índole moral y política, contribuye a combatir la autoridad del etnocentrismo basado en la exclusividad del otro. Abstract in english This essay proposes to develop and to discuss some thesis included in the article by Nicolás Sánchez Durá: "The Pertinence of Cultural Relativism". Firstly, the ethnocentric and relativistic positions are both considered as two different ethical attitudes towards the cultural diversity. Secondly, th [...] e concepts of "relativism" and "culture" are developed and analyzed in the light of Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Although, the cultural relativism considered as a philosophical doctrine faces logical and conceptual dilemmas, the latter disappear when relativism is treated as contextual, mostly moral and political attitude, which contributes to undermine the legacy of ethno-centrism based on the other's exclusivity.

Witold, Jacorzynski.

346

Reflexiones sobre la actualidad del relativismo cultural: respuesta a Nicolás Sánchez Durá / Considerations about the Pertinence of Cultural Relativism: Response to Nicolás Sánchez Durá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este ensayo propone entablar una discusión con las tesis contenidas en el artículo de Nicolás Sánchez Durá, "Actualidad del relativismo cultural". En primer lugar, se analizan el etnocentrismo y el relativismo como dos respuestas éticas distintas al fenómeno de la diversidad cultural. En segundo lug [...] ar, se desarrollan la formulación del relativismo y el concepto de cultura propuestos por Sánchez Durá para analizarlos a la luz de la epistemología elaborada por el Wittgenstein tardío. En tercer lugar, se agregan argumentos a favor del relativismo cultural. El relativismo cultural, visto como una doctrina, tropieza con dilemas lógicos y conceptuales; considerado como una actitud contextual de índole moral y política, contribuye a combatir la autoridad del etnocentrismo basado en la exclusividad del otro. Abstract in english This essay proposes to develop and to discuss some thesis included in the article by Nicolás Sánchez Durá: "The Pertinence of Cultural Relativism". Firstly, the ethnocentric and relativistic positions are both considered as two different ethical attitudes towards the cultural diversity. Secondly, th [...] e concepts of "relativism" and "culture" are developed and analyzed in the light of Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Although, the cultural relativism considered as a philosophical doctrine faces logical and conceptual dilemmas, the latter disappear when relativism is treated as contextual, mostly moral and political attitude, which contributes to undermine the legacy of ethno-centrism based on the other's exclusivity.

Witold, Jacorzynski.

2013-04-01

347

Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from oncorhynchus mykiss following the combined exposure of ionising radiation and a heavy metal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mechanisms of toxicant action on biological systems are difficult to identify when more than one contaminant is involved due to potential synergistic and antagonistic effects. There is a general paucity of research into the effect of radiation exposure in tandem with common environmental contaminants due to the inherent difficulties involved. In vitro cell cultures are particularly suited to the study of toxic mechanisms due to their proximity to toxic modes of action and the absence of the multiple defence mechanisms present in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures are particularly beneficial in this area of research as they still maintain many of their tissue specific functions. The objective of this study was to distinguish different mechanisms of cell death (growth arrest, apoptosis, primary and secondary necrosis and proliferation), following combination exposure to ionising radiation and a heavy metal (ZnCl2). The model system employed was a primary cell culture of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) epidermal tissue which has been previously used to study the effects of various environmental agents in this laboratory. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified morphologically while proliferation was assessed immuno-cyto-chemically using an anti PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) antibody. While radiation doses up to and including 10 Gy had no effect on growth, exposure to ZnCl2 produced a significant dose dependent reduction in growth (10, 50, 75, 100 and 200 ppm ZnCl2). Preliminary results indicate no significant effect on growth following a combined exposure of 5 Gy + 50 ppm ZnCl2. These results may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to multiple contaminant exposures. (author)

