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Sample records for anther culture response

  1. Low dose gamma ray effect on inhancer of anther culture response in some spring wheat genotypes

    In this investigation, the response of anther culture in three wheat genotypes (Tajan, Atila, R-12) after a treatment with a low dose of gamma ray was studied. Spikes of these genotypes were irradiated in doses of 2, 3 Gy, then cultured in the modified P4 medium, containing 200 mgl-1 Glutamine, 15% Ficol, 2 mgl-1 2,4-D, and 0.5 mgl-1 Kinitin. It was found that there is a significant difference between the genotypes, and also between the irradiated treatment levels and the non-irradiated treatment. All of the genotypes showed a low response to the anther culture meaning a decrease in the response with irradiation. 90% of Calli of Atila, 67% of R-12 and 46% of Tajan in control treatment produced plants. But the Calli of irradiated anthers did not produced any plant (green or albino). Generally by the gamma irradiation, we observed a low response in the Calli and plant let production

  2. Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures

    The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

  3. Anther culture of chili pepper (Capsicum spp.).

    Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum spp.) is a very important horticultural crop around the world and is especially important for Mexicans because of its impact in the culture and the cuisine. Biotechnological tools such as tissue culture techniques and specifically anther culture may be applied successfully for plant breeding and genetic improvement in order to generate isogenic lines (100% homozygous) in a shorter time in comparison with the classic breeding methods. In this chapter, a protocol for efficient recovery of chili pepper haploid plants from in vitro cultured anthers is described. PMID:22610631

  4. Anther culture studies in W. Murcott mandarin genotype

    Yıldız AKA KAÇAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining haploid plants is one of the important tool that shorten the plant breeding process. Anther culture is one of the method used for obtaining haploid plants. Anther culture studies are carried out for several plant species. In the present study, flowers at different sizes of W. Murcott mandarin were collected at the blooming period. Stage of mononuclear microspore of anthers was determined according to method of acetocarmine. Mononuclear microspore stage of anthers was observed in flowers 4-5 mm in diameter. Anther culture experiments were carried out with 4-5 mm in diameter anthers. In this study, temperature pre-treatment was performed at 4˚C and 25˚C for two days. Surface sterilization was performed in flowers and anthers were cultured in nutrient medium N6. Anther culture assays were performed with the three different concentrations of TDZ (0 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.1 mg l-1 TDZ, 0.5 mg l-1 TDZ. Half of anthers were cultured in dark condition while the other half in 16 hours light, 8 hours dark climate room conditions. Anthers containing mononuclear microspore stage were cultured and, changes occurring in the anther explants were discussed in the article.

  5. Attempts to induce haploids in anther cultures of sugar, fodder and wild species of beet

    Janina Rogozińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, aimed at obtaining beet haploids from anthers, the effect of mineral media, potato and sugar beet extract and p-fluorophenylalanine (PFP in combination with growth substances was tested. Nutrient-starved plants as anther-donors, anther-starvation, cold treatment and photoperiod were also analysed. On all mineral media the anthers produced callus and roots; however, the percentage depended on the combination of growth substances used. The best medium for differentiation was that of Linsmaier and Skoog with 25 µM zeatin or 6-(3-methyl-2-butenylaminopurine with 5 µM naphthalene-l-acetic acid (25.5%. The addition of PFP caused an increase in the percentage of anther differentiation (41.6%. Besides callus and roots on one of the anthers (in ca. 140000 tested, vegetative buds were formed from which numerous plants were obtained (2n. Plant and anther nutrient starvation did not improve the anther response to differentiation, nor did it induce haploid development, similarly as cold treatment of inflorescences or isolated anthers. The anthers of wild species showed lower ability to differentiate than those of sugar or fodder beets. Cytological analyses showed formation of multicellular structures until ca. the 12-th day of anther culture; afterwards, they degenerated.

  6. Callus Production and Plant Regeneration from Anther Culture of Some Turkish Barley Cultivars

    SAVAŞKAN, Çigdem

    1999-01-01

    Anther culture of four different barley cultivars ( Hordeum vulgareL. cvs. Anadolu, Cumhuriyet-50, Obruk-86 and Tokak-157/37) currently cultivated in Turkey has been investigated. Two different culture media (BAC3 and FHG) were used and the effect of a 21-day cold pretreatment was studied. Androgenesis on BAC3 medium was evaluated statistically in all genotypes and the percentage of anther response and the frequency of calli production were found significantly different (P

  7. Using Anther Culture Method for Flax Breeding Intensification

    Miķelsone, Andra; Grauda, Dace; Stramkale, Veneranda; Ornicāns, Reinis; Rashal, Isaak

    2015-01-01

    Flax breeding is a long and complicated process based on hybridization and following selection of the best plants. Because of possible occasional cross-pollination the development of genetically stable homozygous lines could last more than 15 years. For more rapid creating of initial material for flax breeding anther culture methods for producing doubled haploid (DH) lines could be used successfully. The goal of this study was to develop the best anther culture protocol for producing DH lines...

  8. Using silicon to enhance rice anther culture efficiency

    LIUBaoshen; CHENCuixia; YINLiqing; ZHANGJianjun

    1997-01-01

    Silicon is one of essential elements for rice growth. Deficiency of silicon in plants would affect the physiological metabolism of rice.Considering the important role of silicon to rice and no silicon being used in ordinary anther culture medium, we added absorbable silicon at different concentrations into either or both in-duction media (IM), differentiation media(DM) to study the effect of silicon on anther culture efficiency.

  9. Combined effect of induced mutations and media for improving genetic architecture of brassica through anther culture

    Radiation and media effect on the anther culture response of two brassica napus varieties (i.e. Pak cheen and Salam) were studied. It was observed that low doses of gamma radiation (100-250 rads) enhanced the anther callusing response of the varieties on both of the cultured media. Different genotypic response was observed in case of plant regeneration. In variety Salam Plant lets were regenerated from the calli treated up to the dose of 750 rads. However, in case of variety Pak-cheen the calli could not be differentiated beyond 100 rads. (author)

  10. Effect of the genotype and gamma irradiation on the anther cultures of a 10x10 diallel cross of wheat

    Anther culture responsiveness, irradiation effect and reciprocal effect were evaluated on ten genotypes (V1-V10) and a 101x0 diallel cross. Gamma irradiation dose of 100 Gy was applied to seeds of parents and F1 cross from which the donor plants were grown. Non-irradiated donor plants were also used for comparison. Anthers were plated on potato-2 callus induction medium and calli formed were transferred to MS medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), indolacetic acid (1.0 mg/L), kinetin (1.0 mg/L), inositol (100 mg/L) and solidified with agar (0.7%). Genotypes showed big differences for callus induction, plant regeneration and anther culturability rate. The most responsive materials were V2, V10 and V5 with 76.0, 27.4 and 10.8 green plants per 100 anthers respectively. No irradiation effect was found for the parents nor the F1 crosses on the pooled data. Mean anther culture response of specific genotypes showed that irradiation significantly increased anther culturability rate of V3 from 0.1 to 27.6 green plants per 100 anthers. No reciprocal effect was observed. (author)

  11. Anther culture in pepper(Capsicum annuum L.)

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2003-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis has been defined as the developmental process producing a perfect embryo from a single cell, which achieves bipolar at as a stage as occurs in zygotic embryogenesis. The main achievement of these examination was to establish in vitro effective technology for haploid and diploid plant regenerants; induction of embryogenesis from microspores in pepper anther culture as well as micropropagation in vitro of pepper regenerants. Induction of somatic embryogenesis from anth...

  12. Improvement of bananas (Musa cvs.) through in vitro anther culture

    Agricultural products play a great role in the Colombian economy, and the banana is one of the most important. Since 1981, one of the more serious problems effecting production of this crop is the fungus Mycosphaerella fijensis sp. difformis, that causes black sigatoka disease. Most of the recent efforts to control this disease have been directed towards the identification of clones tolerant or resistant to this disease. One alternative approach is the use of anther culture to obtain resistant haploid plants. Diploid clones (Musa - AA) have been used as a model in this study. The results presented here identify the most appropriate stage of anther development for callus induction and proliferation, and treatments that reduce tissue browning. (author). 12 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Callus induction and plant regeneration from anther culture of rice

    Anthers of five mutant lines of rice derived from the variety ICTA VIRGINIA and five derived from the variety PRECOZICTA as well as the two parental varieties (both varieties indica) containing uninucleate pollen grains, were cultured on a N6 agar medium with 5% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l 2,4-D. The proportion of anthers that produced calli varied from 0% for the mutant lines 881 and 940 to 1.9% for the parental variety Precozicta. The calli were transferred to N6 medium with 3% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin and plantlets developed in 2-5 weeks. A total of 153 green plantlets were obtained. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

  14. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  15. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  16. Cucumber mosaic virus resistant mutant from tobacco's anthers treated with γ ray through anther culture

    Flower buds of Nicotiana tabacum cv. K326, NC89 and 8611, in which the microspore is in the phase of single nucleus and the nucleus is on the side, were irradiated with 60Co γ-ray. Plant lets from anther culture were transplanted and inoculated with poisonous fluid of CMV. The results showed that there was an orientation relation between the variation of disease resistance of plants of NC89, 8611 and the dose of 60Co γ-ray. The variation of leaves of plants was analogous to symptom of CMV when the dose was equal to or more than 4, which caused difficulty for selection. When dose was less than 2krad, there was no difference in disease resistance between the plants induced from irradiation of 60Co γ-ray and the control. However, when dose was equal to 2krad, the difference of disease resistance was at the level of significance. CMV-resistant mutants were selected from the population of haploid plant of NC89 and 8611 induced by 2.0 krad of 60Co γ ray

  17. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

    Leonardo Galli

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  18. Radiation effect in anther cultures of rice variety Krispo-38

    Seeds of rice variety Krispo-38 were irradiated with 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy and sown in the greenhouse. Anthers from plants of each treatment containing uninucleate pollen grains were collected and cultured on an N6 agar medium with 5% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l 2,4-D. The pollen grains were induced to develop calli. The proportion of anthers that produced calli varied from 0.8% for the 400 Gy treatment to 3.3% for the control. The calli were transferred to N6 medium with 3% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin. The proportion of calli that produced green plants varied from 1.9% for the 300 Gy treatment to 10.5% for the 200 Gy one. Plants developed in 2-5 weeks, 101 plants were obtained. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

  19. M8-An effective medium for anther culture of indica rice

    MEIChuansheng; ZHANGJinyu; WuGuangnan

    1992-01-01

    A new dedifferentiation medium (MS) was developed, which greatly improved the efficiency of anther culture of indica rive. The percentage of green plantlets for anthers inoculated on M8 medium was 40% higher than that on N6 medium in 6 cultivars and it was 2.6%, on average, on M8 medium in more than 20 cultivars and lines,

  20. Effectiveness of androgenesis induced in anther culture of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Spasenoski, Mirko

    2007-01-01

    The frequency of obtained androgenic plants de pends highly on the genotype; there fore the low rate of haploid recovery limits the utility of anther culture in pepper breeding. In the present study the effectiveness of induced androgenesis in in vivo anther culture of 19 pep per genotypes was investigated and established. The aim of this study was establishment of effective in vitro technology for study of haploid and diploid plant regenerants; induction of embryogenesis in pepper anth...

  1. Anther Culture of Pepper: Morphological Characteristics of Fruits of Androgenetic Pepper Lines (Capsicum Annuum L.)

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Trajkova, Fidanka

    2012-01-01

    The presented study describes the effectiveness of induced androgenesis in in vitro pepper anther culture. The aim of this study was the establishment of effective technology for induction of embryogenesis in pepper anther culture; development of the embryos into plantlets; successful adaptation and acclimatization of plantlets from sterile to greenhouse conditions, and the breeding process of obtained androgenetic pepper lines in the plastic tunnel conditions. From 19 pepper genotypes under ...

  2. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture

    Salomon Marcus Vinicius

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.

  3. Effect of medium osmotic potential on callus induction and shoot regeneration in flax anther culture.

    Chen, Yurong; Dribnenki, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Development of an efficient and cost-effective doubled haploid production system in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the prerequisite for the application of doubled haploid technology in a practical breeding program. Pre-culture of anthers on a medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days before transfer to the same medium containing 6% sucrose for a total of 28 days culture period significantly increased shoot regeneration for all four genotypes evaluated. Moreover, pre-culture of anthers on medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days was sufficient to dramatically reduce the frequency of shoot regeneration from somatic tissues and thereby to increase the frequency of microspore-derived plants in flax anther culture. Furthermore, replacing 15% sucrose with 6% sucrose and 9% polyethylene glycol (PEG), or 3% sucrose and 12% PEG, in pre-culture medium did not significantly affect callus induction and shoot regeneration. The results indicate that sucrose may act as carbon/energy source as well as an osmotic regulator in flax anther culture. Sucrose as an osmotic regulator may be replaced by a non-metabolizable osmoticum: PEG. The implication of this study in flax anther culture and breeding is discussed. PMID:15235814

  4. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    Kondić-Šipka Ankica; Kobiljski Boris; Hristov Nikola

    2007-01-01

    Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33%) and callus yield (119%), while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively). Seven genotypes (50%) had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers o...

  5. Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of γ-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of γ-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

  6. Microspore Embryogenesis Through Anther Culture in Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.

    Chiancone, Benedetta; Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    Anther culture is a biotechnological method that allows to obtain, in one step, homozygous plants, very important to plant breeding, due to their numerous applications in mutation research, selection, genome sequencing, genetic analysis, and transformation. To induce the microspores, i.e., the immature male gametes, to switch from the normal gametophytic pathway to the sporophytic one, it is necessary to submit them to a type of stress, such as high or low temperature, starvation, or magnetic field. Stress can be applied to the donor plants and/or the floral buds or the anthers or the isolated microspores, before or during the culture. In this chapter, the protocol to induce gametic embryogenesis from anther culture of several cultivars of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan. is reported. PMID:26619882

  7. Induced mutations and Anther culture for sesame improvement

    Seeds of two Sri Lankan sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars MI 2 and MI 3 and of UCR82-203 NS which has indehiscent capsules were treated with gamma rays, ethyl methanesulphonate and diethyl sulphate. Selections were made in segregating populations for improved yield components and morphological characters. Radiation sensitivity studies indicated that the seeds of MI 3 variety were more resistant to irradiation than MI 2. The M1 plants also showed varietal differences in growth reduction. Fifty percent growth reduction for plant height in MI 2 was in the range of 500 - 600 Gy and that for MI 3 was 750 - 1000 Gy. Promising mutants after screening in preliminary trials were tested for yield and adaptability in multilocational trials in different agro-climatic zones. A wide variation and increased mean values of yield and components were recorded in selected mutants in the preliminary trials. Two mutants, MB 29 and MB 33, consistently outyielded the recommended cultivar MI 3 in regional trials. The mutant MB 13 was also promising. MB 29 and MB 29w have a brittle seed coat easy for decortication. A number of mutants with improved characters have been isolated, characterized and included in the cross-breeding programmes. Mutants MB 29 and MB 33 recorded better germination than MI 2 under high osmotic pressure and should be tested for tolerance to drought at early growth phases. The shoot/root ratio was lease in MB 29, MB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synchronous flowering period recorded in MB 29 and C 10 is important in reducing shattering losses and escaping from drought at flowering stage, Two mutants which have lost the undesirable effects associated with the indehiscent character in UCR82-203 NS were later found to have lost the indehiscent character too, suggesting that the undesirable effects of the indehiscent (id id) locus are pleiotropic. Anther culture studies were undertaken with the objective of using doubled haploids for sesame improvement. 25 refs

  8. The enhancement of anther culture efficiency in Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Metzg. (Sinsk.) using low doses of gamma irradiation

    Selected buds of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera Metzg. (Sinsk) cvs Ariana and Primor were treated with various doses of γ-irradiation. When the anthers were removed and cultured, it was shown that low doses of γ-irradiation greatly enhanced anther culture efficiency in both cultivars. When microspore culture techniques were used, however, embryogenesis was reduced by irradiation in all treatments. Some of the resulting embryoids developed directly into plantlets, whereas others developed abnormally and produced secondary embryoids. Plants were regenerated from both anther embryoids and secondary embryoids and, following diploidization, seed was obtained from these plants. (author)

  9. Factors Affecting Embryogenic Callus Production and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Bupleurum chinense

    YANG Cheng-min; ZHAO Yu-kai; WEI Jian-he; ZHAO Li-zi; SUI Chun; ZHANG Zheng; CUI Lu-ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of the genotypes,anther developmental stages,and cultural conditions on the efficiency of embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration in the anthers culture of Bupleurum chinense.Methods The different effects such as four genotypes,plant growth regulators,and temperature condition were compared in the experiments.The histological study was performed with the process of the anther culture.Results The highest inducing rate of embryogenic calli were achieved for the genotypes Zhongcaiyihao(ZCYH),Z4,and Z5 at the early-to middle-uninucleate stages,except for genotype ZPM1 at the tetrad stage.Cold pretreatment increased the production of the embryogenic callus,in which 4-day cold pretreatment improved the production of embryogenic callus from 0% to 2.2% and 5.0% for genotypes ZPM1 and ZCYH,respectively.No embryogenic callus was induced in the medium containing less than 0.75 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid(2,4-D).The highest regeneration rate (34.6%)was obtained in 1/2 MS salts regeneration medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 6-benzylmaminopurine (BA).The low concentration of BA was able to promote the embryogenic callus formation and subsequent plantlet regeneration via somatic embryogenesis.Chromosome counting of regenerated plantlets showed mostly diploid plant (2n = 12)with only one haploid plant(n = 6).Because of the low rate of microspore embryo formation,we only tracked the process of embryogenesis from the connective tissue,instead of microspore by histological observations.Conclusion This study establishes an efficient system for embryogenic callus induction and plant regeneration system.This is the first report on the haploid plantlet through the anther culture orB.chinense.

  10. Pollen—embryogenesis and chromosomal variability in anther culture of Brassica hirta Moench (Sinapis alba L)

    BAJAJYPS; DMOHAPTRA

    1990-01-01

    The anther cultures of Brassica hirta underwent pollenembryogenesis and callusing,which showed a wide range of chromosome numbers varying from 9 (n=12) to a highly polyploid.For embryogenesis,pretreatment of floral buds in 0.4 M sucrose solution for 72 hrs at 4℃ was superior to freshly cultured anthers.Culture temperature of 30℃ for 14 days before maintenance of cultures at 25℃ was significantly beneficial for embryo yield in comparison to cultures continuously incubated at 25℃.Dark treatment during culture was more effective for pollen-embryo yield.

  11. Androgenesis in chickpea: Anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M.;

    2014-01-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids with...... consistent with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an...

  12. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  13. Stimulation effects of γ-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of γ-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of γ-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of γ-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of γ-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

  14. Regeneration of Haploid Plantlet through Anther Culture of Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum

    Rayhanul Kabir KHANDAKAR MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To observe the possibility of producing haploid plants of Chrysanthemum, anthers of three Korean cultivars ‘Yes Morning’, ‘Hi-Maya’, and pot cultivar ‘Peace Pink’ were cultured. Callus induction among cultivars differed little, but equally good results were obtained with the basal MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L of 2,4-D, 2 mg/L of BA, 250 mg/L of casein hydrolysate, 45 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite. A pretreatment of anthers in media at 4 °C for 48h enhanced the callus induction. Calli were allowed to differentiate on basal MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L of BA, 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 2.75 g/L gelrite.  Shoot formation from calli in that media slightly differed among cultivars. Multiple shoots elongated from calli were shifted to basal MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L of NAA, 30 g/L of sucrose; solidified by 3 g/L gelrite for rooting. The plantlets with sufficient roots thus obtained were acclimatized and transferred to the soil. Fifty regenerated plantlets from each cultivar were randomly selected for ploidy observation by chromosome counting and haploid plantlet was detected for the garden cultivar ‘Yes morning’.

  15. Molecular characterization of three anther tissue culture varieties of tobaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. using RAPD analysis

    Gloria Azucena Fernández B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPO analysis was used to characterize two new Flue Cured and one black tobacco type varieties derived from in vitro anther tissue culture technique. RAPOs are proposed as an appropriate complement of the morphoagronomic characteristics evaluations to fulfil international seed registration standards established for the identification of tobacco varieties. The identification of three tobacco varieties and their parents was carried out using the RAPO analysis with 64 random primers. Polymorphic products, 214 in number, were amplified only from 14 primers. Statistical analysis realized with the NTSYS program version 1.2 using the Jaccard similarity coefficient. The visual inspection revealed that five primers allowed the separation of the varieties in two groups, according to the type of tobacco: the Flue Cured and Black; while a group of nine primers separates each variety and establish its genetic relationship with their parents. The results obtained show that this technique is appropiated to establish genetic differences between tobacco varieties.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation and other factors on the induction of calli and regeneration of greed plants in rice anther culture

    Induction of calli and regeneration of green plantlets in anther culture of rice variety, Taipei 309, were greatly affected by gamma irradiation and other factors. Callus formation from the anthers of mid-uninucleate stage pre-incubated at 7 degree C for 5 days were 0.4 and 0.6 times higher than those of the anthers of late uninucleate stage and non-treated control. However, the number of calli with green plantlets and the number of regenerated green plantlets per 100 anthers cultured were 3.1 and 4.1 times higher for the calli from the anthers at late-uninucleate stage than those from the anthers at mid-uninucleate stage; the calli with green plantlets increased with the time of anther incubation (35 days, 7.7%; 45 days, 10.6%; 55 days, 16.7%). However, the ability was lost for all calli 65 days after incubation. The highest ability of green plant regeneration for the calli transferred by 35 days after incubation and differentiated green plantlets at about 25th day after transfer to regeneration medium, which reached 443.6 plants per 100-anthers cultured and was much higher than that of the calli transferred and differentiated green plantlets later. 20 Gy of gamma irradiation at the time when about 5% anthers produced calli by 35 days after incubation has a great positive effects on induction of calli, differentiation and regeneration of green plantlets. The number of callus formation, calli with green plantlets and green plantlets regenerated per 100-anthers cultured were 0.5, 22 and 306 times higher than those of non-irradiated control respectively

  17. Regeneration of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Rutkowska-Krause, I; Mankowska, G; Lukaszewicz, M; Szopa, J

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. The results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. All the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. Anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than somatic cell cultures. However, regenerants derived from anther cells showed valuable breeding features, including increased resistance to fungal wilt. The age of the donor plants and the season they grew in had a noticeable effect on their anther callusing and subsequent plant regeneration. Low temperature had a negative effect and dark pre-treatment a positive effect on callusing and plant regeneration. Different media were most effective for callus induction, shoot induction and rooting. For callus induction two carbon sources (2.5% sucrose and 2.5% glucose) were most effective; for shoots, only sucrose at lower concentration (2%) was effective. Rooting was most efficient in 1% sucrose and reduced (50%) mineral concentration in the medium. It was found that the length of in vitro cultivation significantly increases the ploidy and affects such features as regenerant morphological characteristics, petal colour, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum-induced fungal wilt. The established plant regeneration system provides a basis for the creation of transgenic flax. PMID:12827441

  18. Induction of plants from anthers of Beta vulgaris cultured in vitro

    J. H. Rogozińska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth substances, saccharose and yeast extract on the differentiation of monogerm sugar beet and polygerm fodder beet anthers is studied. Callus and roots were found to form on the anthers. After subculture, callus derived from a well determined combination of growth substances differentiated into buds, from which plantlets were obtained in unlimited numbers. After rooting, they were transfermed to the soil where they continued to grow. This suggests the possibility of an adaptation of this method in vegetative propagation of beets.

  19. Mutant in tobacco anther culture induced by 60Co γ-rays

    The tobacco anthers at uninucleate eccentric stage were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays for the purpose of inducing desirable mutants. The results showed that the induction frequency of plantlets increased following 1kR of 60Co γ-rays treatment. However, the time of plantlet induction was delayed and the percentage of responding anthers as well as the number of plantlets induced per anther significantly decreased after 3kR of 60Co γ-ray radiation which was considered as a semilethal exposure. The plantlet numbers induced per anther were extremely low following 6kR of 60Co γ-ray radiation. A white flower mutant appeared in the induced progenies. The tobacco leaf quality of this mutant were significantly improved as compared with its parental line. The mutant line has been tested and proved to have commercial value though the resistance to the black shank of tobacco slightly decreased as compared with the parental line

  20. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  1. Study of in vitro anther culture in selected genotypes of genus Capsicum

    OLSZEWSKA, Dorota; Kisiala, Anna; NIKLAS-NOWAK, Aleksandra; NOWACZYK, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The combined effect of anther incubation time on CP induction medium (12, 14, and 16 days) and 2 concentrations of kinetin in R1 regeneration medium (0.1 and 0.3 mg/L) on the effectiveness of androgenesis was investigated in 17 genotypes of Capsicum grown in Poland. Plant material consisted of breeding lines and intraspecific hybrids of C. annuum; the species of C. frutescens, C. chinense, and C. baccatum var. pendulum; interspecific hybrids F1 (C. frutescens × C. chinense) and F1 (C. frutesc...

  2. An Observe of "Anther Culture in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro"%《辣椒花药离体培养》评述

    李素文; 黄亚杰; 肖瑜; 张斌

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of reading the existing relative documents about pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) in vitro anther culture, this paper summarizes and comments a newly published article "Anther Culture in Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) in vitro" on the Acta Physiol Plant in 2011 from the effects of several main factors on pepper anther culture, plant regeneration ploidy identification and plant chromosome doubling ect. The authors think this article has briefly introduced the present status of pepper in vitro anther culture abroad, and the existing problems, which is of certain reference value.%在阅读已有辣椒花药离体培养相关文献的基础上,从影响辣椒花药培养的几个主要因素、再生植株倍性鉴定及植株染色体加倍等方面,总结并评述了最近国外发表的一篇文章《辣椒花药离体培养》,认为该文章概括了目前国外辣椒花药离体培养的现状及存在的问题,具有一定参考价值.

  3. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F1) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 5.0 mg L-1 KIN and 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  4. The Callus Induction of Asparagus“Champion” Anther Culture%芦笋“冠军”花药培养愈伤组织的诱导

    包艳存; 李书华; 李霞; 李芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to study asparagus“champion” anther culture technique. [Method] Using the F1 hybrid asparagus variety“champion” as the test material, callus induction in tissue culture process and effects of growth regulator on callus differentiation were studied. [Result] The results showed that using 0. 1% mercuric chloride sterilization 5 min, inoculated on the MS solid medium by adding NAA0. 8 mg/L + 6-BA 2. 0 mg/L of darkness first 10 days, and then light culture, anther callus induction rate reached about 16. 5%. [Conclusion] The asparagus“champion” anther culture technical system is established, which will lay a foundation for carrying out asparagus all male breeding.%[目的]研究芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术。[方法]以杂交一代品种“冠军”为试验材料,研究花药组培过程中影响愈伤组织诱导的因素及生长调节剂对愈伤分化成苗的影响。[结果]采用0.1%升汞灭菌5 min,再接种在添加NAA 0.8 mg/L+6-BA 2.0 mg/L的 MS固体培养基上先暗培养10 d,再光照培养,花药愈伤组织诱导率较高,达16.5%左右。[结论]建立了芦笋“冠军”花药培养技术体系,为开展芦笋全雄育种奠定基础。

  5. 植物生长调节剂TDZ在草莓花药培养中的应用%Application of Plant Growth Regulator TDZ in Strawberry Anther Culture

    王敬东; 张丽; 马洪爱; 陈晓军; 宋玉霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨植物生长调节剂TDE在草莓花药培养中的应用.[方法]采用不同浓度TDZ与NAA植物生长素进行组合,观察其对草莓愈伤组织诱导及其分化的影响.[结果]Ms+TDZ 1.0 mg/L+NAA 0.5 mg/L适用于草莓愈伤组织的分化,分化率高达75%,但TDZ时草莓愈伤组织的诱导无显著作用.[结论]该研究结果为草莓通过花药培养途径进行规模生产提供了参考.%[ Objective] The aim was to investigate the application of plant growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ) in strawberry anther culture.[ Method ] Different combinations of TDZ and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) auxine with different concentrations were used for induction culture, and then its effect on callus induction and plant regeneration were observed. [ Result] The combination of 1.0 mg/L TDZ + 0.5 mg/L NAA was effective to accelerating the differentiation and regeneration of strawberries, and the differentiation ratio was as high as 75%. However, TDZ showed insignificant effect on strawberries anther induction. [ Conclusion] This research had provided reference for large-scale production of strawberry through anther culture.

  6. QTL analysis of the rice seedling cold tolerance in a double haploid population derived from anther culture of a hybrid between indica and japonica rice

    2000-01-01

    A doubled haploid population,derived from anther culture of Fl hybrid between a typical indica cv.and a japonica cv.has been used to investigate the seedling cold tolerance (SCT) in growth cabinet.By dynamically analyzing every day's survival percentages of the parents and DH lines under 7-d cold plus 9-d normal temperature condition,the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for SCT have been mapped based on a molecular linkage map constructed from this population.The results show that two parents had significant differences in SCT and the segregation of SCT in DH lines was basically a continuous distribution with most serious injury on the 6th d of the cold treatment.A total of 4 QTLs for SCT have been identified on chromosomes 1,2,3 and 4 respectively.The additive effects of qSCT-1,qSCT-2 and qSCT-3 have been contributed by the japonica cv JX17,but that of qSCT-4 has been contributed by the indica cv ZYQ8.The mechanism of SCT seems complicated since the above 4 QTLs detected at different stages during the treatment.Further study on the genotypes for these SCT QTLs in the DH lines shows transgressive segregation.It is demonstrated that the lines with stronger SCT over JXl7 have 3-4 loci for SCT.Integration of these QTLs into an appropriate variety may lead to a successful rice breeding program for cold tolerance.

  7. Chromosome Doubling Technique for Anther Culture of Winter Wheat%小麦花培苗染色体加倍技术研究

    杨丽萍; 朱晋云; 李楠

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase chromosome doubling frequency for anther culture of winter wheat, the callus, roots of regenerative plants and tillering node were treated respectively with different concentration of colchicine. The result showed that there were 33.3%~61.5% setting percentage in the treated callus with 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion. After soaking roots of regenerative plants for 5 hours using 0.02‰ and 0.05‰ colchicine soluion, the average setting percentage reached 37.5%. The setting percentage were over 50% in tillering node soaked for 5~10 hours using 0.04‰ colchicine soluion and 1‰dimethylsulfoxide.%为了提高冬小麦花培苗染色体加倍效率,分别用不同浓度的秋水仙碱对参试的冬小麦材料的花药愈伤组织、再生植株根系和花培苗分蘖节进行了加倍处理。结果表明,用0.02‰和0.05‰秋水仙碱浓度处理的愈伤组织再生植株结实率达33.3%~61.5%。用0.2%的秋水仙碱浸根处理5h,结实株率平均高达37.5%。用0.04%的秋水仙碱1%的二甲亚砜溶液浸泡分蘖节的时间应在5~10h之间较为适宜,结实株率平均可达50%以上。

  8. Culturally responsive literacy instruction

    Algozzine, Bob; Obiakor, Festus E

    2008-01-01

    Improve reading achievement for students from diverse backgrounds with research-supported practices and culturally responsive interventions in phonemic awareness, phonics/decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension.

  9. Influence of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and proline and polyamines content in carrot rosettes obtained from anther culture

    Szafrańska, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Górecka, K.; Górecky, R.; Martincová, Olga; Janas, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2011), s. 851-859. ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Copper ions * Carrot culture * Lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

  10. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  11. Responses of different genotypes on development of callus from anther cultures of wheat

    Uninuclear microspores of 20 different genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were cultivated on three different induction media. Callus formation rates ranged from 1-66% (on average 13% in 1984 and 35% in 1985). The highest percentage of callus formation (66.2) was from F1 of Yugoslavia X Top, cultivated on inductive Murashige and Skoog agar medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 0.5 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid and 10% potato extract. (author)

  12. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  13. Global Dynamic Transcriptome Programming of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Anther at Different Development Stages.

    Li, Zhanjie; Zhang, Peipei; Lv, Jinyang; Cheng, Yufeng; Cui, Jianmin; Zhao, Huixian; Hu, Shengwu

    2016-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide and exhibits significant heterosis. Effective pollination control systems, which are closely linked to anther development, are a prerequisite for utilizing heterosis. The anther, which is the male organ in flowering plants, undergoes many metabolic processes during development. Although the gene expression patterns underlying pollen development are well studied in model plant Arabidopsis, the regulatory networks of genome-wide gene expression during rapeseed anther development is poorly understood, especially regarding metabolic regulations. In this study, we systematically analyzed metabolic processes occurring during anther development in rapeseed using ultrastructural observation and global transcriptome analysis. Anther ultrastructure exhibited that numerous cellular organelles abundant with metabolic materials, such as elaioplast, tapetosomes, plastids (containing starch deposits) etc. appeared, accompanied with anther structural alterations during anther development, suggesting many metabolic processes occurring. Global transcriptome analysis revealed dynamic changes in gene expression during anther development that corresponded to dynamic functional alterations between early and late anther developmental stages. The early stage anthers preferentially expressed genes involved in lipid metabolism that are related to pollen extine formation as well as elaioplast and tapetosome biosynthesis, whereas the late stage anthers expressed genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism to form pollen intine and to accumulate starch in mature pollen grains. Finally, a predictive gene regulatory module responsible for early pollen extine formation was generated. Taken together, this analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of dynamic gene expression programming of metabolic processes in the rapeseed anther, especially with respect to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during pollen development. PMID

  14. Cell-cell interactions during patterning of the Arabidopsis anther.

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Dickinson, Hugh G

    2010-04-01

    Key steps in the evolution of the angiosperm anther include the patterning of the concentrically organized microsporangium and the incorporation of four such microsporangia into a leaf-like structure. Mutant studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are leading to an increasingly accurate picture of (i) the cell lineages culminating in the different cell types present in the microsporangium (the microsporocytes, the tapetum, and the middle and endothecial layers), and (ii) some of the genes responsible for specifying their fates. However, the processes that confer polarity on the developing anther and position the microsporangia within it remain unclear. Certainly, data from a range of experimental strategies suggest that hormones play a central role in establishing polarity and the patterning of the anther initial, and may be responsible for locating the microsporangia. But the fact that microsporangia were originally positioned externally suggests that their development is likely to be autonomous, perhaps with the reproductive cells generating signals controlling the growth and division of the investing anther epidermis. These possibilities are discussed in the context of the expression of genes which initiate and maintain male and female reproductive development, and in the perspective of our current views of anther evolution. PMID:20298223

  15. 不同因素对西瓜花药愈伤组织诱导的影响%Effects of Different Culture Factors on Callus Induction of Watermelon Anther

    朱迎春; 刘君璞; 邓云; 李卫华; 安国林; 孙德玺

    2015-01-01

    -incubation, plant growth regulators, culture medium,additions, genotype,growth environment and sampling time. The results showed that the effective callus induction rate of HJ001 respectively were 18. 33% and 15. 67% at 4 ℃ for 2 d and 3 d, and there was no significant difference between the two treatments. The effective callus induction rate of HJ001 reached 14. 33% at high temperature pre-cultured 1—3 d,and there was no significant difference among the three treatments. The effective callus induction rate of the remaining two species was low, but had the same trend. The induction efficiency of NAA was better than that of 2,4-D for three varieties. When adding glutamine( Gln ) 70 mg/L and acid hydrolysis casein ( CH ) 500 mg/L in medium, effective callus induction rate were 20 . 33% and 19 . 00% respectively; The buds had high vitality when collected at 6:00—8:00 in the sunny morning in open field,the buds of HJ001 mostly were microspore mononuclear stage when longitudinal diameter of bud was 2—4 mm,transverse diameter was 3—4 mm,sepals glued to petals,petals were closed and dark green,anther color was pale yellow to yellowish green,and there was a little difference among different varieties. Therefore, in the conditions of open field taking samples at 6:00—8:00 in the sunny morning when buds were mononuclear stage and were treated at low temperature for 2—3 d,then inoculating in MS+NAA 1. 0 mg/L+6-BA 2. 0 mg/L+KT 1. 0 mg/L+CH 500 mg/L medium or directly inoculating in MS+NAA 1 . 0 mg/L+6-BA mg/L+KT mg/L+Gln 70 mg/L medium for 1—3 d high temperature pre-culture could get the highest effective callus induction rate,which was the best way for watermelon variety HJ001 to induce anther callus. However,the best way to Xinong No. 8 and Daguoheimeiren anther callus induction sholud be further explored.

  16. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail: lilia@truenet.com.br; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais

    1999-12-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  17. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Ma, Hong

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  18. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  19. Efeitos de meios de cultura na formação de calos a partir de anteras de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. Effects of the culture media on the calli formation from Asparagus officinalis L. anthers

    Vera Lúcia Bobrowski

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Técnicas auxiliares, como a cultura de anteras, possibilitam melhor eficiência na obtenção de novos genótipos de aspargo. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas anteras contendo grãos de pólen, no estágio uninucleado, dos híbridos 56x22-8 e 47x22-8, em meio MS, semi-sólido e líquido, com diferentes concentrações de reguladores de crescimento: meio A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 20 g/l sacarose + 20 g/l glicose; meio B - 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 30 g/l sacarose; meio C - 3,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose e meio D - 2,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose. A formação de calos variou com o genótipo e o meio. Os meios líquidos apresentaram melhor eficiência na indução de calos do que os meios semi-sólidos. Para o híbrido 56x22-8 os melhores meios foram o A2 (líquido com 80,5% de indução de calos e dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o meio D1 com 41,6% de calos formados. Para o híbrido 47x22-8, o mais eficiente foi o meio D2 (líquido, com 68,1% de calos formados e, dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o D2, com 15,2%. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas, estatisticamente, entre os meios líquidos nem entre os meios semi-sólidos.Anther culture is an auxiliary technique to obtain new genotypes. In this work, anthers with pollen grains in the uninucleated stage of hybrids 56x22-8 and 47x22-8 were cultured in MS medium, semi-solid and liquid, with different concentrations of growth regulators: medium A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 20 g/l sucrose + 20 g/l glucose; medium B - 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 30 g/l sucrose; medium C - 3,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose and medium D - 2,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose. Callus formation varied with the genotype and the medium. Liquid media showed more efficiency in callus development than the semi-solids. For the hybrids 56x22-8 the best media were the liquid A2 with 80,5% of callus induction and among the semi-solids the D1, with 41

  20. The impact of Cu treatment on phenolic and polyamine levels in plant material regenerated from embryos obtained in anther culture of carrot

    Górecka, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Eder, Josef; Szafrańska, K.; Górecki, R.; Janas, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2007), s. 54-61. ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : carrot culture * copper ions * embryo regeneration Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 1.669, year: 2007

  1. Stamen specification and anther development in rice

    ZHANG DaBing; WILSON Zoe A

    2009-01-01

    Male reproductive development is a complex biological process which includes the formation of the stamen with differentiated anther tissues, in which microspores/pollens are generated, then anther dehiscence and subsequently pollination. Stamen specification and anther development involve a number of extraordinary events such as meristem transition, cell division and differentiation, cell to cell communication, etc., which need the cooperative interaction of sporophytic and gametophytic genes. The advent of various tools for rice functional gene identification, such as complete genome sequence, genome-wide microarrays, collections of mutants, has greatly facilitated our understanding of mechanisms of rice stamen specification and anther development. Male sterile lines are critical for hybrid rice breeding, therefore understanding these processes will not only contribute greatly to the basic knowledge of crop developmental biology, but also to the development of new varieties for hybrid rice breeding in the future.

  2. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

    1983-11-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. PMID:16663273

  3. In Vitro ANTHER CULTURE OF RICE HYBRIDS

    Noraida Pérez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Mejoramiento de Arroz y Maíz del CIFA "Las Torres", en Sevilla, España, auspiciado por un proyecto de investigación, comenzó a desarrollarse un programa de obtención de variedades, que incluía en sus objetivos la utilización del cultivo de anteras de híbridos. Para ello se evaluaron diferentes medios para la formación de callos y regeneración de plantas verdes así como anteras de híbridos F1, provenientes de 15 cruzamientos. Los resultados mostraron que los más altos porcentajes de callos y plantas verdes como proceso continuo fueron obtenidos con los medios N6m y MS respectivamente. La mejor respuesta a la formación de callos fue obtenida por el cruce Puntal/Thaibonnet y regeneración de plantas verdes Doñana/V7876 y Lemont/Newbonnet.