348

Impact of defective interfering particles on virus replication and antiviral host response in cell culture-based influenza vaccine production.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the replication of influenza viruses, defective interfering particles (DIPs) can be generated. These are noninfectious deletion mutants that require coinfection with a wild-type virus but interfere with its helper virus replication. Consequently, coinfected cells mainly produce DIPs. Little is known about how such noninfectious virus particles affect the virus yield of cell culture-based influenza vaccine production. We compared infections of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells with two seed virus preparations of the influenza virus strain A/Puerto Rico/8/34 that contain different amounts of DIPs. A combination of conventional RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and flow cytometry revealed that DI genomes indeed strongly accumulate in coinfected cells and impede the viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, cells infected at the higher DIP concentration showed a stronger antiviral response characterized by increased interferon-? expression and apoptosis induction. Furthermore, in the presence of DIPs, a significant fraction of cells did not show any productive accumulation of viral proteins at all. Together, these effects of DIPs significantly reduce the virus yield. Therefore, the accumulation of DIPs should be avoided during influenza vaccine production which can be achieved by quality controls of working seed viruses based on conventional RT-PCR. The strategy for the depletion of DIPs presented here can help to make cell culture-based vaccine production more reliable and robust. PMID:25132064

Frensing, Timo; Pflugmacher, Antje; Bachmann, Mandy; Peschel, Britta; Reichl, Udo

2014-11-01

349

``Yo soy indígena'': identifying and using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to make the teaching of science culturally responsive for Maya girls  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge—TEK—can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes the current situation of Maya women and girls in Guatemala and emphasizes the important need for educators to create science-learning opportunities that are culturally congruent. The author posits that when considering how to make the teaching and learning of science culturally responsive for Maya girls, educators must begin with the scientific knowledge inherent within Maya communities. Indigenous communities have a wealth of TEK that can be used to contextualize science curricula that can be purposely designed to meet the nuanced cultural needs of traditional Maya girls within and outside Guatemala.

Hamlin, Maria L.

2013-12-01

350

Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

Sokolov, Mykyta V., E-mail: sokolovm@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Irina V., E-mail: ipanyutinv@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Igor G., E-mail: igorp@helix.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Neumann, Ronald D., E-mail: rneumann@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2011-05-10

351

Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

352

Impact of corporate social responsibility claims on consumer food choice : A cross-cultural comparison  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - The study assesses the impact of two different corporate social responsibility (CSR) claims, relating to social and environmental dimensions, on consumers’ wine choice across international markets. It is analysed how point of purchase CSR claims compete with other food claims and their awareness, penetration and consumers’ trust are examined. Design/methodology/approach - A discrete choice experiment with a visual shelf simulation was used to elicit consumer preferences and to estimate marginal willingness to pay for CSR and other food claims across the UK, France, Germany, the US Eastcoast, the US Midwest, Anglophone and Francophone Canada. Findings - CSR claims relating to social and environmental responsibility have a similar awareness, penetration and consumer trust, but differ in their impact on consumer choice, where environmental corporate responsibility claims benefit from a higher marginal willingness to pay. Consumer valuation of CSR claims significantly differs across international markets, but is consistently lower than for organic claims. Research limitations/implications - The study was limited to wine and future research is required to generalise findings to other food categories and different origins. Practical implications - CSR claims are competing with existing food claims and have a lower awareness, lower purchase penetration and less positive impact on consumer choice than organic claims. Producers are recommended to focus on communicating environmental rather than social CSR activities. The relative value of CSR claims differs across countries and companies need to adapt their strategies to specific market conditions. Originality/value - This is the first cross-national study that analyses the impact of CSR claims on consumer food choice relative to other food claims using large representative consumer samples. The strength of the paper also pertains to the utilisation of innovative choice experiments covering a large range of choice relevant product attributes.

Mueller Loose, Simone; Remaud, Hervé

2013-01-01

353

The Technology Transfer Dilemma. Preserving morally responsible education in a utilitarian entrepreneurial academic culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 'Research, teaching, and service' is growing to include business. With unbridled enthusiasm, academicians bring discoveries to market instead of having them sit fallow in the public domain. Dilemmas have emerged. Academic scientists underwrite their work with public funds and employ a utilitarian labor force, namely, students seeking an education. The benefits from a successful business are significantly higher than in academic ventures, so the temptation increases to abrogate professional responsibilities and loyalties in favor of personal gain. Safeguards are needed for the institution and its students while simultaneously permitting the development of scientifically, socially, and economically important discoveries.

Brian P. Coppola

2001-10-01

354

Understanding the Way Students Speak: A Guide for Educators on Creating Culturally Responsive Environments for Linguistically Diverse Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dialectal diversity is an area of student diversity that is often overlooked in terms of how educators view students who speak nonstandard forms of English. Moreover, public school educators must explore the issue of dialectal diversity among students and how they are perceived based on their language variation. More importantly, educators must examine their perceptions about those who speak non Standard English and how their perceptions translate into classroom practices. This is a theoretical article that explores students’ language variations and its impact on their educational opportunities. More importantly, it examines the notion of teacher perceptions of students who speak nonstandard variations of Standard English and their classroom practices. The article explores the relationship between dialectal diversity and student achievements as well as the role of educators have in creating culturally responsive educational environments to maximize students’ potential. The article also provides guidelines for educators on how to create an optimum learning environment for students.

Alisa Taliaferro

2012-07-01

355

Response surface optimisation for acetone-butanol-ethanol production from cassava starch by co-culture of Clostridium butylicum and Bacillus subtilis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE production from cassava starch was enhanced by a syntrophic co-culture of Clostridium butylicum TISTR 1032 and high amylase producing Bacillus subtilis WD 161 without anaerobic pretreatment. The production of amylase and ABE using this co-culture were respectively 16 and 6 times higher than those using the pure culture of C. butylicum TISTR 1032. The effect of the medium components on the performance of the co-culture was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. Among the investigated components, cassava starch and ammonium nitrate contributed a significant effect on the production of amylase and ABE, while yeast extract had less effect. Based on the optimum strategy using RSM, the ABE production by the co-culture was improved 2.2-fold compared with that obtained from the initial condition and with a minimum requirement of nitrogen source.

Benjamas Cheirsilp

2011-11-01

356

Quantification of Dynamic Morphological Drug Responses in 3D Organotypic Cell Cultures by Automated Image Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports the growing needs for user-friendly, straightforward solutions that facilitate large-scale, cell-based 3D assays in basic research, drug discovery, and target validation. PMID:24810913

Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

2014-01-01

357

Thermo-responsive non-woven scaffolds for "smart" 3D cell culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermo-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has received widespread attention for its in vitro application in the non-invasive, non-destructive release of adherent cells on two dimensional surfaces. In this study, 3D non-woven scaffolds fabricated from poly(propylene) (PP), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and nylon that had been grafted with PNIPAAm were tested for their ability to support the proliferation and subsequent thermal release of HC04 and HepG2 hepatocytes. Hepatocyte viability and proliferation were estimated using the Alamar Blue assay and Hoechst 33258 total DNA quantification. The assays revealed that the pure and grafted non-woven scaffolds maintained the hepatocytes within the matrix and promoted 3D proliferation comparable to that of the commercially available Algimatrix™ alginate scaffold. Albumin production and selected cytochrome P450 genes expression was found to be superior in cells growing on pure and grafted non-woven PP scaffolds as compared to cells grown as a 2D monolayer. Two scaffolds, namely, PP-g-PNIPAAm-A and PP-g-PNIPAAm-B were identified as having far superior thermal release capabilities; releasing the majority of the cells from the matrices within 2 h. This is the first report for the development of 3D non-woven, thermo-responsive scaffolds able to release cells from the matrix without the use of any enzymatic assistance or scaffold degradation. PMID:22367720

Rossouw, Claire L; Chetty, Avashnee; Moolman, Francis Sean; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Hoppe, Heinrich; Mancama, Dalu T

2012-08-01

358

A qualitative investigation into key cultural factors that support abstinence or responsible drinking amongst some Pacific youth living in New Zealand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Abstinence and responsible drinking are not typically associated with youth drinking culture. Amongst Pacific youth in New Zealand there are high numbers, compared to the general New Zealand population, who choose not to consume alcohol. The Pacific youth population is made up of several ethnic groups; their ethno-cultural values are largely Polynesian and heavily influenced by the socio-economic realities of living in New Zealand. This paper explores fact...