  4. Anther Ontogeny and Microsporogenesis in Helianthus annuus L. (Compositae

    Aslihan ÇETİNBAŞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, anther ontogeny and microsporogenesis were analysed in Helianthus annuus L. The undifferentiated anther is ovoid-shaped and the differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells. Mature anthers are tetrasporangiate. The anther wall is composed of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and plasmodial tapetum. Endothecial cells show no fibrous thickening. Tapetum is amoeboid type with binucleate cells. Epidermal layer remains intact until anther dehiscence; however, middle layer, endothecium and tapetum disappear during development. At the end of regular meiotic division tetrahedral microspore tetrads are formed. Pollen grains are triporate, suboblate and angulaperturate.

  5. Androgenic response to preculture stress in microspore cultures of barley.

    Oleszczuk, S; Sowa, S; Zimny, J

    2006-08-01

    Various stresses such as starvation and cold or heat shocks have been identified as triggers in the induction of the microspore embryogenesis. This study attempts to quantify the effects of different pretreatment conditions for successful microspore culture of malting barley (cv. Scarlett). While the sporophytic microspore development could be induced from treated and nontreated microspores, abiotic stress was essential for embryo formation and plant regeneration. The type of stress treatment applied affected the numbers and the ratios of albino and green plants regenerated, as well as their fertility. The highest number of green plants was obtained after the treatment of anthers in 0.3 M mannitol at 32 degrees C for 24 h before microspore culture. PMID:16937060

  6. STUDENT’S RESPONSIBILITY AND CULTURE

    Ніколайчук, Анна

    2016-01-01

    The abstract considers the aspects of the student’s responsibility formation as a personal culture. It describes the connection of the material culture with the technical education, gives an explanation for phenomenon «material culture». It illustrates the definition of such science as andragogy and its role by educational process.

  7. Expression and localization of calreticulin in tobacco anthers and pollen tubes

    Nardi, M.C.; Feron, R.; Navazio, L.; Mariani, P.; Pierson, E.S.; Wolters-Arts, A.M.C.; Knuiman, B.; Mariani, C.; Derksen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The developmental expression pattern and localization of calreticulin were studied in Nicotiana tabacum L. anthers, pollen and pollen tubes. High transcript and protein levels were detected throughout anther development. Immunolocalization of calreticulin in the anthers showed particular dense label

  8. The role of initial cells in maize anther morphogenesis.

    Dawe, R K; Freeling, M

    1992-12-01

    The near absence of cell movement in plants makes clonal analysis a particularly informative method for reconstructing the early events of organ formation. We traced the patterns of cell division during maize anther development by inducing sector boundaries that preceded the earliest events of anther initiation. In doing this, we were able to estimate the smallest number of cells that are fated to form an anther, characteristic cell division patterns that occur during anther morphogenesis, and the relationship between the pre-existing symmetry of the initial cells and the final symmetry of the mature anther. Four general conclusions are made: (1) anthers are initiated from small groups of 12 or fewer cells in each of two floral meristematic layers; (2) the early growth of the anther is more like a shoot than a glume or leaf; (3) cell ancestry does not dictate basic structure and (4) the orientation of initial cells predicts the orientation of the four pollen-containing microsporangia, which define the axes of symmetry on the mature anther. The final point is discussed with other data, and an explanation involving a 'structural template' is invoked. The idea is that the orientation of initial cells within the floral meristem establishes an architectural pattern into which anther cells are recruited without regard to their cellular lineages. The structural template hypothesis may prove to be generally applicable to problems of pattern formation in plants. PMID:1295730

  9. Culturally Responsive Training of Teacher Educators

    Prater, Mary Anne; Devereaux, Temma Harris

    2009-01-01

    Given that the numbers of culturally and/or linguistically diverse students being educated in U.S. public schools are growing immensely, teacher educators must take responsibility for preparing teacher candidates to work in today's diverse classrooms. This can be difficult, however, if teacher educators are not culturally responsive in their…

  10. Culturally Responsive Leadership: Graduate Program Egalitarianism

    Farmer, Tod Allen; Higham, J. Russell, III

    2007-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, it is paramount that university graduate programs produce culturally responsive leaders capable of synergistically energizing an increasingly heterogeneous work force. Inherent in this charge is the egalitarian approach to graduate program design. Culturally responsive leadership development is…

  11. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes During Anther Abortion of Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat by Combining Suppression Subtractive Hybridization and cDNA Array

    Qing-Shan Chang; Rong-Hua Zhou; Xiu-Ying Kong; Zeng-Liang Yu; Ji-Zeng Jia

    2006-01-01

    Taigu Genic Male Sterile Wheat (TGMSW; Triticum aestivum L.), a dominant genic male sterile germplasm, is of considerable value in the genetic improvement of wheat because of its stable inherence, complete male abortion, and high cross-fertilization rate. To identify specially transcribed genes in sterile anther, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed with sterile anther as the tester and fertile anther as the driver. A total of 2 304 SSH inserts amplified by polymerase chain reaction were arrayed using robotic printing. The cDNA arrays were hybridized with 32P-labeled probes prepared from the RNA of forward- and reverse-subtracted anthers. Ninety-six clones were scored as upregulated in sterile anthers compared with the corresponding fertile anthers and some clones were selected for sequencing and analysis in GenBank. Based on their putative functions, 87 non-redundant clones were classified into the following groups: (i) eight genes involved in metabolic processes; (ii) four material transportation genes;(iii) three signal transduction-associated genes; (iv) four stress response and senescence-associated protein genes; (v) seven other functional protein genes; (vi) five genes with no known function; and (vii)another 56 genes with no match to the databases. To test the hybridization efficiency, eight genes were selected and analyzed by Northern blot. The results of the present study provide a comprehensive overview of the genes and gene products involved in anther abortion in TGMSW.

  12. Network Culture, Performance & Corporate Responsibility

    Silvio M. Brondoni

    2003-01-01

    The growth and sustainability of free market economies highlights the need to define rules more suited to the current condition of market globalisation and also encourages firms to adopt more transparent and accountable corporate responsibility (and corporate social responsibility, namely the relationship between the company, environment and social setting). From a managerial perspective, corporate responsibility is linked to ensure the lasting pursuit of the company mission, seeking increasi...

  13. Culturally Responsive Classroom Management: Awareness into Action

    Weinstein, Carol; Curran, Mary; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    2003-01-01

    This article expands discussions of culturally responsive pedagogy by focusing specifically on the tasks and challenges of classroom organization and management. First, we examine three prerequisite understandings that underlie teachers' ability to manage diverse classrooms in culturally competent ways. We then consider specific approaches and…

  14. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  15. DIAGNOSING THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CULTURE

    Žana Prutina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary business environment places demands on companies to go beyond economic survival and self-interest and satisfy the needs of various stakeholders. Organizations embark on the path of responsibility and sustainability, but many argue that CSR becomes embedded in an organization when it permeates all aspects of organization, including the organizational culture. Existing organizational culture typologies only provide the framework for analysis within the traditional business paradigm, but they are of limited use in the context of corporate social responsibility. After the analysis of major scholarship in the field, this paper defines CSR culture and identifies four types of organizational cultures based on companies’ CSR orientations, namely CSR-related values and strategy. In order to fully embed CSR culture, CSR has to be both strategic and value driven. This paper explores different CSR orientations and makes recommendations needed in order to achieve the desired state. Furthermore, through exploratory factor analysis, it identifies two cultural elements, CSR values and employee engagement in CSR, which indicate the existence of CSR culture. Identification of these cultural elements is intended to help in analyzing the direct and indirect effect of CSR culture on organizational outcomes, especially employee attitudinal and behavioral outcomes.

  16. Abundant protein phosphorylation potentially regulates Arabidopsis anther development.

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Zaibao; You, Chenjiang; Zhang, Xumin; Lu, Jianan; Ma, Hong

    2016-09-01

    As the male reproductive organ of flowering plants, the stamen consists of the anther and filament. Previous studies on stamen development mainly focused on single gene functions by genetic methods or gene expression changes using comparative transcriptomic approaches, especially in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana However, studies on Arabidopsis anther protein expression and post-translational modifications are still lacking. Here we report proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies on developing Arabidopsis anthers at stages 4-7 and 8-12. We identified 3908 high-confidence phosphorylation sites corresponding to 1637 phosphoproteins. Among the 1637 phosphoproteins, 493 were newly identified, with 952 phosphorylation sites. Phosphopeptide enrichment prior to LC-MS analysis facilitated the identification of low-abundance proteins and regulatory proteins, thereby increasing the coverage of proteomic analysis, and facilitated the analysis of more regulatory proteins. Thirty-nine serine and six threonine phosphorylation motifs were uncovered from the anther phosphoproteome and further analysis supports that phosphorylation of casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and 14-3-3 proteins is a key regulatory mechanism in anther development. Phosphorylated residues were preferentially located in variable protein regions among family members, but they were they were conserved across angiosperms in general. Moreover, phosphorylation might reduce activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes and hamper brassinosteroid signaling in early anther development. Most of the novel phosphoproteins showed tissue-specific expression in the anther according to previous microarray data. This study provides a community resource with information on the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of proteins in developing anthers, contributing to understanding post-translational regulatory mechanisms during anther development. PMID:27531888

  17. Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms

    Nina Burridge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion

  18. DIAGNOSING THE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CULTURE

    Žana Prutina

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary business environment places demands on companies to go beyond economic survival and self-interest and satisfy the needs of various stakeholders. Organizations embark on the path of responsibility and sustainability, but many argue that CSR becomes embedded in an organization when it permeates all aspects of organization, including the organizational culture. Existing organizational culture typologies only provide the framework for analysis within the traditional business para...

  19. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K.

    2016-01-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigate cultural differences in children’s responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focus on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that that 3- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and ...

  20. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    A large volume of literature hypothesizes a direct relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. Culture data have been collected by the authors and others at nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other organizations that demand high reliability. In this paper, the literature and data are used to explore a critical dimension of the accident response process in an NPP: the transition from an anticipatory strategy to an ad hoc strategy. In particular, the effect of organizational culture on the implementation of each of these strategies is examined

  1. Culture moderates children's responses to ostracism situations.

    Over, Harriet; Uskul, Ayse K

    2016-05-01

    Across a series of studies, we investigated cultural differences in children's responses to ostracism situations. Working with the children of farmers and herders, we focused on how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 1a showed that 4- to 8-year-old children from a socially interdependent farming community estimated ostracism to be less painful than did children from an independent herding community. Study 1b showed that this cultural difference was specific to social pain and did not apply to physical pain. Study 2 replicated the results of Study 1a and showed that individual differences in parents' level of social interdependence mediated the relationship between cultural group and how painful children estimate ostracism to be. Study 3 replicated this effect again and showed that children's tendency to recommend seeking social support following ostracism mediated the relationship between cultural group and the perceived pain of being excluded. Finally, Study 4 investigated cultural differences in moral responses to ostracism and showed that children from the farming community punished an individual who ostracized someone else less harshly than did children from the independent herding community. Thus different economic cultures are associated with striking differences in social interdependence and responses to ostracism from early in development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176774

  2. Toward a More Culturally Responsive General Music Classroom

    Abril, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to characterize culturally responsive teaching; consider how it differs from other pedagogical approaches in music education informed by culture, such as multicultural music education; and offer ideas for making the general music classroom more culturally responsive.

  3. Culturally Responsive Physics Teaching: Content or Conveyance?

    Stewart, Taquan Seth

    2011-12-01

    This study, in response to the achievement gap in science and the lack of significant numbers of ethnic minorities in science fields, examined the effects of a Cultural Responsiveness Workshop and intervention on teacher practice, teacher discourse, and student perceptions and connectedness to physics. The sample was comprised of three high school physics teachers---2 teaching five 12th grade sections and one teaching five 9th grade sections of physics---in two separate urban schools in the same section of South Los Angeles. My research design was qualitative and examined eight culturally responsive indicators that, when applied, may increase student engagement and level of connectedness in urban high school physics classrooms: (1) proximity to students, (2) the ways in which they encouraged students, (3) positive reinforcement techniques, (4) modifications for individual learning types, (5) use of children's strengths, (6) scaffolding, (7) displaying an understanding of diverse cultures, and (8) displaying a personal regard for students of diverse cultures. When the study was completed and data was collected, I identified trends in the change in teacher discourse, behaviors, instructional practice, and perceptions of student engagement. My findings, discovered through classroom observations and focus groups, indicated a positive shift in each. Accompanying these shifts were positive shifts in level of student engagement and level of connectedness. There were also the unexpected findings of the need for teachers to receive feedback in a safe collaborative space and the use of culturally responsive teaching as a tool for behavioral management. My study found that there is a definite relationship between the use of the culturally responsive indicators observed, student engagement and student level of connectedness to physics when implemented in urban high school science classrooms.

  4. Guidelines for Culturally Responsive School Boards.

    Alaska Univ., Fairbanks. Alaska Native Knowledge Network.

    These guidelines address issues related to the role of school boards, including local school/community committees and advisory boards, in overseeing the provision of a culturally responsive and supportive educational environment for the students in their care. The guidelines are organized around various leadership roles related to the management…

  5. Cultural Fusion: International Teacher Responses to Multiculturalism

    Alban, David J.; Reeves, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly diverse classrooms require educators to examine the appropriateness of teaching practices for certain student subgroup populations. With high accountability for schools to account for student achievement inclusively, a growing interest in culturally responsive practices necessitates more investigation of learning and instruction…

  6. Is there 'anther-anther interference' within a flower? Evidences from one-by-one stamen movement in an insect-pollinated plant.

    Ren, Ming-Xun; Bu, Zhao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing anthers has received little attention and few experimental tests to date. Here, using one-by-one stamen movement in the generalist-pollinated Parnassia palustris, we test this hypothesis by manipulation experiments in two years. Under natural conditions, the five fertile stamens in P. palustris flowers elongate their filaments individually, and anthers dehisce successively one-by-one. More importantly, the anther-dehisced stamen bends out of the floral center by filament deflexion before the next stamen's anther dehiscence. Experimental manipulations show that flowers with dehisced anther remaining at the floral center experience shorter (1/3-1/2 less) visit durations by pollen-collecting insects (mainly hoverflies and wasps) because these 'hungry' insects are discouraged by the scant and non-fresh pollen in the dehisced anther. Furthermore, the dehisced anther blocks the dehiscing anther's access to floral visitors, resulting in a nearly one third decrease in their contact frequency. As a result, pollen removal of the dehiscing anther decreases dramatically. These results provide the first direct experimental evidence that anther-anther interference is possible in a flower, and that the selection to reduce such interferences can be a strong force in floral evolution. We also propose that some other floral traits, usually interpreted as pollen dispensing mechanisms, may function, at least partially, as mechanisms to promote pollen dispersal by reducing interferences between

  7. THE SOCIAL-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT: THREATS, OPPORTUNITIES AND RESPONSES

    Буряк Наталья Юрьевна

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author turns to the problems of social-cultural environment: threats, opportunities, responses, and cultural values (primary and secondary). The examples of both primary and secondary cultural values are given in the article as well.

  8. Prediction of anther-expressed gene resulation in Arabidopsis

    HUANG JiFeng; YANG JingJin; WANG Guan; YU QingBo; YANG ZhongNan

    2008-01-01

    Anther development in Arabidopsis, a popular model plant for plant biology and genetics, is controlled by a complex gene network. Despite the extensive use of this genus for genetic research, little is known about its regulatory network. In this paper, the direct transcriptional regulatory relationships between genes expressed in Arabidopsis anther development were predicted with an integrated bioinformatic method that combines mining of microarray data with promoter analysis. A total of 7710 transcription factor-gene pairs were obtained. The 80 direct regulatory relationships demonstrating the highest con-fidence were screened from the initial 7710 pairs; three of the 80 were validated by previous experi-ments. The results indicate that our predicted results were reliable. The regulatory relationships re-vealed by this research and described in this paper may facilitate further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of anther development. The bioinformatic method used in this work can also be applied to the prediction of gene regulatory relationships in other organisms.

  9. Anther and pollen development: A conserved developmental pathway.

    Gómez, José Fernández; Talle, Behzad; Wilson, Zoe A

    2015-11-01

    Pollen development is a critical step in plant development that is needed for successful breeding and seed formation. Manipulation of male fertility has proved a useful trait for hybrid breeding and increased crop yield. However, although there is a good understanding developing of the molecular mechanisms of anther and pollen anther development in model species, such as Arabidopsis and rice, little is known about the equivalent processes in important crops. Nevertheless the onset of increased genomic information and genetic tools is facilitating translation of information from the models to crops, such as barley and wheat; this will enable increased understanding and manipulation of these pathways for agricultural improvement. PMID:26310290

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and Managing Ethical Culture

    Yeney Widya Prihatiningtias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the promotion of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and ethical business conduct is very important. CSR nowadays has become crucial issue as major companies are expected to demonstrate their commitment to society’s values through actions. The current article explains, evaluates, and applies to relevant examples of the narrow, broader socio-economic, as well as broad maximal view of CSR. It also critically describes how organizations can develop ethical cultures and corporate ethics programs for CSR.

  11. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research

  12. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

  13. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

    1992-08-01

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

  14. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events. PMID:26277352

  15. Isn't Culturally Responsive Instruction Just Good Teaching?

    Au, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Culturally responsive instruction appears to offer the potential to improve students' academic achievement and chances for success in school. However, it is not easy to see how culturally responsive instruction can be applied, especially in classrooms with students of many different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. In the first section of this…

  16. Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression

    Murata, Asuka; Moser, Jason S.; Kitayama, Shinobu

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that emotional control is highly valued in Asian culture. However, little is known about how this cultural value might influence emotional processing. Here, we hypothesized that Asians are ‘culturally trained’ to down-regulate emotional processing when required to suppress emotional expressions. Such down-regulation, however, is unlikely for European Americans because their culture values emotional expression (vs control) more. To test these predictions, we adopted the...

  17. Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Learners.

    Pewewardy, Cornel D.

    Teachers in a multicultural society need to respect cultural differences, know the cultural resources their students bring to class, and be skilled at tapping into learners' cultural resources in the teaching-learning process. They must believe that all students are capable of learning, and they must implement an enriched curriculum for all…

  18. Activity of selected hydrolytic enzymes in Allium sativum L. anthers.

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Gębura, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine enzymatic activity in sterile Allium sativum anthers in the final stages of male gametophyte development (the stages of tetrads and free microspores). The analysed enzymes were shown to occur in the form of numerous isoforms. In the tetrad stage, esterase activity was predominant, which was manifested by the greater number of isoforms of the enzyme. In turn, in the microspore stage, higher numbers of isoforms of acid phosphatases and proteases were detected. The development of sterile pollen grains in garlic is associated with a high level of protease and acid phosphatase activity and lower level of esterase activities in the anther locule. Probably this is the first description of the enzymes activity (ACPH, EST, PRO) in the consecutives stages of cell wall formation which is considered to be one of the causes of male sterility in flowering plant. PMID:26901781

  19. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  20. Orchid mating: the anther steps onto the stigma

    Chen, Li-Jun; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2014-01-01

    In a bisexual flower, the male and female organ of which have a space separation, individing into the pistil and stamen. Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollinati...

  1. Anther and pollen development in some species of Poaceae (Poales).

    Nakamura, A T; Longhi-Wagner, H M; Scatena, V L

    2010-05-01

    Anther and pollen development were studied in Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr, (Bambusoideae), Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae), Eragrostis solida Nees, and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae). The objective of this study was to characterise, embryologically, these species of subfamilies which are considered basal, intermediate and derivate, respectively. The species are similar to each other and to other Poaceae. They present the following characters: tetrasporangiate anthers; monocotyledonous-type anther wall development, endothecium showing annular thickenings, secretory tapetum; successive microsporogenesis; isobilateral tetrads; spheroidal, tricellular, monoporate pollen grains with annulus and operculum. Nevertheless, the exine patterns of the species studied are distinct. Olyra humilis and Sucrea monophylla (Bambusoideae) show a granulose pattern, whereas in the other species, it is insular. In addition, Axonopus aureus and Paspalum polyphyllum (Panicoideae) have a compactly insular spinule pattern, while Chloris elata and Eragrostis solida (Chloridoideae) show a sparsely insular spinule pattern. The exine ornamentation may be considered an important feature at the infrafamiliar level. PMID:20552147

  2. Culturally Responsive: Art Education in a Global Era

    Lai, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Facing the era of globalization, culturally responsive art teachers must recognize that students' home culture, including local artistic expression, is inevitably influenced by global forces. They should strive to engage with students systems and issues of globalization and its impact on their community culture and art. In this article, the author…

  3. Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students

    Lo, Ya-yu; Correa, Vivian I.; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the…

  4. Cultural Responsibility of Cultural Centers%浅论文化馆的文化责任

    柏新天

    2011-01-01

    文化馆的文化责任就是文化馆对社会所承担的提高全民文化素质、加强文化建设,以及所肩负的新的历史时期的文化使命。文化馆的文化责任是从社会视角观察文化馆的功能和要求,属于社会责任范畴。文化馆要用先进文化和科学发展观来确立指导思想,承担起政府给予的为社会各界群众提供文化服务的文化责任。文化馆的文化服务责任主要表现在文化馆信息利用与社会服务方面。文化馆是社会文化利用中心,提供文化服务满足社会各方面利用的需求。%Cultural responsibility of cultural centers is assumed by strengthening the commitment to improve the quality of national culture,and the cultural mission shouldered in the new historical period.Cultural responsibility of cultural centers is observing the features and requirements of the cultural centers from a social perspective,it belongs to social responsibility category.Cultural centers should use the advanced cultural and scientific development concept to establish the guiding ideology,to assume the government to give to the community to provide cultural services to the mass culture of responsibility.Responsibility for cultural services,cultural centers mainly performs in cultural centers using the information and social services.Cultural center is social culture use center,and provide cultural services to meet the needs of all sectors of society.

  5. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  6. Designing for culturally responsive science education through professional development

    Brown, Julie C.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2016-02-01

    Educational stakeholders across the globe are demanding science education reform that attends simultaneously to culturally diverse students' needs and promotes academic excellence. Although professional development programs can foster science teachers' growth as culturally responsive educators, effective supports to this end are not well identified. This study examined associations between specific Science Teachers are Responsive to Students (STARTS) program activities and United States high school life science teachers' understanding and enactment of culturally responsive science teaching. Findings suggest: (a) critically examining their practices while learning of students' needs and experiences enabled teachers to identify responsive instructional strategies and relevant science topics for culturally responsive teaching; (b) evaluating culturally responsive exemplars while identifying classroom-based needs allowed teachers to identify contextually appropriate instruction, thereby yielding a robust understanding of the purpose and feasibility of culturally responsive science teaching; and (c) by justifying the use of responsive and reform-based instructional strategies for their classrooms, teachers made purposeful connections between students' experiences and science instruction. We propose a set of empirically based design conjectures and theoretical conjectures to generate adaptable knowledge about preparing culturally responsive science teachers through professional development.

  7. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation

    OLESIA O. GRYGORIEVA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Grygorieva OO, Berezovsjka MA, Dacenko OI. 2015. Cell response of Chlamydomonas actinochloris culture to repeated microwave irradiation. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 38-42. Two cultures of Chlamydomonas actinochloris Deason et Bold in the lag-phase were exposed to the microwave irradiation. One of them (culture 1 was not treated beforehand, whereas the other (culture 2 was irradiated by microwaves 2 years earlier. The measurement of cell quantity as well as measurement of change of intensities and spectra of cultures photoluminescence (PL in the range of chlorophyll a emission was regularly conducted during the cell cultures development. Cell concentration of culture 1 exposed to the microwave irradiation for the first time has quickly restored while cell concentration of culture 2 which was irradiated repeatedly has fallen significantly. The following increasing of cell concentration of culture 2 is negligible. Cell concentration reaches the steady-state level that is about a half of the cell concentration of control culture. Initially the PL efficiency of cells of both cultures decreases noticeable as a result of irradiation. Then there is the monotonic increase to the values which are significantly higher than the corresponding values in the control cultures. The ratio of the intensities at the maxima of the main emission bands of chlorophyll for control samples of both cultures remained approximately at the same level. At the same time effect of irradiation on the cell PL spectrum appears as a temporary reduction of this magnitude.

  8. Culturally Responsive Marketing of Coach and Pepsi

    Edwin Quinn; Renika Quinn

    2015-01-01

    This study will focus on the cultural aspects of China and how the brands Coach and Pepsi will target Chinese consumers. Information will be provided on the society, economical facets, marketing analysis and positive and normative perspectives of the study. China, like with many other countries has developed certain marketing techniques as a way of gaining the interest of their consumers.

  9. An Empirical Perspective on the Culture - Corporate Social Responsibility Relationship

    Dumitru ZAIȚ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Business competition and pressure of European directives put Romanian company in a position to find answers to issues related to long-term survival and development. In this context we believe it is necessary to analyze some of the most important components that should be taken into consideration at the strategic level: national and organizational culture. The results indicate that corporate social responsibility is supported by learning and change-oriented organizational culture, but also by a favorable cultural and national economic framework. Based on these theoretical considerations we intent to emphasize the relationships between national culture / corporate culture and corporate social responsibility (CSR, elaborating an empirical argument by analyzing the results provided by Global 100, an annual project initiated by Corporate Knights Inc. (Davos. Starting with 2005, it has the largest database in the world and an appropriate evaluation methodology that provides a ranking of the top 100 most responsible companies in the world.

  10. Metabolism of Reactive Oxygen Species in the Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Cotton Anther

    JIANG Pei-dong; ZHU Yun-guo; WANG Xiao-ling; ZHU Wei; ZHANG Xiao-quan; XIE Hai-yan; WANG Xue-de

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cell, including superoxide (O2-·), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), are thought to be important inducible factors of cell apoptosis if excessively accumulated in cells. To elucidate the metabolic mechanism of ROS production and scavenging in anthers of the cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) cotton,CMS line, maintainer, and hybrid F1 anthers, were employed for studying the relationship between CMS and metabolism of ROS, by comparing ROS changes in the sterile and fertile anthers at different developmental stages. The results showed that during the abortion preliminary stage (sporogenous cell division stage), anthers of CMS line had higher contents of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA than those of maintainer or hybrid F1. Simultaneously, the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) in scavenging ROS were measured in the anthers of the CMS line,indicating that an increase of ROS in anthers of abortion preliminary stage had an inducible effect on the antioxidant enzymes. But during the abortion peak of CMS anther (pollen mother cell meiosis stage), on the one hand, contents of O2-·,H2O2, and MDA were extraordinarily high in CMS anthers, on the other hand, the activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were excessively low, which disrupted the balance between the production and elimination of ROS and led to pollen mother cells apoptosis at this stage. In the following two stages (uninucleate microspore stage and mature pollen stage), the contents of O2-· and H2O2 in the aborted anthers were approximated to contents in the fertile anthers of the maintainer and hybrid F1. However, MDA contents were continuously raised and enzymic activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were consistently decreased in sterile anthers, which indicated that ROS still had harmful effects on the anthers after the apoptosis of the male cells. Excessive accumulation of O2-·, H2O2, and MDA and significant reduction of ROS

  11. Is There ‘Anther-Anther Interference’ within a Flower? Evidences from One-by-One Stamen Movement in an Insect-Pollinated Plant

    Ming-Xun Ren; Zhao-Jun Bu

    2014-01-01

    The selective pressure imposed by maximizing male fitness (pollen dispersal) in shaping floral structures is increasingly recognized and emphasized in current plant sciences. To maximize male fitness, many flowers bear a group of stamens with temporally separated anther dehiscence that prolongs presentation of pollen grains. Such an advantage, however, may come with a cost resulting from interference of pollen removal by the dehisced anthers. This interference between dehisced and dehiscing a...

  12. Culturally Responsive Collegiate Mathematics Education: Implications for African American Students

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…

  13. Culturally Responsive Dance Pedagogy in the Primary Classroom

    Melchior, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Dance has an important place in multicultural education and the development of culturally responsive pedagogy. Through dance, children can explore and express their own and others' cultures and share their stories in ways other than the spoken and written word. This paper presents a case study concerning a professional development programme in…

  14. The MADS box transcription factor ZmMADS2 is required for anther and pollen maturation in maize and accumulates in apoptotic bodies during anther dehiscence.

    Schreiber, Daniela N; Bantin, Jörg; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    The maize (Zea mays) late pollen gene ZmMADS2 belongs to the MIKC type of MADS box transcription factor genes. Here, we report that ZmMADS2, which forms a homodimer in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), is required for anther dehiscence and pollen maturation. Development of anthers and pollen was arrested at 1 d before dehiscence in transgenic plants expressing the ZmMADS2-cDNA in antisense orientation. Temporal and spatial expression analyses showed high amounts of ZmMADS2 transcripts in endothecium and connective tissues of the anther at 1 d before dehiscence and in mature pollen after dehiscence. Transient transformation of maize and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen with the luciferase reporter gene under the control of different ZmMADS2 promoter deletion constructs demonstrated the functionality and tissue specificity of the promoter. Transgenic maize plants expressing a ZmMADS2-green fluorescent protein fusion protein under control of the ZmMADS2 promoter were used to monitor protein localization during anther maturation and pollen tube growth. High amounts of the fusion protein accumulate in degenerating nuclei of endothecial and connective cells of the anther. A possible function of ZmMADS2 during anther dehiscence and pollen maturation and during pollen tube growth is discussed. PMID:15001699

  15. Cultural Consensus Theory: Aggregating Continuous Responses in a Finite Interval

    Batchelder, William H.; Strashny, Alex; Romney, A. Kimball

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) consists of cognitive models for aggregating responses of "informants" to test items about some domain of their shared cultural knowledge. This paper develops a CCT model for items requiring bounded numerical responses, e.g. probability estimates, confidence judgments, or similarity judgments. The model assumes that each item generates a latent random representation in each informant, with mean equal to the consensus answer and variance depending jointly on the informant and the location of the consensus answer. The manifest responses may reflect biases of the informants. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were used to estimate the model, and simulation studies validated the approach. The model was applied to an existing cross-cultural dataset involving native Japanese and English speakers judging the similarity of emotion terms. The results sharpened earlier studies that showed that both cultures appear to have very similar cognitive representations of emotion terms.

  16. Cultural Considerations with Response to Intervention Models

    Klingner, Janette K.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004) has been reauthorized, states have the option of discontinuing the use of IQ-achievement discrepancy formulas and using Response to Intervention (RTI) criteria as part of the special education identification process. This change has dramatic implications for…

  17. Comparative metabolomic analysis of wild type and mads3 mutant rice anthers

    Guorun Qu; Sheng Quan; Palash Mondol; Jie Xu; Dabing Zhang; Jianxin Shi

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) MADS3 transcription factor regulates the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during late anther development, and one MADS3 mutant, mads3-4, has defective anther wal s, aborted microspores and complete male sterility. Here, we report the untargeted metabolomic analysis of both wild type and mads3-4 mature anthers. Mutation of MADS3 led to an unbalanced redox status and caused oxidative stress that damages lipid, protein, and DNA. To cope with oxidative stress in mads3-4 anthers, soluble sugars were mobilized and carbohydrate metabolism was shifted to amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism to provide substrates for the biosynthesis of antioxidant proteins and the repair of DNA. Mutation of MADS3 also affected other aspects of rice anther development such as secondary metabolites associated with cuticle, cellwal , and auxin metabolism. Many of the discovered metabolic changes in mads3-4 anthers were corroborated with changes of expression levels of correspond-ing metabolic pathway genes. Altogether, this comparative metabolomic analysis indicated that MADS3 gene affects rice anther development far beyond the ROS homeostasis regulation.

  18. Study on Effect of Iron in Anther Media of Early Japonica Rice in Cold Region%寒地早粳花培培养基中铁的效应

    张兰民; 黄晓群; 王瑞英; 刘传雪; 关世武

    2008-01-01

    In this study, through vitro culturing anthers of 7 F1 progenies of early Japonica rice in cold region on medium with different Fe2+ contents, it was found that Fe2+ content generated greater impacts on the induction rate and green plantlet differentiation. The result demonstrated that if Fe2+ increased from 32 to 40 mg/kg, the induction rate of early Japonica rice anther culture in N6 culture media was more then 1.4 times higher than that in N6 culture media containing 5.6 mg/kg Fe2+. In this concentration range, the induction rate increased with the increase of Fe2+ content, while if the concentration was over this concentration range, the induction rate decreased with the increase of Fe2+, showing single peak distribution. When the Fe2+ was 40 mg/kg in differentiation medium, the differentiation rate decreased dramatically. The green plantlet differentiations of callus which were induced on culture media containing 32-40 mg/kg Fe2+ were different, when they were cultured on MS culture media, and 85.7% materials could increase green plantlet productivity to about 7.8%. Therefore, increasing Fe2+in induction media properly could increase anther culture efficiency of early Japonica rice in cold region.

  19. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  20. A Comprehensive Cognitive Behavioral Program for Offenders: Responsible Adult Culture

    Potter, GB; Gibbs, JC; Robbins, M; Langdon, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents Responsible Adult Culture (RAC), a truly comprehensive program for helping offenders to think and act responsibly. It provides the tools of the program with great clarity. In addition to exploring the needs of all offenders, the book addresses the special needs of both female and dual-diagnosis offenders. Responsible thinking means habitually seeing others and situations accurately, rather than in self-serving and egocentrically distorted ways. Because self-centered thinkin...

  1. Investigating the impact of culture on evacuation response behaviour

    Galea, Edwin R.; Markus, Sauter; Deere, Steven J.; Filippidis, Lazaros

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether social culture impacts how people respond to an evacuation alarm. As part of this work four unannounced library evacuations were conducted in the Czech Republic, Turkey, Poland and the UK. In an attempt to isolate social culture as the primary independent variable across the trials, the key parameters that are known to influence Response Phase behaviour and performance e.g. population demographics, type of structure, alarm system, etc were contr...

  2. An Empirical Perspective on the Culture - Corporate Social Responsibility Relationship

    Dumitru ZAIȚ; Angelica-Nicoleta ONEA; Ruxandra CIULU; Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2013-01-01

    Business competition and pressure of European directives put Romanian company in a position to find answers to issues related to long-term survival and development. In this context we believe it is necessary to analyze some of the most important components that should be taken into consideration at the strategic level: national and organizational culture. The results indicate that corporate social responsibility is supported by learning and change-oriented organizational culture, but also by ...

  3. Faithfulness--Translator’s Responsibility in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Wu, Feng; Xu, Xihua

    2014-01-01

    New trends in translation have led to a mistaken notion that faithfulness is obsolete. This article argues that faithfulness should be highlighted in cross-cultural communication to promote better understanding. As a result, a translator should cultivate a strong sense of responsibility, keeping in mind that faithfulness is the guarantee of successful cross-cultural communication. Erroneous translation, either because of incautious, incompetent translation ending in misinformation, or because...

  4. A culturally responsive counter-narrative of effective teaching

    Gist, Conra D.

    2014-12-01

    How do you recognize an effective teacher's sociocultural consciousness? Tamara Wallace's and Brenda Brand's argument that sociocultural consciousness is the "brain" of effective culturally responsive instruction for students of color comes at a time when the system of teacher evaluation is being overhauled nationwide. Teacher observation tools are being piloted to develop a common language of effective instruction but often there is little attention given to sociocultural consciousness in these frameworks. This article develops a culturally responsive counter-narrative to explore the complexity of a teacher's racial consciousness during a teaching episode.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  6. Tribenuron-Methyl Induces Male Sterility through Anther-Specific Inhibition of Acetolactate Synthase Leading to Autophagic Cell Death.

    Zhao, Lun; Jing, Xue; Chen, Li; Liu, Yingjun; Su, Yanan; Liu, Tingting; Gao, Changbin; Yi, Bin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Chaozhi; Tu, Jinxing; Zou, Jitao; Fu, Tingdong; Shen, Jinxiong

    2015-12-01

    Tribenuron-methyl (TM) is a powerful sulfonylurea herbicide that inhibits branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) biosynthesis by targeting the catalytic subunit (CSR1) of acetolactate synthase (ALS). Selective induction of male sterility by foliar spraying of TM at low doses has been widely used for hybrid seed production in rapeseed (Brassica napus); however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report greater TM accumulation and subsequent stronger ALS inhibition and BCAA starvation in anthers than in leaves and stems after TM application. Constitutive or anther-specific expression of csr1-1D (a CSR1 mutant) eliminated anther-selective ALS inhibition and reversed the TM-induced male sterile phenotype in both rapeseed and Arabidopsis. The results of TM daub-stem experiments, combined with the observations of little TM accumulation in anthers and reversion of TM-induced male sterility by targeted expression of the TM metabolism gene Bel in either the mesophyll or phloem, suggested that foliar-sprayed TM was polar-transported to anthers mainly through the mesophyll and phloem. Microscopy and immunoblotting revealed that autophagy, a bulk degradation process induced during cell death, was elevated in TM-induced male sterile anthers and by anther-specific knockdown of ALS. Moreover, TM-induced pollen abortion was significantly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. These data suggested that TM was polar-transported to anthers, resulting in BCAA starvation via anther-specific ALS inhibition and, ultimately, autophagic cell death in anthers. PMID:26362932

  7. Culture shapes empathic responses to physical and social pain

    Atkins, David; Uskul, Ayse K.; Cooper, N.

    2016-01-01

    The present research investigates the extent to which cultural background moderates empathy in response to observing someone undergoing physical or social pain. In three studies, we demonstrate that, East Asian and White British participants differ in both affective and cognitive components of their empathic reactions in response to someone else’s pain. Compared with East Asian participants, British participants report greater empathic concern and show lower empathic accuracy. Importantly, f...

  8. Increasing the Cultural Responsiveness of Family Group Conferencing

    Waites, Cheryl; Macgowan, Mark J.; Pennell, Joan; Carlton-LaNey, Iris; Weil, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Child welfare struggles to manage child abuse and neglect and to seek permanency for children, while being culturally responsive to the communities it serves. Family group conferencing, piloted in New Zealand and now used in the United States and other countries, is a strengths-based model that brings together families and their support systems to…

  9. Culturally Responsive Teaching for American Indian Students. ERIC Digest.

    Pewewardy, Cornel; Hammer, Patricia Cahape

    Culturally responsive teaching cannot be approached as a recipe or series of steps that teachers can follow to become effective with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. Instead, it relies on the development of certain dispositions toward learners and a holistic approach to curriculum and instruction. This digest draws on a…

  10. Universities' Responses to Globalisation: The Influence of Organisational Culture

    Burnett, Sally-Ann; Huisman, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to assess how and why some higher education institutions have responded to aspects of globalisation and, in particular how organisational culture influences universities' responses to globalisation. Using a predominantly qualitative, mixed-methods approach, empirical research was used to explore the impact of globalisation at…

  11. A Culturally Responsive Counter-Narrative of Effective Teaching

    Gist, Conra D.

    2014-01-01

    How do you recognize an effective teacher's sociocultural consciousness? Tamara Wallace's and Brenda Brand's argument that sociocultural consciousness is the "brain" of effective culturally responsive instruction for students of color comes at a time when the system of teacher evaluation is being overhauled nationwide.…

  12. Increasing the cultural responsiveness of family group conferencing.

    Waites, Cheryl; Macgowan, Mark J; Pennell, Joan; Carlton-LaNey, Iris; Weil, Marie

    2004-04-01

    Child welfare struggles to manage child abuse and neglect and to seek permanency for children, while being culturally responsive to the communities it serves. Family group conferencing, piloted in New Zealand and now used in the United States and other countries, is a strengths-based model that brings together families and their support systems to develop and carry out a plan that protects, nurtures, and safeguards children and other family members. This article describes the model and a culturally competent method for assessing and adapting the model for the African American, Cherokee, and Latino/Hispanic communities in North Carolina. PMID:15124970

  13. An Atropa belladonna hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase gene is differentially expressed in the root pericycle and anthers.