Suaalii-Sauni Tamasailau; Samu Kathleen; Dunbar Lucy; Pulford Justin; Wheeler Amanda

2012-01-01

359

Planning and designing urban places in response to climate and local culture: A case study of Mussafah District in Abu Dhabi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper deals with how climate and local culture specifics contribute to urban diversity, and how they affect the way urban spaces are being conceived, planned and designed. The authors argue that regardless of the globally accepted principles of sustainability which emphasize smart responses, diversity and culture as the prime drives in urban development of, cities around the world are continually experiencing the all-alike solutions, which often compromise their identity and charac...

Baji?-Brkovi? Milica; Milakovi? Mira

2011-01-01

360

Statistical optimization of culture conditions by response surface methodology for synthesis of lipase with Enterobacter aerogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Optimization of lipase production by Enterobacter aerogenes was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) where the statistical model was obtained by fractional factorial central composite design. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters, viz. temperature, oil concentration, i [...] noculum volume, pH and incubation period on lipase production was examined. Optimization of physico-chemical parameters resulted 1.4- fold increase in lipase activity. The optimum levels of parameters were 34°C, oil concentration 3%, inoculum volume 7%, pH 7 and incubation time 60 h for obtaining a maximum lipase activity of 27.25 U/ml.

Annapurna, Kumari; Paramita, Mahapatra; Rintu, Banerjee.

 
 
 
 
361

Statistical optimization of culture conditions by response surface methodology for synthesis of lipase with Enterobacter aerogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Optimization of lipase production by Enterobacter aerogenes was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) where the statistical model was obtained by fractional factorial central composite design. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters, viz. temperature, oil concentration, i [...] noculum volume, pH and incubation period on lipase production was examined. Optimization of physico-chemical parameters resulted 1.4- fold increase in lipase activity. The optimum levels of parameters were 34°C, oil concentration 3%, inoculum volume 7%, pH 7 and incubation time 60 h for obtaining a maximum lipase activity of 27.25 U/ml.

Annapurna, Kumari; Paramita, Mahapatra; Rintu, Banerjee.

1349-13-01

362

Global transcriptome analysis of two ameiotic1 alleles in maize anthers: defining steps in meiotic entry and progression through prophase I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental cues to start meiosis occur late in plants. Ameiotic1 (Am1 encodes a plant-specific nuclear protein (AM1 required for meiotic entry and progression through early prophase I. Pollen mother cells (PMCs remain mitotic in most am1 mutants including am1-489, while am1-praI permits meiotic entry but PMCs arrest at the leptotene/zygotene (L/Z transition, defining the roles of AM1 protein in two distinct steps of meiosis. To gain more insights into the roles of AM1 in the transcriptional pre-meiotic and meiotic programs, we report here an in depth analysis of gene expression alterations in carefully staged anthers at 1 mm (meiotic entry and 1.5 mm (L/Z caused by each of these am1 alleles. Results 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm anthers of am1-489 and am1-praI were profiled in comparison to fertile siblings on Agilent® 4 × 44 K microarrays. Both am1-489 and am1-praI anthers are cytologically normal at 1.0 mm and show moderate transcriptome alterations. At the 1.5-mm stage both mutants are aberrant cytologically, and show more drastic transcriptome changes. There are substantially more absolute On/Off and twice as many differentially expressed genes (sterile versus fertile in am1-489 than in am1-praI. At 1.5 mm a total of 4,418 genes are up- or down-regulated in either am1-489 or am1-praI anthers. These are predominantly stage-specific transcripts. Many putative meiosis-related genes were found among them including a small subset of allele-specific, mis-regulated genes specific to the PMCs. Nearly 60% of transcriptome changes in the set of transcripts mis-regulated in both mutants (N = 530 are enriched in PMCs, and only 1% are enriched in the tapetal cell transcriptome. All array data reported herein will be deposited and accessible at MaizeGDB http://www.maizegdb.org/. Conclusions Our analysis of anther transcriptome modulations by two distinct am1 alleles, am1-489 and am1-praI, redefines the role of AM1 as a modulator of expression of a subset of meiotic genes, important for meiotic progression and provided stage-specific insights into the genetic networks associated with meiotic entry and early prophase I progression.

Fernandes John F

2011-08-01

363

Altered response of vascular smooth muscle cells to exogenous biochemical stimulation in two- and three-dimensional culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Removal of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) from their native environment alters the biochemical and mechanical signals responsible for maintaining normal cell function, causing a shift from a quiescent, contractile phenotype to a more proliferative, synthetic state. We examined the effect on SMC function of culture on two-dimensional (2D) substrates and in three-dimensional (3D) collagen Type I gels, including the effect of exogenous biochemical stimulation on gel compaction, cell proliferation, and expression of the contractile protein smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA) in these systems. Embedding of SMC in 3D collagen matrices caused a marked decrease in both cell proliferation and expression of SMA. The presence of the extracellular matrix modulated cellular responses to platelet-derived growth factor BB, heparin, transforming growth factor-beta1, and endothelial cell-conditioned medium. Cell proliferation and SMA expression were shown to be inversely related, while gel compaction and SMA expression were not correlated. Taken together, these results show that SMC phenotype and function can be modulated using biochemical stimulation in vitro, but that the effects produced are dependent on the nature of the extracellular matrix. These findings have implications for the study of vascular biology in vitro, as well as for the development of engineered vascular tissues. PMID:12581735

Stegemann, Jan P; Nerem, Robert M

2003-02-15

364

Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

Watson Andrew J

2007-01-01

365

Inflammatory cytokine and microRNA responses of primary human dendritic cells cultured with Helicobacter pylori strains.  

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Full Text Available Primary human dendritic cells (DC were used to explore the inflammatory effectors, including cytokines and microRNAs, regulated by Helicobacter pylori. In a 48 h ex-vivo co-culture system, both H. pylori B38 and B45 strains activated human DCs and promoted a strong inflammatory response characterized by the early production of pro-inflammatory TNF? and IL-6 cytokines, followed by IL-10, IL-1ß and IL-23 secretion. IL-23 was the only cytokine dependent on the cag pathogenicity island status of the bacterial strains. DC activation and cytokine production were accompanied by an early miR-146a upregulation followed by a strong miR-155 induction, which mainly controlled TNF? production. These results pave the way for further investigations into the nature of H. pylori antigens and the subsequently activated signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory response to H. pylori infection, the deregulation of which may likely contribute to gastric lymphomagenesis.

PHILIPPELEHOURS

2013-08-01

366

Ultrastructural studies on the sporogenous tissue and anther wall of Leucojum aestivum (amaryllidaceae in different developmental stages  

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Full Text Available In this study, ultrastructures of anther wall and sporogenous tissue of Leucojum aestivum were investigated during different developmental stages. Cytomictic channels were seen between pollen mother cells during prophase I. Polar distribution was described in the organelle content of pollen mother cells and microspores in early phases of microsporogenesis and also in pollen mitosis. Active secretion was observed in tapetal cells. Previous reports about developmental stages of male gametophyte were compared with the results of this study.Neste estudo, ultraestruturas da parede da antera e tecido esporogênico de Leucojum aestivumforam foram investigados durante diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento. Canais citomíticos foram vistos entre células - mãe de pólen durante a prófase I. Distribuição polar foi descrita no conteúdo da organela de células - mãe de pólen e em micrósporos nas fases iniciais da microesporogênese e também na mitose do pólen. Secreção ativa foi observada nas células tapetais. Registros prévios referentes aos estágios do desenvolvimento do gametófito masculino foram comparados com os resultados deste estudo.