    Suzuki, K; Yun, D J; Chen, X Y; Yamada, Y; Hashimoto, T

    1999-05-01

    The AbH6H gene for hyoscyamine 6beta-hydroxylase (H6H), which converts hyoscyamine to scopolamine, was isolated from Atropa belladonna. This plant also possesses a related sequence, Ab psiH6H, which appears to be a non-functional pseudo-gene. AbH6H RNA was detected in cultured root, native root and anther, but not in stem, leaf, pistil, petal, and sepal tissues. In situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and promoter::GUS transgene analysis showed that AbH6H is expressed specifically in root pericycle cells, and in tapetum and pollen mother cells. A 671 bp 5'-upstream region from AbH6H was sufficient for pericycle-specific expression in hairy roots of A. belladonna and Hyoscyamus niger, which both produce scopolamine, but cell-specific regulation was severely compromised in tobacco hairy roots, which do not produce scopolamine. PMID:10394953

  14. Geoethics and geological culture: awareness, responsibility and challenges

    Silvia Peppoloni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The international debate in the field of geoethics focuses on some of the most important environmental emergencies, while highlighting the great responsibilities of geoscientists, whatever field they work in, and the important social, cultural and economic repercussions that their choices can have on society. The GeoItalia 2009 and 2011 conferences that were held in Rimini and Turin, respectively, and were organized by the Italian Federation of Earth Science, were two important moments for the promotion of geoethics in Italy. They were devoted to the highlighting of how, and with what tools and contents, can the geosciences contribute to the cultural renewal of society. They also covered the active roles of geoscientists in the dissemination of scientific information, contributing in this way to the correct construction of social knowledge. Geology is culture, and as such it can help to dispel misconceptions and cultural stereotypes that concern natural phenomena, disasters, resources, and land management. Geological culture consists of methods, goals, values, history, ways of thinking about nature, and specific sensitivity for approaching problems and their solutions. So geology has to fix referenced values, as indispensable prerequisites for geoethics. Together, geological culture and geoethics can strengthen the bond that joins people to their territory, and can help to find solutions and answers to some important challenges in the coming years regarding natural risks, resources, and climate change. Starting from these considerations, we stress the importance of establishing an ethical criterion for Earth scientists, to focus attention on the issue of the responsibility of geoscientists, and the need to more clearly define their scientific identity and the value of their specificities.

  15. Cultural responsiveness in EFL teaching: reflections from native instructors

    Cinarbas H. Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many international students from different parts of the world have been studying at Turkish universities, which creates a multicultural educational setting. Due to the multicultural educational setting, English has become the most widely used language for exchanging and sharing knowledge, therefore many international universities in Turkey put a great emphasis on English language education and offer English preparatory courses to students. In order to succeed at better language education, universities employ native English instructors to provide a richer language experience with cultural components embedded in language content. In this qualitative case study, cultural reflections of native English instructors at a Turkish university were investigated. Individual and focus group interviews were data sources for the study. Findings indicated that cultural responsiveness was considered to be constructed through time, and a necessity of orientation process was emphasized. However, the native instructors’ presumptions cause intolerance and underestimation of the host culture. In addition, educational issues and students’ misbehaviors, such as cheating and calling their instructors by their first name, were attributed to cultural background of the students.

  16. Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence

    Császi, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    In his paper "Towards a Cultural Framework of Audience Response and Television Violence" Lajos Császi argues that media violence is not a reification of social violence; rather, a popular ritual allowing contemporary societies to sublimate, to substitute, and to discuss aggression in the public sphere. Császi reviews the central questions of contemporary debates about television violence including Stuart Hall's thought on this topic and introduces the ideas of Elias, Geertz, Turner, Bettelhei...

  17. Servicescape and Emotional Response: An Application in Cultural Public Services

    Andreas, Berta Tubillejas; Garcia, Haydee Calderon; Taulet, Amparo Cervera

    2010-01-01

    According to services marketing theory, the servicescape modifies final consumer behaviour. This work proposes a conceptual model which analyses the relationship between servicescape and consumer emotions as a preliminary stage in consumer response to the purchase process. This study offers a new contribution by considering servicescape as an integrating concept in the model for the physical and social dimensions of the setting. The model is applied to cultural public services.

  18. Beyond self-assessment--assessing organizational cultural responsiveness.

    Bowen, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    While there is growing recognition of the need for health care organizations to provide culturally responsive care, appropriate strategies for assessing organizational responsiveness have not been determined. A document review assessment instrument was designed to assess best practice within eight domains, and along seven dimensions of organizational approach to diversity. Results obtained from the pilot of the instrument were congruent with data collected from key informant interviews, a focus group, observational methods and organizational feedback session; however, they were not consistent with self-assessment results at the same site. A larger pilot is required to determine generalizability of results. PMID:19172974

  19. Tapetal cell fate, lineage and proliferation in the Arabidopsis anther.

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Dickinson, Hugh G

    2010-07-01

    The four microsporangia of the flowering plant anther develop from archesporial cells in the L2 of the primordium. Within each microsporangium, developing microsporocytes are surrounded by concentric monolayers of tapetal, middle layer and endothecial cells. How this intricate array of tissues, each containing relatively few cells, is established in an organ possessing no formal meristems is poorly understood. We describe here the pivotal role of the LRR receptor kinase EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES 1 (EMS1) in forming the monolayer of tapetal nurse cells in Arabidopsis. Unusually for plants, tapetal cells are specified very early in development, and are subsequently stimulated to proliferate by a receptor-like kinase (RLK) complex that includes EMS1. Mutations in members of this EMS1 signalling complex and its putative ligand result in male-sterile plants in which tapetal initials fail to proliferate. Surprisingly, these cells continue to develop, isolated at the locular periphery. Mutant and wild-type microsporangia expand at similar rates and the 'tapetal' space at the periphery of mutant locules becomes occupied by microsporocytes. However, induction of late expression of EMS1 in the few tapetal initials in ems1 plants results in their proliferation to generate a functional tapetum, and this proliferation suppresses microsporocyte number. Our experiments also show that integrity of the tapetal monolayer is crucial for the maintenance of the polarity of divisions within it. This unexpected autonomy of the tapetal 'lineage' is discussed in the context of tissue development in complex plant organs, where constancy in size, shape and cell number is crucial. PMID:20570940

  20. My Name Is Not Michael: Strategies for Promoting Cultural Responsiveness in Schools

    Schulz, Lisa L.; Hurt, Kara; Lindo, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    With the changing cultural demographics in U.S. classrooms, school counselors must develop innovative approaches to promote culturally responsive school climates and organizational change. A vision is offered of systemic cultural responsiveness and culturally relevant teaching practices that nurture and engage all learners. The role of the school…

  1. Rice improvement involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plant lets in comparison with the control

  2. "I Didn't See It as a Cultural Thing": Supervisors of Student Teachers Define and Describe Culturally Responsive Supervision

    Griffin, Linda B.; Watson, Dyan; Liggett, Tonda

    2016-01-01

    Student teaching supervisors can play an integral role in teacher candidates' ability to understand and enact culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP). However, supervisors may lack the awareness, knowledge, skill, or willingness to serve as culturally responsive supervisors. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative study to find out how…

  3. Response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of Culture and Language Sensitive Physics on Science Attitude Achievement"

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-01-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript. [For "Influence of…

  4. Response to Marie Paz Morales' ``Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement''

    Cole, Mikel Walker

    2015-12-01

    This response to Marie Paz Morales' "Influence of culture and language sensitive physics on science attitude achievement" explores the ideas of culturally responsive pedagogy and critical literacy to examine some implications for culturally responsive science instruction implicit in the original manuscript.

  5. Shifting perspectives: culturally responsive interventions with latino substance abusers.

    Gallardo, Miguel E; Curry, Shannon J

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, there were 35 million Latinos living in the United States. It is estimated that by 2050 Latinos will comprise 97 million people in the United States, or one-fourth of the U.S. population, establishing this ethnic group as the fastest growing and soon to be largest in the country (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 ). These numbers highlight the need for a multicultural paradigm shift, or the inclusion of culture-specific skills and culturally responsive interventions in psychological practice. Latinos face challenges as a racial/ethnic group that the traditional Euro-American model of treatment neither addresses nor validates. Unfortunately, substance abuse serves a purposeful function for many Latinos as a means of escape from the problems related to the social, environmental, and political structures. The current article adapts the model set forth by Parham ( 2002 ) as a strength-based therapeutic framework for intervention. The following stages are outlined to serve as the basis for most therapeutic encounters with clients from all racial and ethnic groups presenting with substance abuse problems: therapeutic alliance building, culturally appropriate assessment, sociopolitical awareness and liberation, creating collaborative change, and addressing sustainability of change. PMID:25985072

  6. Autophagic response to cell culture stress in pluripotent stem cells.

    Gregory, Siân; Swamy, Sushma; Hewitt, Zoe; Wood, Andrew; Weightman, Richard; Moore, Harry

    2016-05-01

    Autophagy is an important conserved cellular process, both constitutively as a recycling pathway for long lived proteins and as an upregulated stress response. Recent findings suggest a fundamental role for autophagic processes in the maintenance of pluripotent stem cell function. In human embryonic stem cells (hESCS), autophagy was investigated by transfection of LC3-GFP to visualize autophagosomes and with an antibody to LC3B protein. The presence of the primary cilium (PC) in hESCs as the site of recruitment of autophagy-related proteins was also assessed. HESCs (mShef11) in vitro displayed basal autophagy which was upregulated in response to deprivation of culture medium replacement. Significantly higher levels of autophagy were exhibited on spontaneous differentiation of hESCs in vitro. The PC was confirmed to be present in hESCs and therefore may serve to coordinate autophagy function. PMID:26385182

  7. Creating culturally responsive family therapy models and research: introducing the use of responsive evaluation as a method.

    Seponski, Desiree M; Bermudez, J Maria; Lewis, Denise C

    2013-01-01

    Models of marriage and family therapy (MFT) typically reflect Western values and norms, and although cultural adaptations are made, many models/frameworks continue to be inappropriate or inadequate for use with non-Western cultures. Worldwide, therapists are examining ways of using MFT models in a culturally sensitive manner, especially when working with clients who are seen as having minority status or perceived as "other" by the dominant group. This essay suggests the use of responsive evaluation as a theoretically consistent methodology for creating and evaluating culturally responsive therapies. This approach rigorously evaluates each unique client/therapist context, culture, power, needs, and beliefs. We describe responsive evaluation and discuss how each component addresses the research needs of examining culturally responsive family therapies. A case illustration is offered delineating the process of conducting culturally responsive therapy with a Cambodian sample using solution-focused and narrative therapy. PMID:25073841

  8. Hemopoietic cell precursor responses to erythropoietin in plasma clot cultures

    Kennedy, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The time dependence of the response of mouse bone marrow cells to erythropoietin (Ep) in vitro was studied. Experiments include studies on the Ep response of marrow cells from normal, plethoric, or bled mice. Results with normal marrow reveal: (1) Not all erythroid precursors (CFU-E) are alike in their response to Ep. A significant number of the precursors develop to a mature erythroid colony after very short Ep exposures, but they account for only approx. 13% of the total colonies generated when Ep is active for 48 hrs. If Ep is active more than 6 hrs, a second population of erythroid colonies emerges at a nearly constant rate until the end of the culture. Full erythroid colony production requires prolonged exposure to erythropoietin. (2) The longer erythropoietin is actively present, the larger the number of erythroid colonies that reach 17 cells or more. Two distinct populations of immediate erythroid precursors are also present in marrow from plethoric mice. In these mice, total colony numbers are equal to or below those obtained from normal mice. However, the population of fast-responding CFU-E is consistently decreased to 10 to 20% of that found in normal marrow. The remaining colonies are formed from plethoric marrow at a rate equal to normal marrow. With increasing Ep exposures, the number of large colonies produced increases. From the marrow of bled mice, total erythroid colony production is equal to or above that of normal marrow. Two populations of colony-forming cells are again evident, with the fast-responding CFU-E being below normal levels. The lack of colonies from this group was compensated in bled mice by rapid colony production in the second population. A real increase in numbers of precursors present in this pool increased the rate of colony production in culture to twice that of normal marrow. The number of large colonies obtained from bled mice was again increased as the Ep exposure was lengthened. (ERB)

  9. AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of several pathways affecting Arabidopsis anther development

    2010-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that AtMYB103 has an important role in tapetum development,callose dissolution,and exine formation in A.thaliana anthers.Here,we further characterized its function in anther development by expression pattern analysis,transmission electron microscopy observation of the knockout mutant,and microarray analysis of downstream genes.A total of 818 genes differentially expressed between ms188 and the wild-type were identified by global expression profiling analysis.Functional classification showed that loss-of-function of AtMYB103 impairs cell wall modification,lipid metabolic pathways,and signal transduction throughout anther development.RNA in situ hybridization confirmed that transcription factors acting downstream of AtMYB103 (At1g06280 and At1g02040) were expressed in the tapetum and microspores at later stages,suggesting that they might have important roles in microsporogenesis.These results indicated that AtMYB103 is a crucial regulator of Arabidopsis anther development.

  10. Regulation of Arabidopsis Early Anther Development by Putative Cell-Cell Signaling Molecules and Transcriptional Regulators

    Yu-Jin Sun; Carey LH Hord; Chang-Bin Chen; Hong Ma

    2007-01-01

    Anther development in flowering plants involves the formation of several cell types, including the tapetal and pollen mother cells. The use of genetic and molecular tools has led to the identification and characterization of genes that are critical for normal cell division and differentiation in Arabidopsis early anther development. We review here several recent studies on these genes, including the demonstration that the putative receptor protein kinases BAM1 and BAM2 together play essential roles in the control of early cell division and differentiation. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that BAM1/2 may form a positive-negative feedback regulatory loop with a previously identified key regulator, SPOROCYTELESS (also called NOZZLE),to control the balance between sporogenous and somatic cell types in the anther. Furthermore, we summarize the isolation and functional analysis of the DYSFUNCTIONAL TAPETUM1 (DYT1) gene in promoting proper tapetal cell differentiation. Our finding that DYT1 encodes a putative transcription factor of the bHLH family, as well as relevant expression analyses, strongly supports a model that DYT1 serves as a critical link between upstream factors and downstream target genes that are critical for normal tapetum development and function. These studies, together with other recently published works, indicate that cell-cell communication and transcriptional control are key processes essential for cell fate specification in anther development.

  11. History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America

    Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the routes of pathogen introduction contributes greatly to efforts to protect against future disease emergence. Here, we investigated the history of the invasion in North America by the fungal pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, which causes the anther smut disease on the white ca

  12. Shifts from specialised to generalised pollination systems in Miconieae (Melastomataceae) and their relation with anther morphology and seed number.

    Brito, V L G; Fendrich, T G; Smidt, E C; Varassin, I G; Goldenberg, R

    2016-07-01

    Most species in Melastomataceae have poricidal anthers related to specialised bee buzz-pollination, while some have anthers with large openings associated to non-bee pollination systems. We tracked the evolution of anther morphology and seed number on the Miconieae phylogenetic tree to understand the evolutionary shifts in such pollination systems. Anther morphometric data and seed number were recorded for 54 taxa. Pollinators (bees, flies, wasps) were recorded for 20 available species. Ancestral state reconstruction was made using Maximum Likelihood from nrITS sequences. We used phylogenetic eigenvector regressions to estimate phylogenetic signal and the adaptive component for these traits. Species pollinated by bees or bees and wasps tend to have smaller pores and fruits with more seeds. Species pollinated by flies or flies and bees and/or wasps tend to have larger pores and fruits with less seeds. Independent evolution occurred three times for anthers with large pores and twice for fruits with few seeds. We detected a phylogenetic signal in both traits, and negative correlated evolution between them. In actinomorphic small-flowered Miconieae, changes in anther morphology can be related to generalisation in the pollination system incorporating flies and wasps as pollinators and lessening the importance of buzzing bees in such process. Differences in pollen removal and deposition may explain differences in anther morphology and seed number in Miconieae. PMID:26789333

  13. The Utility of Empathy for White Female Teachers' Culturally Responsive Interactions with Black Male Students

    Warren, Chezare A.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers aiming to become culturally responsive must be concerned with negotiating professional interactions that produce favorable outcomes for the culturally diverse students under their charge. Very few studies offer empirical evidence of empathy's utility in the culturally responsive classroom, especially when the teacher is culturally…

  14. The pea END1 promoter drives anther-specific gene expression in different plant species.

    Gómez, María D; Beltrán, José-Pío; Cañas, Luis A

    2004-10-01

    END1 was isolated by an immunosubtractive approach intended to identify specific proteins present in the different pea (Pisum sativum L.) floral organs and the genes encoding them. Following this strategy we obtained a monoclonal antibody (mAbA1) that specifically recognized a 26-kDa protein (END1) only detected in anther tissues. Northern blot assays showed that END1 is expressed specifically in the anther. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization assays corroborated the specific expression of END1 in the epidermis, connective, endothecium and middle layer cells during the different stages of anther development. END1 is the first anther-specific gene isolated from pea. The absence of a practicable pea transformation method together with the fact that no END1 homologue gene exists in Arabidopsis prevented us from carrying out END1 functional studies. However, we designed functional studies with the END1 promoter in different dicot species, as the specific spatial and temporal expression pattern of END1 suggested, among other things, the possibility of using its promoter region for biotechnological applications. Using different constructs to drive the uidA (beta-glucuronidase) gene controlled by the 2.7-kb isolated promoter sequence we have proven that the END1 promoter is fully functional in the anthers of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Nicotiana tabacum L. (tobacco) and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) plants. The presence in the -330-bp region of the promoter sequence of three putative CArG boxes also suggests that END1 could be a target gene of MADS-box proteins and that, subsequently, it would be activated by genes controlling floral organ identity. PMID:15221384

  15. Investigating the Relationship between Organization Culture and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

    Asghar Moshabaki; Vahab Khalili Shojaei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract   This research deals with the investigating the relationship between organization culture and corporate social responsibility (CSR). (Case Study: Energy Ministry). In this paper, the above-mentioned research split in two parts. First, issues regarding organization culture and organization culture management, then effects of organization culture’s stabilization on corporate social responsibility. The questionnaires list regarding organization culture derivated from Baron and Greenber...

  16. Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.

    Ednamar Gabriela Palú

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução desses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta, buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1 e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1. Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1 + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1 + AIB (1 mg.L-1+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1; para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1 e cinetina (4 mg.L-1.The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aimed to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce

  17. Assessing the Impact of Total Immersion on Cherokee Language Revitalization: A Culturally Responsive, Participatory Approach.

    Peter, Lizette

    This paper illustrates how the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma is exploring a new paradigm of evaluation that is responsive to the claims, concerns, and issues of stakeholders involved. Known as culturally responsive evaluation, this alternative conceived by the Initiative for Culturally Responsive Evaluation (ICRE) is considered more appropriate than…

  18. A Visibility Project: Learning to See How Preservice Teachers Take up Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    Gere, Anne Ruggles; Buehler, Jennifer; Dallavis, Christian; Haviland, Victoria Shaw

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the ways in which raced consciousness inflects developing understandings of cultural responsiveness among preservice teachers whose preparation included responses to imaginative engagement with literary texts, interactions in an underresourced school, and exploration of key concepts of culturally responsive pedagogy. The…

  19. Radiation Response of Cultured Human Cells Is Unaffected by Johrei

    Zach Hall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Johrei has been credited with healing thousands from radiation wounds after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945. This alternative medical therapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as are other Energy Medicine modalities that purport to influence a universal healing energy. Human brain cells were cultured and exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Experienced Johrei practitioners directed healing intentionality toward the cells for 30 min from a distance of 20 cm and the fate of the cells was observed by computerized time-lapse microscopy. Cell death and cell divisions were tallied every 30 min before, during and after Johrei treatment for a total of 22.5 h. An equal number of control experiments were conducted in which cells were irradiated but did not receive Johrei treatment. Samples were assigned to treatment conditions randomly and data analysis was conducted in a blinded fashion. Radiation exposure decreased the rate of cell division (cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Division rates were estimated for each 30 min and averaged over 8 independent experiments (4 control and 4 with Johrei treatment for each of 4 doses of X-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy. Because few cell deaths were observed, pooled data from the entire observation period were used to estimate death rates. Analysis of variance did not reveal any significant differences on division rate or death rate between treatment groups. Only radiation dose was statistically significant. We found no indication that the radiation response of cultured cells is affected by Johrei treatment.

  20. Radiation response of cultured human cells is unaffected by Johrei.

    Hall, Zach; Luu, Tri; Moore, Dan; Yount, Garret

    2007-06-01

    Johrei has been credited with healing thousands from radiation wounds after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945. This alternative medical therapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as are other Energy Medicine modalities that purport to influence a universal healing energy. Human brain cells were cultured and exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Experienced Johrei practitioners directed healing intentionality toward the cells for 30 min from a distance of 20 cm and the fate of the cells was observed by computerized time-lapse microscopy. Cell death and cell divisions were tallied every 30 min before, during and after Johrei treatment for a total of 22.5 h. An equal number of control experiments were conducted in which cells were irradiated but did not receive Johrei treatment. Samples were assigned to treatment conditions randomly and data analysis was conducted in a blinded fashion. Radiation exposure decreased the rate of cell division (cell cycle arrest) in a dose-dependent manner. Division rates were estimated for each 30 min and averaged over 8 independent experiments (4 control and 4 with Johrei treatment) for each of 4 doses of X-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy). Because few cell deaths were observed, pooled data from the entire observation period were used to estimate death rates. Analysis of variance did not reveal any significant differences on division rate or death rate between treatment groups. Only radiation dose was statistically significant. We found no indication that the radiation response of cultured cells is affected by Johrei treatment. PMID:17549235

  1. Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer factor 4 (AHP4) negatively regulates secondary wall thickening of the anther endothecium during flowering.

    Jung, Kwang Wook; Oh, Seung-Ick; Kim, Yun Young; Yoo, Kyoung Shin; Cui, Mei Hua; Shin, Jeong Sheop

    2008-04-30

    Cytokinins are essential hormones in plant development. Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs) are mediators in a multistep phosphorelay pathway for cytokinin signaling. The exact role of AHP4 has not been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated young flower-specific expression of AHP4, and compared AHP4-overexpressing (Ox) trangenic Arabidopsis lines and an ahp4 knock-out line. AHP4-Ox plants had reduced fertility due to a lack of secondary cell wall thickening in the anther endothecium and inhibition of IRREGURAR XYLEMs (IRXs) expression in young flowers. Conversely, ahp4 anthers had more lignified anther walls than the wild type, and increased IRXs expression. Our study indicates that AHP4 negatively regulates thickening of the secondary cell wall of the anther endothecium, and provides new insight into the role of cytokinins in formation of secondary cell walls via the action of AHP4. PMID:18413999

  2. The Culturally Responsive Teacher in Class-teaching

    谢桂梅

    2008-01-01

    <正>Successfully teaching students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds requires a new way of looking at teaching that is grounded in an understanding of the role of culture and language in learning.Teachers need to be familiar with constructivist views of learning,develop socio-cultural consciousnessuse instructional strategies.

  3. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-d-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of thre...

  4. An anther-specific chalcone synthase-like gene D5 related to rice pollen development

    2000-01-01

    It was shown in a previous analysis that D5 gene from rice (Oryza sativa L.) was an anther-specific gene encoding a chalcone synthase-related protein. In this study, D5 gene was found specifically expressed in tapetum cells as well as in the peripheral cells of the vascular bundle of rice anthers by RNA in situ hybridization. In order to study its function, D5 was transformed into rice in both sense and antisense directions driven by a rice Actin 1 promoter. It has been observed that the pollen grains from the antisense D5 transgenic rice plants are abnormal, indicating that D5 plays a critical role in rice pollen development.

  5. An Arabidopsis flavonoid transporter is required for anther dehiscence and pollen development

    Thompson, Elinor P.; Wilkins, Christopher; Demidchik, Vadim; Davies, Julia M; Glover, Beverley J.

    2010-01-01

    FLOWER FLAVONOID TRANSPORTER (FFT) encodes a multidrug and toxin efflux family transporter in Arabidopsis thaliana. FFT (AtDTX35) is highly transcribed in floral tissues, the transcript being localized to epidermal guard cells, including those of the anthers, stigma, siliques and nectaries. Mutant analysis demonstrates that the absence of FFT transcript affects flavonoid levels in the plant and that the altered flavonoid metabolism has wide-ranging consequences. Root growth, seed development ...

  6. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  7. An examination of acquiescent response styles in cross-cultural research

    R. Fischer; J.R.J. Fontaine; F.J.R. van de Vijver; D.A. van Hemert

    2006-01-01

    Response styles constitute a formidable challenge for cross-cultural research. In this article, three different response styles are discussed (acquiescence, extremity scoring, and social desirability). Acquiescence responding (ARS) is then integrated into a larger classical test theoretical framewor

  8. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  9. The Anther Steps onto the Stigma for Self-Fertilization in a Slipper Orchid

    Xiao, Xin-Ju; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Huang, Jie; Liu, Zhong-Jian

    2012-01-01

    Background Due to the spatial separation between male and female pollen grains from the anther of most flowering plants, including orchids, pollens are transported by wind or animals and deposited onto the receptive surface of the stigma of a different plant. However, self-pollination is common in pollinating animal-scarce habitats. In such habitats, self-pollinations require the assistance of a pollinating agent (e.g., wind, gravity, or floral assembly) to transport the pollen grains from the anther onto its own stigma. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on observations on floral morphology and flowering phenology, tests of the breeding system, and a comparison of pollination mechanisms, a new self-pollination process was discovered in the hermaphroditic (i.e., possessing spatially separated male and female organs) flower of a slipper orchid, Paphiopedilum parishii. The anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly steps onto the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly. Conclusions The mode of self-pollination discussed here is a new addition to the broad range of genetic and morphological mechanisms that have evolved in flowering plants to ensure their reproductive success. The present self-contained pollination mechanism is a possible adaptation to the insect-scarce habitat of the orchid. PMID:22649529

  10. Increase in collagen production with loss of androgen responsiveness in cultured androgen-responsive Shionogi carcinoma 115 cells.

    Terada, N; Wakimoto, H; Yamamoto, R; Uchida, N; Takatsuka, D; Takada, T; Taniguchi, H; Li, W; Kitamura, Y; Matsumoto, K

    1988-05-01

    The collagen production of androgen-responsive and -unresponsive Shionogi carcinoma 115 cells was investigated by culturing them in a medium with or without testosterone. Androgen-unresponsive cells were obtained by culturing a cloned androgen-responsive cell in a testosterone-free medium for 12 weeks. The collagen production of androgen-responsive cells slightly increased in the absence of testosterone, whereas testosterone did not affect the collagen production of androgen-unresponsive cells. Androgen-unresponsive cells produced 3-4 times more collagen than androgen-responsive cells. The major collagen produced by both androgen-responsive and - unresponsive cells migrated to the same position in sodium dodecylsulfate:polyacylamide gel electrophoresis. The present results indicate that the collagen production of androgen-responsive Shionogi carcinoma 115 cells increases with the loss of androgen responsiveness in culture. PMID:3169094

  11. Applying Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to the Vocational Training of Immigrants

    Wu, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Training and learning are the personal process in which individuals interact with social and cultural contexts. Immigrant trainees bring their early educational and life experiences into training classrooms, and their learning is strongly affected by their prior socialization and socio-cultural experiences. Therefore, it is necessary to provide…

  12. Culturally Responsive Teaching as an Ethics- and Care-Based Approach to Urban Education

    Shevalier, Rae; McKenzie, Barbara Ann

    2012-01-01

    Research shows culturally responsive teaching affects urban students positively. Current literature is an excellent resource for urban teacher preparation and provides definitions, models, and examples to help preservice teachers recognize the "how" and "what" of culturally responsive teaching. Missing, however, is an accessible, in-depth…

  13. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy in a Preservice Social Studies Education Course

    Fitchett, Paul G.; Starker, Tehia V.; Salyers, Beth

    2012-01-01

    In a preexperimental study of preservice practitioners' professional dispositions, we examined the relationship between an innovative culturally responsive teaching model in a social studies methods course and teacher candidates' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy. Findings indicate preservice teachers exposed to an in-depth culturally…

  14. Qualifying Sociopolitical Consciousness: Complicating Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Faith-Based Schools

    Dallavis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and faith-based schooling. The author presents a portion of a larger ethnographic research project conducted at a Catholic elementary school that serves a predominantly Latino population in urban Chicago. This work contributes to theories of culturally responsive education by…

  15. Using Culturally Competent Responsive Services to Improve Student Achievement and Behavior

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This article illustrates standards blending, the integration of core academic and school counseling standards, as a culturally alert responsive services strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap while also enhancing employability skills and culturally salient career competencies. The responsive services intervention described in this…

  16. "Because That's Who I Am": Extending Theories of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy to Consider Religious Identity, Belief, and Practice

    Dallavis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In this conceptual article the author explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and religious school contexts. He extends theories of culturally responsive pedagogy to consider how religion, a dimension of student culture that has largely been overlooked in the literature surrounding culturally responsive pedagogy, can inflect…

  17. Characterization of chondrocyte sheets prepared using a co-culture method with temperature-responsive culture inserts.

    Kokubo, Mami; Sato, Masato; Yamato, Masayuki; Mitani, Genya; Kutsuna, Toshiharu; Ebihara, Goro; Okano, Teruo; Mochida, Joji

    2016-06-01

    Conventional culture methods using temperature-responsive culture dishes require 4-5 weeks to prepare layered chondrocyte sheets that can be used in articular cartilage repair and regeneration. This study investigated whether the use of synovial tissue obtained from the same joint as the chondrocyte nutritive supply source could more quickly facilitate the preparation of chondrocyte sheets. After culturing derived synoviocytes and chondrocytes together (i.e. combined culture or co-culture) on temperature-responsive inserts, chondrocyte growth was assessed and a molecular analysis of the chondrocyte sheets was performed. Transplantable tissue could be obtained more quickly using this method (average 10.5 days). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining of the three-layer chondrocyte sheets confirmed the significant expression of genes critical to cartilage maintenance, including type II collagen (COL2), aggrecan-1 and tissue metallopeptidase inhibitor 1. However, the expression of COL1, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP13 and A-disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 was suppressed. The adhesive factor fibronectin-1 (FN1) was observed in all sheet layers, whereas in sheets generated using conventional preparation methods positive FN1 immunostaining was observed only on the surface of the sheets. The results indicate that synoviocyte co-cultures provide an optimal environment for the preparation of chondrocyte sheets for tissue transplantation and are particularly beneficial for shortening the required culture period. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23868865

  18. Nourishing Roots and Inspiring Wings: Building a Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Southern Appalachia

    Druggish, Richard S.

    2003-01-01

    Richard S. Druggish This qualitative study focused on the need for culturally responsive teaching within the southern Appalachian cultural setting. The specific components of this approach to teaching were based on research findings, theoretical claims from proponents of culturally responsive teaching (e.g. Gloria Ladson-Billings and Geneva Gay), and experiences and personal narratives of educators working with students in southern Appalachia. T...

  19. Syria's world cultural heritage and individual criminal responsibility

    Lostal, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports have confirmed damage to five of the six Syrian world heritage sites during the current armed conflict as well as extensive looting of several of its archaeological sites on the Syrian Tentative List of world heritage. This article examines the role and fate of Syrian world cultural heritage from the beginning of the conflict, maps out the different cultural property obligations applicable to Syria while illustrating, where possible, how they may have been violated. Then, it as...

  20. Callus culture and gamma rays treatment used for inducing new breeding material in wheat (Tr. Aestivum L.)

    Naturally occuring somaclonal variation has been combined with gamma-ray (137Cs) treatment to increase the frequency of new forms of wheat differing from the initial lines. Two winter wheat genotypes 8-61 and 148-133-14 were used in the present study. Donor plants were grown under field conditions. Immature embryos were excised from the sterilized kernels and plated on MS basal medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2.4-D for induction and proliferation of the callus. The following treatments were applied: 1). Control (a natural occuring somaclonal variation). 2). 60 Gy gamma-ray treatment on mature seeds. 3). 6.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on immature seeds. 4). 2 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus 14 days after embryo plating. 5). 0.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus at the end of each plating. The best callusogenesis and regeneration were observed with genotype 8-61 given the treatment 5 followed by control. The genotype 148-133-14 showed a different response. The highest regeneration was obtained in the control followed by the treatments 2 and 5. In order to provide a faster stabilization of the genetic diversity among the regenerated plants, they were used as donors for anther culture. The anthers with microspores at the mid- to late uninucleate stages were excised and planted on potato-2 medium. Callus and embryoids induced from the cultured anthers were transferred to a 190-2 regeneration medium. All regenerants were studied cytologically and the haploids were treated with 0.055 colhicine 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Doubled haploid lines were produced as a result of this experiment. Statistical analysis of the newly released lines showed evidence of differences in plant height, spike shape and other agronomic features. (author)

  1. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  2. Characterization of a novel anther-specific gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat protein in petunia.

    Yue, Y Z; Sun, J; Huang, X; Peng, H; Liu, G F; Hu, H R

    2014-01-01

    In Petunia x hybrida 'Fantasy Red', a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene referred to as PhLRR, was identified in a flower bud cDNA library. The open reading frame sequence of PhLRR was 1251 bp, encoding a putative 46.2-kDa protein of 416 amino acids. The PhLRR protein showed high similarity to members of polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins (PGIPs), contained 11 conserved LRR domains, and was an extracellular localization protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PhLRR belonged to the same PGIPs subfamily as SHY, indicating that PhLRR may be involved in the development of pollen-like SHY. Expression analysis revealed that PhLRR was abundantly expressed during early stages of flower bud and anther development, while it was not detected in any other examined organs, such as sepals, petals, pistils, roots, stems, leaves, or open flowers. Furthermore, many cis-acting elements (such as AGAAA and GTGA) related to anther-specific gene expression were identified in the PhLRR gene promoter region, indicating that the promoter is also anther-specific. These results suggested that PhLRR is a novel anther-specific gene that may be essential for the early development of anthers. PMID:25501199

  3. The ATP-binding Cassette Transporter OsABCG15 is Required for Anther Development and Pollen Fertility in Rice

    Bai-Xiao Niu; Fu-Rong He; Ming He; Ding Ren; Le-Tian Chen; Yao-Guang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Plant male reproductive development is a complex biological process,but the underlying mechanism is not well understood.Here,we characterized a rice (Oryza sativa L.) male sterile mutant.Based on mapbased cloning and sequence analysis,we identified a 1,459-bp deletion in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene,OsABCG15,causing abnormal anthers and male sterility.Therefore,we named this mutant osabcg15.Expression analysis showed that OsABCG15 is expressed specifically in developmental anthers from stage 8 (meiosis Ⅱ stage) to stage 10 (late microspore stage).Two genes CYP704B2 and WDA1,involved in the biosynthesis of very-long-chain fatty acids for the establishment of the anther cuticle and pollen exine,were downregulated in osabcg15 mutant,suggesting that OsABCG15 may play a key function in the processes related to sporopollenin biosynthesis or sporopollenin transfer from tapetal cells to anther locules.Consistently,histological analysis showed that osabcg15 mutants developed obvious abnormality in postmeiotic tapetum degeneration,leading to rapid degredation of young microspores.The results suggest that OsABCG15 plays a critical role in exine formation and pollen development,similar to the homologous gene of AtABCG26 in Arabidopsis.This work is helpful to understand the regulatory network in rice anther development.

  4. Confronting Coyote: Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in an Era of Standardization

    Rogers, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The trickster, a crucial character in many cultural histories, often slips into people's lives without warning. In the western United States, the trickster frequently manifests himself as Coyote, and he is central in the oral traditions of tribal people, ranching families, and outdoor adventurers alike. Coyote is a complex character that teaches…

  5. Socio-Cultural Norms for Corporate Social Responsibility

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    Abstract – This paper considers the cultural resources for corporate action tied into stakeholder models, criticizes current stakeholder models, and develops a perspective based in ethics and the political model of the stakeholder. The purpose of this analysis is to lay out models which recognize...

  6. Urban Teachers' Use of Culturally Responsive Management Strategies

    Brown, Dave F.

    2003-01-01

    Gaining students' cooperation in urban classrooms involves establishing an environment where teachers address students' cultural and ethnic needs, as well as their social, emotional, and cognitive needs. This article describes the management strategies of 13 1st- through 12th-grade urban teachers from seven cities throughout the United States.…

  7. Culturally Responsive Teaching in China: Instructional Strategy and Teachers' Attitudes

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yuan Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manner in which teachers facilitate the pedagogical process within a culturally diverse student population. The study focused on two primary schools in China; one located in a more fully developed city in eastern China (Case A), while the other was in a less developed city in rural western China (Case…

  8. Toward a Conception of Culturally Responsive Classroom Management

    Weinstein, Carol S.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra; Curran, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Given the increasing diversity of our classrooms, a lack of multicultural competence can exacerbate the difficulties that novice teachers have with classroom management. Definitions and expectations of appropriate behavior are culturally influenced, and conflicts are likely to occur when teachers and students come from different cultural…

  9. The Cultural Responsiveness and Dual Language Education Project

    Fort, Pilar; Stechuk, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood programs are experiencing increasing numbers of children who are learning English as a second language. Staff members struggle with how to best support children and families who are working to preserve their home language and culture while helping their children succeed in educational settings outside the home where English is the…

  10. Development of a Culturally Responsive Nutrition Promotion Course for Latinos

    Frank, Gail C.; Beaudoin, Jessica; Rascon, Mayra; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy; Rios-Ellis, Britt

    2013-01-01

    The health of Hispanics is greatly influenced by level of education, socioeconomic status, and access to healthcare (United States Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2011). To address this issue and to reduce health disparities among all ethnic groups, community based interventions with culturally appropriate and linguistically…

  11. Collaborative Voices Exploring Culturally and Socially Responsive Literacies

    Medina, Carmen L.; del Rocio Costa, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This piece shares preservice teachers and instructors reflections on their perceptions of a course on Spanish language arts methods in Puerto Rico. The course was redesigned to focus on interrelated curricular and pedagogical aspects such as literacies as situated social practice, funds of knowledge, popular culture and critical literacy. In…

  12. Effect of Hofstede’s Cultural Differences in Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure

    Silvia Romero; Belen Fernandez-Feijoo

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at culture differences in sustainability reporting among countries. The authors use data from the survey conducted by KPMG in 2008 within 22 countries, applying Hofstede’s framework. The authors find an effect of culture on the interest in highlighting the credibility of sustainability reports in different countries. Level of corporate social responsibility disclosure, on the other hand, does not change with cultural differences, but with the levels of enforcement of the re...

  13. Cultural dimensions and corporate social responsibility: A cross-country analysis

    Halkos, George; Skouloudis, Antonis

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has witnessed a surge in recent years but the rate of adoption among national business sectors diverges considerably. In this paper we attempt to frame the influence of national culture on CSR by assessing national CSR penetration under well-established cultural dimensions. We offer new evidence on the influence of cultural specificity - proxied by Hofstede’s model - on the adoption and endorsement of CSR among national business sectors. ...

  14. A primary culture of guinea pig gallbladder epithelial cells that is responsive to secretagogues

    Gunter-Smith, Pamela J.; Abdulkadir, Oluwakemi; Hammonds-Odie, Latanya; Scanlon, Mary; Terrell, Raquel

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a cell culture of guinea pig gallbladder epithelial cells with which to study ion transport. When grown on permeable supports, the cultured epithelia developed a transepithelial resistance (Rt) of ∼500 Ω·cm2. The epithelial cell origin of the cell culture was further confirmed by immunocytochemical localization of cytokeratin. Ionomycin and forskolin increased transepithelial voltage and short-circuit current (Isc) and decreased Rt. The response to ionomycin was transient, w...

  15. The development of a model of culturally responsive science and mathematics teaching

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.; Morales, Amanda R.; Shroyer, M. Gail

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative theoretical study was conducted in response to the current need for an inclusive and comprehensive model to guide the preparation and assessment of teacher candidates for culturally responsive teaching. The process of developing a model of culturally responsive teaching involved three steps: a comprehensive review of the literature; a synthesis of the literature into thematic categories to capture the dispositions and behaviors of culturally responsive teaching; and the piloting of these thematic categories with teacher candidates to validate the usefulness of the categories and to generate specific exemplars of behavior to represent each category. The model of culturally responsive teaching contains five thematic categories: (1) content integration, (2) facilitating knowledge construction, (3) prejudice reduction, (4) social justice, and (5) academic development. The current model is a promising tool for comprehensively defining culturally responsive teaching in the context of teacher education as well as to guide curriculum and assessment changes aimed to increase candidates' culturally responsive knowledge and skills in science and mathematics teaching.

  16. Social Justice and Cultural Responsiveness: Innovative Teaching Strategies for Group Work

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a teaching strategy for group work that enhances the social justice consciousness of course participants by increasing their knowledge of their own cultural identity, worldview, acculturation, privilege, and oppression to improve their cultural responsiveness and understanding of social justice issues. The focus is on group…

  17. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  18. Culturally Responsive Teaching: The Harlem Renaissance in an Urban English Class

    Stairs, Andrea J.