Nuran Ekici

2012-12-01

367

Ultrastructural studies on the sporogenous tissue and anther wall of Leucojum aestivum (amaryllidaceae) in different developmental stages  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste estudo, ultraestruturas da parede da antera e tecido esporogênico de Leucojum aestivumforam foram investigados durante diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento. Canais citomíticos foram vistos entre células - mãe de pólen durante a prófase I. Distribuição polar foi descrita no conteúdo da organe [...] la de células - mãe de pólen e em micrósporos nas fases iniciais da microesporogênese e também na mitose do pólen. Secreção ativa foi observada nas células tapetais. Registros prévios referentes aos estágios do desenvolvimento do gametófito masculino foram comparados com os resultados deste estudo. Abstract in english In this study, ultrastructures of anther wall and sporogenous tissue of Leucojum aestivum were investigated during different developmental stages. Cytomictic channels were seen between pollen mother cells during prophase I. Polar distribution was described in the organelle content of pollen mother c [...] ells and microspores in early phases of microsporogenesis and also in pollen mitosis. Active secretion was observed in tapetal cells. Previous reports about developmental stages of male gametophyte were compared with the results of this study.

Nuran, Ekici; Feruzan, Dane.

368

Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no pa [...] drão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana. Abstract in english Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin trea [...] ted cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.

Maria Izabel, Gallão; Ângelo Luiz, Cortelazzo; Manuel Pedro Salema, Fevereiro; Edy Sousa de, Brito.

2010-04-01

369

Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells  

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Full Text Available Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin treated cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no padrão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana.

Maria Izabel Gallão

2010-04-01

370

Effect of aging on norepinephrine-related proliferative response in primary cultured periportal and perivenous hepatocytes.  

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Norepinephrine (NE) amplifies the mitogenic effect of EGF in a rat liver through the adrenergic receptor coupled with G protein, Gh?. Gh? is also known as a transglutaminase 2 (TG2), whose cross-linking activity is implicated in hepatocyte growth. Recently, we found that NE-induced amplification of EGF-induced DNA synthesis in hepatocytes obtained from perivenous regions of liver is caused by inhibiting the downregulation of EGF receptor (EGFR) by TG2. In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on NE-related proliferative response. Hepatocytes were obtained from the liver of 7- and 90-wk-old rats. To examine this in detail, periportal hepatocytes (PPH) and perivenous hepatocytes (PVH) were isolated using the digitonin/collagenase perfusion technique. EGF or NE receptor binding was analyzed by Scatchard analysis. Changes in NE-induced DNA synthesis, G protein activity, and TG2 activity were measured. NE slightly potentiated [125I]EGF binding to EGFR, and EGF-induced DNA synthesis in PVH but not in PPH. [3H]NE binding studies indicated that PVH have a greater number of receptors than PPH, and that the number of receptors in both subpopulations increased with aging. NE-induced changes in G protein activity and TG2 activity in 90-wk-old rats were slight compared with 7-wk-old rats. These results suggest that NE results in a slight recovery effect on the age-related decline in EGF-induced DNA synthesis because of incomplete switching of the function from TG2 to Gh?. PMID:22837346

Kobayashi, Tomonori; Saito, Yohei; Ohtake, Yosuke; Maruko, Akiko; Yamamoto, Yumi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Fukumoto, Motoi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Ohkubo, Yasuhito

2012-10-01

371

Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride  

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Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

2012-03-15

372

Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 ?gL(-1) of CdCl2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 ?gL(-1) as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 ?gL(-1), which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses. PMID:22018399

Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithé; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

2012-03-01

373

Biological Responses of Three-Dimensional Cultured Fibroblasts by Sustained Compressive Loading Include Apoptosis and Survival Activity  