    2007-01-01

    Andrea J. Stairs advocates culturally responsive teaching, a practice that explicitly highlights "issues of race, ethnicity, and culture as central to teaching, learning, and schooling," and emphasizes the necessity of interrogating the themes of race, power, and privilege in the urban classroom. Stairs observes two student teachers as they…

  19. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in Citizenship Education: Using African Proverbs as Tools for Teaching in Urban Schools

    Grant, Rachel A.; Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Preparing today's children to be tomorrow's global citizens will require social educators who have knowledge of the histories, experiences, and cultural practices of the children they teach. This article offers culturally responsive pedagogy and the African proverb as frames for teaching African American students to become engaged local and global…

  20. Prognostic Importance of Intraoperative Cultures for Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome After Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Ibrahim Bozkurt

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Postoperative infectious complications requiring additional antibiotic treatment and prolonged hospitalization can potentially be observed after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Postoperative infectious complications can occur despite a negative preoperative bladder urine culture (UC) and perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. In this study we prospectively evaluated the association of intraoperative cultures with post-PCNL systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Material and ...

  1. The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

  2. The Relationship between Organizational Culture and the Implementation of Response to Intervention in One Elementary School

    Methner, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between organizational culture and the implementation of Response to Intervention in one elementary school. It examined issues corresponding to change within a system, with particular attention to those relating to school culture. An ethnographic approach was used to gather data, including the collection of…

  3. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril; Hägerhed-Engman, Linda;

    2012-01-01

    , but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour...... of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.......The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology...

  4. Secondary English Learners: Strengthening Their Literacy Skills through Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    In high school English classrooms where English language learners may be at risk of academic failure, Culturally Responsive Teaching can help educators build an inclusive community in which all students can improve their literacy skills.

  5. Empowerment and responsibility of the culture of peace through education

    Mariela Inés Sánchez Cardona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to highlight the possibilities of empowering the culture of peace in the society in general, so it is necessary a joint work of different actors and social institutions. In this perspective each individual must transcend commitment to the peace of the personal to the social, also the State specifically in the case of Colombia must be monitored for compliance with the legislation in story to the compulsory education for educational institutions peace through public policies. Similarly, we emphasize that when they achieve consistently develop the principles and methodologies of education for peace, in institutions both family, school and University, this facilitates the strengthening of the culture for peace in the country.

  6. Cross-Cultural Homestays: An Analysis of College Students' Responses After Living in an Unfamiliar Culture

    Baty, Roger M.; Dold, Eugene

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to investigate the effects of a cross-cultural homestay program on students' attitudes and health. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  7. Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems

    Janette K. Klingner

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate representation is through the creation of culturally responsive educational systems. Our goal is to assist practitioners, researchers, and policy makers in coalescing around culturally responsive, evidence-based interventions and strategic improvements in practice and policy to improve students’ educational opportunities in general education and reduce inappropriate referrals to and placement in special education. We envision this work as cutting across three interrelated domains: policies, practices, and people. Policies include those guidelines enacted at federal, state, district, and school levels that influence funding, resource allocation, accountability, and other key aspects of schooling. We use the notion of practice in two ways, in the instrumental sense of daily practices that all cultural beings engage in to navigate and survive their worlds, and also in a technical sense to describe the procedures and strategies devised for the purpose of maximizing students’ learning outcomes. People include all those in the broad educational system: administrators, teacher educators, teachers, community members, families, and the children whose opportunities we wish to improve.

  8. Consumers’ responses to CSR in a cross-cultural setting

    Hakan Karaosman; Gustavo Morales-Alonso; Mercedes Grijalvo

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to clarify the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and consumer behaviour in an international setting. Consumers’ responses to CSR activities and the impact on the purchase decision are limited discourses. CSR-based studies in the fashion and apparel industry are also scarce. Therefore, this study attempts to enlighten the subject of how consumers from different countries respond to CSR adopted in the fashion and apparel industry. This study is based on a...

  9. From the anther to the proctodeum: Pear (Pyrus communis) pollen digestion in Osmia cornuta larvae.

    Nepi, Massimo; Cresti, Laura; Maccagnani, Bettina; Ladurner, Edith; Pacini, Ettore

    2005-07-01

    Modifications of the pollen grains of Pyrus communis Linneaus that occur during the digestion by Osmia cornuta (Latreille) larvae were studied histochemically. We compared the features of the pollen grains found in the anthers, in the larval cell provisions and in the alimentary canal of the 5th instar larvae. Modifications were already evident in the provisions and consisted of protoplast protrusions through the apertures and a decrease in the number of starch-containing pollen grains. After pollen grains were ingested by the larvae, the protoplast appeared retracted from the pollen wall. Pollen digestion began in the anterior part of the midgut, where we observed: (1) disorganised intine at the apertures; (2) disappearance of DAPI staining of nuclear pollen DNA; (3) fewer pollen grains containing starch than in the anthers; (4) some empty pollen grains. Pollen grains in the proctodeum appeared extremely compressed and crushed. Some grains appeared to be unaffected by the digestive process. We hypothesise that the protrusion of the intine and of the protoplast from the apertures in bee provisions could be considered a kind of pre-treatment necessary to initiate the digestion process in the larval alimentary canal. PMID:16105552

  10. The S-ribonuclease gene of Petunia hybrida is expressed in nonstylar tissue, including immature anthers.

    Clark, K R; Sims, T L

    1994-09-01

    To determine the ability of isolated S-locus promoter sequences to direct organ-specific gene expression, we used microprojectile bombardment to introduce chimeric S-allele/beta-glucuronidase genes into different tissues of Petunia hybrida for transient expression. Histochemical staining showed that S-locus/beta-glucuronidase fusions were expressed in pistil, ovary, and petal tissue. No expression of the chimeric genes was detected in leaves or in mature pollen, either by histochemical staining or by fluorescence assays. RNA blot hybridization confirmed that low levels of S-locus mRNA accumulate in petals and ovaries in vivo. Analysis of the expression pattern of S-locus promoter deletions showed that sequences in the immediate vicinity of the TATA box were sufficient to confer qualitatively correct organ-specific expression of beta-glucuronidase. To further investigate the potential for S-ribonuclease expression in pollen, we used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify RNA accumulated in developing anthers. These assays demonstrated that mRNA for the S-ribonuclease accumulates to low levels in developing anthers several days prior to corolla opening and pollen anthesis. We discuss these results in light of current models of self-incompatibility. PMID:7972517

  11. Enhancing Self-Awareness: A Practical Strategy to Train Culturally Responsive Social Work Students

    Nalini J. Negi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A primary goal of social justice educators is to engage students in a process of self-discovery, with the goal of helping them recognize their own biases, develop empathy, and become better prepared for culturally responsive practice. While social work educators are mandated with the important task of training future social workers in culturally responsive practice with diverse populations, practical strategies on how to do so are scant. This article introduces a teaching exercise, the Ethnic Roots Assignment, which has been shown qualitatively to aid students in developing self-awareness, a key component of culturally competent social work practice. Practical suggestions for classroom utilization, common challenges, and past student responses to participating in the exercise are provided. The dissemination of such a teaching exercise can increase the field’s resources for addressing the important goal of cultural competence training.

  12. Digital Citizenship: Developing an Ethical and Responsible Online Culture

    Oxley, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Responsible and ethical use of the Internet is not something that teenagers, in particular, consider to be important, and serious consequences are beginning to emerge as a result of careless and offensive online behaviour. Teachers and teacher-librarians have a duty of care to make students aware of the potentially devastating effects of…

  13. Cross-cultural Differences in Compliment Response between China and US

    李志远

    2015-01-01

    Compliment response is one of the most commonly used speech acts in social communication.This thesis,through the comparative studies on compliment response between China and America,aims at helping English learners have a profound understanding on compliments in cross-cultural communication.

  14. Stories that Matter: Native American Fifth Graders' Responses to Culturally Authentic Text

    Hoffman, Angeline P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine textual features in Native American children's literature and Native children's responses to these textual features. Culturally authentic children's literature was used to gain insights into children's perspectives as they engaged in responses within literature circles. This study utilized qualitative…

  15. The Culture of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the Academic Framework: Some Literary Implications

    Mehta, Sandhya Rao

    2011-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is swiftly emerging as an integral part of corporate culture and discourse. Associated with notions of responsibility, accountability and community involvement, it remains privileged with concerns that increasingly define the new millennium. Less developed, however, is the relevance of CSR ideas to academic…

  16. Logo design: examining consumer response to figurativeness across cultures

    Machado, Joana César; Vacas de Carvalho, Leonor; Torres, Anna; Velden, Michel; Costa, Patrício

    2014-01-01

    Literature concerned with logo strategy suggests that the aesthetic appeal of brand logo significantly influences consumer reactions. The main purpose of this research is to study the influence of the different categories of figurative logo designs on consumer response. Through two studies in three countries, this research sheds light on consumer logo preferences, by investigating the psychological properties of the figurativeness of logo design. Results showed that figurativeness is an essen...

  17. Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

    2011-06-01

    Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

  18. Cultural perspectives on the meaning of corporate social responsibility in a third sector organisation

    Hussein, Rima

    2009-01-01

    How can Corporate Social Responsibility best be understood, what is its range of application and what insights can culture provide when considering the responsibilities of a third sector organisation? This thesis addresses these questions through ethnographic enquiry conducted in a third sector organization (Groundwork Northumberland). Challenging the rigid conventions which restrict the relevance of Corporate Social Responsibility to the private sector it demonstrates both the contest and co...

  19. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. PMID:23067337

  20. Ethical control and cultural change (in cultural dreams begin organizational responsibilities)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractEthical control is based on transparent access to the accounts of responsible behaviour on the part of individual and organizational actors. It is usually linked to the idea of a checkpoint: where celibate rules, no sexual interaction can be allowed. However, organizing and managing clim

  1. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of

  2. Consumers’ responses to CSR in a cross-cultural setting

    Hakan Karaosman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to clarify the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR and consumer behaviour in an international setting. Consumers’ responses to CSR activities and the impact on the purchase decision are limited discourses. CSR-based studies in the fashion and apparel industry are also scarce. Therefore, this study attempts to enlighten the subject of how consumers from different countries respond to CSR adopted in the fashion and apparel industry. This study is based on an exploratory qualitative research for which focus group interviews, including six group discussions with Spanish and Turkish consumers, have been used. The fundamental dimension for sampling was consumers’ interest and knowledge of CSR-related issues. The data were examined by constant comparison analysis. The paper provides empirical insights that suggest that these consumers, regardless of their country of origin, perceive CSR actions as part of companies’ marketing strategies, while overall consumer awareness to CSR is low. Moreover, the criteria, which determine the purchase decision is to be governed by self-interest. A difference between participants from both countries has been found with regard to their demand for more regulation towards CSR. An identified research need in international marketing discipline, is fulfilled in this study.

  3. Contrasting Nephropathic Responses to Oral Administration of Extract of Cultured Penicillium polonicum in Rat and Primate

    John E. Fincham; Katharine M. McHugh; Mantle, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distort...

  4. In vitro culture in barley breeding

    One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

  5. Cultural responsiveness in long-term-care case management: moving beyond competence.

    Werkmeister-Rozas, Lisa; Klein, Waldo C

    2009-01-01

    Case mangers must deal with the ever-changing makeup of their client population as well as those who provide managed services to these clients. There is great ethnocultural diversity in the elder population, and statistics contend that it will only increase with time. Similarly, the majority of long-term-care providers have been consistently female and of color. Providing culturally competent services becomes more complex when long-term-care providers and clients possess different identities, countries of origins, and social statuses. This article examines a framework that addresses the complex, multidimensional and bidirectional process that occurs between providers and consumers of any cultural makeup called cultural responsiveness. PMID:19353981

  6. Digital Repatriation: Constructing a Culturally Responsive Virtual Museum Tour

    Loriene Roy、Mark Christal

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:14-18

    This paper describe a project that involved educators and three Native American communities in the construction of a virtual tour now available on the Web site of the National Museum of the American Indian(http://www. conexus.si.edu/. In fall 1998, the Pueblo of Laguna Department of Education, the College of Education and Graduate School of Library and Information Science at The University of Texas at Austin, and the Smithsonians National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI began the first collaboration that brought Native American students, teachers, and cultural representatives to the NMAI George Gustav Heye Center in New York City. The virtual tour makes extensive use of QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR. The panoramas of the exhibition space serve as an interface for accessing the featured objects selected by the students. Clicking on a hot spot over the museum display of a featured object causes the QTVR object to load in a separate Webpage frame accompanied by an interpreted essay written by a student. Clickable floor plans of the exhibition- space offer another method of navigating the virtual tour and accessing the virtual objects.

  7. Building a culture of responsibility as the basis for establishing a system of quality of education in schools

    Andrey Ivenskikh; Irina Ivenskikh

    2011-01-01

    The authors state that it is necessary to create a new cultural paradigm in education based on responsibility as a core value and explore the specific mechanisms of formation of this culture in school environment.

  8. Children’s altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture

    Rajhans, Purva; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-year-old children (N = 96) across cultures (India and Germany). The results revealed that increased altruistic behavior was associated with a greater responsiveness to fear faces (faster fixation), but not happy faces, in both cultures. This suggests that altruistic behavior is linked to our responsiveness to others in distress across cultures. Additionally, only among Indian children greater altruistic behavior was associated with greater sensitivity to context when responding to fearful faces. These findings further our understanding of the origins of altruism in humans by highlighting the importance of emotional processes and cultural context in the development of altruism. PMID:27137754

  9. Children's altruistic behavior in context: The role of emotional responsiveness and culture.

    Rajhans, Purva; Altvater-Mackensen, Nicole; Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Altruistic behavior in humans is thought to have deep biological roots. Nonetheless, there is also evidence for considerable variation in altruistic behaviors among individuals and across cultures. Variability in altruistic behavior in adults has recently been related to individual differences in emotional responsiveness to fear in others. The current study examined the relation between emotional responsiveness (using eye-tracking) and altruistic behavior (using the Dictator Game) in 4 to 5-year-old children (N = 96) across cultures (India and Germany). The results revealed that increased altruistic behavior was associated with a greater responsiveness to fear faces (faster fixation), but not happy faces, in both cultures. This suggests that altruistic behavior is linked to our responsiveness to others in distress across cultures. Additionally, only among Indian children greater altruistic behavior was associated with greater sensitivity to context when responding to fearful faces. These findings further our understanding of the origins of altruism in humans by highlighting the importance of emotional processes and cultural context in the development of altruism. PMID:27137754

  10. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S.

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  11. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat.

    Muqaddasi, Quddoos H; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Nagel, Manuela; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Röder, Marion S

    2016-01-01

    In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat. PMID:27191600

  12. Materializing Culture - Culturizing Material. On the Status, Responsibilities and Function of Cultural Property Repositories within the Framework of a "Transformative Scholarship"

    Markus Hilgert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain theoretical streams in the cultural and social sciences that are occasionally subsumed under the term “New Materialism” 2 (see Witzgall, as well as recent social, political, cultural and media technology developments require a theoretical and research-political repositioning of academic object repositories. For it is obvious that under the influence of these multi-layered, partly interwoven processes, the status, responsibilities, as well as the function and spheres of activity of these object or cultural property repositories with research commitment (on the term see section 2 below are currently undergoing long-lasting change. For the respective institutions, these changes not only result in complex challenges regarding contents and structure, but also present extraordinary opportunities for the fulfillment of their academic, social and political responsibilities. The appropriate handling of these challenges and opportunities can substantially contribute to the sharpening of the academic and social profile of these institutions and increase their visibility on both a national and international level.

  13. Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

    2003-11-01

    Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:14681123

  14. Characterization of callase (β-1,3-D-glucanase) activity during microsporogenesis in the sterile anthers of Allium sativum L. and the fertile anthers of A. atropurpureum.

    Winiarczyk, Krystyna; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Kupisz, Kamila

    2012-06-01

    We examined callase activity in anthers of sterile Allium sativum (garlic) and fertile Allium atropurpureum. In A. sativum, a species that produces sterile pollen and propagates only vegetatively, callase was extracted from the thick walls of A. sativum microspore tetrads exhibited maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the corresponding in vivo values ranged from 4.5 to 5.0. Once microspores were released, in vitro callase activity peaked at three distinct pH values, reflecting the presence of three callase isoforms. One isoform, which was previously identified in the tetrad stage, displayed maximum activity at pH 4.8, and the remaining two isoforms, which were novel, were most active at pH 6.0 and 7.3. The corresponding in vivo values ranged from pH 4.75 to 6.0. In contrast, in A. atropurpureum, a sexually propagating species, three callase isoforms, active at pH 4.8-5.2, 6.1, and 7.3, were identified in samples of microsporangia that had released their microspores. The corresponding in vivo value for this plant was 5.9. The callose wall persists around A. sativum meiotic cells, whereas only one callase isoform, with an optimum activity of pH 4.8, is active in the acidic environment of the microsporangium. However, this isoform is degraded when the pH rises to 6.0 and two other callase isoforms, maximally active at pH 6.0 and 7.3, appear. Thus, factors that alter the pH of the microsporangium may indirectly affect the male gametophyte development by modulating the activity of callase and thereby regulating the degradation of the callose wall. PMID:22438078

  15. Effects of Culture and Gender on Judgments of Intent and Responsibility.

    Plaks, Jason E; Fortune, Jennifer L; Liang, Lindie H; Robinson, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Do different cultures hold different views of intentionality? In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor's distal intent (a focus on a broader goal) and proximal intent (a focus on the mechanics of the act) were manipulated. In Studies 1-2, when distal intent was more prominent in the actor's mind, North Americans rated the actor more responsible than did Chinese and South Asian participants. When proximal intent was more prominent, Chinese and South Asian participants, if anything, rated the actor more responsible. In Studies 3-4, when distal intent was more prominent, male Americans rated the actor more responsible than did female Americans. When proximal intent was more prominent, females rated the actor more responsible. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the literatures on moral reasoning and cultural psychology. PMID:27123858

  16. Effects of Culture and Gender on Judgments of Intent and Responsibility

    Plaks, Jason E.; Fortune, Jennifer L.; Liang, Lindie H.; Robinson, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Do different cultures hold different views of intentionality? In four studies, participants read scenarios in which the actor’s distal intent (a focus on a broader goal) and proximal intent (a focus on the mechanics of the act) were manipulated. In Studies 1–2, when distal intent was more prominent in the actor’s mind, North Americans rated the actor more responsible than did Chinese and South Asian participants. When proximal intent was more prominent, Chinese and South Asian participants, if anything, rated the actor more responsible. In Studies 3–4, when distal intent was more prominent, male Americans rated the actor more responsible than did female Americans. When proximal intent was more prominent, females rated the actor more responsible. The authors discuss these findings in relation to the literatures on moral reasoning and cultural psychology. PMID:27123858

  17. PLANT CULTURAL SYSTEM FOR MONITORING EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

    A plant culture system incorporating the water-table root-screen method for controlling plant water status was adapted for use in open-top field exposure chambers for studying the effects of drought stress on physiological responses. The daily transpiration rates of the plants we...

  18. A Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices of Adult ESOL and EAP Teachers

    Rhodes, Christy M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently adult education English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) teachers in Florida used specific culturally responsive teaching practices and how important they believed those practices were to their teaching. Using Ginsberg and Wlodkowski's…

  19. Distinguishing Themes of Cultural Responsiveness: A Study of Document-Based Learning

    Swartz, Ellen E.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the distinguishing themes of cultural responsiveness in state- and federally-derived document-based learning materials. Two data sources--"Teaching with Documents" articles in Social Education and Document Based Questions on New York State 11th-grade U.S. History and Government Regents exams--were examined using…

  20. An Interpretative Phenomenological Study on Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in the Physical Education Practicum Setting

    Stratton, Jennifer Leary

    2013-01-01

    As the United States experiences a large demographic shift, current research demonstrates that effective educators implement culturally responsive strategies to support all students in achieving academic success with regards to race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, religion and exceptionalities (Gollnick…

  1. "The Music I Was Meant to Sing": Adolescent Choral Students' Perceptions of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    Shaw, Julia T.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on a multiple embedded case study, the purpose of which was to explore adolescent choral students' perceptions of culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP) in three demographically contrasting choirs of an urban nonprofit children's choir organization. The case presented here focused on an after-school choir situated in a Puerto…

  2. Culturally Responsive Education: Developing Lesson Plans for Vietnamese Students in the American Diaspora

    Douglas, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the application of the philosophical principles of John Dewey and Culturally Responsive Education in the creation of lesson plans for Vietnamese students in the American Diaspora. Through a Fulbright-Hayes Program a group of teachers from the New York City Public School System and Long Island spent six weeks in Vietnam…

  3. "Katherine With-a-K and Little Nato": A Case Study of Culturally Responsible Pedagogy.

    Parscal, Jeannie N.

    This case study, one of four, is part of a larger study, "Ethnographic Case Studies of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (CRP) of At-Risk Students in Middle School Classrooms." The study provides relevant case literature regarding CRP for the enhancement of preservice teacher education and describes the characteristics of a multicultural classroom in…

  4. Teaching about Race in an Urban History Class: The Effects of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Epstein, Terrie; Mayorga, Edwin; Nelson, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of a culturally responsive teacher's pedagogy on urban low-income African American and Latino high school students' interpretations of racial diversity, racism, and individual and collective agency in U. S. history. The authors found that students incorporated instruction about the diversity and agency of people of…

  5. The Intersectionality of Culturally Responsive Teaching and Performance Poetry: Validating Secondary Latino Youth and Their Community

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    In this article the authors draw from culturally responsive teaching and multicultural education to describe performance poetry as an effective strategy for validating secondary aged Latino youths' lived experiences. Supported by teacher modeling and the incorporation of community poets, students created and shared their own powerful poems that…

  6. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Teacher Candidates of Color in Teacher Education Programs

    Gist, Conra D.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study uses culturally responsive pedagogy as a conceptual framework for exploring how teacher educators structure content, pedagogy, and classroom communities for teacher candidates of color at two model teacher education programs. Using multiple data sources including interviews, focus groups, classroom observations, faculty and…

  7. Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy-Forming Experiences: A Mixed Methods Study

    Siwatu, Kamau Oginga

    2011-01-01

    The author used an explanatory mixed methods research design. The first phase involved the collection of quantitative data to examine the nature of preservice teachers' (N = 192) culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy beliefs. Follow-up face-to-face interviews were carried out with a subsample selected from Phase 1 participants. These…

  9. Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness at Freedom Schools: Implications for Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparation

    Jackson, Tambra O.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the programmatic ways in which the Children's Defense Fund Freedom Schools[R] program develops culturally responsive teaching practices amongst its summer interns, particularly in the area of developing sociopolitical consciousness. This paper places specific focus on the role that historical knowledge, the acknowledgement…

  10. The Coconut Wireless Project: Sharing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy through the World Wide Web.

    Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise; Wenn, Richard

    Beginning in the 1997-98 school year, WestEd staff, with the support of the Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), worked intensively with a group of five Chamorro teachers from Rota Elementary School (Hawaii) to develop culturally responsive, standards-based science units. The larger goal was to develop Web-based case examples of…

  11. Promoting Cultural Responsiveness and Closing the Achievement Gap with Standards Blending

    Schellenberg, Rita; Grothaus, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, "standards blending"--the integration of core academic and school counseling standards--is demonstrated as a culturally responsive strategy to assist in closing the achievement gap for a group of third-grade African American males. The small-group intervention described resulted in knowledge gains in both the school counseling and…

  12. Australian Readers' Responses to the Cross-Cultural, Folklore-Based Fantasy Novels of Patricia Wrightson.

    Tobin, Barbara

    In the 1970s and 1980s the white Australian author Patricia Wrightson's cross-cultural fantasies concerning the conflict of White characters with Aboriginal folk spirits struck a chord with many adolescent and adult readers who judged these novels to be outstandingly successful. A classroom-based study examined the responses of a class of seventh…

  13. Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2009-01-01

    With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

  14. SOME INTERCULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY - CASE STUDY: ROMANIA AND HOFSTEDE'S CULTURAL DIMENSIONS

    BALTADOR Lia; BUDAC Camelia; Lucian BELASCU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization is creating the need for new ways of understanding, managing and coping with culture differences. Corporations should take into account these differences when fundamenting their international strategies, even in regard to their business ethic and social responsibility goals. In this article we try to indicate some of the implications that intercultural factors can have on the companies actions regarding CSR.

  15. Aligning Cultural Responsiveness in Evaluation and Evaluation Capacity Building: A Needs Assessment with Family Support Programs

    Cook, Natalie Ebony

    2016-01-01

    Family support programs serve vulnerable families by providing various forms of support, such as education, health services, financial assistance, and referrals to community resources. A major feature of evaluation involves assessing program effectiveness and learning from evaluation findings (Mertens and Wilson, 2012). Collaboration and cultural responsiveness are important topics in evaluation which remain largely distinct in the literature. However, evaluation capacity building provides a...

  16. Culturally responsive middle school science: A case study of needs, demands, and challenges

    Woodrow, Kelli Ellen

    2007-12-01

    Culturally responsive programming has been proposed as a remedy for the well-documented disconnect between schools and the ethnically and culturally diverse students who attend them. These programs often focus on creating instructional materials and pedagogical practices that are aligned with the knowledges, perspectives and practices of these students. This study builds on that literature and examines the needs, demands, and challenges of developing a culturally responsive health science program for ethnically and culturally diverse urban middle school students. I approached this problem through a content analysis of the intended curriculum and a microethnography of the enacted curriculum. In my analysis of the intended curriculum, I adapted a science textbook analysis instrument created by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to include criteria related to identified features of culturally responsive education. Using these modified analytic criteria, I found that the pilot drafts of the curricular materials excelled in the areas of engaging students in relevant phenomenon but lacked many of these specifically culturally responsive elements. Recommendations were made to redress these deficiencies. In my analysis of the enacted curriculum, I observed in five eighth grade classrooms where the program was being implemented. I used participant observation, audio and video tape recordings, artifacts, and interviews over a six-month period to investigate teacher/student interactions, the social organization of the classrooms, and students' culturally distinctive knowledge resources---or what is sometimes referred to as their "funds of knowledge." I found that the affective interactions between teachers and students were precursors to any reform, and that students and teachers similarly defined these interactions as "teacher care." In addition, I found that the social organization of the classroom often privileged official content and ways of

  17. Empowering Equity in Postsecondary Transition for Marginalized Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities by Implementing a Culturally Responsive Summary of Performance Teacher Training and Support Program

    Jez, Rebekka Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Marginalized culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs often struggle after high school. Many special educators are unaware of legal mandates and best practice in postsecondary transition, especially the intricate needs when working this group. The culturally responsive Summary of Performance (CRSOP) training and support…

  18. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther

    Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60Co γ-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60Co γ-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

  19. Colleges and Cultural Responsibilities%大学的文化责任

    贺一松

    2012-01-01

    Culture is the soul of college and college is the classic of culture.Facing the cultural strategy,colleges are expected to shoulder their responsibilities with new cognition.Inheritance and innovation are categorized as domain of colleges' cultural responsibility,guidance and demonstration as orientation and persistence and consciousness as obligations.Therefore,China has to build and develop genuine colleges,which must undertake their mission and fulfill their duty in changing the development pattern and promoting the scientific development.Based on the socialist college construction with Chinese characteristics and focusing on the requirements of cultural strategy,the paper expounds the cultural responsibilities of Chinese colleges from the perspectives of cognition,domain,orientation and obligation.%文化是大学的灵魂,大学是文化的经典。文化强国战略下,大学要以新的认知担当应有的文化责任。传承与创新是大学的文化责任范畴;引领与示范是大学的文化责任定位;坚守与自觉是大学的文化责任担当。在转变发展方式、推进科学发展的进程中,大学应该肩负起使命,履行好职责,以坚守和自觉担当起文化强国的文化责任。立足中国特色社会主义大学建设,着眼文化强国的战略要求,从认知、范畴、定位和担当几个方面对中国大学的文化责任进行论述。

  20. Endothelial invasive response in a co-culture model with physically-induced osteodifferentiation.

    Traphagen, Samantha B; Titushkin, Igor; Sun, Shan; Wary, Kishore K; Cho, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Manipulation of stem cells using physicochemical stimuli has emerged as an important tool in regenerative medicine. While 2D substrates with tunable elasticity have been studied for control of stem cell differentiation, we recently developed a stratified co-culture model of angiogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) that differentiate on a tunable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, thereby creating a physiologic context for elasticity-induced differentiation. Endothelial cells (EC) were cultured on top of the hMSC construct on a collagen gel to monitor network formation. Media composition influenced EC invasion due to the conditioning media, the reduction of serum and supplemental growth factors, and the addition of recombinant growth factors. Conditioned media, recombinant growth factors and direct co-culture were compared for endothelial cell invasive response using quantitative image analysis. As anticipated, use of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced the deepest EC invasions while direct co-culture caused shallow invasions compared to other conditions. However, endothelial cells displayed lumen-like morphology, suggesting that cell-cell interaction in the co-culture model could mimic sprouting behaviour. In summary, an engineered suitable biochemical and physical environment facilitated endothelial cells to form 3D vessel structures onto hMSCs. These structures were plated on a stiff surface known to induce osteodifferentiation of stem cells. This low cost co-culture system, with its minimal chemical supplementation and physically controllable matrix, could potentially model in vivo potential in engineered and pre-vascularized bone grafts. PMID:22696416

  1. Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 μg g-1 dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 μg g-1 dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish

  2. Stress and Humoral Innate Immune Response of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata Cultured in Sea Cages.

    Salati, Fulvio; Roncarati, Alessandra; Angelucci, Giulia; Fenza, Alessandra; Meluzzi, Adele

    2016-09-01

    Innate and acquired immune responses of Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata was studied under normal culture and short-term stressful conditions for 18 months in offshore sea cages in Alghero Bay, Italy. Every 45 d, 50 fish were sampled and divided into two groups: fish in the first group (normal culture conditions) were bled after harvesting; fish in the second group were put into a tank under stressful conditions (crowding and confinement) and bled after 2 h. Innate humoral immunity, such as complement-like, hemagglutination, and lysozyme activities, was determined in the sera of both groups. Pathogen challenge was not performed, but the specific humoral immune response was assessed against the most common pathogens affecting cultured fish in Sardinia. Stressed fish, compared with the control, showed a lower lysozyme activity against Vibrio (Listonella) anguillarum, which was not clearly correlated with temperatures. Complement-like activity differed between the first and second half of the study and, at the end of the trial, a slightly higher activity was recorded in the controls than in the stressed fish. Hemagglutination activity was mainly higher in the stressed fish than in control fish. Confinement, crowding, and cold water temperature caused decreased lysozyme activity in short-term stressed Gilthead Seabream compared with those reared normally. The specific humoral immune response, against V. anguillarum, Tenacibaculum mesophilum, Enterococcus Seriolicida, and Aeromonas sobria, fluctuated during the rearing period, particularly during the first year of culture. Received October 12, 2015; accepted March 24, 2016. PMID:27485027

  3. Children's Everyday Learning by Assuming Responsibility for Others: Indigenous Practices as a Cultural Heritage Across Generations.

    Fernández, David Lorente

    2015-01-01

    This chapter uses a comparative approach to examine the maintenance of Indigenous practices related with Learning by Observing and Pitching In in two generations--parent generation and current child generation--in a Central Mexican Nahua community. In spite of cultural changes and the increase of Western schooling experience, these practices persist, to different degrees, as a Nahua cultural heritage with close historical relations to the key value of cuidado (stewardship). The chapter explores how children learn the value of cuidado in a variety of everyday activities, which include assuming responsibility in many social situations, primarily in cultivating corn, raising and protecting domestic animals, health practices, and participating in family ceremonial life. The chapter focuses on three main points: (1) Cuidado (assuming responsibility for), in the Nahua socio-cultural context, refers to the concepts of protection and "raising" as well as fostering other beings, whether humans, plants, or animals, to reach their potential and fulfill their development. (2) Children learn cuidado by contributing to family endeavors: They develop attention and self-motivation; they are capable of responsible actions; and they are able to transform participation to achieve the status of a competent member of local society. (3) This collaborative participation allows children to continue the cultural tradition and to preserve a Nahua heritage at a deeper level in a community in which Nahuatl language and dress have disappeared, and people do not identify themselves as Indigenous. PMID:26955923

  4. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis

    Ildephonse Habarugira; Theo Hendriks; Marie-Christine Quillet; Jean-Louis Hilbert; Caroline Rambaud

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores...

  5. Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)

    Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue,; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

    2012-01-01

    Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number o...

  6. A Comparison of the Policy Response to Cultural Diversity in China and India

    宋丽娜

    2015-01-01

    This essay attempts to explore the current cultural diversity in China and India with the comparison of policy responses, especially the multiculturalism and language policies, as well as the policies on the workplace. Results show that India enriched and deepened its multiculturalism through the recognition of languages diversity, while China weakened its cultural diversity by popularizing one official language, Mandarin. However, both China and India should do more in practice to make different ethnic groups live and participant as equal partners in the social life.

  7. On the Value of Traditional Confucian Culture And the Value of Modern Corporate Social Responsibility

    Wenzhong Zhu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The core values of the Chinese Confucian Culture such as “humanity, righteousness, harmony, courtesy, honesty and cleanness” represent the soul of five-thousand-years Chinese traditional culture, which may represent the value of maintaining the balanced social benefits and harmonious development of the whole society from the prospective of a whole society, and which may also have some important uses for reference and roles of enlightenment for establishing the values of modern corporate social responsibility if it is effectively integrated into the practice of modern business management.

  8. Small Business Responsiveness and Organizational Culture in the Context of a Developing Economy

    Michael STOICA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between two important variables that define small and medium-sized enterprises: organizational culture and responsiveness. Firms operating in Romania were selected for the study. The country offers a business context with many changes over the last two decades, a challenge and an opportunity for researchers. Results show that the combination of entrepreneurial characteristics and planning and goal oriented managerial styles suits best successful companies. The market-driven type of culture has the best coordination and is best positioned to deliver customer-centered versatility, while adhocracy helps businesses respond fast to changes in the market environment.

  9. Political culture and socialisation responses to integrated water resources management (IWRM) : the case of Thabo Mofutsanyane District Municipality / Sysman Motloung

    Motloung, Sysman

    2010-01-01

    This study looks at political culture and socialisation responses to Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). It identifies political culture and socialisation as part of a process, the development of a political culture with specific attitudes, cognitions, and feelings towards the political system. Political culture and socialisation impart the knowledge of how to act politically, i.e. how to apply values in formulating demands and making claims on the political system. They form a conn...

  10. Going against the Grain in an Urban Arizona High School: Secondary Preservice Teachers Emerging as Culturally Responsive Educators

    Ramirez, Pablo; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita; Boozer, April; Clark, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This one year study examines the journey of two preservice urban high-school teachers in Arizona as they enact Culturally Responsive Teaching in a year-long student teaching residency. Factors that influenced their Culturally Responsive Teaching practices are discussed along themes that emerged from interviews and classroom observations.…

  11. Measuring Pre-Service Master's of School Administrator's Candidates' Social Capital as a Predictor of Culturally Responsive Leadership

    Taliaferro, Alisa; Seigler, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    This study measured Pre-Service Masters of School Administrators' candidates' social capital as a predictor of culturally responsive leadership. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between the MSA Pre-service candidates' social capital and their propensity to become culturally responsive leaders. The 23 participants in…

  12. Investigation of urban science teachers' pedagogical engagements: Are urban science teachers culturally responsive?

    Udokwu, Chukwudi John

    This study utilized mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative research approach to explore the current pedagogical engagements of twenty middle school urban science teachers in the Midwest region of the United States. It qualitatively examined twelve of these teachers' knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy. The study investigated the following questions: What are the current pedagogical practices of urban middle school science teachers? To what extent are middle school science teachers' pedagogical practices in urban schools culturally responsive? What are urban students' perspectives of their teachers' current pedagogical engagements? The design of the study was qualitative and quantitative methods in order to investigate these teachers' pedagogical practices. Data collections were drawn from multiple sources such as lesson plans, students' sample works, district curriculum, surveys, observational and interview notes. Analysis of collected data was a mixed methodology that involved qualitative and quantitative methods using descriptive, interpretative, pattern codes, and statistical procedures respectively. Purposeful sampling was selected for this study. Thus, demographically there were twenty participants who quantitatively took part in this study. Among them were seven (35%) males and thirteen (65%) females, three (15%) African Americans and seventeen (85%) Caucasians. In determining to what extent urban science teachers' pedagogical practices were culturally responsive, eight questions were analyzed based on four cluster themes: (a) teachers' social disposition, (b) culturally responsive curriculum, (c) classroom interactions, and (d) power pedagogy. Study result revealed that only five (25%) of the participants were engaged in culturally responsive pedagogy while fifteen (75%) were engaged in what Haberman (1991) called the pedagogy of poverty. The goal was to investigate urban science teachers' pedagogical engagements and to examine urban

  13. Rat Sertoli cells acquire a β-adrenergic response during primary culture

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the radioligand (-)-[125I]iodopindolol (125I-Pin) have been used to study isoproterenol-dependent protein phosphorylation and β-adrenergic receptor availability, respectively, in cultured Sertoli cells and freshly isolated seminiferous tubular segments of sexually immature and mature rats. Sertoli cells prepared from sexually immature rats show progressive 125I-Pin binding in primary cultures that correlates with isoproterenol-induced cell shape changes, redistribution of immunoreactive vimentin, and phosphorylation of this intermediate filament protein. Seminiferous tubules do not show significant isoproterenol-dependent vimentin phosphorylation nor 125I-Pin binding. However, vimentin phosphorylation can be induced by follicle-stimulating hormone or a cyclic nucleotide analog. This study stresses the need for correlating pharmacological-induced responses observed in Sertoli cell primary cultures with those in the intact seminiferous tubule

  14. Primary culture of secretagogue-responsive parietal cells from rabbit gastric mucosa

    A new procedure for isolation and primary culture of gastric parietal cells is described. Parietal cells from rabbit gastric mucosa are enriched to greater than 95% purity by combining a Nycodenz gradient separation with centrifugal elutriation. Cells are plated on the basement membrane matrix, Matrigel, and maintained in culture for at least 1 wk. Parietal cells cultured in this manner remain differentiated, cross-react with monoclonal H+-K+-ATPase antibodies, and respond to histamine, gastrin, and cholinergic stimulation with increased acid production as measured by accumulation of the weak base, [14C]aminopyrine. When stimulated, cultured cells undergo ultrastructural changes in which intracellular canaliculi expand and numerous microvilli are observed. These ultrastructural changes are similar to those previously found to occur in vivo and in acutely isolated parietal cells. Morphological transformations in living cells can also be observed with differential interference contrast optics in the light microscope. After histamine stimulation, intracellular canaliculi gradually expand to form large vacuolar spaces. When the H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, is added to histamine-stimulated cells, these vacuoles gradually disappear. The ability to maintain hormonally responsive parietal cells in primary culture should make it possible to study direct, long-term effects of a variety of agonists and antagonists on parietal cell secretory-related activity. These cultured cells should also prove to be useful for the study of calcium transients, ion fluxes, and intracellular pH as related to acid secretion in single cells, particularly since morphological transformations can be used to monitor physiological responses at the same time within the same cell

  15. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when

  16. Culture modulates the brain response to human expressions of emotion: electrophysiological evidence.

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. PMID:25477081

  17. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N.; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion in adults, and reactivity or responsivness in diverse animal species. Some biologists view the trait as one of two innate strategies—observing carefully before acting vs being first to act. Thus the central characteristic of SPS is hypothesized to be a deep processing of information. Here, 10 European-Americans and 10 East Asians underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing simple visuospatial tasks emphasizing judgments that were either context independent (typically easier for Americans) or context dependent (typically easier for Asians). As reported elsewhere, each group exhibited greater activation for the culturally non-preferred task in frontal and parietal regions associated with greater effort in attention and working memory. However, further analyses, reported here for the first time, provided preliminary support for moderation by SPS. Consistent with the careful-processing theory, high-SPS individuals showed little cultural difference; low-SPS, strong culture differences. PMID:20388694

  18. Molecular characterization of OsPRP1 from rice, which is expressed preferentially in anthers

    WU Xiaohuai; MAO Aijun; WANG Rong; WANG Tai; SONG Yanru; TONG Zhe

    2003-01-01

    A proline-rich protein-encoding cDNA encoded by a rice gene, OsPRP1, was isolated by PCR-mediated RNA subtraction hybridization strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The deduced protein consists of 224 amino acids with the highest level of proline residue (14.29%). Following the putative signal peptide, OsPRP1 contains two structural domains, of which the N-terminal domain lacks Pro-rich repetitive sequences, and the C-terminal domain has two repetitive proline-rich sequences of 18 amino acid residues with PEPK motifs. Southern blot and sequence analysis show that OsPRP1 exists as four copies in rice genome and is localized in rice chromosome 10. RT-PCR experiments reveal that OsPRP1 is expressed preferentially in spikelets and buds with lower levels in roots and leaves. In situ hybridization indicates that OsPRP1 transcripts are present at high levels in pollen mother cells (PMCs), meiotic PMCs, tapetal cells and vascular bundle cells of flower organs. The expression of OsPRP1 in anthers has temporal specificity. The transcripts are accumulated at high levels in PMCs, at the highest levels in meiotic PMCs and at undetectable levels in uninucleate pollen. In buds the transcripts are only detected in the epidermal cells of coleoptiles and leaf primordial.