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Pressure ulcers are characterized by chronicity, which results in delayed wound healing due to pressure. Early intervention for preventing delayed healing due to pressure requires a prediction method. However, no study has reported the prediction of delayed healing due to pressure. Therefore, this study focused on biological response-based molecular markers for the establishment of an assessment technology to predict delayed healing due to pressure. We tested the hypothesis that sustained compressive loading applied to three dimensional cultured fibroblasts leads to upregulation of heat shock proteins (HSPs), CD44, hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) along with apoptosis via disruption of adhesion. First, sustained compressive loading was applied to fibroblast-seeded collagen sponges. Following this, collagen sponge samples and culture supernatants were collected for apoptosis and proliferation assays, gene expression analysis, immunocytochemistry, and quantification of secreted substances induced by upregulation of mRNA and protein level. Compared to the control, the compressed samples demonstrated that apoptosis was induced in a time- and load- dependent manner; vinculin and stress fiber were scarce; HSP90?, CD44, HAS2, and COX2 expression was upregulated; and the concentrations of HSP90?, hyaluronan (HA), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were increased. In addition, the gene expression of antiapoptotic Bcl2 was significantly increased in the compressed samples compared to the control. These results suggest that compressive loading induces not only apoptosis but also survival activity. These observations support that HSP90?, HA, and, PGE2 could be potential molecular markers for prediction of delayed wound healing due to pressure. PMID:25102054

Kanazawa, Toshiki; Nakagami, Gojiro; Minematsu, Takeo; Yamane, Takumi; Huang, Lijuan; Mugita, Yuko; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sanada, Hiromi

2014-01-01

374

Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Serving Bias: Responses to the Attributional Style Questionnaire by American and Finnish Students.  

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Presents results of a study of cultural differences in causal attributions and self-serving bias. Reports more self-serving attributional bias among U.S. than Finn students. Suggests that cultural differences in self-serving bias may result from differences in need to protect self-esteem, coping mechanisms, and cultural differences in coping with…

Nurmi, Jari-Erik

1992-01-01

375

"Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls  

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This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes…

Hamlin, Maria L.

2013-01-01

376

Becoming a Culturally Responsive Early Childhood Educator: A Tool to Support Reflection by Teachers Embarking on the Anti-Bias Journey  

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As children begin to construct an understanding of human differences and similarities during their earliest years, early childhood teachers are challenged to be culturally responsive to the diversity of the children and families. Based on our review of the literature and other existing tools, this article discusses a framework for thinking about…

Chen, Dora W.; Nimmo, John; Fraser, Heather

2009-01-01

377

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Us3 Gene Deletion Influences Toll-like Receptor Responses in Cultured Monocytic Cells  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors have a key role in innate immune response to microbial infection. The toll-like receptor (TLR family consists of ten identified human TLRs, of which TLR2 and TLR9 have been shown to initiate innate responses to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and TLR3 has been shown to be involved in defence against severe HSV-1 infections of the central nervous system. However, no significant activation of the TLR3 pathways has been observed in wild type HSV-1 infections. In this work, we have studied the TLR responses and effects on TLR gene expression by HSV-1 with Us3 and ICP4 gene deletions, which also subject infected cells to apoptosis in human monocytic (U937 cell cultures. Results U937 human monocytic cells were infected with the Us3 and ICP4 deletion herpes simplex virus (d120, its parental virus HSV-1 (KOS, the Us3 deletion virus (R7041, its rescue virus (R7306 or wild type HSV-1 (F. The mRNA expression of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR9 and type I interferons (IFN were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The intracellular expression of TLR3 and type I IFN inducible myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA protein as well as the level of apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. We observed that the mRNA expression of TLR3 and type I IFNs were significantly increased in d120, R7041 and HSV-1 (F-infected U937 cells. Moreover, the intracellular expression of TLR3 and MxA were significantly increased in d120 and R7041-infected cells. We observed activation of IRF-3 in infections with d120 and R7041. The TLR4 mRNA expression level was significantly decreased in d120 and R7041-infected cells but increased in HSV-1 (KOS-infected cells in comparison with uninfected cells. No significant difference in TLR2 or TLR9 mRNA expression levels was seen. Both the R7041 and d120 viruses were able to induce apoptosis in U937 cell cultures. Conclusion The levels of TLR3 and type I IFN mRNA were increased in d120, R7041 and HSV-1 (F-infected cells when compared with uninfected cells. Also IRF-3 was activated in cells infected with the Us3 gene deletion viruses d120 and R7041. This is consistent with activation of TLR3 signaling in the cells. The intracellular TLR3 and type I IFN inducible MxA protein levels were increased in d120 and R7041-infected cells but not in cells infected with the corresponding parental or rescue viruses, suggesting that the HSV-1 Us3 gene is involved in control of TLR3 responses in U937 cells.