  19. Cultural Responsibility of Subjects in Moral Education in Colleges and Universities

    Chunyan Chen; Yinglin Li

    2011-01-01

    In a new era, to come to full understanding of the cultural responsibility of subjects in moral education in colleges and universities is an internal demand of modern educational theory for overall development of both teachers and students, and is the premise to play the leading role of teachers and mobilize the subjectivity of university students. At the same time, this also guides the direction for teachers and students to carry out moral education activities in colleges and universities. T...

  20. Neuromyelitis optica IgG stimulates an immunological response in rat astrocyte cultures

    Howe CL; Kaptzan T; Magaa SM; Ayers-Ringler JR; LaFrance-Corey RG; Lucchinetti CF

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a primary astrocyte disease associated with central nervous system inflammation, demyelination, and tissue injury. Brain lesions are frequently observed in regions enriched in expression of the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, an antigenic target of the NMO IgG serologic marker. Based on observations of disease reversibility and careful characterization of NMO lesion development, we propose that the NMO IgG may induce a dynamic immunological response in astrocytes. Using primary rat astrocyte-enriched cultures and treatment with NMO patient-derived serum or purified IgG, we observed a robust pattern of gene expression changes consistent with the induction of a reactive and inflammatory phenotype in astrocytes. The reactive astrocyte factor lipocalin-2 and a broad spectrum of chemokines, cytokines, and stress response factors were induced by either NMO patient serum or purified IgG. Treatment with IgG from healthy controls had no effect. The effect is disease-specific, as serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, Sj gren's, or systemic lupus erythematosus did not induce a response in the cultures. We hypothesize that binding of the NMO IgG to AQP4 induces a cellular response that results in transcriptional and translational events within the astrocyte that are consistent with a reactive and inflammatory phenotype. Strategies aimed at reducing the inflammatory response of astrocytes may short circuit an amplification loop associated with NMO lesion development.

  1. Contrasting Nephropathic Responses to Oral Administration of Extract of Cultured Penicillium polonicum in Rat and Primate

    John E. Fincham

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distortion became striking on account of karyocytomegaly, but even treatment for nearly two years remained asymptomatic. Extract from a batch of solid substrate fermentation of P. polonicum on shredded wheat was incorporated into feed for rats during four consecutive days, and also given as an aqueous solution by oral gavage to a vervet monkey daily for 10 days. Treatment was asymptomatic for both types of animal. Rat response was evident as the typical renal apoptosis and karyomegaly. In contrast there was no such response in the primate; and neither creatinine clearance nor any haematological characteristic or serum component concentration deviated from a control or from historical data for this primate. The contrast is discussed concerning other negative findings for P. polonicum in pigs and hamsters. Renal karyomegaly, as a common rat response to persistent exposure to ochratoxin A, is not known in humans suspected as being exposed to more than the usual trace amounts of dietary ochratoxin A. Therefore the present findings question assumptions that human response to ochratoxin A conforms to that in the rat.

  2. Nutritional lipid supply can control the heat shock response of B16 melanoma cells in culture.

    Péter, Mária; Balogh, Gábor; Gombos, Imre; Liebisch, Gerhard; Horváth, Ibolya; Török, Zsolt; Nagy, Enikő; Maslyanko, Andriy; Benkő, Sándor; Schmitz, Gerd; Harwood, John L; Vígh, László

    2012-11-01

    The in vitro culture of cells offers an extremely valuable method for probing biochemical questions and many commonly-used protocols are available. For mammalian cells a source of lipid is usually provided in the serum component. In this study we examined the question as to whether the nature of the lipid could become limiting at high cell densities and, therefore, prospectively influence the metabolism and physiology of the cells themselves. When B16 mouse melanoma cells were cultured, we noted a marked decrease in the proportions of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with increasing cell density. This was despite considerable quantities of these PUFAs still remaining in the culture medium and seemed to reflect the preferential uptake of unesterified PUFA rather than other lipid classes from the media. The reduction in B16 total PUFA was reflected in changes in about 70% of the molecular species of membrane phosphoglycerides which were analysed by mass spectrometry. The importance of this finding lies in the need for n-3 and n-6 PUFA in mammalian cells (which cannot synthesize their own). Although the cholesterol content of cells was unchanged the amount of cholesterol enrichment in membrane rafts (as assessed by fluorescence) was severely decreased, simultaneous with a reduced heat shock response following exposure to 42°C. These data emphasize the pivotal role of nutrient supply (in this case for PUFAs) in modifying responses to stress and highlight the need for the careful control of culture conditions when assessing cellular responses in vitro. PMID:22583025

  3. cultural

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  4. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms. PMID:25204750

  5. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  6. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    Maria Wesołwska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  7. Organizational Institutions and Their Responsible Behavioral-Cultural Gene Codes and A Measurement for Organizational Efficiency

    Jason Jixuan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay has two goals. The first is to classify two different types of organizational institutions from the four-dimensional system-thinking perspective, and to identify the relationship between such organizational institutions and their relevant behavioral-cultural gene codes embedded within their (P-individuals. Unlike the popular belief that authoritarian or totalitarian institutions are caused by ideologies or created/dominated by tyrannical leaders, the author defines a concept of behavioral-cultural gene code and extends the application of self-organization theory to suggest that behavioral-cultural gene codes carried by the members of the organization are responsible for the formation of, either democratic or authoritarian, institutions. Therefore, transformation of an authoritarian organization into a democratic one, no matter at the level of groups, of business enterprises, or of a government, must start from transforming behavioral-cultural gene codes. The second goal is to define Organizational Friction Coefficient for capturing the characteristics of these two types of organizational institutions, thus adding clarity to the widely used concept of organizational efficiency in the contexts of both business organizations and systems of government.

  8. Counter-storying the grand narrative of science (teacher) education: towards culturally responsive teaching

    Taylor, Peter Charles

    2011-12-01

    John Settlage's article— Counterstories from White Mainstream Preservice Teachers: Resisting the Master Narrative of Deficit by Default—outlines his endeavour to enable pre-service teachers to develop culturally responsive science teaching identities for resisting the master narrative of deficit thinking when confronted by the culturally different `other.' Case study results are presented of the role of counterstories in enabling five pre-service teachers to overcome deficit thinking. In this forum, Philip Moore, a cultural anthropologist and university professor, deepens our understanding of the power and significance of counterstories as an educational tool for enabling students to deconstruct oppressive master narratives. Jill Slay, dean of a science faculty, examines her own master narrative about the compatibility of culturally similar academics and graduate students, and finds it lacking. But first, I introduce this scholarship with background notes on the critical paradigm and its adversary, the grand narrative of science education, following which I give an appreciative understanding of John's pedagogical use of counterstories as a transformative strategy for multi-worldview science teacher education.

  9. Response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and energetic α-particles

    Radon and its progeny, which emit α-particles during decay, may play an important role in inducing human lung cancer. To gain a better understanding of the biological effects of α-particles in human lung we studied the response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and monoenergetic helium ions. Experimental results indicated that the radiation response of primary cultures was similar to that for airway epithelial cells that were transformed with a plasmid containing an origin-defective SV40 virus. The RBE for cell inactivation determined by the ratio of D0 for X-rays to that for 8 MeV helium ions was 1.8-2.2. The cross-section for helium ions, calculated from the D0 value, was about 24 μm2 for cells of the primary culture. This cross-section is significantly smaller than the average geometric nuclear area (∼ 180 μm2), suggesting that an average of 7.5 α-particles (8 MeV helium ions) per cell nucleus are needed to induce a lethal lesion. (author)

  10. Endometrial explant culture to study the response of equine endometrium to insemination.

    Nash, D M; Sheldon, I M; Herath, S; Lane, E A

    2010-08-01

    Mating-induced endometritis (MIE) is ubiquitous in the horse after natural mating and artificial insemination with frozen/thawed semen causing the most aggressive response. The majority of mares eliminate MIE 24-48 h after insemination. An endometrial explant culture was tested as a potential in vitro exemplar for sperm-induced MIE. Endometrial prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) secretion and expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) were used as markers of inflammation. Endometrial explants were cultured from uteri collected from follicular phase mares. Explants were challenged with 1 or 10 x 10(6) sperm/ml frozen/thawed semen, chilled semen, washed sperm or seminal plasma. Medium was collected 24 and 72 h after challenge and assayed for PGF(2alpha) by radioimmunoassay. Treatment of endometrial explants with frozen/thawed, chilled semen or washed sperm did not change the secretion of PGF(2alpha) compared with untreated controls. However, 24 h after challenge cultured explants expressed IL-8. The in vitro endometrial explant system did not represent the in vivo response to semen when PGF(2alpha) was used as a marker of inflammation, yet the use of gene expression as an inflammatory marker warrants further investigation. PMID:19144039

  11. Studies in tissue culture of some indigenous rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) accessions in Ghana

    A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p≤0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice

  12. Quantitative proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells in response to plant natriuretic peptides

    Turek, Ilona

    2015-06-30

    Proteome changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to the A. thaliana plant natriuretic peptide (PNP), AtPNP-A (At2g18660) were assessed using quantitative proteomics employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). In this study, we characterized temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM AtPNP-A at 0, 10 and 30 min post-treatment. Both concentrations we found to yield a distinct differential proteome signature. The data shown in this article are associated with the article “Plant natriuretic peptides induce a specific set of proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to abiotic stress” by Turek et al. (Front. Plant Sci. 5 (2014) 661) and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001386.

  13. Differential response of normal and tumour oesophageal explant cultures to radiation

    Mothersill, C.; Cusack, A.; MacDonnell, M.; Hennessy, T.P.; Seymour, C.B.

    1988-01-01

    An in vitro method is described which allows radiation dose response data to be obtained for samples of oesophageal mucosa obtained from patients undergoing resection for adeno or squamous cell carcinoma. Data are obtained using a growth endpoint from explant cultures and may be expressed in terms of absolute growth inhibition or reduced rate of growth. Radiation dose response curves suggest that cell survival is in the range expected for mammalian cells but that, as is found clinically, tumour cells are far more resistant to radiation than normal cells. The technique provides a means of assessing differential radiation response in normal and tumour tissues from the same patient, as it is unusual for both to be amenable to clonogenic assay.

  14. Quantitative proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells in response to plant natriuretic peptides

    Ilona Turek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Proteome changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to the A. thaliana plant natriuretic peptide (PNP, AtPNP-A (At2g18660 were assessed using quantitative proteomics employing tandem mass tag (TMT labeling and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. In this study, we characterized temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM AtPNP-A at 0, 10 and 30 min post-treatment. Both concentrations we found to yield a distinct differential proteome signature. The data shown in this article are associated with the article “Plant natriuretic peptides induce a specific set of proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to abiotic stress” by Turek et al. (Front. Plant Sci. 5 (2014 661 and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001386.

  15. An ethnographic study of cultural influences on the responses of college freshmen to contemporary Appalachian short stories

    Baker, John C. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Previous research on the role that culture plays in reader response to literature generally has not been based on clear operational definitions of the term "culture." More often than not, researchers appear to be using the term synonymously with the reader's race, nationality, or social class, rather than including specific anthropological explanations. Moreover, there has been no research reported that isolates and then studies individual readers' cultural backgrounds as influences on their ...

  16. Responsiveness of fetal rat brain cells to glia maturation factor during neoplastic transformation in cell culture

    Haugen, A; Laerum, O D; Bock, E

    1981-01-01

    The effect of partially purified extracts from adult pig brains containing a glia maturation protein factor (BE) has been investigated on neural cells during carcinogenesis. Pregnant BD IX-rats were given a single transplacental dose of the carcinogen ethylnitrosourea (EtNU) on the 18th day of...... gestation. The brains of the treated fetuses were transferred to cell culture and underwent neoplastic transformation with a characteristic sequence of phenotypic alterations which could be divided into five different stages. During the first 40 days after explantation (stage I & II) BE induced...... appreciable effect on GFA-content was seen any longer, although some few weakly GFA positive cells could be observed in all permanent cell lines. Fetal rat brain cells therefore seem to become less responsive to this differentiation inducer during neoplastic transformation in cell culture....

  17. Floral Transcriptomes in Woodland Strawberry Uncover Developing Receptacle and Anther Gene Networks.

    Hollender, Courtney A; Kang, Chunying; Darwish, Omar; Geretz, Aviva; Matthews, Benjamin F; Slovin, Janet; Alkharouf, Nadim; Liu, Zhongchi

    2014-05-14

    Flowers are reproductive organs and precursors to fruits and seeds. While the basic tenets of the ABCE model of flower development are conserved in angiosperms, different flowering plants exhibit different and sometimes unique characteristics. A distinct feature of strawberry (Fragaria spp.) flowers is the development of several hundreds of individual apocarpous (unfused) carpels. These individual carpels are arranged in a spiral pattern on the subtending stem tip, the receptacle. Therefore, the receptacle is an integral part of the strawberry flower and is of significant agronomic importance, being the precursor to strawberry fruit. Taking advantage of next-generation sequencing and laser capture microdissection, we generated different tissue- and stage-transcriptomic profiling of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) flower development. Using pairwise comparisons and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we identified modules of coexpressed genes and hub genes of tissue-specific networks. Of particular importance is the discovery of a developing receptacle-specific module exhibiting similar molecular features to those of young floral meristems. The strawberry homologs of a number of meristem regulators, including LOST MERISTEM and WUSCHEL, are identified as hub genes operating in the developing receptacle network. Furthermore, almost 25% of the F-box genes in the genome are transiently induced in developing anthers at the meiosis stage, indicating active protein degradation. Together, this work provides important insights into the molecular networks underlying strawberry's unique reproductive developmental processes. This extensive floral transcriptome data set is publicly available and can be readily queried at the project Web site, serving as an important genomic resource for the plant biology research community. PMID:24828307

  18. Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.

    Manuela López-Villavicencio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use

  19. Loading-Induced Heat-Shock Response in Bovine Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture.

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Chan, Samantha Chun Wai; Gantenbein, Benjamin; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell viability and matrix maintenance in the intervertebral disc (IVD) but there is no investigation on how cells survive mechanical stress and whether the IVD cells perceive mechanical loading as stress and respond by expression of heat shock proteins. This study investigates the stress response in the IVD in response to compressive loading. Bovine caudal disc organ culture was used to study the effect of physiological range static loading and dynamic loading. Cell activity, gene expression and immunofluorescence staining were used to analyze the cell response. Cell activity and cytoskeleton of the cells did not change significantly after loading. In gene expression analysis, significant up-regulation of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) was observed in nucleus pulposus after two hours of loading. However, the expression of the matrix remodeling genes did not change significantly after loading. Similarly, expressions of stress response and matrix remodeling genes changed with application and removal of the dynamic loading. The results suggest that stress response was induced by physiological range loading without significantly changing cell activity and upregulating matrix remodeling. This study provides direct evidence on loading induced stress response in IVD cells and contributes to our understanding in the mechanoregulation of intervertebral disc cells. PMID:27580124

  20. Developing Culturally Responsive Surveys: Lessons in Development, Implementation, and Analysis from Brazil's African Descent Communities

    Bowen, Merle L.; Tillman, Ayesha S.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable empirical research, along with a growing body of conceptual and theoretical literature, exists on the role of culture and context in evaluation. Less scholarship has examined culturally responsive surveys in the context of international evaluation. In this article, the authors present lessons learned from the development,…

  1. Cultivate in vitro of wheat Anthers (Triticum Aestivum L.) In the ICA-TENZA and PAV -76 varieties

    The objective of the present work consisted, in determining the cultivation conditions under which it was possible to induce through the technique of the cultivation of anthers, the callus formation and possible regeneration of green plants of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the varieties ICA-Tenza and Pav -76. With the purpose of identifying the but appropriate state of development of the grain of pollen for the inoculation of the anthers, a cytologic study was made in which was correlation among the moriolic parameters of the plant; (inter liguler distances, auricle-knot distances and longitude of the edges) and the state of development of the microspore; Of the parameters, it was recommended to keep in mind the longitude from the edges when harvesting the experimental material. The anthers of both genotypes were inoculated in the means bases Pope 4 and N6, with hormonal levels of ELL (naftalen acetic acid) of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/I. the answers of the genotypes were evaluated before the means of basal cultivation, in connection with the induction of tripes and the plants regeneration. Of the two used genotypes, the Pav -76 it presented bigger capacity to induce the formation of tripes, while the ICA-Tenza genotype presented a bigger answer capacity in the regeneration of plants so much green as albino. The results obtained allowed to establish that a relationship exists between the means of cultivation and the capacity of the genotypes to regenerate as much tripes as plants. Due to the drop survival of the regenerated plants, it was not possible to settle down with clarity a relationship of the ploidia level

  2. X-ray responses of human colon tumor cells grown in artificial capillary culture

    Clone A human colon adenocarcinoma cells were grown in three-dimensional artificial capillary culture (ACC) to determine responses of capillaries treated 3 weeks after tumor cell inoculation with a specific, easily quantifiable cytotoxic agent, ionizing radiation. Changes in extracapillary space (ECS) fluid concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (GOT) and the utilization of glucose in circulating medium were monitored after a supralethal radiation dose (90 Gy) of X-rays. Immediately after irradiation, increased levels of LDH and GOT were found that reached maximum levels about four to five times those found in nonirradiated control capillaries at 10-13 days post irradiation and then declined. Patterns of enzyme production appeared to correlate with the numbers of nonviable tumor cells collected from the ECS of the artificial capillaries. In contrast, glucose utilization showed little correlation with either enzyme concentration or dead cell production. In other studies, tumor cells were removed from unirradiated capillaries by trypsinization and used to obtain complete survival curves after graded doses of X-radiation. The dose-response curves obtained indicate that clone A colon tumor cells grown in ACC show a marked decrease in their ability to accumulate sublethal radiation injury as compared to responses of these cells growing exponentially in asynchronous monolayer cultures, to synchronized mid-G1 tumor cells, or to tumor cells in stationary growth phase. These data suggest that ACC is a potentially useful model to study the effects of cytotoxic agents on human tumor cells

  3. Responses to social exclusion in cultural context: evidence from farming and herding communities.

    Uskul, Ayse K; Over, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    In a series of studies, we investigated the role of economic structures (farming vs. herding) and source of ostracism (close other vs. stranger) in social exclusion experiences. We first confirmed that herders rely on strangers to a greater extent than do farmers for economic success (validation study). Next, we verified that farmers and herders understand the concept of ostracism, and its emotional consequences, in similar ways (Study 1). The studies that followed provided converging evidence that cultural group membership shapes sensitivity and responses to social exclusion. Using different methodologies, in Studies 2 and 3, we showed that, whereas the psychological consequences of ostracism by close others are similar for farmers and herders, herders are more strongly affected by ostracism from strangers. The last two studies demonstrated that herders recommend more affiliative responses to ostracism by strangers than do farmers both to those involved in the ostracism event (Study 4) and to naïve individuals (Study 5). Moreover, Study 5 revealed that the amount of time spent with strangers mediated cultural group differences in the extent to which affiliative and aggressive actions are recommended following social exclusion by strangers. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the economic systems on which communities are based shape how their members interact with others and that this, in turn, can shape individuals' responses to social exclusion. PMID:24749821

  4. Maternal responsiveness: biological aspects and cultural variations / Responsividade materna: aspectos biológicos e variações culturais

    Adriana Ferreira Paes Ribas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to critically discuss some biological aspects and cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. It consists of two parts. The first discusses responsiveness and its biological aspects and cultural variations. The second part presents two major research tendencies in the investigations of cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. Our conclusion presents a brief of the critical arguments and highlights the need to recognize that maternal responsiveness is one of the adult-child interaction characteristics that has multiple origins and influences, from which any investigation in this theme must be based on. As a consequence, those initiatives should be included in a wide reference system that involves, for example, biological, contextual, dyads previous history, and cultural variables.

  5. Dismantling Cultural Prejudice: Responses to Huntington’s Thesis in the Indonesian Media

    Hendro Prasetyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ideas contained in Huntington's article, "Clash of Civilization?", are provoking. Since its publication in Foreign Affairs (summer 1993, several responses have appeared in the media world-wide. In this home country, Huntington's article was critized from various angles.  His assumptions, model, data and even his potition were scrutunized mostly by social scientists and Islamicist. These criticisms, however, highlight the article's significant importance in the debates of political and cultural problems faced in the post-cold war world.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v1i1.869

  6. Effect of genotype, Culture medium and cold pretreatment on another culture of wheat (T. aestivum L.) mutant lines

    This research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine in the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 1996-1997. The objective was to investigate the effect of genotype, culture medium and cold pretreatment in calli production from anthers. Anthers of four mutant lines obtained from three cvs, (Omid, Tabassi and Roshan) were produced in the Nuclear Agriculture Center and two check cvs, (Omid and Tabassi) were cultured in two media PII and modified C17. Some of the spikes before plating were kept in dark at 4-5 deg C for one week. The result indicated that the genotype of donar plants had a significant effect on the calli and plants formation. Cold pre-treatment and medium type had no effect on the calli formation, but interaction between the two factors was very significant, and the best result was obtained when anthers were cultured in modified C17 medium without cold pre-treatment

  7. Microfluidic synthesis of microfibers for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture.

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated the fabrication of alginate microfibers using a modular microfluidic system for magnetic-responsive controlled drug release and cell culture. A novel two-dimensional fluid-focusing technique with multi-inlets and junctions was used to spatiotemporally control the continuous laminar flow of alginate solutions. The diameter of the manufactured microfibers, which ranged from 211 µm to 364 µm, could be well controlled by changing the flow rate of the continuous phase. While the model drug, diclofenac, was encapsulated into microfibers, the drug release profile exhibited the characteristic of a proper and steady release. Furthermore, the diclofenac release kinetics from the magnetic iron oxide-loaded microfibers could be controlled externally, allowing for a rapid drug release by applying a magnetic force. In addition, the successful culture of glioblastoma multiforme cells in the microfibers demonstrated a good structural integrity and environment to grow cells that could be applied in drug screening for targeting cancer cells. The proposed microfluidic system has the advantages of ease of fabrication, simplicity, and a fast and low-cost process that is capable of generating functional microfibers with the potential for biomedical applications, such as drug controlled release and cell culture.

  8. Transcription of storage protein genes in cultured Brassica napus embryos in response to exogenous abscisic acid

    Two major seed storage proteins, cruciferin and napin, accumulate during embryogeny in Brassica napus. We are determining whether the levels of storage protein mRNAs in cultured embryos are controlled at the transcriptional level in response to ABA. The nuclei were isolated from the embryos and incubated in a transcription mix with 32P-GTP, and the incorporation into specific RNAs was determined by DNA excess filter hybridization. The transcription rate of cruciferin increased about 2-fold, and the transcription rate of napin increased about 3- to 4-fold in ABA-treated embryos compared to embryos cultured on basal medium. This increase in transcription rate is consistent with the increases in RNA levels which are seen in parallel experiments. In the same experiments, the transcription rates of actin and the rRNA genes were unaffected by ABA. In reinduction experiments, embryos which were switched from basal medium to medium containing ABA at 12 or 24 h showed an increase in transcription rate of the seed storage protein genes to the same level as those which were cultured on ABA at time 0

  9. The role of organic osmolytes in the response of cultured astrocytes to hyperosmolarity.

    Hijab, Samina; Havalad, Suresh; Snyder, Ann K

    2011-09-01

    Idiogenic osmoles are volume-regulatory organic solutes that accumulate within a cell in response to hyperosmolar conditions such as those found in diabetic ketoacidosis or hypernatremic dehydration in infants. Intracellular metabolites known to play this role include certain amino acids and taurine, polyols, and trimethylamines. In this study, in vitro astrocyte cultures prepared from the cerebral cortices of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to graded conditions of hypernatremia (325-375 mOsm/kg), a range that can be observed in vivo, for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Cell survival and generation of idiogenic osmoles were determined. Next, we assessed the ability of selected exogenous osmoles to protect the cultured cells from the effects of hypernatremia. Significant cell loss occurred after 48 to 72 hours of exposure and was proportional to the degree of hyperosmolarity. Addition of myoinositol (1 mM) to the cultures reduced cell loss resulting from hypernatremia by approximately 50%. In agreement with previous studies, intracellular levels of myoinositol and taurine correlated with the degree of in vitro hypernatremic exposure and play a significant role in increasing survival of astrocytes subjected to hypertonic insult. PMID:20093923

  10. Response of tobacco tissue cultures growing in contact with lunar fines.

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    During the quarantine periods following each Apollo mission to the moon, various biological systems were placed in the presence of lunar material to determine if pathogenic agents were present. Although no detrimental effects resulted, various responses by the several plant systems tested were noted. One such response was the increased pigmentation observed in the callus tissue cultures of tobacco. Further investigations revealed that these tissues grown in the presence of lunar material resulted in as much as a 35% increase in total pigments while differences in fatty acid and sterol concentrations were also noted when compared to the controls. It is believed that these changes brought about by the lunar material can be attributed to a change in the nutritional environment caused by its dissolution.

  11. Effect of dexamethasone on the cytotoxic and enzymatic response of cultured endothelial cells to radiation

    Experiments were conducted to determine (1) whether glucocorticoids directly protected endothelial cells (EC) from radiation and (2) if angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, known to be increased by glucocorticoid, played a role in the EC response to radiation. Confluent monolayers of EC cultured from bovine aorta EC were treated with dexamethasone (10-6 M); after irradiation (5.0 Gy, 60Co γ) ACE and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, DNA and protein contents, and nuclei number were measured. Combined dexamethasone treatment and radiation increased cellular ACE activity at a time when neither agent alone had an effect (24-hr dexamethasone exposure before 5 Gy and assayed 24 hr after 5 Gy). This interaction between radiation and dexamethasone treatment suggests that the glucocorticoid modifies the cell's response to injury. Although this interaction does not ameliorate radiation cytotoxicity, maintenance of ACE levels in injured vessels by hormones may have physiological significance in the hemodynamics of irradiated tissues

  12. Culture and moral judgment: how are conflicts between justice and interpersonal responsibilities resolved?

    Miller, J G; Bersoff, D M

    1992-04-01

    A 2-session study examined Indian and American adults' and children's (N = 140) reasoning about moral dilemmas involving conflicts between interpersonal and justice expectations. Most Indians gave priority to the interpersonal expectations, whereas most Americans gave priority to the justice expectations. Indians tended to categorize their conflict resolutions in moral terms. In contrast, when Americans gave priority to the interpersonal alternatives, they tended to categorize their resolutions in personal terms. Results imply that Indians possess a postconventional moral code in which interpersonal responsibilities are seen in as fully principled terms as justice obligations and may be accorded precedence over justice obligations. Findings also suggest that a personal morality of interpersonal responsiveness and caring is linked to highly rights-oriented cultural views, such as those emphasized in the United States. PMID:1583583

  13. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    Hume, Stephanie L.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Rice, Katherine P.; Schwindt, Rani K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States); MacCuspie, Robert I. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Materials Measurement Science Division (United States); Jeerage, Kavita M., E-mail: jeerage@boulder.nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Applied Chemicals and Materials Division (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum (∼ 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate

  14. Timescale of silver nanoparticle transformation in neural cell cultures impacts measured cell response

    Both serum protein concentration and ionic strength are important factors in nanoparticle transformation within cell culture environments. However, silver nanoparticles are not routinely tracked at their working concentration in the specific medium used for in vitro toxicology studies. Here we evaluated the transformation of electrostatically stabilized citrate nanoparticles (C-AgNPs) and sterically stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) in a low-serum (∼ 0.2 mg/mL bovine serum albumin) culture medium, while measuring the response of rat cortex neural progenitor cells, which differentiate in this culture environment. After 24 h, silver nanoparticles at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL did not affect adenosine triphosphate levels, whereas silver ions decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1.1 µg/mL or higher. After 240 h, both silver nanoparticles, as well as silver ion, unambiguously decreased adenosine triphosphate levels at concentrations of 1 and 1.1 µg/mL, respectively, suggesting particle dissolution. Particle transformation was investigated in 1:10 diluted, 1:2 diluted, or undiluted differentiation medium, all having an identical protein concentration, to separate the effect of serum protein stabilization from ionic strength destabilization. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated that particles in 1:10 medium were not surrounded by proteins, whereas particles became clustered within a non-crystalline protein matrix after 24 h in 1:2 medium and at 0 h in undiluted medium. Despite evidence for a protein corona, particles were rapidly destabilized by high ionic strength media. Polyvinylpyrrolidone increased the stability of singly dispersed particles compared to citrate ligands; however, differences were negligible after 4 h in 1:2 medium or after 1 h in undiluted medium. Thus low-serum culture environments do not provide sufficient colloidal stability for long-term toxicology studies with citrate

  15. Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells

    Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role

  16. The implications of extreme response style (ERS for cross-cultural and comparative research

    M. L. Watkins

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural research in which fivepoint, Likert-type and semantic-differential scales are utilized, is a popular research practice. Extreme response style (ERS may contaminate the validity of research results, however this possibility is often ignored in behavioural science research. In this study, the influence of biographical variables on extreme response style and the contaminating effect thereof on the validity of research results is investigated. The results of the study reveal that culture separately, and interaction with age and gender has a meaningful influence on ERS when five-point scales are utilized. The underlying causes of the phenomenon can however not exclusively be ascribed to biographical variables. Opsomming Kruiskulturele navorsing waarin vyfpunt, Likerttipe- en semanties-differensiale skale benut word, is 'n bekende navorsingspraktyk. Ekstreme responsiestyl is egter daartoe in staat om die geldigheid van sondanige navorsingsresultate te kontamineer, maar hierdie moontlikheid word dikwels in die gedragswetenskaplike navorsingspraktyk geignoreer. In hierdie studie word ondersoek ingestel na die invloed van biografiese faktore op ekstreme responsiestyl en die kontaminerende effek daarvan op die geldigheid van navorsingsresultate. Daar is gevind dat kultuur in interaksie met ouderdom en geslag, ERS betekenisvol beinvloed wanneer vyfpuntskale gebruik word. Die onderliggende oorsake van die verskynsel kan egter nie uitsluitlik aan biografiese veranderlikes toegeskryf word nie.

  17. Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model

    Cristina Gănescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases, the RAPEX 2012 Annual Report, the 2012-2013 Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Reporting Initiative database. We used the multifactorial regression and the Wald significance test to demonstrate that organisations operating in countries characterised by low power distance, individualism, femininity, tolerance of unknown and long-term orientation pay more attention to responsible corporate behaviour towards customers. The study highlights theoretical considerations that support the influence of the national cultural framework on responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers. The methodology for calculating the index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers can become a basis of analysis of responsible corporate behaviour towards local consumers or other stakeholders.

  18. Effects of nuclear genomes on anther development in cytoplasmic male sterile chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): morphological analysis.

    Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer. PMID:25861678

  19. Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.: Morphological Analysis

    Ildephonse Habarugira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524 and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

  20. A Letter of Apology Nearly 50 Years in the Making: How We've Failed to Solve the Cultural Bind of the American Male. Response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male"

    McCandless, Greg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's letter of apology as a response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male". In the letter, the author offers his apologies because educators have failed to solve the cultural bind of the American male.

  1. Molecular analysis of chondrocytes cultured in agarose in response to dynamic compression

    Mallein-Gerin Frédéric

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is exposed to high mechanical loads under normal physiological conditions and articular chondrocytes regulate the composition of cartilaginous matrix, in response to mechanical signals. However, the intracellular pathways involved in mechanotransduction are still being defined. Using the well-characterized chondrocyte/agarose model system and dynamic compression, we report protocols for preparing and characterizing constructs of murine chondrocytes and agarose, and analyzing the effect of compression on steady-state level of mRNA by RT-PCR, gene transcription by gene reporter assay, and phosphorylation state of signalling molecules by Western-blotting. The mouse model is of particular interest because of the availability of a large choice of bio-molecular tools suitable to study it, as well as genetically modified mice. Results Chondrocytes cultured in agarose for one week were surrounded by a newly synthesized pericellular matrix, as revealed by immunohistochemistry prior to compression experiments. This observation indicates that this model system is suitable to study the role of matrix molecules and trans-membrane receptors in cellular responsiveness to mechanical stress. The chondrocyte/agarose constructs were then submitted to dynamic compression with FX-4000C™ Flexercell® Compression Plus™ System (Flexcell. After clearing proteins off agarose, Western-blotting analysis showed transient activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK in response to dynamic compression. After assessment by capillary electrophoresis of the quality of RNA extracted from agarose, steady-state levels of mRNA expression was measured by real time PCR. We observed an up-regulation of cFos and cJun mRNA levels as a response to compression, in accordance with the mechanosensitive character observed for these two genes in other studies using cartilage explants submitted to compression. To explore further the

  2. High-resolution fine mapping of ps-2, a mutated gene conferring functional male sterility in tomato due to non-dehiscent anthers

    Gorguet, B.J.M.; Schipper, E.H.; Heusden, van A.W.; Lindhout, P.

    2006-01-01

    Functional male sterility is an important trait for the production of hybrid seeds. Among the genes coding for functional male sterility in tomato is the positional sterility gene ps-2. ps-2 is monogenic recessive, confers non-dehiscent anthers and is the most suitable for practical uses. In order t

  3. Effects of field plot size on variation in white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug for host plant resistance evaluations in Arkansas cotton

    Field trials conducted in 2008 and 2009 investigated whether field plot size affects incidence of white flower anther injury by tarnished plant bug (TPB) ((Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)) in host plant resistance (HPR) evaluations. The three cotton lines evaluated in the trial included a su...

  4. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  5. A Cultural Memoir of Schooling: Connecting History and Critical Reflection to the Development of Culturally Responsive Educators

    Canniff, Julie G.

    2008-01-01

    This study grew out of a course I teach for undergraduate teacher certification candidates ("Education in the United States") in which the final assignment--"A cultural memoir of schooling"--requires students to study the events, policies and stakeholders in American education through the experiences of their extended families. The article…

  6. Response of human fibroblasts to tantalum and titanium in cell culture.

    Mostardi, R A; Meerbaum, S O; Kovacik, M W; Gradisar, I A

    1997-01-01

    The loosening of total joint arthroplasties (TKA) with associated osteolysis has been a persistent problem in orthopaedics. Wear debris from prosthetic devices including Titanium (Ti) is involved in this process. Mechanisms for this osteolytic process are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the biological response of Ti and Tantalum (Ta) on retrieved human fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were retrieved from human volunteers and cultured using standard techniques. Twenty-five (25) ml culture flasks were seeded with cells and when reaching confluency four concentrations of Ti and Ta were added. Their mean size was less than 3 microns for both metals and gram weights were 0.0048. 0.0096, 0.048, and 0.096 gms. After ten (10) days the cells were fixed, stained and photographed. For both Ti and Ta, the lowest concentration had little effect on the cells, while at the two higher concentrations, nearly all of the cell were killed. Since both of the metals tested are considered to be inert with respect to toxicity, these results would suggest that the observed cell death, seen equally for both metals, was due to the size and concentration of the particles and not to the metals tested. Mechanisms are currently being investigated which include mechanical as well as chemical factors. PMID:9731413

  7. Facilitating a Culture of Responsible and Effective Sharing of Cancer Genome Data

    Siu, Lillian L.; Lawler, Mark; Haussler, David; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lewin, Jeremy; Vis, Daniel J.; Liao, Rachel G.; Andre, Fabrice; Banks, Ian; Barrett, J. Carl; Caldas, Carlos; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C.; Mao, Mao; Mattison, John E.; Pao, William; Sellers, William R.; Sullivan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean; Ward, Robyn; ZenKlusen, Jean Claude; Sawyers, Charles L; Voest, Emile E.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and affordable tumor molecular profiling has led to an explosion of clinical and genomic data poised to enhance diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of cancer. A critical point has now been reached where analysis and storage of annotated clinical and genomic information in unconnected silos will stall the advancement of precision cancer care. Information systems must be harmonized to overcome the multiple technical and logistical barriers for data sharing. Against this backdrop, the Global Alliance for Genomic Health (GA4GH) was established in 2013 to create a common framework that enables responsible, voluntary, and secure sharing of clinical and genomic data. This Perspective from the GA4GH Clinical Working Group Cancer Task Team highlights the data aggregation challenges faced by the field, suggests potential collaborative solutions, and describes how GA4GH can catalyze a harmonized data sharing culture. PMID:27149219

  8. Bitter reproach or sweet revenge: cultural differences in response to racism.

    Lee, Elizabeth A; Soto, José A; Swim, Janet K; Bernstein, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Culture has been shown to influence response styles. The authors conducted two studies to test the notion that African Americans would be more likely to respond to racism directly, whereas Asian Americans would be more likely to respond indirectly and therefore more subtly. Study 1 showed that Black women subjected to a racist comment from a confederate during an online interaction were more likely than Asian women to verbally reproach the perpetrator. These group differences were not present when the outcome measure was indirect responding--administration of good/bad jellybeans. Study 2 used an online format to demonstrate that Asian women were more likely than Black women to say they would not respond directly to a racist comment. This group difference in unwillingness to confront was significantly mediated by a goal of maintaining peace with their interaction partner. Implications of these findings for the study of discrimination, coping, and well-being are discussed. PMID:22496162

  9. Facilitating a culture of responsible and effective sharing of cancer genome data.

    Siu, Lillian L; Lawler, Mark; Haussler, David; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Lewin, Jeremy; Vis, Daniel J; Liao, Rachel G; Andre, Fabrice; Banks, Ian; Barrett, J Carl; Caldas, Carlos; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Mao, Mao; Mattison, John E; Pao, William; Sellers, William R; Sullivan, Patrick; Teh, Bin Tean; Ward, Robyn L; ZenKlusen, Jean Claude; Sawyers, Charles L; Voest, Emile E

    2016-05-01

    Rapid and affordable tumor molecular profiling has led to an explosion of clinical and genomic data poised to enhance the diagnosis, prognostication and treatment of cancer. A critical point has now been reached at which the analysis and storage of annotated clinical and genomic information in unconnected silos will stall the advancement of precision cancer care. Information systems must be harmonized to overcome the multiple technical and logistical barriers to data sharing. Against this backdrop, the Global Alliance for Genomic Health (GA4GH) was established in 2013 to create a common framework that enables responsible, voluntary and secure sharing of clinical and genomic data. This Perspective from the GA4GH Clinical Working Group Cancer Task Team highlights the data-aggregation challenges faced by the field, suggests potential collaborative solutions and describes how GA4GH can catalyze a harmonized data-sharing culture. PMID:27149219

  10. Introduction to "coping with environmental risk and uncertainty: individual and cultural responses".

    Ember, Carol R

    2013-03-01

    The papers in this special issue of Human Nature collectively consider societal and individual responses to a wide variety of environmental and social risks. The first paper considers societal level effects of pathogen risk on collectivism and conformity, avoidance of outsiders, and in-group loyalty in a worldwide cross-cultural sample. The second deals with societal-level effects of resource unpredictability on the nature and conduct of warfare in eastern Africa. The third deals with effects of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes and mediating factors on individual perceptions of risk in Mexico and Ecuador. The final paper deals with effects of various types of father absence on women's reproductive life histories in Bangladesh. PMID:23546771

  11. Morphokinetic-related response to stress in individually cultured bovine embryos.

    Silva, T; Santos, E C; Annes, K; Soares, C A; Leite, R F; Lima, C B; Milazzotto, M P

    2016-09-15

    The kinetics of in vitro-produced (IVP) bovine embryos is related to embryo viability, metabolism, and epigenetic patterns. Therefore, we believe that embryos with different speeds of development also respond differently to stress. In the present study, we performed global metabolic analysis (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF]) of culture media, characterized apoptotic events (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling [TUNEL] and caspase quantitation), and quantified transcript abundance of stress-related gene (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qRT-PCR]) in IVP bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics to investigate possible markers of stress response. For this purpose, embryos were considered "fast" if they presented four or more cells at 40 hours post insemination (hpi). Embryos presenting two cells at this time were classified as "slow". Evaluations were performed at 40 hpi, 112 hpi, and 186 hpi. Metabolome analysis revealed several metabolites differentially represented between groups at all time points related with energy, lipid and amino acids metabolism, and stress response. There was no difference in TUNEL positive cells between groups in any of the time points analyzed. Nevertheless, at 112 hpi, classified as a critical phase because of the genome activation, the amount of caspase 3 and 7 and total caspase were higher in slow when compared to fast group. Transcript abundance analysis of candidate genes (GRP78, HSP60, SOD1, and MORF4L2) was also different among groups. In conclusion, IVP bovine embryos of different development speeds respond differentially to the environmental stress leading to different metabolome patterns and apoptosis activation throughout the culture. PMID:27298151

  12. Thermo-responsive polymer aided spheroid culture in cryogel based platform for high throughput drug screening.

    Sarkar, J; Kumar, A

    2016-04-21

    In high throughput cell culture, the paradigm is now shifting from 2D to 3D systems. However, in 3D cell culture systems, it is important that the cells form spheroids with robust cell-cell interactions. We fabricated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-gelatin) cryogel scaffolds for cell culture and inserted them into open-ended 96-well plates that formed a drainage and leakage protected, easy to handle high throughput platform. This platform was used to screen for the optimal concentration of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) as an external aid to the formation of cellular spheroids. It was found that hepatic cells (Hep G2) seeded in the presence of 0.03% pNIPAAm formed better hepatic spheroids in terms of morphology (as assessed by microscopic analysis and formation of bile canaliculi-like structures) and functionality by day 5 of culture. An increase of 44.22%, 15.75%, 36.44%, 32.05% and 27.02% was observed in glucose consumption (1.925 mM per day per 10(4) cells), albumin synthesis (164.18 ng per day per 10(4) cells), CYP1A1 (304.92 pg per min per 10(4) cells), CYP2A6 (441.23 nM per min per 10(4) cells) and phase II metabolic activity (386.18 nM per min(-1) per 10(4) cells), respectively, upon using 0.03% pNIPAAm, as compared to the 3D control. The platform was tested with other cells such as breast and lung cancer cells and found to be compatible. The cell spheroids were subjected to drug toxicity screening in cryogel based open-ended platforms. It was observed that the spheroids were more resistant to anticancer drugs, as compared to 2D and 3D controls, with approximately 11%-67% increase in the IC50 values of tamoxifen and paclitaxel. The platform also showed dose dependent and reproducible responses to drugs. PMID:27027476

  13. The ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 histone H3 methyltransferase is required for ovule and anther development in Arabidopsis.

    Paul E Grini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SET-domain proteins are histone lysine (K methyltransferases (HMTase implicated in defining transcriptionally permissive or repressive chromatin. The Arabidopsis ASH1 HOMOLOG 2 (ASHH2 protein (also called SDG8, EFS and CCR1 has been suggested to methylate H3K4 and/or H3K36 and is similar to Drosophila ASH1, a positive maintainer of gene expression, and yeast Set2, a H3K36 HMTase. Mutation of the ASHH2 gene has pleiotropic developmental effects. Here we focus on the role of ASHH2 in plant reproduction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A slightly reduced transmission of the ashh2 allele in reciprocal crosses implied involvement in gametogenesis or gamete function. However, the main requirement of ASHH2 is sporophytic. On the female side, close to 80% of mature ovules lack embryo sac. On the male side, anthers frequently develop without pollen sacs or with specific defects in the tapetum layer, resulting in reduction in the number of functional pollen per anther by up to approximately 90%. In consistence with the phenotypic findings, an ASHH2 promoter-reporter gene was expressed at the site of megaspore mother cell formation as well as tapetum layers and pollen. ashh2 mutations also result in homeotic changes in floral organ identity. Transcriptional profiling identified more than 300 up-regulated and 600 down-regulated genes in ashh2 mutant inflorescences, whereof the latter included genes involved in determination of floral organ identity, embryo sac and anther/pollen development. This was confirmed by real-time PCR. In the chromatin of such genes (AP1, AtDMC1 and MYB99 we observed a reduction of H3K36 trimethylation (me3, but not H3K4me3 or H3K36me2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The severe distortion of reproductive organ development in ashh2 mutants, argues that ASHH2 is required for the correct expression of genes essential to reproductive development. The reduction in the ashh2 mutant of H3K36me3 on down-regulated genes relevant to

  14. The presence of a culturally similar or dissimilar social partner affects neural responses to emotional stimuli

    Kate A. Woodcock

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional responding is sensitive to social context; however, little emphasis has been placed on the mechanisms by which social context effects changes in emotional responding. Objective: We aimed to investigate the effects of social context on neural responses to emotional stimuli to inform on the mechanisms underpinning context-linked changes in emotional responding. Design: We measured event-related potential (ERP components known to index specific emotion processes and self-reports of explicit emotion regulation strategies and emotional arousal. Female Chinese university students observed positive, negative, and neutral photographs, whilst alone or accompanied by a culturally similar (Chinese or dissimilar researcher (British. Results: There was a reduction in the positive versus neutral differential N1 amplitude (indexing attentional capture by positive stimuli in the dissimilar relative to alone context. In this context, there was also a corresponding increase in amplitude of a frontal late positive potential (LPP component (indexing engagement of cognitive control resources. In the similar relative to alone context, these effects on differential N1 and frontal LPP amplitudes were less pronounced, but there was an additional decrease in the amplitude of a parietal LPP component (indexing motivational relevance in response to positive stimuli. In response to negative stimuli, the differential N1 component was increased in the similar relative to dissimilar and alone (trend context. Conclusion: These data suggest that neural processes engaged in response to emotional stimuli are modulated by social context. Possible mechanisms for the social-context-linked changes in attentional capture by emotional stimuli include a context-directed modulation of the focus of attention, or an altered interpretation of the emotional stimuli based on additional information proportioned by the context.

  15. "Obtaining haploids in anther culture of pepper (C. annuum L.) and their inclusion in the breeding process"

    Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2006-01-01

    The aim of research in this project was directed towards examining the regenerative potential of several different genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum L., especially the ability for androgenesis and creation of haploid and diploid pepper fund. The subject of research was to expand knowledge about androgenesis in pepper and to examine the morphogenesis and the role of plant growth regulators (especially auxins and cytokinins) on the development of regenerants under in vitro conditions.

  16. Primary Investigation in Anther Culture of Welsh Onion%大葱花药培养研究初报

    王文洁; 张国进; 周联东; 刘喜存; 郭玉霞

    2010-01-01

    探索了大葱花药处于单核晚期的形态指标,并以B5为基本培养基,分别添加2,4-D(2.0~3.0 mg/L)、6-BA(0.5 mg/L)、谷胱甘肽(800 mg/L)等,对大葱花药进行了离体培养.结果表明:32℃热击处理有利于大葱花药诱导愈伤组织;培养集中添加6%浓度的蔗糖,有助于大葱愈伤组织的培养;大葱愈伤组织诱导率较低,且不易分化.

  17. 芦笋花药离体培养技术研究%Anther Culture of Asparagus officinalis in vitro

    李新江; 建德锋; 陈刚

    2010-01-01

    [目的]提高芦笋的产量.[方法]以不同阶段的芦笋花蕾为外植体,筛选花粉的最佳生长阶段(即最佳材料),研究不同浓度激素配比对芦笋芽分化及生根的影响.[结果]以花粉处于单核期的花蕾为最佳试材,芽分化的最佳培养基为MS+6-BA 2.0 mg/L+NAA 1.0 mg/L;最佳生根培养基为MS+KT 0.1 mg/L+ NAA 0.20 mg/L.[结论]该试验结果为芦笋的快速繁殖奠定了基础.

  18. Culture & Advertising : How masculinity or femininity of a culture is influencing the consumers’ responses on the gender appearance in advertisements?

    Sadek-Endrawes, Marlin

    2008-01-01

    Everybody has seen advertisements in his/her life even if this person is never watching television or listening to radio. However, an average person watches television 1 to 4 hours per day. In these hours of watching television, there is a big probability that this person will see an advertisement. But how does he/she react to this advertisement? There are probabilities of reacting positively or negatively or indifferently. Culture is one of the significant aspects that can determine the reac...

  19. Tissue culture-mediated biotechnological intervention in pomegranate: a review.

    Naik, Soumendra K; Chand, Pradeep K

    2011-05-01

    The past 30 years have witnessed a series of systematic biotechnological advances made in pomegranate. These encompass optimization and establishment of in vitro culture techniques including micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, synthetic seed production, plant regeneration via callus-mediated shoot organogenesis, adventitious shoot regeneration, anther culture, tetraploid induction and genetic transformation. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive account on the tissue culture-mediated biotechnological interventions made in pomegranate aimed at complementing conventional programmes for improvement of this nutraceutically important fruit crop. PMID:21161233

  20. An Investigation of a Culturally Responsive Approach to Science Education in a Summer Program for Marginalized Youth

    Garvin, Brittany A.

    There have been numerous calls and efforts made to provide states, school districts, and communities needed financial support to increase and enhance access to and opportunities in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) related disciplines for marginalized populations (Tyson, Lee, & Hanson, 2007; Caldwell & Siwatu, 2003). As the challenge to better educate students of color and poor students intensifies, the need to provide equitable science learning experiences for all students aimed at scientific literacy and STEM also becomes critical. Thus the need to provide summer science enrichment programs where students engage in scientific experimentation, investigation, and critical thinking are vital to helping students who have been traditionally marginalized achieve success in school science and enter the science career pipeline. This mixed methods study examined the impact of a culturally responsive approach on student attitudes, interests in science education and STEM careers, and basic science content knowledge before and after participation in an upward bound summer program. Quantitative results indicated using a culturally responsive approach to teach science in an informal learning space significantly increases student achievement. Students receiving culturally responsive science instruction exhibited statistically significant increases in their posttest science scores compared to pretest science scores, M = 0.376, 95% CI [0.266, 0.487], t (10) = 7.610, p < 0.001. Likewise, students receiving culturally responsive science instruction had a significantly higher interest in science (M = 1.740, SD = 0.548) and STEM careers, M = 0.597, 95% CI [0.276, 0.919], p = 0.001. The qualitative data obtained in this study sought to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of a culturally responsive approach on students' attitudes, interests in science and STEM careers. Findings suggest providing students the opportunity to do and learn science utilizing a

  1. Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    Robinson, Joshua F. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Beelen, Vincent A. van; Pennings, Jeroen L.A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H., E-mail: aldert.piersma@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-10-01

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ► We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ► MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ► MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ► Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

  2. Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ► We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ► MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ► MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ► Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

  3. Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS).

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz; Constantino, John N

    2008-12-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a quantitative measure of autistic traits in 4- to 18-year-olds, which has been used in behavior-genetic, epidemiological and intervention studies. The US standardization demonstrated a single-factor structure and good to excellent psychometric properties. The cross-cultural validity of the German adaptation of the parent-report SRS in a sample of N=1,436 children and adolescents: 838 typically developing and 527 clinical participants (160 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) was examined. Internal consistency (0.91-0.97), test-retest reliability (0.84-0.97), interrater reliability (0.76 and 0.95) and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule as well as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Social Communication Questionnaire (0.35-0.58) were satisfactory to good. The SRS total score discriminated between ASD and other mental disorders. SRS scores proved to be sufficiently independent of general psychopathology. Principal component analyses yielded single-factor solutions for the normative and clinical subsamples. In addition, construct validity was ensured by consistent correlations with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Normative SRS total scores for girls and boys as well as values for ASD were lower in the German sample, while scores for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct disorder combined were higher. Generally, cross-cultural validity of the SRS seems to be sufficiently assured for a large European sample. However, some discrepancies regarding SRS normative and clinical raw score distributions, reliability and validity findings are critically discussed. PMID:19360690

  4. Creation of Culturally Responsive Classrooms: Teachers' Conceptualization of a New Rationale for Cultural Responsiveness and Management of Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Presently, there are a growing number of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong schools. This article examines teachers' views of the cross-cultural experience of ethnic minority students, their influence on the performance of these students, and how the diverse learning needs of these students are being addressed. Qualitative data were collected…

  5. A New Model of School Culture: A Response to a Call for Conceptual Clarity

    Schoen, La Tefy; Teddlie, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Van Houtte (2005) called for clarification of the terms "school culture" and "school climate" and the role of each in school effectiveness research. This article presents a theoretical framework for school culture that asserts that it is a context-specific branch of organizational culture comprised of 4 dimensions and 3 levels. This…

  6. Learning to Be a Culturally Responsive Teacher through International Study Trips: Transformation or Tourism?

    Santoro, Ninetta; Major, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid changes in the ethnic and cultural make-up of school communities have highlighted the need for teacher education to prepare teachers for culturally diverse contexts. International study trips provide direct experience and interaction with culturally diverse "others" as a way to extend pre-service teachers' understandings of difference…

  7. Biography-Driven Strategies as the Great Equalizer: Universal Conditions that Promote K-12 Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Fanning, Cristina A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD students entering our public school system demands a new pedagogical framework for teaching and learning. With its emphasis on all four dimensions of the CLD student biography (sociocultural, linguistic, cognitive, academic, biography-driven culturally responsive teaching (Herrera, 2010 addresses the limited attention currently devoted to second language learning issues in the literature and research related to culturally responsive pedagogy. This study investigates the use of biography-driven instructional (BDI strategies by 58 general education teachers at the elementary and secondary levels with CLD students in their classrooms using the Biography-Driven Performance Rubric, which measures enactment of teaching standards and educational best practices. Findings indicate that the use of BDI strategies can facilitate the practical actualization of culturallyresponsive teaching. Findings also suggest that implementation of BDI strategies can help teachers overcome challenges that are unique to secondary settings as they accommodate the assets and needs of CLD learners.

  8. Sharpening the lens of culturally responsive science teaching: a call for liberatory education for oppressed student groups

    Codrington, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    Wallace and Brand's framing of culturally responsive science teaching through the lens of critical race theory honors the role of social justice in science education. In this article, I extend the discussion through reflections on the particular learning needs of students from oppressed cultural groups, specifically African Americans. Understanding the political nature of education, I explore the importance of transforming science education so that it has the capacity to provide African American students with tools for their own liberation. I discuss Wallace and Brand's research findings in relation to the goal of liberatory education, and offer ideas for how science educators might push forward this agenda as they strive for culturally responsive teaching with oppressed student groups.

  9. Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women

    Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

  10. Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

  11. Pre-Service Teachers: Does Cultural Responsiveness Affect Anticipated Self-Determination to Teach in Specific Settings?

    Cox, Michelle L.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation to teach is essential to educating all children in the public schools. This study examined the anticipated self-determination of pre-service teachers to teach in classroom settings that varied in the ethnic and racial composition of the students in the classes. Additionally the cultural responsiveness of participants was measured to…

  12. The Growing Awareness Inventory: Building Capacity for Culturally Responsive Science and Mathematics with a Structured Observation Protocol

    Brown, Julie C.; Crippen, Kent J.

    2016-01-01

    This study represents a first iteration in the design process of the Growing Awareness Inventory (GAIn), a structured observation protocol for building the awareness of preservice teachers (PSTs) for resources in mathematics and science classrooms that can be used for culturally responsive pedagogy (CRP). The GAIn is designed to develop awareness…

  13. Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice

    Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students' commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors' process of assimilation,…

  14. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  15. RESPONSE OF EMBRYOS OF SOME VARIETIES OF RICE FOR THEIR CALLUSING AND DIFFERENTIATION

    R.P.SINGH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the main food of most of the countries of the world. To cope with the population explosion, conventional method of rice production seems inadequate. Hense, for this purpose; tissue culture technology has been introduced. Before applying any advanced study, such as anther culture, protoplast culture or genetic engineering etc., it is essential to work on the rice varieties from its embryo level. In this perspective, four varieties of rice had been undertaken for the response of their embryos on different concentrations of 2,4D, for their callusing and upon different concentrations of IAA and KN for differentiation. Out of the four varieties of rice, Tulsi and Kanak embryos showed the best response for their callusing at the strength 6 mg/l of 2,4D - 40% and 22% respectively, which is followed by Pusa-Basmati and Birsa 101 embryos. Almost all the varieties showed their callusing more or less at all the strength of 2,4D taken into investigation. But the strength 6 mg/l was the best strength of 2,4D as upon this strength, all the varieties showed their callusing response. On the other hand, embryo derived callus when transferrred to differentiating medium MS + IAA (2 mg/l + KN(4mg/l gave the best result.

  16. Francisella Infection in Cultured Tilapia in Thailand and the Inflammatory Cytokine Response.

    Jantrakajorn, Sasibha; Wongtavatchai, Janenuj

    2016-06-01

    Francisella infections developed in freshwater Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and red tilapia Oreochromis spp. farms in Thailand during 2012-2014. The diseased fish were lethargic and pale in color and showed numerous white nodules in their enlarged spleens. Histopathological examination and electron microscopy suggested that the white nodules were multifocal granulomas consisting of coccobacilli within vacuolated cells. Isolation of Francisella-like bacteria was achieved from 42 of 100 samples, while polymerase chain reaction confirmed Francisella infections in all samples. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from samples obtained from three different geographical culture areas revealed more than 99% similarity with F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis. The influence of Francisella infection on inflammatory cytokines was determined on splenic cells of fish intraperitoneally injected with the bacteria (0.8 × 10(5) colony-forming units per fish). Infected tilapia showed significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrotic factor-α (TNF-α) within 24 h postinjection (hpi) and for up to 96 hpi. However, down-regulation of an anti-inflammatory gene, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was observed as early as 24 hpi. This investigation demonstrates that an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to the infection may account for the substantial number of granulomas in fish hematopoietic tissues that was found in the later stage of the disease. Received September 9, 2015; accepted December 13, 2015. PMID:27196982

  17. Liquid biopsy and therapeutic response: Circulating tumor cell cultures for evaluation of anticancer treatment

    Khoo, Bee Luan; Grenci, Gianluca; Jing, Tengyang; Lim, Ying Bena; Lee, Soo Chin; Thiery, Jean Paul; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-01-01

    The lack of a robust anticancer drug screening system to monitor patients during treatment delays realization of personalized treatment. We demonstrate an efficient approach to evaluate drug response using patient-derived circulating tumor cell (CTC) cultures obtained from liquid biopsy. Custom microfabricated tapered microwells were integrated with microfluidics to allow robust formation of CTC clusters without pre-enrichment and subsequent drug screening in situ. Rapid feedback after 2 weeks promotes immediate intervention upon detection of drug resistance or tolerance. The procedure was clinically validated with blood samples (n = 73) from 55 patients with early-stage, newly diagnosed, locally advanced, or refractory metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-four of these samples were used for drug evaluation. Cluster formation potential correlated inversely with increased drug concentration and therapeutic treatment. This new and robust liquid biopsy technique can potentially evaluate patient prognosis with CTC clusters during treatment and provide a noninvasive and inexpensive assessment that can guide drug discovery development or therapeutic choices for personalized treatment.

  18. On Culturally Responsive Teaching of Foreign Languages%外语文化回应教学透视∗

    张莹

    2015-01-01

    语言与文化密切相关。从本质上讲,外语教学就是以语言知识讲授为基础的文化教学。作为多元文化教学模式,外语文化回应教学突显语言与文化的互动,强调外语教学的文化立场,回应多元文化差异,旨在培养学习者的跨文化理解能力。在语言环境中审视文化,将语言教学提升至文化理解的层面,顺应了文化多元化的时代发展趋势,是当代外语教学研究的一大突破。%Language and culture are closely related.In essence,foreign language teaching is culture teaching based on language knowledge teaching.As a multicultural teaching mode,culturally respon-sive teaching of foreign language highlights language-culture interaction,attaches proper importance to the cultural stance in foreign language teaching,embraces a diverse cultural background,and culti-vates learners’faculty of cross-cultural understanding.It is a break-through in the study of foreign language teaching to survey culture in its language context and to combine language teaching with cul-ture understanding,which conforms to the multicultural trend of our times.

  19. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib.

    Kinsella, Paula

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR\\/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-α expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile.

  20. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest.

    Zhuang, Meiling; Liu, Tianqing; Song, Kedong; Ge, Dan; Li, Xiangqin

    2015-10-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37 °C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20 °C for 120 min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26117772

  1. Making sense of climate change risks and responses at the community level: A cultural-political lens

    Ainka A. Granderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to better assess, communicate and respond to risks from climate change at the community level have emerged as key questions within climate risk management. Recent research to address these questions centres largely on psychological factors, exploring how cognition and emotion lead to biases in risk assessment. Yet, making sense of climate change and its responses at the community level demands attention to the cultural and political processes that shape how risk is conceived, prioritized and managed. I review the emergent literature on risk perceptions and responses to climate change using a cultural-political lens. This lens highlights how knowledge, meaning and power are produced and negotiated across multiple stakeholders at the community level. It draws attention to the different ways of constructing climate change risks and suggests an array of responses at the community level. It further illustrates how different constructions of risk intersect with agency and power to shape the capacity for response and collective action. What matters are whose constructions of risk, and whose responses, count in decision-making. I argue for greater engagement with the interpretive social sciences in research, practice and policy. The interpretive social sciences offer theories and tools for capturing and problematising the ways of knowing, sense-making and mobilising around risks from climate change. I also highlight the importance of participatory approaches in incorporating the multiplicity of interests at the community level into climate risk management in fair, transparent and culturally appropriate ways.

  2. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-α expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: ► Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-β, and a low proliferation rate. ► PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. ► Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. ► Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-α. ► Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  3. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    Kinsella, Paula, E-mail: paula.kinsella@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Howley, Rachel, E-mail: rhowley@rcsi.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Doolan, Padraig, E-mail: padraig.doolan@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clarke, Colin, E-mail: colin.clarke@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Madden, Stephen F., E-mail: maddens@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clynes, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Clynes@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Farrell, Michael, E-mail: michaelfarrell@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Amberger-Murphy, Verena, E-mail: Verena.Murphy@icorg.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  4. Seeing risk and allocating responsibility: talk of culture and its consequences on the work of patient safety.

    Szymczak, Julia E

    2014-11-01

    To improve patient safety, hospitals have implemented interventions to change their culture. Although there is great enthusiasm for these interventions at policy and management levels, we know little about how clinicians talk about "culture" as they do the work of quality and safety improvement. This article investigates the way talk of culture arises in situ, showing how it is a trope that can frustrate, obscure, and prevent the collective social action necessary to change practice. The findings are based on a two-year ethnographic case study of a large hospital in the United States that undertook an organization-wide safety improvement initiative. They show that culture is frequently talked about as a behavioral trait of individuals, which makes the identification of social barriers and facilitators difficult. Culture talk can also obscure uncomfortable, yet crucial social phenomena, including history, politics and inequalities in power that may contribute to unsafe care delivery. The consequences of this obscurity are (1) practices that might make care safer are not considered, and (2) responsibility for enacting safe practice is allocated to those with the least authority and capacity to mitigate risk. The article closes by discussing how talk of culture obscures the role of social context and its contribution to risk in patient safety. PMID:25439671

  5. The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.

    2011-12-01

    Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content

  6. Reversible and Irreversible Drought-Induced Changes in the Anther Proteome of Rice(Oryza sativa L.)Genotypes IR64 and Moroberekan

    Jian-Xiang Liu; John Bennett

    2011-01-01

    Crop yield is most sensitive to water deficit during the reproductive stage.For rice,the most sensitive yield component is spikelet fertility and the most sensitive stage is immediately before heading.Here,we examined the effect of drought on the anther proteome of two rice genotypes:Moroberekan and IR64.Water was withheld for 3 d before heading(3DBH)in well watered controls for 5 d until the flag leaf relative water content(RWC)had declined to 45-50%.Plants were then re-watered and heading occurred 2-3 d later,representing a delay of 4-5 d relative to controls.The anther proteins were separated at 3 DBH,at the end of the stress period,and at heading in stressed/re-watered plants and controls by two-dimensional(2-D)gel electrophoresis,and 93 protein spots were affected reproducibly in abundance by drought during the experiment across two rice genotypes.After drought stress,upon re-watering,expressions of 24 protein spots were irreversible in both genotypes,60 protein spots were irreversible in IR64 but reversible in Moroberekan,only nine protein spots were irreversible in Moroberekan while reversible in IR64.Among them,there were 14 newly drought-induced protein spots in IR64;none of them was reversible on re-watering.However,there were 13 newly drought-induced protein spots in Moroberekan,10 of them were reversible on re-watering,including six drought-induced protein spots that were not reversed in IR64.Taken together,our proteomics data reveal that drought-tolerant genotype Moroberekan possessed better recovery capability following drought and re-watering at the anther proteome level than the drought-sensitive genotype IR64.The disruptions of drought to rice anther development and pollen cell functions are also discussed in the paper.

  7. ART culture conditions change the probability of mouse embryo gestation through defined cellular and molecular responses

    Schwarzer, Caroline; Esteves, Telma Cristina; Arau´zo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Le Gac, Séverine; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Do different human ART culture protocols prepare embryos differently for post-implantation development? ... Our data promote awareness that human ART culture media affect embryo development. Effects reported here in the mouse may apply also in human, because no ART medium presently available on the

  8. VISION: A Model of Cultural Responsiveness for Speech-Language Pathologists Working in Family Partnerships

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has established knowledge and skills needed for culturally competent service delivery by speech-language pathologists. Among these are skills needed to demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and linguistic differences. The purpose of this article is to describe a model, VISION, to assist in development…

  9. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  10. Dose-response relationship of cadmium or radiation-induced embryotoxicity in mouse whole embryo culture

    Nakashima, Kiyohito; Kawamata, Akitoshi; Matsuoka, Masato; Wakisaka, Takashi; Fujiki, Yoshishige (Asahi University School of Dentistry, Gifu (Japan))

    1988-12-01

    Mouse embryos of B6C3F/sub 1/ strain were exposed in vitro to 1.2 to 2.2 {mu}M cadmium chloride (Cd) or to 100 to 320 R x-rays, and the effects of the exposure on development were examined after 39 h of culture. Development of embryos was assessed from lethality, formation of the neural tube defect, diameter and protein of yolk sac, crown-rump and head lengths, embryonic protein, and number of somites. Incidence of the neural tube defect increased from 3.4 to 100% by 1.2 to 2.0 {mu}M Cd, while embryo deaths increased from 13.8 to 93.3% by 2.0 to 2.2 {mu}M Cd. Embryonic protein was significantly reduced at the teratogenic range, but the number of somites was only affected by 1.6 to 2.0 {mu}M Cd. X-irradiation at 100 to 320 R induced the neural tube defect in 2.9 to 72.7% of the embryos. An embryolethal effect was observed only at the 320 R dose. Crown-rump and head lengths and embryonic protein were significantly affected at the teratogenic range, but the diameter and protein of yolk sac and number of somites were hardly affected. Cadmium- or radiation-induced response data of both teratogenicity and endpoints indicating inhibition of embryonic development were acceptably fitted to a linear log-probit regression. These regressions suggest that as an estimation of interference in development of embryos, embryonic protein and head length are sensitive endpoints while the number of somites is an insensitive criterion. (author).

  11. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  12. Rice improvement, involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plantlets in comparison with the control. Irradiation with 30 Gy of rice callus increased also the percentage of regenerated green plantlets. For indica rice, the combination of the suitable dose of gamma rays irradiation on seeds and an improved medium, increased the percentage of callus induction. This approach made it possible to use anther culture in indica rice breeding. Somatic tissue cultures combined with radiation-induced mutagenesis led to the development of a number of promising mutants including some new cytoplasm-nucleus interacting male-sterile lines with almost 100% stigma exertion. Their development would be of practical significance for increasing the genetic diversity for production of hybrid rice. (author)

  13. Anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers in the genus Populus L.. Differentiation between Populus nigra, Populus alba and Populus tremula.

    Alcalde-Eon, Cristina; García-Estévez, Ignacio; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Rodríguez de la Cruz, David; Escribano-Bailón, María Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Three main species of Popululs L. (Salicaceae) have been reported to occur in the Iberian Peninsula: Populus nigra L., Populus alba L. and Populus tremula L. The degree of pilosity of the bracts of the male catkins is a key character for their differentiation. The anthers of these poplar species possess anthocyanins that provide them a red colouration. Since these poplars are wind-pollinated and, consequently, do not need to attract pollinators, anthocyanins in the anthers might be acting as photoprotectors, shielding pollen grains from excessive sunlight. In order to verify this hypothesis, the first objective of this study was to establish if there is any relationship between the degree of pilosity of the bracts (related to the physical shading of the pollen grains) and the levels and types of anthocyanins in the anthers of these three species. This study also aimed to check the usefulness of the anthocyanins of the anthers as chemotaxonomic markers, through the study of the differences in the anthocyanin composition between these poplar species. Anthocyanins were identified from the data supplied by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) analyses. Seventeen different compounds, including mono-, di- and triglycosides and anthocyanin-derived pigments (F-A(+) dimers) have been identified. Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside was the major compound in all the samples (>60% of the total content), which may be in accordance with the photoprotective role proposed for them. However, qualitative and quantitative differences were detected among samples. Cyanidin and delphinidin 3-O-sambubiosides have been detected only in the anthers of P. tremula as well as cyanidin 3-O-(2″-O-xyloxyl)rutinoside, making them valuable chemotaxonomic markers for this species. Hierarchical Cluster and Principal Components Analyses (HCA and PCA) carried out with the anthocyanin percent composition data have allowed a separation of the samples that is in accordance with the initial classification of the samples made from the

  14. A Case Study of Collaboration Between A Culturally Responsive Urban High School Teacher and A Haitian Teaching Artist

    Childs-Davis, Faith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the collaboration between a teaching artist and a 12th grade English teacher in an urban high school. The study was conducted to document the challenges, benefits and processes involved in the creation and implementation of a culturally responsive arts integrated curriculum. The sample consisted of one classroom of 20 12th grade students, their teacher and a Haitian visual artist. I collected data using classroom observation protocols, teacher and artist interviews, studen...

  15. Increased GFAP immunoreactivity by astrocytes in response to contact with dorsal root ganglia cells in a 3D culture model

    East, Emma; Golding, Jon; Phillips, James

    2007-01-01

    Failure of repair mechanisms in the injured CNS is widely attributed to the inhibitory environment of the lesion site, most notably the formation of the glial scar which forms a physical and physiological barrier to axon regeneration. We developed an in vitro 3D cell culture model to investigate the response of astrocytes to cells found at the inhibitory interfaces formed following damage to the spinal cord. CellTrackerTM labelled dissociated DRGs were seeded onto astrocy...

  16. Engineering an Integrated Cellular Interface in Three-Dimensional Hydrogel Cultures Permits Monitoring of Reciprocal Astrocyte and Neuronal Responses*

    East, Emma; Golding, Jon P.; Phillips, James B.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a new type of three-dimensional (3D) tissue model for studying interactions between cell types in collagen hydrogels. The aim was to create a 3D cell culture model containing separate cell populations in close proximity without the presence of a mechanical barrier, and demonstrate its relevance to modeling the axon growth-inhibitory cellular interfaces that develop in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to damage. This provides a powerful new tool to determine whic...

  17. Preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math using the Geophysical Institute Framework for Professional Development in Alaska

    Berry Bertram, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute (GI) Framework for Professional Development was designed to prepare culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Professional development programs based on the framework are created for rural Alaskan teachers who instruct diverse classrooms that include indigenous students. This dissertation was written in response to the question, "Under what circumstances is the GI Framework for Professional Development effective in preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math?" Research was conducted on two professional development programs based on the GI Framework: the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) and the Science Teacher Education Program (STEP). Both programs were created by backward design to student learning goals aligned with Alaska standards and rooted in principles of indigenous ideology. Both were created with input from Alaska Native cultural knowledge bearers, Arctic scientists, education researchers, school administrators, and master teachers with extensive instructional experience. Both provide integrated instruction reflective of authentic Arctic research practices, and training in diverse methods shown to increase indigenous student STEM engagement. While based on the same framework, these programs were chosen for research because they offer distinctly different training venues for K-12 teachers. STEP offered two-week summer institutes on the UAF campus for more than 175 teachers from 33 Alaska school districts. By contrast, ACMP served 165 teachers from one rural Alaska school district along the Bering Strait. Due to challenges in making professional development opportunities accessible to all teachers in this geographically isolated district, ACMP offered a year-round mix of in-person, long-distance, online, and local training. Discussion centers on a comparison of the strategies used by each program to address GI Framework cornerstones, on

  18. The development of culturally responsive teaching in UK Higher Education Business Schools for students from an ethnically diverse background

    Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    As diversity in UK Higher Education Business Schools increases, the focus on ethnically diverse student achievement, experience, and attainment becomes prominent. This thesis investigates the role of Business School academics and Business School institutions in shaping a pedagogical process that is culturally responsive, to support the changing needs and expectations of ethnically diverse students. In order to achieve this the thesis introduces the five-pillar framework, which has been specif...

  19. «Positioning for safety»: Attitudes and cultural responses toward suicide among the Baganda, Uganda

    Mugisha, James

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a public health problem all over the world. However, it has different meaning (s) in different societies. The general aim of this thesis was to gain an in-depth understanding of attitudes and cultural responses toward suicide among the Baganda of Uganda. Qualitative methods of social investigation were applied as the study topic was regarded exploratory. All data in this thesis were collected using Grounded Theory. Article one and four are based purely on Grounded Theory while arti...

  20. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca) in culture conditions

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-01-01

    Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, matur...

  1. Responsividade materna: aspectos biológicos e variações culturais Maternal responsiveness: biological aspects and cultural variations

    Adriana Ferreira Paes Ribas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente alguns aspectos biológicos e variações culturais relativos ao conceito de responsividade materna. Está subdividido em duas partes. A primeira delas trata da responsividade e seus aspectos biológicos e variações culturais. A segunda apresenta duas grandes tendências de pesquisa sobre responsividade materna e variações culturais. As considerações finais sistematizam os argumentos críticos apresentados e destacam que as iniciativas de investigar este tema devem estar pautadas pelo reconhecimento de que a responsividade materna é uma das características das interações adulto-criança que tem origens e influências múltiplas. Nesse sentido, a sua compreensão deve estar incluída em um sistema amplo de referência que envolva, por exemplo, variáveis biológicas, contextuais, da história da díade e culturais.The purpose of this article was to critically discuss some biological aspects and cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. It consists of two parts. The first discusses responsiveness and its biological aspects and cultural variations. The second part presents two major research tendencies in the investigations of cultural variations in maternal responsiveness. Our conclusion presents a brief of the critical arguments and highlights the need to recognize that maternal responsiveness is one of the adult-child interaction characteristics that has multiple origins and influences, from which any investigation in this theme must be based on. As a consequence, those initiatives should be included in a wide reference system that involves, for example, biological, contextual, dyads previous history, and cultural variables.

  2. Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society

    Comiskey, Christina Pryor; Schutte, Kelli J.; Scarfino, Deborah Reed; Campbell, Tanna White

    2012-01-01

    Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contributi...

  3. Multiple response optimization of Bacillus subtilis EA-CB0015 culture and identification of antifungal metabolites

    Ord??z, Sergio; Mosquera, Sandra; Gonz??lez Jaramillo, Lina Mar??a; Villegas Escobar, Valeska

    2014-01-01

    The low yields of biomass and antimicrobial metabolites obtained in fermentation processes are limiting factors for implementing biological control agents in the field -- In this context, optimization of the culture medium for the biological control agent Bacillus subtilis EA-CB0015 was conducted in submerged culture to maximize the biomass production and antifungal activity -- Additionally, the active metabolites against the phytopathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis produced under optimized con...

  4. On the Value of Traditional Confucian Culture And the Value of Modern Corporate Social Responsibility

    Wenzhong Zhu; Yucheng Yao

    2009-01-01

    The core values of the Chinese Confucian Culture such as “humanity, righteousness, harmony, courtesy, honesty and cleanness” represent the soul of five-thousand-years Chinese traditional culture, which may represent the value of maintaining the balanced social benefits and harmonious development of the whole society from the prospective of a whole society, and which may also have some important uses for reference and roles of enlightenment for establishing the values of modern corporate socia...

  5. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    Costa, Beatriz de Oliveira; Nahas, Ely

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus , Fusarium verticillioides , and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture me...

  6. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    Beatriz de Oliveira Costa; Ely Nahas

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medi...

  7. ATP and UTP responses of cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells revisited: dominance of P2Y2 receptors

    Kumari, Rajendra; Goh, Gareth; Ng, Leong L; Boarder, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    It has previously been shown that ATP and UTP stimulate P2Y receptors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but the nature of these receptors, in particular the contribution of P2Y2 and P2Y4 subtypes, has not been firmly established. Here we undertake a further pharmacological analysis of [3H]inositol polyphosphate responses to nucleotides in cultured rat VSMCs.ATP generated a response that was partial compared to UTP, as reported earlier.In the presence of a creatine phosphokinase (CPK) s...

  8. Alteration of cellular behavior and response to PI3K pathway inhibition by culture in 3D collagen gels.

    Brian Fallica

    Full Text Available Most investigations into cancer cell drug response are performed with cells cultured on flat (2D tissue culture plastic. Emerging research has shown that the presence of a three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrix (ECM is critical for normal cell behavior including migration, adhesion, signaling, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigate differences between cancer cell signaling in 2D culture and a 3D ECM, employing real-time, live cell tracking to directly observe U2OS human osteosarcoma and MCF7 human breast cancer cells embedded in type 1 collagen gels. The activation of the important PI3K signaling pathway under these different growth conditions is studied, and the response to inhibition of both PI3K and mTOR with PI103 investigated. Cells grown in 3D gels show reduced proliferation and migration as well as reduced PI3K pathway activation when compared to cells grown in 2D. Our results quantitatively demonstrate that a collagen ECM can protect U2OS cells from PI103. Overall, our data suggests that 3D gels may provide a better medium for investigation of anti-cancer drugs than 2D monolayers, therefore allowing better understanding of cellular response and behavior in native like environments.

  9. [Morphogenetic effects of the interaction of floral mutations petal-sepal and anther in petal in Papaver somniferum l].

    Beliaeva, P G

    2001-01-01

    The morphogenetic effects of the interaction of the floral mutations petal-sepal and anther in petal in Papaver somniferum L. with a monocarpic shoot were studied. During analysis of the mutations controlled by the genes ptsp and Ant, no plants of the double-mutant class were found in the second generation, in which microsporangia form on the corolla sepal structures. The ratio of phenotypic classes obtained in the experiment corresponds to that inheritance, when the genetic control of mutant characters is realized by nonallele nonlinked genes Ant and ptsp upon epistatic interaction of these genes. These data were confirmed by analysis of the genotypes of F2 plants from the phenotypic class petal-sepal, which include plants that carry both mutant genes Ant and ptsp. The results obtained suggest that the gene Ant, which controls the formation of microsporangia in the corolla metameres, is not expressed in the presence of a mutation of the gene ptsp; i.e., microsporangia are not formed in tissues with photosynthesizing cells. It is evident that the development of microsporangia is determined by the level of a product of the gene Ptsp. The role of flavonols (quercetin), inhibitors of photosynthesis, as a mechanism of regulation of activity of the genes controlling morphogenesis of the corolla elements and differentiation of microsporangia, is discussed. PMID:11605406

  10. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.

  11. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth

  12. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest

    Zhuang, Meiling, E-mail: zhuangmeiling2006@126.com; Liu, Tianqing, E-mail: liutq@dlut.edu.cn; Song, Kedong, E-mail: kedongsong@dlut.edu.cn; Ge, Dan, E-mail: gedan@dlut.edu.cn; Li, Xiangqin, E-mail: xiangqinli@163.com

    2015-10-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37 °C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20 °C for 120 min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs exhibited thermoresponsive characteristic. • The OB cells could adhere and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs. • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs do not significantly impact ALP activity and OCN protein expression level of OB cells. • Cell could be detached from PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs when temperature decreased from 37 °C to 20 °C.