Waris Matti

2008-11-01

378

Potentialités androgénétiques du palmier dattier Phoenix dactylifera L. et culture in vitro d'anthères  

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Full Text Available Genetic potentialities if five male date palm genotypes, and in vitro culture of anthers. The experimental results derived from the study of five date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. genotypes indicate that the ability of microspores to divide varies with genotype and culture medium. The highest frequency of microspore division is obtained with the induction medium [Murashige and Skoog (MS 1962 mineral elements, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetique (2,4-D, 2-isopentenylaminopurine (2-IP] containing activated charcoal. The pollinator T106 was considered as the most efficient genotype in our experimentation

Harzallah H.

2002-01-01

379

Transcriptional response of soybean suspension-cultured cells induced by Nod factors obtained from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110.  

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Genes responding to Nod factors were picked up by the application of a differential display method for soybean suspension-cultured cells. Forty-five cDNA fragments derived from such genes were detected. Seven fragments (ssc1-ssc7) were successfully cloned. The putative product of genes corresponding to ssc1 was estimated to be a disease-resistance protein relating to the induction of the plant defense response against pathogens, and that corresponding to ssc7 was a sucrose transporter. Amino acid sequences deduced from full-length cDNA corresponding to ssc2 and ssc4 were investigated, and it was shown that these polypeptides were equipped with a leucine zipper motif and with phosphorylation sites that were targeted by tyrosin kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, respectively. In a differential display experiment, the transcriptional levels of three genes corresponding to ssc2, ssc3 and ssc5 were estimated to be up-regulated at 6 h after initiation of the treatment and the remaining four were estimated to be down-regulated. However, transcription of the genes corresponding to all ssc was clearly repressed within 2 h after initiation of the treatment. Five of them were restored to their transcriptional level 6 h after initiation of the treatment, although the others were repressed throughout the experimental period. PMID:12461131

Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Ken-ichi; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Arima, Yasuhiro

2002-11-01

380

Outcomes of a culturally responsive health promotion program for elderly Korean survivors of gastrointestinal cancers: a randomized controlled trial.  

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This single-blind, prospective, randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effects of a culturally responsive health promotion program for elderly Korean (CHP-K) survivors of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. The program consisted of 8 weeks of Qi exercise and face-to-face counseling on physical and psychological factors. A total of 63 Korean GI cancer survivors, aged ?65 years, who had completed their active cancer treatment, were recruited from a cancer center in South Korea. Outcomes included the amount of exercise, body weight, BMI, the Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment scale, the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory, and self-efficacy and self-esteem scales. Repeated measures MANCOVA revealed a significant difference over time between the groups (Wilks' Lambda F1,62 = 5.361, p = 0.007). Univariate RM-ANCOVA for each outcome measure revealed statistically significant differences between groups. These results suggested that the participation in the CHP-K may have enhanced the health of elderly Korean GI cancer survivors. PMID:24156925

Suh, Eunyoung E; Kim, Hyewon; Kang, Jiyoung; Kim, Hyunsun; Park, Kwi Ock; Jeong, Bo Lam; Park, Sang Min; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kwangho; Jekal, Munwoo

2013-01-01