  13. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37 °C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20 °C for 120 min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. - Highlights: • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs exhibited thermoresponsive characteristic. • The OB cells could adhere and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs. • PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs do not significantly impact ALP activity and OCN protein expression level of OB cells. • Cell could be detached from PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs when temperature decreased from 37 °C to 20 °C

  14. Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees

    Celso Lopes de Albuquerque Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios.The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catarina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination

  15. Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society

    Comiskey, Christina Pryor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contribution to our understanding of the cross-cultural implications on ethical values in the business context. This understanding provides unique insights into ethics education and the need for a contextual understanding of applied ethics.

  16. Concentration-dependent gene expression responses to flusilazole in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) is designed to evaluate developmental toxicity based on compound-induced inhibition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into cardiomyocytes. The addition of transcriptomic evaluation within the EST may result in enhanced predictability and improved characterization of the applicability domain, therefore improving usage of the EST for regulatory testing strategies. Transcriptomic analyses assessing factors critical for risk assessment (i.e. dose) are needed to determine the value of transcriptomic evaluation in the EST. Here, using the developmentally toxic compound, flusilazole, we investigated the effect of compound concentration on gene expression regulation and toxicity prediction in ESC differentiation cultures. Cultures were exposed for 24 h to multiple concentrations of flusilazole (0.54-54 μM) and RNA was isolated. In addition, we sampled control cultures 0, 24, and 48 h to evaluate the transcriptomic status of the cultures across differentiation. Transcriptomic profiling identified a higher sensitivity of development-related processes as compared to cell division-related processes in flusilazole-exposed differentiation cultures. Furthermore, the sterol synthesis-related mode of action of flusilazole toxicity was detected. Principal component analysis using gene sets related to normal ESC differentiation was used to describe the dynamics of ESC differentiation, defined as the 'differentiation track'. The concentration-dependent effects on development were reflected in the significance of deviation of flusilazole-exposed cultures from this transcriptomic-based differentiation track. Thus, the detection of developmental toxicity in EST using transcriptomics was shown to be compound concentration-dependent. This study provides further insight into the possible application of transcriptomics in the EST as an improved alternative model system for developmental toxicity testing.

  17. Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from rainbow trout exposed to zinc chloride.

    Ní Shúilleabháin, Sharon; Mothersill, Carmel; Sheehan, David; O'Brien, Nora M; O' Halloran, John; van Pelt, Frank N A M; Kilemade, Michael; Davoren, Maria

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)) (0-200mg/L) on primary epidermal cultures from Oncorhynchus mykiss. Increases in the rate and amount of mucus released were detected post-exposure, as was a dose-dependent increase in the synthesis of acidic glycoproteins. The cytotoxicity of ZnCl(2) to the cultures was significantly increased (Pheavy metals on the integument. This model system may help to further elucidate the effects of ecotoxicants on the external innate immune system of fish. PMID:16223524

  18. An in-vitro traumatic model to evaluate the response of myelinated cultures to sustained hydrostatic compression injury.

    Frieboes, Laura R; Gupta, Ranjan

    2009-12-01

    While a variety of in-vitro models have been employed to investigate the response of load-bearing tissues to hydrostatic pressure, long-term studies are limited by the need to provide for adequate gas exchange during pressurization. Applying compression in vitro may alter the equilibrium of the system and thereby disrupt the gas exchange kinetics. To address this, several sophisticated compression chamber designs have been developed. However, these systems are limited in the magnitude of pressure that can be applied and may require frequent media changes, thereby eliminating critical autocrine and paracrine signaling factors. To better isolate the cellular response to long-term compression, we created a model that features continuous gas flow through the chamber during pressurization, and a negative feedback control system to rigorously control dissolved oxygen levels. Monitoring dissolved oxygen continuously during pressurization, we find that the ensuing response exhibits characteristics of a second- or higher-order system which can be mathematically modeled using a second-order differential equation. Finally, we use the system to model chronic nerve compression injuries, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and spinal nerve root stenosis, with myelinated neuron-Schwann cell co-cultures. Cell membrane integrity assay results show that co-cultures respond differently to hydrostatic pressure, depending on the magnitude and duration of stimulation. In addition, we find that myelinated Schwann cells proliferate in response to applied hydrostatic compression. PMID:19645529

  19. A noninvasive transfer system for polarized renal tubule epithelial cell sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes

    Kushida A.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We used temperature-responsive culture dishes onto which the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(Nisopropylacrylamide, was covalently grafted for tissue engineering. Confluent cells harvested as intact sheets from these surfaces by simple temperature reduction can be transferred to various surfaces including additional culture dishes, other cell sheets, and tissues. In order to examine the maintenance of cell polarity, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and human primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells which had developed apical-basal cell polarity in culture, were subjected to cell sheet transfer. This functional and structural cell polarity, which is susceptible to treatment with trypsin, was examined by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Using our cell-sheet method, the noninvasive transfer of these cell sheets retaining typical distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, GLUT-1, SGLT-1, aquaporin-1, neutral endopeptidase and dipeptidylendopeptidase IV, could be achieved. The transferred cell sheets also developed numerous microvilli and tight junctions at the apical and lateral membranes, respectively. For biochemical analysis, immunoblotting of occludin, a transmembrane protein that composes tight junctions, was conducted and results confirmed that occludin remained intact after cell sheet transfer. This two-dimensional cell sheet manipulation method promises to be useful for tissue engineering as well as in the investigation of epithelial cell polarity.

  20. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized a...

  1. Response to cadmium of Daucus carota hairy roots dual cultures with glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita

    Janoušková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 217-224. ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * heavy metal * monoxenic culture Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2005

  2. Celebrating Musical Diversity: Training Culturally Responsive Music Educators in Multiracial Singapore

    Cain, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This article explores outcomes of research into the role and place of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five government schools in Singapore. The study highlights the ways in which a variety of factors such as specialist music training, government policy, curriculum documents, and professional development influence teacher practice.…

  3. Culturally Responsive Experimental Intervention Studies: The Development of a Rubric for Paradigm Expansion

    Bal, Aydin; Trainor, Audrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Neither legislative demand for evidence-based practices nor a focus on experimental designs for educational interventions has ameliorated the disparate educational opportunities and outcomes for youth from nondominant cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Recent initiatives to increase the rigor of intervention research in special education have…

  4. These American Lives: Becoming a Culturally Responsive Teacher and the "Risks of Empathy"

    Ullman, Char; Hecsh, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Do teacher candidates who identify as White and European American think about issues of difference in ways that vary distinctly from teacher candidates who identify as Latina/o or Hispanic? In this article, we engage with the literature on culturally relevant teaching that suggests teacher candidates of color are more likely to have some of the…

  5. Evolutionary responses to a constructed niche: ancient Mesoamericans as a model of gene-culture coevolution.

    Tábita Hünemeier

    Full Text Available Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905 to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the F(ST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele.

  6. Phenobarbital induction of cytochromes P-450. High-level long-term responsiveness of primary rat hepatocyte cultures to drug induction, and glucocorticoid dependence of the phenobarbital response.

    Waxman, D J; Morrissey, J J; Naik, S; Jauregui, H O

    1990-01-01

    The induction of hepatic cytochromes P-450 by phenobarbital (PB) was studied in rat hepatocytes cultured for up to 5 weeks on Vitrogen-coated plates in serum-free modified Chee's medium then exposed to PB (0.75 mM) for an additional 4 days. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that P-450 forms PB4 (IIB1) and PB5 (IIB2) were induced dramatically (greater than 50-fold increase), up to levels nearly as high as those achieved in PB-induced rat liver in vivo. The newly synthesized cytochrome P-450 was enzymically active, as shown by the major induction of the P-450 PB4-dependent steroid 16 beta-hydroxylase and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activities in the PB-induced hepatocyte microsomes (up to 90-fold increase). PB induction of these P-450s was markedly enhanced by the presence of dexamethasone (50 nM-1 microM), which alone was not an affective inducing agent, and was inhibited by greater than 90% by 10% fetal bovine serum. The PB response was also inhibited (greater than 85%) by growth hormone (250 ng/ml), indicating that this hormone probably acts directly on the hepatocyte when it antagonizes the induction of P-450 PB4 in intact rats. In untreated hepatocytes, P-450 RLM2 (IIA2), P-450 3 (IIA1) and NADPH P-450 reductase levels were substantially maintained in the cultures for 10-20 days. The latter two enzymes were also inducible by PB to an extent (3-4 fold elevation) that is comparable with that observed in the liver in vivo. Moreover, P-450c (IA1) and P-450 3 (IIA1) were highly inducible by 3-methylcholanthrene (5 microM; 48 h exposure) even after 3 weeks in culture. In contrast, the male-specific pituitary-regulated P-450 form 2c (IIC11) was rapidly lost upon culturing the hepatocytes, suggesting that supplementation of appropriate hormonal factors may be necessary for its expression. The present hepatocyte culture system exhibits a responsiveness to drug inducers that is qualitatively and quantitatively comparable with that observed in vivo, and should prove

  7. Organisational Culture in Innovative Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) : Leadership’s Responsibilities when Implementing Change as a Result of M&As

    Rasmussen, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what culturally related responsibilities leaders in innovative SMEs have when preparing employees prior to M&As in order to mitigate drawbacks due to culturally related discrepancies. The findings of this study especially confirm previous studies on culturally related difficulties in change management by emphasising the significant meaning of evaluating soft factors prior to change. The study was conducted by examining an innovative SME in the telecom industry that...

  8. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants

    JAIME A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Teixeira da Silva JA. 2015. Response of Syngonium podophyllum L. ‘White Butterfly’ shoot cultures to alternative media additives and gelling agents, and flow cytometric analysis of regenerants. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 26-32. Syngonium podophyllum L. (arrowhead vine) is a popular leafy indoor pot plant whose tissue culture has been established, primarily through in vitro shoot culture, but several interesting aspects have not yet been explored. In this study, cv. ‘White Butterfly’ wa...

  9. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID

  10. 低温诱导下苹果花药差异表达基因分析%Differentially expressed gene analysis of apple (Malus domestica) anther under low temperature induction

    罗慧珍; 邓舒; 张春芬; 肖蓉; 王卉; 孟玉平; 曹秋芬

    2016-01-01

    低温处理是苹果花药培养诱导胚状体形成的关键步骤,花药中的小孢子在经过一定时间的低温诱导后才能获得胚性潜能。本文通过转录组测序的方法对低温处理前和低温处理30 d的苹果花药进行研究,分析低温诱导条件下花药中的差异表达基因。结果表明:转录组测序共得到10.90 Gb的Clean Data。基因表达分析结果显示,共有4105个基因发生差异表达,包括表达上调基因1849个,表达下调基因2256个。注释到GO、COG、KEGG、Swiss-Prot和nr数据库的差异表达基因分别有3325个、1504个、733个、2993个和3758个。差异表达基因主要富集在与糖类代谢和激素信号转导有关的过程中,其中在淀粉和蔗糖代谢、植物激素信号转导这两个代谢通路中富集的差异表达基因最多。筛选出的差异表达基因中控制蔗糖合成、细胞分裂素、脱落酸和油菜素内酯信号转导的相关基因表达量上调,控制淀粉合成、生长素信号转导的相关基因表达量下调。差异表达基因的荧光定量PCR结果显示测序结果和实际结果变化趋势完全一致。由此可见,苹果花药经低温诱导后,影响蔗糖、淀粉生物合成和生长素、细胞分裂素、脱落酸、赤霉素和油菜素内酯信号转导相关基因的表达变化是影响小孢子获得胚性潜能的关键。%Low temperature treatment is the key step in the induction of the formation of embryoid during apple anther culture, and pollen in anthers can acquire the embryogenic potential after a certain period of low tem-perature induction. In this study, the research on the two group apple anther that one was treated by 30 days low temperature and the other untreated were carried out by the method of RNA-Seq, and the DEG (differentially expressed genes) in the process of embryoid formation was analyzed. The results showed that: A total of 10.90 Gb clean data was generated using the

  11. Culture Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology for in vitro Shoot Bud Development of Solanum melongena L. for Micropropagation

    Sila Bhattacharya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used for the optimization of shoot bud response and shoot bud induction in leaf explants of Solanum melongena cultivar Arka Shirish. Three independent variables were evaluated for shoot bud response and shoot bud induction. The variables include the concentrations of nitrogen (N2, sucrose and growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ. The shoot bud response for cultured explant was optimized at 4.34 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.65% of sucrose and 0.67 mg/l of TDZ with 95% response. The optimum medium conditions for shoot bud induction was found to be Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium supplemented with 4.02 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.36% of sucrose and 1.0 mg/l of TDZ with 10 number of bud per explant. The shoot buds so formed were elongated in 0.5 mg/l 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA and 0.1 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. The elongated shoots were rooted in MS with 1 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The rooted plants were transferred to pots with farmyard manure upon hardening. This study has validation value for optimization of micropropagation protocol and is further useful in genetic transformation studies for Solanum melongena variety Arka Shirish to maximize regenerative response for automation.

  12. Drivers of Socially Responsible Purchasing Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Investigation

    Min-Young Lee; Scarlett C. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Retailers and companies increasingly employ corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a global management strategy. They are motivated to act in a socially responsive manner to their global customers not only to fulfill their ethical obligations as a social entity but also due to the marketing and financial benefits resulting from consumer responses to CSR initiatives. Therefore, many retailers develop or participate in CSR activities and hope their actions can be recognized by others. Further...

  13. A Story within a Story: Culturally Responsive Schooling and American Indian and Alaska Native Achievement in the National Indian Education Study

    Lopez, Francesca A.; Vasquez Heilig, Julian; Schram, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    There have been numerous calls to increase quantitative studies examining the role of culturally responsive schooling (CRS) on American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) achievement. The National Indian Education Study (NIES) is the only large-scale study focused on (AIAN) students' cultural experiences within the context of schools. Given…

  14. Utilizing Organizational Culture to Predict Responses to Planned Change in a Public School: A Test of the OC[superscript 3] Model

    Sandberg, Eric Christian

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to test the capability of the Organizational Change in Cultural Context (OC[superscript 3]) Model (Latta, 2009, 2011) to predict responses to change. According to Latta, predictions of resistance to or facilitation of change can be predicted by utilizing organizational culture and its alignment with the…

  15. An Investigation into the Relationship between Culturally Responsive Teaching and Fourth-, Fifth-, and Sixth-Grade Student Performance on the California Standards Tests: Teacher Perceptions, Definitions, and Descriptions

    Coghlan, Robert R.

    2011-01-01

    This mixed-methods study is an investigation into the relationship between culturally responsive teaching and fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade student performance on the California Standards Tests (CSTs). The significance of this research lies in its evaluation of the way that the self-perceived cultural proficiency level of the teacher and…

  16. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20 V anodizing time: 30 min to 3 h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500 °C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55 nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500 °C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium

  17. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium

    Amin Yavari, S., E-mail: s.aminyavari@tudelft.nl [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Chai, Y.C. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Bus 813, O& N1, Herestraat 49, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center, Bus 813, O& N1, Herestraat 49, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Böttger, A.J. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Wauthle, R. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Section Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation (PMA), Celestijnenlaan 300B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); 3D Systems — LayerWise NV, Grauwmeer 14, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schrooten, J. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44 — PB2450, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Weinans, H. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Department of Orthopedics and Dept. Rheumatology, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan100, 3584CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Zadpoor, A.A. [Faculty of Mechanical, Maritime, and Materials Engineering, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20 V anodizing time: 30 min to 3 h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500 °C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55 nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500 °C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium

  18. Prediction of delayed treatment response in pulmonary tuberculosis: use of time to positivity values of Bactec cultures.

    Carroll, N M; Uys, P; Hesseling, A; Lawrence, K; Pheiffer, C; Salker, F; Duncan, K; Beyers, N; van Helden, P D

    2008-11-01

    New drugs that can shorten tuberculosis (TB) treatment and target drug resistant strains are urgently needed. A test which could predict patients at risk of a delayed response to treatment would facilitate clinical trials of new anti-tuberculosis drugs. A widely-used test for the assessment of response to treatment is sputum smear examination. Patients who are smear positive after 2 and 3 months of treatment are said to have delayed and significantly delayed treatment responses respectively. Time to positivity (TTP) values of Bactec cultures, from the first 2 weeks of treatment were used to predict delayed and significantly delayed treatment responses in patients with first time pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes in TTP values early in treatment were transformed to a response ratio (r). Values of r that were less than a threshold value (r(c)) indicated patients who were at risk of having delayed or significantly delayed response to treatment. Accuracy of prediction was sensitive to the timing of sputum sampling and adherence to therapy in the first 2 weeks. Based on TTP data from the first 2 weeks of treatment, significantly delayed treatment response could be predicted with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 62% while the positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 14% and 97% respectively. While the high NPV indicates that a large proportion of patients with a satisfactory response to treatment can be reliably identified, the low PPV value underlines the need to use TTP in conjunction with other markers of disease activity to predict unfavourable treatment response in tuberculosis treatment. PMID:18456556

  19. Uranium uptake and stress responses of in vitro cultivated hairy root culture of Armoracia rusticana

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2011), s. 15-28. ISSN 0002-1857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 2B06187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Armoracia rusticana * hairy-root culture * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2011 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2011_Soudek_AGROCHIMICA_15.pdf

  20. Bovine paratuberculosis II. A comparison of fecal culture and the antibody response.

    De Lisle, G W; SAMAGH, B.S.; Duncan, J R

    1980-01-01

    Fecal culture for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and a complement fixing serological test using a carbohydrate antigen were compared for diagnostic efficiency in cattle naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis. Serological reactivity was associated with the persistent fecal shedding of large numbers of bacteria and in the absence of false positives in the population studied, was considered an efficient method for the identification of this segment of infected cattle. Minimally infected cat...

  1. Investigating organizational culture adaptability of broadcasting firm in response to environmental changes

    Seyed Mohammad Reza Salehi; Naser Mirsepasi; Ali Akbar Farhangi

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to study the present status of organizational adaptability in Iranian broadcasting system against environmental changes and present possible suggestions to empower the organization to cope with future changes. The study uses the method developed by Denison (1990) [Denison, D. R. (1990). Corporate culture and organizational effectiveness. John Wiley & Sons.] to study the organizational changes. Using a sample of 354 randomly selected employees who worked ...

  2. Microglial responses to dopamine in a cell culture model of Parkinson’s disease

    Mastroeni, Diego; Grover, Andrew; Leonard, Brian; Joyce, Jeffrey N.; Coleman, Paul D.; Kozik, Brooke; Bellinger, Denise L.; Rogers, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Activated microglia appear to selectively attack dopamine (DA) neurons in the Parkinson’s disease (PD) substantia nigra. We investigated potential mechanisms using culture models. As targets, human SH-SY5Y cells were left undifferentiated, or were differentiated with retinoic acid (RA) or RA plus brain-derived neurotrophic factor (RA/BDNF). RA/BDNF-treated cells were immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase and the DA transporter, took up exogenous DA, and released DA after K+ stimulation. Und...

  3. Magneto-responsive liquid crystalline elastomer nanocomposites as potential candidates for dynamic cell culture substrates.

    Herrera-Posada, Stephany; Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Ortiz-Bermudez, Patricia; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; McElhinny, Kyle M; Evans, Paul G; Calcagno, Barbara O; Acevedo, Aldo

    2016-08-01

    Recently, liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have been proposed as active substrates for cell culture due to their potential to attach and orient cells, and impose dynamic mechanical signals through the application of external stimuli. In this report, the preparation of anisotropic and oriented nematic magnetic-sensitized LCEs with iron oxide nanoparticles, and the evaluation of the effect of particle addition at low concentrations on the resultant structural, thermal, thermo-mechanical, and mechanical properties is presented. Phase transformations produced by heating in alternating magnetic fields were investigated in LCEs in contact with air, water, and a common liquid cell culture medium was also evaluated. The inclusion of nanoparticles into the elastomers displaced the nematic-to-isotropic phase transition, without affecting the nematic structure as evidenced by similar values of the order parameter, while reducing the maximum thermomechanical deformations. Remote and reversible deformations of the magnetic LCEs were achieved through the application of alternating magnetic fields, which induces the nematic-isotropic phase transition through nanoparticle heat generation. Formulation parameters can be modified to allow for remote actuation at values closer to the human physiological temperature range and within the range of deformations that can affect the cellular behavior of fibroblasts. Finally, a collagen surface treatment was performed to improve compatibility with NIH-3T3 fibroblast cultures, which enabled the attachment and proliferation of fibroblasts on substrates with and without magnetic particles under quiescent conditions. The LCEs developed in this work, which are able to deform and experience stress changes by remote contact-less magnetic stimulation, may allow for further studies on the effect of substrate morphology changes and dynamic mechanical properties during in vitro cell culture. PMID:27157764

  4. "Social marketing, individual responsibility and the “culture of intoxication”"

    Szmigin, Isabelle; Griffin, C; Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, A; Mistral, W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose – Social marketing initiatives designed to address the UK’s culture of unhealthy levels of drinking among young adults have achieved inconclusive results to date. The paper aims toinvestigate the gap between young people’s perceptions of alcohol consumption and those of government agencies who seek to influence their behaviour set within a contextualist framework. Design/methodology/approach – The authors present empirical evidence from a major study that suggests that the ...

  5. Molecular technique identifies the pathogen responsible for culture negative infective endocarditis

    SHIN, G. Y.; Manuel, R J; Ghori, S; Brecker, S; Breathnach, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    A case of culture negative endocarditis complicated by immune complex glomerulonephritis and severe aortic regurgitation necessitated aortic valve replacement. Empirical treatment with penicillin and gentamicin according to UK guidelines was started. The pathogen, Streptococcus sanguis, was later identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA. This molecular technique is likely to be of increasing importance in determining the aetiology of ...

  6. Investigating Apology Response Strategies in Australian English and Bahasa Indonesia: Gender and Cultural Perspectives

    Adrefiza; Jones, Jeremy F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies on apologies have proliferated in pragmatics research, but little research has been conducted on apology responses (ARs). The present inquiry contributes to filling the gap in the literature, and it does so by examining such responses in two languages, Australian English (AE) and Bahasa Indonesia (BI). The study ultimately focuses on two…

  7. Consumers' perceptions of corporate social responsibilities : A cross-cultural comparison

    Maignan, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Based on a consumer survey conducted in France, Germany, and the U.S., the study investigates consumers' readiness to support socially responsible organizations and examines their evaluations of the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities of the firm. French and German consumers

  8. The Host Response to a Clinical MDR Mycobacterial Strain Cultured in a Detergent-Free Environment: A Global Transcriptomics Approach

    Leisching, Gina; Pietersen, Ray-Dean; Mpongoshe, Vuyiseka; van Heerden, Carel; van Helden, Paul; Wiid, Ian; Baker, Bienyameen

    2016-01-01

    During Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection, the initial interactions between the pathogen and the host cell determines internalization and innate immune response events. It is established that detergents such as Tween alter the mycobacterial cell wall and solubilize various lipids and proteins. The implication of this is significant since induced changes on the cell wall affect macrophage uptake and the immune response to M.tb. Importantly, during transmission between hosts, aerosolized M.tb enters the host in its native form, i.e. in a detergent-free environment, thus in vitro and in vivo studies should mimic this as closely as possible. To this end, we have optimized a procedure for growing and processing detergent-free M.tb and assessed the response of murine macrophages (BMDM) infected with multi drug-resistant M.tb (R179 Beijing 220 clinical isolate) using RNAseq. We compared the effects of the host response to M.tb cultured under standard laboratory conditions (Tween 80 containing medium -R179T), or in detergent-free medium (R179NT). RNAseq comparisons reveal 2651 differentially expressed genes in BMDMs infected with R179T M.tb vs. BMDMs infected with R179NT M.tb. A range of differentially expressed genes involved in BMDM receptor interaction with M.tb (Mrc1, Ifngr1, Tlr9, Fpr1 and Itgax) and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines (Il6, Il1b, Tnf, Ccl5 and Cxcl14) were selected for analysis through qPCR. BMDMs infected with R179NT stimulate a robust inflammatory response. Interestingly, R179NT M.tb induce transcription of Fpr1, a receptor which detects bacterial formyl peptides and initiates a myriad of immune responses. Additionally we show that the host components Cxcl14, with an unknown role in M.tb infection, and Tlr9, an emerging role player, are only stimulated by infection with R179NT M.tb. Taken together, our results suggest that the host response differs significantly in response to Tween 80 cultured M.tb and should therefore not be used in

  9. Studies of the in vitro selection of novel disease resistant plants and mutagenesis of cultured cells

    Plants of Brassica napus ssp. oleifera cv Primor which had been regenerated from secondary embryoids were found to be more susceptible to Leptosphaeria maculans than those grown from seed, but were generally more resistant to Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro selection of secondary embryoids on medium containing toxic filtrates of A. brassicicola did not result in significantly higher levels of resistance to the pathogen, and in the case of L. maculans, the plants were found to be more susceptible after the selection steps. When tissues were challenged with pycnidiospores of L. maculans it was possible to define growth conditions in which differential reactions correlated with in vivo responses. Studies on in vitro mutagenesis revealed that low doses of gamma rays enhanced the production of anther embryoids, although, whereas both gamma and X-rays reduced the regeneration capacity of treated tissues, irradiation with UV did not. Increased resistance to A. brassicicola was detected in doubled haploid plants following a seed treatment with EMS and from microspore culture following UV irradiation. In vitro studies of Helianthus annuus and Macrophomina phaseolina, and Zea mays and Fusarium moniliforme are also reported. (author). 28 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  11. Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor

    Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by 125I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10-10 M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less 125I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and 3H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by 125I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by 125I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with 35S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF

  12. Assessing Concordance of Drug-Induced Transcriptional Response in Rodent Liver and Cultured Hepatocytes.

    Sutherland, Jeffrey J; Jolly, Robert A; Goldstein, Keith M; Stevens, James L

    2016-03-01

    The effect of drugs, disease and other perturbations on mRNA levels are studied using gene expression microarrays or RNA-seq, with the goal of understanding molecular effects arising from the perturbation. Previous comparisons of reproducibility across laboratories have been limited in scale and focused on a single model. The use of model systems, such as cultured primary cells or cancer cell lines, assumes that mechanistic insights derived from the models would have been observed via in vivo studies. We examined the concordance of compound-induced transcriptional changes using data from several sources: rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes (RPH) from Drug Matrix (DM) and open TG-GATEs (TG), human primary hepatocytes (HPH) from TG, and mouse liver/HepG2 results from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. Gene expression changes for treatments were normalized to controls and analyzed with three methods: 1) gene level for 9071 high expression genes in rat liver, 2) gene set analysis (GSA) using canonical pathways and gene ontology sets, 3) weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). Co-expression networks performed better than genes or GSA when comparing treatment effects within rat liver and rat vs. mouse liver. Genes and modules performed similarly at Connectivity Map-style analyses, where success at identifying similar treatments among a collection of reference profiles is the goal. Comparisons between rat liver and RPH, and those between RPH, HPH and HepG2 cells reveal lower concordance for all methods. We observe that the baseline state of untreated cultured cells relative to untreated rat liver shows striking similarity with toxicant-exposed cells in vivo, indicating that gross systems level perturbation in the underlying networks in culture may contribute to the low concordance. PMID:27028627

  13. Assessing Concordance of Drug-Induced Transcriptional Response in Rodent Liver and Cultured Hepatocytes.

    Jeffrey J Sutherland

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drugs, disease and other perturbations on mRNA levels are studied using gene expression microarrays or RNA-seq, with the goal of understanding molecular effects arising from the perturbation. Previous comparisons of reproducibility across laboratories have been limited in scale and focused on a single model. The use of model systems, such as cultured primary cells or cancer cell lines, assumes that mechanistic insights derived from the models would have been observed via in vivo studies. We examined the concordance of compound-induced transcriptional changes using data from several sources: rat liver and rat primary hepatocytes (RPH from Drug Matrix (DM and open TG-GATEs (TG, human primary hepatocytes (HPH from TG, and mouse liver / HepG2 results from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO repository. Gene expression changes for treatments were normalized to controls and analyzed with three methods: 1 gene level for 9071 high expression genes in rat liver, 2 gene set analysis (GSA using canonical pathways and gene ontology sets, 3 weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA. Co-expression networks performed better than genes or GSA when comparing treatment effects within rat liver and rat vs. mouse liver. Genes and modules performed similarly at Connectivity Map-style analyses, where success at identifying similar treatments among a collection of reference profiles is the goal. Comparisons between rat liver and RPH, and those between RPH, HPH and HepG2 cells reveal lower concordance for all methods. We observe that the baseline state of untreated cultured cells relative to untreated rat liver shows striking similarity with toxicant-exposed cells in vivo, indicating that gross systems level perturbation in the underlying networks in culture may contribute to the low concordance.

  14. Age and dose related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic-bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC response with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was marked in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function had started to involute, allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who had adequate processing T-cell activity

  15. Increased Contractile Response to Noradrenaline Induced By Factors Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome in Cultured Small Mesenteric Arteries

    Blædel, Martin; Sams, Anette; Boonen, Harrie C M; Sheykhzade, Majid

    UNLABELLED: This study investigated the effect of the metabolic syndrome associated risk factors hyperglycemia (glucose [Glc]), hyperinsulinemia (insulin [Ins]) and low-grade inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α [TNFα]) on the vasomotor responses of resistance arteries. Isolated small mesenteric...... arteries from 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, were suspended for 21-23 h in tissue cultures containing either elevated Glc (30 mmol/l), Ins (100 nmol/l), TNFα (100 ng/ml) or combinations thereof. After incubation, the vascular response to noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine, isoprenaline and NA in the...... presence of propranolol (10 µmol/l) was measured by wire myography. RESULTS: Arteries exposed only to combinations of the risk factors showed a significant 1.6-fold increase in the contractile NA sensitivity, which suggests that complex combinations of metabolic risk factors might lead to changes in...

  16. SHAPING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE COOPERATING INSTITUTIONS

    Agnieszka Werenowska, Tomasz Stankiewicz

    2011-01-01

    In the future managers will have to take into account in their everyday decision-making processes the values promoted by corporate social responsibility. Apart from the consideration of the problems related to the market, profitability, sources of financing, etc. much attention will have to be paid to economic, social and ecological results of business activities, so to the ideas that form the foundations of the concept of corporate social responsibility. However, if businesses are to apply a...

  17. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    Parvin Elyasi; Ezatollah Farshadfar; Mostafat Aghaee

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Signi...

  18. Characterization of [Ca2+]i responses in primary cultures of mouse cardiomyocytes induced by Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes

    Luciana R Garzoni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease, employs distinct strategies to invade mammalian host cells. In the present work we investigated the participation of calcium ions on the invasion process using primary cultures of embryonic mice cardiomyocytes which exhibit spontaneous contraction in vitro. Using Fura 2-AM we found that T. cruzi was able to induce a sustained increase in basal intracellular Ca2+ level in heart muscle cells (HMC, the response being associated or not with Ca2+ transient peaks. Assays performed with both Y and CL strains indicated that the changes in intracellular Ca2+ started after parasites contacted with the cardiomyocytes and the evoked response was higher than the Ca2+ signal associated to the spontaneous contractions. The possible role of the extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ levels on T. cruzi invasion process was evaluated using the extracellular Ca2+ chelator EGTA alone or in association with the calcium ionophore A23187. Significant dose dependent inhibition of the invasion levels were found when intracellular calcium release was prevented by the association of EGTA +A23187 in calcium free medium. Dose response experiments indicated that EGTA 2.5 mM to 5 mM decreased the invasion level by 15.2 to 35.1% while A23187 (0.5 µM alone did not induce significant effects (17%; treatment of the cultures with the protease inhibitor leupeptin did not affect the endocytic index, thus arguing against the involvement of leupeptin sensitive proteases in the invasion of HMC.

  19. Effects of culture conditions on estrogen-mediated hepatic in vitro gene expression and correlation to in vivo responses

    Refinement of in vitro systems for predictive toxicology is important in order to develop high-throughput early toxicity screening assays and to minimize animal testing studies. This study assesses the ability of mouse Hepa-1c1c7 hepatoma cell model under differing culture conditions to predict in vivo estrogen-induced hepatic gene expression changes. Custom mouse cDNA microarrays were used to compare Hepa-1c1c7 temporal gene expression profiles treated with 10 nM 17β-estradiol (E2) in serum-free and charcoal-stripped serum supplemented media at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Stripped serum supplemented media increased the number gene expression changes and overall responsiveness likely due to the presence of serum factors supporting proliferation and mitochondrial activity. Data from both experiments were compared to a gene expression time course study examining the hepatic effects of 100 μg/kg 17α-ethynyl estradiol (EE) in C57BL/6 mice at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h. Only 18 genes overlapped between the serum-free and in vivo studies, whereas 238 genes were in common between Hepa-1c1c7 cells in stripped serum data and C57BL/6 liver samples. Stripped serum cultured cells exhibited E2-elicited gene expression changes associated with proliferation, cytoskeletal re-organization, cholesterol uptake and synthesis, increased fatty acid β-oxidation, and oxidative stress, which correlated with in vivo hepatic responses. These results demonstrate that E2 treatment of Hepa-1c1c7 cells in serum supplemented media modulate responses in selected pathways which appropriately model estrogen-elicited in vivo hepatic responses

  20. Differential metabolic responses of Beauveria bassiana cultured in pupae extracts, root exudates and its interactions with insect and plant.

    Luo, Feifei; Wang, Qian; Yin, Chunlin; Ge, Yinglu; Hu, Fenglin; Huang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Bao, Guanhu; Wang, Bin; Lu, Ruili; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-09-01

    and distilled water. This indicates that fungal fatty acid metabolism is enhanced when contacting insect, but when in the absence of insect hosts NRP synthesis is increased. Ornithine, arginine and GABA are decreased in mycelia cultured in pupae extracts and root exudates but remain unchanged in distilled water, which suggests that they may be associated with fungal cross-talk with insects and plants. Trehalose and mannitol are decreased while adenine is increased in three conditions, signifying carbon shortage in cells. Together, these results unveil that B. bassiana has differential metabolic responses in pupae extracts and root exudates, and metabolic similarity in root exudates and distilled water is possibly due to the lack of insect components. PMID:25584432

  1. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    Beatriz de Oliveira Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p <0.05 in soils with glucose and inoculated with the fungi (except F. verticillioides, in relation to soil without glucose. Amylase activity increased 1.3 to 1.5 times due to the addition of glucose in the soil. Increased amylase activity was observed in the DRL soil with glucose and inoculated with A. flavus and Penicillium sp. when compared to control.

  2. Biochemical analysis of the response in rat bone marrow cell cultures to mechanical stimulation.

    Yoshikawa, T; Peel, S A; Gladstone, J R; Davies, J E

    1997-01-01

    Bone marrow cells obtained from rat femora were subjected to primary culture with 15% fetal bovine serum in the presence of 10(-8) M dexamethasone, and following trypsin treatment 5 days later were seeded on Petriperm dishes which have a flexible bottom. After a 2-day subculture, a cyclic stress consisting of a 1 s stretch (0.3% strain. 0.5 Hz) and a 1 s relaxation for 30 min every day was started. Culture tissue was removed on day 2 of the subculture (immediately prior to start of stimulation), and then on days 5 and 8 (3 and 6 days after the start of stimulation, respectively), at which times dry weight, DNA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bone Gla protein (BGP, osteocalcin) were measured. Both the dry weight and DNA showed a significant increase in the stimulated group by day 8, while the ALP activity showed a significant increase by day 5. The BGP began to increase in the stimulated group on day 5 in contrast to the control group in which it only increased on day 8. These results support the contention that mechanical stimulation promotes the differentiation of osteogenic cells and enhances bone formation. Since in this experimental model the acceleration of bone formation by mechanical stimulation can be reproduced in vitro, it is extremely useful for investigating the mechanisms underlying mechanical stimulation. PMID:9622104

  3. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor isoforms and xenoestrogen biomarker responses in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been frequently used as carrier solvent in toxicological experiments where the most compelling DMSO attributes are its exceptionally low toxicity and environmental impact. We were inspired by recent and consistent observations that ethanol and DMSO modulate endocrine-disruptor biomarker responses in both in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory, to take a critical evaluation of these effects. Quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with specific primer pairs was used in this study to measure DMSO-induced time-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata-protein (Zr-protein) gene expression patterns in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes. In addition, immunochemical analysis, using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal (Vtg) and polyclonal (Zr-proteins) antibodies was used to detect and measure Vtg and Zr-proteins secreted in culture media. Salmon hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and exposed to 0.1% or 10 μL/L of DMSO after 48 h pre-culture. Cells were harvested at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure and analysed for ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein gene expression using real-time PCR method. Media samples were collected at similar time-intervals for protein analysis. Our data show that DMSO-induced significant increase in ERα, ERβ, Vtg and Zr-protein genes in a time-dependent manner. Indirect ELISA analysis showed a time-specific effect of DMSO. The use of DMSO as carrier solvent in fish endocrine disruption studies should be re-evaluated. We recommend more investigation, using other endocrine-disruptor biomarkers in order to validate the suitability of common carrier solvents used in toxicology with the aim of setting new maximum allowable concentrations. In particular, given the high sensitivity of genomic approaches in toxicology, these results may have serious consequences for the

  5. Metabolic response of lung cancer cells to radiation in a paper-based 3D cell culture system.

    Simon, Karen A; Mosadegh, Bobak; Minn, Kyaw Thu; Lockett, Matthew R; Mohammady, Marym R; Boucher, Diane M; Hall, Amy B; Hillier, Shawn M; Udagawa, Taturo; Eustace, Brenda K; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-01

    This work demonstrates the application of a 3D culture system-Cells-in-Gels-in-Paper (CiGiP)-in evaluating the metabolic response of lung cancer cells to ionizing radiation. The 3D tissue-like construct-prepared by stacking multiple sheets of paper containing cell-embedded hydrogels-generates a gradient of oxygen and nutrients that decreases monotonically in the stack. Separating the layers of the stack after exposure enabled analysis of the cellular response to radiation as a function of oxygen and nutrient availability; this availability is dictated by the distance between the cells and the source of oxygenated medium. As the distance between the cells and source of oxygenated media increased, cells show increased levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, decreased proliferation, and reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Each of these cellular responses are characteristic of cancer cells observed in solid tumors. With this setup we were able to differentiate three isogenic variants of A549 cells based on their metabolic radiosensitivity; these three variants have known differences in their metastatic behavior in vivo. This system can, therefore, capture some aspects of radiosensitivity of populations of cancer cells related to mass-transport phenomenon, carry out systematic studies of radiation response in vitro that decouple effects from migration and proliferation of cells, and regulate the exposure of oxygen to subpopulations of cells in a tissue-like construct either before or after irradiation. PMID:27116031

  6. Typical Responses in Giving Evaluation: An Analysis of High and Low Context Culture Communication

    Ferany Arifin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing high and low context in responses given by the students to evaluate their friend’s impromptu speech performance. The study focuses on the characteristics of high and low context represented specifically on (1 direct-indirect (2 simple-complex response, and (3 relationship orientation. The study is based on the analysis of ten responses given by ten students with different sexes. Classroom observation followed by transcription analysis is used. The data were collected naturally at undergraduate campus. The result shows that using indirect and complex responses can maintain harmonious relationship with others. The basic asumption is that the students tend to communicate in high level context. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membahas konteks tinggi dan rendah dalam mengevaluasi performansi pidato tanpa persiapan temannya. Penelitian ini memusatkan perhatian pada ciri konteks tinggi dan rendah yang direpresentasikan oleh (1 tanggapan langsung-tak langsung (2 sederhana-kompleks, dan (3 orientasi hubungan. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada sepuluh tanggapan yang diberikan oleh sepuluh mahasiswa pria dan wanita. Pengamatan kelas yang diikuti dengan analisis transkripsi digunakan untuk pengumpulan data. Data dikumpulkan di kampus diploma. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa siswa cenderung menggunakan tanggapan kompleks dan tak langsung agar dapat menjaga keharmonisan hubungan dengan temannya. Oleh karena itu asumsi dasarnya adalah bahwa siswa cenderung berkomunikasi dalam konteks level tinggi.

  7. Cultural Transferability of Socially Responsible Leadership: Findings from the United States and Mexico

    Dugan, John P.; Rossetti Morosini, Ana M.; Beazley, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in students' capacities for socially responsible leadership as well as significant predictors of its development at a higher education institution in Mexico as compared with US schools. Results revealed that Mexican students both entered and left college with significantly…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Preschool Teacher Cognitions and Responses to Child Aggression

    Pochtar, Randi; Del Vecchio, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The associations among preschool teachers' attributions about child responsibility, intentionality, knowledge, and the seriousness of hypothetical displays of children's aggressive behavior are examined in United States ("N"?=?82) and Vietnamese ("N"?=?91) preschool teachers. The results suggest cross-cultural…

  9. Transcriptional Responses of Bacillus cereus towards Challenges with the Polysaccharide Chitosan : Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

    Mellegard, Hilde; Kovacs, Akos T.; Lindback, Toril; Christensen, Bjorn E.; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Granum, Per E.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of the polysaccharide chitosan towards different bacterial species has been extensively documented. The response mechanisms of bacteria exposed to this biopolymer and the exact molecular mechanism of action, however, have hardly been investigated. This paper reports the tr

  10. The biological effect of gamma radiation on in vitro culture in rice

    Radiobiological effects of gamma radiation on different types of rice before or during in vitro culture, combined treatments of 137Cs γ-rays and NaN3 on mature embryo culture, and irradiation on growth of calli derived from anther in rice were studied. The dose-effects relations of callus induction rate and callus growth rate could be fitted according to the multi-target and single-hit model. Effect of somatic cultures of different types in rice was different. Increase in plant regeneration capacity was found with 100, 150 Gy gamma rays. Decrease of callus induction rate, callus growth rate and callus differentiation rate (especially in the 1st culture) were observed in combined treatments of γ-rays and NaN3. However, mutagenic effects of treatments with γ-rays were much higher than those of combined treatment of γ-rays and NaN3 in the 2nd and the 3rd culture. Combined treatments of 137Cs γ-rays with 200 Gy and 2 mmol NaN3 were suitable for explant in rice before culture. To irradiate the calli derived from anther in rice with 30 Gy gamma rays can rise plant regeneration capacity during continuing culture

  11. 高校图书馆文化责任及其实现%Discussion on Cultural Responsibility of Academic Library and Its Realization

    谢婧

    2015-01-01

    信息时代,高校图书馆越来越多地参与到国家文化建设和提高全民族文化素养的任务之中。文章从文化积累、文化整合、文化传播、文化教育等方面阐述了高校图书馆文化责任的内容,提出了实现高校图书馆文化责任的策略与途径。%Academic library is playing an increasingly important role in the culture construction in China and the improvement of the cultural accomplishment of the w hole nation in the information age .From the perspectives of cultural accumulation ,cultural integration ,cultural transmission and cultural edu‐cation ,this paper introduces the content of cultural responsibility of academic library ,and proposes the implementation way of promoting the cultural responsibility of academic library .

  12. Neuroglobin-overexpression Alters Hypoxic Response Gene Expression in Primary Neuron Culture Following Oxygen Glucose Deprivation

    Yu, Zhanyang; Liu, Jianxiang; Guo, Shuzhen; Xing, Changhong; Fan, Xiang; Ning, MingMing; Yuan, Juliet C.; Lo, Eng H.; Wang, Xiaoying

    2009-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a tissue globin specifically expressed in neurons. Our laboratory and others have shown that Ngb overexpression protects neurons against hypoxia/ischemia, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies demonstrate that hypoxia/ischemia induces a multitude of spatially and temporally regulated responses in gene expression, and initial evidence suggested that Ngb might function in altering biological processes of gene expression. In this study, we as...

  13. The university as an encounter for deliberative communication - creating cultural citizenship and professional responsibility

    Tomas Englund

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How can higher and professional education contribute to the development of responsible citizenship and professional responsibility? In recent discussions on the role of the educational system, the idea of “deliberative communication” has been brought into focus and stands for communication in which different opinions and values can be set against each other in educational settings. It implies an endeavour by each individual to develop his or her view by listening, deliberating, seeking arguments and valuing, coupled to a collective and cooperative endeavour to find values and norms which everyone can accept, at the same time as pluralism is acknowledged. Within higher education deliberative communication might explicitly be used to develop professional responsibility and analysing consequences of different ways of solving problems. To what extent are and can universities become public spaces for encounters dealing with controversial questions of how to solve different problems and analyse different ways of professional acting? Can universities recreate their selective traditions, “institutionalize dissensus”, and “make the university a site of public debate” through deliberative communication?

  14. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    Parvin Elyasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Callus Growth Rate (CGR, Relative Fresh Weight Growth (RFWG, Relative Growth Rate (RGR and Percentage of Callus Induction (PCI indicating the presence of genetic variability, different responses of bread wheat genotypes to callus induction and possible selection of callus induction at in vitro level using immature embryos. Mean comparison of the traits measured in callus induction showed that genotypes 1 and 6 had the highest PCI (100%. Analysis of variance for CGR, RFWG and RGR, Relative Water Content (RWC, Percent of Callus Chlorosis (PCC and Proline Content (PC exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters in the stress condition (15% PEG. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes (6, (19 and (1 as the most drought tolerant.

  15. Putting NIMBY in perspective: The cultural origins of public response to hazardous waste

    The study of public response to the siting of hazardous waste treatment facilities has found a natural home in the literature on localized reaction, the so-called NIMBY (not in my backyard) syndrome. This concern for dealing with NIMBY in practical terms has fallen short in two respects. First, NIMBY has become isolated from two other basic responses: generalized acceptance (open-quotes Yes, in my backyardclose quotes or YIMBY) and generated opposition (open-quotes Not in anybody's backyardclose quotes or NAMBY). Second, too narrow a focus on NIMBY neglects a potentially revealing explanatory analogy: the parallel between the controversy over hazardous waste facilities and other technical controversies, such as the decades-old debate over nuclear power. In this paper, we review three theories that have been developed to explain general attitudes toward risk-bearing technologies. Using data from a statewide random sample, we then look to see if variables that figure prominently in these theories help shape the NIMBY, YIMBY or NAMBY responses to hazardous waste facilities

  16. Hydrogen peroxide formation in cultured rose cells in response to UV-C radiation

    Suspension-cultured rose (Rosa damascena Mill. cv. Gloire de Guilan) cells irradiated with UV-C (254 nm. 558 J m−2) showed a transient production of H2O2 as measured by chemiluminescence of luminol in the presence of peroxidase (EC 1.1 1.1.7). The peak concentration of H2O2, which occurred at about 60–90 min after irradiation, was 8–9 μM. The time course for the appearance of H2O2 matched that for UV–induced K+ efflux. Treatments that inhibited the UV-induced efflux of K+, including heat and overnight incubation with cycloheximide and diethylmaleate, also inhibited the appearance of H2O2. The converse was not always true, since catalase (EC 1.11.1.6. and salicylhydroxamic acid, which inhibited luminescence, did not stop K+ efflux. We conclude that H2O2 synthesis depends on K+ efflux. Because H2O2 in the extracellular space is required for lignin synthesis in many plant tissues, we suggest that the UV–stimulated production of H2O2 is an integral part of a defensive lignin synthesis. (author)

  17. Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from oncorhynchus mykiss following the combined exposure of ionising radiation and a heavy metal

    Mechanisms of toxicant action on biological systems are difficult to identify when more than one contaminant is involved due to potential synergistic and antagonistic effects. There is a general paucity of research into the effect of radiation exposure in tandem with common environmental contaminants due to the inherent difficulties involved. In vitro cell cultures are particularly suited to the study of toxic mechanisms due to their proximity to toxic modes of action and the absence of the multiple defence mechanisms present in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures are particularly beneficial in this area of research as they still maintain many of their tissue specific functions. The objective of this study was to distinguish different mechanisms of cell death (growth arrest, apoptosis, primary and secondary necrosis and proliferation), following combination exposure to ionising radiation and a heavy metal (ZnCl2). The model system employed was a primary cell culture of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) epidermal tissue which has been previously used to study the effects of various environmental agents in this laboratory. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified morphologically while proliferation was assessed immuno-cyto-chemically using an anti PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) antibody. While radiation doses up to and including 10 Gy had no effect on growth, exposure to ZnCl2 produced a significant dose dependent reduction in growth (10, 50, 75, 100 and 200 ppm ZnCl2). Preliminary results indicate no significant effect on growth following a combined exposure of 5 Gy + 50 ppm ZnCl2. These results may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to multiple contaminant exposures. (author)

  18. Hormone responsiveness of cultured Sertoli cells obtained from adult rats after their rapid isolation under less harsh conditions.

    Gautam, M; Bhattacharya, I; Devi, Y S; Arya, S P; Majumdar, S S

    2016-05-01

    During adulthood, testicular Sertoli cells (Sc) coordinate all stages of germ cell (Gc) development involved in sperm production. However, our understanding about the functions of adult Sc is limited because of the difficulties involved in the process of isolating these cells from the adult testis, mainly because of the presence of large number of advanced Gc which interfere with Sc isolation at this age. Most of our knowledge about Sc function are derived from studies which used pre-pubertal rat Sc (18 ± 2-day old) as it is easy to isolate and culture Sc at this age. To this end, we established a less time consuming and less harsh procedure of isolating Sc from adult (60 days of age) rat testis for facilitating research on Sc-mediated regulation of spermatogenesis during adulthood. The cells were isolated using collagenase digestion at higher temperature, reducing the exposure time of cells to the enzyme. Step-wise digestion with intermittent removal of small clusters of tissue helped in increasing the yield of Sc. Isolated Sc were cultured and treated with FSH and testosterone (T) to evaluate their hormone responsiveness in terms of lactate, E2 , cAMP production. Adult Sc were found to be active and produced high amounts of lactate in a FSH-independent manner. FSH-mediated augmentation of cAMP and E2 production by adult Sc was less as compared with that by pre-pubertal Sc obtained from 18-day-old rats. Androgen-binding ability of adult Sc was significantly higher than pre-pubertal Sc. Although T treatment remarkably augmented expression of Claudin 11, it failed to augment lactate production by adult Sc. This efficient and rapid procedure for isolation and culture of functionally viable adult rat Sertoli cells may pave the way for determining their role in regulation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. PMID:26991307

  19. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  20. An infected chicken kidney cell co-culture ELISpot for enhanced detection of T cell responses to avian influenza and vaccination

    Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene; Boyd, Amy; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Smith, Adrian; Butter, Colin

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the immune responses of chickens to the influenza virus is essential for the development of new strategies of vaccination and control. We have developed a method incorporating infected chicken kidney cells (CKC) in culture with splenocytes in an IFNγ ELISpot assay to enumerate ex vivo responses against influenza virus antigens. Splenocytes from birds challenged with influenza showed specific responses to the influenza virus, with responding cells being mainly CD8 pos...

  1. Tunicamycin-Induced Alterations in the Vasorelaxant Response in Organ-Cultured Superior Mesenteric Arteries of Rats.

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ando, Makoto; Watanabe, Shun; Iguchi, Maika; Nagata, Mako; Kobayashi, Shota; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In cellular events, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has an important role in the development of various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, is known to be an inducer of ER stress. However, the extent to which tunicamycin affects the vasorelaxant function is not completely understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of tunicamycin on relaxations induced by various vasorelaxant agents, including acetylcholine (ACh; endothelium-dependent vasodilator), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; endothelium-independent vasodilator), isoprenaline (ISO; beta-adrenoceptor agonist), forskolin (FSK; adenylyl cyclase activator), and cromakalim [ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel activator] in organ-cultured superior mesenteric arteries of rats, which are treated with either a vehicle [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] or tunicamycin (20 µg/mL for 22-24 h). Protein levels of the ER stress marker binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) were determined by Western blotting. Tunicamycin increased the expression of BiP in organ-cultured arteries. Tunicamycin impaired ACh-induced relaxation, but did not alter SNP-induced relaxation. Tunicamycin also impaired vasorelaxation induced by ISO, FSK, and cromakalim; moreover, it reduced basal nitric oxide (NO) formation. In conclusion, short-term treatment with tunicamycin not only caused endothelial dysfunction but also impaired cAMP- and KATP-mediated responses in the superior mesenteric arteries of rats. These alterations in tunicamycin-treated arteries may be due to reduced basal NO formation. This work provides new insight into ER stress in vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582328

  2. Growth Characteristics Modeling of Mixed Culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Ganga Sahay Meena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different culture conditions viz. additional carbon and nitrogen content, inoculum size and age, temperature and pH of the mixed culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and artificial neural network (ANN. Kinetic growth models were fitted for the cultivations using a Fractional Factorial (FF design experiments for different variables. This novel concept of combining the optimization and modeling presented different optimal conditions for the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus growth from their one variable at-a-time (OVAT optimization study. Through these statistical tools, the product yield (cell mass of the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus was increased. Regression coefficients (R2 of both the statistical tools predicted that ANN was better than RSM and the regression equation was solved with the help of genetic algorithms (GA. The normalized percentage mean squared error obtained from the ANN and RSM models were 0.08 and 0.3%, respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximum biomass yield were at temperature 38°C, pH 6.5, inoculum volume 1.60 mL, inoculum age 30 h, carbon content 42.31% (w/v, and nitrogen content 14.20% (w/v. The results demonstrated a higher prediction accuracy of ANN compared to RSM.

  3. Recombinant bromelain production in Escherichia coli: process optimization in shake flask culture by response surface methodology

    Muntari, Bala; Amid, Azura; Mel, Maizirwan; Jami, Mohammed S; Hamzah M. Salleh

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain, a cysteine protease with various therapeutic and industrial applications, was expressed in Escherichia coli, BL21-AI clone, under different cultivation conditions (post-induction temperature, L-arabinose concentration and post-induction period). The optimized conditions by response surface methodology using face centered central composite design were 0.2% (w/v) L-arabinose, 8 hr and 25°C. The analysis of variance coupled with larger value of R2 (0.989) showed that the quadratic mod...

  4. The Technology Transfer Dilemma. Preserving morally responsible education in a utilitarian entrepreneurial academic culture

    Brian P. Coppola

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available 'Research, teaching, and service' is growing to include business. With unbridled enthusiasm, academicians bring discoveries to market instead of having them sit fallow in the public domain. Dilemmas have emerged. Academic scientists underwrite their work with public funds and employ a utilitarian labor force, namely, students seeking an education. The benefits from a successful business are significantly higher than in academic ventures, so the temptation increases to abrogate professional responsibilities and loyalties in favor of personal gain. Safeguards are needed for the institution and its students while simultaneously permitting the development of scientifically, socially, and economically important discoveries.

  5. ``Yo soy indígena'': identifying and using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to make the teaching of science culturally responsive for Maya girls

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge—TEK—can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes the current situation of Maya women and girls in Guatemala and emphasizes the important need for educators to create science-learning opportunities that are culturally congruent. The author posits that when considering how to make the teaching and learning of science culturally responsive for Maya girls, educators must begin with the scientific knowledge inherent within Maya communities. Indigenous communities have a wealth of TEK that can be used to contextualize science curricula that can be purposely designed to meet the nuanced cultural needs of traditional Maya girls within and outside Guatemala.

  6. Dedifferentiation of intrinsic response properties of motoneurons in organotypic cultures of the spinal cord of the adult turtle

    Perrier, J F; Noraberg, J; Simon, M;

    2000-01-01

    after 4 weeks in culture. Cell bodies of motoneurons remained stainable in fixed cultures with an antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) throughout the culture period. During culture, motoneurons maintained stable resting membrane potentials and were contacted by functional synapses. The...

  7. Mechanisms of DNA damage response to targeted irradiation in organotypic 3D skin cultures.

    Anna Acheva

    Full Text Available DNA damage (caused by direct cellular exposure and bystander signaling and the complex pathways involved in its repair are critical events underpinning cellular and tissue response following radiation exposures. There are limited data addressing the dynamics of DNA damage induction and repair in the skin particularly in areas not directly exposed. Here we investigate the mechanisms regulating DNA damage, repair, intracellular signalling and their impact on premature differentiation and development of inflammatory-like response in the irradiated and surrounding areas of a 3D organotypic skin model. Following localized low-LET irradiation (225 kVp X-rays, low levels of 53BP1 foci were observed in the 3D model (3.8±0.28 foci/Gy/cell with foci persisting and increasing in size up to 48 h post irradiation. In contrast, in cell monolayers 14.2±0.6 foci/Gy/cell and biphasic repair kinetics with repair completed before 24 h was observed. These differences are linked to differences in cellular status with variable level of p21 driving apoptotic signalling in 2D and accelerated differentiation in both the directly irradiated and bystander areas of the 3D model. The signalling pathways utilized by irradiated keratinocytes to induce DNA damage in non-exposed areas of the skin involved the NF-κB transcription factor and its downstream target COX-2.

  8. Construção e avaliação de um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras Construction and evaluation of an anther collector prototype machine

    Rodrigo Tonet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras foi projetado e construído, e seu desempenho foi avaliado, comparando - se com o método de coleta manual, em flores rosáceas e campanuladas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica. O trabalho foi conduzido utilizando-se do delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial (2 métodos de remoção x 2 formas florais, com 12 repetições de 30 balões florais. O protótipo apresentou maior velocidade de processamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do pólen, mesmo sendo armazenadas anteras com maior quantidade de filetes e descartado maior número de anteras do que o método manual.An anther collector prototype machine was projected and built. Its performance was evaluated by comparisons between the use of the prototype and the traditional manual method, both for showy and non-showy peach-tree flowers (Prunus persica. The study was accomplished in August 2011 using a completely randomized experimental design, arranged in a bi-factorial scheme (2 collection methods x 2 flower forms, with 12 repetitions, each consisted by 30 flowers. The prototype proved to be faster in the anther extraction time without losses in the pollen quality, even harvesting anthers with higher fillet amounts and discarding a higher quantity of anthers than the manual method.

  9. Planning and designing urban places in response to climate and local culture: A case study of Mussafah District in Abu Dhabi

    Bajić-Brković Milica; Milaković Mira

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with how climate and local culture specifics contribute to urban diversity, and how they affect the way urban spaces are being conceived, planned and designed. The authors argue that regardless of the globally accepted principles of sustainability which emphasize smart responses, diversity and culture as the prime drives in urban development of, cities around the world are continually experiencing the all-alike solutions, which often compromise their identity and charac...

  10. Differential Response of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Roots and Leaves to Salinity in Soil and Hydroponic Culture

    Duygu BAYRAM; Burcu SECKIN DINLER; Eda TASCI

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Volare) roots and leaves to salinity in different growth mediums (soil and hydroponic culture) through physiologic and biochemical analyses. The relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (CHL) content decreased with 300 mM NaCl treatment in both cultures but did not change with 150 mM treatment in soil culture. Similarly, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content did not change with 150 mM treatment in ...

  11. Texas organizational culture

    Hronzová, Kristýna

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the thesis "Texas organizational culture" is to find and define specifics of Texas organizational culture as a part of American organizational culture. First, theoretical terms connected to culture and organizational culture are defined. In the practical part of the thesis, American organizational culture is described, namely ethical codex, company social responsibility, workplace, team-building and dress code. The last part concerns Texas itself, its culture in general, history, ...

  12. Cophylogeny of the anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: Prevalence of host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species for inferring cospeciation

    Yockteng Roxana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. Results We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of

  13. Seismic hazard and local response in the preservation of cultural heritage

    This paper presents a review of investigations aimed at assessing potential earthquake-induced ground motions in the city of Rome. The diffuse historical heritage and the presence of invaluable monuments to preserve required accurate studies of local geological conditions. This information is important to reach a more refined, site-dependent seismic input estimate where also the individual monument structure and its intrinsic vulnerability are properly taken into account. Many of the investigations dated back to the last decade of the past century when instrumental data from significant earthquakes where not yet available for the city of Rome. In those times, analysis methods were mostly based on geological inferences to reconstruct the local near surface structure and develop site response theoretical computations. The 6th April 2009, Mw6.3 L'Aquila earthquakes provided several important records of ground motion in the city for moderate magnitude earthquakes occurring in central Appennines where the largest magnitude earthquakes of interest for Rome are expected. These data are fundamental for a comparison of past ground motion predictions with real observations in rome, and confirm the validity of the methodologies used before the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. The assessment of future destructive ground motions in Rome is now more feasible because it can be based on the scaling of the really experienced monument shaking at moderate magnitudes.

  14. Microbial succession in response to pollutants in batch-enrichment culture.

    Jiao, Shuo; Chen, Weimin; Wang, Entao; Wang, Junman; Liu, Zhenshan; Li, Yining; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    As a global problem, environmental pollution is an important factor to shape the microbial communities. The elucidation of the succession of microbial communities in response to pollutants is essential for developing bioremediation procedures. In the present study, ten batches of soil-enrichment subcultures were subjected to four treatments: phenanthrene, n-octadecane, phenanthrene + n-octadecane, or phenanthrene + n-octadecane + CdCl2. Forty pollutant-degrading consortia, corresponding to each batch of the four treatments were obtained. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the diversity, richness and evenness of the consortia decreased throughout the subculturing procedure. The well-known hydrocarbon degraders Acinetobacter, Gordonia, Sphingobium, Sphingopyxis, and Castellaniella and several other genera, including Niabella and Naxibacter, were detected in the enriched consortia. The predominant microbes varied and the microbial community in the consortia gradually changed during the successive subculturing depending on the treatment, indicating that the pollutants influenced the microbial successions. Comparison of the networks in the treatments indicated that organic pollutants and CdCl2 affected the co-occurrence patterns in enriched consortia. In conclusion, single environmental factors, such as the addition of nutrients or selection pressure, can shape microbial communities and partially explain the extensive differences in microbial community structures among diverse environments. PMID:26905741

  15. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  16. Inflammatory cytokine and microRNA responses of primary human dendritic cells cultured with Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Anaïs eHocès De La Guardia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary human dendritic cells (DC were used to explore the inflammatory effectors, including cytokines and microRNAs, regulated by Helicobacter pylori. In a 48 h ex-vivo co-culture system, both H. pylori B38 and B45 strains activated human DCs and promoted a strong inflammatory response characterized by the early production of pro-inflammatory TNF and IL-6 cytokines, followed by IL-10, IL-1ß and IL-23 secretion. IL-23 was the only cytokine dependent on the cag pathogenicity island status of the bacterial strains. DC activation and cytokine production were accompanied by an early miR-146a upregulation followed by a strong miR-155 induction, which mainly controlled TNFα production. These results pave the way for further investigations into the nature of H. pylori antigens and the subsequently activated signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory response to H. pylori infection, the deregulation of which may likely contribute to gastric lymphomagenesis.

  17. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)

    Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml-1 shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: → DON uptake by cells is not extensive. → All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. → DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. → Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. → Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

  18. Yield response of Bere, a Scottish barley landrace, to cultural practices and agricultural inputs

    Peter J. Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is very little documented about the response of cereal landraces to modern agricultural practices. Bere is a Scottish barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landrace which is grown in Orkney to supply meal for baking. A recent research programme has improved yields and the security of the Bere harvest, making it possible to supply a new market for grain to produce specialist whiskies. At the start of this research, a survey of Orkney farmers who had grown Bere since the 1980s showed that most had planted it at the traditional time in mid-May, used few inputs and considered the main constraints of the crop to be low yield (2.8 to 3.8 t/ha and susceptibility to lodging. Three years of trials in Orkney between 2003 and 2005 showed very significant increases in grain yield (17-76% and thousand grain weight from planting Bere earlier, in the second half of April. This also had the advantage of an earlier and more secure harvest. Yields showed smaller, but often significant, increases (5-11% from applying mineral fertiliser, growth regulator or fungicide, while combinations of growth regulator and fungicide increased yields from 10- 22%. In spite of usually increasing grain yield, growth regulator did not always control lodging. Although the use of inputs often increased the gross margins of growing Bere, a trial in 2005 showed that early planting was a more cost effective single intervention than either the use of fungicide or growth regulator. By increasing grower profits and reducing harvesting risks, these results have made it viable for more farmers to grow Bere in its region of origin, providing growers and end-users with additional income and contributing to the in situ conservation of this landrace.

  19. Fine Division of Rice Anther Development by Cytological Morphology%水稻花药发育的细胞形态学精细分期

    李贵节

    2011-01-01

    A cytological and morphological study was conducted on the anther of a hybrid rice (Oryza Sativa L. indica) strain, Chuan You 9527. To study the growth procedures of pollen and anther wall, their development processes from stamen primordia initiation to pollen maturation were observed and divided into stages. Rice spikelets ranging from approx. 1.0 millimeter to approx. 10.0 millimeter were chosen; loading films of anthers were prepared by using the techniques of paraffin section, and they were observed and then photographed with digital camera system for optical microscopy ( Nikon DS-Ril-U2). The results showed that the whole development process of anther could be divided into thirteen fine stages, based on the significant alterations in the morphological characteristics of cells and tissues. The thirteen stages are archesporial cell stage, bi-parietal stage, tri-parietal stage, pollen mother cell forming stage ( the above four stages together are known as microsporocyte forming stage), early pollen mother cell meiosis stage, mid pollen mother cell meiosis stage, pollen mother cell dyad stage, pollen mother cell tetrad stage (the above four stages are known collectively as microsporocyte meiosis stage), early microspore stage, mid microspore stage, late microspore stage, bi-cellular pollen stage, and mature pollen stage.%本研究通过观察籼型杂交水稻"川优9527"'的花粉和药室壁的发育,对幼穗花药从雄蕊原基形成至花粉成熟的全过程进行了分期.选用不同发育时期的水稻幼穗(长度约1.0~10.0 mm),以石蜡切片技术分别制作其花药装片,置于光学显微镜(Nikon DS-Ri1-U2)下观察并拍照.根据细胞及组织形态特征的显著变化,将花药的发育进程精细划分为:孢原细胞期、二层药室壁期、三层药室壁期、花粉母细胞形成期(以上4期对应小孢子母细胞形成期)、花粉母细胞减数分裂初期、花粉母细胞减数分裂中期、花粉母细胞二分体时

  20. Evaluation of gene expression and alginate production in response to oxygen transfer in continuous culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    Alvaro Díaz-Barrera

    Full Text Available Alginates are polysaccharides used as food additives and encapsulation agents in biotechnology, and their functional properties depend on its molecular weight. In this study, different steady-states in continuous cultures of A. vinelandii were established to determine the effect of the dilution rate (D and the agitation rate on alginate production and expression of genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. Both, the agitation and dilution rates, determined the partitioning of the carbon utilization from sucrose into alginate and CO2 under oxygen-limiting conditions. A low D (0.07 h(-1 and 500 rpm resulted in the highest carbon utilization into alginate (25%. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the transcription level of six genes involved in alginate polymerization and depolymerization. In chemostat cultures at 0.07 h(-1, the gene expression was affected by changes in the agitation rate. By increasing the agitation rate from 400 to 600 rpm, the algE7 gene expression decreased tenfold, whereas alyA1, algL and alyA2 gene expression increased between 1.5 and 2.8 times under similar conditions evaluated. Chemostat at 0.07 h(-1 showed a highest alginate molecular weight (580 kDa at 500 rpm whereas similar molecular weights (480 kDa were obtained at 400 and 600 rpm. The highest molecular weight was not explained by changes in the expression of alg8 and alg44 (genes involved in alginate polymerization. Nonetheless, a different expression pattern observed for lyases could explain the highest alginate molecular weight obtained. Overall, the results suggest that the control of alginate molecular weight in A. vinelandii cells growing in continuous mode is determined by a balance between the gene expression of intracellular and extracellular lyases in response to oxygen availability. These findings better our understanding of the biosynthesis of bacterial alginate and help us progress toward obtain

  1. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  2. Culturally responsive engineering education: A case study of a pre-college introductory engineering course at Tibetan Children's Village School of Selakui

    Santiago, Marisol Mercado

    Culturally responsive teaching has been argued to be effective in the education of Indigenous youth. This approach emphasizes the legitimacy of a group's cultural heritage, helps to associate abstract academic knowledge with the group's sociocultural context, seeks to incorporate a variety of strategies to engage students who have different learning styles, and strives to integrate multicultural information in the educational contents, among other considerations. In this work, I explore the outcomes of a culturally responsive introductory engineering short course that I developed and taught to Tibetan students at Tibetan Children's Village of Selakui (in Uttarakhand, India). Based on my ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in northern India, I examine two research questions: (a) What are the processes to develop and implement a pre-college culturally responsive introductory engineering course? and (b) How do Tibetan culture and Buddhism influence the engineering design and teamwork of the pre-college Tibetan students who took the course? I designed then taught the course that featured elementary lectures on sustainability, introductory engineering design, energy alternatives, and manufacturing engineering. The course also included a pre-college engineering design project through which Tibetan high school students investigated a problem at the school and designed a possible solution to it. Drawing from postcolonial studies, engineering studies, engineering and social justice, Buddhist studies, and Tibetan studies, I provide an analysis of my findings. Based on my findings, I conclude that my culturally responsive approach of teaching was an effective method to help students feel that their cultural background was respected and included in a pre-college engineering course; however, some students felt resistance toward the teaching approach. In addition, the culturally relevant content that connected with their ways of living in their school, Tibetan

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells

    Sarah Søs Poulsen; Nicklas R. Jacobsen; Sarah Labib; Dongmei Wu; Mainul Husain; Andrew Williams; Bøgelund, Jesper P.; Ole Andersen; Carsten Købler; Kristian Mølhave; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Saber, Anne T.; Håkan Wallin; Yauk, Carole L.; Ulla Vogel

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in substituting animal work with in vitro experimentation in human health risk assessment; however, there are only few comparisons of in vitro and in vivo biological responses to engineered nanomaterials. We used high-content genomics tools to compare in vivo pulmonary responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT- X...

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Nicklas R. Jacobsen; Labib, Sarah; Wu, Dongmei; Husain, Mainul; Williams, Andrew; Bøgelund, Jesper P.; Andersen, Ole; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Saber, Anne T.; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L.; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in substituting animal work with in vitro experimentation in human health risk assessment; however, there are only few comparisons of in vitro and in vivo biological responses to engineered nanomaterials. We used high-content genomics tools to compare in vivo pulmonary responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT-XN...

  5. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  6. Early secretory antigenic target protein-6/culture filtrate protein-10 fusion protein-specific Th1 and Th2 response and its diagnostic value in tuberculous pleural effusion

    戈启萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective To detect the Th1 and Th2 cell percentage in pleural effusion mononuclear cells (PEMCs) stimulated by early secretory antigenic target protein-6 (ESAT-6) /culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) fusion protein (E/C) with flow cytometry (FCM) ,and to explore the local antigen specific Th1 and Th2 response and

  7. Increasing the Writing Performance of Urban Seniors Placed At-Risk through Goal-Setting in a Culturally Responsive and Creativity-Centered Classroom

    Estrada, Brittany; Warren, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to support marginalized students require not only identifying systemic inequities, but providing a classroom infrastructure that supports the academic achievement of all students. This action research study examined the effects of implementing goal-setting strategies and emphasizing creativity in a culturally responsive classroom (CRC) on…

  8. LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis increases the sensitivity of contractile response mediated by endothelin-B (ET(B)) receptors in cultured endothelium-intact rat coronary arteries

    Ghorbani, Bahareh; Holmstrup, Palle; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine if lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) modifies the vasomotor responses to Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and Sarafotoxin 6c (S6c) in rat coronary arteries. The arteries were studied directly or following organ culture for 24h in absence and ...

  9. A Qualitative Examination of the Impact of Culturally Responsive Educational Practices on the Psychological Well-Being of Students of Color

    Cholewa, Blaire; Goodman, Rachael D.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Amatea, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have shown that educational experiences within the classroom may marginalize students of color which may result in psychological distress. However, the utilization of culturally responsive educational practices (CRE) can create environments in which marginalized students can thrive not only academically, but psychologically. The authors…

  10. "Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes…

  11. Culturally Responsive Active Citizenship Education for Newcomer Students: A Cross-State Case Study of Two Teachers in Arizona and New York

    Ramirez, Pablo; Jaffee, Ashley Taylor

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how two social studies teachers in New York and Arizona engage newcomer youth in active citizenship education. Using a framework of culturally responsive active citizenship education, this article sheds light on how two teachers, in two different social, political, and educational contexts, enact critical citizenship practices…

  12. Response coefficient analysis of a fed-batch bioreactor to dissolved oxygen perturbation in complementary cultures during PHB production

    Patnaik Pratap R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the production of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB has many biological, energetic and environmental advantages over chemically synthesized polymers, synthetic polymers continue to be produced industrially since the productivities of fermentation processes fr PHB are not yet economically competitive. Improvement of a PHB fermentation requires good understanding and optimization under the realistic conditions of large bioreactors. Laboratory-scale studies have shown that co-cultures of Ralstonia eutropha and Lactobacillus delbrueckii generate better fermentation efficiencies than R. eutropha alone. In large bioreactors, incomplete dispersioin and perturbations in the dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, both of which affect the fermentation, have to be considered. This study analyzes the effect of DO fluctuations on bioreactor performance for both ideal and optimally dispersed broths. Results Response coefficient analysis was employed to obtain quantitative information on the effect of DO perturbations on different variables. Three values of the Peclet number (Pe cheracterized three levels of dispersion: Pe = 0.01 for nearly complete dispersion, Pe = 20 for optimum dispersion and Pe = 60 for insufficient dispersion. The response coefficients (RCs of the pairs of bacterial concentrations and the main substrates, glucose and ammonium chloride, showed contrasting variations with time. Lactate, a critical intermediate, and PHB had similar RC profiles but those of lactate were one to two orders of magnitude larger than other RCs. Significantly, the optimum Pe also resulted in the largest RCs, suggesting a balance between productivity and reactor stability. Conclusion Since R. eutropha requires oxygen for its growth whereas L. delbrueckii does not, fluctuations in the DO concentartion have a strong influence on the fermentation. Apart from this, the mechanism of PHB biosynthesis indicates that control of lactate is a critical

  13. Characteristics and mechanisms of the bystander response in monolayer cell cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles

    Little, John B.; Azzam, Edouard I.; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Nagasawa, Hatsumi

    2005-02-01

    When confluent cultures of mammalian cells are irradiated with very low fluences of alpha particles whereby only occasional cells receive any radiation exposure, genetic changes are observed in the non-irradiated ("bystander") cells. Upregulation of the p53 damage-response pathway as well as activation of proteins in the MAPK family occurred in bystander cells; p53 was phosphorylated on the serine 15 residue suggesting that the upregulation of p53 was a consequence of DNA damage. Damage signals were transmitted to bystander cells through gap junctions, as confirmed by the use of genetically manipulated cells including connexin43 knockouts. Expression of connexin43 was markedly enhanced by irradiation. A moderate bystander effect was observed for specific gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This effect was markedly enhanced in cells defective in the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway. Finally, an upregulation of oxidative metabolism occurred in bystander cells; the increased levels of reactive oxygen species appeared to be derived from flavine-containing oxidase enzymes. We hypothesize that genetic effects observed in non-irradiated bystander cells are a consequence of oxidative base damage; >90% of mutations in bystander cells were point mutations. When bystander cells cannot repair DNA double strand breaks, they become much more sensitive to the induction of chromosomal aberrations and mutations, the latter consisting primarily of deletion mutants. While we propose that the genetic effects occurring in bystander cells are a consequence of oxidative stress, the nature of the signal that initiates this process remains to be determined.

  14. Characteristics and mechanisms of the bystander response in monolayer cell cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles

    When confluent cultures of mammalian cells are irradiated with very low fluences of alpha particles whereby only occasional cells receive any radiation exposure, genetic changes are observed in the non-irradiated ('bystander') cells. Upregulation of the p53 damage-response pathway as well as activation of proteins in the MAPK family occurred in bystander cells; p53 was phosphorylated on the serine 15 residue suggesting that the upregulation of p53 was a consequence of DNA damage. Damage signals were transmitted to bystander cells through gap junctions, as confirmed by the use of genetically manipulated cells including connexin43 knockouts. Expression of connexin43 was markedly enhanced by irradiation. A moderate bystander effect was observed for specific gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This effect was markedly enhanced in cells defective in the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway. Finally, an upregulation of oxidative metabolism occurred in bystander cells; the increased levels of reactive oxygen species appeared to be derived from flavine-containing oxidase enzymes. We hypothesize that genetic effects observed in non-irradiated bystander cells are a consequence of oxidative base damage; >90% of mutations in bystander cells were point mutations. When bystander cells cannot repair DNA double strand breaks, they become much more sensitive to the induction of chromosomal aberrations and mutations, the latter consisting primarily of deletion mutants. While we propose that the genetic effects occurring in bystander cells are a consequence of oxidative stress, the nature of the signal that initiates this process remains to be determined

  15. Baby, you light-up my face: culture-general physiological responses to infants and culture-specific cognitive judgements of adults

    Esposito, Gianluca; Nakazawa, Jun; Ogawa, Shota; Stival, Rita; Kawashima, Akiko; Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2014-01-01

    Infants universally elicit in adults a set of solicitous behaviors that are evolutionarily important for the survival of the species. However, exposure, experience, and prejudice appear to govern adults' social choice and ingroup attitudes towards other adults. In the current study, physiological arousal and behavioral judgments were assessed while adults processed unfamiliar infant and adult faces of ingroup vs. outgroup members in two contrasting cultures, Japan and Italy. Physiological aro...

  16. Culture, Gender and Health Care Stigma: Practitioners’ Response to Facial Masking Experienced by People with Parkinson’s Disease

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Ma, Hui-Ing

    2011-01-01

    Facial masking in Parkinson’s disease is the reduction of automatic and controlled expressive movement of facial musculature, creating an appearance of apathy, social disengagement or compromised cognitive status. Research in western cultures demonstrates that practitioners form negatively biased impressions associated with patient masking. Socio-cultural norms about facial expressivity vary according to culture and gender, yet little research has studied the effect of these factors on practi...

  17. Differential effect of culture epimastigotes and blood-form Trypamastigotes on normal mouse splenocyte responsiveness to mitogens

    L. E. Serrano

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood form trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, produced a strong inhibition of the blastogenic response to T and B cell mitogens, of the C3H/He, C57BLand BALB/cJ strains of mice, while culture epimastigotes of the Y strain kept in a medium that allows parasite growth at 26°. 30° and 37°C produced a strong stimulatory effect that was even higher than the effect of the mitogens alone. Both the inhibitory or the stimulatory effects were dose-dependent. The stimulatory effect of epimastigotes was also temperature-dependent producing increasedstimulation indexes as the temperature of parasite cultures was raised. Metabolically active,living parasites seemed to be necessary for an improved lymphocyte stimulation suggesting a potential role of secreted metabolites as polyclonal activators of mouse lymphocytes.Tripomastigotas de sangue da cepa Y de T. cruzi mostraram uma forte inibição da resposta de transformação blástica a mitógenos de células T e B, nas estirpes C3H/He, C57BL/6 e BALB/cJ de camundongos, enquanto epimastigotas de cultura da cepa Y mantidos em meio que permite o crescimento dos parasitas a 26-, 30-, 34- e 37-C mostraram um forte efeito estimulante, que foi inclusive maior que o efeito dos mitógenos isolados. Os efeitos de inibição e de estimulação foram dependentes da dose. O efeito estimulante dos epimastigotas também foi dependente da temperatura, encontrando-se maiores índices de estimulação à medida que a temperatura da cultura dos parasitas foi aumentada. Parasitas vivos, metabolicamente ativos, parecem ser necessários para a obtenção de uma maior estimulação dos linfócitos, o que sugere um papel potencial dos metabólitos segregados como ativadores policlonais dos linfócitos dos camundongos.

  18. Prospective study on adaptive response induction by heavy-ion radiation in human lymphoblastoid cell lines and cultured mouse fetal cells

    We investigated radiation-induced response to X-rays and heavy-ions in lymphoblastoid cells. As pre-exposure to low priming dose of ionizing radiations decreases the biological effects of a subsequent higher challenging dose in a variety of models, we wondered whether adaptive response could be observed when using accelerated heavy ions radiation. For the first time, we demonstrated the existence of a mutagenic adaptive response to both low and high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells, which might be linked with a modulation of DNA repair. (author)

  19. Effects of inhibitors of protein kinase C and NO-synthase on the radiation-induced cytogenetic adaptive response in Chinese hamster cells in culture

    The effect of the serine-threonin kinase inhibitor - staurosporine and inhibitor of NO-synthase - L-NAME on the radiation-induced adaptive response were studied in fibroblasts of Chinese hamster in culture. It is shown that staurosporine and L-NAME inhibit cytogenetic adaptive response induced by β-particles in low doses. Inhibition is not connected with radiosensitizing effect of these agents. L-NAME decreases significantly the γ-rays-induced chromosome aberration yield also. Study confirms the role of protein kinase C in induction of the adaptive response and participation of NO-synthase in this process is noticed for the first time

  20. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf; Tørring, Ditte

    2012-03-01

    Blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab ( Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments.