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Sample records for anther culture response

  1. Low dose gamma ray effect on inhancer of anther culture response in some spring wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this investigation, the response of anther culture in three wheat genotypes (Tajan, Atila, R-12) after a treatment with a low dose of gamma ray was studied. Spikes of these genotypes were irradiated in doses of 2, 3 Gy, then cultured in the modified P4 medium, containing 200 mgl-1 Glutamine, 15% Ficol, 2 mgl-1 2,4-D, and 0.5 mgl-1 Kinitin. It was found that there is a significant difference between the genotypes, and also between the irradiated treatment levels and the non-irradiated treatment. All of the genotypes showed a low response to the anther culture meaning a decrease in the response with irradiation. 90% of Calli of Atila, 67% of R-12 and 46% of Tajan in control treatment produced plants. But the Calli of irradiated anthers did not produced any plant (green or albino). Generally by the gamma irradiation, we observed a low response in the Calli and plant let production

  2. Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

  3. Study of genotype, cold pre-treatment, low-dosage Gamma irradiation and 2,4-D concentration effects on wheat anther culture response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study. effects of genotype, cold pre-treatment. low dosage Gamma irradiation and 2, 4-D concentration on response of three wheat genotypes (Atrak, F3 2005 and F3 2104) to anther culture were investigated. Seeds of donor genotypes were grown under field condition in early spring. Anthers from donor plants were collected and plated on modified CHB medium containing 2,4-D (2 and 4 mgl-1), 0.5 mgl-1 Kinetin and gl-1 Sucrose. Number of calli formed in 100 anthers and number of planet produced from 100 calli were counted. Results indicated that genotypes. cold pre-treatments and 2,4-D concentrations had significant effects on response of wheat genotypes to anther production, while F3 2104 the lowest. It would be concluded that androgenic traits are controlled by genotype and environmental factors. Furthermore this traits are controlled independently

  4. Evaluation of gelling agents on anther culture: response of two soybean cultivars

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena Barcelos, Cardoso; Maria Helena, Bodanese-Zanettini; Elsa Cristina de, Mundstock; Eliane, Kaltchuk-Santos.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Anteras de duas cultivares de soja foram cultivadas em meio de cultura basal B5 longo gelificado com agarose ou Phytagel®. Análises citológicas das anteras foram conduzidas durante os primeiros 45 dias de cultura para avaliar a viabilidade e o estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos. A freqüência [...] de formação de calos foi analisada após 45 dias do início da cultura. A análise da variância da viabilidade do micrósporo mostrou interações significativas de Cultivar X Agente Gelificante X Dias de Cultura. As freqüências de grãos de pólen viáveis diminuíram significativamente com o tempo de cultura, dentro de cada cultivar e agente gelificante testado. A interação Dia X Cultivar foi significante para as freqüências de grãos de pólen binucleados simétricos e estruturas multinucleados/multicelulares. O efeito do agente gelificante na freqüência de grãos de pólen binucleados simétricos e estruturas multinucleados/multicelulares não foi significante. Com relação às freqüências de calos e estruturas embriogênicas formadas, houve diferença significativa entre cultivares (IAS5= 14.8% e BRS 133=6.6%). O agente gelificante não mostrou efeito em tais freqüências. Abstract in english Anthers of two soybean cultivars were cultured in B5 long basal culture media gelled with agarose or PhytagelTM. Cytological examinations of the anthers were carried out during the first 45 days of culture to assay the viability and developmental stage of microspores. Frequency of callus formation w [...] as recorded at 45 days of culture. The analysis of variance of the microspore viability assay showed significant Cultivar X Gelling Agent X Day of Culture interactions. The frequencies of viable microspores decreased significantly with time of culture, within each cultivar and gelling agent tested. The interaction Day X Cultivar was significant for the frequencies of binucleate symmetrical grains and multinucleate/multicellular structures. The effect of gelling agents on the frequency of binucleate symmetrical pollens grains and multinucleate/multicellular structures was not significant. About the frequencies of calli and embryogenic calli formed, a significant difference was detected between the cultivars (IAS5= 14.8% and BRS 133=6.6%). Gelling agents showed no effect over these frequencies.

  5. Effect of the genotype and gamma irradiation on the anther cultures of a 10x10 diallel cross of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther culture responsiveness, irradiation effect and reciprocal effect were evaluated on ten genotypes (V1-V10) and a 101x0 diallel cross. Gamma irradiation dose of 100 Gy was applied to seeds of parents and F1 cross from which the donor plants were grown. Non-irradiated donor plants were also used for comparison. Anthers were plated on potato-2 callus induction medium and calli formed were transferred to MS medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), indolacetic acid (1.0 mg/L), kinetin (1.0 mg/L), inositol (100 mg/L) and solidified with agar (0.7%). Genotypes showed big differences for callus induction, plant regeneration and anther culturability rate. The most responsive materials were V2, V10 and V5 with 76.0, 27.4 and 10.8 green plants per 100 anthers respectively. No irradiation effect was found for the parents nor the F1 crosses on the pooled data. Mean anther culture response of specific genotypes showed that irradiation significantly increased anther culturability rate of V3 from 0.1 to 27.6 green plants per 100 anthers. No reciprocal effect was observed. (author)

  6. Effects of colchicine on anther and microspore culture of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Mercedes; Cistue? Sola, Luis; Valle?s Brau, Mari?a Pilar; Castillo Alonso, Ana Mari?a

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of colchicine application on chromosome doubling and androgenic response in anther and microspore culture of different bread wheat genotypes. Colchicine was applied during a mannitol stress pretreatment or during the first 48 h of culture at concentrations of 0, 150 and 300 mg l?1. When colchicine was applied during stress pretreatment, the percentage of doubling depended on genotype and concentration. A significant increase in doubling was obse...

  7. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

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    Kondi?-Šipka Ankica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33% and callus yield (119%, while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively. Seven genotypes (50% had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers of over 10%, with the highest frequency of 21.3% (NS111-95/Sremica. This hybrid produced 12.8 doubled haploid (DH lines per spike used for isolation. In the other genotypes, the number of produced DH lines per spike ranged from 1 (30­Sc.Smoc.88-89/Hays-2 to 11.2 (NS111-95/Ana. As half of the randomly selected genotypes exhibited high green plant regeneration ability and a high production of DH lines per spike, it can be concluded that in vitro anther culture can be successfully used in breeding programs for rapid production of homozygous wheat lines.

  8. Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

  9. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo, Galli; Judith, Viégas; Eliane, Augustin; Marcia Ines, Eckert; João Baptista da, Silva.

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L.) de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via ca [...] logênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias. Abstract in english Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture [...] by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.

  10. Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.

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    Leonardo Galli

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

  11. Cucumber mosaic virus resistant mutant from tobacco's anthers treated with ? ray through anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flower buds of Nicotiana tabacum cv. K326, NC89 and 8611, in which the microspore is in the phase of single nucleus and the nucleus is on the side, were irradiated with 60Co ?-ray. Plant lets from anther culture were transplanted and inoculated with poisonous fluid of CMV. The results showed that there was an orientation relation between the variation of disease resistance of plants of NC89, 8611 and the dose of 60Co ?-ray. The variation of leaves of plants was analogous to symptom of CMV when the dose was equal to or more than 4, which caused difficulty for selection. When dose was less than 2krad, there was no difference in disease resistance between the plants induced from irradiation of 60Co ?-ray and the control. However, when dose was equal to 2krad, the difference of disease resistance was at the level of significance. CMV-resistant mutants were selected from the population of haploid plant of NC89 and 8611 induced by 2.0 krad of 60Co ? ray

  12. High production of wheat double haploids via anther culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kondi?-Šipka Ankica; Kobiljski Boris; Hristov Nikola

    2007-01-01

    Androgenous and regeneration abilities of 14 randomly selected F1 hybrids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were analyzed. Anthers were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 inductive medium. The hybrid NS111-95/Ana had the highest average values for androgenous capacity (33%) and callus yield (119%), while the hybrid NS 92-250/Tiha had the lowest values for these traits (9 and 21%, respectively). Seven genotypes (50%) had a frequency of green plants relative to the number of isolated anthers o...

  13. Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of ?-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of ?-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

  14. Induced mutations and Anther culture for sesame improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two Sri Lankan sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars MI 2 and MI 3 and of UCR82-203 NS which has indehiscent capsules were treated with gamma rays, ethyl methanesulphonate and diethyl sulphate. Selections were made in segregating populations for improved yield components and morphological characters. Radiation sensitivity studies indicated that the seeds of MI 3 variety were more resistant to irradiation than MI 2. The M1 plants also showed varietal differences in growth reduction. Fifty percent growth reduction for plant height in MI 2 was in the range of 500 - 600 Gy and that for MI 3 was 750 - 1000 Gy. Promising mutants after screening in preliminary trials were tested for yield and adaptability in multilocational trials in different agro-climatic zones. A wide variation and increased mean values of yield and components were recorded in selected mutants in the preliminary trials. Two mutants, MB 29 and MB 33, consistently outyielded the recommended cultivar MI 3 in regional trials. The mutant MB 13 was also promising. MB 29 and MB 29w have a brittle seed coat easy for decortication. A number of mutants with improved characters have been isolated, characterized and included in the cross-breeding programmes. Mutants MB 29 and MB 33 recorded better germination than MI 2 under high osmotic pressure and should be tested for tolerance to drought at early growth phases. The shoot/root ratio was lease in MB 29, MB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synMB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synchronous flowering period recorded in MB 29 and C 10 is important in reducing shattering losses and escaping from drought at flowering stage, Two mutants which have lost the undesirable effects associated with the indehiscent character in UCR82-203 NS were later found to have lost the indehiscent character too, suggesting that the undesirable effects of the indehiscent (id id) locus are pleiotropic. Anther culture studies were undertaken with the objective of using doubled haploids for sesame improvement. 25 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  15. Efficiency of anther culture technique in the production of wheat double haploids

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    Kondi?-Špika Ankica ?.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate efficiency of anther culture in the production of spontaneous double haploids from randomly selected heterozygous genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Anthers of 20 F1 wheat combinations were grown in vitro on a modified Potato-2 medium. All of the examined genotypes have shown the ability to produce pollen calluses as well as to regenerate green plants. On average for the whole experiment material, 47.2 calluses were produced per 100 cultured anthers. The green plant regeneration ranged from 0.8 to 13.4 green plants per spike, with an overall mean of 5.8. From the total of 582 regenerated green plants, 47.9% (279 were spontaneous double haploids. The final average yield from the study was 2.8 double haploids per spike.

  16. Additives Promote Adventitious Buds Induction from Anther Culture of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Luo; Jia Lai; Zesheng Yan; Huanxiu Li; Yi Tang; Li Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The effects of growth regulators, Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3), triacontanol and glutaminate on adventitious buds induction from anther culture of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) were investigated. It was found that triacontanol was advantageous for buds development and adventitious buds differentiated from anther culture of bitter melon first time. On medium supplemented with glutaminate 0.1 mg L-1, protuberant structures differentiated on the surface of callus. AgNO3 and ...

  17. Combining Ability and Heritability of Callus Induction and Green-Plant Regeneration in Rice Anther Culture

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    N. Bagheri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of callus induction and plant regeneration in rice anther culture. Low efficiencies of callus induction and green-plant regeneration have limited the application of anther culture in plant breeding programs. Four parents along with six F1 genotypes derived from a four-parent incomplete diallel mating set of two commercial lines (Amol2 and Amol3 and two local cultivars (Ghasroddashti and Rashti were evaluated for their callus induction and plant regeneration abilities. The results showed that the callus induction, green-plant regeneration and the effects of genotype and genotypexmedium interaction were significant (p<0.01. The local cultivars generally had a higher percent callus induction, plant regeneration and number of calli producing green plants than the commercial lines. The parents showed significant difference in anther callus formation, from 4.01% (Amol2 to 22.26% (Rashti. Combining ability analysis demonstrated the predominance of additive gene effects in the control of both characters with the local cultivars having higher combining ability for green-plant regeneration. Also gene action to be partially dominant for both characters. Combining ability analysis revealed that both additive and dominant gene effects are important in controlling callus induction and green-plant regeneration in rice.

  18. Antimitotic agents increase the production of doubled-haploid embryos from cork oak anther culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose A; Bueno, Maria A

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study is to induce the nuclear DNA duplication of anther-derived embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to obtain doubled-haploid plants. Anther culture of this species produces a low percentage (7.78%) of spontaneous diploids, as assessed by flow cytometry. Therefore, three antimitotic agents, colchicine, oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM), were applied in vitro to anther-derived cork oak haploid embryos from six genotypes at different concentrations and for different treatment durations. Antimitotic toxicity was determined by embryo survival. Efficiency in inducing chromosome doubling of haploid embryos was evaluated by flow cytometry measurements and differences were observed between treatments. Nuclear DNA duplication and embryo survival of cork oak haploid embryos was most efficiently induced with oryzalin 0.01 mM for 48 h. Around 50% diploid embryos were obtained. The rate of chromosome duplication induced by APM 0.01 mM was also acceptable but lower than that induced by oryzalin, regardless of the duration of the treatment. Colchicine 1.3 or 8.8 mM was the least efficient, with the induction of necrosis and only a small rate of nuclear DNA duplication. PMID:17485138

  19. Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly thehe leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

  20. Androgenesis in chickpea: anther culture and expressed sequence tags derived annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchangam, Sameera Sastry; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Gaur, Pooran M; Suravajhala, Prashanth

    2014-02-01

    Double haploid technique is not routinely used in legume breeding programs, though recent publications report haploid plants via anther culture in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The focus of this study was to develop an efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of double haploids with the application of multiple stress pre-treatments such as centrifugation and osmotic shock for genotypes of interest in chickpea for their direct use in breeding programs. Four genotypes, ICC 4958, WR315, ICCV 95423 and Arearti were tested for anther culture experiments. The yield was shown to be consistent with 3-5 nucleate microspores and 2-7 celled structures with no further growth. To gain a further insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the switch from microsporogenesis to androgenesis, bioinformatics tools were employed. The challenges on the roles of such genes were reviewed while an attempt was made to find putative candidates for androgenesis using Expressed Sequenced Tags (EST) and interolog based protein interaction analyses. PMID:24597152

  1. Stimulation effects of ?-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of ?-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of ?-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of ?-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of ?-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

  2. Development of a short duration upland rice mutant line through anther culture of gamma irradiated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This experiment was conducted in the field and at the tissue culture laboratory of the Plant Physiology Division, CARI, Yezin from 1994 to 1997. Upland rice, Yar-2 was used as the test variety. Dried seeds (14% moisture content) were treated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 300, 350, 400 and 450 Gy respectively. These seeds were planted separately according to the gamma-ray treatment they received. At booting stage, tillers were cut. Anthers from the top and middle portion of the panicle were taken. The pollen, at developmental stage in each anther, was examined using Acetocarmine dye. Pollens at the uninucleate to early binucleare stage were selected. Tillers having pollens at the above-mentioned stage were placed in a dark room at 25(±) 1 C and 16 hours photoperiod. When plantlets were obtained from these media, well-developed green plantlets were selected and planted in Yoshida solution to attain vigorous root growth. Diploid and haploid plants were formed from the anther culture method. At the heading stage, haploid plants were treated with colchicines to promote development into diploid plants. At maturity, plants produced from materials treated with different gamma doses were harvested separately. These homozygous lines were planted in the field and the characters were compared with their parents grown at the same time. The highest callus induction rate was found in materials treated with 450 Gy of gamma rays, but the lowest green plant regeneration rate was alsost green plant regeneration rate was also observed at this dose. Among the forty-five homozygous lines obtained of the above materials, 7 lines, all from the 450 Gy gamma rays treated material, flowered earlier than the parents. One of the 7 early flowering lines, mutant line No 18, matured 19 days earlier but had the same yield as the parent. All other lines had a lower yield than the parent. Comparisons of yield and yield components of mutant line 18 and Yar-2 (parent) and comparison of quality characters are shown in tables

  3. Molecular characterization of three anther tissue culture varieties of tobaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. using RAPD analysis

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    Gloria Azucena Fernández B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPO analysis was used to characterize two new Flue Cured and one black tobacco type varieties derived from in vitro anther tissue culture technique. RAPOs are proposed as an appropriate complement of the morphoagronomic characteristics evaluations to fulfil international seed registration standards established for the identification of tobacco varieties. The identification of three tobacco varieties and their parents was carried out using the RAPO analysis with 64 random primers. Polymorphic products, 214 in number, were amplified only from 14 primers. Statistical analysis realized with the NTSYS program version 1.2 using the Jaccard similarity coefficient. The visual inspection revealed that five primers allowed the separation of the varieties in two groups, according to the type of tobacco: the Flue Cured and Black; while a group of nine primers separates each variety and establish its genetic relationship with their parents. The results obtained show that this technique is appropiated to establish genetic differences between tobacco varieties.

  4. Induction of plants from anthers of Beta vulgaris cultured in vitro

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    J. H. Rogozi?ska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth substances, saccharose and yeast extract on the differentiation of monogerm sugar beet and polygerm fodder beet anthers is studied. Callus and roots were found to form on the anthers. After subculture, callus derived from a well determined combination of growth substances differentiated into buds, from which plantlets were obtained in unlimited numbers. After rooting, they were transfermed to the soil where they continued to grow. This suggests the possibility of an adaptation of this method in vegetative propagation of beets.

  5. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  6. ANTHER CULTURE METHOD IN BREEDING OF GLUTINOUS RICE VARIETIES IN KAZAKHSTAN

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    Usenbekov B. N.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anthers of glutinous rice variety Violetta (1400 have been grown in medium N6 producing 72 calluses. Transplanting the calluses to regeneration medium MS gave 7 green fertile plants and one sterile. After 10 months the long cultivated calluses of the glutinous rice Violetta produced regenerated plants. They were passed onto MS medium containing 5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine and 1 mg/l IAA. Clonal reproduction was used for production of more haploid regenerated plants

  7. Linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de antera / Dihaploid wheat lines developed via anther culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Carlos da Silva, Ramos; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo; Antonio Wilson Penteado, Ferreira Filho; Erica Yumi, Yokoo; Jairo Lopes de, Castro; Armando, Pettinelli Júnior; Marcos Roberto da, Silva.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se quatro experimentos de campo no Estado de São Paulo, tanto em condição de sequeiro como de irrigação por aspersão, empregando o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, visando a comparação de 20 genótipos de trigo, sendo 18 linhagens diaplóides obtidas e dois cultivares, IAC- [...] 24 e Anahuac, quanto à produção de grãos, características agronômicas, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e outros componentes da produção. Também estudou-se a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides 11, 12, 14, 17 e 18, originárias do cruzamento IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24, de porte baixo, com resistência ao acamamento, com ciclo precoce da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos quatro experimentos. A linhagem 8 mostrou ser fonte genética de espiga comprida; a 15, de maior número de espiguetas por espiga; o cultivar Anahuac de maior número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, e as linhagens 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 e 18 de grãos mais pesados. Todos os genótipos foram tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exceto a linhagem 5, sendo que o cultivar Anahuac exibiu elevada sensibilidade. A técnica de obtenção de linhagens diaplóides via cultura de anteras de plantas em geração F1 de cruzamentos de trigo foi eficiente originando genótipos produtivos, com características agronômicas desejáveis e com tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, num menor período de tempo em relação ao método convencional de melhoramento genético do Instituto Agronômico. Abstract in english Four field experiments were carried out at two locations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, under upland and sprinkler irrigation conditions, using a randomized block design, to evaluate 18 dihaploid wheat lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac for grain yield, with respect to agronomic characte [...] ristics, resistance to leaf rust and other yield components. Under laboratory conditions, the genotypes were analysed for their Al3+ toxicity tolerance in nutrient solutions. The dihaploid lines 11, 12, 14, 17 and 18 derived from the hybrid IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24 , demonstrated a short-plant type, resistance to lodging, early cycle from emergence to flowering as well as from emergence to maturity and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In addition these lines showed high average productivity in the four experiments. Line 8 was a good genetic source for long spike, while line 15 was good for large number of spikelets per spike. The cultivar Anahuac produced a large number of grains per spike and per spikelet, while lines 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 and 18 had high grain weight. All genotypes were tolerant to aluminum toxicity except line 5. Anahuac cultivar exhibited high Al3+ sensitivity. The technique used to obtain wheat dihaploid lines via anther culture from plants in the F1 generation after a cross, was efficient in originating productive genotypes, with desirable agronomic characteristics and with tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in a short period of time in relation to the traditional method of genetic breeding used at the Instituto Agronomico.

  8. Linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de antera Dihaploid wheat lines developed via anther culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos da Silva Ramos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se quatro experimentos de campo no Estado de São Paulo, tanto em condição de sequeiro como de irrigação por aspersão, empregando o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, visando a comparação de 20 genótipos de trigo, sendo 18 linhagens diaplóides obtidas e dois cultivares, IAC-24 e Anahuac, quanto à produção de grãos, características agronômicas, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e outros componentes da produção. Também estudou-se a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides 11, 12, 14, 17 e 18, originárias do cruzamento IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24, de porte baixo, com resistência ao acamamento, com ciclo precoce da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos quatro experimentos. A linhagem 8 mostrou ser fonte genética de espiga comprida; a 15, de maior número de espiguetas por espiga; o cultivar Anahuac de maior número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, e as linhagens 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 e 18 de grãos mais pesados. Todos os genótipos foram tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exceto a linhagem 5, sendo que o cultivar Anahuac exibiu elevada sensibilidade. A técnica de obtenção de linhagens diaplóides via cultura de anteras de plantas em geração F1 de cruzamentos de trigo foi eficiente originando genótipos produtivos, com características agronômicas desejáveis e com tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, num menor período de tempo em relação ao método convencional de melhoramento genético do Instituto Agronômico.Four field experiments were carried out at two locations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, under upland and sprinkler irrigation conditions, using a randomized block design, to evaluate 18 dihaploid wheat lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac for grain yield, with respect to agronomic characteristics, resistance to leaf rust and other yield components. Under laboratory conditions, the genotypes were analysed for their Al3+ toxicity tolerance in nutrient solutions. The dihaploid lines 11, 12, 14, 17 and 18 derived from the hybrid IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24 , demonstrated a short-plant type, resistance to lodging, early cycle from emergence to flowering as well as from emergence to maturity and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In addition these lines showed high average productivity in the four experiments. Line 8 was a good genetic source for long spike, while line 15 was good for large number of spikelets per spike. The cultivar Anahuac produced a large number of grains per spike and per spikelet, while lines 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 and 18 had high grain weight. All genotypes were tolerant to aluminum toxicity except line 5. Anahuac cultivar exhibited high Al3+ sensitivity. The technique used to obtain wheat dihaploid lines via anther culture from plants in the F1 generation after a cross, was efficient in originating productive genotypes, with desirable agronomic characteristics and with tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in a short period of time in relation to the traditional method of genetic breeding used at the Instituto Agronomico.

  9. Genes expressed in Pinus radiata male cones include homologs to anther-specific and pathogenesis response genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, A R; Walter, C; Gardner, R C

    1999-12-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of 13 cDNA clones that are differentially expressed in male cones of Pinus radiata (D. Don). The transcripts of the 13 genes are expressed at different times between meiosis and microspore mitosis, timing that corresponds to a burst in tapetal activity in the developing anthers. In situ hybridization showed that four of the genes are expressed in the tapetum, while a fifth is expressed in tetrads during a brief developmental window. Six of the seven cDNAs identified in database searches have striking similarity to genes expressed in angiosperm anthers. Seven cDNAs are homologs of defense and pathogen response genes. The cDNAs identified are predicted to encode a chalcone-synthase-like protein, a thaumatin-like protein, a serine hydrolase thought to be a putative regulator of programmed cell death, two lipid-transfer proteins, and two homologs of the anther-specific A9 genes from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that many of the reproductive processes in the angiosperms and gymnosperms were inherited from a common ancestor. PMID:10594098

  10. Callus and Green Spot Formation From Anther Culture of Chili Mutant Lines (Capsicum Annum.L) Using in-vitro Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callus and green spot formation from anther culture of chili mutant lines (Capsicum annum.L) were carried out using in-vitro culture. Two kinds of different media based on hormonal composition were used for callus induction. A half of an quantities were directly cultured on callus induction medium, while rest of them were treated with cold shock (4oC) for 3 and 6 days subsequently cultured on callus induction medium. The highest callus formation was observed in culture from Ac medium containing I mg/l 2,4-D and 0,1 mg/l kinetin and were obtained from 0 days cold shock with chili without irradiation (Kr 0) 30%, chili mutant lines with irradiation dose 20 Krad (Kr 20) 25% and chili mutant lines with irradiation dose 40 Krad (Kr 40) 30% respectively. While cold shock for 3 days increasing 15 % callus formation from Kr 40 mutant lines

  11. STRUCTURAL-CHANGES DURING THE 1ST DIVISIONS OF EMBRYOS RESULTING FROM ANTHER AND FREE MICROSPORE CULTURE IN BRASSICA-NAPUS

    OpenAIRE

    Zaki, M.; Dickinson, H

    1990-01-01

    Ultrastructural and cytochemical features of embryo development during anther and free microspore culture in Brassica napus have been followed from the late uninucleate microspore stage through the first embryonic division. On transfer to culture, the microspore cytoplasm possesses a large vacuole, often containing electron opaque aggregates, and a peripheral nucleus. Mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and starch-free plastids are distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The conditions of cultu...

  12. Ensuring Reproduction at High Temperatures: The Heat Stress Response during Anther and Pollen Development

    OpenAIRE

    Filomena Giorno; Mieke Wolters-Arts; Celestina Mariani; Ivo Rieu

    2013-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is very sensitive to environmental stresses, particularly to thermal insults which frequently occur when plants grow in field conditions in the warm season. Although abnormalities in both male and female reproductive organs due to high temperatures have been described in several crops, the failure to set fruits has mainly been attributed to the high sensitivity of developing anthers and pollen grains, particularly at certain developmental stages. A glob...

  13. Adequação de meios de cultura de anteras e testes de genótipos de trigo / Culture medium, microenvironment and genotype effects on wheat anther culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Carlos da Silva, Ramos; Erica Yumi, Yokoo; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo.

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se dois experimentos, o primeiro visando conhecer a capacidade androgênica de variedades de trigo e identificar as melhores condições para alcançar aquele objetivo, em termos de meios de cultura e microclima. No segundo, estudou-se maior número de variedades. No primeiro experimento, fora [...] m testadas as seguintes: PF 853031 e IAC 24, a primeira, usada como padrão; dois meios de cultura básicos, batata-2 e N6; duas auxinas, IAA e 2,4-D, nas doses de 3, 9 e 27 ìmol/L, e cinetina, nas doses de 2, 6, 12 e 24 ìmol/L. As anteras plaqueadas foram acondicionadas em sala fotoperiódica: (a) com 14 h de luz, 60 ìmol.m-2.s-1 (3.200 lux), à temperatura de 25°C, e (b) submetidas a pré-tratamento por quatro dias a 6°C e, em seguida, retornadas à condição a. Notou-se que a melhor combinação de tratamentos para a variedade IAC 24 foi o meio batata-2, 2,4-D a 27 .ìmol/L e cinetina 2 a 6 ìmol/L, por promover maior indução de estruturas androgênicas. Já para a variedade PF 853031, a mesma combinação de tratamentos, exceto 2,4-D a 9 µmol/L, promoveu também maior indução de estruturas androgênicas. Por outro lado, o pré-tratamento de quatro dias de frio causou maior indução de estruturas androgênicas em ambas as variedades. No segundo experimento, foram estudadas cinco variedades: PF 853048, usada como padrão, IAC 21, BH 1146, IAC 60 e Anahuac; dois meios de cultura básicos: batata-2 e N6; duas combinações hormonais: CH1 (10 µmol/L IAA e 30 ìmol/L de cinetina), e CH2 (10 ìmol/L de 2,4-D e 3,0 ìmol/L de cinetina). Observou-se maior indução de estruturas androgênicas para a 'PF 853048', seguida da 'Anahuac'. Todavia, somente foram obtidas plantas para a primeira. Essa constatação sugere que a capacidade androgênica seja controlada geneticamente no trigo. Na combinação hormonal 10 ìmol/L de 2,4-D e 3 ìmol/L de cinetina houve maior formação de estruturas androgênicas. Transplantaram-se as plantas regeneradas para vasos contendo solo, alocando-as em casa de vegetação para aclimatação, crescimento e florescimento. As plantas mostraram-se inférteis, mas produziram sementes após a duplicação pela técnica da colchicina. Abstract in english Experiments were carried out to establish conditions and to access varietal effects for wheat androgenesis. The varieties PF 853031, a standard known for androgenic capacity, and the IAC 24 of high agronomic value, were tested in two culture mediums, potato-2 and N6, including two auxins, IAA and 2. [...] 4-D, at 3, 9 and 27 ìmol/L, and kinetin, at 2, 6, 12 and 24 µmol/L. The experiment was installed in factorial design with six blocks and 20 anthers per plate (a block). About 5,760 anthers were plated per variety. The experiment was left in a photoperiodic room with (a) 14 h of cool fluorescent light, 60 ìmol.m-2.s-1 (3,200 lux), at temperature of 25°C, and (b) pretreated in dark at 6°C for four days, then backed to a. The variety IAC 24 showed higher androgenic capacity than the PF 853031 variety, in medium potato-2, 2.4-D at 27 ìmol/L and kinetin from 2 to 6 µmol/L. Cold treatment for four days was beneficial in improving androgenesis to both varieties. Five other varieties were studied, PF 853048, as a androgenic control, IAC 21, BH 1146, IAC 60 and Anahuac; two culture mediums, potato-2 and N6, along with two hormonal combinations, CH1 (IAA 10 µmol/L and kinetin 30 µmol/L) and CH2 (2.4-D 10µmol/L and kin 3 .mol/L) in the condition as (b) above. The standard variety PF 853048 ranked first and Anahuac, the second in terms of androgenic response. However, plants were only obtained from PF 853048. It is likely that the androgenic effect is under genotype control in wheat. The hormonal combination 10 µmol/L of 2.4-D and 3 µmol/L of kinetin were observed to induce higher androgenic response. Regenerated plants were potted and left to flower. All of them showed to be infertile, but produced seeds after colchicine treatment.

  14. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F1) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 5.0 mg L-1 KIN and 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  15. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture Desempenho de linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas por cultura de anteras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Salomon

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.Visando aumentar a eficiência no desenvolvimento de novos cultivares de trigo, a técnica de cultura de anteras in vitro tem sido utilizada em programas de melhoramento para a obtenção de plantas haplóides a partir de plantas híbridas em geração F1. Estudou-se o comportamento de 18 linhagens diaplóides e dois cultivares controles, IAC-24 e IAC-289, em ensaios instalados em condição de irrigação por aspersão, em Monte Alegre do Sul num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo e em Tatuí num Latossolo Vermelho, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os genótipos foram avaliados quanto à produção de grãos, massa de cem grãos, altura de planta, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm. e porcentagem de acamamento. Foram avaliados, também, em relação a tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio, em soluções nutritivas, em condição de laboratório. A linhagem 8 proveniente do cruzamento ANA/IAC-24, apresentou elevada produção de grãos, porte semi-anão, grãos pesados, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio. As linhagens 4, 11, 12 e 14, também mostraram elevada tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio associada a produção de grãos superior a 3.000 kg ha-1, e portanto poderiam ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento visando a obtenção de cultivares para solos ácidos.

  16. Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture / Desempenho de linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas por cultura de anteras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus Vinicius, Salomon; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo; Armando, Petinelli Jr.; Joaquim Adelino de, Azevedo Filho.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Visando aumentar a eficiência no desenvolvimento de novos cultivares de trigo, a técnica de cultura de anteras in vitro tem sido utilizada em programas de melhoramento para a obtenção de plantas haplóides a partir de plantas híbridas em geração F1. Estudou-se o comportamento de 18 linhagens diaplóid [...] es e dois cultivares controles, IAC-24 e IAC-289, em ensaios instalados em condição de irrigação por aspersão, em Monte Alegre do Sul num Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo e em Tatuí num Latossolo Vermelho, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. Todos os genótipos foram avaliados quanto à produção de grãos, massa de cem grãos, altura de planta, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm.) e porcentagem de acamamento. Foram avaliados, também, em relação a tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio, em soluções nutritivas, em condição de laboratório. A linhagem 8 proveniente do cruzamento ANA/IAC-24, apresentou elevada produção de grãos, porte semi-anão, grãos pesados, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio. As linhagens 4, 11, 12 e 14, também mostraram elevada tolerância à toxicidade ao alumínio associada a produção de grãos superior a 3.000 kg ha-1, e portanto poderiam ser utilizadas em programas de melhoramento visando a obtenção de cultivares para solos ácidos. Abstract in english The anther culture technique has been used in breeding programs to obtain haploid plants from hybrid plants of F1 generation and to develop more efficiently wheat cultivars. To study the behavior of dihaploid wheat lines and two check cultivars, IAC-24 and IAC-289, experiments were carried out under [...] sprinkler irrigation at Monte Alegre do Sul, SP, Brazil, in an Haplic Acrisol and at Tatuí, SP, Brazil, in a Rhodic Ferrasol, during the years 1999 and 2000. Genotypes were evaluated for grain yield, 100 grain weight, plant height, resistance to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici Rob. Desm.) and lodging. The genotypes were also evaluated under laboratory conditions for their Al+3 toxicity tolerance using nutrient solutions. The line 8, originated from ANA/IAC-24 cross, presented high grain yield, semidwarf plant type, heavy grain, leaf rust resistance and tolerance to Al+3 toxicity. The lines 4, 11, 12 and 14, also presented high tolerance to Al+3 toxicity in association to grain yield above 3.000 kg ha-1. These lines are suitable to be used in breeding programs to develop cultivars for acid soils.

  17. Nuevos genotipos de arroz resistentes a la Piriculariosis obtenidos por cultivo de anteras / New blast resistant rice genotypes obtained by and anthers culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noraida de Jesús, Pérez; María Caridad, González; Rodolfo I, Castro; Manuel, Aguilar.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En la Estación Experimental del Arroz Los Palacios, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas de Cuba (INCA), se efectuaron cruzamientos entre cuatro cultivares resistentes a la Piriculariosis y seis de buen comportamiento agronómico y las anteras de las plantas F2 fueron cultivadas [...] in vitro para evaluar la formación de callos en tres medios líquidos: N6-1, N6-m y NL, así como la regeneración de plantas verdes y albinas, en el medio MS. Las dos primeras generaciones de las nuevas líneas obtenidas fueron evaluadas para caracteres agronómicos y la segunda generación, además, para resistencia frente a la Piriculariosis. Las líneas que combinaron resistencia a la Piriculariosis y buenos caracteres agronómicos fueron evaluadas en condiciones de infección natural, con alta presión del patógeno. La utilización de la técnica del cultivo de anteras mostró alta dependencia del genotipo y el medio de cultivo. Con el medio NL se lograron los valores más altos para la formación de callos. Se obtuvieron nuevos genotipos resistentes a la Piriculariosis y de alto rendimiento agrícola. Abstract in english Crosses were made between four blast resistant and six rice varieties of good agronomic performance, at the Los Palacios Rice Research Station of the National Agricultural Sciences Institute of Cuba (INCA) and the anthers from F2 plants were in vitro culture using three liquid media: N6-1, N6m, and [...] NL, for callus formation and after plants regenerations using MS medium. The first two generations of breeding lines were evaluated for agronomic characters and the second generations, also, for Blast resistant. The lines that combined resistance to Blast and good agronomic performance were evaluated under high pressure of natural Blast infection conditions. The success rate of anther culture was highly dependent on the genotype and culture media used. NL medium led to the highest callus formation values. In the process, new blast resistant and high yielding genotypes were obtained.

  18. Culturally responsive mathematics education

    CERN Document Server

    Greer, Brian; Powell, Arthur B; Nelson-Barber, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This critical new collection presents mathematics education from a culturally responsive perspective and offers a broad perspective of mathematics as a significant, liberating intellectual force in our society.

  19. Analysis and sequencing of h6hmRNA, last enzyme in the tropane alkaloids pathway from anthers and hairy root cultures of Brugmansia candida (Solanaceae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra B., Cardillo; Ana M., Giulietti; Patricia L., Marconi.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Brugmansia candida (Solanaceae) is a native tree distributed across South-American and produces the pharmacologically- important group of tropane alkaloids including scopolamine. This biocompound is synthesised from hyoscyamine by action of Hyoscyamine 6-? hydroxylase (H6H, EC 1.14.11.11) at the end [...] of the tropane alkaloid pathway. Here are reported the tissue and organ-specific expression of h6hmRNA by RT-PCR analyses and the isolation, cloning and sequencing of the cDNA obtained from B. candida anthers and hairy root transformed cultures. Bioinformatic analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed an uninterrupted ORF of 1038 bp and the predicted aminoacid sequence could be 344 aminoacid long. A database search showed that this sequence has high homology (97% identity) to Hyoscyamus niger H6H protein (Genbank accession number AAA33387.1).

  20. Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tadeusz, Adamski; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Anetta, Kuczynska; Krzysztof, Mikolajczak; Piotr, Ogrodowicz; Aleksandra, Ponitka; Maria, Surma; Aurelia, Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina.

    2014-01-15

    Full Text Available Background The quality of wheat grain depends on several characteristics, among which the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits, encoded by Glu-1 loci, are the most important. Application of biotechnological tools to accelerate the attainment of homozygous lines may influence the pr [...] oportion of segregated genotypes. The objective was to determine, whether the selection pressure generated by the methods based on in vitro cultures, may cause a loss of genotypes with desirable Glu-1 alleles. Results Homozygous lines were derived from six winter wheat crosses by pollination with maize (DH-MP), anther culture (DH-AC) and single seed descent (SSD) technique. Androgenetically-derived plants that originated from the same callus were examined before chromosome doubling using allele-specific and microsatellite markers. It was found that segregation distortion in SSD and DH-MP populations occurred only in one case, whereas in anther-derived lines they were observed in five out of six analyzed combinations. Conclusions Segregation distortion in DH-AC populations was caused by the development of more than one plant of the same genotype from one callus. This distortion was minimized if only one plant per callus was included in the population. Selection of haploid wheat plants before chromosome doubling based on allele-specific markers allows us to choose genotypes that possess desirable Glu-1 alleles and to reduce the number of plants in the next steps of DH production. The SSD technique appeared to be the most advantageous in terms of Mendelian segregation, thus the occurrence of residual heterozygosity can be minimized by continuous selfing beyond the F6 generation.

  1. Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2013-01-01

    To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

  2. Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation; Efeitos do estadio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiacao gama na formacao de calos derivados de anteras de tomate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasileiro, Ana Christina R.; Willadino, Lilia [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais. E-mail: lilia@truenet.com.br; Guerra, Marcelo [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Botanica. Lab. de Citogenetica Vegetal; Colaco, Waldeciro [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Lab. de Radioagronomia; Meunier, Isabelle [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Camara, Terezinha R. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Cultura de Tecidos Vegetais

    1999-12-01

    Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4-F{sub 1}) were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mono nucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seed and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F{sub 2}) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F{sub 2}) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff and Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 5.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN and 2.0 mg L{sup -1} NAA + 1.0 mg L{sup -1} KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage testes were found for calli formation. (author)

  3. Analysis of Anther Cell Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hong

    2015-01-19

    This grant supports research on genes that regulate Arabidopsis anther development. The proposed research largely concerns that functions of two key regulatory genes: SPL and DYT1, which encode two putative transcription factors, as well as genes that interact with these genes. Last year, we reported progress in preparation for ChIP analysis with SPL and DYT1, in dyt1 and ams microarray experiments and initial data analysis, in functional analysis of one of the DYT1 target gene, MYB35.

  4. Estudios preliminares referidos a la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis de líneas isogénicas de arroz obtenidas por cultivo de anteras / Piriculariosis resistance inheritance of rice isogenic lines obtained from anthers culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noraida de J, Pérez León; Rodolfo, Castro Menduiña; Maria Caridad, González Cepero; Marta, Álvarez Gil; Manuel, Aguilar Portero.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En el campo experimental de la Unidad Científico Tecnológica de Base «Los Palacios» fueron sembradas semillas de las plantas cosechadas de la primera generación de líneas isogénicas de arroz, procedentes del cultivo in vitro de anteras de plantas F2 de los cruces Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Am [...] istad´82/IR759-54-2-2 y Moroberekan/Amistad´82, con el objetivo de evaluar su comportamiento frente a infecciones naturales de P. grisea. Al parecer, no hay presencia de genes dominantes actuando en la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis y el comportamiento pudiera estar regido por la acción de genes mayores en homocigosis y de genes menores con efecto aditivo, lográndose la selección de cuatro líneas isogénicas resistentes a la enfermedad y de buen comportamiento agronómico, las que constituyen la base para la obtención de nuevos cultivares. Abstract in english In the Base Technological Scientist Unit «Los Palacios» seeds first generation of harvested rice isogenic lines, coming from F2 in vitro anthers culture from crossings Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Amistad´82/IR759-54-2-2 and Moroberekan/Amistad´82, were sowed in field, with the objective to eva [...] luate their behaviour in natural Blast field infection. The absence of dominant genes in heterocigosis involved in the inheritance to Blast was confirmed and, apparently, the behaviour could be governed by major genes in homocigosis and small genes with additive effect. Four isogenic lines wit good agronomic behaviour and Blast resistant were selected. The same will be very useful to obtain new varieties.

  5. Culturally Responsive Leadership: Graduate Program Egalitarianism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Tod Allen; Higham, J. Russell, III

    2007-01-01

    As American society becomes increasingly diverse, it is paramount that university graduate programs produce culturally responsive leaders capable of synergistically energizing an increasingly heterogeneous work force. Inherent in this charge is the egalitarian approach to graduate program design. Culturally responsive leadership development is…

  6. Ação do etileno em combinação com thidiazuron, nitrato de prata e ácido acetilsalicílico na cultura de anteras de pimentão / Ethylene action in combination with Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and acetylsalicylic acid on sweet pepper anther culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Magno Q., Luz; José Eduardo B. P., Pinto; Polyana Aparecida D., Ehlert; Estér Solange, Cerqueira; Ivan, Bedin.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se o efeito do etileno em combinação com o thidiazuron (TDZ), nitrato de prata (AgNO3) e ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), na indução e regeneração de embriões em anteras de pimentão, genótipos F1 (PIX21C12#35 x Agronômico 08), (PIX21C04#4 x Linha 004), (PIX22C#31 x Linha 004), (PIX21C15#45 x [...] Ikeda) e (PIX22C#21 x Ikeda). Os botões foram coletados quando sépalas e pétalas tinham tamanhos aproximadamente iguais, correspondendo ao estádio de anteras com micrósporos uninucleados. As anteras foram inoculadas em placa de Petri contendo meio de cultura C adicionado de 4,5 mM de TDZ; meio C acrescido de 0,05 mM de 2,4-D, 0,05 mM de cinetina e 88,8 mM de AAS; meio C acrescido de 0,05 mM de 2,4-D, 0,05 mM de cinetina e 5,0 mg/L de AgNO3. Em seguida, foram colocadas em ambiente escuro a 35ºC durante oito dias e enriquecido com ethephon, por 0; 2; 4; 6 ou 8 dias num esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, sendo cada placa considerada uma parcela contendo 20 a 24 anteras.O período de permanência de quatro dias, em ambiente enriquecido com ethephon, e os meios com TDZ e AgNO3, foram os mais favoráveis à indução de anteras. O TDZ também promoveu maior indução de calos embriogênicos. As maiores taxas de necrose ocorreram no meio com AAS. Só ocorreu regeneração direta em plântulas no meio C acrescido de 5 mg/L de AgNO3, sendo oito dias o melhor período. Os genótipos mais responsivos foram PIX22C#31 x linha 004 e PIX22C#21 x Ikeda. Observou-se a formação de plântulas haplóides e diplóides mediante análise da ponta de raíz. Considerando-se que a regeneração foi direta, sem passar por calos, supõe-se que as plântulas diplóides obtidas sejam provenientes dos micrósporos, devendo portanto ter ocorrido uma diploidização in vitro. Abstract in english The influence of ethylene used in combination with Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was evaluated on sweet pepper androgenesis of F1 genotypes (PIX21C12#35 x Agronômico 08, PIX21C04#4 x Line 004, PIX22C#31 x Line 004, PIX21C15#45 x Ikeda and PIX22C#21 x Ikeda) [...] . Floral buds were collected when sepals and petals were approximately of equal size, corresponding to the uninucleated stage of microspores. Anthers were placed in Petri dishes containing three mediums: C medium supplemented with TDZ (4.5mM); C medium plus 2,4-D (0,05mM), Kinetin (0.5mM) and ASA (88,8mM) or AgNO3 (5.0 mg/L). After inoculation, the anthers were kept in the environment with ethephon for 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 days at 35ºC for eight days in the dark. The experiment was conducted in a factorial design with four replications. Each replicate consisted of one Petri dish containing 20-24 anthers. TDZ and AgNO3 were most effective for inducing somatic embryos after four days with Ethrel. The greatest rates of necrosis took place on the medium with AAS. Direct regeneration of plantlets occurred only on medium supplemented with 5 mg/L of AgNO3 after an eight-day treatment with Ethrel. The most responsive genotypes were PIX22C#31 x Line 004 and PIX22C#21 x Ikeda. Chromosome number of the seedlings was verified through the root tip analysis which indicated the presence of haploid and diploid chromosome number. Since regeneration was direct, ie without going through callus phase, it is hypothesized that the diploid seedlings came from in vitro diploidization.

  7. Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger

    2010-01-01

    New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

  8. In Vitro ANTHER CULTURE OF RICE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraida P\\u00E9rez

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En el Laboratorio de Mejoramiento de Arroz y Maíz del CIFA "Las Torres", en Sevilla, España, auspiciado por un proyecto de investigación, comenzó a desarrollarse un programa de obtención de variedades, que incluía en sus objetivos la utilización del cultivo de anteras de híbridos. Para ello se evaluaron diferentes medios para la formación de callos y regeneración de plantas verdes así como anteras de híbridos F1, provenientes de 15 cruzamientos. Los resultados mostraron que los más altos porcentajes de callos y plantas verdes como proceso continuo fueron obtenidos con los medios N6m y MS respectivamente. La mejor respuesta a la formación de callos fue obtenida por el cruce Puntal/Thaibonnet y regeneración de plantas verdes Doñana/V7876 y Lemont/Newbonnet.

  9. Use of SSR markers to determine the anther-derived homozygous lines in coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, P I P; Perera, L; Hocher, V; Verdeil, J-L; Yakandawala, D M D; Weerakoon, L K

    2008-11-01

    Anther culture was used to obtain dihaploid (DH) coconut plants and their ploidy level was determined by flow cytometric analysis. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker analysis was conducted to identify the homozygous diploid individuals. Ploidy analysis showed that 50% of the tested plantlets were haploid and 50% were diploid. Polymorphic fragments of the mother palm and their segregation patterns in anther-derived plantlets were used to determine the origin of the diploid plantlets. Using a diagnostic SSR marker (CNZ43), all the diploid plantlets tested were identified as being derived from microspores (i.e. were homozygous) and were thus candidates for use in coconut breeding programs. PMID:18712524

  10. Let's Produce Culturally Responsive Pedagogues on Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    In this response, I extend the conversation started by Hayes and Juarez (2012) by highlighting how culturally responsive teaching is spoken in one teacher education program where I worked and served in the preparation of middle-level teachers. I also share my reflections concerning this idea and pose questions for critical thought, dialogue, and…

  11. Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Burridge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion

  12. Toward a More Culturally Responsive General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to characterize culturally responsive teaching; consider how it differs from other pedagogical approaches in music education informed by culture, such as multicultural music education; and offer ideas for making the general music classroom more culturally responsive.

  13. Culturally Responsive Instruction: Listening to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Kutsunai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Culturally responsive instruction aims to promote the academic success of young children of diverse backgrounds, closing the achievement gap that typically exists between these children and their mainstream peers. Culturally responsive instruction is illustrated here through science lessons taught to young Hawaiian children around themes based on plants and the water cycle. Such place-based education provides a framework for building on the knowledge young children bring from the home and connecting them to the ways of their ancestors. Teachers seek to introduce themes in an engaging manner, including hands-on activities with artifacts and the reading aloud of literature.

  14. Anther and pollen development in barley

    OpenAIRE

    Ferna?ndez, Jose?

    2012-01-01

    The control of pollen viability and release is of major commercial importance in the development of crops for hybrid seed production and selective breeding. It has been shown that key transcription factors in Arabidopsis particularly MALE STERILITY1 (MS1), are functionally conserved in rice (Li et al., 2011), therefore extending this comparative analysis and controlling fertility in temperate cereals, such as barley, is the long term goal of this project. Although anther and pollen develo...

  15. Efeitos do estádio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiação gama na formação de calos derivados de anteras de tomate Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina R. Brasileiro

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando: (I determinar a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de anteras de tomate sobre a formação de calos e (II analisar o efeito da radiação gama no cultivo in vitro de anteras. No primeiro experimento, anteras de híbridos de tomate IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F1 foram cultivadas em três meios nutritivos. Apesar da formação de calos ter sido induzida em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, variando de prófase I à micrósporo mononucleado, a freqüência de calos produzidos decresceu com o avanço do estádio de desenvolvimento e se apresentou de forma semelhante nos meios testados. Anteras contendo meiócitos em estádio de prófase I mostraram maior freqüência de formação de calos. Tanto o comprimento da antera quanto o do botão floral apresentaram correlação significativa com o estádio de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, sementes e botões florais dos híbridos IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2, IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2 e IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2 foram submetidos à radiação gama e suas anteras foram cultivadas em dois meios descritos por Gresshoff & Doy (1972, contendo 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 5,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 1,0 mg L-1 de cinetina. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas, no que se refere à formação de calos, para os genótipos e doses estudadas - 200 Gy, para sementes e 20 Gy, para botões florais.Two experiments were carried (I to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4 - F1 were grown on three media. Although calli were induced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mononucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seeds and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2, IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2 and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2 were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff & Doy (1972 supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 5.0 mg L-1 KIN and 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage tested were found for calli formation.

  16. Efeitos do estádio de desenvolvimento da antera e da radiação gama na formação de calos derivados de anteras de tomate / Anther development stage and gamma radiation effects on tomato anther-derived callus formation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Christina R., Brasileiro; Lilia, Willadino; Marcelo, Guerra; Waldeciro, Colaço; Isabelle, Meunier; Terezinha R., Camara.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido visando: (I) determinar a influência do estádio de desenvolvimento de anteras de tomate sobre a formação de calos e (II) analisar o efeito da radiação gama no cultivo in vitro de anteras. No primeiro experimento, anteras de híbridos de tomate IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F1) foram cu [...] ltivadas em três meios nutritivos. Apesar da formação de calos ter sido induzida em todos os estádios de desenvolvimento, variando de prófase I à micrósporo mononucleado, a freqüência de calos produzidos decresceu com o avanço do estádio de desenvolvimento e se apresentou de forma semelhante nos meios testados. Anteras contendo meiócitos em estádio de prófase I mostraram maior freqüência de formação de calos. Tanto o comprimento da antera quanto o do botão floral apresentaram correlação significativa com o estádio de desenvolvimento. No segundo experimento, sementes e botões florais dos híbridos IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2) e IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2) foram submetidos à radiação gama e suas anteras foram cultivadas em dois meios descritos por Gresshoff & Doy (1972), contendo 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 5,0 mg L-1 de cinetina e 2,0 mg L-1 de ANA + 1,0 mg L-1 de cinetina. Não foram constatadas diferenças significativas, no que se refere à formação de calos, para os genótipos e doses estudadas - 200 Gy, para sementes e 20 Gy, para botões florais. Abstract in english Two experiments were carried (I) to determine tomato anther development stage influence on callus production; and (II) to investigate gamma radiation effects on anther culture. In the first experiment, anthers of a tomato hybrid (IPA 5 x Rotam 4 - F1) were grown on three media. Although calli were i [...] nduced at all stages of anther development, varying from prophase I to mononucleate microspore, callus frequency decreased as anther development progressed and calli induction were not significantly affected by all media tested. Anthers containing prophase I meiocytes produced the highest calli frequency. Anther and flower bud length both were significantly correlated with anther development stage. In the second experiment, seeds and floral buds of tomato hybrids IPA 5 x Rotam 4 (F2), IPA 6 x Rotam 4 (F2) and IPA 8 x 217.1 (F2) were submitted to gamma-ray and anthers were plated on two media described by Gresshoff & Doy (1972) supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 5.0 mg L-1 KIN and 2.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 KIN. No significant differences for genotype and dosage tested were found for calli formation.

  17. El turismo cultural. ¿Un negocio responsable? Cultural Tourism. A Responsible Business?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Santana Talavera

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuestiones como la degradación el medioambiente, la pérdida de la diversidad cultural y especialmente lo considerado como patrimonio cultural y la ecología, son actualmente aspectos consustanciales a la vida cotidiana, a la política, a la planificación y a los negocios. En la Cumbre de la Tierra (Río de Janeiro, 1992 se acuña el concepto Turismo Responsable en un intento de impulsar el respeto y la preservación, implicando en la tarea a todos los actores. Bajo el paraguas de la responsabilidad, uno de los productos con mayor crecimiento y demanda en la última década ha sido el turismo cultural, planteado ahora como una de las fórmulas para la consecución del desarrollo integral de los pueblos. En este artículo se repasa el turismo cultural como producto, su importancia en el nuevo orden turístico y su alcance, constatando como a través de él el sistema turístico ha tendido a implicarse en la gestión de la cultura y condicionarla por su rentabilidad.Environmental degradation, the loss of cultural diversity and especially what is considered cultural heritage and ecology, are actually the main issues of every day life, politics, planning and business. During the Rio Meeting (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 the concept of Responsible Tourism was born in an attempt to enhance respect and preservation with all actors involved. Under the umbrella of responsibility, cultural tourism was one product that showed the biggest growth under the premises of the formula of all-embracing development of society. This article presents a revision of cultural tourism as a product, its importance for the new tourist order and its range and establishing in which way the tourist system had a tendency to get involved in cultural management and therefore as conditioned its profitability.

  18. El turismo cultural. ¿Un negocio responsable? / Cultural Tourism. A Responsible Business?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustín, Santana Talavera.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuestiones como la degradación el medioambiente, la pérdida de la diversidad cultural y especialmente lo considerado como patrimonio cultural y la ecología, son actualmente aspectos consustanciales a la vida cotidiana, a la política, a la planificación y a los negocios. En la Cumbre de la Tierra (Rí [...] o de Janeiro, 1992) se acuña el concepto Turismo Responsable en un intento de impulsar el respeto y la preservación, implicando en la tarea a todos los actores. Bajo el paraguas de la responsabilidad, uno de los productos con mayor crecimiento y demanda en la última década ha sido el turismo cultural, planteado ahora como una de las fórmulas para la consecución del desarrollo integral de los pueblos. En este artículo se repasa el turismo cultural como producto, su importancia en el nuevo orden turístico y su alcance, constatando como a través de él el sistema turístico ha tendido a implicarse en la gestión de la cultura y condicionarla por su rentabilidad. Abstract in english Environmental degradation, the loss of cultural diversity and especially what is considered cultural heritage and ecology, are actually the main issues of every day life, politics, planning and business. During the Rio Meeting (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) the concept of Responsible Tourism was born in an [...] attempt to enhance respect and preservation with all actors involved. Under the umbrella of responsibility, cultural tourism was one product that showed the biggest growth under the premises of the formula of all-embracing development of society. This article presents a revision of cultural tourism as a product, its importance for the new tourist order and its range and establishing in which way the tourist system had a tendency to get involved in cultural management and therefore as conditioned its profitability.

  19. Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-07-01

    We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

  20. Sugar and auxin signaling pathways respond to high-temperature stress during anther development as revealed by transcript profiling analysis in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Ling; Li, Yaoyao; Hu, Qin; Zhu, Longfu; Gao, Wenhui; Wu, Yuanlong; Ding, Yuanhao; Liu, Shiming; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-03-01

    Male reproduction in flowering plants is highly sensitive to high temperature (HT). To investigate molecular mechanisms of the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) anthers to HT, a relatively complete comparative transcriptome analysis was performed during anther development of cotton lines 84021 and H05 under normal temperature and HT conditions. In total, 4,599 differentially expressed genes were screened; the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to epigenetic modifications, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant hormone signaling. Detailed studies showed that the deficiency in S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase1 and the inhibition of methyltransferases contributed to genome-wide hypomethylation in H05, and the increased expression of histone constitution genes contributed to DNA stability in 84021. Furthermore, HT induced the expression of casein kinasei (GhCKI) in H05, coupled with the suppression of starch synthase activity, decreases in glucose level during anther development, and increases in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in late-stage anthers. The same changes also were observed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GhCKI overexpression lines. These results suggest that GhCKI, sugar, and auxin may be key regulators of the anther response to HT stress. Moreover, phytochrome-interacting factor genes (PIFs), which are involved in linking sugar and auxin and are regulated by sugar, might positively regulate IAA biosynthesis in the cotton anther response to HT. Additionally, exogenous IAA application revealed that high background IAA may be a disadvantage for late-stage cotton anthers during HT stress. Overall, the linking of HT, sugar, PIFs, and IAA, together with our previously reported data on GhCKI, may provide dynamic coordination of plant anther responses to HT stress. PMID:24481135

  1. Organizational culture during the accident response process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research

  2. Structural organization of the Oxytropis baschkiriensis Knjaz. developing anther

    OpenAIRE

    Kruglova, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    On the base of accurate anatomic-morphological data the formation and development of anther of Oxytropis baschkiriensis, rare endemic species from the South Ural flora, were investigated at the first time. It has been demonstrated that the anther and pollen grain developments are typical for the family Fabaceae.

  3. Culturally Responsive: Art Education in a Global Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Facing the era of globalization, culturally responsive art teachers must recognize that students' home culture, including local artistic expression, is inevitably influenced by global forces. They should strive to engage with students systems and issues of globalization and its impact on their community culture and art. In this article, the author…

  4. Culturally Responsive Social Skill Instruction for Latino Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Ya-yu; Correa, Vivian I.; Anderson, Adrienne L.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural friendships and peer interactions are important skills for Latino students to become socially adjusted in U.S. schools. Culturally responsive social skill instruction allows educators to teach essential social skills while attending to the native culture and personal experiences of the students. The present study examined the…

  5. Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniela De Cesaro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oat (Avena spp. is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be identified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.A aveia (Avena spp. tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em geral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das espiguetas aumentam as dificuldades para a identificação das anteras potencialmente androgenéticas e podem explicar, em parte, os baixos resultados da androgênese na aveia. Os dados mostram a necessidade de uma análise citológica prévia para auxiliar a determinar a fase ideal de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos potencialmente responsivos à cultura de anteras, para o uso da androgenese na aveia.

  6. Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage / Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Taniela De, Cesaro; Maria Irene, Baggio; Silvia Andréia, Zanetti; Marilei, Suzin; Lizete, Augustin; Sandra Patussi, Brammer; Edson Jair, Iorczeski; Sandra Cristina Kothe, Milach.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A aveia (Avena spp.) tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em ge [...] ral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das espiguetas aumentam as dificuldades para a identificação das anteras potencialmente androgenéticas e podem explicar, em parte, os baixos resultados da androgênese na aveia. Os dados mostram a necessidade de uma análise citológica prévia para auxiliar a determinar a fase ideal de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos potencialmente responsivos à cultura de anteras, para o uso da androgenese na aveia. Abstract in english Oat (Avena spp.) is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be id [...] entified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.

  7. Anther development and cytochemistry in Asphodelus aestivus (Asphodelaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vardar, Filiz; I?smai?log?lu, Is??l; U?nal, Meral

    2013-01-01

    Asphodelus aestivus Brot. (Asphodelaceae) anthers were analysed to provide a detailed understanding of the events that lead to pollen grain development, accompanied by cytochemical observations at different ontogenic stages. An anther locule of A. aestivus was bordered by 4 different layers: the tapetum, the middle layer, the endothecium, and the epidermis. At the tetrad stage, secretory tapetal cells enlarged maximally, while they showed degeneration at the young microspore stage. During the...

  8. Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Supports: Considerations for Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachelle Banks

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classrooms are not culturally neutral terrains, but rather are constructed around sets of norms, values, and expected behaviors that are culturally bound. Low tolerance levels and expectations are an indication of the incongruence between the education strategies utilized by teachers and the cultural and linguistic differences of students that are served in an educational system in which they are required to perform based on standards that are not similar to their own. Combining Positive Behavior Intervention Supports (PBIS with cultural and linguistic variables will help to enhance positive behavior of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD students. This paper describes Culturally Responsive Positive Behavior Intervention Supports (CRPBIS as a system that specifically acknowledges the presence of CLD students and the need for them to find relevant connections among themselves and with the behavioral goals and objectives that schools ask them to perform. Suggestions are offered that support the infusion of culturally responsive practices throughout the implementation of PBIS.

  9. An Empirical Perspective on the Culture - Corporate Social Responsibility Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru ZAI?

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Business competition and pressure of European directives put Romanian company in a position to find answers to issues related to long-term survival and development. In this context we believe it is necessary to analyze some of the most important components that should be taken into consideration at the strategic level: national and organizational culture. The results indicate that corporate social responsibility is supported by learning and change-oriented organizational culture, but also by a favorable cultural and national economic framework. Based on these theoretical considerations we intent to emphasize the relationships between national culture / corporate culture and corporate social responsibility (CSR, elaborating an empirical argument by analyzing the results provided by Global 100, an annual project initiated by Corporate Knights Inc. (Davos. Starting with 2005, it has the largest database in the world and an appropriate evaluation methodology that provides a ranking of the top 100 most responsible companies in the world.

  10. A Framework for Providing Culturally Responsive Early Intervention Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…

  11. Cultured articular chondrocytes sheets for partial thickness cartilage defects utilizing temperature-responsive culture dishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kaneshiro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix (ECM of articular cartilage has several functions that are unique to joints. Although a technique for transplanting cultured chondrocytes has already been introduced, it is difficult to collect intact ECM when using enzymes to harvest samples. Temperature-responsive culture dishes have already been clinically applied in the fields of myocardial and corneal transplantation. Earlier studies have shown that a sheet of cultured cells with intact ECM and adhesive factors can be harvested using such culture dishes, which allow the surface properties of the dish to be reversibly altered by changing the temperature. Human chondrocytes were subjected to enzymatic digestion and then were seeded in temperature-responsive culture dishes. A sheet of chondrocytes was harvested by only reducing the temperature after the cultured cells reached confluency. A real-time PCR analysis of the chondrocyte sheets confirmed that type II collagen, aggrecan, and fibronectin were present. These results suggested that, although chondrocytes undergo dedifferentiation in a monolayer culture, multilayer chondrocyte sheets grown in a similar environment to that of three-dimensional culture may be able to maintain a normal phenotype. A histological examination suggested that multilayer chondrocyte sheets could thus prevent the loss of proteoglycans because the area covered by the sheets was well stained by safranin-O. The present experiments suggested that temperature-responsive culture dishes are useful for obtaining cultured chondrocytes, which may then be clinically employed as a substitute for periosteal patches because such sheets can be applied without a scaffold.

  12. Cultural Consensus Theory: Aggregating Continuous Responses in a Finite Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H.; Strashny, Alex; Romney, A. Kimball

    Cultural consensus theory (CCT) consists of cognitive models for aggregating responses of "informants" to test items about some domain of their shared cultural knowledge. This paper develops a CCT model for items requiring bounded numerical responses, e.g. probability estimates, confidence judgments, or similarity judgments. The model assumes that each item generates a latent random representation in each informant, with mean equal to the consensus answer and variance depending jointly on the informant and the location of the consensus answer. The manifest responses may reflect biases of the informants. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods were used to estimate the model, and simulation studies validated the approach. The model was applied to an existing cross-cultural dataset involving native Japanese and English speakers judging the similarity of emotion terms. The results sharpened earlier studies that showed that both cultures appear to have very similar cognitive representations of emotion terms.

  13. Cultural Considerations with Response to Intervention Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Janette K.; Edwards, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    Now that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA, 2004) has been reauthorized, states have the option of discontinuing the use of IQ-achievement discrepancy formulas and using Response to Intervention (RTI) criteria as part of the special education identification process. This change has dramatic implications for…

  14. Faithfulness--Translator’s Responsibility in Cross-Cultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Feng; Xu, Xihua

    2014-01-01

    New trends in translation have led to a mistaken notion that faithfulness is obsolete. This article argues that faithfulness should be highlighted in cross-cultural communication to promote better understanding. As a result, a translator should cultivate a strong sense of responsibility, keeping in mind that faithfulness is the guarantee of successful cross-cultural communication. Erroneous translation, either because of incautious, incompetent translation ending in misinformation, or because...

  15. Faithfulness--Translator’s Responsibility in Cross-Cultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng WU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New trends in translation have led to a mistaken notion that faithfulness is obsolete. This article argues that faithfulness should be highlighted in cross-cultural communication to promote better understanding. As a result, a translator should cultivate a strong sense of responsibility, keeping in mind that faithfulness is the guarantee of successful cross-cultural communication. Erroneous translation, either because of incautious, incompetent translation ending in misinformation, or because of deliberate reading into the source language text the translator’s own ideas, ending in disinformation, is detrimental to effective cross-cultural communication. Faithful translation can never be overemphasized.

  16. A culturally responsive counter-narrative of effective teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, Conra D.

    2014-12-01

    How do you recognize an effective teacher's sociocultural consciousness? Tamara Wallace's and Brenda Brand's argument that sociocultural consciousness is the "brain" of effective culturally responsive instruction for students of color comes at a time when the system of teacher evaluation is being overhauled nationwide. Teacher observation tools are being piloted to develop a common language of effective instruction but often there is little attention given to sociocultural consciousness in these frameworks. This article develops a culturally responsive counter-narrative to explore the complexity of a teacher's racial consciousness during a teaching episode.

  17. Preparing teachers for ambitious and culturally responsive science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Gale

    2013-03-01

    Communities, schools and classrooms across North America are becoming more ethnically, racially, and linguistically diverse, particularly in urban areas. Against this backdrop, underrepresentation of certain groups in science continues. Much attention has been devoted to multicultural education and the preparation of teachers for student diversity. In science education, much research has focused on classrooms as cultural spaces and the need for teachers to value and build upon students' everyday science knowledge and ways of sense-making. However it remains unclear how best to prepare science teachers for this kind of culturally responsive teaching. In attempting to envision how to prepare science teachers with cross-cultural competency, we can draw from a parallel line of research on preparing teachers for ambitious science instruction. In ambitious science instruction, students solve authentic problems and generate evidence and models to develop explanations of scientific phenomenon, an approach that necessitates great attention to students' thinking and sense-making, thus making it applicable to cultural relevance aims. In addition, this line of research on teacher preparation has developed specific tools and engages teachers in cycles of reflection and rehearsal as they develop instructional skills. While not addressing cross-cultural teaching specifically, this research provides insights into specific ways through which to prepare teachers for culturally responsive practices. In my presentation, I will report on efforts to join these two areas of research, that is, to combine ideas about multicultural science teacher preparation with what has been learned about how to develop ambitious science instruction. This research suggests a new model for urban science teacher preparation--one that focuses on developing specific teaching practices that elicit and build on student thinking, and doing so through cycles of individual and collective planning, rehearsal, review, and reflection. In this way, a defined set of science-specific, ambitious and culturally responsive instructional practices can be articulated and taught during science teacher preparation.

  18. Examining Culturally Responsive Teaching Practices in Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Jennifer Jones

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the enactment of culturally responsive teaching practices (Gay, 2010) within two African American elementary teachers' classrooms. Teacher interviews, classroom observations, and classroom documents were collected and analyzed to examine the supports and barriers these teachers encountered as they attempted to…

  19. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  20. Desempenho de linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de anteras quanto à tolerância ao alumínio, produção de grãos e altura de planta Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture in relation to the aluminum tolerance, grain yield and plant height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Salomon

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 18 linhagens diaplóides de trigo, obtidas via cultura de anteras in vitro oriundas de híbridos F1, e dois cultivares IAC-24 e IAC-289, nos anos de 1999 e 2000, em dois locais do Estado de São Paulo: Capão Bonito (solo ácido, sem aplicação de calcário e em condição de sequeiro e em Tatuí (solo ácido, com aplicação de calcário e em condição de irrigação por aspersão. Em cada experimento avaliaram-se a produção de grãos e a altura das plantas. Foi, também, avaliada a tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, empregando-se soluções nutritivas contendo 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg.L-1, em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides consideradas mostraram grande variabilidade para os caracteres agronômicos avaliados. Destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos experimentos de Capão Bonito, as linhagens 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/ IAC-24, 4 (PF70402/ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S" /3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60 e 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24. Em Tatuí, considerando-se a média dos dois anos, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos as linhagens 4 e 5, oriundas do mesmo cruzamento. A linhagem 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24 apresentou as plantas mais baixas nos quatro experimentos. Todos os genótipos, com exceção da cultivar IAC-289 e da linhagem 13, foram considerados tolerantes a 10 mg.L-1 de Al3+, quando avaliados em soluções nutritivas. Os resultados reforçam a possibilidade de selecionar os genótipos tolerantes ao alumínio, em condição de laboratório, antes que sejam avaliados em campo, em solo ácido, tornando o processo de obtenção de linhagens tolerantes mais eficiente.Eighteen dihaploid wheat lines originated via anther culture from F1 hybrid plants and two cultivars IAC-24 and IAC-289 were evaluated in 1999 and 2000, at two locations of the State of São Paulo: Capão Bonito (acid soil without lime application and upland condition and Tatuí (acid soil with lime application and sprinkler irrigation condition. In each trial the genotypes were evaluated for grain yield and plant height. Aluminum toxicity tolerance was also evaluated in the laboratory in nutrient solutions containing 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg.L-1 of aluminum. The evaluated dihaploid lines showed high variability for the considered agronomic characters. The lines 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/IAC-24, 4 (PF70402/ ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S"/3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60 and 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24 displayed good performance in relation to grain yield considering the means of the Capão Bonito trials. In Tatuí the lines 4 and 5 originated from the same cross showed good behaviour for grain yield taking into account the means of the trials. The line 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24 exhibited short plants in all trials. All genotypes, except the cultivar IAC-289 and the line 13 were considered tolerant at 10 mg.L-1 to Al3+, in nutrient solution. The results indicated the possibility to select tolerant genotypes to aluminum toxicity in laboratory condition before they are evaluated in acid soil, making the process of obtaining tolerant lines more efficient.

  1. Desempenho de linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de anteras quanto à tolerância ao alumínio, produção de grãos e altura de planta / Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture in relation to the aluminum tolerance, grain yield and plant height

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus Vinicius, Salomon; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo; Antonio Wilson Penteado, Ferreira Filho; Armando, Pettinelli Júnior; Jairo Lopes de, Castro.

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se 18 linhagens diaplóides de trigo, obtidas via cultura de anteras in vitro oriundas de híbridos F1, e dois cultivares IAC-24 e IAC-289, nos anos de 1999 e 2000, em dois locais do Estado de São Paulo: Capão Bonito (solo ácido, sem aplicação de calcário e em condição de sequeiro) e em Tatu [...] í (solo ácido, com aplicação de calcário e em condição de irrigação por aspersão). Em cada experimento avaliaram-se a produção de grãos e a altura das plantas. Foi, também, avaliada a tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, empregando-se soluções nutritivas contendo 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg.L-1, em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides consideradas mostraram grande variabilidade para os caracteres agronômicos avaliados. Destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos experimentos de Capão Bonito, as linhagens 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/ IAC-24), 4 (PF70402/ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S" /3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60) e 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24). Em Tatuí, considerando-se a média dos dois anos, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos as linhagens 4 e 5, oriundas do mesmo cruzamento. A linhagem 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24) apresentou as plantas mais baixas nos quatro experimentos. Todos os genótipos, com exceção da cultivar IAC-289 e da linhagem 13, foram considerados tolerantes a 10 mg.L-1 de Al3+, quando avaliados em soluções nutritivas. Os resultados reforçam a possibilidade de selecionar os genótipos tolerantes ao alumínio, em condição de laboratório, antes que sejam avaliados em campo, em solo ácido, tornando o processo de obtenção de linhagens tolerantes mais eficiente. Abstract in english Eighteen dihaploid wheat lines originated via anther culture from F1 hybrid plants and two cultivars IAC-24 and IAC-289 were evaluated in 1999 and 2000, at two locations of the State of São Paulo: Capão Bonito (acid soil without lime application and upland condition) and Tatuí (acid soil with lime a [...] pplication and sprinkler irrigation condition). In each trial the genotypes were evaluated for grain yield and plant height. Aluminum toxicity tolerance was also evaluated in the laboratory in nutrient solutions containing 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg.L-1 of aluminum. The evaluated dihaploid lines showed high variability for the considered agronomic characters. The lines 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/IAC-24), 4 (PF70402/ ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S"/3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60) and 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24) displayed good performance in relation to grain yield considering the means of the Capão Bonito trials. In Tatuí the lines 4 and 5 originated from the same cross showed good behaviour for grain yield taking into account the means of the trials. The line 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24) exhibited short plants in all trials. All genotypes, except the cultivar IAC-289 and the line 13 were considered tolerant at 10 mg.L-1 to Al3+, in nutrient solution. The results indicated the possibility to select tolerant genotypes to aluminum toxicity in laboratory condition before they are evaluated in acid soil, making the process of obtaining tolerant lines more efficient.

  2. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase of high specific activity from anther-derived haploid plants of Nicotiana tabacum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystalline ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was purified from several haploid plants of Nicotiana tabacum obtained by anther-culture. Specific activity of the enzyme ranged from 1.09 to 2.15 ?moles 14CO2 fixed mg protein-1 min-1 in growth chamber grown plants and 0.5 to 1.15 ?moles 14CO2 fixed mg protein-1 min-1 in greenhouse grown plants. No degradation of the large subunit was observed on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of these purified preparations. A low specific activity of 0.25 units was obtained for a preparation of the enzyme from a plant grown under fluctuating growth conditions. This protein gave an additional band for the large subunit on electrophoresis, presumably a degradation product. Individual differences in specific activity under identical growth conditions in these haploids suggest a possible role for the small subunit in regulation of enzyme activity

  3. Some Anther Structures in Sanguisorba minor Scop. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Aybeke

    2011-01-01

    In this study, investigation of some anther structures in Sanguisorba minor Scop. subsp. muricata was aimed. Therefore, anthers were squashed by modified glycerine-gelatine method and additionally different histochemical stainings also were tested. The result illustrated that in different parts of anther, such as marginal, connection tissue, starch and protein granules accumulated. Furthermore, during maturation these deposits were detected in pollen grains also. In addition, a very interesti...

  4. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars Tolerant to High Temperature at Flowering: Anther Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Matsui, Tsutomu; Omasa, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    We examined the relationship between morphological characteristics of anthers and fertility in japonica rice cultivars subjected to high temperature (37·5/26 °C day/night) at flowering. Percentage fertility was negatively correlated with the number of cell layers that separated the anther locule from the lacuna that formed between the septum and the stomium. The cell layers consisted of the remaining septum and degraded tapetum, and serve to keep the adjacent two locules closed. Anther deh...

  5. Cultural Differences in Emotional Responses to Success and Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Michael; Takai- Kawakami, Kiyoko; Kawakami, Kiyobumi; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan

    2010-01-01

    The emotional responses to achievement contexts of 149 preschool children from three cultural groups were observed. The children were Japanese (N=32), African American (N=63) and White American of mixed European ancestry (N=54). The results showed that Japanese children differed from American children in expressing less shame, pride, and sadness, but more of both exposure and evaluative embarrassment. African American and White American children did not differ from one another. American child...

  6. Activity of carbon dioxide fixation by anthers and leaves of cereal grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives a comparative evaluation of the photosynthetic activity of anthers and flag leaves in winter wheat, rye, and triticale. The content of chlorophylls in anthers and leaves was determined. The activity of 14CO2 fixation by anthers and leaf disks was determined by the radiometric method in a chamber floating on mercury under standard exposure conditions (0.1% concentration of 14CO2, illumination of 15,000 1x, temperature of 23 C). Analyses were conducted in three replications and the results of typical biological experiments are cited. Data show that chlorophyll is actively synthesized in the anthers of cereal grains

  7. My Name Is Not Michael: Strategies for Promoting Cultural Responsiveness in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lisa L.; Hurt, Kara; Lindo, Natalya

    2014-01-01

    With the changing cultural demographics in U.S. classrooms, school counselors must develop innovative approaches to promote culturally responsive school climates and organizational change. A vision is offered of systemic cultural responsiveness and culturally relevant teaching practices that nurture and engage all learners. The role of the school…

  8. Isolation and culture of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) microspores and pollen grains

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lia Rosane, Rodrigues; Bianca de Camargo, Forte; Maria Helena, Bodanese-Zanettini.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas três décadas, a pesquisa em embriogênese do micrósporo de soja restringiu-se ao cultivo in vitro de anteras, com inúmeras limitações, como o pequeno número de micrósporos responsivos e o alto potencial embriogênico dos tecidos esporofíticos. Por isso, foi executada uma seqüência de teste [...] s visando ao estabelecimento de condições adequadas para o isolamento e o cultivo in vitro de micrósporos e grãos de pólen, como um sistema alternativo ao cultivo de anteras. Inicialmente, uma técnica de isolamento foi desenvolvida usando botões florais de quatro cultivares de soja (Bragg, IAS 5, MG/BR-46 Conquista e BRSMT Uirapuru), a qual possibilitou o estabelecimento de cultivos com características e densidade satisfatórias. Posteriormente, diferentes condições de cultivo foram testadas. Apesar de os meios B5 e MS serem recomendados para o cultivo de anteras de soja, o melhor resultado foi obtido em meio PTA-15 modificado, como o aumento do tamanho dos micrósporos e a formação de 0,4% de grãos de pólen multicelulares na cultivar BRSMT Uirapuru. Abstract in english In the last three decades, research on soybean microspore embryogenesis was restricted to anther culture, which presents limitations such as the small number of responsive microspores and the high embryogenic potential of sporophytic tissues. Therefore, a sequence of studies was performed to establi [...] sh appropriate conditions for the isolation and culture of soybean microspores and pollen grains as an alternative to anther culture. First, a pollen and microspore isolation technique was developed using floral buds from four soybean cultivars (Bragg, IAS 5, MG/BR-46 Conquista and BRSMT Uirapuru). This technique allowed the establishment of cultures with satisfactory density and characteristics. Subsequently, different culture conditions were tested. Although B5 and MS media have been currently recommended for soybean anther culture, the best result was obtained in PTA-15 modified medium, with the formation of enlarged microspores and 0.4% of multicellular pollen grains in the cultivar BRSMT Uirapuru.

  9. Hemopoietic cell precursor responses to erythropoietin in plasma clot cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    The time dependence of the response of mouse bone marrow cells to erythropoietin (Ep) in vitro was studied. Experiments include studies on the Ep response of marrow cells from normal, plethoric, or bled mice. Results with normal marrow reveal: (1) Not all erythroid precursors (CFU-E) are alike in their response to Ep. A significant number of the precursors develop to a mature erythroid colony after very short Ep exposures, but they account for only approx. 13% of the total colonies generated when Ep is active for 48 hrs. If Ep is active more than 6 hrs, a second population of erythroid colonies emerges at a nearly constant rate until the end of the culture. Full erythroid colony production requires prolonged exposure to erythropoietin. (2) The longer erythropoietin is actively present, the larger the number of erythroid colonies that reach 17 cells or more. Two distinct populations of immediate erythroid precursors are also present in marrow from plethoric mice. In these mice, total colony numbers are equal to or below those obtained from normal mice. However, the population of fast-responding CFU-E is consistently decreased to 10 to 20% of that found in normal marrow. The remaining colonies are formed from plethoric marrow at a rate equal to normal marrow. With increasing Ep exposures, the number of large colonies produced increases. From the marrow of bled mice, total erythroid colony production is equal to or above that of normal marrow. Two populations of colony-forming cells are again evident, with the fast-responding CFU-E being below normal levels. The lack of colonies from this group was compensated in bled mice by rapid colony production in the second population. A real increase in numbers of precursors present in this pool increased the rate of colony production in culture to twice that of normal marrow. The number of large colonies obtained from bled mice was again increased as the Ep exposure was lengthened. (ERB)

  10. The response of human glioblastoma in culture to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cells from two human glioblastoma multiforme and one mouse glioma were grown in tissue cultures and their X-ray survival curve parameters were determined under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. These were compared with the survival parameters for mouse fibroblasts (L5) and established cell lines from human carcinoma coli (HeLa S3) irradiated under identical conditions. There was no significant difference in response among the cell lines used. Repair of potentially lethal damage for human glioblastoma and HeLa S3 was assessed by the increase in survival which occurred as the cells were held in density inhibited stationary phase. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage (slope modifying factors) for the glioblastoma and HeLa were 1.9 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

  11. Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

  12. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Bai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS rice Y58S and P64S (Pei’ai64S were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Anther Transcriptome Profiles of Two Different Rice Male Sterile Lines Genotypes under Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bin; Wu, Jun; Sheng, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Li-Jie; Zhuang, Wen; Yao, Dong-Ping; Deng, Qi-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Rice is highly sensitive to cold stress during reproductive developmental stages, and little is known about the mechanisms of cold responses in rice anther. Using the HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform, the anther transcriptome of photo thermo sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) rice Y58S and P64S (Pei'ai64S) were analyzed at the fertility sensitive stage under cold stress. Approximately 243 million clean reads were obtained from four libraries and aligned against the oryza indica genome and 1497 and 5652 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in P64S and Y58S, respectively. Both gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were conducted for these DEGs. Functional classification of DEGs was also carried out. The DEGs common to both genotypes were mainly involved in signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and transcriptional regulation. Most of the DEGs were unique for each comparison group. We observed that there were more differentially expressed MYB (Myeloblastosis) and zinc finger family transcription factors and signal transduction components such as calmodulin/calcium dependent protein kinases in the Y58S comparison group. It was also found that ribosome-related DEGs may play key roles in cold stress signal transduction. These results presented here would be particularly useful for further studies on investigating the molecular mechanisms of rice responses to cold stress. PMID:25993302

  14. Qualifying Sociopolitical Consciousness: Complicating Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Faith-Based Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallavis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection of culturally responsive pedagogy and faith-based schooling. The author presents a portion of a larger ethnographic research project conducted at a Catholic elementary school that serves a predominantly Latino population in urban Chicago. This work contributes to theories of culturally responsive education by…

  15. Culturable bacteria in Himalayan ice in response to atmospheric circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Only recently has specific attention been given to culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers, but their relation to atmospheric circulation is less understood yet. Here we investigate the seasonal variation of culturable bacteria preserved in a Himalayan ice core. High concentration of culturable bacteria in glacial ice deposited during the pre-monsoon season is attributed to the transportation of continental dust stirred up by the frequent dust storms in Northwest China during spring. This is also confirmed by the spatial distribution of culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers. Culturable bacteria deposited during monsoon season are more diverse than other seasons because they derive from both marine air masses and local or regional continental sources. We suggest that microorganisms in Himalayan ice can be used to reconstruct atmospheric circulation.

  16. Embryology of Swainsona formosa (Fabaceae: Anther and Ovule Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULKARNAIN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Our study showed that floral morphology and anatomy in Swainsona formosa were typical of leguminous flower. The anthers were found to be tetrasporangiate, with a 3-layered wall below the epidermis. The wall was comprised of a layer of endothecium, middle layer and secretory tapetum. Pollen grains were triporate and shed at a two-cell stage. The ovules were campylotropous with a zigzag micropyle. Multiple embryo sacs were occasionally found but only one mature embryo was formed in the seed. Rubbing the receptive stigma with fingertip enhanced pollination, resulted in 100% pod formation on treated flowers. During fertilization, the pollen tube entered the embryo sac via one of two existing synergids, destroying the synergid in the process. The endosperm was of nuclear type, and only one or two layers of endosperm left as the seed reached its maturity. The seed coat was composed of a single layer of thick-walled palisade cells on the outside followed by a single layer hypodermal sclereids on the inside.

  17. Thermo-responsive surfaces for enzyme free mammalian cell culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are of great interest to scientists as they can differentiate into any somatic cell lineage making them excellent candidates for tissue regeneration and cell based treatment therapies. Currently, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are cultured using feeder fibroblasts or protein substrates such as matrigel, fibronectin or laminin in conditioned media. hESCs are then subcultured using enzymes to detach them from the culture substrate. However, the use of the xenosupport sy...

  18. Defining reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of anther development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanxiao; Tu, Ping; Wang, Kun; Gao, Feng; Yang, Weilong; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is one of the most accurate and widely used methods for gene expression analysis. However, the choice of reference genes for normalization is critical for accurate quantification of gene expression. As development of genomics, mining large-scale datasets such as microarray and RNA-sequencing data becomes a new approach for exploitation of new reference genes. In this study, we analyzed an RNA-sequencing dataset of rice anther and 167 microarray datasets involving different tissues and developing stages of rice anthers and pollens. We selected 12 candidate genes and other 5 reference genes, including ACT1, eEF-1?, GAPDH, Exp2, and CCDC72 used in previous studies, and evaluated their expression in eight tissues and different developmental stages of anthers in rice variety 9311 and Yuetai. UPF3, eIF4A-3, GAPDH, and PPP6 were identified as the most suitable reference genes for qPCR analysis of anther development in rice. The new candidate reference genes showed more stable expression than the traditionally used reference genes. These results provide a set of reliable reference genes for studies in rice anther developmental process. PMID:24492537

  19. Standardization and Whiteness: One and the Same? A Response to "There Is No Culturally Responsive Teaching Spoken Here"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbacher, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The article "There Is No Culturally Responsive Teaching Spoken Here: A Critical Race Perspective" by Cleveland Hayes and Brenda C. Juarez suggests that the current focus on meeting standards incorporates limited thoughtful discussions related to complex notions of diversity. Our response suggests a strong link between standardization and White…

  20. The development of a model of culturally responsive science and mathematics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.; Morales, Amanda R.; Shroyer, M. Gail

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative theoretical study was conducted in response to the current need for an inclusive and comprehensive model to guide the preparation and assessment of teacher candidates for culturally responsive teaching. The process of developing a model of culturally responsive teaching involved three steps: a comprehensive review of the literature; a synthesis of the literature into thematic categories to capture the dispositions and behaviors of culturally responsive teaching; and the piloting of these thematic categories with teacher candidates to validate the usefulness of the categories and to generate specific exemplars of behavior to represent each category. The model of culturally responsive teaching contains five thematic categories: (1) content integration, (2) facilitating knowledge construction, (3) prejudice reduction, (4) social justice, and (5) academic development. The current model is a promising tool for comprehensively defining culturally responsive teaching in the context of teacher education as well as to guide curriculum and assessment changes aimed to increase candidates' culturally responsive knowledge and skills in science and mathematics teaching.

  1. Culturally Responsive Teaching: The Harlem Renaissance in an Urban English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stairs, Andrea J.

    2007-01-01

    Andrea J. Stairs advocates culturally responsive teaching, a practice that explicitly highlights "issues of race, ethnicity, and culture as central to teaching, learning, and schooling," and emphasizes the necessity of interrogating the themes of race, power, and privilege in the urban classroom. Stairs observes two student teachers as they…

  2. The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

  3. Engendering cultural responsive care: a reflective model for nurse education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Chambers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant outcome of globalization has been a greater movement of peoples. As a consequence societies around the world are increasingly becoming multicultural. Multiculturalism, therefore, is a major characteristic of modern societies and one which has significant implications for health care delivery and health care systems. Many of these implications arise from differing health beliefs and values. Different cultural groups will, therefore, have values and attitudes consistent with that culture. Within health care the norms of the host culture tend to dominate resulting in ethnocentrism. This ethnocentric approach to delivery of health care has led to inequities, with immigrant groups reporting dissatisfaction with health care provision. This paper explores the ways in which health belief systems and values are constructed. It then goes on to consider how differing health beliefs have led to health disparities, amongst differing cultural groups, within the United Kingdom. A model of reflection specifically designed to facilitate the exploration of health care values within a pre-registration nursing curriculum is proposed as one way of promoting culturally sensitive care within nursing students.

  4. Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Poonam

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

  5. Secondary English Learners: Strengthening Their Literacy Skills through Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pablo C.; Jimenez-Silva, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    In high school English classrooms where English language learners may be at risk of academic failure, Culturally Responsive Teaching can help educators build an inclusive community in which all students can improve their literacy skills.

  6. The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.

  7. Culturally Responsive, Transformative Pedagogy in the Transnational Era: Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Slapac, Alina

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses challenges of multicultural education in the context of increasing transnational mobility and growing diversity in schools, and suggests ways to convert these challenges into new resources in education. We start with a brief overview of the contemporary transnationalism and new understanding of space and culture (Levitt…

  8. Development of a Culturally Responsive Nutrition Promotion Course for Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Gail C.; Beaudoin, Jessica; Rascon, Mayra; Garcia-Vega, Melawhy; Rios-Ellis, Britt

    2013-01-01

    The health of Hispanics is greatly influenced by level of education, socioeconomic status, and access to healthcare (United States Department of Health and Human Services [DHHS], 2011). To address this issue and to reduce health disparities among all ethnic groups, community based interventions with culturally appropriate and linguistically…

  9. Variance components, heritability and correlation analysis of anther and ovary size during the floral development of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zifeng; Chen, Dijun; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2015-06-01

    Anther and ovary development play an important role in grain setting, a crucial factor determining wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield. One aim of this study was to determine the heritability of anther and ovary size at different positions within a spikelet at seven floral developmental stages and conduct a variance components analysis. Relationships between anther and ovary size and other traits were also assessed. The thirty central European winter wheat genotypes used in this study were based on reduced height (Rht) and photoperiod sensitivity (Ppd) genes with variable genetic backgrounds. Identical experimental designs were conducted in a greenhouse and field simultaneously. Heritability of anther and ovary size indicated strong genetic control. Variance components analysis revealed that anther and ovary sizes of floret 3 (i.e. F3, the third floret from the spikelet base) and floret 4 (F4) were more sensitive to the environment compared with those in floret 1 (F1). Good correlations were found between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size in both greenhouse and field, suggesting that anther and ovary size are good predictors of each other, as well as spike dry weight in both conditions. Relationships between spike dry weight and anther and ovary size at F3/4 positions were stronger than at F1, suggesting that F3/4 anther and ovary size are better predictors of spike dry weight. Generally, ovary size showed a closer relationship with spike dry weight than anther size, suggesting that ovary size is a more reliable predictor of spike dry weight. PMID:25821074

  10. Addressing the Disproportionate Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students in Special Education through Culturally Responsive Educational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette K. Klingner

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a conceptual framework for addressing the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education. The cornerstone of our approach to addressing disproportionate representation is through the creation of culturally responsive educational systems. Our goal is to assist practitioners, researchers, and policy makers in coalescing around culturally responsive, evidence-based interventions and strategic improvements in practice and policy to improve students’ educational opportunities in general education and reduce inappropriate referrals to and placement in special education. We envision this work as cutting across three interrelated domains: policies, practices, and people. Policies include those guidelines enacted at federal, state, district, and school levels that influence funding, resource allocation, accountability, and other key aspects of schooling. We use the notion of practice in two ways, in the instrumental sense of daily practices that all cultural beings engage in to navigate and survive their worlds, and also in a technical sense to describe the procedures and strategies devised for the purpose of maximizing students’ learning outcomes. People include all those in the broad educational system: administrators, teacher educators, teachers, community members, families, and the children whose opportunities we wish to improve.

  11. Voting behavior is reflected in amygdala response across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Rule, Nicholas O.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Moran, Joseph M.; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Adams, Reginald B; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    Voting to determine one’s leaders is among the most important decisions we make, yet little is known about the brain’s role in how we come to these decisions. Behavioral studies have indicated that snap judgments of political candidates’ faces can predict election outcomes but that the traits that lead to these judgments differ across cultures. Here we sought to investigate the neural basis for these judgments. American and Japanese natives performed simulated voting judgments of actual...

  12. Lihir Destiny : Cultural Responses to Mining in Melanesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bainton, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    The people of the Lihir Islands in Papua New Guinea have long held visions of a prosperous new future, often referred to by local leaders as the ‘Lihir Destiny’. When large-scale gold mining activities commenced on the main island of Lihir in 1995, many hoped that this new world had finally arrived. The Lihir Destiny provides a nuanced account of the social structural and cultural transformations engendered by large-scale resource extraction. Tracing the history of Lihirian engagement wit...

  13. The Impact of Learning Culture on Worker Response to New Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide a framework to measure the response of blue-collar workers to new technology in manufacturing and to establish the relationship between learning culture and that response. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected with a survey questionnaire from 12 manufacturing sites that were implementing…

  14. Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/106 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

  15. The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. PMID:23067337

  16. Digital Citizenship: Developing an Ethical and Responsible Online Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Responsible and ethical use of the Internet is not something that teenagers, in particular, consider to be important, and serious consequences are beginning to emerge as a result of careless and offensive online behaviour. Teachers and teacher-librarians have a duty of care to make students aware of the potentially devastating effects of…

  17. Callus culture and gamma rays treatment used for inducing new breeding material in wheat (Tr. Aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occuring somaclonal variation has been combined with gamma-ray (137Cs) treatment to increase the frequency of new forms of wheat differing from the initial lines. Two winter wheat genotypes 8-61 and 148-133-14 were used in the present study. Donor plants were grown under field conditions. Immature embryos were excised from the sterilized kernels and plated on MS basal medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 2.4-D for induction and proliferation of the callus. The following treatments were applied: 1). Control (a natural occuring somaclonal variation). 2). 60 Gy gamma-ray treatment on mature seeds. 3). 6.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on immature seeds. 4). 2 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus 14 days after embryo plating. 5). 0.5 Gy gamma-ray treatment on the callus at the end of each plating. The best callusogenesis and regeneration were observed with genotype 8-61 given the treatment 5 followed by control. The genotype 148-133-14 showed a different response. The highest regeneration was obtained in the control followed by the treatments 2 and 5. In order to provide a faster stabilization of the genetic diversity among the regenerated plants, they were used as donors for anther culture. The anthers with microspores at the mid- to late uninucleate stages were excised and planted on potato-2 medium. Callus and embryoids induced from the cultured anthers were transferred to a 190-2 regeneration medium. All regenerants were studied cytologically and the haploidsere studied cytologically and the haploids were treated with 0.055 colhicine 2% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Doubled haploid lines were produced as a result of this experiment. Statistical analysis of the newly released lines showed evidence of differences in plant height, spike shape and other agronomic features. (author)

  18. Temperament trait of sensory processing sensitivity moderates cultural differences in neural response

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Arthur; Ketay, Sarah; Hedden, Trey; Aron, Elaine N.; Rose Markus, Hazel; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on a possible temperament-by-culture interaction. Specifically, it explored whether a basic temperament/personality trait (sensory processing sensitivity; SPS), perhaps having a genetic component, might moderate a previously established cultural difference in neural responses when making context-dependent vs context-independent judgments of simple visual stimuli. SPS has been hypothesized to underlie what has been called inhibitedness or reactivity in infants, introversion ...

  19. Norepinephrine-stimulated hypertrophy of cultured rat myocardial cells is an alpha 1 adrenergic response.

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, P.

    1983-01-01

    We have shown recently that norepinephrine stimulates muscle cell hypertrophy in primary cultures from the neonatal rat ventricle and that this stimulation is not blocked by the beta adrenergic antagonist propranolol. The present study was done to define the adrenergic specificity of the myocyte hypertrophic response to norepinephrine. 90% pure, single-cell cultures of nongrowing myocytes were maintained in serum-free medium 199 with transferin and insulin. Myocyte size was quantitated 48 h a...

  20. Adaptive response of yeast cultures (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was planned as follows: (i) setting up of standard experimental conditions for investigation of radio-induced adaptive response in lower Eucaryotes; (ii) developing of procedures for synchronizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae X 310 D cell cultures and cell cycle stages monitoring; (iii) investigation of gamma (Co-60) and UV irradiation effects on the viability of synchronized and non-synchronized cell cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; the effects were correlated with the cell density and cell cycle stage; (iv) study of the adaptive response induced by irradiation and setting up of the experimental conditions for which this response is optimized. The irradiations were performed by using a Co-60 with doses of 102 - 104 Gy and dose rates ranging from 2.2 x 102 Gy/h to 8.7 x 103 Gy/h. The study of radioinduced adaptive response was performed by applying a pre-irradiation treatment of 100-500 Gy, followed by challenge doses of 2-4 kGy delivered at different time intervals, ranging from 1 h to 4 h. The survival rate of synchronized and non-synchronized cultures as a function of exposure dose shows an exponential decay shape. No difference in viability of the cells occurred between synchronized and non-synchronized cultures. The pre-irradiation of cells with 100 and 200 Gy were most efficient to induce an adaptive response for the yeast cells. In this stage of work we proved the occurrence of the adaptive responseed the occurrence of the adaptive response in the case of synchronized yeast cultures exposed to gamma radiation. The results will be used in the future to investigate the dependence of this response on the cell cycle and the possibility to induce such a response by a low level electromagnetic field. (authors)

  1. Cultural Responsibility of Subjects in Moral Education in Colleges and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In a new era, to come to full understanding of the cultural responsibility of subjects in moral education in colleges and universities is an internal demand of modern educational theory for overall development of both teachers and students, and is the premise to play the leading role of teachers and mobilize the subjectivity of university students. At the same time, this also guides the direction for teachers and students to carry out moral education activities in colleges and universities. This article explains the responsibility of subjects in moral education in colleges and universities from the perspective of culture.

  2. Preclinical Assessment of the Anticancer Drug Response of Plexiform Neurofibroma Tissue Using Primary Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Victor-F.; Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Kluwe, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Individualized drug testing for tumors using a strategy analogous to antibiotic tests for infectious diseases would be highly desirable for personalized and individualized cancer care. Methods Primary cultures containing tumor and nontumor stromal cells were utilized in a novel strategy to test drug responses with respect to both efficacy and specificity. The strategy tested in this pilot study was implemented using four primary cultures derived from plexiform neurofibromas. Responses to two cytotoxic drugs (nilotinib and imatinib) were measured by following dose-dependent changes in the proportions of tumor and nontumor cells, determined by staining them with cell-type-specific antibodies. The viability of the cultured cells and the cytotoxic effect of the drugs were also measured using proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Results The total number of cells decreased after the drug treatment, in accordance with the observed reduction in proliferation and increased cytotoxic effect upon incubation with the two anticancer drugs. The proportions of Schwann cells and fibroblasts changed dose-dependently, although the patterns of change varied between the tumor samples (from different sources) and between the two drugs. The highly variable in vitro drug responses probably reflect the large variations in the responses of tumors to therapies between individual patients in vivo. Conclusions These preliminary results suggest that the concept of assessing in vitro drug responses using primary cultures is feasible, but demands the extensive further development of an application for preclinical drug selection and drug discovery. PMID:25851896

  3. Materializing Culture - Culturizing Material. On the Status, Responsibilities and Function of Cultural Property Repositories within the Framework of a "Transformative Scholarship"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hilgert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Certain theoretical streams in the cultural and social sciences that are occasionally subsumed under the term “New Materialism” 2 (see Witzgall, as well as recent social, political, cultural and media technology developments require a theoretical and research-political repositioning of academic object repositories. For it is obvious that under the influence of these multi-layered, partly interwoven processes, the status, responsibilities, as well as the function and spheres of activity of these object or cultural property repositories with research commitment (on the term see section 2 below are currently undergoing long-lasting change. For the respective institutions, these changes not only result in complex challenges regarding contents and structure, but also present extraordinary opportunities for the fulfillment of their academic, social and political responsibilities. The appropriate handling of these challenges and opportunities can substantially contribute to the sharpening of the academic and social profile of these institutions and increase their visibility on both a national and international level.

  4. Digital Repatriation: Constructing a Culturally Responsive Virtual Museum Tour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriene Roy?Mark Christal

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    ???14-18

    This paper describe a project that involved educators and three Native American communities in the construction of a virtual tour now available on the Web site of the National Museum of the American Indian(http://www. conexus.si.edu/. In fall 1998, the Pueblo of Laguna Department of Education, the College of Education and Graduate School of Library and Information Science at The University of Texas at Austin, and the Smithsonian?s National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI began the first collaboration that brought Native American students, teachers, and cultural representatives to the NMAI George Gustav Heye Center in New York City. The virtual tour makes extensive use of QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR. The panoramas of the exhibition space serve as an interface for accessing the featured objects selected by the students. Clicking on a hot spot over the museum display of a featured object causes the QTVR object to load in a separate Webpage frame accompanied by an interpreted essay written by a student. Clickable floor plans of the exhibition- space offer another method of navigating the virtual tour and accessing the virtual objects.

  5. 3D culture broadly regulates tumor cell hypoxia response and angiogenesis via pro-inflammatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelNero, Peter; Lane, Maureen; Verbridge, Scott S; Kwee, Brian; Kermani, Pouneh; Hempstead, Barbara; Stroock, Abraham; Fischbach, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Oxygen status and tissue dimensionality are critical determinants of tumor angiogenesis, a hallmark of cancer and an enduring target for therapeutic intervention. However, it is unclear how these microenvironmental conditions interact to promote neovascularization, due in part to a lack of comprehensive, unbiased data sets describing tumor cell gene expression as a function of oxygen levels within three-dimensional (3D) culture. Here, we utilized alginate-based, oxygen-controlled 3D tumor models to study the interdependence of culture context and the hypoxia response. Microarray gene expression analysis of tumor cells cultured in 2D versus 3D under ambient or hypoxic conditions revealed striking interdependence between culture dimensionality and hypoxia response, which was mediated in part by pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. In particular, interleukin-8 (IL-8) emerged as a major player in the microenvironmental regulation of the hypoxia program. Notably, this interaction between dimensionality and oxygen status via IL-8 increased angiogenic sprouting in a 3D endothelial invasion assay. Taken together, our data suggest that pro-inflammatory pathways are critical regulators of tumor hypoxia response within 3D environments that ultimately impact tumor angiogenesis, potentially providing important therapeutic targets. Furthermore, these results highlight the importance of pathologically relevant tissue culture models to study the complex physical and chemical processes by which the cancer microenvironment mediates new vessel formation. PMID:25934456

  6. Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

    2009-01-01

    With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

  7. Teaching across the Lines: Adapting Scripted Programmes with Culturally Relevant/Responsive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2014-01-01

    The American legislation of No Child Left Behind resulted in a boom in scripted, prepackaged curricula for improving student outcomes. At the same time, greater attention to the needs of diverse populations also took prominence, resulting in a new area of study, culturally relevant/responsive pedagogy. The current view is that scripted curriculum…

  8. "Can't Nobody Sleep" and Other Characteristics of Culturally Responsive English Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents a collective case study of two English teachers identified as particularly successful with Black students. Through the use of ethnographic techniques, the study provides a snapshot of how these teachers facilitated academic gains in urban high schools through their use of culturally responsive English…

  9. An Interpretative Phenomenological Study on Culturally Responsive Pedagogy in the Physical Education Practicum Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Jennifer Leary

    2013-01-01

    As the United States experiences a large demographic shift, current research demonstrates that effective educators implement culturally responsive strategies to support all students in achieving academic success with regards to race, ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, religion and exceptionalities (Gollnick…

  10. Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

  11. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  12. Developing Cultural Responsiveness in Environmental Design Students through Digital Storytelling and Photovoice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Debra Flanders; Love, Emily Wexler

    2013-01-01

    As the Latino population in the United States grows, it will become increasingly important for undergraduate students in environmental design and related disciplines to become more culturally responsive and learn how to understand and address challenges faced by population groups, such as Latino youth. To this end, we involved environmental…

  13. Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness at Freedom Schools: Implications for Culturally Responsive Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tambra O.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the programmatic ways in which the Children's Defense Fund Freedom Schools[R] program develops culturally responsive teaching practices amongst its summer interns, particularly in the area of developing sociopolitical consciousness. This paper places specific focus on the role that historical knowledge, the acknowledgement…

  14. Using critical race theory to analyze science teachers culturally responsive practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tamara; Brand, Brenda R.

    2012-06-01

    Culturally responsive science teaching is using knowledge about the culture and life experiences of students to structure learning that is conducive to their needs. Understanding what teachers need to prepare them to be culturally responsive is a matter of continuous debate. As the focus of multicultural education ventures farther away from its roots, advocating the civil rights of historically oppressed groups, concerns about the gravity of racial inequity on schooling continues. How will this shift in focus influence teachers' capacity to accommodate students' needs resulting from racial inequities in this society, particularly African American students? What knowledge is essential to their effectiveness? This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of two effective middle school science teachers deemed culturally responsive by their administrator on the basis of classroom observations, students' responses and standardized assessment results. Both teachers' classrooms consisted primarily of African American students. Grounded theory was used to analyze the teachers' beliefs and practices in order to identify existing commonalties. Critical race theory was used to identify whether there was any influence of the students' racial identities on the teachers' beliefs and practices. The analysis reveals that the teachers' beliefs and practices were informed by their critical awareness of social constraints imposed upon their African American students' identities. These findings communicate the significance of sociocultural awareness to informing the teachers' instruction, as well as their strategies for managing the varying dynamics occurring in their classrooms. It can be deduced from the findings that an understanding of racial inequities is crucial to the development of sociocultural awareness, and is the foundation for the culturally responsive dispositions and practices of these middle school science teachers.

  15. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  16. Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina G?nescu; Andreea Gangone; Mihaela Asandei

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eur...

  17. Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Bia?a Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

  18. Characterization of the global transcriptome for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) anther and development of SSR marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianwen; Ye, Zhenwei; Wang, Tiankang; Xiong, Hairong; Yuan, Xiaoling; Zhang, Zhigang; Yuan, Youlu; Liu, Zhi

    2014-11-10

    Cotton is an important fiber plant, and it's attractive to elucidate the molecular mechanism of anther development due to the close relationship between the anther fertility and boll-setting, and also fiber yield. In the present paper, 47.2 million paired-end reads with average length of 82.87 bp from the anthers of TM-1 (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a genetic standard line, were generated through transcriptome sequencing, and 210,965 unigenes of more than 100 bp were obtained. BLAST, KEGG, COG, and GO analyses showed that the genes were enriched in the processes of transcription, translation, and post-translation as well as hormone signal transduction, the transcription factor families, and cell wall-related genes mainly participating in cell expansion and carbohydrate metabolism. Further analysis identified 11,153 potential SSRs. A suit of 5122 primer pair sequences were designed, and 82 of 300 randomly selected primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 22 cotton accessions from G. hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium arboreum. The UPGMA clustering analysis further confirmed high quality and effectiveness of these novel SSR markers. The present study provided insights into the transcriptome profile of the cotton and established a public information platform for functional genomics and molecular breeding. PMID:25178523

  19. Immunolocalization of Lipoxygenase in the Anther Wall Cells of Lathyrus undulatus Boiss. during Programmed Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral ÜNAL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxygenase catalyzes oxygenation of long chain fatty acids to hydroperoxides and is involved in the degradation of membranes occuring in some types of programmed cell death (PCD. The localization of lipoxygenase in the anther wall layers of L. undulatus during cellular degradation was analyzed by immunogold labeling technique at young and vacuolated pollen stage, due to the close relation between lipoxygenase activity and membrane degradation in programmed cell death. Immunoreaction to lipoxygenase was monitored slightly at young pollen stage in the anther wall cells. As programmed cell death signals progress, lipoxygenase revealed in anther wall cells intensely. At vacuolated pollen stage tapetal cells came forward with ultrastructural changes such as cell, organelle and membrane disintegration. At the indicated stage immunogold particles indicating sites of LOX PAb-binding epitopes were located in the nucleus (chromatin was condensed and lined at the periphery, cytoplasm and close to long dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER cisterna. In conclusion lipoxygenase increase which has a role in the membrane degeneration, possibly induced the collapse of tonoplast, nuclear and plasma membrane and triggered programmed cell death in the tapetal cells of L. undulatus as well as the other wall cells.

  20. Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiming Wu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS, widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3 and its maintainer (designated NB3 in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its maintainer. Based on mass spectrometry, 27 spots representing 23 distinct proteins in these 33 spots were identified. Proteins down-regulated in CMS anthers/buds includes ATP synthase D chain, formate dehydrogenase, alpha-mannosidas, RuBisCO large subunit-binding protein subunit beta, chloroplast manganese stabilizing protein-II, glutathione S-transferase, adenosine kinase isoform 1T-like protein, putative DNA repair protein RAD23-4, putative caffeoyl-CoA 3-O-methyltransferase, glutamine synthetase (GS, annexin Cap32, glutelin, allene oxide cyclase, etc. In CMS anthers/buds, polyphenol oxidase, ATP synthase subunit beta, and actin are up-regulated. It was predicted that male sterility in NA3 might be related to energy metabolism turbulence, excessive ethylene synthesis, and suffocation of starch synthesis. The present study lays a foundation for future investigations of gene functions associated with pollen development and cytoplasmic male sterility, and explores the molecular mechanism of CMS in pepper.

  1. Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 ?g g-1 dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 ?g g-1 dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish

  2. Small Business Responsiveness and Organizational Culture in the Context of a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael STOICA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the relationship between two important variables that define small and medium-sized enterprises: organizational culture and responsiveness. Firms operating in Romania were selected for the study. The country offers a business context with many changes over the last two decades, a challenge and an opportunity for researchers. Results show that the combination of entrepreneurial characteristics and planning and goal oriented managerial styles suits best successful companies. The market-driven type of culture has the best coordination and is best positioned to deliver customer-centered versatility, while adhocracy helps businesses respond fast to changes in the market environment.

  3. Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when determining plant potential to remediate polluted sites. Multidisciplinary research teams can therefore increase our knowledge and promote a practical application of phytoremediation. (orig.)

  4. Culture modulates the brain response to human expressions of emotion: electrophysiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. PMID:25477081

  5. Intra and interspecific variability of in vitro culture response in Lycopersicon (tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Pratta

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra and interspecific variability was measured in the genus Lycopersicon for the traits: productivity rate (PR, total number of regenerated shoots/total number of cultures, regeneration percentage (%R, number of cultures regenerating shoots or primordia/total number of cultures and callus percentage (%C, number of cultures only producing callus/total number of cultures. Leaf explants from various genotypes of L. esculentum, L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, L. pimpinellifolium and L. peruvianum were placed on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-493, 1962 medium + 0.175 mg/l IAA + 2.25 mg/l BA. Significant differences among species and among genotypes within the same species were found, while genotypes from different species showed similar responses.A variabilidade intra e interespecífica foi avaliada no gênero Lycopersicon para as variáveis: taxa de produtividade (PR, número total de brotos/número total de culturas, percentagem de regeneração (%R, número de culturas que regeneraram brotos ou primórdios/número total de culturas e percentagem de calo (%C, número de culturas que só desenvolveram calo/número total de culturas. Os explantes foliares de vários genótipos de L. esculentum, L. esculentum var. ceraciforme, L. pimpinellifolium e L. peruvianum foram colocados em meio de cultura Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-493, 1962 + 0.175 mg/l AIA + 2.25 mg/l BA. Detectaram-se diferenças significativas entre espécies e entre genótipos de uma mesma espécie, apresentando genótipos de diferentes espécies a mesma resposta.

  6. Cultural Responsibility of Subjects in Moral Education in Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Chunyan Chen; Yinglin Li

    2011-01-01

    In a new era, to come to full understanding of the cultural responsibility of subjects in moral education in colleges and universities is an internal demand of modern educational theory for overall development of both teachers and students, and is the premise to play the leading role of teachers and mobilize the subjectivity of university students. At the same time, this also guides the direction for teachers and students to carry out moral education activities in colleges and universities. T...

  7. Corporate Social Responsibility and Culture : A Study of European Multinational Corporations’ adaptation of Community Involvement Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Henriksson, Sebastian; Hodjikj, Armin; Ognyanova Dinkova, Evgeniya

    2012-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR), which has emerged as a global trend, has gained increased focus in the everyday media and among practitioners on the political agenda. CSR has also risen as an important research topic in the field of organization. This study investigates European multinational corporations’ tendencies to adapt CSR policies and practices, or more specifically corporate community involvement, to different national cultures. The paper explores if/how and why companies wi...

  8. Pseudomonas savastanoi triggers the hypersensitive response of Olea europaea var. Galega Vulgar suspension cell cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, A. Braga Da; Tavares, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    The bacteria Pseudomonas savastanoi is a natural pathogen of Olea europaea L., and is responsible for the olive knot, a disease that seriously affects productivity of Portuguese olive orchards. In previous work, we established an in vitro elicitation system using the bacteria and suspension cell cultures of O. europaea var. Galega Vulgar, which is known to be resistant to this pathogen. This system is now being used to study the interaction between plant and pathogen and evaluate the Hypersen...

  9. Small Business Responsiveness and Organizational Culture in the Context of a Developing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stoica, Michael; Florea, Liviu; Luka?cs, Edit

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the relationship between two important variables that define small and medium-sized enterprises: organizational culture and responsiveness. Firms operating in Romania were selected for the study. The country offers a business context with many changes over the last two decades, a challenge and an opportunity for researchers. Results show that the combination of entrepreneurial characteristics and planning and goal oriented managerial styles suits best successful companies. ...

  10. RESPONSE STYLES IN CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH – EVIDENCE FROM HISTORICAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricea Elena BERTEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify differences in response styles between regions which belong to Romania, but have previously been under foreign occupation. To do that, we employ data from the European Social Survey, the 2006 round. We investigate extreme response styles as this is known as a common problem in cross-cultural research. Extreme response styles increase reliability, but affect the validity as all correlation specific methods can be biased in this case. We compare response styles across regions and inside regions using language as a factor variable to identify ethnic groups. Results show that in some cases there are significant differences between regions of the same country, whereas there are none for neighbouring regions belonging to different countries.

  11. Contrasting Nephropathic Responses to Oral Administration of Extract of Cultured Penicillium polonicum in Rat and Primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Fincham

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distortion became striking on account of karyocytomegaly, but even treatment for nearly two years remained asymptomatic. Extract from a batch of solid substrate fermentation of P. polonicum on shredded wheat was incorporated into feed for rats during four consecutive days, and also given as an aqueous solution by oral gavage to a vervet monkey daily for 10 days. Treatment was asymptomatic for both types of animal. Rat response was evident as the typical renal apoptosis and karyomegaly. In contrast there was no such response in the primate; and neither creatinine clearance nor any haematological characteristic or serum component concentration deviated from a control or from historical data for this primate. The contrast is discussed concerning other negative findings for P. polonicum in pigs and hamsters. Renal karyomegaly, as a common rat response to persistent exposure to ochratoxin A, is not known in humans suspected as being exposed to more than the usual trace amounts of dietary ochratoxin A. Therefore the present findings question assumptions that human response to ochratoxin A conforms to that in the rat.

  12. Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

    2015-05-01

    The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment. PMID:25766278

  13. The examination of Hevea brasiliensis plants produced by in vitro culture and mutagenesis by DNA fingerprinting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plants derived from anther and ovule culture as well as gamma-irradiated plants were examined by several DNA marker techniques. These include restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence tagged microsatellite sites (STMS), DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Compared to control plants produced by vegetative propagation (cutting and budding), plants produced by in vitro culture appeared to have a reduction in the number of rDNA loci. Two RAPD protocols were compared and found to be similar in amplification of the major DNA bands. After confirmation that the RAPD method adopted was reproducible, the technique was applied to the present studies. Eight out of the 60 primers screened were able to elicit polymorphisms between pooled DNA from in vitro culture plants. Variations in DNA patterns were observed between pooled DNA samples of anther-derived plants as well as between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants. Comparisons of RAPD patterns obtained between anther-derived plants exposed to increasing dosages of gamma-irradiation with non irradiated anther-derived plants revealed distinct DNA polymorphisms. The changes in DNA profiles did not appear to be correlated to the dosage of irradiation. Since somaclonal variation was detected, it was difficult to identify changes which were specifically caused by irradiation. Application of the STMS technique to tag micro satellite sequences (GA)n, (TA)n and (TTA)n in the hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase-1 (hmgr-1) gene failed to detect differences between plants derived from anther and ovule culture. Although restriction endonuclease digestions with methylation sensitive enzymes suggested that four in vitro culture plants examined exhibited similar digestion patterns as the controls, a change in cytosine methylation in one anther-derived plant was detected. Examination of individual in vitro culture plants by the DAF technique revealed genetic heterogeneity among these plants. Differences in DNA profiles between anther-derived and ovule-derived plants were also detected. In general, more somaclonal variations were detected in anther-derived than ovule-derived plants. When the DAF technique was applied to DNA obtained from leaves of irradiated budded stumps, DNA profiles were shown to be different from non irradiated controls. Whilst DNA patterns of samples irradiated at the same dosage displayed similar DNA patterns, these varied with increasing dosage. Examination of in vitro culture plants by AFLPs confirmed earlier results that somaclonal variations were present in Hevea. (author)

  14. A mediterranean japonica rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar improvement through anther culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Serrat, X.; Cardona, M.; Gil, J.; Brito, A.M.; Moysset Agustí, Lluïsa; Nogués Mestres, Salvador; Lalanne, E.

    2014-01-01

    Certified seed producers systematically select and propagate registered varieties year after year in order to maintain their uniformity and the original registered cultivar traits. However, natural mutations, spontaneous breeding between varieties and alien grain contamination can introduce undesir- able variability. NRVC 980385 is a temperate japonica rice cultivar (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica) first regis- tered in Spain in 2002. In 2005 certification tests detected a plot differing from the...

  15. Phenol red in tissue culture media is a weak estrogen: implications concerning the study of estrogen-responsive cells in culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Berthois, Y.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A.; Katzenellenbogen, B. S.

    1986-01-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the removal of hormones from sera and to the development of serum-free media for studies on hormone-responsive cells in culture, little consideration has been given to the possibility that the media components themselves may have hormonal activity. We have found that phenol red, which bears a structural resemblance to some nonsteroidal estrogens and which is used ubiquitously as a pH indicator in tissue culture media, has significant estrogenic activit...

  16. Indução de calos e regeneração de embriões em anteras de Coffea arabica L. por nitrato de prata e etileno Callus induction and embryo regeneration in Coffea arabica L. anthers by silver nitrate and ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para aquisição de uma nova cultivar. Através da cultura de anteras podem-se obter linhagens homozigóticas rapidamente, oriundas de dihaplóides. O objetivo foi utilizar na cultura de anteras na cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 de Coffea arabica L., nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e etileno para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas dihaplóides. As anteras foram inoculadas em meio MS acrescido de 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D com e sem AgNO3 (5 mg L-1, juntamente com etileno por diferentes dias: (testemunha; 2; 4; 6, e 8. Ao final de 12 dias, estas foram transferidas para o meio de regeneração, acrescido de 0,108 mg L-1 de cinetina. Foi observada uma oxidação e intumescimento maior nos primeiros dias de inoculação em exposição ao etileno, e a cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 respondeu a formação de calos e também a embriogênese direta na presença do etileno.The genetic breeding of coffee by conventional methods to obtain new cultivars is time-consuming. Anther culture can yield homozygous lines quickly from bi-haploids. This study used anther cultures of Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99, and tested the effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and ethylene in callus-formation induction and bi-haploid seedling regeneration. The anthers were inoculated in MS to which 2 mg L-1 2,4-D had been added with AgNO3 (5 mg L-1 together with ethylene being introduced or not, for different periods (the control, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. At the end of 12 days, the anthers were transferred to the regeneration medium, to which 0.108 mg L-1 kinetin had been added. Greater oxidation and intumescence were observed in the first days after exposure to ethylene; the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho 99 responded to callus formation and also direct embryogenesis in the presence of ethylene.

  17. Indução de calos e regeneração de embriões em anteras de Coffea arabica L. por nitrato de prata e etileno / Callus induction and embryo regeneration in Coffea arabica L. anthers by silver nitrate and ethylene

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adelaide Siqueira, Silva; José Magno Queiroz, Luz; Tatiana Michlovská, Rodrigues; Cecília Alves, Bittar; Leandro de Oliveira, Lino.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para aquisição de uma nova cultivar. Através da cultura de anteras podem-se obter linhagens homozigóticas rapidamente, oriundas de dihaplóides. O objetivo foi utilizar na cultura de anteras na cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 [...] de Coffea arabica L., nitrato de prata (AgNO3) e etileno para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas dihaplóides. As anteras foram inoculadas em meio MS acrescido de 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D com e sem AgNO3 (5 mg L-1), juntamente com etileno por diferentes dias: (testemunha; 2; 4; 6, e 8). Ao final de 12 dias, estas foram transferidas para o meio de regeneração, acrescido de 0,108 mg L-1 de cinetina. Foi observada uma oxidação e intumescimento maior nos primeiros dias de inoculação em exposição ao etileno, e a cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 respondeu a formação de calos e também a embriogênese direta na presença do etileno. Abstract in english The genetic breeding of coffee by conventional methods to obtain new cultivars is time-consuming. Anther culture can yield homozygous lines quickly from bi-haploids. This study used anther cultures of Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99, and tested the effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ethyl [...] ene in callus-formation induction and bi-haploid seedling regeneration. The anthers were inoculated in MS to which 2 mg L-1 2,4-D had been added with AgNO3 (5 mg L-1) together with ethylene being introduced or not, for different periods (the control, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). At the end of 12 days, the anthers were transferred to the regeneration medium, to which 0.108 mg L-1 kinetin had been added. Greater oxidation and intumescence were observed in the first days after exposure to ethylene; the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho 99 responded to callus formation and also direct embryogenesis in the presence of ethylene.

  18. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms. PMID:25204750

  19. Research ethics in global mental health: advancing culturally responsive mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica

    2014-12-01

    Global mental health research is needed to inform effective and efficient services and policy interventions within and between countries. Ethical reflection should accompany all GMHR and human resource capacity endeavors to ensure high standards of respect for participants and communities and to raise public debate leading to changes in policies and regulations. The views and circumstances of ethno-cultural and disadvantaged communities in the Majority and Minority world need to be considered to enhance scientific merit, public awareness, and social justice. The same applies to people with vulnerabilities yet who are simultaneously capable, such as children and youth. The ethical principles of respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence/non-maleficence, justice, and relationality require careful contextualization for research involving human beings. Building on the work of Fisher and colleagues (2002), this article highlights some strategies to stimulate the ethical conduct of global mental health research and to guide decision-making for culturally responsible research, such as developing culturally sensitive informed consent and disclosure policies and procedures; paying special attention to socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental risks and benefits; and ensuring meaningful community and individual participation. Research and capacity-building partnerships, political will, and access to resources are needed to stimulate global mental health research and consolidate ethical practice. PMID:24668025

  20. Response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and energetic ?-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its progeny, which emit ?-particles during decay, may play an important role in inducing human lung cancer. To gain a better understanding of the biological effects of ?-particles in human lung we studied the response of cultured human airway epithelial cells to X-rays and monoenergetic helium ions. Experimental results indicated that the radiation response of primary cultures was similar to that for airway epithelial cells that were transformed with a plasmid containing an origin-defective SV40 virus. The RBE for cell inactivation determined by the ratio of D0 for X-rays to that for 8 MeV helium ions was 1.8-2.2. The cross-section for helium ions, calculated from the D0 value, was about 24 ?m2 for cells of the primary culture. This cross-section is significantly smaller than the average geometric nuclear area (? 180 ?m2), suggesting that an average of 7.5 ?-particles (8 MeV helium ions) per cell nucleus are needed to induce a lethal lesion. (author)

  1. An Empirical Research on Chinese-English Bilinguals’ Compliment Responses—A Cross-cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua An

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Compliments and compliment responses (CRs are decided by linguistic and sociocultural norms, and further reflect cultural values and social norms. The study of CRs has generated a great number of studies in pragmatics. Previous studies, including Chinese as participants, have investigated Chinese CRs and compared Chinese CRs with people of other languages. According to Holmes’ (1988 taxonomy, CRs can be classified into three categories: Agreeing, Deflecting/Evading and Rejecting. Looking from a cross-cultural perspective, Chinese tend to use less Accepting strategies and more Rejecting strategies than Australians do (Tang and Zhang, 2009. Within the same language community, CR strategies might also change over time, as has been suggested in Chen and Yang’s (2010. However, research on Chinese English-knowing bilinguals’ CRs in the two languages is rare. The present study, focuses on a group of Chinese English-knowing bilinguals’ CR speech act. It aims at finding out whether Chinese English bilinguals will respond to compliments differently, when they are exposed to different media—Chinese language and English language, which might shed new light on how language influences and shapes people’s social and cultural norms. Written discourse completion task (DCT is used to elicit the participants’ responses to compliments on one’s look, ability, character, possession. The survey was conducted on a cohort of 31 Chinese English teachers, during the period when they were in Singapore. Results show that there are differences in CR strategies employed in Chinese DCT and English DCT.

  2. Quantitative proteome changes in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension-cultured cells in response to plant natriuretic peptides

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2015-06-30

    Proteome changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells in response to the A. thaliana plant natriuretic peptide (PNP), AtPNP-A (At2g18660) were assessed using quantitative proteomics employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). In this study, we characterized temporal responses of suspension-cultured cells to 1 nM and 10 pM AtPNP-A at 0, 10 and 30 min post-treatment. Both concentrations we found to yield a distinct differential proteome signature. The data shown in this article are associated with the article “Plant natriuretic peptides induce a specific set of proteins diagnostic for an adaptive response to abiotic stress” by Turek et al. (Front. Plant Sci. 5 (2014) 661) and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001386.

  3. Developing Culturally Responsive Surveys: Lessons in Development, Implementation, and Analysis from Brazil's African Descent Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Merle L.; Tillman, Ayesha S.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable empirical research, along with a growing body of conceptual and theoretical literature, exists on the role of culture and context in evaluation. Less scholarship has examined culturally responsive surveys in the context of international evaluation. In this article, the authors present lessons learned from the development,…

  4. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurv...

  5. A noninvasive transfer system for polarized renal tubule epithelial cell sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes

    OpenAIRE

    Kushida A.; Yamato M.; Isoi Y.; Kikuchi A.; Okano T.

    2005-01-01

    We used temperature-responsive culture dishes onto which the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(Nisopropylacrylamide), was covalently grafted for tissue engineering. Confluent cells harvested as intact sheets from these surfaces by simple temperature reduction can be transferred to various surfaces including additional culture dishes, other cell sheets, and tissues. In order to examine the maintenance of cell polarity, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and human primary renal proximal tubule ...

  6. ABCG15 encodes an ABC transporter protein, and is essential for post-meiotic anther and pollen exine development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peng; Tu, Bin; Wang, Yuping; Deng, Luchang; Quilichini, Teagen D; Li, Ting; Wang, Hui; Ma, Bingtian; Li, Shigui

    2013-01-01

    In flowering plants, anther and pollen development is critical for male reproductive success. The anther cuticle and pollen exine play an essential role, and in many cereals, such as rice, orbicules/ubisch bodies are also thought to be important for pollen development. The formation of the anther cuticle, exine and orbicules is associated with the biosynthesis and transport of wax, cutin and sporopollenin components. Recently, progress has been made in understanding the biosynthesis of sporopollenin and cutin components in Arabidopsis and rice, but less is known about the mechanisms by which they are transported to the sites of deposition. Here, we report that the rice ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCG15, is essential for post-meiotic anther and pollen development, and is proposed to play a role in the transport of rice anther cuticle and sporopollenin precursors. ABCG15 is highly expressed in the tapetum at the young microspore stage, and the abcg15 mutant exhibits small, white anthers lacking mature pollen, lipidic cuticle, orbicules and pollen exine. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the abcg15 anther cuticle revealed significant reductions in a number of wax components and aliphatic cutin monomers. The expression level of genes involved in lipid metabolism in the abcg15 mutant was significantly different from their levels in the wild type, possibly due to perturbations in the homeostasis of anther lipid metabolism. Our study provides new insights for understanding the molecular mechanism of the formation of the anther cuticle, orbicules and pollen wall, as well as the machinery for lipid metabolism in rice anthers. PMID:23220695

  7. The Generation X Librarian Essays on Leadership, Technology, Pop Culture, Social Responsibility and Professional Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, Martin K,; Estep, Erik Sean

    2011-01-01

    Generation X includes individuals born roughly between 1961 and 1981. This generation has faced major advances in technology, environmental degradation, and widening economic injustice, all of which affect libraries and librarians. This collection of critical essays highlights the special challenges that face Generation X librarians. Topics covered include management and leadership, rapidly changing technology, social attitudes and stereotypes within popular culture, and how Generation X librarians have responded to or developed in response to those themes. This work fills many of the gaps pre

  8. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ute Hofmann; Melanie Priem; Christine Bartzsch; Thomas Winckler; Karl-Heinz Feller

    2014-01-01

    In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked...

  9. Metonymic objects, cultural practices and narrative repair: Sri Lankan responses to the Indian Ocean tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassim, Shemana; Stolte, Ottilie; Hodgetts, Darrin

    2015-07-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami resulted in a tragic loss of life and immense suffering. This article explores the ways in which a group of people from Sri Lanka worked to address the disruption to their life narratives caused by the loss of loved ones. We go beyond a focus on 'talk' in narrative research in health psychology to explore the importance of material objects in sustaining continued bonds with the deceased. This article provides an alternative to the tendency in mainstream psychology to pathologise grief and highlights the importance of culturally patterned responses to disaster. PMID:24155188

  10. Leiomyoma cells in 3-dimensional cultures demonstrate an attenuated response to fasudil, a rho-kinase inhibitor, when compared to 2-dimensional cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Segars, James; Catherino, William H

    2014-09-01

    Uterine leiomyomata are common benign tumors in women of reproductive age and demonstrate an attenuated response to mechanical signaling that involves Rho and integrins. To further characterize the impairment in Rho signaling, we studied the effect of Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, on extracellular matrix production, in 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Leiomyoma 2D cultures demonstrated a rapid decrease in gene transcripts and protein for fibronectin, procollagen 1A, and versican. In 3D cultures, fibronectin and procollagen 1A proteins demonstrated increased levels at lower concentrations of fasudil, followed by a concentration-dependent decrease. Versican protein increased up to 3-fold, whereas fibromodulin demonstrated a significant decrease of 1.92-fold. Myometrial 2D or 3D cultures demonstrated a decrease in all proteins after 72 hours of treatment. The 3D leiomyoma cultures demonstrated a significant increase in active RhoA, followed by a concentration-dependent decrease at higher concentrations. A concentration-dependent increase in phospho-extracellular regulated signal kinase and proapoptotic protein Bax was observed in 3D leiomyoma cultures. Fasudil relaxed the contraction of the 3D collagen gels caused by myometrium and leiomyoma cell growth. These findings indicate that the altered state of Rho signaling in leiomyoma was more clearly observed in 3D cultures. The results also suggest that fasudil may have clinical applicability for treatment of uterine leiomyoma. PMID:25084783

  11. Transcription of storage protein genes in cultured Brassica napus embryos in response to exogenous abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two major seed storage proteins, cruciferin and napin, accumulate during embryogeny in Brassica napus. We are determining whether the levels of storage protein mRNAs in cultured embryos are controlled at the transcriptional level in response to ABA. The nuclei were isolated from the embryos and incubated in a transcription mix with 32P-GTP, and the incorporation into specific RNAs was determined by DNA excess filter hybridization. The transcription rate of cruciferin increased about 2-fold, and the transcription rate of napin increased about 3- to 4-fold in ABA-treated embryos compared to embryos cultured on basal medium. This increase in transcription rate is consistent with the increases in RNA levels which are seen in parallel experiments. In the same experiments, the transcription rates of actin and the rRNA genes were unaffected by ABA. In reinduction experiments, embryos which were switched from basal medium to medium containing ABA at 12 or 24 h showed an increase in transcription rate of the seed storage protein genes to the same level as those which were cultured on ABA at time 0

  12. Embryotoxicant-specific transcriptomic responses in rat postimplantation whole-embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joshua F; van Beelen, Vincent A; Verhoef, Aart; Renkens, Marc F J; Luijten, Mirjam; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Westerman, Anja; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Piersma, Aldert H

    2010-12-01

    Rat postimplantation whole-embryo culture (WEC) is a promising alternative test for the assessment of developmental toxicity. Toxicogenomic-based approaches may improve the predictive ability of the WEC model by providing a means to identify compound-specific mechanistic responses associated with embryotoxicity in vivo. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression may serve as a sensitive, objective, and robust marker, which precedes the observation of classical developmental toxicity endpoints in time. In this study, in combination with morphological developmental assessments, we studied transcriptomic responses associated with four distinct teratogens (caffeine [CAF], methylmercury [MM], monobutyl phthalate, and methoxyacetic acid) after 4 h of exposure, well before apparent embryotoxicity in WEC. We evaluated gene expression changes associated with similar levels of induced morphological embryotoxicity for each teratogen (as determined by total morphological score), evaluating for functional enrichment and quantitative changes in response. Concentrations selected for each of the four teratogens used induced a number of common effects on embryonic development (neural tube closure and optic/otic system). Despite inducing common morphological effects, our analysis suggests limited overlap in terms of toxicogenomic response at the gene expression level and at the level of biological processes across all four test chemicals. Many unique responses associated with each chemical correlated with previously hypothesized modes of developmental toxicity. For example, alterations in developmental signaling and cholesterol metabolism were observed with MM and CAF, respectively. This initial study suggests that distinct chemically induced toxicogenomic responses precede morphological effects in WEC and that these responses are relevant with mechanisms of toxicity previously observed in vivo. PMID:20864626

  13. Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G?nescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases, the RAPEX 2012 Annual Report, the 2012-2013 Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Reporting Initiative database. We used the multifactorial regression and the Wald significance test to demonstrate that organisations operating in countries characterised by low power distance, individualism, femininity, tolerance of unknown and long-term orientation pay more attention to responsible corporate behaviour towards customers. The study highlights theoretical considerations that support the influence of the national cultural framework on responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers. The methodology for calculating the index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers can become a basis of analysis of responsible corporate behaviour towards local consumers or other stakeholders.

  14. Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzymehe hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role

  15. Effect of yeast culture supplementation on carcass yield and humoral immune response of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Fathi

    Full Text Available Aim: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplemental yeast culture (Diamond V XPC Yeast Culture; YC in broiler diets on carcass characteristics and humoral immune response. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308 were randomly assigned to four YC dietary treatments of 60 birds each. The dietary treatments were 0 (control, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 g YC/kg diet over 42 d. Results: The results revealed that the birds fed yeast cultures had statistically increased (P < 0.05 body weight from control birds only at 5-6 weeks of age. The highest inclusion level (1.5g/kg recorded the best weight. The broiler chicks fed a diet supplemented with 1.25g/kg had the lowest mortality rate over the whole period of the experiment. The birds given the highest level of yeast (1.5g/kg had significantly (P < 0.05 higher percentage of major and minor breast muscles compared with the others that fed a basal diet. A significantly (P < 0.01 increase in IgM titer was noticed in birds fed diet containing YC levels more than 1g/kg at 7 days post-injection with sheep red blood cells. Likewise, broilers fed a diet containing 1.25g/kg exhibited a higher level of antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus at latter age (on d 42 compared with the other groups. Conclusion: The data suggest improvement in growth performance, carcass yield and humoral immunity of broilers fed yeast culture supplementation diet. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 651-657

  16. Population dynamics of the fusarium head blight biocontrol agent cryptococcus flavescens OH182.9 on wheat anthers and heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptococcus flavescens OH 182.9 (NRRL Y-30216) reduces Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited by Fusarium graminearum and DON contamination of grain in greenhouse and field settings. Yet little is known about the population dynamics of OH 182.9 on wheat heads and anthers from the time of inoculating he...

  17. OsATG7 is required for autophagy-dependent lipid metabolism in rice postmeiotic anther development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurusu, Takamitsu; Koyano, Tomoko; Hanamata, Shigeru; Kubo, Takahiko; Noguchi, Yuhei; Yagi, Chikako; Nagata, Noriko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Okazaki, Yozo; Kitahata, Nobutaka; Ando, Daichi; Ishikawa, Masaya; Wada, Shinya; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Shimada, Hiroaki; Makino, Amane; Saito, Kazuki; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Tetsu; Kurata, Nori; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2014-05-01

    In flowering plants, the tapetum, the innermost layer of the anther, provides both nutrient and lipid components to developing microspores, pollen grains, and the pollen coat. Though the programmed cell death of the tapetum is one of the most critical and sensitive steps for fertility and is affected by various environmental stresses, its regulatory mechanisms remain mostly unknown. Here we show that autophagy is required for the metabolic regulation and nutrient supply in anthers and that autophagic degradation within tapetum cells is essential for postmeiotic anther development in rice. Autophagosome-like structures and several vacuole-enclosed lipid bodies were observed in postmeiotic tapetum cells specifically at the uninucleate stage during pollen development, which were completely abolished in a retrotransposon-insertional OsATG7 (autophagy-related 7)-knockout mutant defective in autophagy, suggesting that autophagy is induced in tapetum cells. Surprisingly, the mutant showed complete sporophytic male sterility, failed to accumulate lipidic and starch components in pollen grains at the flowering stage, showed reduced pollen germination activity, and had limited anther dehiscence. Lipidomic analyses suggested impairment of editing of phosphatidylcholines and lipid desaturation in the mutant during pollen maturation. These results indicate a critical involvement of autophagy in a reproductive developmental process of rice, and shed light on the novel autophagy-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism in eukaryotic cells. PMID:24674921

  18. Brassinosteroids control male fertility by regulating the expression of key genes involved in Arabidopsis anther and pollen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qianqian; Zhu, Wenjiao; Li, Lei; Zhang, Shanshan; Yin, Yanhai; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xuelu

    2010-03-30

    The development of anther and pollen is important for male reproduction, and this process is coordinately regulated by many external and internal cues. In this study, we systematically examined the male reproductive phenotypes of a series of brassinosteroid biosynthetic and signaling mutants and found that, besides the expected cell-expansion defects, these mutants also showed reduced pollen number, viability, and release efficiency. These defects were related with abnormal tapetum and microspore development. Using both real-time quantitative RT-PCR and microarray experiments, we found that the expression of many key genes required for anther and pollen development was suppressed in these mutants. ChIP analysis demonstrated that BES1, an important transcription factor for brassinosteroid signaling, could directly bind to the promoter regions of genes encoding transcription factors essential for anther and pollen development, SPL/NZZ, TDF1, AMS, MS1, and MS2. Taken together, these data lead us to propose that brassinosteroids control male fertility at least in part via directly regulating key genes for anther and pollen development in Arabidopsis. Our work provides a unique mechanism to explain how a phytohormone regulates an essential genetic program for plant development. PMID:20231470

  19. Construção e avaliação de um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras / Construction and evaluation of an anther collector prototype machine

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo, Tonet; Marcos Robson, Sachet; Idemir, Citadin; Alcir José, Modolo.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras foi projetado e construído, e seu desempenho foi avaliado, comparando - se com o método de coleta manual, em flores rosáceas e campanuladas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica). O trabalho foi conduzido utilizando-se do delineamento experimental inteiramente ao [...] acaso, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial (2 métodos de remoção x 2 formas florais), com 12 repetições de 30 balões florais. O protótipo apresentou maior velocidade de processamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do pólen, mesmo sendo armazenadas anteras com maior quantidade de filetes e descartado maior número de anteras do que o método manual. Abstract in english An anther collector prototype machine was projected and built. Its performance was evaluated by comparisons between the use of the prototype and the traditional manual method, both for showy and non-showy peach-tree flowers (Prunus persica). The study was accomplished in August 2011 using a complete [...] ly randomized experimental design, arranged in a bi-factorial scheme (2 collection methods x 2 flower forms), with 12 repetitions, each consisted by 30 flowers. The prototype proved to be faster in the anther extraction time without losses in the pollen quality, even harvesting anthers with higher fillet amounts and discarding a higher quantity of anthers than the manual method.

  20. Dedifferentiation of intrinsic response properties of motoneurons in organotypic cultures of the spinal cord of the adult turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, J F; Noraberg, J

    2000-01-01

    Explant cultures from the spinal cord of adult turtles were established and used to study the sensitivity of the intrinsic response properties of motoneurons to the changes in connectivity and milieu imposed by isolation in culture. Transverse sections 700 microm thick were explanted on cover slips and maintained in roller-tube cultures in medium containing serum and the growth factors brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). The gross morphology of acute sections was maintained after 4 weeks in culture. Cell bodies of motoneurons remained stainable in fixed cultures with an antibody against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) throughout the culture period. During culture, motoneurons maintained stable resting membrane potentials and were contacted by functional synapses. The ability to generate action potentials was also preserved as was delayed inward rectification and generation of calcium spikes in the presence of tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA). In response to depolarization, however, motoneurons presented strong outward rectification, and only 41% of the cells recorded from maintained the ability to fire repetitively. By the second week in culture, a fraction of motoneurons displayed fast and slow transient outward rectification and low-threshold calcium spikes, features not seen in turtle motoneurons in acute slices. On the other hand, properties mediated by L-type Ca2+ channels disappeared during the first few days in culture. Our observations show that the phenotypical intrinsic response properties of mature spinal motoneurons are modified in explant cultures. The properties acquired resemble the properties in juvenile motoneurons in several species of terrestrial vertebrates.

  1. Molecular analysis of chondrocytes cultured in agarose in response to dynamic compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallein-Gerin Frédéric

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is exposed to high mechanical loads under normal physiological conditions and articular chondrocytes regulate the composition of cartilaginous matrix, in response to mechanical signals. However, the intracellular pathways involved in mechanotransduction are still being defined. Using the well-characterized chondrocyte/agarose model system and dynamic compression, we report protocols for preparing and characterizing constructs of murine chondrocytes and agarose, and analyzing the effect of compression on steady-state level of mRNA by RT-PCR, gene transcription by gene reporter assay, and phosphorylation state of signalling molecules by Western-blotting. The mouse model is of particular interest because of the availability of a large choice of bio-molecular tools suitable to study it, as well as genetically modified mice. Results Chondrocytes cultured in agarose for one week were surrounded by a newly synthesized pericellular matrix, as revealed by immunohistochemistry prior to compression experiments. This observation indicates that this model system is suitable to study the role of matrix molecules and trans-membrane receptors in cellular responsiveness to mechanical stress. The chondrocyte/agarose constructs were then submitted to dynamic compression with FX-4000C™ Flexercell® Compression Plus™ System (Flexcell. After clearing proteins off agarose, Western-blotting analysis showed transient activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK in response to dynamic compression. After assessment by capillary electrophoresis of the quality of RNA extracted from agarose, steady-state levels of mRNA expression was measured by real time PCR. We observed an up-regulation of cFos and cJun mRNA levels as a response to compression, in accordance with the mechanosensitive character observed for these two genes in other studies using cartilage explants submitted to compression. To explore further the biological response of mouse chondrocytes to the dynamic compression at the transcriptional level, we also developed an approach for monitoring changes in gene transcription in agarose culture by using reporter promoter constructs. A decrease in promoter activity of the gene coding for type II procollagen, the most abundant protein in cartilage, was observed in response to dynamic loading. Conclusion The protocols developed here offer the possibility to perform an integrated analysis of the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in chondrocytes, at the gene and protein level.

  2. Studies in tissue culture of some indigenous rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) accessions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p?0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p?0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneratio and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice accessions evaluated, N/4 was the most promising accession in terms of callus induction frequency and regeneration ability. The three accessions of O. glaberrima were again studied for their response to anther culture in terms of callus induction and frequency of plant regeneration using N, Garfish and D oy, MS and Nis tch tissue culture media, and supplemented with 2,4-D (1:(0-5) mg/l) were used for callus induction. No response to callus formation was obtained after 16 weeks of culture and a conclusion was drawn that all three accessions were recalcitrant to anther culture. (au)

  3. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Weso?wska; Lutos?aw Skrzypczak

    1985-01-01

    In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  4. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Weso?wska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  5. Determination of dose- response relationship in cultured human by lymphocytes for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: lymphocyte- dicentric assay is the most generally accepted method for biological dosimetry of overexposed individuals. In this study, the frequency of unstable chromosome aberration in blood lymphocytes was used to estimate radiation dose received by individuals. Evaluation of dose using a calibration curve produced elsewhere may have a significant uncertainty; therefore, experiments were performed to produce a dose-response curve using an established protocol of international atomic energy agency. Materials and methods: lymphocytes in whole peripheral blood obtained from healthy individuals, were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation (0.25-4 Gy). Then after 1 hour of incubation in 37digC , were cultured in complete RPMI-1640 medium. 500 mitoses were analyzed for the presence or absence of unstable chromosomal aberrations for each radiation dose after the standard metaphase preparation and staining slides. Results and conclusion: Intercellular distribution chromosomes at each radiation dose has been used to contrast a dose- response curve. It seems that dose-effect relationship follows with the linear-quadratic model. There is a good agreement between our dose- response curves with similar published studies by other laboratories

  6. Defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, non-toxic, and inexpensive compound obtained by partial alkaline deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and other arthropods. The unique physiological and biological properties of CHT make this polymer useful for a wide range of industries. In agriculture, CHT is used to control numerous pre- and postharvest diseases on various horticultural commodities. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to CHT as an elicitor of defense responses in plants, which include raising of cytosolic Ca(2+), activation of MAP kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonate, phytoalexins, and pathogenesis-related proteins. In this work, we investigated the effects of different CHT concentrations on some defense/stress responses of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells. CHT induced accumulation of dead cells, and of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and nitric oxide, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol and of HSP70 molecular chaperone binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, accompanied by marked modifications in the architecture of this cell organelle. PMID:21327845

  7. Responses of cultured neural retinal cells to substratum-bound laminin and other extracellular matrix molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, R; Jerdan, J; Hewitt, A T

    1985-11-01

    The responses of cultured chick embryo retinal neurons to several extracellular matrix molecules are described. Retinal cell suspensions in serum-free medium containing the "N1" supplement (J. E. Bottenstein, S. D. Skaper, S. Varon, and J. Sato, 1980, Exp. Cell Res. 125, 183-190) were seeded on tissue culture plastic surfaces pretreated with polyornithine (PORN) and with one of the factors to be tested. Substantial cell survival could be observed after 72 hr in vitro on PORN pretreated with serum or laminin, whereas most cells appeared to be degenerating on untreated PORN, PORN-fibronectin, and PORN-chondronectin. Cell attachment, although quantitatively similar for all these substrata, was temperature-dependent on serum and laminin but not on fibronectin or untreated PORN. In a short-term bioassay, neurite development was abundant on laminin, scarce on serum and fibronectin, and absent on PORN. No positive correlation between cell spreading and neurite production could be seen: cell spreading was more extensive on PORN and fibronectin than on laminin or serum, while on laminin-treated dishes, spreading was similar for neurite-bearing and non-neurite-bearing cells. Laminin effects on retinal neurons were clearly substratum dependent. When bound to tissue culture plastic, laminin showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on cell attachment and did not stimulate neurite development. PORN-bound laminin, on the other hand, did not affect cell attachment but caused marked stimulation of neurite development, suggesting that laminin conformation and/or the spatial distribution of active sites play an important role in the neurite-promoting function of this extracellular matrix molecule. Investigation of the embryonic retina with ELISA and immunocytochemical methods showed that laminin is present in this organ during development. Therefore, in vivo and in vitro observations are consistent with the possibility that laminin might influence neuronal development in the retina. PMID:3902534

  8. Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Sternad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

  9. Development of Growth Medium for Centella Asiatica Cell Culture Via Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozita Omar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sucrose, Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA and 6-BenzylAminoPurine (BAP concentrations on cell growth of Centella asiatica cell suspension culture were studied. The concentrations were designed using Central-composite experimental design and regression analysis was carried out to obtain response surface model describing cell growth for prediction of optimum conditions. Only sucrose as a single factor was positively significant for cell growth. Increasing sucrose concentration from 3.32 to 6.68% (w/v resulted in an increase in dry cell weight from 16-27 g L-1. IAA and BAP as single factors and other possible interaction effect were insignificant. The optimum values predicted to be 6.68% (w/v sucrose, 0.84 mg L-1 IAA and 1.17 mg L-1 BAP yielding 27.4 g L-1 dry cell weight with 81.4% regression equation fitness of the experimental data.

  10. PRELIMINARY DATA OF THE IN VITRO CULTURE RESPONSE OF ROSA CANINA L. SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Daniel Maftei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro cultures of Rosa canina L. were initiated starting from shoot tips harvested during various periods of the vegetative season. The first observations ascertained that the offshoots cut off at the beginning of July offred a bestin vitro response, and the MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg/l and IBA (0.5 mg/l induced both the multiple shooting and the formation of callus surrounding the shoots’ base. Some of the shoots provided roots on this mediumformula (sporadically. The hormone-free MS medium stimulated the rooting of the shoots, and scarcely the production of callus at the stem base. The future tests aim to fiind out the best medium variants to enhance the direct caulogenesis,the rooting of the in vitro shoots, and the survival of the regenerants during the ex vitro environment.

  11. Identification, sequence analysis and expression studies of novel anther-specific genes of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinelli, P; Hu, Y; Ma, H

    1998-07-01

    Relatively little is known about pollen development at the molecular level. For the purpose of gaining understanding of the molecular control of pollen development, a number of Arabidopsis cDNA fragments were isolated using subtractive hybridizations. DNA and RNA hybridizations and sequence analyses indicate that we have isolated cDNAs representing 13 genes. Sequences for 8 of these genes are novel, while those for the remaining 5 genes have substantial similarity to genes previously reported as anther- or pollen-specific. RNA in situ hybridizations with 5 genes revealed that four of them are tapetum-specific with differing temporal expression patterns during pollen development and one is pollen-specific within the flower. Sequence analysis of full-length cDNAs showed that one of the novel genes, ATA7, encodes a protein related to lipid transfer proteins. Another gene, ATA20, encodes a protein with novel repeat sequences and a glycine-rich domain that shares a predicted structure with a known cell wall protein. The full-length ATA27 cDNA encodes a protein similar to the BGL4 beta-glucosidase from Brassica napus. The ATA27 protein is predicted to have an ER retention signal and an acidic isoelectric point, suggesting that it may be localized to the ER lumen. This may be a means of compartmentalization from its substrate(s). Our studies demonstrate that subtractive hybridizations can be used to identify previously unknown genes, which should be valuable tools for further study of pollen and anther development and function. PMID:9687065

  12. Biometrical characteristics of R2 generation of anther-derived pepper (Capsicum spp. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kisia?a

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight anther-derived DH lines of pepper hybrids: two red-fruited (AP14, AP15 and two yellow lines (AP25 and AP32 of C. annuum (ATZ1 × POF2, two lines of (C. frutescens × C. annuumF1 (FA1, FA2, and two of (C. frutescens × C. chinenseF1 (FCH2, FCH3, were studied regarding important morphological plant and fruit characters. C. annuum breeding line 'ATZ1' was used as a standard. The following traits were evaluated: total fruit yield, fruit weight, weight of placenta with seeds, technological matter, pericarp thickness, extract content, dry matter content, weight and number of seeds per fruit. The level of homogeneity within the DH lines was analysed with a one-way analysis of variance, additionally the values of coefficient of variation (CV were determined for the tested plant characters. The highest phenotypic uniformity was noted for the red-fruited lines obtained from anthers of (ATZ1 × POF2 and for the DH lines of (C. frutescens × C. annuum F1, while the least uniform were FCH2 and FCH3 lines of (C. frutescens × C. chinenseF1. The DH lines AP14 and AP15, as well as FA1 and FA2 were phenotype homogeneous in respect of weight of fruit, technological matter, pericarp thickness and extract content. For these parameters, also the values of CV were the lowest. Statistically significant interline polymorphism between the androgenic lines of the same origin was detected among the lines of C. annuum (ATZ1 × POF2.

  13. Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras / Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Celso Lopes de, Albuquerque Junior; Frederico, Denardi; Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; Rubens Onofre, Nodari.

    1255-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina [...] , e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catar [...] ina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination capacity. The cv. Condessa, although having high pollen germination capacity, produces less anthers and less pollen grains per anther than the others. Princesa is the cultivar of best pattern as pollinizer, once it combines number of anthers/flower, number of pollen grains/anther and pollen germination capacity in a better satisfactory level.

  14. Differential proliferative responses of cultured Schwann cells to axolemma- and myelin-enriched fractions. I. Biochemical studies

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Cultured rat Schwann cells were treated for 72 h with axolemma- and myelin-enriched fractions prepared from rat brainstem. [3H]Thymidine was added to the cultures 48 h before the termination of the experiment. Although, both fractions produced a dose-dependent uptake of label into Schwann cells, the shape of the dose response curves and rates at which [3H]thymidine was incorporated were different. The axolemma-enriched fraction produced a sigmoid dose response curve with a Hill coefficient of...

  15. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  16. Culture Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology for in vitro Shoot Bud Development of Solanum melongena L. for Micropropagation

    OpenAIRE

    Sila Bhattacharya; Padma Mallaya Naveenchandra; Gokare Aswathanarayana Ravishankar

    2011-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used for the optimization of shoot bud response and shoot bud induction in leaf explants of Solanum melongena cultivar Arka Shirish. Three independent variables were evaluated for shoot bud response and shoot bud induction. The variables include the concentrations of nitrogen (N2), sucrose and growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ). The shoot bud response for cultured explant was optimized at 4.34 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.65% of sucrose and 0.67 mg/l of TDZ with 9...

  17. In vitro ?-ray-induced inflammatory response is dominated by culturing conditions rather than radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, G; Morini, J; Baiocco, G; Mariotti, L; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory pathway has a pivotal role in regulating the fate and functions of cells after a wide range of stimuli, including ionizing radiation. However, the molecular mechanisms governing such responses have not been completely elucidated yet. In particular, the complex activation dynamics of the Nuclear transcription Factor kB (NF-kB), the key molecule governing the inflammatory pathway, still lacks a complete characterization. In this work we focused on the activation dynamics of the NF-kB (subunit p65) pathway following different stimuli. Quantitative measurements of NF-kB were performed and results interpreted within a systems theory approach, based on the negative feedback loop feature of this pathway. Time-series data of nuclear NF-kB concentration showed no evidence of ?-ray induced activation of the pathway for doses up to 5Gy but highlighted important transient effects of common environmental stress (e.g. CO2, temperature) and laboratory procedures, e.g. replacing the culture medium, which dominate the in vitro inflammatory response. PMID:25791775

  18. In vitro ?-ray-induced inflammatory response is dominated by culturing conditions rather than radiation exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, G.; Morini, J.; Baiocco, G.; Mariotti, L.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2015-03-01

    The inflammatory pathway has a pivotal role in regulating the fate and functions of cells after a wide range of stimuli, including ionizing radiation. However, the molecular mechanisms governing such responses have not been completely elucidated yet. In particular, the complex activation dynamics of the Nuclear transcription Factor kB (NF-kB), the key molecule governing the inflammatory pathway, still lacks a complete characterization. In this work we focused on the activation dynamics of the NF-kB (subunit p65) pathway following different stimuli. Quantitative measurements of NF-kB were performed and results interpreted within a systems theory approach, based on the negative feedback loop feature of this pathway. Time-series data of nuclear NF-kB concentration showed no evidence of ?-ray induced activation of the pathway for doses up to 5Gy but highlighted important transient effects of common environmental stress (e.g. CO2, temperature) and laboratory procedures, e.g. replacing the culture medium, which dominate the in vitro inflammatory response.

  19. Heterogeneous response to X-ray and ultraviolet light irradiations of cultured skin fibroblasts in two families with Gardner's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heterogeneous response to X-ray and far UV (254 nm) light irradiations was found in cultured skin fibroblast lines from 2 separate families with Gardner's syndrome. When compared to 2 normal control cultures and cultures from 2 patients with nonfamilial colon cancer, cultures from 4 clinically affected members of family 1 showed increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of both X-ray and UV light irradiations. These cells also showed a delayed pattern of X-ray potentially lethal damage repair (PLDR) and absent UV PLDR. In contrast, cultures from 3 members of family 2 (2 of whom were clinically affected) showed a normal response of survival and PLDR to both X-ray and UV light irradiations. Thus increased sensitivity of cultured skin fibroblasts to X-ray and UV light irradiations was not a consistent in vitro finding in patients with Gardner's syndrome. However, in families with Gardner's syndrome who demonstrate in vitro radiosensitivity, additional studies are needed to assess the usefulness of these techniques in detecting affected individuals prior to the development of colon carcinoma and other manifestations

  20. Culture & Advertising : How masculinity or femininity of a culture is influencing the consumers’ responses on the gender appearance in advertisements?

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek-endrawes, Marlin

    2008-01-01

    Everybody has seen advertisements in his/her life even if this person is never watching television or listening to radio. However, an average person watches television 1 to 4 hours per day. In these hours of watching television, there is a big probability that this person will see an advertisement. But how does he/she react to this advertisement? There are probabilities of reacting positively or negatively or indifferently. Culture is one of the significant aspects that can determine the reac...

  1. Protein kinase C-regulated cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in cultured rat striatal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Limin; Tang, Qingsong; Wang, John Q.

    2007-01-01

    The transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) promotes target DNA transcription in response to cellular stimulation in brain neurons. Phosphorylation of CREB is regulated by a variety of extracellular and intracellular signals. In this study, protein kinase C (PKC)-regulated CREB phosphorylation was investigated in cultured rat striatal neurons. We found that PKC activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) produced a rapid and transient phosphorylation of CRE...

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility : WalMart, Maersk and the Cultural Bounds of Representation in Corporate Web Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2007-01-01

    Understanding Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as having explicit policies and implicit norms situated in cultural systems highlights the connections between institutional and cultural structures of nation states and business' commitment to CSR as reflected in the strategies used to communicate CSR to public audiences via the Internet.  To frame CSR from a situated perspective (Matten & Moon 2005) implies a shift in understanding relations between corporations and their stakeholders from a corporate-centered model to a cultural systems perspective.  This paper describes an approach to cultural systems in which can be used to frame our understanding of implicit norms with respect to CSR, and demonstrates how these norms result in different practices of communicating CSR in the WalMart and Maersk corporate websites.

  3. Effect of genotype, Culture medium and cold pretreatment on another culture of wheat (T. aestivum L.) mutant lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine in the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 1996-1997. The objective was to investigate the effect of genotype, culture medium and cold pretreatment in calli production from anthers. Anthers of four mutant lines obtained from three cvs, (Omid, Tabassi and Roshan) were produced in the Nuclear Agriculture Center and two check cvs, (Omid and Tabassi) were cultured in two media PII and modified C17. Some of the spikes before plating were kept in dark at 4-5 deg C for one week. The result indicated that the genotype of donar plants had a significant effect on the calli and plants formation. Cold pre-treatment and medium type had no effect on the calli formation, but interaction between the two factors was very significant, and the best result was obtained when anthers were cultured in modified C17 medium without cold pre-treatment

  4. Biography-Driven Strategies as the Great Equalizer: Universal Conditions that Promote K-12 Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanning, Cristina A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD students entering our public school system demands a new pedagogical framework for teaching and learning. With its emphasis on all four dimensions of the CLD student biography (sociocultural, linguistic, cognitive, academic, biography-driven culturally responsive teaching (Herrera, 2010 addresses the limited attention currently devoted to second language learning issues in the literature and research related to culturally responsive pedagogy. This study investigates the use of biography-driven instructional (BDI strategies by 58 general education teachers at the elementary and secondary levels with CLD students in their classrooms using the Biography-Driven Performance Rubric, which measures enactment of teaching standards and educational best practices. Findings indicate that the use of BDI strategies can facilitate the practical actualization of culturallyresponsive teaching. Findings also suggest that implementation of BDI strategies can help teachers overcome challenges that are unique to secondary settings as they accommodate the assets and needs of CLD learners.

  5. Sharpening the lens of culturally responsive science teaching: a call for liberatory education for oppressed student groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codrington, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    Wallace and Brand's framing of culturally responsive science teaching through the lens of critical race theory honors the role of social justice in science education. In this article, I extend the discussion through reflections on the particular learning needs of students from oppressed cultural groups, specifically African Americans. Understanding the political nature of education, I explore the importance of transforming science education so that it has the capacity to provide African American students with tools for their own liberation. I discuss Wallace and Brand's research findings in relation to the goal of liberatory education, and offer ideas for how science educators might push forward this agenda as they strive for culturally responsive teaching with oppressed student groups.

  6. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakanishi, Hidekazu Nakayama, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Andres J Garcia and Yasuhiro Horiike

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of methods for the off–on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of three disulfide compounds containing (i a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, (ii nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA and (iii hepta(ethylene glycol (EG7. Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7–10 to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin—a major serum protein—was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  7. Response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to conditioned medium from cultured oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Miranda, França; Fabiana Mesquita, Barros; Monica Andrade, Lotufo; Kristianne Porta Santos, Fernandes; Ricardo Carneiro, Borra.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the capacity for tumor factors secreted by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines, KB, KB16, and HEP, to induce the secretion of various cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs were isolated from blood samples collected from s [...] ix healthy volunteers and these cells were incubated for 6, 24, 48, or 72 hours in the presence of 50% conditioned medium collected from cultured cell lines pretreated with, or without, stimulants such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Aliquots of each supernatant were then assayed for levels of IFN-?, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TNF-?, and IL-4 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Data collected were analyzed using Student's t-test, an ANOVA test followed by Tukey's test, and tests of Pearson's Correlation. PBMCs cultured with KB16-conditioned medium produced the highest levels of IFN-?. VEGF was also detected in conditioned media collected from all of the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines used, and a significant difference in VEGF levels between control and KB- or KB16-conditioned media was observed. TNF-? was secreted by all PBMC groups within 6 hours of receiving conditioned media, and these levels increased up to the 24 hour timepoint, after which levels of TNF-? stabilized. In contrast, none of the supernatant samples contained detectable levels of IL-4. In combination, these data suggest that direct contact between fresh human PBMCs and conditioned media from tumor cells induces the secretion of TNF-? and VEGF by PBMCs, and this represents an initial angiogenic response.

  8. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Jun; Nakayama, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Garcia, Andres J.; Horiike, Yasuhiro

    2011-08-01

    The development of methods for the off-on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three disulfide compounds containing (i) a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), (ii) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and (iii) hepta(ethylene glycol) (EG7). Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag) sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7-10) to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin—a major serum protein—was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  9. Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of methods for the off-on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three disulfide compounds containing (i) a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), (ii) nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) and (iii) hepta(ethylene glycol) (EG7). Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag) sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7-10) to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin-a major serum protein-was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with thewithout irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

  10. Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ? We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ? MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ? MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ? Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

  11. Beyond Responsiveness to Identity Badges: Future Research on Culture in Disability and Implications for Response to Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiles, Alfredo J.

    2015-01-01

    I critique in this article the construct of culture because of its centrality in creating the notion of "difference," which has been commonly applied to marginalized populations. I examine critically how the notion of culture has been theorized in educational research as a means to obtain theoretical clarity in research design and…

  12. Connecting Classroom Practice to Concepts of Culturally Responsive Teaching: Video Analysis in an Online Teacher Education Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Leslie Ann

    2013-01-01

    Video has been shown to be an effective tool for synthesizing theory and connecting theory to practice in meaningful ways. This design-based research study examined how localized video of a practicing teacher impacted pre-service teachers' ability to learn culturally responsive teaching (CRT) methods and targeted strategies in an online…

  13. Interrogating Practice in Culturally Diverse Classrooms: What Can an Analysis of Student Resistance and Teacher Response Reveal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta; Forghani-Arani, Neda

    2015-01-01

    As classrooms have increasingly become diverse and complex, developing culturally responsive pedagogies is a professional imperative for teachers. However, considerable international research suggests that meeting the needs of diverse pupil cohorts is challenging for many teachers. In this article, we highlight how curriculum and teaching…

  14. A Case Study of Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings and Actions Related to the Culturally Responsive Teaching of "Other" Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Mary M.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Draper-Morris, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory case study using critical theory as a philosophical lens was to focus on two science teacher candidates' understandings of Otherness and their culturally responsive teaching (or the lack thereof) of students they believe are the "Others". The researchers found that even though the participants had different goals…

  15. [The cDNA-AFLP differential display in developing anthers between cotton male sterile and fertile line of "Dong A"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Xiao, Yue-Hua; Li, Xian-Bi; Wang, Wen-Feng; Luo, Xiao-Ying; Pei, Yan

    2002-04-01

    cDNA-AFLP, an effective method for mRNA differential display, was employed to compare the gene expression in developing anthers between the male sterile and fertile plants of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivar, Dong A. In the micro-spore stage, there were more differential bands of cDNA-AFLP than that in the meio-phase stage. Among 64 differential fragments produced by cDNA-AFLP, three were randomly selected for further analysis. RNA dot blotting showed that the GHA27 transcript was expressed mainly in floral tissues; on the other hand, the GHA28 and GHA47 transcripts were present specifically in anther. BLAST analysis demonstrated that GHA27 was highly similar to the plant ADP-ribosylation factor genes, while GHA28 and GHA27 were shown no significant similar to any sequences in the available databases. PMID:11985272

  16. Learning to Be a Culturally Responsive Teacher through International Study Trips: Transformation or Tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Ninetta; Major, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid changes in the ethnic and cultural make-up of school communities have highlighted the need for teacher education to prepare teachers for culturally diverse contexts. International study trips provide direct experience and interaction with culturally diverse "others" as a way to extend pre-service teachers' understandings of difference…

  17. Teaching Culture as National and Transnational: A Response to "Teachers' Work."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on "Teachers' Work: Institutional Isomorphism and Cultural Variation in the U.S., Germany and Japan" (LeTendre, Baker, Akiba, Goesling, and Wiseman, 2001), applauding the blend of global culture and national culture perspectives, proposing a more systematic synthesis, discussing what it means to take both transnational parallels and…

  18. Creation of Culturally Responsive Classrooms: Teachers' Conceptualization of a New Rationale for Cultural Responsiveness and Management of Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry J.

    2012-01-01

    Presently, there are a growing number of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong schools. This article examines teachers' views of the cross-cultural experience of ethnic minority students, their influence on the performance of these students, and how the diverse learning needs of these students are being addressed. Qualitative data were collected…

  19. Anther Cap Retention Prevents Self-pollination by Elaterid Beetles in the South African Orchid Eulophia foliosa

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Craig I.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Pollination by insects that spend long periods visiting many flowers on a plant may impose a higher risk of facilitated self-pollination. Orchids and asclepiads are particularly at risk as their pollen is packaged as pollinia and so can be deposited on self-stigmas en masse. Many orchids and asclepiads have adaptations to limit self-deposition of pollinia, including gradual reconfiguration of pollinaria following removal. Here an unusual mechanism—anther cap retentio...

  20. Ultrastructural studies on the sporogenous tissue and anther wall of Leucojum aestivum (amaryllidaceae) in different developmental stages

    OpenAIRE

    Nuran Ekici; Feruzan Dane

    2012-01-01

    In this study, ultrastructures of anther wall and sporogenous tissue of Leucojum aestivum were investigated during different developmental stages. Cytomictic channels were seen between pollen mother cells during prophase I. Polar distribution was described in the organelle content of pollen mother cells and microspores in early phases of microsporogenesis and also in pollen mitosis. Active secretion was observed in tapetal cells. Previous reports about developmental stages of male gametophyte...

  1. The Effect of Heat Stress on Tomato Pollen Characteristics is Associated with Changes in Carbohydrate Concentration in the Developing Anthers

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Etan; Peet, Mary M.; Pharr, D. Mason

    2002-01-01

    Continuous exposure of tomato ‘Trust’ to high temperatures (day/night temperatures of 32/26 °C) markedly reduced the number of pollen grains per flower and decreased viability. The effect of heat stress on pollen viability was associated with alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in various parts of the anther during its development. Under control, favourable temperature conditions (28/22 °C), starch accumulated in the pollen grains, where it reached a maximum value 3 d before anthe...

  2. Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue,; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

    2012-01-01

    Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number o...

  3. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kinsella, Paula

    2012-03-10

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR\\/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-? expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile.

  4. Rice CYP703A3, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, is essential for development of anther cuticle and pollen exine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xijia; Wu, Di; Shi, Jianxin; He, Yi; Pinot, Franck; Grausem, Bernard; Yin, Changsong; Zhu, Lu; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2014-10-01

    Anther cuticle and pollen exine act as protective envelopes for the male gametophyte or pollen grain, but the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. Previously, a tapetum-expressed CYP703A3, a putative cytochrome P450 fatty acid hydroxylase, was shown to be essential for male fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the biochemical and biological roles of CYP703A3 has not been characterized. Here, we observed that cyp703a3-2 caused by one base insertion in CYP703A3 displays defective pollen exine and anther epicuticular layer, which differs from Arabidopsis cyp703a2 in which only defective pollen exine occurs. Consistently, chemical composition assay showed that levels of cutin monomers and wax components were dramatically reduced in cyp703a3-2 anthers. Unlike the wide range of substrates of Arabidopsis CYP703A2, CYP703A3 functions as an in-chain hydroxylase only for a specific substrate, lauric acid, preferably generating 7-hydroxylated lauric acid. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analyses revealed that the expression of CYP703A3 is directly regulated by Tapetum Degeneration Retardation, a known regulator of tapetum PCD and pollen exine formation. Collectively, our results suggest that CYP703A3 represents a conserved and diversified biochemical pathway for in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid required for the development of male organ in higher plants. PMID:24798002

  5. Isolation and characterization of CaMF3, an anther-specific gene in Capsicum annuum L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Xuefeng, Hao; Changming, Chen; Guoju, Chen; Bihao, Cao; Qinghua, Chen; Jianjun, Lei.

    Full Text Available Previous work on gene expression analysis based on RNA sequencing identified a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum L. In this work, we examined the accumulation of one of the transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), CaMF3 (ma [...] le fertile 3), in the flower buds of a fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF3 was 1,951 bp long and contained 6 exons and 5 introns, with the complete sequence encoding a putative 25.89 kDa protein of 234 amino acids. The predicted protein of CaMF3 shared sequence similarity with members of the isoamyl acetate-hydrolyzing esterase (IAH1) protein family. CaMF3 expression was detected only in flower buds at stages 7 and 8 and in open flowers of a male fertile line; no expression was observed in any organs of a male sterile line. Fine expression analysis revealed that CaMF3 was expressed specifically in anthers of the fertile line. These results suggest that CaMF3 is an anther-specific gene that may be essential for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

  6. Isolation and characterization of CaMF3, an anther-specific gene in Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Hao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work on gene expression analysis based on RNA sequencing identified a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum L. In this work, we examined the accumulation of one of the transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, CaMF3 (male fertile 3, in the flower buds of a fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF3 was 1,951 bp long and contained 6 exons and 5 introns, with the complete sequence encoding a putative 25.89 kDa protein of 234 amino acids. The predicted protein of CaMF3 shared sequence similarity with members of the isoamyl acetate-hydrolyzing esterase (IAH1 protein family. CaMF3 expression was detected only in flower buds at stages 7 and 8 and in open flowers of a male fertile line; no expression was observed in any organs of a male sterile line. Fine expression analysis revealed that CaMF3 was expressed specifically in anthers of the fertile line. These results suggest that CaMF3 is an anther-specific gene that may be essential for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

  7. Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-? expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: ? Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-?, and a low proliferation rate. ? PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. ? Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. ? Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-?. ? Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

  8. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Meiling; Liu, Tianqing; Song, Kedong; Ge, Dan; Li, Xiangqin

    2015-10-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37°C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20°C for 120min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:26117772

  9. Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis cultured at different water levels in outdoor concrete tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A. Nlewadim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen-day-old hatchery-raised fry obtained from hormonally-induced spawns of mature African catfish H. longifilis brood stock were introduced to three different water levels (0.35, 0.50 and 0.65m in four replicates in 12 units of 2x2x1m3 outdoor concrete tanks. The fry were similarly stocked initially at 50 fry m-2 and later thinned down to 5 fish m-2 and cultured for 6 months. Fish were fed twice daily with commercial pellet feeds (Coppens™ while adjusting the feeding rate from 10 to 4% body weight and pellet size from 0.2 to 4.5 mm. The effects of pond water levels were evaluated in growth responses and survival. Water quality variables were similar (p > 0.05 in all compartments. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were at the optimum level for fish. The results reveal significant (P H. longifilis from fry to sub-adult and from the grow-out/fattening of sub-adult to adult, respectively, in outdoor concrete tanks.

  10. Season linked responses to fine and quasi-ultrafine Milan PM in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, E; Pezzolato, E; Mantecca, P; Holme, J A; Franzetti, A; Camatini, M; Gualtieri, M

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to urbane airborne particulate matter (PM) is related to the onset and exacerbation of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. The fine (PM1), and quasi-ultrafine (PM0.4) Milan particles collected during different seasons have been characterised and the biological effects on human epithelial lung A549, monocytes THP-1 cells and their co-culture, evaluated and compared with the results obtained on the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions. Chemical composition and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of PM0.4 showed that this fraction was very similar to PM1 for biological responses and dimension. All the winter fractions increased within 1h the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), while only summer PM2.5 had this effect on A549 cells. The phosphorylation of H2AX (?H2AX), a marker of double strand DNA breaks (DSBs), was increased by all the winter fractions on A549 and THP-1 cells while summer PM samples did not induced this effect. PM0.4 and PM1 biological effects are partly similar and related to the season of sampling, with effects on ROS and DNA damage induced only by winter PM fractions. The winter PM damaging effect on DNA correlates with the presence of organic compounds. PMID:23159502

  11. Seeing risk and allocating responsibility: talk of culture and its consequences on the work of patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Julia E

    2014-11-01

    To improve patient safety, hospitals have implemented interventions to change their culture. Although there is great enthusiasm for these interventions at policy and management levels, we know little about how clinicians talk about "culture" as they do the work of quality and safety improvement. This article investigates the way talk of culture arises in situ, showing how it is a trope that can frustrate, obscure, and prevent the collective social action necessary to change practice. The findings are based on a two-year ethnographic case study of a large hospital in the United States that undertook an organization-wide safety improvement initiative. They show that culture is frequently talked about as a behavioral trait of individuals, which makes the identification of social barriers and facilitators difficult. Culture talk can also obscure uncomfortable, yet crucial social phenomena, including history, politics and inequalities in power that may contribute to unsafe care delivery. The consequences of this obscurity are (1) practices that might make care safer are not considered, and (2) responsibility for enacting safe practice is allocated to those with the least authority and capacity to mitigate risk. The article closes by discussing how talk of culture obscures the role of social context and its contribution to risk in patient safety. PMID:25439671

  12. A refined in vitro model to study inflammatory responses in organotypic membrane culture of postnatal rat hippocampal slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miettinen Riitta

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Propagated tissue degeneration, especially during aging, has been shown to be enhanced through potentiation of innate immune responses. Neurodegenerative diseases and a wide variety of inflammatory conditions are linked together and several anti-inflammatory compounds considered as having therapeutic potential for example in Alzheimer's disease (AD. In vitro brain slice techniques have been widely used to unravel the complexity of neuroinflammation, but rarely, has the power of the model itself been reported. Our aim was to gain a more detailed insight and understanding of the behaviour of hippocampus tissue slices in serum-free, interface culture per se and after exposure to different pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds. Methods The responses of the slices to pro- and anti-inflammatory stimuli were monitored at various time points by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and the release of cytokines interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-? and nitric oxide (NO from the culture media. Histological methods were applied to reveal the morphological status after exposure to stimuli and during the time course of the culture period. Statistical power analysis were made with nQuery Advisor®, version 5.0, (Statistical Solutions, Saugus, MA computer program for Wilcoxon (Mann-Whitney rank-sum test. Results By using the interface membrane culture technique, the hippocampal slices largely recover from the trauma caused by cutting after 4–5 days in vitro. Furthermore, the cultures remain stable and retain their responsiveness to inflammatory stimuli for at least 3 weeks. During this time period, cultures are susceptible to modification by inflammatory stimuli as assessed by quantitative biochemical assays and morphological characterizations. Conclusion The present report outlines the techniques for studying immune responses using a serum-free slice culture model. Statistically powerful data under controlled culture conditions and with ethically justified use of animals can be obtained as soon as after 4–5 DIV. The model is most probably suitable also for studies of chronic inflammation.

  13. Culture, gender and health care stigma: Practitioners' response to facial masking experienced by people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Ma, Hui-ing

    2011-07-01

    Facial masking in Parkinson's disease is the reduction of automatic and controlled expressive movement of facial musculature, creating an appearance of apathy, social disengagement or compromised cognitive status. Research in western cultures demonstrates that practitioners form negatively biased impressions associated with patient masking. Socio-cultural norms about facial expressivity vary according to culture and gender, yet little research has studied the effect of these factors on practitioners' responses toward patients who vary in facial expressivity. This study evaluated the effect of masking, culture and gender on practitioners' impressions of patient psychological attributes. Practitioners (N = 284) in the United States and Taiwan judged 12 Caucasian American and 12 Asian Taiwanese women and men patients in video clips from interviews. Half of each patient group had a moderate degree of facial masking and the other half had near-normal expressivity. Practitioners in both countries judged patients with higher masking to be more depressed and less sociable, less socially supportive, and less cognitively competent than patients with lower masking. Practitioners were more biased by masking when judging the sociability of the American patients, and American practitioners' judgments of patient sociability were more negatively biased in response to masking than were those of Taiwanese practitioners. Practitioners were more biased by masking when judging the cognitive competence and social supportiveness of the Taiwanese patients, and Taiwanese practitioners' judgments of patient cognitive competence were more negatively biased in response to masking than were those of American practitioners. The negative response to higher masking was stronger in practitioner judgments of women than men patients, particularly American patients. The findings suggest local cultural values as well as ethnic and gender stereotypes operate on practitioners' use of facial expressivity in clinical impression formation. PMID:21664737

  14. Response of Soybean Lines to Differentially Selected Cultures of Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines Ichinohe

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, S. C.; Brar, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Eight soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, cultures were developed by their continuous selection on soybean lines with various level of resistance. Each soybean line was inoculated with eggs and larvae of the eight cultures. Female development was much higher on 'Essex' and 'Forrest' than the other lines. The development of nematode cultures selected on Essex and Forrest was low on the other six soybean lines compared with the lines on which they were selected. PI 89772 and PI...

  15. Customer’s Responses to Crowded Restaurant Environment: Cross Cultural Differences between American and Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae-Young; Park, Sangwon

    2008-01-01

    The study aims at demonstrating cultural differences between Americans and Chinese in terms of customer's perceptions and satisfaction of crowded environments within the context of restaurant settings. It has been noted that culture has a substantial impact on customer affection and judgment, and crowding in service environments is a critical antecedent of customer satisfaction. Considering these main themes, this study examined how cultural differences play a role in predicting customer sati...

  16. Thermotolerance and the heat shock response in normal human keratinocytes in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protective responses of normal human epidermal keratinocytes in culture, after exposure to elevated temperatures (heat shock), were examined. Cell viability, measured 24-48 h after a 20-min heat challenge at temperatures between 37 degrees C and 54 degrees C, declined sharply within a narrow 2 degrees-3 degrees C range. However, conditioning with a mild thermal pretreatment (40 degrees C or 42 degrees C for 1 h) protected the keratinocytes against a subsequent heat challenge. This induced thermotolerance was apparent when cells were challenged at 1, 3, and 6 h after the thermal pre-treatment, but disappeared by 24 h. Heating conditions that induce thermotolerance also stimulated the synthesis of heat-shock proteins (hsp) in these cells. Inductions of prominent 35S-methionine labeled bands at 70, 78, and 90 kDa were observed. However, the increases in synthesis of these heat-shock proteins did not correlate well with thermotolerance, because large increases were also observed at certain elevated temperatures that did not produce improved survival. Keratins observed in these cells (50 and 58 kDa classes) were not induced by heat shock. The development of thermotolerance, and the induction of hsp, were both completely blocked by 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin), an inhibitor of newly synthesized messenger RNA, but not by adenosine, the normal analog. While heat-inducible mRNA apparently mediate some function important for the development of thermotolerance, the nature of topment of thermotolerance, the nature of that role remains speculative. Overall, our findings establish the existence of a functional thermal protective mechanism in human keratinocytes that appears to require the synthesis of new mRNA

  17. A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Hofmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

  18. Regeneração in vitro de anteras de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L. e mapeamento de QTL associado In vitro regeneration of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. anthers and detection of associated QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Dias Lannes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A baixa taxa de regeneração in vitro de alguns cultivares de arroz da subespécie indica limita a utilização de técnicas de cultura de anteras como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares. A identificação de regiões genômicas associadas à formação de calos e regeneração de plantas, a partir do cultivo de anteras, poderá permitir a transferência do caráter por seleção assistida. Duas populações de retrocruzamento foram utilizadas para o mapeamento genético e estudo destes caracteres, sendo Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genótipos e BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genótipos. Duzentas anteras imaturas de cada genótipo utilizado no estudo foram inoculadas em meio NL líquido e, após 40 dias, os calos formados foram transferidos para o meio MS sólido para regeneração de plantas. Todas as plantas doadoras de anteras foram usadas na extração de DNA genômico e sete primers RAPD foram utilizados na geração de marcadores para a construção dos mapas de ligação dos retrocruzamentos estudados. A taxa de formação de calos variou de 2,27 a 3,36% e a taxa de regeneração de plantas 1,38 a 1,82%, não se diferenciando significativamente. Seis grupos de ligação foram obtidos, três em cada população. Um QTL com LOD 3,10 foi detectado para o caráter formação de calos na população Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. Nenhum QTL foi detectado para a característica regeneração de plantas.The low in vitro regeneration of some indica rice cultivars, limits the use of anther culture techniques as a tool to reduce the time for releasing new cultivars. The identification of genomic regions associated with callus formation and in vitro regeneration from anther culture, will facilitate selection of these traits through marker assisted techniques. Two backcross populations were used to study and map these traits, Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genotypes and BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genotypes. Two hundred immature anthers, from each genotype used in this study, were inoculated in liquid NL medium for callus induction and, after 40 days, the formed callus were transferred to solid MS medium for plant regeneration. Each anther donor plant was used for DNA extraction and seven RAPD primers were used to assess genomic regions associated to callus formation and plant regeneration. As results, callus formation ranged from 2.27 up to 3.36% and plant regeneration ranged from 1.38 up to 1.82%, no significant differences were observed. Six linkage groups were obtained, being three from each population. One QTL was detected associated to callus formation, with LOD score 3.10, in the population Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. No QTL association was detected to the trait plant regeneration.

  19. Regeneração in vitro de anteras de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) e mapeamento de QTL associado / In vitro regeneration of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) anthers and detection of associated QTL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sérgio Dias, Lannes; Paulo Dejalma, Zimmer; Antonio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Eduardo Alano, Vieira; Ariano Martins de, Magalhães Junior; Maurício Marini, Kopp; Fábio Almeida de, Freitas.

    1355-13-01

    Full Text Available A baixa taxa de regeneração in vitro de alguns cultivares de arroz da subespécie indica limita a utilização de técnicas de cultura de anteras como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares. A identificação de regiões genômicas associadas à formação de calos e regeneração de plantas, a pa [...] rtir do cultivo de anteras, poderá permitir a transferência do caráter por seleção assistida. Duas populações de retrocruzamento foram utilizadas para o mapeamento genético e estudo destes caracteres, sendo Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genótipos) e BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genótipos). Duzentas anteras imaturas de cada genótipo utilizado no estudo foram inoculadas em meio NL líquido e, após 40 dias, os calos formados foram transferidos para o meio MS sólido para regeneração de plantas. Todas as plantas doadoras de anteras foram usadas na extração de DNA genômico e sete primers RAPD foram utilizados na geração de marcadores para a construção dos mapas de ligação dos retrocruzamentos estudados. A taxa de formação de calos variou de 2,27 a 3,36% e a taxa de regeneração de plantas 1,38 a 1,82%, não se diferenciando significativamente. Seis grupos de ligação foram obtidos, três em cada população. Um QTL com LOD 3,10 foi detectado para o caráter formação de calos na população Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. Nenhum QTL foi detectado para a característica regeneração de plantas. Abstract in english The low in vitro regeneration of some indica rice cultivars, limits the use of anther culture techniques as a tool to reduce the time for releasing new cultivars. The identification of genomic regions associated with callus formation and in vitro regeneration from anther culture, will facilitate sel [...] ection of these traits through marker assisted techniques. Two backcross populations were used to study and map these traits, Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genotypes) and BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genotypes). Two hundred immature anthers, from each genotype used in this study, were inoculated in liquid NL medium for callus induction and, after 40 days, the formed callus were transferred to solid MS medium for plant regeneration. Each anther donor plant was used for DNA extraction and seven RAPD primers were used to assess genomic regions associated to callus formation and plant regeneration. As results, callus formation ranged from 2.27 up to 3.36% and plant regeneration ranged from 1.38 up to 1.82%, no significant differences were observed. Six linkage groups were obtained, being three from each population. One QTL was detected associated to callus formation, with LOD score 3.10, in the population Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. No QTL association was detected to the trait plant regeneration.

  20. The Role of Action Research in Fostering Culturally-Responsive Practices in a Preschool Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Manning, Mariana; Mitchell, Christina Hanson

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood teachers and educational programs are expected to be the primary resources as children experience different and sometimes conflicting cultural contexts. Early educators can play a paramount role as young children move through fluid identities and start recognizing and navigating within and across spaces of cultural

  1. Keeping up the Conversation on Culture: A Response to Robert Courchene and Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Marr, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Robert Courchene's 1996 article entitled "Teaching Canadian Culture: Teacher Preparation" sparked a conversation in the pages of the "TESL Canada Journal" that continues today. From advocating the teaching of significant historical events and icons to encouraging second-language learners to embrace cultural ambiguity, there is a wide spectrum of…

  2. C. P. Snow's "The Two Cultures": Michael Polanyi's Response and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Struan

    2011-01-01

    C. P. Snow's "The Two Cultures" controversially contrasted science and literature, suggesting that neither scientists nor literary intellectuals have much in common with, and seldom bother speaking to, the other. Responding to Snow, Michael Polanyi argued that specialization has made modern culture, not twofold but manifold. In his major work,…

  3. VISION: A Model of Cultural Responsiveness for Speech-Language Pathologists Working in Family Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association has established knowledge and skills needed for culturally competent service delivery by speech-language pathologists. Among these are skills needed to demonstrate sensitivity to cultural and linguistic differences. The purpose of this article is to describe a model, VISION, to assist in development…

  4. The Molecular Bacterial Load Assay Replaces Solid Culture for Measuring Early Bactericidal Response to Antituberculosis Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtafya, Bariki; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Hoelscher, Michael; Ntinginya, Elias N.; Kohlenberg, Anke; Rachow, Andrea; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; McHugh, Timothy D.; Heinrich, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the use of the molecular bacterial load (MBL) assay, for measuring viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum, in comparison with solid agar and liquid culture. The MBL assay provides early information on the rate of decline in bacterial load and has technical advantages over culture in either form. PMID:24871215

  5. RESPONSE OF EMBRYOS OF SOME VARIETIES OF RICE FOR THEIR CALLUSING AND DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P.SINGH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the main food of most of the countries of the world. To cope with the population explosion, conventional method of rice production seems inadequate. Hense, for this purpose; tissue culture technology has been introduced. Before applying any advanced study, such as anther culture, protoplast culture or genetic engineering etc., it is essential to work on the rice varieties from its embryo level. In this perspective, four varieties of rice had been undertaken for the response of their embryos on different concentrations of 2,4D, for their callusing and upon different concentrations of IAA and KN for differentiation. Out of the four varieties of rice, Tulsi and Kanak embryos showed the best response for their callusing at the strength 6 mg/l of 2,4D - 40% and 22% respectively, which is followed by Pusa-Basmati and Birsa 101 embryos. Almost all the varieties showed their callusing more or less at all the strength of 2,4D taken into investigation. But the strength 6 mg/l was the best strength of 2,4D as upon this strength, all the varieties showed their callusing response. On the other hand, embryo derived callus when transferrred to differentiating medium MS + IAA (2 mg/l + KN(4mg/l gave the best result.

  6. The multi-dimensional model of M?ori identity and cultural engagement: item response theory analysis of scale properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Houkamau, Carla A

    2013-01-01

    We argue that there is a need for culture-specific measures of identity that delineate the factors that most make sense for specific cultural groups. One such measure, recently developed specifically for M?ori peoples, is the Multi-Dimensional Model of M?ori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE). M?ori are the indigenous peoples of New Zealand. The MMM-ICE is a 6-factor measure that assesses the following aspects of identity and cultural engagement as M?ori: (a) group membership evaluation, (b) socio-political consciousness, (c) cultural efficacy and active identity engagement, (d) spirituality, (e) interdependent self-concept, and (f) authenticity beliefs. This article examines the scale properties of the MMM-ICE using item response theory (IRT) analysis in a sample of 492 M?ori. The MMM-ICE subscales showed reasonably even levels of measurement precision across the latent trait range. Analysis of age (cohort) effects further indicated that most aspects of M?ori identification tended to be higher among older M?ori, and these cohort effects were similar for both men and women. This study provides novel support for the reliability and measurement precision of the MMM-ICE. The study also provides a first step in exploring change and stability in M?ori identity across the life span. A copy of the scale, along with recommendations for scale scoring, is included. PMID:23356361

  7. Greening of organizational culture : Factors influencing the individual's environmental responsibility in a multinational organization – The case of KONE Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Nurkka, Johanna

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the thesis This is an interdisciplinary study that combines theoretical elements from the field on sustainable management, social and organizational psychology, management and international business. Its aim is to carefully assess environmental organizational cultural change and, in particular, by looking at factors that influence an individual in an organization to act in a more environmentally responsible way. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify such influential ...

  8. Preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math using the Geophysical Institute Framework for Professional Development in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry Bertram, Kathryn

    2011-12-01

    The Geophysical Institute (GI) Framework for Professional Development was designed to prepare culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Professional development programs based on the framework are created for rural Alaskan teachers who instruct diverse classrooms that include indigenous students. This dissertation was written in response to the question, "Under what circumstances is the GI Framework for Professional Development effective in preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math?" Research was conducted on two professional development programs based on the GI Framework: the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) and the Science Teacher Education Program (STEP). Both programs were created by backward design to student learning goals aligned with Alaska standards and rooted in principles of indigenous ideology. Both were created with input from Alaska Native cultural knowledge bearers, Arctic scientists, education researchers, school administrators, and master teachers with extensive instructional experience. Both provide integrated instruction reflective of authentic Arctic research practices, and training in diverse methods shown to increase indigenous student STEM engagement. While based on the same framework, these programs were chosen for research because they offer distinctly different training venues for K-12 teachers. STEP offered two-week summer institutes on the UAF campus for more than 175 teachers from 33 Alaska school districts. By contrast, ACMP served 165 teachers from one rural Alaska school district along the Bering Strait. Due to challenges in making professional development opportunities accessible to all teachers in this geographically isolated district, ACMP offered a year-round mix of in-person, long-distance, online, and local training. Discussion centers on a comparison of the strategies used by each program to address GI Framework cornerstones, on methodologies used to conduct program research, and on findings obtained. Research indicates that in both situations the GI Framework for Professional Development was effective in preparing culturally responsive STEM teachers. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed in the conclusion.

  9. Anatomical Responses of Roots in Trifoliate Orange Budded with Satsuma Mandarin to Aerated and Stagnant Culture Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Pear Mohammad; Masaya Shiraishi

    1999-01-01

    Anatomical responses of roots in trifoliate orange budded with satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) to aerated and stagnant culture solutions were investigated. Roots, under aerated condition, had sharply pointed tips and showed intact anatomical features having a few starch grains on the rootcap and cortical cells. The cortical cells were smaller close to the root tip and gradually became elongated towards the base. All these characteristics maintained the same level even u...

  10. Development of Growth Medium for Centella Asiatica Cell Culture Via Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rozita Omar; Abdullah, M A; M.A. Hasan; M. Marziah

    2004-01-01

    The effects of sucrose, Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) and 6-BenzylAminoPurine (BAP) concentrations on cell growth of Centella asiatica cell suspension culture were studied. The concentrations were designed using Central-composite experimental design and regression analysis was carried out to obtain response surface model describing cell growth for prediction of optimum conditions. Only sucrose as a single factor was positively significant for cell growth. Increasing sucrose concentration from 3....

  11. From Inaction to External Whistleblowing: The Influence of the Ethical Culture of Organizations on Employee Responses to Observed Wrongdoing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptein, S. P.

    2009-01-01

    Putting measures in place to prevent wrongdoing in organizations is important, but detecting and correcting wrongdoing is just as vital. Employees who observe wrongdoing should therefore be encouraged to respond in a manner that supports corrective action. This paper examines the influence of the ethical culture of organizations on employee responses to observed wrongdoing. The findings show that, contrary to transparency and congruency of management, many other dimensions of ethical cultu...

  12. A diffusible signal from germinating Orobanche ramosa elicits early defense responses in suspension-cultured Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    El-maarouf-bouteau, Hayat; Moreau, Elisabeth; Errakhi, Rafik; Salle?, Georges

    2008-01-01

    In plant/parasitic plant interaction, little is known about the host plant response before the establishment of the parasite within the host. In the present work, we focused on host responses to parasitic plant, O. ramosa in the early stage of infection. We used a co-culture system of A. thaliana suspension cells and O. ramosa germinated-seeds to avoid parasite attachment. We showed that O. ramosa induced H2O2 generation and camalexin synthesis by A. thaliana followed by a drastic increase in...

  13. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

    1995-12-01

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.

  14. Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced cytotoxicity in cultured rat Sertoli cells involves differential apoptotic response.

    OpenAIRE

    Raychoudhury, Samir S.; Kubinski, Dana

    2003-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants. Some PAHs are carcinogens and may affect the male reproductive system. Therefore, we exposed cultured rat Sertoli cells to a variety of PAHs to determine possible direct toxic effects on the cells of the seminiferous epithelium. Sertoli cells were chosen because they support germ cell development and maintain spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells were isolated from 19-21-day-old male rats and cultured i...

  16. On the Value of Traditional Confucian Culture And the Value of Modern Corporate Social Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzhong Zhu; Yucheng Yao

    2009-01-01

    The core values of the Chinese Confucian Culture such as “humanity, righteousness, harmony, courtesy, honesty and cleanness” represent the soul of five-thousand-years Chinese traditional culture, which may represent the value of maintaining the balanced social benefits and harmonious development of the whole society from the prospective of a whole society, and which may also have some important uses for reference and roles of enlightenment for establishing the values of modern corporate s...

  17. The Investigation of the Relationship between Cultural Values and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Organizational Commitment (OC) and Personal Benefit (PB) in Accounting System of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Jabbarzadeh Kangarlouei; Morteza Motavassel

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to study the relationships between cultural values and ethical dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Organizational Commitment (OC) and Personal Benefit (PB) in accounting system of Iran. The cultural values criteria in this study include Power Distance Index (PDI), Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Individualism (IDV) and Masculinity (MAS). For measuring the cultural values, Hofstede questionnaire (1991) and in order to collect data for CSR, OC, and PB, Sin...

  18. Regulation of gonadotropin receptors, gonadotropin responsiveness, and cell multiplication by somatomedin-C and insulin in cultured pig Leydig cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author have investigated the effects of insulin and somatomedin-C/insulin like growth factor I(Sm-C) in purified porcine Leydig cells in vitro on gonadotrophins (hCG) receptor number, hCG responsiveness (cAMP and testosterone production), and thymidine incorporation into DNA. Leydig cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, vitamin E, and insulin (5 ?g/ml) maintained fairly constant both hCG receptors and hCG responsiveness. When they were cultured for 3 days in the same medium without insulin, there was a dramatic decline (more than 80%) in both hCG receptor number and hCG responsiveness. However the cAMP but not the testosterone response to forskolin was normal. Both insulin and Sm-C at nanomolar concentrations prevent the decline of both hCG receptors and hCG-induced cAMP production. At nanomolar concentrations, Sm-C and insulin enhanced hCG-induced testosterone production but the effect of Sm-C was significantly higher than that of insulin. However, the effect of insulin at higher concentrations (5 ?g/ml) was significantly higher than that of Sm-C at 50 ng/ml. In contrast, at nanomolar concentrations only Sm-C stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell multiplication, the stimulatory effect of insulin on these parameters, was seen only at micromolar concentrations. These results indicate that both Sm-C and insulin acting through the receptors increase Leydig cell steroidogenic responsiveness to hCG by increasing nic responsiveness to hCG by increasing hCG receptor number and improving some step beyond cAMP formation. In contrast, the mitogenic effects of insulin are mediated only through Sm-C receptors

  19. The response of human nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures to repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikka, Marja; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Mathis, Carole; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Merg, Celine; Geertz, Marcel; Martin, Florian; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is linked to the development of respiratory diseases, and there is a need to understand the mechanisms whereby CS causes damage. Although animal models have provided valuable insights into smoking-related respiratory tract damage, modern toxicity testing calls for reliable in vitro models as alternatives for animal experimentation. We report on a repeated whole mainstream CS exposure of nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures that mimic the morphological, physiological, and molecular attributes of the human respiratory tract. Despite the similar cellular staining and cytokine secretion in both tissue types, the transcriptomic analyses in the context of biological network models identified similar and diverse biological processes that were impacted by CS-exposed nasal and bronchial cultures. Our results demonstrate that nasal and bronchial tissue cultures are appropriate in vitro models for the assessment of CS-induced adverse effects in the respiratory system and promising alternative to animal experimentation. PMID:25297719

  20. Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comiskey, Christina Pryor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contribution to our understanding of the cross-cultural implications on ethical values in the business context. This understanding provides unique insights into ethics education and the need for a contextual understanding of applied ethics.

  1. Concentration-dependent gene expression responses to flusilazole in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) is designed to evaluate developmental toxicity based on compound-induced inhibition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into cardiomyocytes. The addition of transcriptomic evaluation within the EST may result in enhanced predictability and improved characterization of the applicability domain, therefore improving usage of the EST for regulatory testing strategies. Transcriptomic analyses assessing factors critical for risk assessment (i.e. dose) are needed to determine the value of transcriptomic evaluation in the EST. Here, using the developmentally toxic compound, flusilazole, we investigated the effect of compound concentration on gene expression regulation and toxicity prediction in ESC differentiation cultures. Cultures were exposed for 24 h to multiple concentrations of flusilazole (0.54-54 ?M) and RNA was isolated. In addition, we sampled control cultures 0, 24, and 48 h to evaluate the transcriptomic status of the cultures across differentiation. Transcriptomic profiling identified a higher sensitivity of development-related processes as compared to cell division-related processes in flusilazole-exposed differentiation cultures. Furthermore, the sterol synthesis-related mode of action of flusilazole toxicity was detected. Principal component analysis using gene sets related to normal ESC differentiation was used to describe the dynamics of ESC differentiation, defined as the 'differentiation track'. The conceas the 'differentiation track'. The concentration-dependent effects on development were reflected in the significance of deviation of flusilazole-exposed cultures from this transcriptomic-based differentiation track. Thus, the detection of developmental toxicity in EST using transcriptomics was shown to be compound concentration-dependent. This study provides further insight into the possible application of transcriptomics in the EST as an improved alternative model system for developmental toxicity testing.

  2. BYSTANDER RESPONSES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES CONTAINING RADIOLABELLED AND UNLABELLED HUMAN CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M.; Azzam, E. I.; Howell, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Research on the radiation-induced bystander effect has been carried out mainly in 2-D tissue culture systems. This study uses a 3-D model, wherein apparently normal human diploid fibroblasts (AG1522) are grown in a carbon scaffold, to investigate the induction of a G1 checkpoint in bystander cells present alongside radiolabelled cells. Cultures were simultaneously pulse-labelled with 3H-deoxycytidine (3HdC) to selectively irradiate a minor fraction of cells, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to id...

  3. Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2015-06-01

    Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID:25842117

  4. Engaging Students from the United Arab Emirates in Culturally Responsive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Sara Ashencaen

    2010-01-01

    The liberal arts education is one that is increasingly being adopted in regions far removed from the USA, such as the United Arab Emirates. The importing of this American educational model is, however, associated with the inexorable influences of dominant cultural forms through the effects of globalisation. However, at the same time international…

  5. Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Connecting New Zealand Teachers of Science with Their Maori Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ted; Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Macfarlane, Angus

    2010-01-01

    This paper illustrates how important changes can occur in science learning and teaching if teachers take the trouble to understand and respect the cultural worlds of Indigenous students, and incorporate something of this understanding within their teaching practice. Ten teachers participated in a specially-designed one-year university postgraduate…

  6. ?-adrenergic receptor binding characteristics and responsiveness in cultured Wistar-Kyoto rat arterial smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tone of arterial blood vessels is regulated by the catecholamines through their receptors on arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC). ?-2-adrenergic receptors of ASMC mediate vasodilation through agonist mediated c-AMP production. Previous reports have described these receptors on freshly isolated blood vessels. This study demonstrates the presence of ?2-adrenergic receptors on cultured rat ASMC and that these receptors are functional. ?-adrenergic receptor binding was measured using [3H]-dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding to the membrane of cultured ASMC from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. The ASMC ?-adrenergic receptors have a Kd of 0.56 +/- 0.16 nM and a Bmax of 57.2 +/- 21.7 fmol/mg protein. Competition binding studies revealed a much greater affinity of these receptors for epinephrine than norepinephrine, indicating the preponderance of a ?2-adrenergic receptor subtype. Isoproterenol stimulation of cultured ASMC resulted in a 14 +/- 7 fold increase in intracellular c-AMP content of these cells indicating these receptors are functional. ?-adrenergic receptors of cultured ASMC provide an excellent system in which the association between hypertension and observed ?-adrenergic receptor differences can be further explored

  7. Overcoming Hindrances to Our Enduring Responsibility to the Ancestors: Protecting Traditional Cultural Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Desiree Renee

    2006-01-01

    As first voiced by activists in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s and then sustained by other Native American leaders throughout the rest of the twentieth century, many Native American communities object to archaeological excavations and the wanton destruction of their traditional cultural places. In this article, the author discusses…

  8. Brassinosteroids promote development of rice pollen grains and seeds by triggering expression of Carbon Starved Anther, a MYB domain protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolei; Liang, Wanqi; Cui, Xiao; Chen, Mingjiao; Yin, Changsong; Luo, Zhijing; Zhu, Jiaying; Lucas, William J; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-05-01

    Transport of photoassimilates from leaf tissues (source regions) to the sink organs is essential for plant development. Here, we show that a phytohormone, the brassinosteroids (BRs) promotes pollen and seed development in rice by directly promoting expression of Carbon Starved Anther (CSA) which encodes a MYB domain protein. Over-expression of the BR-synthesis gene D11 or a BR-signaling factor OsBZR1 results in higher sugar accumulation in developing anthers and seeds, as well as higher grain yield compared with control non-transgenic plants. Conversely, knockdown of D11 or OsBZR1 expression causes defective pollen maturation and reduced seed size and weight, with less accumulation of starch in comparison with the control. Mechanically, OsBZR1 directly promotes CSA expression and CSA directly triggers expression of sugar partitioning and metabolic genes during pollen and seed development. These findings provide insight into how BRs enhance plant reproduction and grain yield in an important agricultural crop. PMID:25754973

  9. Identification and expression analysis of methyl jasmonate responsive ESTs in paclitaxel producing Taxus cuspidata suspension culture cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Sangram K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxol® (paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and stabilization and therefore is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against wide range of cancers. Methyl jasmonate (MJ elicited Taxus cell cultures provide a sustainable option to meet the growing market demand for paclitaxel. Despite its increasing pharmaceutical importance, the molecular genetics of paclitaxel biosynthesis is not fully elucidated. This study focuses on identification of MJ responsive transcripts in cultured Taxus cells using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to identify genes involved in global pathway control. Results Six separate SSH cDNA libraries of paclitaxel-accumulating Taxus cuspidata P991 cell lines were constructed at three different post-elicitation time points (6h, 18h and 5 day to identify genes that are either induced or suppressed in response to MJ. Sequencing of 576 differentially screened clones from the SSH libraries resulted in 331 unigenes. Functional annotation and Gene Ontology (GO analysis of up-regulated EST libraries showed enrichment of several known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes and novel transcripts that may be involved in MJ-signaling, taxane transport, or taxane degradation. Macroarray analysis of these identified genes unravelled global regulatory expression of these transcripts. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a set of 12 candidate genes further confirmed the MJ-induced gene expression in a high paclitaxel accumulating Taxus cuspidata P93AF cell line. Conclusions This study elucidates the global temporal expression kinetics of MJ responsive genes in Taxus suspension cell culture. Functional characterization of the novel genes identified in this study will further enhance the understanding of paclitaxel biosynthesis, taxane transport and degradation.

  10. Plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulak, Katherine G; Khan, Morgan F; Alcantara, Joenel; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. In contrast to the plant, cell cultures of opium poppy do not accumulate alkaloids constitutively but produce sanguinarine in response to treatment with certain fungal-derived elicitors. The induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis provides a model platform to characterize the regulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid pathways and other defense responses. Proteome analysis of elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures by two-dimensional denaturing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of 219 of 340 protein spots based on peptide fragment fingerprint searches of a combination of databases. Of the 219 hits, 129 were identified through pre-existing plant proteome databases, 63 were identified by matching predicted translation products in opium poppy-expressed sequence tag databases, and the remainder shared evidence from both databases. Metabolic enzymes represented the largest category of proteins and included S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, several glycolytic, and a nearly complete set of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, one alkaloid, and several other secondary metabolic enzymes. The abundance of chaperones, heat shock proteins, protein degradation factors, and pathogenesis-related proteins provided a comprehensive proteomics view on the coordination of plant defense responses. Qualitative comparison of protein abundance in control and elicitor-treated cell cultures allowed the separation of induced and constitutive or suppressed proteins. DNA microarrays were used to corroborate increases in protein abundance with a corresponding induction in cognate transcript levels. PMID:18682378

  11. Differential effect of culture epimastigotes and blood-form Trypamastigotes on normal mouse splenocyte responsiveness to mitogens

    OpenAIRE

    L. E. Serrano; J. A. O'Daly

    1986-01-01

    Blood form trypomastigotes of the Y strain of T. cruzi, produced a strong inhibition of the blastogenic response to T and B cell mitogens, of the C3H/He, C57BLand BALB/cJ strains of mice, while culture epimastigotes of the Y strain kept in a medium that allows parasite growth at 26°. 30° and 37°C produced a strong stimulatory effect that was even higher than the effect of the mitogens alone. Both the inhibitory or the stimulatory effects were dose-dependent. The stimulatory effect of epimasti...

  12. Interval Nutrient Pulses Responses of Compatitive Culture Experiment: Chaetoceros Sp. Thallassiosira allenii (Takano, Gomphosphaeria Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur Sisman Aydin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As phytoplankton are indisputably a major component of many food webs, estimating their abundance, biomass and growth rate has been an essential component of marine studies. The aim of this study is to establish the effects of different nutrient pulses on the cell size and biovolumes in competetive experiments of marine phytoplakton that was cultured from natural seawater. The growth of natural pytoplankton populations taken from Izmir bay (Aegean sea, Turkey was observed for 6 different nutrient pulse periods (4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 96 h and determined Chl a, mean cell sizes and biovolumes. Thallassiosira allenii (Takano, Chaetoceros sp. and Gomphosphaeria sp. were dominated all pulse periods during the batch culture experiment. Nutrient pulses T. allenii and Chaetoceros sp. cells enlarged their biovolumes with the extension of pulse period, Gomphosphaeria sp. cells was not.

  13. Thermally stimulated glow peaks in Ge-doped cultured quartz crystals and their radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge-doped crystalline quartz has been examined for its thermally stimulated luminescence and has been found to exhibit TL-glow peaks at 100, 200, and 310 degree sign C. While the peaks at 100 and 310 degree sign C have already been noticed in conventionally grown quartz, the new peak at 200 degree sign C, observed in the present studies, appears to be due to the presence of Ge in quartz lattice. The radiation dependence of this peak upon irradiation at 300 K by high energy electrons (1.75 MeV) has been presented and the results have been compared and discussed in terms of the hydroxyl defects in natural, cultured, and Ge-doped cultured quartz

  14. Uranium uptake and stress responses of in vitro cultivated hairy root culture of Armoracia rusticana.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Van?k, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. 1 (2011), s. 15-28. ISSN 0002-1857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 2B06187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Armoracia rusticana * hairy-root culture * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2011 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2011_Soudek_AGROCHIMICA_15.pdf

  15. Enhanced triterpene production in Tabernaemontana catharinensis cell suspension cultures in response to biotic elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Tabernaemontana catharinensis were treated with autoclaved homogenates of Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium avelanium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects caused by the concentration, exposure time and the type of elicitor on the accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenes were monitored. When exposed to biotic elicitors for longer periods, some cell lines redoubled the production of those triterpenes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae homogenate was the best elicitor of triterpenes in all cell lines investigated.

  16. Enhanced triterpene production in Tabernaemontana catharinensis cell suspension cultures in response to biotic elicitors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sérgio, Pereira; Fábio Kiss, Ticli; Suzelei de Castro, França; Camila Moniz de Souza, Breves; Miriam Verginia, Lourenço.

    Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Tabernaemontana catharinensis were treated with autoclaved homogenates of Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium avelanium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects caused by the concentration, exposure time and the type of elicitor on the accumulation of penta [...] cyclic triterpenes were monitored. When exposed to biotic elicitors for longer periods, some cell lines redoubled the production of those triterpenes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae homogenate was the best elicitor of triterpenes in all cell lines investigated.

  17. Molecular technique identifies the pathogen responsible for culture negative infective endocarditis

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, G. Y.; Manuel, R. J.; Ghori, S.; Brecker, S.; Breathnach, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    A case of culture negative endocarditis complicated by immune complex glomerulonephritis and severe aortic regurgitation necessitated aortic valve replacement. Empirical treatment with penicillin and gentamicin according to UK guidelines was started. The pathogen, Streptococcus sanguis, was later identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA. This molecular technique is likely to be of increasing importance in determining the aetiology of ...

  18. Banking culture and collective responsibility: A memorandum to the UK Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, N.

    2013-01-01

    Basic assumptions • There is wide interest in connecting issues of (i) occupational culture, (ii) compliance/ misconduct, (iii) remuneration and (iv) clawback (the bonus/malus debate). • Individual-focussed measures (supervision, remuneration and measures in civil or criminal law) must be supplemented by a wider, whole-firm regulatory strategy. • Whilst attention has been drawn to ‘the tone at the top’, ‘the tone in the middle’ and ‘the tone at the bottom’ are as important. ...

  19. Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Christopher Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

  20. Elicitor-induced cellular and molecular events are responsible for productivity enhancement in hairy root cultures: an insight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Manoj Kumar; Mehrotra, Shakti; Kukreja, Arun Kumar

    2011-11-01

    A wide range of external stress stimuli triggers a plant cell to undergo a complex network of reactions that ultimately lead to the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites help the plant to survive under stress challenge. The potential of biotic and abiotic elicitors for the induction and enhancement of secondary metabolite production in various culture systems including hairy root (HR) cultures is well-known. The elicitor-induced defense responses involves signal perception of elicitor by a cell surface receptor followed by its transduction involving some major cellular and molecular events including activation of major secondary message signaling pathways. This result in induction of gene expressions escorting to the synthesis of various proteins mainly associated with plant defense responses and secondary metabolite synthesis and accumulation. The review discusses the elicitor-induced various cellular and molecular events and correlates them with enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis in HR systems. Further, this review also concludes that combining elicitation with in-silico approaches enhances the usefulness of this practice in better understanding and identifying the rate-limiting steps of biosynthetic pathways existing in HRs which in turn can contribute towards better productivity by utilizing metabolic engineering aspects. PMID:21909631

  1. PULEX: influence of environment radiation background on biochemistry and biology of cultured cells and on their response to genotoxic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some years ago we performed two experiments aimed at studying the influence of the background radiation on living matter by exploiting the low radiation background environment in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory of the INFN Their results were consistent with the hypothesis that the normal background radiation determines an adaptive response, although they cannot be considered conclusive. PULEX-3 (the third experiment of the series) is aimed at comparing the effects of different background radiation environments on metabolism of cultured mammalian cells, with substantial improvements with respect to the preceding ones. The experiment was designed to minimize variabilities, by maintaining two cultures of Chinese hamster V79 cells in exponential growth for up to ten months in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS), while two other cultures were maintained in parallel in a biological laboratory installed at the LNGS outside the tunnel. Exposure due to ?-rays was reduced by a factor of about 10 in the underground laboratory while the Rn concentration was small in both cases. After ten months the cells grown in the underground laboratory, compared to those grown in the external one, exhibited: 1) a significantly lower capacity to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). and 2) an increased sensitivity to the mutagenic effect of rays Since the probability that this finding is due to casual induction of radiosensitive mutants is extremely low, it corroborates the hs is extremely low, it corroborates the hypothesis that cells grown in a normal background radiation environment exhibit an adaptive response when challenged with genotoxic agents, which is lost after many generations in a low background radiation environment.

  2. Rice improvement, involving altered flower structure more suitable to cross-pollination, using in vitro culture in combination with mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anther and somatic tissue culture in combination with mutagenesis were carried out to evaluate the efficiency of different mutagenic treatments of various in vitro culture materials, and to obtain some promising variants for rice improvement. Results indicated that in japonica rice radiation treatment of dry seeds and young panicles influenced the percentage of green plantlets regeneration from anther culture. Both treatments increased significantly the percentage of regenerated green plantlets in comparison with the control. Irradiation with 30 Gy of rice callus increased also the percentage of regenerated green plantlets. For indica rice, the combination of the suitable dose of gamma rays irradiation on seeds and an improved medium, increased the percentage of callus induction. This approach made it possible to use anther culture in indica rice breeding. Somatic tissue cultures combined with radiation-induced mutagenesis led to the development of a number of promising mutants including some new cytoplasm-nucleus interacting male-sterile lines with almost 100% stigma exertion. Their development would be of practical significance for increasing the genetic diversity for production of hybrid rice. (author)

  3. Magnetically Responsive Biodegradable Nanoparticles Enhance Adenoviral Gene Transfer in Cultured Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chorny, Michael; Fishbein, Ilia; Alferiev, Ivan; Levy, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors have shown promise as a tool for gene delivery-based therapeutic applications. Their clinical use is however limited by therapeutically suboptimal transduction levels in cell types expressing low levels of Coxsackie-Ad receptor (CAR), the primary receptor responsible for the cell entry of the virus, and by systemic adverse reactions. Targeted delivery achievable with Ad complexed with biodegradable magnetically responsive nanoparticles (MNP) may t...

  4. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Oliveira Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p <0.05 in soils with glucose and inoculated with the fungi (except F. verticillioides, in relation to soil without glucose. Amylase activity increased 1.3 to 1.5 times due to the addition of glucose in the soil. Increased amylase activity was observed in the DRL soil with glucose and inoculated with A. flavus and Penicillium sp. when compared to control.

  5. Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Beatriz de Oliveira, Costa; Ely, Nahas.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth [...] and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p

  6. The influence of exogenous eicosanoids on the radiation response of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotection by several eicosanoids was investigated in cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells. One hour before irradiation (0-500 cGy, 137Cs gamma rays) 10 micrograms/ml of PGD2, PGE1, PGI2, misoprostol (PGE1-analog), 16,16-dimethyl PGE2, PGA2, or 1 microgram/ml LTC4 was added. Radiation decreased incorporation of [3H]thymidine at 4 h, cell number/culture at 24 h, and cell survival as measured by colony formation. Under these conditions the eicosanoids were not radioprotective. Two eicosanoids, PGD2 and PGA2, appeared to be toxic. Because receptors might mediate eicosanoid-induced radioprotection, radioligand binding of PGE2 and LTC4 and levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) were measured. Evidence for a receptor was equivocal; there was nonspecific binding and metabolism of LTC4. The level of cAMP was elevated by 16-16-dimethyl-PGE2 in the presence of isobutyl methylxanthine; however, this combination of the prostaglandin and the methylxanthine was not radioprotective. These investigations suggest that an elevated cAMP level alone does not lead to eicosanoid-induced radioprotection of bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers in vitro

  7. The influence of exogenous eicosanoids on the radiation response of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Stone, A.M.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Hanson, W.R. (Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke' s-Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The radioprotection by several eicosanoids was investigated in cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells. One hour before irradiation (0-500 cGy, 137Cs gamma rays) 10 micrograms/ml of PGD2, PGE1, PGI2, misoprostol (PGE1-analog), 16,16-dimethyl PGE2, PGA2, or 1 microgram/ml LTC4 was added. Radiation decreased incorporation of (3H)thymidine at 4 h, cell number/culture at 24 h, and cell survival as measured by colony formation. Under these conditions the eicosanoids were not radioprotective. Two eicosanoids, PGD2 and PGA2, appeared to be toxic. Because receptors might mediate eicosanoid-induced radioprotection, radioligand binding of PGE2 and LTC4 and levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) were measured. Evidence for a receptor was equivocal; there was nonspecific binding and metabolism of LTC4. The level of cAMP was elevated by 16-16-dimethyl-PGE2 in the presence of isobutyl methylxanthine; however, this combination of the prostaglandin and the methylxanthine was not radioprotective. These investigations suggest that an elevated cAMP level alone does not lead to eicosanoid-induced radioprotection of bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers in vitro.

  8. Acid-growth response and alpha-expansins in suspension cultures of bright yellow 2 tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, B. M.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells possess an expansin-mediated acid-growth mechanism was examined by multiple approaches. BY2 cells grew three times faster upon treatment with fusicoccin, which induces an acidification of the cell wall. Exogenous expansins likewise stimulated BY2 cell growth 3-fold. Protein extracted from BY2 cell walls possessed the expansin-like ability to induce extension of isolated walls. In western-blot analysis of BY2 wall protein, one band of 29 kD was recognized by anti-expansin antibody. Six different classes of alpha-expansin mRNA were identified in a BY2 cDNA library. Northern-blot analysis indicated moderate to low abundance of multiple alpha-expansin mRNAs in BY2 cells. From these results we conclude that BY2 suspension-cultured cells have the necessary components for expansin-mediated cell wall enlargement.

  9. Comparison of transcriptional responses in liver tissue and primary hepatocyte cell cultures after exposure to hexahydro-1, 3, 5-trinitro-1, 3, 5-triazine

    OpenAIRE

    Chu Tzu-Ming; Wolfinger Russell D; Ang Choo-Yaw; Guan Xin; Bao Wenjun; Perkins Edward J; Meyer Sharon A; Inouye Laura S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cell culture systems are useful in studying toxicological effects of chemicals such as Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), however little is known as to how accurately isolated cells reflect responses of intact organs. In this work, we compare transcriptional responses in livers of Sprague-Dawley rats and primary hepatocyte cells after exposure to RDX to determine how faithfully the in vitro model system reflects in vivo responses. Results Expression patterns we...

  10. ``Yo soy indígena'': identifying and using traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) to make the teaching of science culturally responsive for Maya girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-12-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge—TEK—can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes the current situation of Maya women and girls in Guatemala and emphasizes the important need for educators to create science-learning opportunities that are culturally congruent. The author posits that when considering how to make the teaching and learning of science culturally responsive for Maya girls, educators must begin with the scientific knowledge inherent within Maya communities. Indigenous communities have a wealth of TEK that can be used to contextualize science curricula that can be purposely designed to meet the nuanced cultural needs of traditional Maya girls within and outside Guatemala.

  11. Multicultural Education Applications for Teachers of the Deaf: Creating Culturally Responsive Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGarcia, Barbara Gerner

    This paper describes Project THREADS (Transformations for Humanistic and Responsive Education for All Deaf Students), a program to develop a model for increasing the multicultural competence of inservice teachers of the deaf. Project THREADS is designed to facilitate changes in individual teachers and changes in their institutions while working to…

  12. A Cultural, Linguistic, and Ecological Framework for Response to Intervention with English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie Esparza; Doolittle, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Response to Intervention (RTI) has been heralded by many as the long-awaited alternative to using a discrepancy formula for special education eligibility decisions. RTI focuses on intervening early through a multi-tiered approach where each tier provides interventions of increasing intensity. RTI has the potential to affect change for English…

  13. Defence responses induced in embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce by two fractions of Gremmeniella abietina mycelia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Martincová, Olga; Cvr?ková, H.; Lipavská, H.

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 40, ?. 6 (2010), s. 467-484. ISSN 1437-4781 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH82303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : defence response * Norway spruce * Gremmeniella abietina Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.948, year: 2010

  14. Using Mathematics Strategies in Early Childhood Education as a Basis for Culturally Responsive Teaching in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Smita

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this small study was to elicit responses from early childhood teachers in India on mathematics learning strategies and to measure the extent of finger counting technique adopted by the teachers in teaching young children. Specifically, the research focused on the effective ways of teaching mathematics to children in India, and…

  15. Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

  16. Tourism communication: the translator’s responsibility in the translation of cultural difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Agorni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tourist discourse can be considered as a specialised type of cross-cultural communication. The subject of this work is the degree of intervention translators are asked to exercise in order to achieve successful communication. Their task is not that of demonstrating their knowledge on specifi c subjects, as, rather, their capacity of mediating it, so as to make it available to a type of tourist who is necessarily different from that targeted by the original work. Hence, translators should learn to dose the amount of information tourists will be able to take in. Theoretical assumptions will be illustrated by means of a comparison between a tourist text in Italian and its translation into English. It will be demonstrated that translators’ decisions at linguistic and explanatory level allow a more or less substantial degree of reader involvement, and consequently affect the promotion of tourist destinations.

  17. Sociocultural factors of teenage pregnancy in Latino communities: preparing social workers for culturally responsive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Elizabeth; Pecukonis, Edward V; Zhou, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Despite gains in reducing teenage pregnancy during the past 20 years, disparities in teenage pregnancy rates persist: The teenage pregnancy rate in Latino communities is now nearly double the average rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Considering the significant risks teenage pregnancy and parenting pose to both the teenager and the child, and that social workers are already often working in communities with populations at risk, this is not only a major public health issue, but one that the field of social work is well positioned to actively address. This article synthesizes pertinent literature on some of the social and cultural influences important for understanding this phenomenon. Implications for social work practice are discussed. PMID:25369724

  18. Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from oncorhynchus mykiss following the combined exposure of ionising radiation and a heavy metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms of toxicant action on biological systems are difficult to identify when more than one contaminant is involved due to potential synergistic and antagonistic effects. There is a general paucity of research into the effect of radiation exposure in tandem with common environmental contaminants due to the inherent difficulties involved. In vitro cell cultures are particularly suited to the study of toxic mechanisms due to their proximity to toxic modes of action and the absence of the multiple defence mechanisms present in intact organisms. Primary cell cultures are particularly beneficial in this area of research as they still maintain many of their tissue specific functions. The objective of this study was to distinguish different mechanisms of cell death (growth arrest, apoptosis, primary and secondary necrosis and proliferation), following combination exposure to ionising radiation and a heavy metal (ZnCl2). The model system employed was a primary cell culture of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) epidermal tissue which has been previously used to study the effects of various environmental agents in this laboratory. Apoptosis and necrosis were quantified morphologically while proliferation was assessed immuno-cyto-chemically using an anti PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) antibody. While radiation doses up to and including 10 Gy had no effect on growth, exposure to ZnCl2 produced a significant dose dependent reduction in growth (10, 50, 75, 100 and 200 ppm ZnCl2). Preliminary results indicate no significant effect on growth following a combined exposure of 5 Gy + 50 ppm ZnCl2. These results may have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying cellular responses to multiple contaminant exposures. (author)

  19. Optimization of growth media for obtaining high-cell density cultures of halophilic archaea (family Halobacteriaceae) by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Muthu; Pasi?, Lejla; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan

    2009-06-01

    Optimization of media components for the growth and biomass production of Halobacterium salinarum VKMM 013 was carried out using response surface methodology. A second order quadratic model was estimated and media components were determined based on quadratic regression equation generated by model. These were 6.35 g L(-1) of KCl, 9.70 g L(-1) of MgSO(4), 13.38 g L(-1) of gelatin and 12.00 g L(-1) of soluble starch in nutrient broth supplemented with artificial seawater with 20% (w/v) of NaCl. In these optimal conditions, the obtained cell concentration of 0.746 g L(-1) dry weight was in agreement with the predicted cell concentration. The optimized media significantly shortened the time required for cell culture to reach the stationary phase while providing a nearly 2.4-fold increase in biomass production. Furthermore, in cell cultures of three other halophilic archaea the use of optimized media enhanced growth rate and provided high-cell density. PMID:19243935

  20. Influence of Culture Media on Biofilm Formation by Candida Species and Response of Sessile Cells to Antifungals and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma. Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient. PMID:25705688

  1. Growth Characteristics Modeling of Mixed Culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ganga Sahay, Meena; Gautam Chandra, Majumdar; Rintu, Banerjee; Nitin, Kumar; Pankaj Kumar, Meena.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Different culture conditions viz. additional carbon and nitrogen content, inoculum size and age, temperature and pH of the mixed culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Kinetic growt [...] h models were fitted for the cultivations using a Fractional Factorial (FF) design experiments for different variables. This novel concept of combining the optimization and modeling presented different optimal conditions for the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus growth from their one variable at-a-time (OVAT) optimization study. Through these statistical tools, the product yield (cell mass) of the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus was increased. Regression coefficients (R2) of both the statistical tools predicted that ANN was better than RSM and the regression equation was solved with the help of genetic algorithms (GA). The normalized percentage mean squared error obtained from the ANN and RSM models were 0.08 and 0.3%, respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximum biomass yield were at temperature 38°C, pH 6.5, inoculum volume 1.60 mL, inoculum age 30 h, carbon content 42.31% (w/v), and nitrogen content 14.20% (w/v). The results demonstrated a higher prediction accuracy of ANN compared to RSM.

  2. The Response of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) to Heavy Metals in Pure Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Yihui; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Xu, Zhouying; Zhang, Haihan; Yang, Yurong

    2012-01-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) occur widely in association with plants exposed to heavy metal stress. However, little is known about the response of DSE exposed to heavy metals. In this study, five DSE were isolated from the roots of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. seedlings growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in China. Based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analyses, the isolates were identified as Gaeumannomyces cylindrosporus, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora mustea, Exoph...

  3. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Elyasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Callus Growth Rate (CGR, Relative Fresh Weight Growth (RFWG, Relative Growth Rate (RGR and Percentage of Callus Induction (PCI indicating the presence of genetic variability, different responses of bread wheat genotypes to callus induction and possible selection of callus induction at in vitro level using immature embryos. Mean comparison of the traits measured in callus induction showed that genotypes 1 and 6 had the highest PCI (100%. Analysis of variance for CGR, RFWG and RGR, Relative Water Content (RWC, Percent of Callus Chlorosis (PCC and Proline Content (PC exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters in the stress condition (15% PEG. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes (6, (19 and (1 as the most drought tolerant.

  4. Tissue Culture response of Local Varieties of Rice (Oryza sativa L. of NWFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Jan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Four rice genotypes i.e. Swat I, Swat II, Dilrosh 97 and Pakhal were tested for their callus induction frequency and their subsequent regeneration from different explants on a variety of media combinations. Swat I appeared to be the most responsive genotype to callus induction followed by Swat II, Dilrosh 97 and Pakhal respectively. Swat I and Swat II produced high amount of callus compared to other genotypes. Callus induction frequencies ranged from 68.88 to 57.70 percent in Swat I, 60.00 percent in Swat II, 52.20 percent in Dilrosh 97 and 40.00 to 42.20 percent in Pakhal from scutella on two different media. Similar response was also found for root induced calli. However, N6 medium containing 2 mg/l of 2,4-D was found to be optimum for callus induction irrespective of the genotypes and explant studied. All varieties showed significant differences in regeneration from two and three week old calli. RM medium containing MS salts and vitamins, 2 gm casamino acid, 1 mg/l NAA, 2 mg/l BAP and 30 gm sorbitol gave comparatively higher regeneration response than the other two media tested. Plants regenerated were grown in harmone free MS medium for vigorous rooting and subsequent transfer to soil.

  5. The university as an encounter for deliberative communication - creating cultural citizenship and professional responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Englund

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How can higher and professional education contribute to the development of responsible citizenship and professional responsibility? In recent discussions on the role of the educational system, the idea of “deliberative communication” has been brought into focus and stands for communication in which different opinions and values can be set against each other in educational settings. It implies an endeavour by each individual to develop his or her view by listening, deliberating, seeking arguments and valuing, coupled to a collective and cooperative endeavour to find values and norms which everyone can accept, at the same time as pluralism is acknowledged. Within higher education deliberative communication might explicitly be used to develop professional responsibility and analysing consequences of different ways of solving problems. To what extent are and can universities become public spaces for encounters dealing with controversial questions of how to solve different problems and analyse different ways of professional acting? Can universities recreate their selective traditions, “institutionalize dissensus”, and “make the university a site of public debate” through deliberative communication?

  6. Reflexiones sobre la actualidad del relativismo cultural: respuesta a Nicolás Sánchez Durá / Considerations about the Pertinence of Cultural Relativism: Response to Nicolás Sánchez Durá

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Witold, Jacorzynski.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo propone entablar una discusión con las tesis contenidas en el artículo de Nicolás Sánchez Durá, "Actualidad del relativismo cultural". En primer lugar, se analizan el etnocentrismo y el relativismo como dos respuestas éticas distintas al fenómeno de la diversidad cultural. En segundo lug [...] ar, se desarrollan la formulación del relativismo y el concepto de cultura propuestos por Sánchez Durá para analizarlos a la luz de la epistemología elaborada por el Wittgenstein tardío. En tercer lugar, se agregan argumentos a favor del relativismo cultural. El relativismo cultural, visto como una doctrina, tropieza con dilemas lógicos y conceptuales; considerado como una actitud contextual de índole moral y política, contribuye a combatir la autoridad del etnocentrismo basado en la exclusividad del otro. Abstract in english This essay proposes to develop and to discuss some thesis included in the article by Nicolás Sánchez Durá: "The Pertinence of Cultural Relativism". Firstly, the ethnocentric and relativistic positions are both considered as two different ethical attitudes towards the cultural diversity. Secondly, th [...] e concepts of "relativism" and "culture" are developed and analyzed in the light of Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Although, the cultural relativism considered as a philosophical doctrine faces logical and conceptual dilemmas, the latter disappear when relativism is treated as contextual, mostly moral and political attitude, which contributes to undermine the legacy of ethno-centrism based on the other's exclusivity.

  7. Interferon-modification of the in vitro radiation response in cultured human KNS-42 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of combined interferon radiation therapy in cultured human KNS-42 glioma cells was examined. Beta-type human fibroblast interferon inhibited the multiplication of KNS-42 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect was thought to be due to supression of the cells entering the S-phase. KNS-42 cells were treated with interferon before or after irradiation. The effect of the treatments was assayed by growth and survival curves. According to a cell growth analysis, the combined treatment had a greater anti-proliferative effect than the radiation or the interferon treatment alone. When interferon was given before irradiation, it tended to reduce the shoulder of the X-ray survival curve in a dose-dependent manner until the shoulder totally disappeared. The slope itself, however, was only moderately affected by interferon. The mechanism of this synergistic interaction between interferon and X-rays was possibly due to a partial synchronizing effect of interferon on the cells by blocking them in a G1/S boundary phase, the radiosensitive stage of the cell cycle. When interferon was given immediately after irradiation, it tended to reduce the slope in a dose-dependent manner. The shoulder disappeared almost totally even with a low dose of interferon. These results suggest that interferon may be useful as a radiosensitizing agent in tumor therapy. (author)

  8. Hydrogen peroxide formation in cultured rose cells in response to UV-C radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspension-cultured rose (Rosa damascena Mill. cv. Gloire de Guilan) cells irradiated with UV-C (254 nm. 558 J m?2) showed a transient production of H2O2 as measured by chemiluminescence of luminol in the presence of peroxidase (EC 1.1 1.1.7). The peak concentration of H2O2, which occurred at about 60–90 min after irradiation, was 8–9 ?M. The time course for the appearance of H2O2 matched that for UV–induced K+ efflux. Treatments that inhibited the UV-induced efflux of K+, including heat and overnight incubation with cycloheximide and diethylmaleate, also inhibited the appearance of H2O2. The converse was not always true, since catalase (EC 1.11.1.6. and salicylhydroxamic acid, which inhibited luminescence, did not stop K+ efflux. We conclude that H2O2 synthesis depends on K+ efflux. Because H2O2 in the extracellular space is required for lignin synthesis in many plant tissues, we suggest that the UV–stimulated production of H2O2 is an integral part of a defensive lignin synthesis. (author)

  9. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor isoforms and xenoestrogen biomarker responses in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been frequently used as carrier solvent in toxicological experiments where the most compelling DMSO attributes are its exceptionally low toxicity and environmental impact. We were inspired by recent and consistent observations that ethanol and DMSO modulate endocrine-disruptor biomarker responses in both in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory, to take a critical evaluation of these effects. Quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with specific primer pairs was used in this study to measure DMSO-induced time-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata-protein (Zr-protein) gene expression patterns in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes. In addition, immunochemical analysis, using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal (Vtg) and polyclonal (Zr-proteins) antibodies was used to detect and measure Vtg and Zr-proteins secreted in culture media. Salmon hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and exposed to 0.1% or 10 ?L/L of DMSO after 48 h pre-culture. Cells were harvested at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure and analysed for ER?, ER?, Vtg and Zr-protein gene expression using real-time PCR method. Media samples were collected at similar time-intervals for protein analysis. Our data show that DMSO-induced significant increase in ER?, ER?, Vtg and Zr-protein genes in a time-dependent manner. Indirect ELIa time-dependent manner. Indirect ELISA analysis showed a time-specific effect of DMSO. The use of DMSO as carrier solvent in fish endocrine disruption studies should be re-evaluated. We recommend more investigation, using other endocrine-disruptor biomarkers in order to validate the suitability of common carrier solvents used in toxicology with the aim of setting new maximum allowable concentrations. In particular, given the high sensitivity of genomic approaches in toxicology, these results may have serious consequences for the interpretation of biomarker responses

  10. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a potent modulator of estrogen receptor isoforms and xenoestrogen biomarker responses in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Anne S. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no

    2006-08-12

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been frequently used as carrier solvent in toxicological experiments where the most compelling DMSO attributes are its exceptionally low toxicity and environmental impact. We were inspired by recent and consistent observations that ethanol and DMSO modulate endocrine-disruptor biomarker responses in both in vitro and in vivo studies in our laboratory, to take a critical evaluation of these effects. Quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with specific primer pairs was used in this study to measure DMSO-induced time-dependent modulation of estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms, vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata-protein (Zr-protein) gene expression patterns in primary culture of salmon hepatocytes. In addition, immunochemical analysis, using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal (Vtg) and polyclonal (Zr-proteins) antibodies was used to detect and measure Vtg and Zr-proteins secreted in culture media. Salmon hepatocytes were isolated by a two-step collagenase perfusion method and exposed to 0.1% or 10 {mu}L/L of DMSO after 48 h pre-culture. Cells were harvested at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure and analysed for ER{alpha}, ER{beta}, Vtg and Zr-protein gene expression using real-time PCR method. Media samples were collected at similar time-intervals for protein analysis. Our data show that DMSO-induced significant increase in ER{alpha}, ER{beta}, Vtg and Zr-protein genes in a time-dependent manner. Indirect ELISA analysis showed a time-specific effect of DMSO. The use of DMSO as carrier solvent in fish endocrine disruption studies should be re-evaluated. We recommend more investigation, using other endocrine-disruptor biomarkers in order to validate the suitability of common carrier solvents used in toxicology with the aim of setting new maximum allowable concentrations. In particular, given the high sensitivity of genomic approaches in toxicology, these results may have serious consequences for the interpretation of biomarker responses.

  11. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers ch The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  12. Impact of corporate social responsibility claims on consumer food choice : A cross-cultural comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Remaud, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The study assesses the impact of two different corporate social responsibility (CSR) claims, relating to social and environmental dimensions, on consumers’ wine choice across international markets. It is analysed how point of purchase CSR claims compete with other food claims and their awareness, penetration and consumers’ trust are examined. Design/methodology/approach - A discrete choice experiment with a visual shelf simulation was used to elicit consumer preferences and to estimate marginal willingness to pay for CSR and other food claims across the UK, France, Germany, the US Eastcoast, the US Midwest, Anglophone and Francophone Canada. Findings - CSR claims relating to social and environmental responsibility have a similar awareness, penetration and consumer trust, but differ in their impact on consumer choice, where environmental corporate responsibility claims benefit from a higher marginal willingness to pay. Consumer valuation of CSR claims significantly differs across international markets, but is consistently lower than for organic claims. Research limitations/implications - The study was limited to wine and future research is required to generalise findings to other food categories and different origins. Practical implications - CSR claims are competing with existing food claims and have a lower awareness, lower purchase penetration and less positive impact on consumer choice than organic claims. Producers are recommended to focus on communicating environmental rather than social CSR activities. The relative value of CSR claims differs across countries and companies need to adapt their strategies to specific market conditions. Originality/value - This is the first cross-national study that analyses the impact of CSR claims on consumer food choice relative to other food claims using large representative consumer samples. The strength of the paper also pertains to the utilisation of innovative choice experiments covering a large range of choice relevant product attributes.

  13. Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, Mykyta V., E-mail: sokolovm@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Irina V., E-mail: ipanyutinv@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Igor G., E-mail: igorp@helix.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Neumann, Ronald D., E-mail: rneumann@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-05-10

    One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

  14. Statistical optimization of culture conditions by response surface methodology for synthesis of lipase with Enterobacter aerogenes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Annapurna, Kumari; Paramita, Mahapatra; Rintu, Banerjee.

    1349-13-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of lipase production by Enterobacter aerogenes was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) where the statistical model was obtained by fractional factorial central composite design. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters, viz. temperature, oil concentration, i [...] noculum volume, pH and incubation period on lipase production was examined. Optimization of physico-chemical parameters resulted 1.4- fold increase in lipase activity. The optimum levels of parameters were 34°C, oil concentration 3%, inoculum volume 7%, pH 7 and incubation time 60 h for obtaining a maximum lipase activity of 27.25 U/ml.

  15. Comparative Tissue Culture Response of Wheat Cultivars and Evaluation of Regenerated Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three wheat genotypes i.e. Bakhtawar-92, Punjab-96 and Inqilab-91 were tested for their response to callus induction frequency and their subsequent regeneration on a variety of media combinations. Bakhtawar-92 appeared to be the most responsive genotype to callus induction followed by Inqilab-91 and Punjab-96. It also produced significantly higher amount of callus as compared with other genotypes. However, the medium containing 2 mg l-1 2,4-D (2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid was found to be optimum for callus induction irrespective of the genotypes studied. Regeneration frequency of Bakhtawar-92 was 40% on the medium containing 0.1 mg l-1 IAA (Indole acetic acid and 2.5 mg l-1 BAP (6-benzyl amino purine. Punjab-96 and Inqilab-91 showed regeneration of 25 and 33% on the medium supplemented with combination of 0.1 mg l-1 IAA and 0.5 mg l-1 BAP. Regenerated plants were evaluated for plant height, maturity and seed set. They had favourable significant differences from the control plants for the most important agronomic traits; plant height, days to maturity and kernels/spike etc.

  16. Inflammatory cytokine and microRNA responses of primary human dendritic cells cultured with Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIPPELEHOURS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary human dendritic cells (DC were used to explore the inflammatory effectors, including cytokines and microRNAs, regulated by Helicobacter pylori. In a 48 h ex-vivo co-culture system, both H. pylori B38 and B45 strains activated human DCs and promoted a strong inflammatory response characterized by the early production of pro-inflammatory TNF? and IL-6 cytokines, followed by IL-10, IL-1ß and IL-23 secretion. IL-23 was the only cytokine dependent on the cag pathogenicity island status of the bacterial strains. DC activation and cytokine production were accompanied by an early miR-146a upregulation followed by a strong miR-155 induction, which mainly controlled TNF? production. These results pave the way for further investigations into the nature of H. pylori antigens and the subsequently activated signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory response to H. pylori infection, the deregulation of which may likely contribute to gastric lymphomagenesis.

  17. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and ASA at 0, 8, 16, 32 or 64 mg L-1. 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' calli were subcultured on MS supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg L-1 and 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg L-1. The increase in ASA concentrations decreased the pro-embryoid formation on calli of both cultivars and only 2,4-D promoted the formation of friable calli. However, the balance of auxin and cytokinin used in this study favored the production of friable calli.

  18. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L / BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adelaide Siqueira, Silva; José Magno Queiroz, Luz; Tatiana Michlovská, Rodrigues; Cecília Alves, Bittar; Leandro de Oliveira, Lino.

    1205-12-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica [...] da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU). Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1) e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1). Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis. Abstract in english Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on differe [...] nt C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU). Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and ASA at 0, 8, 16, 32 or 64 mg L-1. 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' calli were subcultured on MS supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg L-1) and 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg L-1). The increase in ASA concentrations decreased the pro-embryoid formation on calli of both cultivars and only 2,4-D promoted the formation of friable calli. However, the balance of auxin and cytokinin used in this study favored the production of friable calli.

  19. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Søs Poulsen, Sarah; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Labib, Sarah; Wu, Dongmei; Husain, Mainul; Williams, Andrew; Bøgelund, Jesper P.; Andersen, Ole; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Saber, Anne T.; Wallin, Ha?kan; Yauk, Carole L.; Vogel, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in substituting animal work with in vitro experimentation in human health risk assessment; however, there are only few comparisons of in vitro and in vivo biological responses to engineered nanomaterials. We used high-content genomics tools to compare in vivo pulmonary responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT- X...

  20. Culturally responsive engineering education: A case study of a pre-college introductory engineering course at Tibetan Children's Village School of Selakui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marisol Mercado

    Culturally responsive teaching has been argued to be effective in the education of Indigenous youth. This approach emphasizes the legitimacy of a group's cultural heritage, helps to associate abstract academic knowledge with the group's sociocultural context, seeks to incorporate a variety of strategies to engage students who have different learning styles, and strives to integrate multicultural information in the educational contents, among other considerations. In this work, I explore the outcomes of a culturally responsive introductory engineering short course that I developed and taught to Tibetan students at Tibetan Children's Village of Selakui (in Uttarakhand, India). Based on my ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in northern India, I examine two research questions: (a) What are the processes to develop and implement a pre-college culturally responsive introductory engineering course? and (b) How do Tibetan culture and Buddhism influence the engineering design and teamwork of the pre-college Tibetan students who took the course? I designed then taught the course that featured elementary lectures on sustainability, introductory engineering design, energy alternatives, and manufacturing engineering. The course also included a pre-college engineering design project through which Tibetan high school students investigated a problem at the school and designed a possible solution to it. Drawing from postcolonial studies, engineering studies, engineering and social justice, Buddhist studies, and Tibetan studies, I provide an analysis of my findings. Based on my findings, I conclude that my culturally responsive approach of teaching was an effective method to help students feel that their cultural background was respected and included in a pre-college engineering course; however, some students felt resistance toward the teaching approach. In addition, the culturally relevant content that connected with their ways of living in their school, Tibetan communities, and surroundings helped the students to relate to abstract concepts in familiar settings. Lastly, they appreciated that I brought to the course relevant information about technology and society in India (their host country), engineers' work in industry, technologies used in other contexts as well, and projects that show how engineers can help to alleviate poverty. The findings of my research can inform (a) educators who are interested in integrating culturally responsive activities in their teaching methods, (b) researchers or teachers in ethnic minority schools abroad, (c) educators interested in developing engineering activities or courses for underrepresented ethnic minorities, ethnic diasporas or refugee youth in the United States, and (d) facilitators at multicultural engineering summer camps in the United States.

  1. Arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid generate oxidative stress response in human bladder cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenicals have commonly been seen to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to DNA damage and oxidative stress. At low levels, arsenicals still induce the formation of ROS, leading to DNA damage and protein alterations. UROtsa cells, an immortalized human urothelial cell line, were used to study the effects of arsenicals on the human bladder, a site of arsenical bioconcentration and carcinogenesis. Biotransformation of As(III) by UROtsa cells has been shown to produce methylated species, namely monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)], which has been shown to be 20 times more cytotoxic. Confocal fluorescence images of UROtsa cells treated with arsenicals and the ROS sensing probe, DCFDA, showed an increase of intracellular ROS within five min after 1 ?M and 10 ?M As(III) treatments. In contrast, 50 and 500 nM MMA(III) required pretreatment for 30 min before inducing ROS. The increase in ROS was ameliorated by preincubation with either SOD or catalase. An interesting aspect of these ROS detection studies is the noticeable difference between concentrations of As(III) and MMA(III) used, further supporting the increased cytotoxicity of MMA(III), as well as the increased amount of time required for MMA(III) to cause oxidative stress. These arsenical-induced ROS produced oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by an increase in 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) with either 50 nM or 5 ?M MMA(III) exposure. These findings provide support that MMA(III) cause a genotide support that MMA(III) cause a genotoxic response upon generation of ROS. Both As(III) and MMA(III) were also able to induce Hsp70 and MT protein levels above control, showing that the cells recognize the ROS and respond. As(III) rapidly induces the formation of ROS, possibly through it oxidation to As(V) and further metabolism to MMA(III)/(V). These studies provide evidence for a different mechanism of MMA(III) toxicity, one that MMA(III) first interacts with cellular components before an ROS response is generated, taking longer to produce the effect, but with more substantial harm to the cell

  2. Seismic hazard and local response in the preservation of cultural heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review of investigations aimed at assessing potential earthquake-induced ground motions in the city of Rome. The diffuse historical heritage and the presence of invaluable monuments to preserve required accurate studies of local geological conditions. This information is important to reach a more refined, site-dependent seismic input estimate where also the individual monument structure and its intrinsic vulnerability are properly taken into account. Many of the investigations dated back to the last decade of the past century when instrumental data from significant earthquakes where not yet available for the city of Rome. In those times, analysis methods were mostly based on geological inferences to reconstruct the local near surface structure and develop site response theoretical computations. The 6th April 2009, Mw6.3 L'Aquila earthquakes provided several important records of ground motion in the city for moderate magnitude earthquakes occurring in central Appennines where the largest magnitude earthquakes of interest for Rome are expected. These data are fundamental for a comparison of past ground motion predictions with real observations in rome, and confirm the validity of the methodologies used before the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. The assessment of future destructive ground motions in Rome is now more feasible because it can be based on the scaling of the really experienced monument shaking at moderate magnitudes.

  3. Anther and pollen development in some species of Poaceae (Poales) Desenvolvimento da antera e do grão de pólen em espécies de Poaceae (Poales)

    OpenAIRE

    AT. Nakamura; HM. Longhi-Wagner; VL Scatena

    2010-01-01

    Anther and pollen development were studied in Olyra humilis Nees, Sucrea monophylla Soderstr, (Bambusoideae), Axonopus aureus P. Beauv., Paspalum polyphyllum Nees ex Trin. (Panicoideae), Eragrostis solida Nees, and Chloris elata Desv. (Chloridoideae). The objective of this study was to characterise, embryologically, these species of subfamilies which are considered basal, intermediate and derivate, respectively. The species are similar to each other and to other Poaceae. They present the foll...

  4. Loss of Arabidopsis GAUT12/IRX8 causes anther indehiscence and leads to reduced G lignin associated with altered matrix polysaccharide deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Zhangying; Avci, Utku; Tan, Li; Zhu, Xiang; Glushka, John; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Eberhard,Stefan; Sholes, Tipton; Rothstein, Grace E.; Lukowitz, Wolfgang; Orlando, Ron; Hahn, Michael G.; Mohnen, Debra

    2014-01-01

    GAlactUronosylTransferase12 (GAUT12)/IRregular Xylem8 (IRX8) is a putative glycosyltransferase involved in Arabidopsis secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Previous work showed that Arabidopsis irregular xylem8 (irx8) mutants have collapsed xylem due to a reduction in xylan and a lesser reduction in a subfraction of homogalacturonan (HG). We now show that male sterility in the irx8 mutant is due to indehiscent anthers caused by reduced deposition of xylan and lignin in the endothecium cell layer...

  5. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  6. Cell division cycles and circadian clocks : phase-response curves for light perturbations in synchronous cultures of euglena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, L N; Tay, D E; Laval-Martin, D L

    1982-07-01

    The cell division rhythm in Euglena gracilis Klebs (Z strain) freeruns with a circadian period (30.2 +/- 1.8 hours for 156 monitored oscillations) in aerated, magnetically stirred, 8-liter, axenic batch cultures grown photoautotrophically at 25 degrees C in LD: 3,3, (7,500 lux, cool-white fluorescent) 6-hour light cycles from the moment of inoculation. Cell number was measured at 2-hour intervals with an automatic fraction collector and Coulter Electronic Particle Counter. At different circadian times throughout the 30-hour division cycle, 3-hour light perturbations were imposed on free-running cell populations by giving light during one of the intervals when dark would have fallen in the LD: 3,3 regimen. Using the onset of division as the phase reference point, the net steady-state phase advance or delay (+/-Deltaphi) of the rhythm was determined after transients, if any, had subsided (usually in one or two days) relative to an unperturbed control culture. Both +Deltaphi and -Deltaphi were found, with maximum values of approximately +/-11 to 12 hours being obtained at circadian time (CT) 20 to 22 (the ;breakpoint'); little, if any phase shift occurred if the light signal was given between CT 6 and CT 12. The phase-resetting curve obtained by plotting new phase (phi') versus old phase (phi) was of the type 0 (;strong') variety. Light perturbations, no matter when imposed, engendered new phases which mapped to a relatively restricted portion (CT 6 to CT 13) of the circadian cycle.These data provide the first detailed phase-response curve for a circadian mitotic clock. The findings, therefore, not only further support the hypothesis that a circadian oscillator (perhaps exhibiting limit cycle behavior) can modulate cell division in eukaryotic cells, but also provide a useful basis for the dissection of the nature and extent of the coupling between cell division and circadian cycles. PMID:16662464

  7. "Yo Soy Indígena": Identifying and Using Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) to Make the Teaching of Science Culturally Responsive for Maya Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how traditional ecological knowledge--TEK--can be identified and utilized to create culturally responsive science learning opportunities for Maya girls from a community in the Guatemalan highlands. Maya girls are situated in a complex socio-historical and political context rooted in racism and sexism. This study contextualizes…

  8. The Effects of an Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy: A Culturally Responsive Teaching Approach for Fifth-Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Yvonne N.; Fagan, Yvette M.

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy on two levels. The Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy integrated story grammar instruction and story maps, prior knowledge and prediction method, and word webs through a culturally responsive teaching framework; the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy…

  9. Increasing the Writing Performance of Urban Seniors Placed At-Risk through Goal-Setting in a Culturally Responsive and Creativity-Centered Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Brittany; Warren, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to support marginalized students require not only identifying systemic inequities, but providing a classroom infrastructure that supports the academic achievement of all students. This action research study examined the effects of implementing goal-setting strategies and emphasizing creativity in a culturally responsive classroom (CRC) on…

  10. Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Gallão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin treated cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no padrão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana.

  11. Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml-1 shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoilines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: ? DON uptake by cells is not extensive. ? All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. ? DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. ? Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. ? Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

  12. Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Izabel, Gallão; Ângelo Luiz, Cortelazzo; Manuel Pedro Salema, Fevereiro; Edy Sousa de, Brito.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no pa [...] drão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana. Abstract in english Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin trea [...] ted cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.

  13. The biological effect of gamma radiation on in vitro culture in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological effects of gamma radiation on different types of rice before or during in vitro culture, combined treatments of 137Cs ?-rays and NaN3 on mature embryo culture, and irradiation on growth of calli derived from anther in rice were studied. The dose-effects relations of callus induction rate and callus growth rate could be fitted according to the multi-target and single-hit model. Effect of somatic cultures of different types in rice was different. Increase in plant regeneration capacity was found with 100, 150 Gy gamma rays. Decrease of callus induction rate, callus growth rate and callus differentiation rate (especially in the 1st culture) were observed in combined treatments of ?-rays and NaN3. However, mutagenic effects of treatments with ?-rays were much higher than those of combined treatment of ?-rays and NaN3 in the 2nd and the 3rd culture. Combined treatments of 137Cs ?-rays with 200 Gy and 2 mmol NaN3 were suitable for explant in rice before culture. To irradiate the calli derived from anther in rice with 30 Gy gamma rays can rise plant regeneration capacity during continuing culture

  14. TamiR159 Directed Wheat TaGAMYB Cleavage and Its Involvement in Anther Development and Heat Response

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Sun, Fenglong; CAO, HUA; Peng, Huiru; Ni, Zhongfu; Sun, Qixin; Yao, Yingyin

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis and rice, miR159-regulated GAMYB-like family transcription factors function in flower development and gibberellin (GA) signaling in cereal aleurone cells. In this study, the involvement of miR159 in the regulation of its putative target TaGAMYB and its relationship to wheat development were investigated. First, we demonstrated that cleavage of TaGAMYB1 and TaGAMYB2 was directed by miR159 using 5?-RACE and a transient expression system. Second, we overexpressed TamiR159, TaGAM...

  15. Security culture in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standing of the terms 'security' and 'culture' will be discussed. A brief overview about states and operators responsibilities linked to security culture will be given, and a definition of the term 'security culture' will be explained. The security culture in German nuclear facilities will be briefly discussed

  16. Mean platelet volume as a novel predictor of systemic inflammatory response in cirrhotic patients with culture-negative neutrocytic ascites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Martínez, Marisol; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Rivera-Gutiérrez, Xaira; Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify a mean platelet volume (MPV) cutoff value which should be able to predict the presence of bacterial infection. METHODS: An observational, analytic, retrospective study. We evaluated medical records of cirrhotic patients who were hospitalized from January 2012 to January 2014 at the Gastroenterology Department of “Hospital General de México Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, we included 51 cirrhotic patients with ascites fluid infection (AFI), and 50 non-infected cirrhotic patients as control group. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to identify the best cutoff value of several parameters from hematic cytometry, including MPV, to predict the presence of ascites fluid infection. RESULTS: Of the 51 cases with AFI, 48 patients (94.1%) had culture-negative neutrocytic ascites (CNNA), 2 (3.9%) had bacterial ascites, and one (2%) had spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Infected patients had greater count of leucocytes and polymorphonuclear cells, greater levels of MPV and cardiac frequency (P 0.80). A cutoff MPV value of 8.3 fl was the best to discriminate between cirrhotic patients with AFI and those without infection. CONCLUSION: Our results support that MPV can be an useful predictor of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in cirrhotic patients with AFI, particularly CNNA.

  17. Analysis of sensitive questions across cultures: an application of multigroup item randomized response theory to sexual attitudes and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Martijn G; Pieters, Rik; Stremersch, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Answers to sensitive questions are prone to social desirability bias. If not properly addressed, the validity of the research can be suspect. This article presents multigroup item randomized response theory (MIRRT) to measure self-reported sensitive topics across cultures. The method was specifically developed to reduce social desirability bias by making an a priori change in the design of the survey. The change involves the use of a randomization device (e.g., a die) that preserves participants' privacy at the item level. In cases where multiple items measure a higher level theoretical construct, the researcher could still make inferences at the individual level. The method can correct for under- and overreporting, even if both occur in a sample of individuals or across nations. We present and illustrate MIRRT in a nontechnical manner, provide WinBugs software code so that researchers can directly implement it, and present 2 cross-national studies in which it was applied. The first study compared nonstudent samples from 2 countries (total n = 927) on permissive sexual attitudes and risky sexual behavior and related these to individual-level characteristics such as the Big Five personality traits. The second study compared nonstudent samples from 17 countries (total n = 6,195) on risky sexual behavior and related these to individual-level characteristics, such as gender and age, and to country-level characteristics, such as sex ratio. PMID:22823289

  18. Structural investigation and response surface optimisation for improvement of kefiran production yield from a low-cost culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemlou, Mehran; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Gharibzahedi, Seyed Mohammad Taghi; Taheri, Salman

    2012-07-15

    Kefiran, a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide with molecular weight of 1.35×10(6)Da and a specific optical rotation of +64° (c 1.0, H2O), was isolated from kefir grains grown in cheese whey and further purified through DEAE-Sepharose XK26. Response surface methodology was employed to optimise the culture conditions for kefiran production from kefir grains to be lactose concentration 67 g/l, yeast extract 13g/l, pH 5.7 and temperature 24°C. Intrinsic viscosity was 5.84 dl/g using the Huggins extrapolation and 5.53 dl/g using the Kramer extrapolation. Monosaccharide analysis revealed that kefiran is composed of glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal) in a relative molar ratio of 1.0:1.1. Its structural features were elucidated by a combination of FT-IR, methylation and GC-MS analysis, periodate oxidation-Smith degradation, partial acid hydrolysis and NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C and HMBC). The data obtained indicated that kefiran possessed a backbone of (1?6)-linked Glc, (1?3)-linked Gal, (1?4)-linked Gal, (1?4)-linked Glc and (1?2,6)-linked Gal, with a branch attached to O-2 of Gal residues and terminated with Glc residues. PMID:25683410

  19. EFFECTS OF PRE-CULTURE HOLDING TIME AND TEMPERATURE ON INTERFERON-GAMMA RESPONSES IN WHOLE BLOOD CULTURES FROM MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS-INFECTED CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bovigam™ assay is approved for use within the United States as a complimentary test for tuberculosis. Prior to whole blood culture and the ensuing ELISA to detect interferon- (IFN) ', samples are subjected to various holding time / temperature combinations due, in part, to practical constraints ...

  20. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab (Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments

  1. Tropism and Innate Host Responses of the 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus in ex Vivo and in Vitro Cultures of Human Conjunctiva and Respiratory Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Michael C. W.; Chan, Renee W. Y.; Yu, Wendy C. L.; Ho, Carol C C; Yuen, Kit M.; Fong, Joanne H.M.; Tang, Lynsia L. S.; Lai, Wico W.; Lo, Amy C.Y.; Chui, W. H.; Sihoe, Alan D. L.; Kwong, Dora L. W.; Wong, David S.H.; Tsao, George S. W.; Poon, Leo L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The novel pandemic influenza H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus of swine origin causes mild disease but occasionally leads to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. It is important to understand the pathogenesis of this new disease in humans. We compared the virus tropism and host-responses elicited by pandemic H1N1pdm and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses in ex vivo cultures of human conjunctiva, nasopharynx, bronchus, and lung, as well as in vitro cultures of human nasopharyngeal, bronchial, and al...

  2. Ultrastructural studies on the sporogenous tissue and anther wall of Leucojum aestivum (amaryllidaceae) in different developmental stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nuran, Ekici; Feruzan, Dane.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, ultraestruturas da parede da antera e tecido esporogênico de Leucojum aestivumforam foram investigados durante diferentes estágios do desenvolvimento. Canais citomíticos foram vistos entre células - mãe de pólen durante a prófase I. Distribuição polar foi descrita no conteúdo da organe [...] la de células - mãe de pólen e em micrósporos nas fases iniciais da microesporogênese e também na mitose do pólen. Secreção ativa foi observada nas células tapetais. Registros prévios referentes aos estágios do desenvolvimento do gametófito masculino foram comparados com os resultados deste estudo. Abstract in english In this study, ultrastructures of anther wall and sporogenous tissue of Leucojum aestivum were investigated during different developmental stages. Cytomictic channels were seen between pollen mother cells during prophase I. Polar distribution was described in the organelle content of pollen mother c [...] ells and microspores in early phases of microsporogenesis and also in pollen mitosis. Active secretion was observed in tapetal cells. Previous reports about developmental stages of male gametophyte were compared with the results of this study.

  3. Correlation of antigen-specific IFN-? responses of fresh blood samples from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected heifers with responses of day-old samples co-cultured with IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of the intestine of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Early stage MAP infection can be detected by measuring cell-mediated immune responses using the interferon gamma (IFN-?) assay. Whole blood samples are cultured overnight with specific MAP antigens followed by quantification of IFN-? by ELISA. It is recommended that the time interval from sampling to culture does not exceed eight hours but addition of the co-stimulating cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) or anti-IL-10 antibodies to culture have been demonstrated to enhance IFN-? responses of cultures stimulated with Johnin purified protein derivative (PPDj). Here we examined the correlation of IFN-? production in response to PPDj and 15 recombinant antigens in day-old blood samples from heifers 10–21 months of age from a MAP infected herd with addition of either recombinant bovine IL-12 or anti-bovine IL-10 antibody with IFN-? production in sample day samples. IFN-? responses of sample day samples showed high correlation with responses to some antigens in day-old samples with addition of IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies to cultures, indicating that day-old protocols can be applied as an alternative to the conventional IFN-? protocol. Immunogenicity of the novel antigens was generally low for day-old samples. The most promising antigen using the day-old protocol with addition of IL-12 was latency protein LATP-2 as correlations, immunogenicity and diagnostic specificity collectively was high. The latency protein LATP-1 was the most promising antigen in the day-old protocol with addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies.

  4. Non-native english speaking elementary ELL teachers' culturally responsive leadership profile in an ESL context / Perfil de liderazgo y sensibilidad cultural de maestros no nativos de ingles de primaria en un contexto de ingles como segunda lengua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valentin, Ekiaka Nzai; Patricia, Gómez; Concepción, Reyna; Jen, Kang-Fan.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O ensino culturalmente sensível foi sugerido como uma educação de qualidade (Edwards, 2003) para os estudantes cultural e linguisticamente diversos nos Estados Unidos da América. Análise de vários programas de estudo de aprendizagem do Inglês (ELL), revelou que os enfoques sexocêntrico (masculino-cê [...] ntrico) e etnocêntrico (Euro/Western-cêntrico) estavam profundamente enraizados na maioria dos livros de texto. A intenção deste documento parcial de métodos mistos, consistiu em explorar alguns falantes de Inglês não nativos (NNES) perfil dos professores de primária ELL liderança culturalmente sensível com o fim de fomentar o debate sobre a forma de promover a transformação curricular multicultural nas salas de aula de primária e como efetivamente formar culturalmente os professores de préserviço NNES e básico ELL em um contexto específico ESL. Análise comparativa de dados sugeriram que não havia relação causal entre os estilos de liderança dos participantes com sensibilidade cultural e sua capacidade para realizar a transformação curricular multicultural. As implicações para os professores NNES e básico ELL pré-serviço em formação dos professores se desde o ensino culturalmente sensível e enfoques multiculturais de transformação curricular. Abstract in spanish La enseñanza culturalmente sensible ha sido sugerido como una educación de calidad (Edwards, 2003) para los estudiantes cultural y lingüísticamente diversos en los Estados Unidos de América. Análisis de varios programas de estudio de aprendizaje del Inglés (ELL), reveló que los enfoques sexo-céntric [...] o (masculino-céntrico) y etno-céntrico (Euro/Western-céntrico) estaban profundamente arraigados en la mayoría de los libros de texto. La intención de este documento parcial de métodos mixtos consistió en explorar algunos hablantes de Inglés no nativos (NNES) perfil de los maestros de primaria ELL liderazgo culturalmente sensible con el fin de fomentar el debate sobre la forma de promover la transformación curricular multicultural en las aulas de primaria y cómo efectivamente formar culturalmente a los profesores de pre-servicio NNES y básico ELL en un contexto específico ESL. Análisis comparativo de datos sugirieron que no había relación causal entre los estilos de liderazgo de los participantes con sensibilidad cultural y su capacidad para llevar a cabo la transformación curricular multicultural. Las implicaciones para los profesores NNES y básico ELL pre-servicio en formación de los profesores se enmarcan desde la enseñanza culturalmente sensible y enfoques multiculturales de transformación curricular. Abstract in english Culturally responsive instruction has been suggested as quality education (Edwards, 2003) for minority students in subtractive and additive bilingualism settings. However, analytical curriculum development of several official English programs revealed that the gender-centric (malecentric) and Ethno- [...] centric (Euro/Western-centric) approaches were deeply embedded in most English textbooks of curriculum development. The intent of partial mixed methods paper consisted of exploring some non-native English speaking teachers English teachers' culturally responsive leadership profile in order to further the discussion on not only how to promote English curriculum transformation in English as second language (ESL) and English as foreign language (EFL) settings, but also to effectively train culturally responsive non-native English speaking (NNES) English pre-service teachers. Comparative data analysis suggested that there were no causal relationship between NNES English teachers' culturally responsive leadership styles and their abilities to perform multicultural transformation of English curriculums. To be highly effective in transforming English curriculum, NNES English teachers needed to be systematically trained on how to do so. Implications for NNES English pre-service teacher education are framed from the culturally responsive and anti-oppressive e

  5. Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiguo, Qu

    2013-01-01

    The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

  6. Planning and designing urban places in response to climate and local culture: A case study of Mussafah District in Abu Dhabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baji?-Brkovi? Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with how climate and local culture specifics contribute to urban diversity, and how they affect the way urban spaces are being conceived, planned and designed. The authors argue that regardless of the globally accepted principles of sustainability which emphasize smart responses, diversity and culture as the prime drives in urban development of, cities around the world are continually experiencing the all-alike solutions, which often compromise their identity and character. Having taken the genuine stands of the philosophy as a starting point for examining the subject, the authors explore and present how the climate specifics, along with the uniqueness of local culture, lead toward the solutions which make a difference to their cities. The discussion is illustrated by the case study the authors were engaged in, the Mussafah District project in Abu Dhabi, a redevelopment proposal recently initiated and developed by International Society of Urban and Regional Planners -ISOCARP and Urban Planning Council of Abu Dhabi.

  7. Changes in glucose fermentation pathways by an enriched bacterial culture in response to regulated dissolved H2 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Zeng, Raymond J; Duke, Mikel C; O'Sullivan, Cathryn A; Clarke, William P

    2015-06-01

    It is well established that metabolic pathways in the fermentation of organic waste are primarily controlled by dissolved H2 concentrations, but there is no reported study that compares observed and predicted shifts in fermentation pathways induced by manipulating the dissolved H2 concentration. A perfusion system is presented that was developed to control dissolved H2 concentrations in the continuous fermentation of glucose by a culture highly enriched towards Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum (86?±?9% relative abundance) from an originally diverse consortia in the leachate of a laboratory digester fed with municipal solid waste. Media from a 2.5?L CSTR was drawn through sintered steel membrane filters to retain biomass, allowing vigorous sparging in a separate chamber without cellular disruption. Through a combination of sparging and variations in glucose feeding rate from 0.8 to 0.2?g/L/d, a range of steady state fermentations were performed with dissolved H2 concentrations as low as an equivalent equilibrated H2 partial pressure of 3?kPa. Trends in product formation rates were simulated using a H2 regulation partitioning model. The model correctly predicted the direction of products redistribution in response to H2 concentration changes and the acetate and butyrate formation rates when H2 concentrations were less than 6?kPa. However, the model over-estimated acetate, ethanol and butanol productions at the expense of butyrate production at higher H2 concentrations. The H2 yield at the lowest dissolved H2 concentration was 2.67?±?0.08?mol H2 /mol glucose, over 300% higher than the yield achieved in a CSTR operated without sparging. PMID:25545692

  8. Respiration and protein synthesis in nongrowing cultured pear fruit cells in response to ethylene and modified atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The respiration of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) cells was monitored after subculture into an auxin-free, mannitol-enriched medium in which the cells remained viable but did not grow. Respiration rates were affected by the presence or absence of sucrose in the medium even though the cells retained reserves of sucrose and starch. Provided the medium contained respirable carbohydrate, exposure to ethylene (1-10 microliters per liter) increased the respiration rate with some acceleration of cell death. In the range from 10 to 2% oxygen by volume, the respiration rate of the cells decreased with oxygen concentration resulting in some prolongation of cell life. Thus, in their responses to ethylene and modified atmospheres, the cells reflected the behavior of harvested fruits. Having defined conditions under which respiration rate could be varied without apparent influence on the quiescent state of the cells, they sought a connection between maintenance respiration and protein turnover. Relative rates of protein synthesis were assessed by measuring ribosome distribution between monosomes and polysomes. In general, the higher the respiration rate the higher the proportion of polysomes supporting the thesis that protein turnover is a variable component of maintenance metabolism. Protein turnover in cells incubated in the presence or absence of sucrose was measured as retained ?-amino-3H following a pulse of 3H2O. Turnover was 3H2O. Turnover was shown to be a quantitatively important component of the maintenance budget and to be more rapidly in cells in media supplemented with sucrose through the chase period. The experiments illustrate that cultured cells may be used to explore aspects of the maintenance metabolism of resting or senescent cells that are not amenable to study in bulky fruit tissues

  9. Characteristics and mechanisms of the bystander response in monolayer cell cultures exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When confluent cultures of mammalian cells are irradiated with very low fluences of alpha particles whereby only occasional cells receive any radiation exposure, genetic changes are observed in the non-irradiated ('bystander') cells. Upregulation of the p53 damage-response pathway as well as activation of proteins in the MAPK family occurred in bystander cells; p53 was phosphorylated on the serine 15 residue suggesting that the upregulation of p53 was a consequence of DNA damage. Damage signals were transmitted to bystander cells through gap junctions, as confirmed by the use of genetically manipulated cells including connexin43 knockouts. Expression of connexin43 was markedly enhanced by irradiation. A moderate bystander effect was observed for specific gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations. This effect was markedly enhanced in cells defective in the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway. Finally, an upregulation of oxidative metabolism occurred in bystander cells; the increased levels of reactive oxygen species appeared to be derived from flavine-containing oxidase enzymes. We hypothesize that genetic effects observed in non-irradiated bystander cells are a consequence of oxidative base damage; >90% of mutations in bystander cells were point mutations. When bystander cells cannot repair DNA double strand breaks, they become much more sensitive to the induction of chromosomal aberrations and mutations, the latter consisting primarily of deletion mutants. consisting primarily of deletion mutants. While we propose that the genetic effects occurring in bystander cells are a consequence of oxidative stress, the nature of the signal that initiates this process remains to be determined

  10. In vitro culture of rabbit growth plate chondrocytes. 1. Age-dependence of response to fibroblast growth factor and "chondrocyte growth factor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, R J; Sokoloff, L

    1981-01-01

    The growth-promoting effects of pituitary fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and "chondrocyte growth factor" (CGF), a contaminant of NIH-bovine TSH and ovine LH, were studied in monolayer and/or organ culture of epiphyseal plate chondrocytes of rabbits 1 day to 10 weeks old. The response to FGF (50 ng/ml) and CGF(TSH) and CGF(LH) (64 micrograms/ml) was age-dependent. In cultures from animals aged 4 weeks or older, the growth factors consistently stimulated DNA synthesis while decreasing incorporation of radiosulfate into matrix macromolecules. In organ cultures of the growth plate of rabbits less than 1 week old, FGF and NIH-TSH and LH actually diminished rather than promoted incorporation of 3H-thymidine. In organ culture the generation times of newborn rabbit proliferating zone chondrocytes, measured in vivo and in vitro by nuclear grain count dilution in 3H-thymidine autoradiographys, were 11 and 16 to 17 hours respectively. FGF and LH increased the generation time of 1- and 4-day old rabbit chondrocytes from 16 to over 24 hours. The stimulatory effect of CGF(TSH) in the older age group was much greater than that of NIH(LH). The dog-dose response curves of FGF and CGF(LH) were parallel, supporting Jones and Addison's view that the CGF activity of CGF(LH) derives from its content of FGF. PMID:6458542

  11. [Investigation of radiation-induced "bystaner effect" using model of adaptive response in mixed lymphocyte culture from humans of different gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobtsova, I E; Kolesnikova, I S

    2007-01-01

    The novel method for the investigation of radiation-induced "bystander effect" has been tested on the model of mixed lymphocyte culture from humans of different gender. The "bystander effect" was estimated by the ability of nonirradiated female/male cells to develop an adaptive response in mixed culture with irradiated at the dose 0.05 Gy of X-rays G0 lymphocytes of opposite gender. The preliminary results indicate that both irradiated lymphocytes and non-irradiated but neighbouring with pre-exposed cells are less susceptible to the genetic damages manifested as chromosome aberrations induced in G1 lymphocytes by a subsequent high dose of X-ray (1.0 Gy). Direct adaptive response as well as indirect one were expressed more obvious in female lymphocytes. PMID:18380322

  12. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) indicated a broad international interest in expanding the concept of safety culture in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. (Z.S.) 1 fig

  13. The Investigation of the Relationship between Cultural Values and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, Organizational Commitment (OC and Personal Benefit (PB in Accounting System of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Jabbarzadeh Kangarlouei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the relationships between cultural values and ethical dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, Organizational Commitment (OC and Personal Benefit (PB in accounting system of Iran. The cultural values criteria in this study include Power Distance Index (PDI, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI, Individualism (IDV and Masculinity (MAS. For measuring the cultural values, Hofstede questionnaire (1991 and in order to collect data for CSR, OC, and PB, Singhapakdi et al. (1996, Hunt et al. (1989, and Clikeman and Henning standard questionnaire (2000 were used, respectively, because of their high validity and reliability. Research sample consists of 115 accepted companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE during the period of 2004-2010. The regression models and econometric software EViews 6 are used to test the hypotheses. Research findings indicate that there is a weak correlation between cultural values and ethical dimensions of CRS, OC, and PB that results in the rejection of research hypotheses. In addition, among the variables of cultural values, UAI has the most and MAS index has the least impact on CSR.

  14. A Time-to-Event Pharmacodynamic Model Describing Treatment Response in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Days to Positivity in Automated Liquid Mycobacterial Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Chigutsa, Emmanuel; Patel, Kashyap; Denti, Paolo; Visser, Marianne; Maartens, Gary; Kirkpatrick, Carl M. J.; Mcilleron, Helen; Karlsson, Mats O.

    2013-01-01

    Days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture have been shown to correlate with mycobacterial load and have been proposed as a useful biomarker for treatment responses in tuberculosis. However, there is currently no quantitative method or model to analyze the change in days to positivity with time on treatment. The objectives of this study were to describe the decline in numbers of mycobacteria in sputum collected once weekly for 8 weeks from patients on treatment for tuberculo...

  15. Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae: proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payet Bertrand

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanilla planifolia is an important Orchid commercially cultivated for the production of natural vanilla flavour. Vanilla plants are conventionally propagated by stem cuttings and thus causing injury to the mother plants. Regeneration and in vitro mass multiplication are proposed as an alternative to minimize damage to mother plants. Because mass production of V. planifolia through indirect shoot differentiation from callus culture is rare and may be a successful use of in vitro techniques for producing somaclonal variants, we have established a novel protocol for the regeneration of vanilla plants and investigated the initial biochemical and molecular mechanisms that trigger shoot organogenesis from embryogenic/organogenic callus. Results For embryogenic callus induction, seeds obtained from 7-month-old green pods of V. planifolia were inoculated on MS basal medium (BM containing TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. Germination of unorganized mass callus such as protocorm -like structure (PLS arising from each seed has been observed. The primary embryogenic calli have been formed after transferring on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.5 mg l-1. These calli were maintained by subculturing on BM containing IAA (0.5 mg l-1 and TDZ (0.3 mg l-1 during 6 months and formed embryogenic/organogenic calli. Histological analysis showed that shoot organogenesis was induced between 15 and 20 days after embryogenic/organogenic calli were transferred onto MS basal medium with NAA (0.5 mg l-1. By associating proteomics and metabolomics analyses, the biochemical and molecular markers responsible for shoot induction have been studied in 15-day-old calli at the stage where no differentiating part was visible on organogenic calli. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight-tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS analysis revealed that 15 protein spots are significantly expressed (P Conclusion The subculture of embryogenic/organogenic calli onto shoot differentiation medium triggers the stimulation of cell metabolism principally at three levels namely (i initiation of photosynthesis, glycolysis and phenolic compounds synthesis; (ii amino acid - protein synthesis, and protein stabilization; (iii sugar degradation. These biochemical mechanisms associated with the initiation of shoot formation during protocorm - like body (PLB organogenesis could be coordinated by the removal of TDZ in callus maintenance medium. These results might contribute to elucidate the complex mechanism that leads to vanilla callus differentiation and subsequent shoot formation into PLB organogenesis. Moreover, our results highlight an early intermediate metabolic event in vanillin biosynthetic pathway with respect to secondary metabolism. Indeed, for the first time in vanilla tissue culture, phenolic compounds such as glucoside A and glucoside B were identified. The degradation of these compounds in specialized tissue (i.e. young green beans probably contributes to the biosynthesis of glucovanillin, the parent compound of vanillin.

  16. Response to artificial inoculation with Phytophthora infestans of potato clones insensitive to culture filtrate of the fungus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction of general resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary by in vitro culture has been reported for cvs. 'Bintje' and 'Kennebec'. In both cases, sporangia suspension of the fungus were used as selective agent. As reported for many host-pathogen interactions, culture filtrate or purified toxins may also contribute to the selection of resistant genotypes. Challenge of mutagenized buds of cv. 'Spunta' with culture filtrate of P. infestans allowed selection of insensitive clones. To verify the possible correlation between culture filtrate insensitivity and disease resistance, different inoculation technique were applied to these clones. Considering that general resistance to late blight is a complex trait, different tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour during various stages of pathogenesis, such as infection, invasion, mycelial growth and sporulation. 7 refs, 1 tab

  17. "Being responsible, respectful, trying to keep the tradition alive:" cultural resilience and growing up in an Alaska Native community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Lisa; Joule, Linda; Garoutte, Joe; Mazziotti, Janet; Hopper, Kim

    2014-10-01

    Indigenous circumpolar youth are experiencing challenges of growing up in a context much different from that of their parents and their grandparents due to rapid and imposed social change. Our study is interested in community resilience: the meaning systems, resources, and relationships that structure how youth go about overcoming difficulties. The research reflects an understanding that social and cultural ecologies influence people's available and meaningful options. The in-depth, qualitative study of 20 youth from the same Arctic community shows Inupiat (Alaska Native) youth are navigating challenges. Findings from this research suggest that Inupiat youth reflect more flexible patterns of resilience when they are culturally grounded. This cultural foundation involves kinship networks that mediate young people's access to cultural and material assets. Our participants emphasized the importance of taking care of others and "giving back to the community." Being "in the country" linked youth to traditional ontology that profoundly shifted how youth felt in relation to themselves, to others, and the world. The vast majority of participants' "fulfillment narratives" centered on doing subsistence and/or cultural activities. In relation to this, young people were more likely to demonstrate versatility in their resilience strategies when deploying coherent self-narratives that reflected novel yet culturally resonant styles. Young women were more likely to demonstrate this by reconfiguring notions of culture and gender identity in ways that helped them meet challenges in their lives. Lastly, generational differences in understandings signal particular ways that young people's historical and political positioning influences their access to cultural resources. PMID:24014513

  18. Comparison of glutathione S-transferases of Zea mays responsible for herbicide detoxification in plants and suspension-cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R; Owen, W J

    1986-10-01

    The metabolism of the s-triazine herbicide atrazine has been compared in Zea mays seedlings and cell suspension cultures. The rapid detoxification observed in the shoots of whole plants was not seen in the cultured cells. This difference in metabolism could be accounted for by the varying substrate specificities of the isoenzymes of glutathione S-transferase (EC 2.5.1.18) present in the plant and the cells. A single form of the enzyme isolated from leaf tissue conjugated both atrazine and the chloracetanilide herbicide metolachlor. However, the two isoenzymes present in suspension-cultured cells although active against metolachlor, showed no activity toward atrazine. Following purification, the major form of transferase present in the cells was physically similar to the enzyme isolated from leaf (Mr=55000). Both proteins were dimers of subunit Mr=26300, and with isoelectric points in the range pH 4.3-4.9. The minor form of the enzyme present in culture showed a greater specificity for metolachlor than the major species. In addition the overall activity and ratio of the two isoenzymes varied over the culture growth cycle. These findings illustrate the need for characterizing enzymes involved in herbicide detoxification in plant cell cultures. PMID:24232552

  19. Gene expression of a putative glutathione S-transferase is responsive to abiotic stress in embryogenic cell cultures of Cyclamen persicum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudia, Hoenemann; Juliane, Ambold; Annette, Hohe.

    2012-01-15

    Full Text Available Background: Cyclamen persicum is an economically important ornamental crop that is propagated exclusively through seeds as vegetative propagation using cuttings is not possible. Therefore a micropropagation method through somatic embryogenesis is of high interest; however the method suffers from low [...] reliability concerning quality and quantity of the produced plantlets. A crucial step of the protocol is the removal of plant growth regulators (PGRs) that triggers embryo development. In order to get a better insight in this crucial step of the propagation process, a gene expression analysis has been set up using five different genes of glutathione S-transferases (GST) as these are known to be auxin responsive as well as stress reactive. Results: One out of the five genes of glutathione S-transferases (CpGST1) displayed a clear down-regulation 72 hrs after removal of PGRs compared to 4 hrs after, implying auxin responsiveness. However, a more detailed analysis including the time points 0, 4 and 72 hrs revealed an initial strong up-regulation after 4 hrs before it was down-regulated after 72 hrs. In comparison fold-changes of the additional four GST-genes were marginal. Comparing cultures on semisolid medium to that in suspension, transcript abundances of CpGST1 were clearly decreased in suspension culture. Conclusions: Against the initial hypothesis CpGST was not auxin responsive but stress reactive, probably especially indicating drought stress imposed on the cells upon transfer from submerged suspension culture to semisolid medium. Mechanical stress caused by shaking of suspensions cultures seemed to be less important.

  20. Development and Validation of Culture-Specific Variable Response Inconsistency and True Response Inconsistency Scales for Use with the Korean MMPI-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketterer, Holly L.; Han, Kyunghee; Hur, Jaehong; Moon, Kyungjoo

    2010-01-01

    In response to the concern that Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989; J. N. Butcher et al., 2001) Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN) score invalidity criteria recommended for use with American samples results in…

  1. Cultural Diversity and Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Geneva

    2013-01-01

    This discussion examines some of the major issues and attributes of culturally responsive teaching. It begins with explaining my views of culturally responsive teaching and how I incorporate cultural responsiveness in my writing to teach readers what it means. These general conceptual frameworks are followed by a discussion of some specific…

  2. Changes in responsiveness of rat tracheal epithelial cells to growth factors during preneoplastic transformation in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preneoplastic rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cell lines require fewer growth factors for clonal proliferation in culture than normal cells. Serum-free media missing various combinations of growth factors (e.g., cholera toxin, serum albumin, epidermal growth factor, hydrocortisone) required for proliferation of normal, but not preneoplastic, RTE cells can be used to select for carcinogen-induced preneoplastic variants having an increased proliferative potential in culture. These results suggest that reductions in growth factor requirements are primary events in the carcinogenic process. (author)

  3. Intracellular pH and 42.00 C heat response of CHO cells cultured at pH 6.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors previously reported that cells under chronic low pH (6.6) conditions have altered thermotolerance. They further characterized both the doubling time (t/sub d/) and the internal pH (pH/sub 1/) of CHO cells continuously cultured at pH 6.6 for times greater than one year. The following differences were noted: 1) A t/sub d/ of 16 hr compared to a t/sub d/ of 12 hr for cells at normal pH (7.3) and a t/sub d/ of 25 hr for the acute low pH cells (pH = 6.6; incubation time = 4 hr). 2) A pH/sub i/ 0.1-0.15 pH units > normal cells and 0.3 pH units > acute low pH cells. 3) Survival at 42.00C which differed from both normal and acute low pH cells. The chronic culture was still quite sensitive to 42.00C treatments during the first 5 hr, but developed tolerance at a higher level than cells under acute low pH conditions. The pH/sub i/ of the chronic culture responded to 42.00C heating in a manner similar to that for acute low pH cells. Whether this culture represents a normal response to long term low pH exposure, or was the response of a mutant population is at the present unknown

  4. A fibroblast/macrophage co-culture model to evaluate the biocompatibility of an electrospun Dextran/PLGA scaffold and its potential to induce inflammatory responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibroblasts and macrophages are the two major types of cells responding to implanted biomaterials. They play crucial roles in inflammatory responses, host-material interactions and tissue remodeling. However, the synergistic interactions of these two cell types with biomaterials are not fully understood. In this investigation, an in vitro fibroblast/macrophage co-culture system was utilized to examine the biocompatibility and the potential to induce inflammatory responses of an electrospun Dextran/PLGA scaffold. The scaffold did not affect the morphologies, attachments, proliferations and viabilities of both the fibroblasts and macrophages, cultured separately or together. Moreover, it only activated a small subset of the macrophages implicating a low potential to induce either severe acute or chronic inflammatory response. Additionally, fibroblasts played a role in prolonging macrophage activation in the presence of the scaffolds. Using antibody arrays, IL-10, SDF-1, MIP-1 gamma and RANTES were found to be up-regulated when the cells were incubated with the scaffolds. The results of subdermal implantation of the Dextran/PLGA scaffolds confirmed its biocompatibility and low inflammatory potential.

  5. A qualitative investigation into key cultural factors that support abstinence or responsible drinking amongst some Pacific youth living in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaalii-Sauni Tamasailau

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abstinence and responsible drinking are not typically associated with youth drinking culture. Amongst Pacific youth in New Zealand there are high numbers, compared to the general New Zealand population, who choose not to consume alcohol. The Pacific youth population is made up of several ethnic groups; their ethno-cultural values are largely Polynesian and heavily influenced by the socio-economic realities of living in New Zealand. This paper explores factors that support abstinence or responsible drinking amongst Pacific youth living in Auckland. Methods A qualitative study comprised of a series of ethnically-, age-, and gender-matched semi-structured focus group discussions with 69 Pacific youth, aged 15-25?years from a university and selected high-schools. Participants were purposively sampled. Results Key cultural factors that contributed to whether Pacific youth participants were abstinent or responsible drinkers were: significant experiences within Pacific family environments (e.g. young person directly links their decision about alcohol consumption to a positive or negative role model; awareness of the belief that their actions as children of Pacific parents affects the reputation and standing of their Pacific family and community (e.g. church; awareness of traditional Pacific values of respect, reciprocity and cultural taboos (e.g. male–female socialising; commitment to no-alcohol teachings of church or religious faith; having peer support and experiences that force them to consider negative effects of excessive alcohol consumption; and personal awareness that being part of an (excessive drinking culture may seriously affect health or impede career aspirations. Conclusions The narratives offered by Pacific young people highlighted three key communities of influence: family (immediate and extended, but especially siblings, peers and church. Young people negotiated through these communities of influence their decisions whether to drink alcohol, drink excessively or not at all. For each young person the way in which those three communities came together to support their decisions depended on the specificities of their lived contexts. Pacific young people live lives that share some things in common with other New Zealand youth and others which are more specific to a Pacific ethnic group, especially in relation to the traditional beliefs of their Pacific parents and community. In the development of alcohol harm reduction strategies seeking active Pacific young person and family compliance, it is these “other ethnic things” that requires careful and more qualitative consideration.

  6. beta. -adrenergic receptor binding characteristics and responsiveness in cultured Wistar-Kyoto rat arterial smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazayeri, A.; Meyer, W.J. III

    1988-01-01

    The tone of arterial blood vessels is regulated by the catecholamines through their receptors on arterial smooth muscle cells (ASMC). ..beta..-/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors of ASMC mediate vasodilation through agonist mediated c-AMP production. Previous reports have described these receptors on freshly isolated blood vessels. This study demonstrates the presence of ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on cultured rat ASMC and that these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptor binding was measured using (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding to the membrane of cultured ASMC from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. The ASMC ..beta..-adrenergic receptors have a Kd of 0.56 +/- 0.16 nM and a Bmax of 57.2 +/- 21.7 fmol/mg protein. Competition binding studies revealed a much greater affinity of these receptors for epinephrine than norepinephrine, indicating the preponderance of a ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor subtype. Isoproterenol stimulation of cultured ASMC resulted in a 14 +/- 7 fold increase in intracellular c-AMP content of these cells indicating these receptors are functional. ..beta..-adrenergic receptors of cultured ASMC provide an excellent system in which the association between hypertension and observed ..beta..-adrenergic receptor differences can be further explored.

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah SØs; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.

    2013-01-01

    There is great interest in substituting animal work with in vitro experimentation in human health risk assessment; however, there are only few comparisons of in vitro and in vivo biological responses to engineered nanomaterials. We used high-content genomics tools to compare in vivo pulmonary responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT-XNRI -7 (Mitsui7) were characterized using DLS, SEM and TEM. Mice were exposed via a single intratracheal instillation to 18, 54, or 162 mu g of Mitsui7/mouse. FE1 cells were incubated with 12.5, 25 and 100 mu g/ml of Mitsui7. Tissue and cell samples were collected at 24 hours post-exposure. DNA microarrays were employed to establish mechanistic differences and similarities between the two models. Microarray results were confirmed using gene-specific RT-qPCR. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was assessed for indications of inflammation in vivo. A strong dose-dependent activation of acute phase and inflammation response was observed in mouse lungs reflective mainly of an inflammatory response as observed in BAL. In vitro, a wide variety of core cellular functions were affected including transcription, cell cycle, and cellular growth and proliferation. Oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation processes were altered in both models. Although there were similarities observed between the two models at the pathway-level, the specific genes altered under these pathways were different, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of responses are different in cells in culture and the lung tissue. Our results suggest that careful consideration should be given in selecting relevant endpoints when substituting animal with in vitro testing.

  8. Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies / Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  9. Innate Responses Induced by Whole Inactivated Virus or Subunit Influenza Vaccines in Cultured Dendritic Cells Correlate with Immune Responses In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoel, Maaike; Pool, Judith; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Zaaraoui-Boutahar, Fatiha; Bijl, Maarten; Andeweg, Arno C.; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Vaccine development involves time-consuming and expensive evaluation of candidate vaccines in animal models. As mediators of both innate and adaptive immune responses dendritic cells (DCs) are considered to be highly important for vaccine performance. Here we evaluated how far the response of DCs to a vaccine in vitro is in line with the immune response the vaccine evokes in vivo. To this end, we investigated the response of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to whole inactivated virus (WIV) and subunit (SU) influenza vaccine preparations. These vaccine preparations were chosen because they differ in the immune response they evoke in mice with WIV being superior to SU vaccine through induction of higher virus-neutralizing antibody titers and a more favorable Th1-skewed response phenotype. Stimulation of DCs with WIV, but not SU vaccine, resulted in a cytokine response that was comparable to that of DCs stimulated with live virus. Similarly, the gene expression profiles of DCs treated with WIV or live virus were similar and differed from that of SU vaccine-treated DCs. More specifically, exposure of DCs to WIV resulted in differential expression of genes in known antiviral pathways, whereas SU vaccine did not. The stronger antiviral and more Th1-related response of DCs to WIV as compared to SU vaccine correlates well with the superior immune response found in mice. These results indicate that in vitro stimulation of DCs with novel vaccine candidates combined with the assessment of multiple parameters, including gene signatures, may be a valuable tool for the selection of vaccine candidates. PMID:25933037

  10. Growth and genetic responses of Salmonella Typhimurium to pH-shifts in an anaerobic continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella infection of chickens that leads to potential human foodborne salmonellosis continues to be a concern. Changes in the pH of poultry gastrointestinal tract could influence Salmonella growth and virulence response. In the current study, growth responses of a chicken isolate Salmonella ent...

  11. Brain microvascular pericytes are immunoactive in culture: cytokine, chemokine, nitric oxide, and LRP-1 expression in response to lipopolysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson Michelle A; Kovac Andrej; Banks William A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brain microvascular pericytes are important constituents of the neurovascular unit. These cells are physically the closest cells to the microvascular endothelial cells in brain capillaries. They significantly contribute to the induction and maintenance of the barrier functions of the blood-brain barrier. However, very little is known about their immune activities or their roles in neuroinflammation. Here, we focused on the immunological profile of brain pericytes in cultur...

  12. A Novel Method for Assessing Sex-Specific and Genotype-Specific Response to Injury in Astrocyte Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mingyue; Oyarzabal, Esteban; Yang, Rui; Murphy, Stephanie J.; Hurn, Patricia D.

    2008-01-01

    Female astrocytes sustain less cell death from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) than male astrocytes. Arimidex, an aromatase inhibitor, abolishes these sex differences. To verify sex-dependent differences in P450 aromatase function in astrocyte cell death following OGD, we developed a novel method that uses sex-specific and genotype-specific single pup primary astrocyte cultures from wild-type (WT) and aromatase-knockout (ArKO) mice. After determining sex by external and internal examination ...

  13. Isoferritins in rat Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and extrahepatic macrophages. Biosynthesis in cell suspensions and cultures in response to iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultures of Kupffer cells and of hepatocytes, prepared from single rat livers, synthesized ferritin protein equally efficiently. In culture but not in suspension, both sorts of cells responded significantly to stimulation with iron by increased ferritin synthesis. As determined by isoelectric focusing, the isoferritin profiles of newly synthesized 14-labeled Kupffer cell and hepatocyte ferritin were identical, each having three bands. However, unlabeled ferritin, extracted from nonparenchymal liver cells (mainly Kupffer and endothelial cells) of iron-loaded rats, contained an acidic isoferritin that was not present in hepatocyte ferritin. Investigation of ferritin synthesis in cultured peritoneal and alveolar macrophages yielded similar results. The isofocusing profile of newly synthesized peritoneal macrophage ferritin was indistinguishable from the profile of fresh Kupffer cell or hepatocyte ferritin. Thus, the three isoferritins common to Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and extrahepatic macrophages are neither cell- nor tissue-specific. However, modifications on intracellular storage may affect the isofocusing properties. The findings, although consistent with the LnH24-n subunit model of ferritin protein, indicate identical restrictive genomic control of the H:L ratios in these sorts of cells. Further, they make it probable that Kupffer cell ferritin iron, originating by endogenous synthesis, is the principal source of Kupffer cell hemosiderin iron of Kupffer cell hemosiderin iron

  14. Response of Xylella fastidiosa to Zinc: Decreased Culturability, Increased Exopolysaccharide Production, and Formation of Resilient Biofilms under Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa produces biofilm that accumulates in the host xylem vessels, affecting disease development in various crops and bacterial acquisition by insect vectors. Biofilms are sensitive to the chemical composition of the environment, and mineral elements being transported in the xylem are of special interest for this pathosystem. Here, X. fastidiosa liquid cultures were supplemented with zinc and compared with nonamended cultures to determine the effects of Zn on growth, biofilm, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production under batch and flow culture conditions. The results show that Zn reduces growth and biofilm production under both conditions. However, in microfluidic chambers under liquid flow and with constant bacterial supplementation (closer to conditions inside the host), a dramatic increase in biofilm aggregates was seen in the Zn-amended medium. Biofilms formed under these conditions were strongly attached to surfaces and were not removed by medium flow. This phenomenon was correlated with increased EPS production in stationary-phase cells grown under high Zn concentrations. Zn did not cause greater adhesion to surfaces by individual cells. Additionally, viability analyses suggest that X. fastidiosa may be able to enter the viable but nonculturable state in vitro, and Zn can hasten the onset of this state. Together, these findings suggest that Zn can act as a stress factor with pleiotropic effects on X. fastidiosa and indicate that, although Zn could be used as a bactericide treatment, it could trigger the undesired effect of stronger biofilm formation upon reinoculation events. PMID:24271184

  15. Cultural Sensitivity: The Basis for Culturally Relevant Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Maximino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines cultural sensitivity as a basis for culturally relevant teaching. It argues that classroom teachers are overwhelmed by the responsibility to educate an increasingly culturally diverse population. And because extant teaching strategies have failed to produce desired outcomes in these students, a culturally relevant curriculum…

  16. Production of doubled haploids in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) through isolated microspore culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cistué, L; Soriano, M; Castillo, A M; Vallés, M P; Sanz, J M; Echávarri, B

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this work was to produce doubled haploid plants from durum wheat through the induction of androgenesis. A microspore culture technique was developed and used to produce fertile doubled haploid plants of agronomic interest. Five cultivars, one selected line, plus a collection of 20 F(1) crosses between different genotypes of high breeding value were used. Studies on several factors such as pre-treatments and media components were carried out in order to develop a protocol to regenerate green haploid plantlets. Anthers were pre-treated in 0.7 M mannitol. Microspores, from anther maceration, were plated on a C(17) induction culture medium with ovary co-culture. The optimum regeneration medium J25-8 was used. From 35 microspore isolations, 407 green plantlets were obtained. With this technique mature embryos were obtained. Green plants were regenerated from all genotypes used and approximately 67% of them were spontaneously doubled haploids. Some haploids and a very few polyploids plants were obtained. From the 407 plants, 275 were completely fertile and gave enough seeds to be assayed in the field. This protocol could be used complementary to or instead of the intergeneric crossing with maize as an economically feasible method to obtain doubled haploids from most durum wheat genotypes. PMID:16220343

  17. Probing tumor-stroma interactions and response to photodynamic therapy in a 3D pancreatic cancer-fibroblast co-culture model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glidden, Michael D.; Massodi, Iqbal; Rizvi, Imran; Celli, Jonathan P.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a lethal disease that is often unresectable by the time of diagnosis and is typically non-responsive to chemo- and radiotherapy, resulting in a five year survival of only 3%. Tumors of the pancreas are characterized by a dense fibrous stroma rich in extracellular matrix proteins, which is implicated in poor therapeutic response, though its precise roles remain poorly understood. Indeed, while the use of therapeutics that target the stroma is an emerging paradigm in the clinical management of this disease, the primary focus of such efforts is to enhance drug penetration through dense fibrous stroma and it is unclear to what extent the characteristically rigid stroma of pancreatic tumors imparts drug resistance by acting as a complex signaling partner, or merely as a physical barrier for drug delivery. Here we use 3D in vitro co-cultures of pancreatic cancer cells and normal human fibroblasts as a model system to study heterotypic interactions between these populations. Leveraging this in vitro model along with image-based methods for quantification of growth and therapeutic endpoints, we characterize these co-cultures and examine the role of verteporfin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) for targeting tumor-fibroblast interactions in pancreatic tumors.

  18. Integrated ‘omics analysis for studying the microbial community response to a pH perturbation of a cellulose-degrading bioreactor culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaro, Amy A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Konopka, Allan; Callister, Stephen J.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated ‘omics have been used on pure cultures and co-cultures, yet they have not been applied to complex microbial communities to examine questions of perturbation response. In this study, we used integrated ‘omics to measure the perturbation response of a cellulose-degrading bioreactor community fed with microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel). We predicted that a pH decrease by addition of a pulse of acid would reduce microbial community diversity and temporarily reduce reactor function such as cellulose degradation. However, 16S rDNA pyrosequencing results revealed increased alpha diversity in the microbial community after the perturbation, and a persistence of the dominant community members over the duration of the experiment. Proteomics results showed a decrease in activity of proteins associated with Fibrobacter succinogenes two days after the perturbation followed by increased protein abundances six days after the perturbation. The decrease in cellulolytic activity suggested by the proteomics was confirmed by the accumulation of Avicel in the reactor. Metabolomics showed a pattern similar to that of the proteome, with amino acid production decreasing two days after the perturbation and increasing after six days. This study demonstrated that community ‘omics data provides valuable information about the interactions and function of anaerobic cellulolytic community members after a perturbation.

  19. Involvement of Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells Activation in UV Response: EVIDENCE FROM CELL CULTURE AND TRANSGENIC MICE*

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chuanshu; Mattjus, Peter; Ma, Wei-Ya; Rincon, Mercedes; Chen, Nan-yue; Brown, Rhoderick E; DONG, ZIGANG

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cells respond to UV radiation by signaling cascades leading to activation of transcription factors, such as activated protein 1, NF?B, and p53, a process known as the “UV response.” Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) was first identified as an inducible nuclear factor in immune response and subsequently found to be expressed in other tissues and cells. To date, however, the regulation and function of NFAT in tissues and cells, other than the immune system, are not well ...

  20. Photoendocrine transduction in cultured chick pineal cells. III. Ouabain (or dark) pulses can block, overcome, or alter the phase response of the melatonin rhythm to light pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatz, M; Mullen, D A

    1989-10-30

    A photoentrainment pathway, circadian pacemakers, and the apparatus for regulated melatonin production all reside within chick pineal cells. Pulses of white light (L), or darkness (D), or ouabain (Ob), in otherwise constant red light, induce phase-dependent phase shifts in the rhythm of melatonin output displayed by these cells in static culture. The phase response curves (PRCs) (which describe the relationship between the phase at which a pulse is given and the resulting phase shift) for Ob and for D are quite similar, and differ from the PRC for L pulses. Here, we describe the effects of pulses of Ob, L, and D, in combination, on subsequent phase of the melatonin rhythm. Ob pulses can block, overcome, or alter the phase response to light pulses, depending on the phases and concentrations used. Under appropriate conditions, D pulses can, like Ob, convert the phase response to a light pulse from phase delays to phase advances. Such alterations in the response to a second pulse (L) caused by a first pulse (Ob or D) implies a rapid resetting of the phase of the underlying pacemaker. The interactions of Ob, L, and D are consistent with, but do not require, the convergence of their entrainment pathways on the same oscillating component of the pacemaker. PMID:2804698

  1. Enhanced cellular responses of human bone marrow stromal cells cultured on pretreated surface with allogenic platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seung Han; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Ha Na; Nam, Jinwoo; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface pretreatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the cellular functions of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs). The surfaces of tissue culture plates (TCPs) were pretreated by adding PRP followed by centrifugation to bring platelets closer to the surface, followed by incubation for 60 min at 37°C. Then, hBMSCs were seeded onto TCP and TCP pretreated with PRP (TCP-PRP), followed by culture in osteogenic medium. Cell attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; JSM-7401F, JEOL Ltd., Japan) observations were conducted. The attachment of hBMSCs was significantly lower on TCP-PRP than on TCP. However, when the cell numbers were normalized with those observed on day 1 of culture, cellular proliferation on 5 days was significantly higher on TCP-PRP. Alkaline phosphatase activity, an index of early phase of osteoblastic differentiation, was significantly higher on TCP-PRP on day 14. Calcium deposition amount, an index of terminal osteoblastic differentiation, was also significantly higher on TCP-PRP on days 14 and 21. The results of von Kossa staining confirmed that, on day 21, the area of mineralized nodules was significantly larger on TCP-PRP. FE-SEM observation demonstrated that activated platelets and fibrin network covered the surface after PRP treatment. An increase in the number of hBMSCs and their cellular products was evident on the FE-SEM observation, and the fibrin network remained on day 21. Our results demonstrate that a PRP-treated surface enhanced early proliferation and late osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. PMID:22329757

  2. Inducer-responsive expression of the cloned human interferon beta 1 gene introduced into cultured mouse cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, S.; Taniguchi, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid plasmid was constructed from pSV2-Ecogpt (Mulligan and Berg, 1981) and the cloned 1.8 kilobase chromosomal DNA segment which contains the human interferon (HIFN-beta 1) gene and its flanking sequences. Cultured mouse FM3A cells were transfected by the hybrid plasmid and several Ecogpt+ clones were selected. Southern blot analysis of the DNA from these mouse cell clones showed that two of them contained a few copies of the 1.8 kilobase human DNA. Synthesis of mRNA characteristic of th...

  3. Transient Transcriptional Activation of the Vibrio cholerae El Tor Virulence Regulator ToxT in Response to Culture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Medrano, Ana I.; Dirita, Victor J.; Castillo, Gabriela; Sanchez, Joaquin

    1999-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae El Tor require special in vitro culture conditions, consisting of an initial static growth period followed by shift to shaking (AKI conditions), for expression of cholera toxin (CT) and toxin coregulated pili (TCP). ToxT, a regulator whose initial transcription depends on the ToxR regulator, positively modulates expression of CT and TCP. To help understand control of CT and TCP in El Tor vibrios, we monitored ctxAB and ToxR-dependent toxT transcription by time course primer ex...

  4. Investigation of Adaptive Responses in Bystander Cells in 3D Cultures Containing Tritium-Labeled and Unlabeled Normal Human Fibroblasts

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Massimo; AZZAM, EDOUARD I.; Howell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    The study of radiation-induced bystander effects in normal human cells maintained in three-dimensional (3D) architecture provides more in vivo-like conditions and is relevant to human risk assessment. Linear energy transfer, dose and dose rate have been considered as critical factors in propagating radiation-induced effects. This investigation uses an in vitro 3D tissue culture model in which normal AG1522 human fibroblasts are grown in a carbon scaffold to investigate induction of a G1 arres...

  5. Normal and sublethally irradiated stem and granulocyte progenitor cell regeneration in an in vivo culture system. The cellular response to humoral factors released through the action of cyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo diffusion chamber (DC) method of marrow culture was used to determine if the injection of host mice with cyclophosphamide (CY) caused, through its cytoxic action, the release of a humoral factor(s) capable of initiating stem cell (CFU-s) and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cell (CFU-c) proliferation. Host mice were injected with CY 1-4 days prior to 800 rad of 60Co WBI and implantation of DCs containing normal or 400 rad sublethally irradiated (SLI) marrow cells. The greatest proliferative response within CFU-s and CFU-c populations occurred in those mice injected with CY 3 days prior to implant. The marked CFU-s and CFU-c regeneration was initiated during the initial 24 hr of culture in both normal and SLI marrow cells. Thereafter growth rates were approximately the same. SLI marrow, however, showed a greater response to the humoral effects of CY injection than did normal marrow. These data provided evidence that CY induced the release of a diffusible factor(s) capable of accelerating regeneration of normal and sublethally irradiated CFU-s and CFU-c, the magnitude of which was dependent upon the time elapsed between CY injected and implantation of DCs. The marked proliferative response of the SLI stem and progenitor cells to the humoral stimulation may be indicative of the heterogeneity of both CFU-s and CFU-c populations surviving sublethal radiation exposure. The target cells may have possessed a differential sensitivity to the factor(s) infferential sensitivity to the factor(s) initiating cell proliferation

  6. Toxicity of beta-blockers in a rat whole embryo culture: concentration-response relationships and tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, S; Thiel, R; Schwabe, R; Merker, H J; Neubert, D

    1994-01-01

    Beta-adrenoceptor blockers are widely used drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Since beta-blockers cross the placenta, it is essential to consider possible adverse effects on the embryo. Six beta-adrenoceptor blockers were tested at various concentrations (10-5000 microM) in a rat whole embryo culture. Although inducing a very similar pattern of dysmorphogenetic effects (incomplete flexure, disturbed development of the neural tube, the head, the heart and the tail bud), the compounds exhibited a wide range of embryotoxic potency. Estimation of the EC50 (median-concentration producing dysmorphogenesis in 50% of the embryos) for the six compounds revealed differences of more than two orders of magnitude: propranolol 25 microM, alprenolol 30 microM, metoprolol 100 microM, pindolol 150 microM, acebutolol 500 microM, atenolol 4000 microM. Measurements of the concentrations of the various drugs in the cultured embryos at corresponding EC50 levels showed differing values: metoprolol 4.5 microM, propranolol 5.2 microM, alprenolol 8.4 microM, pindolol 9.0 microM, acebutolol 12.5 microM and atenolol 77.0 microM. With regard to the EC50 and the degree of substance transfer to the embryo it can be stated that propranolol and metoprolol show a much higher intrinsic potency to interfere with normal in vitro embryonic development than, e.g. atenolol. PMID:7916561

  7. The radiation response and recovery of bone marrow stroma with particular reference to long-term bone marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is evidence for long-term haemateopoietic dysfunction in some patients treated with radiotherapy. Although the underlying mechanisms are unclear, both stem cell and environmental defects have been implicated. In the present article we review the evidence concerning the role of stromal cells. According to the endpoints used, a wide range of radiosensitivities for the stroma have been reported. Long-term bone marrow cultures provide a system in which both functional and regenerative aspects of the stroma can be studied. A dose of 5 Gy applied prior to the establishment of long-term bone marrow cultures decreases both the formation of a confluent adherent stromal layer and its capacity to support haematopoiesis. In contrast, in its fully established phase, the adherent layer displays a high radioresistance due to the low proliferative stress applied to its stromal populations. A dose of 10 Gy given to a fully established adherent layer does not prevent haematopoietic engraftment and sustained haematopoiesis. At doses above 100 Gy a macrophage-like and epithelioid cell-type become dominant, which preserve their ability of producing growth regulatory molecules at doses as high as 500 Gy. These data suggest that the main effect on the stroma is a delayed expression of irradiation damage due to the slow rate of turnover of stromal cells. So far, there is little evidence for persistent deficiencies in the functional roles of stromal cell populations. (auhtor)omal cell populations. (auhtor)

  8. Arabidopsis C3H14 and C3H15 have overlapping roles in the regulation of secondary wall thickening and anther development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Guohua; Kong, Yingzhen; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Li; Qi, Guang; Tang, Xianfeng; Wang, Zengguang; Cao, Yingping; Yu, Changjiang; Zhou, Gongke

    2015-05-01

    Plant tandem CCCH zinc finger (TZF) proteins play diverse roles in developmental and adaptive processes. Arabidopsis C3H14 has been shown to act as a potential regulator of secondary wall biosynthesis. However, there is lack of direct evidence to support its functions in Arabidopsis. It is demonstrated here that C3H14 and its homologue C3H15 redundantly regulate secondary wall formation and that they additionally function in anther development. Plants with double, but not single, T-DNA mutants for C3H14 or C3H15 have few pollen grains and thinner stem secondary walls than the wild type. Plants homozygous for c3h14 and heterozygous for c3h15 [c3h14 c3h15(±)] have slightly thinner secondary walls than plants heterozygous for c3h14 and homozygous for c3h15 [c3h14(±) c3h15], and c3h14(±) c3h15 have lower fertility. Overexpression of C3H14 or C3H15 led to increased secondary wall thickness in stems and the ectopic deposition of secondary walls in various tissues, but did not affect anther morphology. Transcript profiles from the C3H14/15 overexpression and c3h14 c3h15 plants revealed marked changes in the expression of many genes associated with cell wall metabolism and pollen formation. Subcellular localization and biochemical analyses suggest that C3H14/15 might function at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:25732536

  9. Nurturing Creativity and Professional Learning for 21st Century Education: ResponsiveDesign and the Cultural Landscapes Collaboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph A. Córdova Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines events within a CoLab1 3RDSpace: Summer Leadership Institute on Creativity & Innovation. The analyses are organized into two telling cases and reveal how participants develop a shared understanding of ResponsiveDesign, CoLab’s theory of inquiry and innovation. Drawing on an interactional ethnographic perspective, the analyses make visible the ways in which concepts of space, language, creativity, and innovation complement one another to form ResponsiveDesign as a powerful approach for educators in any setting to transform their ordinary places into extraordinary spaces for creatively confident learning.

  10. Brain microvascular pericytes are immunoactive in culture: cytokine, chemokine, nitric oxide, and LRP-1 expression in response to lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson Michelle A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain microvascular pericytes are important constituents of the neurovascular unit. These cells are physically the closest cells to the microvascular endothelial cells in brain capillaries. They significantly contribute to the induction and maintenance of the barrier functions of the blood-brain barrier. However, very little is known about their immune activities or their roles in neuroinflammation. Here, we focused on the immunological profile of brain pericytes in culture in the quiescent and immune-challenged state by studying their production of immune mediators such as nitric oxide (NO, cytokines, and chemokines. We also examined the effects of immune challenge on pericyte expression of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, a protein involved in the processing of amyloid precursor protein and the brain-to-blood efflux of amyloid-? peptide. Methods Supernatants were collected from primary cultures of mouse brain pericytes. Release of nitric oxide (NO was measured by the Griess reaction and the level of S-nitrosylation of pericyte proteins measured with a modified "biotin-switch" method. Specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway inhibitors were used to determine involvement of these pathways on NO production. Cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by multianalyte technology. The expression of both subunits of LRP-1 was analyzed by western blot. Results Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced release of NO by pericytes in a dose-dependent manner that was mediated through MAPK pathways. Nitrative stress resulted in S-nitrosylation of cellular proteins. Eighteen of twenty-three cytokines measured were released constitutively by pericytes or with stimulation by LPS, including interleukin (IL-12, IL-13, IL-9, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, eotaxin, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-3, and CCL-4. Pericyte expressions of both subunits of LRP-1 were upregulated by LPS. Conclusions Our results show that cultured mouse brain microvascular pericytes secrete cytokines, chemokines, and nitric oxide and respond to the innate immune system stimulator LPS. These immune properties of pericytes are likely important in their communication within the neurovascular unit and provide a mechanism by which they participate in neuroinflammatory processes in brain infections and neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Responses to ``Theoretical Mathematics: Toward a cultural synthesis of mathematics and theoretical physics'', by A. Jaffe and F. Quinn

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyah, Michael; Borel, Armand; Chaitin, G J; Friedan, Daniel; Glimm, James; Gray, Jeremy J.; Hirsch, Morris W.; MacLane, Saunder; Mandelbrot, Benoit B.; Ruelle, David; Schwarz, Albert; Uhlenbeck, Karen; Thom, René; Witten, Edward; Zeeman, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    This article is a collection of letters solicited by the editors of the Bulletin in response to a previous article by Jaffe and Quinn [math.HO/9307227]. The authors discuss the role of rigor in mathematics and the relation between mathematics and theoretical physics.

  12. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  13. Impedance analysis of cultured cells: A mean-field electrical response model for electric cell-substrate impedance sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdapilleta, E.; Bellotti, M.; Bonetto, F. J.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper we present a model to describe the electrical properties of a confluent cell monolayer cultured on gold microelectrodes to be used with electric cell-substrate impedance sensing technique. This model was developed from microscopic considerations (distributed effects), and by assuming that the monolayer is an element with mean electrical characteristics (specific lumped parameters). No assumptions were made about cell morphology. The model has only three adjustable parameters. This model and other models currently used for data analysis are compared with data we obtained from electrical measurements of confluent monolayers of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. One important parameter is the cell-substrate height and we found that estimates of this magnitude strongly differ depending on the model used for the analysis. We analyze the origin of the discrepancies, concluding that the estimates from the different models can be considered as limits for the true value of the cell-substrate height.

  14. Differential photodynamic response of cultured cells to methylene blue and toluidine blue : role of dark redox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazquez-Castro, Alfonso; Stockert, Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Cultured cells treated with equal concentrations of thiazine photosensitizers methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue (TB) showed a distinct photodynamic lethality, with TB being much more effective, when exposed to red light from a LED source. This effect is accounted for because of the differences in the chemical reduction of MB and TB in the intracellular environment. While TB accumulates as blue granular structures, MB does not give such a localization pattern. However, upon exposure of MB-treated cells to oxidant agents, the dye becomes clearly localized in the cytoplasm as blue granules. We propose that massive reduction of MB to its leuco form inside the cell inhibits most of the photodynamic damage, while no such reduction occurs with TB.

  15. Effect of cadmium stress on inductive enzymatic and nonenzymatic responses of ROS and sugar metabolism in multiple shoot cultures of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bhawana; Sangwan, Rajender S; Mishra, Smrati; Jadaun, Jyoti S; Sabir, Farzana; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2014-09-01

    Withania somnifera is one of the most important medicinal plant and is credited with various pharmacological activities. In this study, in vitro multiple shoot cultures were exposed to different concentrations (5-300 ?M) of cadmium (Cd) as cadmium sulphate to explore its ability to accumulate the heavy metal ion and its impact on the metabolic status and adaptive responses. The results showed that supplemental exposure to Cd interfered with N, P, and K uptake creating N, P, and K deficiency at higher doses of Cd that also caused stunting of growth, chlorosis, and necrosis. The study showed that in vitro shoots could markedly accumulate Cd in a concentration-dependent manner. Enzymatic activities and isozymic pattern of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were altered substantially under Cd exposure. Sugar metabolism was also markedly modulated under Cd stress. Various other parameters including contents of photosynthetic pigments, phenolics, tocopherol, flavonoids, reduced glutathione, nonprotein thiol, ascorbate, and proline displayed major inductive responses reflecting their protective role. The results showed that interplay of enzymatic as well as nonenzymatic responses constituted a system endeavor of tolerance of Cd accumulation and an efficient scavenging strategy of its stress implications. PMID:24510215

  16. Medium optimization for palmarumycin C13 production in liquid culture of endophytic fungus Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 using response surface methodology

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jianglin, Zhao; Xiaohan, Wang; Weibo, Sun; Yan, Mou; Youliang, Peng; Ligang, Zhou.

    2013-11-15

    Full Text Available Background: Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12, an endophytic fungus from Dioscorea zingiberensis, was a high producer of palmarumycin C13 with various bioactivities. In the present study, the experimental designs based on statistics were employed to evaluate and optimize the medium for palmarumycin C13 product [...] ion in mycelia liquid culture of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12. Results: Among various carbon and nitrogen sources, glucose, peptone and yeast extract were found to be the most favourable for palmarumycin C13 production based on the one-factor-at-a-time experiments. After Plackett-Burman test on the medium, glucose, peptone and yeast extract were further verified to be the most significant factors to stimulate palmarumycin C13 accumulation. These three factors (i.e., glucose, peptone and yeast extract) were then optimized through the experiments of central composite design (CCD) and analysis of response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized medium compositions for palmarumycin C13 production were determined as 42.5 g/l of glucose, 6.5 g/l of peptone, 11.0 g/l of yeast extract, 1.0 g/l of KH2PO4, 0.5 g/l of MgSO4 x 7H2O, 0.05 g/l of FeSO4 x 7H2O, and pH 6.5. Under the optimal culture conditions, the maximum palmarumycin C13 yield of Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 was increased to 318.63 mg/l, which was about 2.5-fold in comparison with that (130.44 mg/l) in the basal medium. Conclusions: The results indicate that the optimum production of palmarumycin C13 in Berkleasmium sp. Dzf12 liquid culture can be achieved by addition of glucose, peptone and yeast extract with their appropriate concentrations in the modified Sabouraud medium.

  17. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TeijaWaaramaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural or language background, age or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2 and actresses (n2 produced nonsense sentences (n32 and protracted vowels (n8 expressing the six basic emotions, interest and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity – neutrality – negativity from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females in each country. The participants (total N=250 completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analysed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener’s age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background with the speaker.

  18. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija; Leisiö, Timo

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ability to distinguish between emotions or valence (on an axis positivity - neutrality - negativity) from voice samples was studied. Listening tests were conducted on location in five countries: Estonia, Finland, Russia, Sweden, and the USA with 50 randomly chosen participants (25 males and 25 females) in each country. The participants (total N = 250) completed a questionnaire eliciting their background information and musical interests. The responses in the listening test and the questionnaires were statistically analyzed. Voice quality parameters and the share of the emotions and valence identified correlated significantly with each other for both genders. The percentage of emotions and valence identified was clearly above the chance level in each of the five countries studied, however, the countries differed significantly from each other for the identified emotions and the gender of the speaker. The samples produced by females were identified significantly better than those produced by males. Listener's age was a significant variable. Only minor gender differences were found for the identification. Perceptual confusion in the listening test between emotions seemed to be dependent on their similar voice production types. Musical interests tended to have a positive effect on the identification of the emotions. The results also suggest that identifying emotions from speech samples may be easier for those listeners who share a similar language or cultural background with the speaker. PMID:23801972

  19. Urine Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C and S Formal name: Culture, Urine Related tests: Urinalysis ; Blood Culture ; Susceptibility Testing ; Bacterial Wound Culture ; Gram ... A urine culture may be ordered with a urinalysis or as follow up to abnormal results on ...

  20. Nanoparticle-mediated decrease of lamin B1 pools promotes a TRF protein-based adaptive response in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Jennifer; Pacyk, Karolina; Pepek, Monika; Zebrowski, Jacek; Lewinska, Anna; Wnuk, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    In general, nanoparticle-based materials are promising candidates for use in biological systems for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. However, these materials' actions at the molecular level remain poorly understood. Nanoparticle (silica, silver and diamond)-induced oxidative stress and activation of the NF-?B pathway lead to the depletion of lamin B1 pools, which, in turn, results in upregulation of telomeric repeat binding factor (TRF) protein expression and maintenance of telomere length. In cancer cells, the TRF-based response is independent of the p53 pathway. In fibroblasts with active p53/p21 signaling, the levels of p53 and p21 are elevated and stress-induced premature senescence is observed. These results suggest that nanoparticles promote a telomere-focused cell adaptive response. PMID:25890711

  1. Morphogenetic responses of embryo culture of wheat related to environment culture conditions of the explant donor plant / Respostas morfogenéticas de embriões de trigo em função do ambiente de cultivo da planta doadora de explantes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dejan, Dodig; Miroslav, Zori& #263; ; Nevena, Miti& #263; ; Radomirka, Nikoli& #263; ; Stephen R., King; Blažo, Lalevi& #263; ; Gordana, Šurlan-Momirovi& #263; .

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de embriões imaturos para estabelecer plantas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) por cultura de tecido pode ser limitada por fatores climáticos, e a falta de embriões de alta qualidade frequentemente dificulta a experimentação. Avaliou-se o efeito da chuva, de variáveis baseadas em te [...] mperatura e duração do brilho solar na resposta da cultura de tecido (RCT), incluindo a formação de calos (FC), regeneração dos calos (RC) e número de plantas por embrião (NPPE), para 96 genótipos de trigo. Os objetivos foram a procura de algum fator climatico específico em alguma característica da RCT e a determinação do período do desenvolvimento do trigo no qual estes fatores são mais eficazes. Os genótipos foram obtidos num campo experimental durante três estações climáticas. As relações entre as características da RTC e os fatores de clima dentro de três períodos de desenvolvimento do trigo (2, 6 e 10 semanas) antes da amostragem dos embriões foram analisadas pela técnica "biplot". As características das culturas de tecido foram influenciadas em diferentes graus pelos fatores climáticos: de 16.8% (RC) para 69.8% (FC). Ambientes da planta doadora com alta temperatura e pouca chuva reduziram (p Abstract in english Availability of immature embryos as explants to establish wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by tissue culture can be limited by climatic factors and the lack of high quality embryos frequently hampers experimentation. This study evaluates the effects of rainfall, various temperature-based variables and s [...] unshine duration on tissue culture response (TCR) traits including callus formation (CF), regenerating calli (RC), and number of plants per embryo (PPE) for 96 wheat genotypes of worldwide origin. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the significance of a particular climatic factor on TCR traits and to determine the period of wheat growth during which these factors were the most effective. The genotypes were grown in an experimental field during three seasons differing in meteorological conditions. The relationships between TCR traits and climatic factors within three time periods of wheat growth: 2, 6 and 10 weeks prior to embryo sampling were analysed by biplot analysis. The tissue culture traits were influenced at very different degrees by climatic factors: from 16.8% (RC) to 69.8% (CF). Donor plant environment with high temperatures and low rainfalls reduced (p

  2. Responses of cultured smooth muscle cells from human nonatherosclerotic arteries and primary stenosing lesions after photoradiation: Implications for photodynamic therapy of vascular stenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured smooth muscle cells from human nonatherosclerotic arteries and from primary stenosing lesions were labeled with dihematoporphyrinester and ether, a photosensitizing probe used mainly for the detection and photodynamic therapy of tumors. After labeling for 24 h, cells were irradiated with ultraviolet light (wavelength 365 nm, energy densities ranging from 30 to 1,200 mJ/cm2). Twenty-four hours after photoradiation, 80% of smooth muscle cells from nonatherosclerotic arteries and only 20% of smooth muscle cells from atherosclerotic plaques were viable and still adherent. Moreover, dynamic cell and cytoskeletal alterations in response to irradiation are described. The differential sensitivity of smooth muscle cells from nonatherosclerotic arteries and from atherosclerotic plaques provides evidence that a photodynamic treatment might be a valuable therapeutic approach to vascular stenosis

  3. Gonapodasmius epinepheli observed in cage cultured orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides in Southern Thailand: geographical distribution of parasite and host response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidchakan Supamattaya

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Gonapodasmius epinepheli Abdul-Salam, Sreelatha & Farah, 1990, a didymozoid trematode, was found in orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides, Hamilton, 1822 cultured in cages in Southern Thailand, both on the east coast (Gulf of Thailand and the west coast (Indian Ocean. The parasite encysted on the primary lamellae of the gills. Histological sections revealed that larvae were primarily embedded underneath the gill epithelium and eggs of the parasite were distributed in some organs such as gill epithelium, heart and macrophage centers in the head kidney. Pathological changes and host response were shown mainly on gill lamellae, e.g. reduction and destruction of secondary lamellae. Prevalence of parasite and its life cycle are discussed in this report.

  4. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates: transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Boender, L.G.M.; Maris, A.J.A., van; De Hulster, E.A.F.; Almering, M J H; van der Klei, I J; Veenhuis, M.; Winde, J.H. de; Pronk, J T; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2011-01-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h?1) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates. While quiescence is typically investigated as a result of carbon starvation, cells in retentostat are fed by small, but continuous carbon and energy supply. Yeast cells cul...

  5. Cross-cultural validation and analysis of responsiveness of the QUALIOST®: QUAlity of Life questionnaire In OSTeoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    La Loge, Christine; Sullivan, Kate; Pinkney, Robert; Marquis, Patrick; Roux, Christian; Meunier, Pierre Jean

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The QUALIOST was designed for use with the SF-36 to measure established osteoporosis-specific quality of life (QoL). The reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and validity of the questionnaire were established in a stand-alone psychometric validation study. The objective of this paper is to provide additional information on the instrument's responsiveness using clinical trial data, along with the reliability and validity of translated versions. METHODS: The Spinal Ost...

  6. Cross-cultural validation and analysis of responsiveness of the QUALIOST®: QUAlity of Life questionnaire In OSTeoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roux Christian; Marquis Patrick; Pinkney Robert; Sullivan Kate; de la Loge Christine; Meunier Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The QUALIOST® was designed for use with the SF-36 to measure established osteoporosis-specific quality of life (QoL). The reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and validity of the questionnaire were established in a stand-alone psychometric validation study. The objective of this paper is to provide additional information on the instrument's responsiveness using clinical trial data, along with the reliability and validity of translated versions. Methods The S...

  7. Human airway epithelial cells in culture for studying the molecular mechanisms of the inflammatory response triggered by diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, F; Boland, S; Bonvallot, V; Baulig, A; Baeza-Squiban, A

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that particulate air pollution is linked to the increase of morbidity and mortality due to respiratory diseases. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), which are the most important part of PM2.5 in Western European and Japanese urban areas, have been suspected. The mechanisms of proinflammatory response induced by DEPS were elucidated using a human epithelial cell line (16-HBE). It has been shown that DEPs can be phagocytosed by HBE cells, inducing the release of cytokines. MAP kinase pathways (i.e., ERK1/2 and P38) were triggered as well as the activation of the nuclear factor NF-kappaB. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were strongly incriminated in this response because DEPs induce the increase of intracellular hydroperoxides and antioxidants inhibit the release of DEP-induced cytokines, the activation of MAP kinases and NF-kappaB. Organic compounds adsorbed on DEPs seemed to be involved in the response and the production of ROS. Moreover, we have demonstrated that DEPs can activate CYP1A1 in HBE cells. These experimental results give biological plausibility to the epidemiological findings. PMID:12240962

  8. Cross-cultural validation and analysis of responsiveness of the QUALIOST®: QUAlity of Life questionnaire In OSTeoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roux Christian

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The QUALIOST® was designed for use with the SF-36 to measure established osteoporosis-specific quality of life (QoL. The reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and validity of the questionnaire were established in a stand-alone psychometric validation study. The objective of this paper is to provide additional information on the instrument's responsiveness using clinical trial data, along with the reliability and validity of translated versions. Methods The Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI was an international clinical trial comparing strontium ranelate to placebo on the occurrence of new vertebral fracture in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. QoL was a secondary endpoint, assessed using the SF-36 and QUALIOST® at baseline and every six months, with the main analysis at 3-year follow-up. Questionnaire acceptability, analysis of the hypothesised structure, internal consistency reliability and responsiveness to clinical change over time were assessed at the 3-year follow up. Results 1592 patients from 11 countries completed at least one QoL questionnaire. The psychometric properties of the questionnaires were assessed on cross-sectional (N = 1486 and longitudinal (N = 1288 data. Item discriminant validity of the QUALIOST® was excellent, as was item convergent validity, with 100% of item-scale correlations being above the 0.40 level. Internal consistency reliability was also extremely good, with high Cronbach's alpha scores above the 0.70 benchmark. Responsiveness results were consistent for all QUALIOST® scores, indicating that greater decreases in QoL corresponded to greater numbers of fractures experienced. QUALIOST® scores also differed according to the type of fracture suffered. This was demonstrated by increased effect sizes for more severe vertebral fractures (clinical vertebral and painful vertebral. In comparing responsiveness, the QUALIOST® scores were generally more consistent than those of the SF-36. Most notably, the QUALIOST® was more responsive with regard to painful vertebral fractures than the SF-36. Conclusion The QUALIOST® is a reliable and valid tool for measuring QoL in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Being available in several validated language versions, it is ready to be used in a variety of settings, including international clinical trials.

  9. Cultural competence in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Jirwe, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to explore, analyze and clarify how cultural competence is understood. This is explored from the perspective of nurses, nursing students, nurse educators, and nurse researchers in relation to the Swedish care context. The field of transcultural nursing and cultural competence was founded in the United States in the 1950s in response to an increased awareness of cultural diversity arising from immigration. In Sweden an interest in transcultur...

  10. Tissue Culture response of Local Varieties of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) of NWFP

    OpenAIRE

    Asad Jan; Qazi M. Hassan; Tahira Fatima; Tayyab Hasnain

    2001-01-01

    Four rice genotypes i.e. Swat I, Swat II, Dilrosh 97 and Pakhal were tested for their callus induction frequency and their subsequent regeneration from different explants on a variety of media combinations. Swat I appeared to be the most responsive genotype to callus induction followed by Swat II, Dilrosh 97 and Pakhal respectively. Swat I and Swat II produced high amount of callus compared to other genotypes. Callus induction frequencies ranged from 68.88 to 57.70 percent in Swat I, 60.00 pe...

  11. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-09-30

    testing the rapidly growing number of nanomaterials requires large scale use of in vitro systems under the presumption that these systems are sufficiently predictive or descriptive of responses in in vivo systems for effective use in hazard ranking. We hypothesized that improved relationships between in vitro and in vivo models of experimental toxicology for nanomaterials would result from placing response data in vitro and in vivo on the same dose scale, the amount of material associated with cells (target cell dose). Methods: Balb/c mice were exposed nose-only to an aerosol of 12.8 nm (68.6 nm CMD, 19.9 mg/m3, 4 hours) super paramagnetic iron oxide particles, target cell doses were calculated and biomarkers of response anchored with histological evidence were identified by global transcriptomics. Representative murine epithelial and macrophage cell types were exposed in vitro to the same material in liquid suspension for four hours and levels nanoparticle regulated cytokine transcripts identified in vivo were quantified as a function of measured nanoparticle cellular dose. Results. Target tissue doses of 0.009-0.4 ?g SPIO/cm2 lung led to an inflammatory response in the alveolar region characterized by interstitial inflammation and macrophage infiltration. In vitro, higher target tissue doses of ~1.2-4 ?g SPIO/ cm2 of cells were required to induce transcriptional regulation of markers of inflammation, CXCL2 CCL3, in C10 lung epithelial cells. Estimated in vivo macrophage SPIO nanoparticle doses ranged from 1-100 pg/cell, and induction of inflammatory markers was observed in vitro in macrophages at doses of 8-35 pg/cell. Conclusions: Application of target tissue dosimetry revealed good correspondence between target cell doses triggering inflammatory processes in vitro and in vivo in the alveolar macrophage population, but not in the epithelial cells of the alveolar region. These findings demonstrate the potential for target tissue dosimetry to enable the more quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar those calculated for humans exposed to the same at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).

  12. Use of induced mutations and tissue culture in the rice (Oryza sativa L.) improvement programme in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Rice Research Institute began to use tissue culture techniques for the genetic improvement of rice. Subsequently, in 1998, the Institute, in co-operation with the applied Research Centre for Nuclear Energy Development, started a programme of improvement by mutation using radiations with different LET. In the same year, the Centre started applying molecular biology to rice improvement. The tissue culture techniques included the culture of anthers and somatic tissue, recovery of interspecific hybrid embryos and the culture of protoplasts. Work in molecular biology has focused on the isolation and purification of total DNA and subsequent restriction analysis. The preliminary results of using these technologies in the Cuban rice improvement programme are described. (author). 7 refs, 6 tabs

  13. Response of plateau-phase cultures and multicellular spheroids of human osteosarcoma cells to carbon beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible therapeutic advance in achieving local tumor control using high LET radiation therapy is the major area of interest to clinical radiation oncologists and radiobiologists. This includes improved depth dose distribution, greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and the greater reduction of oxygen enhancement ratio (OER). In addition, the type of damage produced by charged particles is less amenable to repair. Mammalian cells repair radiation damage by sublethal damage (SLD) repair and potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair. Because the recovery from PLD might significantly contribute to the ultimate therapeutic response of a solid tumor, the ability of plateau phase osteosarcoma cells to recover from PLD after the irradiation with RIKEN ring cyclotron-accelerated carbon ions in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region was investigated. Also the relation of dose to cure probability for the spheroids of osteosarcoma cells after the irradiation with carbon beam in the SOBP was measured. The materials used, the experimental method and the results are reported. The dose response curves measured and the dose-cure probability relation are given. (K.I.)

  14. Responsividade do ambiente de desenvolvimento: crenças e práticas como sistema cultural de criação de filhos / Responsiveness of the development environment: beliefs and practices as a cultural system of nurturing children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eulina da Rocha, Lordelo; Ana Lúcia, Fonseca; Mariana Lamêgo V.B. de, Araújo.

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o ambiente doméstico, em termos de responsividade materna às demandas da criança, relacionada a atitudes em relação à maternidade e à criança. Quarenta e cinco mães e seus filhos, de uma área de favela urbana ou de bairros de classe média, foram entrevistadas e filmadas em suas casas, [...] sobre questões relativas à maternidade e ao cuidado à criança. Um questionário investigando atitudes em relação à maternidade e à autonomia da criança foi também aplicado. A análise dos dados incluiu a construção de um escore de responsividade e o tratamento das respostas ao questionário para formar duas subescalas. Os resultados mostraram pouca diferença no grau de satisfação com a maternidade; em relação à autonomia da criança, houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas, relacionadas ao bairro de residência a ao nível de escolaridade. Os resultados são discutidos em termos da articulação entre práticas de cuidado à criança e sistemas culturais relacionados, e implicações desenvolvimentais. Abstract in english This paper investigated the domestic environment in terms of maternal responsiveness to the child’s demands related to attitudes related to maternity and to the child. Forty-five middle class and slum-dwellers mothers and their children were interviewed at home. Questions about maternity and child- [...] care practices were asked. A questionnaire to investigate attitudes related to maternity and to the child’s autonomy was also used. Analysis included the construction of a responsiveness score and the use of the answers to the questionnaires to form two scales. The results showed little difference in the degree of maternal satisfaction but there were large differences concerning the child’s autonomy, related to place of living and educational level of the mother. The results suggested an articulation between child care practices, cultural systems, and their implications for child development.

  15. Oxidative DNA damage and inflammatory responses in cultured human cells and in humans exposed to traffic-related particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vattanasit, Udomratana; Navasumrit, Panida

    2014-01-01

    Particulate pollution is a major public health concern because epidemiological studies have demonstrated that exposure to particles is associated with respiratory diseases and lung cancer. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP), which is classified as a human carcinogen (IARC, 2012), are considered a major contributor to traffic-related particulate matter (PM) in urban areas. DEP consists of various compounds, including PAHs and metals which are the principal components that contribute to the toxicity of PM. The present study aimed to investigate effects of PM on induction of oxidative DNA damage and inflammation by using lymphocytes in vitro and in human exposed to PM in the environment. Human lymphoblasts (RPMI 1788) were treated with DEP (SRM 2975) at various concentrations (25-100 ?g/ml) to compare the extent of responses with alveolar epithelial cells (A549). ROS generation was determined in each cell cycle phase of DEP-treated cells in order to investigate the influence of the cell cycle stage on induction of oxidative stress. The oxidative DNA damage was determined by measurement of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) whereas the inflammatory responses were determined by mRNA expression of interleukin-6 and -8 (IL-6 and IL-8), Clara cell protein (CC16), and lung surfactant protein-A (SP-A). The results showed that RPMI 1788 and A549 cells had a similar pattern of dose-dependent responses to DEP in terms of particle uptake, ROS generation with highest level found in G2/M phase, 8-OHdG formation, and induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression. The human study was conducted in 51 healthy subjects residing in traffic-congested areas. The effects of exposure to PM2.5 and particle-bound PAHs and toxic metals on the levels of 8-OHdG in lymphocyte DNA, IL-8 expression in lymphocytes, and serum CC16 were evaluated. 8-OHdG levels correlated with the exposure levels of PM2.5 (P

  16. Social responsibility as part of the organizational culture in socially responsible enterprises: content analysis betweenpractice and speech A responsabilidade social como parte integrante da cultura organizacional em empresas socialmente responsáveis: análise de conteúdo entre a prática e o discurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bianchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Insecurity in terms of sustainability of the planet is increasingly evident in society, causing companies incorporate social aspects into their business models in order to fit social requirements. The objective of this study is to identify the relation between the elements constituents of organizational culture and social responsibility of companies socially responsible, that take part in the Social Responsibility Prize, held by the Legislative Assembly of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, in the year of 2011, with base year 2010, as well as identify the relation between the content of elements constituents of organizational culture and the respective financial investments in social practices. To summarize, to analyze the consistency between the practice and what is said. This research classifies itself as qualitative regarding the form of approach of the researching problem, as exploratory according to its objectives and as documentary research referring to technical procedures utilized. Besides the analysis of the content of the elements constituents of organizational culture, it is also used the econometric analysis. Among the 171 companies that take part the section restricted itself to 19 companies that compose the category of large companies and that contained the vision, the mission and the valuers of organization disposable in your homepages. The results of this study indicate that the social practices done by the researched companies materialize effectively as corporate social responsibility, once that they are inserted in the organizational culture. Furthermore, it was possible to conclude that what is inside the organizational strategies of the companies, in study, is little effectuated in it's investments. A insegurança em termos de sustentabilidade do planeta é cada vez mais evidente na sociedade, fazendo com que as empresas incorporem os aspectos sociais em seus modelos de gestão, de modo a se adequarem às exigências sociais. O objetivo deste estudo é identificar a relação entre os elementos constituintes da cultura organizacional e a responsabilidade social de empresas socialmente responsáveis, participantes do Prêmio Responsabilidade Social realizado pela Assembleia Legislativa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no ano de 2011, com ano-base 2010, assim como identificar a relação entre o conteúdo dos elementos constituintes de cultura organizacional e os respectivos investimentos financeiros em práticas sociais. Essa pesquisa se classifica como qualitativa e quantitativa, exploratória e documental. Além da análise de conteúdo dos elementos constituintes de cultura organizacional, utiliza-se a análise econométrica. Dentre as 171 empresas participantes, a amostra ficou em 19 empresas que compõem a categoria grandes empresas e que continham a visão, a missão e os princípios e valores da organização disponíveis em suas homepages. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que as práticas sociais realizadas pelas empresas pesquisadas se concretizam efetivamente como responsabilidade social corporativa, uma vez que estão inseridas na cultura organizacional. Outrossim, foi possível concluir que o que consta nas estratégias organizacionais das empresas, em estudo, é pouco efetuado em seus investimentos. 

  17. Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 mediates direct and indirect fibrotic responses in human and murine cultured fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekert Jason E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibrocytes are a population of circulating bone-marrow-derived cells that express surface markers for leukocytes and mesenchymal cells, and are capable of differentiating into myofibroblasts. They have been observed at sites of active fibrosis and increased circulating numbers correlate with mortality in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Inhibition of chemokine (C-C motif receptor 2 (CCR2 during experimental models of lung fibrosis reduces lung collagen deposition, as well as reducing lung fibrocyte accumulation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether human and mouse fibrocytes express functional CCR2. Results Following optimized and identical human and murine fibrocyte isolation, both cell sources were shown to be positive for CCR2 by flow cytometry and this expression colocalized with collagen I and CD45. Human blood fibrocytes stimulated with the CCR2 ligand chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2, demonstrated increased proliferation (P P P Conclusions This study directly compares the functional responses of human and murine fibrocytes to CCR2 ligands, and following comparable isolation techniques. We have shown comparable biological effects, strengthening the translatability of the murine models to human disease with respect to targeting the CCR2 axis to ameliorate disease in IPF patients.

  18. Lycee Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Regine; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent French national survey about the cultural behavior of lycee students. Points out the internal diversity of the lycee population in cultural practices. Argues that an adolescent culture exists; identifies an upper secondary school culture; and defines its relationship with mass, classical, or class cultures. (NL)

  19. Socio-Cultural Norms for Corporate Social Responsibility : Building a political model of the stakeholder for project conception in global business contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

    Abstract – This paper considers the cultural resources for corporate action tied into stakeholder models, criticizes current stakeholder models, and develops a perspective based in ethics and the political model of the stakeholder. The purpose of this analysis is to lay out models which recognize the cultural challenges related to the blurring of the boundaries of the corporation and the needs of different cultural contexts.

  20. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You may also have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This most often means that you have a ...

  1. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... comes and goes, so a series of three blood cultures may be done to confirm results. ... rate, confusion, and very low blood pressure. The blood culture helps identify the type of bacteria causing the ...

  2. The study of genotype, cold pretreatment, low-dose gamma irradiation and 2,4-D concentration effect on wheat doubled haploid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this study, response of a cultivar (Atrak) and two lines (F3 2005 and F3 2104) of wheat , and effect of cold pretreatment, low dose gamma irradiation and 2,4-D (2,4 mg l-1) were investigated to anther culture response. Donar plants were grown under field conditions in early spring. Anthers were plated on modified CHB medium containing 2, 4-D (2, 4 mg l-1), 0.5 mg l-1 Kinetin and 90 g l-1 Sucrose. Percent of Callus formation in 100 anther and percent of plantlet in 100 calli were measured. Results indicated that genotype, cold pretreatment and 2,4-D concentrations had significant effect on anther culture response. F3 2005 showed highest callus induction and plantlet production and F3 2104 had lowest response. This experiment indicated that androgenic traits are controlled by genotype and environmental factors. Further more these traits are controlled independently. (author)

  3. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  4. Organizational Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian HUDREA

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of secondary cultures can provide the basis for change. Therefore, organizations need to understand the cultural environments and values.

  5. Contenido de poliaminas en anteras y durante la germinación de polen en Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai / Polyamine content in anthers and during pollen germination in Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Omar, Franco-Mora; Kenji, Tanabe.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En dos ciclos de producción, 2003 y 2004, se determinó por la técnica de cromatografía líquida de alta resolución el contenido de poliaminas en anteras de pera japonesa (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), cvs. Niitaka, Housui y Choujuurou, 3, 2, 1 y 0 d antes de la antesis (DAA). En los tres cultivares el cont [...] enido de putrescina disminuyó de entre 9.8 y 11.2, a 4.2 y 5.6 µmol g-1 biomasa húmeda, al pasar de 3 a 2 DAA. El contenido de espermidina fue superior (p Abstract in english In two production cycles, 2003 and 2004, the polyamine content in anthers of Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), cvs. Niitaka, Housui and Choujuurou, was determined through the technique of high performance liquid chromatography, 3, 2, 1 and 0 d before anthesis (DBA). In the three cultivars, the [...] putrescine content decreased from between 9.8 and 11.2, to 4.2 and 5.6 µmol g-1 humid biomass (HB), when passing from 3 to 2 DBA. The spermidine content was higher (p

  6. Affirmative Religious Response Culture to HIV and AIDS: Understanding the Public Relations Role of JAKIM in Curbing the Epidemic among Young Muslim Couples in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham Jen Sern

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In regards to containing the spread of the deadly disease namely HIV/AIDS, it is particularly troublesome that the culture of information sharing in terms of sexuality still remains as a private subject and taboo for discussion not only among the Muslim communities but among the Asian communities as well. Despite the fact that Islam is concerned in placing a high value on chaste behaviour, prohibiting sexual intercourse outside marriage and homosexuality, the HIV/AIDS infection will not suppress just because of these strict Islamic doctrines are mostly adhered by fellow Muslims. While the HIV/AIDS scourge is disastrous in disregard of the religious, signaling a dire need to understand the role of religious response in curbing the disease so as to reach out to the target audiences effectively. This study is specifically to explore the responsibility of Jabatan Kemajuan Islam Malaysia or the Malaysia Department of Islamic Development (JAKIM in respect to how they convey the accurate information to the Muslim communities in general and among the young Muslim couples in specific. Therefore, semi-structural elite interview with the officer was conducted in order to dwell into the plight of how the religious institution addresses the epidemic. The study found that JAKIM has conferred striking benefits to the Muslim community in curtailing the spread of HIV/AIDS through its publication on “Manual on HIV/AIDS in Islam” and the Premarital HIV Screening Programme. The fantastic contribution of JAKIM therefore can maintain links between the religious group, government, media, and stakeholders on fighting the HIV/AIDS issues.

  7. In Vitro Growth of Curcuma longa L. in Response to Five Mineral Elements and Plant Density in Fed-Batch Culture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F.; Bridges, William C.; Adelberg, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments’ macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes. PMID:25830292

  8. Low Dose of IL-12 Stimulates T Cell Response in Cultures of PBMCs Derived from Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia D’Amico

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer induces tolerance by suppressing immune function, modulating the T helper activity and causing an imbalance of cytokines produced by T cells. IL-12 is an immune regulatory cytokine with potent anti-tumor activity and its signalling network leads to polarization of naïve CD4+ T cells into Th1. In pre-clinical studies, administration of recombinant IL-12 by intravenous injection or IL-12 plasmid DNA by intra-tumoral injection showed some anti-tumor effects, measurable immunological responses, but also important dose-dependent side effects. We investigated the ability of low doses of IL-12 to modulate the T cell subpopulations in cultures of PBMCs derived from Non Small Lung Cancer (NSCLC patients and to induce lysis of lung adenocarcinoma cells by T cells. PBMCs were stimulated with different doses of IL-12 and T cell phenotype was evaluated. IL-12 at 0.01 pg/ml significantly increased the number of CD4 and CD8 T cells, in particular of CD4/IFN? producing cells. IL-12 did not stimulate T regulatory, but it increased the lysis of lung adenocarcinoma cells induced by T cells. Our results showed that low doses of IL-12 modulates T cell sub-populations in vitro and it increased their lytic activity on adenocarcinoma cells, thus we hypothesize the use of low dose of IL-12 as a therapeutic tool against pathologies characterized by a T cell imbalance, in order to promote an immuno-modulation.

  9. In Vitro Growth of Curcuma longa L. in Response to Five Mineral Elements and Plant Density in Fed-Batch Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Bridges, William C; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments' macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes. PMID:25830292

  10. Selective responses of enzymes in the two parallel pathways of rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway to elicitors in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuncang; Yan, Yan; Wang, Bangqing; Liang, Zongsuo; Liu, Yan; Liu, Fenghua; Qi, Zhihong

    2014-05-01

    Rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B are two important phenolic compounds with therapeutic properties in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid is initiated by two parallel pathways, namely the phenylpropanoid pathway and the tyrosine-derived pathway. Salvianolic acid B is a structural dimer of rosmarinic acid and is believed to be derived from rosmarinic acid. In the current study, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and hyphal extracts from fungi were used as elicitors to examine the relationship between enzymes in the two parallel pathways and accumulation of phenolic compounds in S. miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. The results showed that accumulations of rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B and total phenolics were enhanced by MeJA while suppressed by fugal extracts. Responses of enzymes in the tyrosine-derived pathway, at both the gene transcript and enzyme activity levels, showed a better consistency with alterations of phenolic compounds content after the two elicitors treated. Our study implied that compared with enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway, enzymes in the tyrosine-derived pathway are more correlated to rosmarinic acid and salvianolic acid B biosynthesis in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. PMID:24220646

  11. Role of ErbB2 in the prostaglandin E?-induced enhancement of the mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor in cultured hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegård, John; Aasrum, Monica; Tveteraas, Ingun H; Bharath, Suman P; Sandnes, Dagny; Christoffersen, Thoralf

    2012-05-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) enhances the mitogenic response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) in hepatocytes, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. We previously observed that PGE(2) upregulates EGF-induced signalling in the MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways in hepatocytes. Other investigations have indicated that ErbB2 enhances the mitogenic effect of EGF in these cells. In the present study we found that treatment with PGE(2) increased ErbB2 and decreased ErbB3 expression at both the mRNA and protein level in cultured rat hepatocytes. Silencing of the ErbB2 expression with specific siRNA blocked the stimulation by PGE(2) and EGF of cyclin D1 expression and DNA synthesis. Both EGF and PGE(2) increased the expression of ERK and Akt, but while the effect of EGF was inhibited by ErbB2-directed siRNA, this did not affect the PGE(2)-induced upregulation of ERK and Akt. These data suggest that PGE(2) can enhance the mitogenic effect of EGF both by increasing ErbB2 expression and by ErbB2-independent mechanisms. PMID:22503980

  12. Respuesta productiva de Nannochloropsis oculata, cultivada en diferentes medios y su eficiencia como alimento para el rotífero Brachionus rotundiformis / Productive response of Nannochloropsis oculata, cultured in different media and their efficiency as food for the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Campaña-Torres; LR, Martínez-Córdova; M, Martínez-Porchas; JA, López-Elías; MA, Porchas-Cornejo.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se condujo un experimento para evaluar el efecto de diferentes medios de cultivo sobre la respuesta productiva y composición proximal de la microalga, Nannochloropsis oculata, y el efecto subsiguiente de dicha microalga sobre la respuesta productiva y composición proximal del rotífero Brachionus rot [...] undiformis. La microalga fue cultivada en distintos medios: Guillard F/2 (control), un fertilizante agrícola, y un fertilizante acuícola. Posteriormente, estas microalgas fueron utilizadas para alimentar rotíferos. Se observó una mejor respuesta productiva en aquellas microalgas cultivadas con el fertilizante agrícola. Además, la composición química proximal de las microalgas fue influenciada por el medio de cultivo utilizado. Cuando se utilizaron las microalgas como alimento natural para rotíferos, se observó una mejor respuesta productiva en aquellos rotíferos alimentados con microalgas previamente cultivadas con fertilizante acuícola. La composición química proximal de los rotíferos también fue influenciada por el tipo de microalgas que consumieron. En conclusión, la respuesta productiva y calidad de las microalgas dependió del medio en que se desarrollaron; también, la respuesta productiva y composición proximal de los rotíferos dependió de la calidad nutricional de N. oculata. Abstract in english An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of different culture media on the productive response and proximate composition of microalgae, Nannochloropsis oculata, and the subsequent effect of such microalgae on the productive response and proximate composition of the rotifer Brachionus rotun [...] diformis. Microalgae were cultured in different media: Guillard F/2 (control), an agricultural fertilizer, and an aquacultural fertilizer. Thereafter, such microalgae were used to feed rotifers. A better productive response was observed when microalgae were cultured in the agricultural fertilizer. In addition, the chemical proximate composition of microalgae was influenced by the type of culture medium used. When used as natural food for rotifers, higher productive response was observed in those rotifers fed with microalgae previously cultured in the aqua­cultural fertilizer. Also, the proximate composition of rotifers was influenced by the type of microalgae they consumed. In conclusion, the productive response and quality of microalgae depended on the medium in which they grew; also, the productive response and proximate composition of rotifers depended upon the nutritional quality of N. oculata.

  13. Application of a low dose of gamma rays in wheat androgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plamenov D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-rays of dose of 5 Gy using a 60Co source was applied in a single wheat cross to study the effect on anther culture (AC parameters. The female parent was a 6Ug /6D mono-substitution line of cv. Trakia with resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust, while the male parent was cv. Aglika, characterized as one of the best local varieties with high productivity and grain quality. Callus induction, plant regeneration, green and albino plants from the control (normal anther culture, 0 Gy designated C, were compared with parameters studied in three other groups, derived from anthers irradiated with 5 Gy (designated AI, calli irradiated with 5 Gy (designated CI and anthers and calli irradiated consecutively with 5+5 Gy (combined treatment group, designated ACI. Anther culture response of the four F1 group of plants was intermediate between the parents, with a slightly depressive effect of the dose irradiation in the AI and ACI groups. In general, the effect of the 5 Gy dose of irradiation on androgenesis was estimated to be negative for at least one group of haploid plants (AI, derived from irradiated anthers. Green plants were mostly reduced in the combined treatment group originating from irradiated calli and anthers.

  14. Improving in vitro Sertoli cell/gonocyte co-culture model for assessing male reproductive toxicity: Lessons learned from comparisons of cytotoxicity versus genomic responses to phthalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonocytes exist in the neonatal testis and represent a transient population of male germ-line stem cells. It has been shown that stem cell self-renewal and progeny production is probably controlled by the neighboring differentiated cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) in vivo known as niches. Recently, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) Sertoli cell/gonocyte co-culture (SGC) model with ECM overlay, which creates an in vivo-like niche and supports germ-line stem cell functioning within a 3D environment. In this study, we applied morphological and cytotoxicity evaluations, as well as microarray-based gene expression to examine the effects of different phthalate esters (PE) on this model. Known in vivo male developmentally toxic PEs (DTPE) and developmentally non-toxic PEs (DNTPE) were evaluated. We observed that DTPE induced significantly greater dose-dependent morphological changes, a decrease in cell viability and an increase in cytotoxicity compared to those treated with DNTPE. Moreover, the gene expression was more greatly altered by DTPE than by DNTPE and non-supervised cluster analysis allowed the discrimination of DTPE from the DNTPE. Our systems-based GO-Quant analysis showed significant alterations in the gene pathways involved in cell cycle, phosphate transport and apoptosis regulation with DTPE but not with DNTPE treatment. Disruptions of steroidogenesis related-gene expression such as Star, Cyp19a1, Hsd17b8, and Nr4a3 were observed in the DTPE g7b8, and Nr4a3 were observed in the DTPE group, but not in the DNTPE group. In summary, our observation on cell viability, cytotoxicity, and microarray-based gene expression analysis induced by PEs demonstrate that our in vitro 3D-SGC system mimicked in vivo responses for PEs and suggests that the 3D-SGC system might be useful in identifying developmental reproductive toxicants.

  15. Involvement of the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in the short-term response of Arabidopsis thaliana cultured cells to oligogalacturonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, G; Bonza, M C; Filippini, I; Cerana, M; Beffagna, N; De Michelis, M I

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana cells with oligogalacturonides (OG) initiates a transient production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the concentration of which in the medium peaks after about 20 min of treatment. The analysis of OG effects on Ca (2+) fluxes shows that OG influence both Ca (2+) influx and Ca (2+) efflux (measured as (45)Ca (2+) fluxes) in a complex way. During the first 10 - 15 min, OG stimulate Ca (2+) influx and decrease its efflux, while at successive times of treatment, OG cause an increase of Ca (2+) efflux and a slight decrease of its influx. Treatment with sub- micro M concentrations of eosin yellow (EY), which selectively inhibits the Ca (2+)-ATPase of plasma membrane (PM), completely prevents the OG-induced increase in Ca (2+) efflux. EY also suppresses the transient feature of OG-induced ROS accumulation, keeping the level of ROS in the medium high. The biochemical analysis of PM purified from OG-treated cells indicates that treatment with OG for 15 to 45 min induces a significant decrease in Ca (2+)-ATPase activation by exogenous calmodulin (CaM), and markedly increases the amount of CaM associated with the PM. During the same time span, OG do not influence the expression of At-ACA8, the main isoform of PM Ca (2+)-ATPase in suspension-cultured A. thaliana cells, and of CaM genes. Overall, the reported results demonstrate that the PM Ca (2+)-ATPase is involved in the response of plant cells to OG and is essential in regulation of the oxidative burst. PMID:15045671

  16. Respiration and protein synthesis in nongrowing cultured pear fruit cells in response to ethylene and modified atmospheres. [Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, C.J.; Romani, R.J.

    1988-07-01

    The respiration of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) cells was monitored after subculture into an auxin-free, mannitol-enriched medium in which the cells remained viable but did not grow. Respiration rates were affected by the presence or absence of sucrose in the medium even though the cells retained reserves of sucrose and starch. Provided the medium contained respirable carbohydrate, exposure to ethylene (1-10 microliters per liter) increased the respiration rate with some acceleration of cell death. In the range from 10 to 2% oxygen by volume, the respiration rate of the cells decreased with oxygen concentration resulting in some prolongation of cell life. Thus, in their responses to ethylene and modified atmospheres, the cells reflected the behavior of harvested fruits. Having defined conditions under which respiration rate could be varied without apparent influence on the quiescent state of the cells, they sought a connection between maintenance respiration and protein turnover. Relative rates of protein synthesis were assessed by measuring ribosome distribution between monosomes and polysomes. In general, the higher the respiration rate the higher the proportion of polysomes supporting the thesis that protein turnover is a variable component of maintenance metabolism. Protein turnover in cells incubated in the presence or absence of sucrose was measured as retained {alpha}-amino-{sup 3}H following a pulse of {sup 3}H{sub 2}O. Turnover was shown to be a quantitatively important component of the maintenance budget and to be more rapidly in cells in media supplemented with sucrose through the chase period. The experiments illustrate that cultured cells may be used to explore aspects of the maintenance metabolism of resting or senescent cells that are not amenable to study in bulky fruit tissues.

  17. Growth of floating-leaved and submerged plants in artificial co-cultured microcosms: morphological responses to various water fluctuation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocharis dubia can alternate between a rooted floating-leaved and a free-floating form, so given increasingly frequent precipitation extremes, it is not expected to be more negatively impacted by rapid water fluctuations than by gradual ones and may adapt water fluctuations by alteration of life forms. However, the opposite may be true for Nymphoides peltata, with only a rooted floating-leaved form. We designed an experiment combining six water depth treatments (constant shallow, constant deep, and two rapidly and two gradually fluctuating treatments) with three speciescombinations (N. peltata H. dubia, N. peltata Ceratophyllum demersum, and H. dubia C. demersum) to investigate plant responses to depth fluctuations and their co-cultured species. The total mass of N. peltata was considerably lower in the rapidly- than in the gradually-fluctuating treatments. However, total mass of H. dubia in the rapidly-fluctuating treatments was similar to or higher than in the gradually-fluctuating ones. Rapid fluctuations had a negative impact on the growth of C. demersum than gradual fluctuating. The floating-leaved species demonstrated divergent adaptive strategies to different water fluctuation patterns. In addition to expanding leaf blades, H. dubia can adapt to changing water depths by changing its life form. However, N. peltata, which mainly relies on morphological plasticity, such as petiole elongation, to adapt to water rise may reduce its abundance in communities subjected to increasingly frequent floods. The growth of submerged C. demersum, either co-occurring with H. dubia or with N. peltata, may be repressed by high flooding rates. (author)

  18. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memet...

  19. Akaoraora'ia te peu 'a to 'ui tupuna: Culturally Responsive Pedagogy for Cook Islands Secondary School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ava, Aue Te; Rubie-Davies, Christine; Airini; Oven, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This research examines outcomes from introducing cultural values into Cook Islands secondary schools during two cycles of action research comprising planning, implementing, observing and reflecting. The cultural values upon which the physical education lessons were based were: "taueue" (participation), "angaanga kapiti"…

  20. Culture of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Kristen

    2015-03-01

    In this article, the principles behind high-reliability organizations and a culture of safety are explored. Three areas in which health care has the greatest potential for improvement in safety culture are also discussed: a nonpunitive response to error; handoffs and transitions; and safe staffing. Tools for frontline nurses to help improve their organization's culture of safety in these areas are reviewed. Information is also given for nurses responding to error, including participating in root-cause analysis and supporting health care workers involved in adverse events. PMID:25680493

  1. Loss of Arabidopsis GAUT12/IRX8 causes anther indehiscence and leads to reduced G lignin associated with altered matrix polysaccharide deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhangying; Avci, Utku; Tan, Li; Zhu, Xiang; Glushka, John; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Eberhard, Stefan; Sholes, Tipton; Rothstein, Grace E; Lukowitz, Wolfgang; Orlando, Ron; Hahn, Michael G; Mohnen, Debra

    2014-01-01

    GAlactUronosylTransferase12 (GAUT12)/IRregular Xylem8 (IRX8) is a putative glycosyltransferase involved in Arabidopsis secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Previous work showed that Arabidopsis irregular xylem8 (irx8) mutants have collapsed xylem due to a reduction in xylan and a lesser reduction in a subfraction of homogalacturonan (HG). We now show that male sterility in the irx8 mutant is due to indehiscent anthers caused by reduced deposition of xylan and lignin in the endothecium cell layer. The reduced lignin content was demonstrated by histochemical lignin staining and pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (pyMBMS) and is associated with reduced lignin biosynthesis in irx8 stems. Examination of sequential chemical extracts of stem walls using 2D (13)C-(1)H Heteronuclear Single-Quantum Correlation (HSQC) NMR spectroscopy and antibody-based glycome profiling revealed a reduction in G lignin in the 1 M KOH extract and a concomitant loss of xylan, arabinogalactan and pectin epitopes in the ammonium oxalate, sodium carbonate, and 1 M KOH extracts from the irx8 walls compared with wild-type walls. Immunolabeling of stem sections using the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M138 reactive against an unsubstituted xylopentaose epitope revealed a bi-lamellate pattern in wild-type fiber cells and a collapsed bi-layer in irx8 cells, suggesting that at least in fiber cells, GAUT12 participates in the synthesis of a specific layer or type of xylan or helps to provide an architecture framework required for the native xylan deposition pattern. The results support the hypothesis that GAUT12 functions in the synthesis of a structure required for xylan and lignin deposition during secondary cell wall formation. PMID:25120548

  2. Culture Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

  3. Integrating the Spiritual-Cultural, Rights-Responsibilities, and Economics of a Citizenship Development Higher Learning through a Differently Conceived and Practiced Sociology in (Second Language) English in the Japanese University

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Brady

    2013-01-01

    School classroom life and study can be thought of as a threefold social sphere which encompasses the economic, the rights-responsibilities, and the spiritual-cultural. In order that there be a healthy threefold social sphere in the classroom, all three intertwined sub-spheres must be equally developed and work together. Human development and the instilling of socially beneficial values in young people are the publicly stated goals of Japanese education at all levels in Japan. Language of wide...

  4. Gastric culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

  5. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  6. TOURISM AND CULTURAL REVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George NICULESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the tourism and the cultural revival. Cultural change is a recurrent concern in tourism studies. Host societies frequently remodel their culture following the creation of a tourist resort. But, that does not necessarily imply an acculturating process, since what actually takes place is pragmatic cultural production work in response to the touristic demands that offer consolidated economic alternatives and livelihood. Culture change has been a concern in tourism anthropology studies ever since this field of research established itself, particularly concerning the changes host societies undergo. But that does not necessarily imply the phenomenon is to be analyzed exclusively under the focus of the acculturation paradigm, since researchers often come across the production of new cultural elements of a traditional character among host populations in their attempt to occupy new spaces from which to address the world. in fact, that applies to various social situations where local actors seek to display certain lifestyles and cultural traits in order to draw attention to their ethnic, regional, or national features. Therefore, the object of study no longer focuses on the gradual loss of local and cultural (or ethnic substance, but rather on the relative ethnicity triggered by and among translocal flows that may lead to the deliberate turnaround of different cultural aspects of the host populations. Based on those premises, this article deals with the investigation of a cultural change process, making use of the historic perspective that includes an analysis of the “strategies of cultural mobilization” activated by the social subjects that are constantly recreating themselves in the tourism areas.

  7. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  8. CULTURAL VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Harun, Sudarmin

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT SUDARMIN HARUN. Cultural Values in Buginese Traditional Songs (supervised by Burhanuddin Arafah, Marthen L. Manda, and Stanislaus Sandarupa). This study aimed at finding and elaborating: (1) the cultural symbols, their kinds, their morphemic, literal, and idiomatic meanings, applied in BTS; (2) the aspect of values and their significant meanings, reflected by the cultural symbols in BTS; (3) The significant meanings and the aims of cultural symbols used by Buginese community...

  9. Beyond Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  10. Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana F. Paes Ribas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A responsividade materna tem sido considerada como um elemento central para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil e este conceito tem sido articulado com a teoria do apego. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente o papel de estudos transculturais sobre responsividade materna, à luz da teoria do apego, a partir da revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema. Considerando a teoria do apego um referencial valioso para investigações sobre interações mãe-bebê e responsividade materna, as conclusões apontam, basicamente, para três questões: 1 a teoria do apego precisa ser investigada em diferentes contextos socioculturais e receber validação transcultural; 2 pesquisas sobre responsividade materna devem considerar a discussão sobre a teoria do apego e diferenças culturais; 3 a inclusão do estudo da responsividade materna em referenciais teóricos que levem em conta variáveis socioculturais é necessária.Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1 the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2 research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3 the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  11. Responsividade materna e teoria do apego: uma discussão crítica do papel de estudos transculturais / Maternal responsiveness and attachment theory: a critical discussion of the role of cross-cultural studies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana F. Paes, Ribas; Maria Lucia, Seidl de Moura.

    Full Text Available A responsividade materna tem sido considerada como um elemento central para a compreensão do desenvolvimento infantil e este conceito tem sido articulado com a teoria do apego. Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir criticamente o papel de estudos transculturais sobre responsividade materna, à luz d [...] a teoria do apego, a partir da revisão da literatura recente sobre o tema. Considerando a teoria do apego um referencial valioso para investigações sobre interações mãe-bebê e responsividade materna, as conclusões apontam, basicamente, para três questões: 1) a teoria do apego precisa ser investigada em diferentes contextos socioculturais e receber validação transcultural; 2) pesquisas sobre responsividade materna devem considerar a discussão sobre a teoria do apego e diferenças culturais; 3) a inclusão do estudo da responsividade materna em referenciais teóricos que levem em conta variáveis socioculturais é necessária. Abstract in english Maternal responsiveness has been considered as an important concept for the understanding of different aspects of infant development, and this concept has been articulated with attachment theory. The objective of this article is to discuss critically the role of transcultural studies about maternal [...] responsiveness, based on attachment theory, and to review of the recent literature about this subject. Considering attachment a valuable theoretical basis for investigations on mother-infant interactions and maternal responsiveness, the conclusions basically point to three issues: 1) the attachment theory needs to be investigated in different socio-cultural contexts, to be tested in its limits and to receive a transcultural validation; 2) research on maternal responsiveness should take into account the discussion on attachment theory and cultural differences; 3) the inclusion of the study of maternal responsiveness in a theoretical framework that takes into account socio-cultural variables is necessary.

  12. Perception of emotionally loaded vocal expressions and its connection to responses to music. A cross-cultural investigation: Estonia, Finland, Sweden, Russia, and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    TeijaWaaramaa; TimoLeisiö

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on voice quality and the perception of the basic emotions from speech samples in cross-cultural conditions. It was examined whether voice quality, cultural, or language background, age, or gender were related to the identification of the emotions. Professional actors (n2) and actresses (n2) produced non-sense sentences (n32) and protracted vowels (n8) expressing the six basic emotions, interest, and a neutral emotional state. The impact of musical interests on the ab...

  13. Gamma-interferon bioassay for detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle: kinetics of production and dose response in whole blood culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimulation with mycobacterium bovis PPD sensitised lymphocytes (whole blood or peripheral blood lymphocytes) results in release of gamma-interferon that can be detected by simple bioassay. The optimum concentration of bovine PPD was 20 ?g ml and the optimum incubation period was 24 hr for maximum production of gamma-interferon in whole blood culture (128 units/ml) and peripheral blood culture (64 units/ml). (author)

  14. La Politique audiovisuelle en Irlande et au Canada face à l’impérialisme culturel américain Broadcasting Policies in Ireland and Canada in Response to American Cultural Imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Slaby

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ireland and Canada face the common challenge of having to protect their cultural production which is a cornerstone of their national identity from American attempts at breaking down any barrier preventing the free circulation of goods and services, including culture. Canada—and especially Québec—has developed a tradition of loud and vocal opposition to what is perceived as American cultural imperialism. On the other hand, Ireland is less critical of the occupation of its audiovisual space by American productions on the strength of its historical ties with the United States. In Ireland, broadcasting comes under the control auspices of a government department which is not otherwise related to cultural issues. The ruling party Fianna Fáil has adopted a purely liberal approach to its national broadcaster, whereas, on the other side of the Atlantic, Canadian official discourse on the matter has grown closer to the European notion of a cultural exception or exemption in favour of culture in order to preserve the core of national identities in the face of globalization.

  15. A modeling study by response surface methodology and artificial neural network on culture parameters optimization for thermostable lipase production from a newly isolated thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Mahiran

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermostable bacterial lipases occupy a place of prominence among biocatalysts owing to their novel, multifold applications and resistance to high temperature and other operational conditions. The capability of lipases to catalyze a variety of novel reactions in both aqueous and nonaqueous media presents a fascinating field for research, creating interest to isolate novel lipase producers and optimize lipase production. The most important stages in a biological process are modeling and optimization to improve a system and increase the efficiency of the process without increasing the cost. Results Different production media were tested for lipase production by a newly isolated thermophilic Geobacillus sp. strain ARM (DSM 21496 = NCIMB 41583. The maximum production was obtained in the presence of peptone and yeast extract as organic nitrogen sources, olive oil as carbon source and lipase production inducer, sodium and calcium as metal ions, and gum arabic as emulsifier and lipase production inducer. The best models for optimization of culture parameters were achieved by multilayer full feedforward incremental back propagation network and modified response surface model using backward elimination, where the optimum condition was: growth temperature (52.3°C, medium volume (50 ml, inoculum size (1%, agitation rate (static condition, incubation period (24 h and initial pH (5.8. The experimental lipase activity was 0.47 Uml-1 at optimum condition (4.7-fold increase, which compared well to the maximum predicted values by ANN (0.47 Uml-1 and RSM (0.476 Uml-1, whereas R2 and AAD were determined as 0.989 and 0.059% for ANN, and 0.95 and 0.078% for RSM respectively. Conclusion Lipase production is the result of a synergistic combination of effective parameters interactions. These parameters are in equilibrium and the change of one parameter can be compensated by changes of other parameters to give the same results. Though both RSM and ANN models provided good quality predictions in this study, yet the ANN showed a clear superiority over RSM for both data fitting and estimation capabilities. On the other hand, ANN has the disadvantage of requiring large amounts of training data in comparison with RSM. This problem was solved by using statistical experimental design, to reduce the number of experiments.

  16. Cytological Investigation of Pollen Development in Sorghum Line with Male Sterility Induced by Sodium Ascorbate in Tissue Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina I. Tsvetova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of male sterility mutations is an effective approach for identification of genes involved in anther and pollen development. The comparison of “cytological phenotypes” of newly induced mutants with phenotypes determined by already known genes favors elucidation of genetic control of diverse microsporo- and gametogenesis stages. In this paper, we describe pollen development in the grain sorghum line Zh10-asc1 with mutation of male sterility. This line was obtained from callus culture treated by sodium ascorbate. A wide spectrum of abnormalities in microsporogenesis have been found, such as cytomixis, chromosomal laggards, chromosome disjunction, adhesion of chromosomes, disturbed cytokinesis, and others. In tapetum, the cells with one nucleus, with unequal nuclei, and with micronuclei have been observed. During pollen grain (PG maturation abnormalities in starch accumulation and delay of development often took place. In mature anthers, a variety of pollen grain types have been revealed: fertile, of irregular shape, incompletely filled with starch, PGs delayed at the uni-nucleate or bi-nucleate gametophyte stages, with partially or fully degenerated contents, and with abnormal coloration. Variation in spectrum and the frequency of disturbances between the flowers of one and the same plant have been revealed. The reasons for significant genetic and epigenetic instability are discussed.

  17. Three-dimensional culture conditions differentially affect astrocyte modulation of brain endothelial barrier function in response to transforming growth factor ?1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian T; Grego, Sonia; Sellgren, Katelyn L

    2015-05-22

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) function is regulated by dynamic interactions among cell types within the neurovascular unit, including astrocytes and endothelial cells. Co-culture models of the BBB typically involve astrocytes seeded on two-dimensional (2D) surfaces, which recent studies indicate cause astrocytes to express a phenotype similar to that of reactive astrocytes in situ. We hypothesized that the culture conditions of astrocytes would differentially affect their ability to modulate BBB function in vitro. Brain endothelial cells were grown alone or in co-culture with astrocytes. Astrocytes were grown either as conventional (2D) monolayers, or in a collagen-based gel which allows them to grow in a three-dimensional (3D) construct. Astrocytes were viable in 3D conditions, and displayed a marked reduction in their expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), suggesting reduced activation. Stimulation of astrocytes with transforming growth factor (TGF)?1 decreased transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and reduced expression of claudin-5 in co-cultures, whereas treatment of endothelial cells in the absence of astrocytes was without effect. The effect of TGF?1 on TEER was significantly more pronounced in endothelial cells cultured with 3D astrocytes compared to 2D astrocytes. These results demonstrate that astrocyte culture conditions differentially affect their ability to modulate brain endothelial barrier function, and suggest a direct relationship between reactive gliosis and BBB permeability. Moreover, these studies demonstrate the potential importance of physiologically relevant culture conditions to in vitro modeling of disease processes that affect the neurovascular unit. PMID:25721792

  18. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Ogamba, E. N.; Abowei, J. F. N.

    2012-01-01

    Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming ...

  19. A Comparison of the Cultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun Jin

    2012-01-01

    As a critical unit for identifying family-constructed meanings of education, a deeper contextual understanding of Korean immigrant parents' cultural/ethnic perceptions in relation to educational beliefs should be central to culturally responsive education designed to support Korean immigrant families. It is necessary for educators to examine…

  20. Culture: Copying, Compression, and Conventionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamariz, Mónica; Kirby, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Through cultural transmission, repeated learning by new individuals transforms cultural information, which tends to become increasingly compressible (Kirby, Cornish, & Smith, 2008; Smith, Tamariz, & Kirby, 2013). Existing diffusion chain studies include in their design two processes that could be responsible for this tendency: learning…

  1. CULTURE AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT A THEORITICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sukadana

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Culture is affected by the environmental demands, and culture influences what people do toward the environment. What remarkable is that culture and environment influenced each other. They are frequently responsive to the demands of the environment. Furthermore, culture influences people in shaping built environment such as, cities, villages, houses, and farms. Culture influences environment through travelling, commerce, mass media, and missionaries of religion. Contact among other people, ideas and traditions effected cultural change. As a result; people are able to do contextualization that is reject, adopt, and accept the previous culture and it affected the built environment arrangement.

  2. Patterns of indole alkaloids synthesis in response to heat shock, 5-azacytidine and Na-butyrate treatment of cultured catharanthus roseus mesophyll protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaloids of C. roseus are in high demand for therapeutic and other reasons. Cultured Catharanthus cells can produce limited quantities of these alkaloids. The authors have found that cultured mesophyll protoplasts in the presence of 14C-Tryptamine are capable of synthesizing alkaloids. The pattern of alkaloids synthesis changes when protoplasts are subjected to a heat shock at 370C. The heat shocked protoplasts incorporated 33% more 14C-Tryptamine and produced 3 new types of alkaloids. Treatment of protoplasts with 5-azacytidine, a DNA hypomethylating agent and Na-butyrate which induces hyperacetylation of histones produced qualitative and quantitative changes in the alkaloid pattern. Four new alkaloids following the above treatments were detected by TLC and HPLC of the extracts. It is suggested that the alkaloid pattern of the cultured protoplasts can be altered by treatment with compounds known as regulators of gene expression. Work is in progress to isolate and identify these new alkaloids

  3. Cultural Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    0000-00-00

    This article, succinctly written by the late Charles Hogue, was taken, with permission, from the 1987 Annual Review of Entomology. It provides an excellent explanation of cultural entomology, along with examples of the influence insects have had on art, folklore, history, literature and language, the performing arts, philosophy, religion, and other areas of culture from around the world. To delve more deeply into cultural entomology, the original 1987 article should be consulted for a listing of many specific references to the subject.

  4. Beyond culture

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Peter

    1991-01-01

    ?This dissertation examines Friedrich Nietzsche's theory of culture. Nietzsche held that all beliefs were arbitrary and culturally contingent; cultures were distinct, organic, homogeneous entities, whose values were mutually incommensurable. I trace the origins of this theory to Nietzsche's experience as a philologist; but I claim that, in deriving his theory from historical data, Nietzsche drew false conclusions. As a mature philosopher, Nietzsche developed a somewhat ...

  5. Analysis of Culture(s), Culture(s) of Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leone, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    PROGRAMMA Saturday September 5, 2009 Chair: Eero Tarasti, President of the International Association for Semiotic Studies 16:00 Winfried Nöth, University of Kassel Machines of Cultures and Cultures of Machines 17:00 Break 17:15 Gianfranco Marrone, University of Palermo Text, Discourse, Culture 18:15 Roundtable 1 Sunday September 6, 2009 10:00 Claudio Guerri, University of Buenos Aires The Semiotic Nonagon and the Graphic Language TSD: an operative model for...

  6. Dendritic Cells Transfected with a DNA Construct Encoding Tumour-associated Antigen Epitopes Induce a Cytotoxic Immune Response Against Autologous Tumour Cells in a Culture of Mononuclear Cells from Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, E V; Kurilin, V V; Shevchenko, J A; Obleukhova, I A; Khrapov, E A; Boyarskikh, U A; Filipenko, M L; Shorokhov, R V; Yakushenko, V K; Sokolov, A V; Sennikov, S V

    2015-08-01

    Significant effort has been devoted to developing effective cancer vaccines based on dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with various tumour antigens, including DNA constructs that carry sequences of tumour-associated antigens (TAAs). Such vaccines efficiently and selectively activate the T cell immune response. In this study, we describe a method to induce an antitumour immune response in mononuclear cell (MNC) cultures from colorectal cancer patients using DNA-transfected DCs encoding TAA epitopes of carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and mucin 4. DCs were obtained from peripheral blood monocytes of colorectal cancer patients. Magnetic-assisted transfection was used to deliver the genetic constructs to DCs. To assess the potency of the immune response, the antitumour cytotoxic response was assessed by lymphocyte intracellular perforin and the MNC cytotoxic activity against autologous tumour cells. We showed that polyepitope DNA-transfected DCs enhanced MNC antitumour activity, increasing tumour cell death and the percentage of perforin-positive lymphocytes. In addition, DNA-transfected DCs elicited a cytotoxic response that was as efficient as that of tumour lysate-loaded DCs. Taken together, the data suggest that it is feasible to induce an antitumour immune response in colorectal MNCs using transfected DCs. Thus, the DNA construct reported in this study may potentially be used in therapeutic and prophylactic DC-based vaccines. PMID:25966778

  7. Mutagenesis and haploid culture for disease resistance in Brassica napus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Most winter oilseed rape cultivars share parentage and therefore show little genetic diversity. There is no known resistance to Alternaria spp. in oilseed rape or in any related Brassica species. Experiments with tissue culture yielded only transient, non-genetic resistance. Therefore, mutagenesis may be used to generate heritable resistance to Alternaria spp. Gamma irradiation was applied to seeds of 'Bienvenue', secondary embryoids of cvs 'Primor' and 'Rapora', and buds of cvs 'Primor' and 'Ariana'. Isolated microspores from cv 'Ariana' and rapid cycling B. napus were also treated. The doses used ranged from 0-100 Gy for isolated microspores and buds, up to 600 Gy for seeds and 960 Gy for secondary embryoids. EMS was used to treat seeds of line WRG-42 (supplied by Nickersons RPB) and microspores of cv 'Bienvenue' and rapid cycling B. napus. Seeds were treated with up to 2.0% EMS for 0.2 h. before plating them on the culture medium. Seed irradiation up to 600 Gy did not reduce germination. M1 and M2 progenies were tested both in the laboratory and in field trials, and none of these were found to be resistant to Alternaria. However, considerable variation for other characters was observed. Haploid cultures from these plants were extremely difficult to regenerate, and for this reason no regenerant plants have been tested for resistance. For irradiated secondary embryoids the regeneration capacity decreased with increasing dose. Regenerated plants have been tested for resistance to Alternaria, but stable resistance was not observed. Haploid cultures were obtained from irradiated buds, using both anther and microspore culture. Low irradiation treatment was beneficial to developing embryoids. Some regenerants have been obtained from EMS treated microspores and seeds. Four plants have repeatedly given increased levels of resistance to A. brassicicola, and progenies are being tested to determine the genetic nature of the resistance. (author)

  8. Consuming cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gregory, (Thesis)

    2007-01-01

    The sense of “consuming” addressed here relates to a culture of spectacular consumption in which we almost all are now implicated, and in which our main purpose is to consume: we inhabit and are inhabited by a society of consumption . A second but allied meaning relates to culture as just another product or service to be consumed. There is also an additional sense in which the planet's local and long-standing cultures are being consumed and transformed by a globalizing economic culture wh...

  9. Protein secretory patterns of rat Sertoli and peritubular cells are influenced by culture conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography was used to correlate patterns of secretory proteins in cultures of Sertoli and peritubular cells with those observed in the incubation medium from segments of seminiferous tubules. Sertoli cells in culture and in seminiferous tubules secreted three proteins designated S70 (Mr 72,000-70,000), S45 (Mr 45,000), and S35 (Mr 35,000). Cultured Sertoli and peritubular cells and incubated seminiferous tubules secreted two proteins designated SP1 (Mr 42,000) and SP2 (Mr 50,000). SP1 and S45 have similar Mr but differ from each other in isoelectric point (pI). Cultured peritubular cells secreted a protein designated P40 (Mr 40,000) that was also seen in intact seminiferous tubules but not in seminiferous tubules lacking the peritubular cell wall. However, a large number of high-Mr proteins were observed only in the medium of cultured peritubular cells but not in the incubation medium of intact seminiferous tubules. Culture conditions influence the morphology and patterns of protein secretion of cultured peritubular cells. Peritubular cells that display a flat-stellate shape transition when placed in culture medium free of serum (with or without hormones and growth factors), accumulate various proteins in the medium that are less apparent when these cells are maintained in medium supplemented with serum. Two secretory proteins stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (designated SCm1 and SCm2) previously found in the medium of cultured Sertoli cells, were also observed in the incubation medium of seminiferous tubular segments stimulated by FSH. Results of this study show that, although cultured Sertoli and peritubular cells synthesize and secrete proteins also observed in segments of incubated seminiferous tubules anther group of proteins lacks seminiferous tubular correlates

  10. EFFECTS OF PRE-INCUBATION HOLDING TIME AND TEMPERATURE ON INTERFERON-GAMMA RESPONSES IN WHOLE BLOOD CULTURES FROM MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS-INFECTED CATTLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BovigamTM assay is approved for use within the U.S. as a complementary diagnostic test for tuberculosis. The in vitro assay detects interferon (IFN)-gamma produced in whole blood cultures stimulated with specific antigen. Stimulants commonly used in the assay are purified protein derivatives d...

  11. The Imperative of Virtue in the Age of Global Technology and Globalized Mass Culture: A Liberal-Humanist Response to the Heideggerian Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalsky, Borys M.

    2011-01-01

    How has the globalization of technology contributed to the globalization of the war against the Enlightenment liberal humanism of Western civilization--in particular, to the globalization of the war between religion and science--and with what problematic moral, cultural, and spiritual consequences? Liberal-humanist and Heideggerian perspectives on…

  12. Towards the "Informed Use" of Information and Communication Technology in Education: A Response to Adams' "Powerpoint, Habits of Mind, and Classroom Culture"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Michael; Towndrow, Phillip A.

    2007-01-01

    PowerPoint, the widely-used slide-show software package, is finding increasing currency in lecture halls and classrooms as the preferred method of communicating and presenting information. But, as Adams [Adams, C. (2006) "PowerPoint, habits of mind, and classroom culture." "Journal of Curriculum Studies," 38(4), 389-411] attempts to show, users…

  13. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Claire M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practice guidelines. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal mental health, participated in six independent Delphi studies investigating depression, psychosis, suicidal thoughts and behaviours, deliberate self-injury, trauma and loss, and cultural considerations. The panel varied in size across the studies, from 20-24 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about possible first aid actions via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the survey content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ? 90% of panellists as essential or important. Each study developed one guideline from the outcomes of three Delphi questionnaire rounds. At the end of the six Delphi studies, participants were asked to give feedback on the value of the project and their participation experience. Results From a total of 1,016 statements shown to the panel of experts, 536 statements were endorsed (94 for depression, 151 for psychosis, 52 for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, 53 for deliberate self-injury, 155 for trauma and loss, and 31 for cultural considerations. The methodology and the guidelines themselves were found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal mental health experts were able to reach consensus about culturally appropriate first aid for mental illness. The Delphi consensus method could be useful more generally for consulting Indigenous peoples about culturally appropriate best practice in mental health services.

  14. Culture and Literacy: Frameworks for Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol E.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding cultural variations in beliefs, values, and communication styles and considers the role of culture in relation to children's response to formal education and literacy. Major dimensions of cultural variability discussed include individualism/collectivism and high-context/low-context. (Author/DB)

  15. There may not be a cultural life script for public events, but there is a youth bias: Response to Janssen (2014).

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppel, Jonathan Mark; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    Janssen asserts that, in a recent paper, we introduced the concept of a cultural life script for public events, in the form of the youth bias. Moreover, he contends that we claimed to have found evidence for such a life script. Correspondingly, he frames his own failure to find evidence for a life script for public events as a rebuttal of our paper. We demonstrate, however, that the youth bias is in fact conceptually and methodologically distinct from life scripts. We conclude that we therefore deserve no credit for the concept of a cultural life script for public events and that Janssen's critique of our paper rests on a misinterpretation of our central concept. Lastly, we argue that, although Janssen may not have found evidence for a life script for public events, his study serves as a confirmation and extension of the youth bias.

  16. Adaptive and Bystander Responses in Human and Rodent Cell Cultures Exposed to Low Level Ionizing Radiation: The Impact of Linear Energy Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Sonia M.; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the potential impact on risk from exposure to low-level ionizing radiation, we have investigated the modulation of gene expression, induction of DNA damage and of neoplastic transformation in human or rodent cells derived from cultures exposed in vitro to low dose ?-rays (a low linear energy transfer radiation) or very low fluences of ?-particles (a high linear energy transfer radiation). Pre-exposure of cells to a low ?-ray dose protected cells from the DNA damaging and kill...

  17. Subfield-specific neurovascular remodeling in the entorhino-hippocampal-organotypic slice culture as a response to oxygen–glucose deprivation and excitotoxic cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Chip, Sophorn; Nitsch, Cordula; Wellmann, Sven; Josef P. Kapfhammer

    2012-01-01

    Transient ischemia causes delayed neurodegeneration in selective brain areas, particularly in the CA1 field of the hippocampus. This is accompanied by neurovascular impairment. It is unknown whether neurodegeneration is the cause or consequence of vascular changes. In an entorhino-hippocampal-organotypic slice culture system with well-preserved blood vessels, we studied the interplay between neurodegeneration and neurovasculature. Short-term oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) resulted in up...

  18. Affirmative Religious Response Culture to HIV and AIDS: Understanding the Public Relations Role of JAKIM in Curbing the Epidemic among Young Muslim Couples in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tham Jen Sern; Hasmah Zanuddin

    2014-01-01

    In regards to containing the spread of the deadly disease namely HIV/AIDS, it is particularly troublesome that the culture of information sharing in terms of sexuality still remains as a private subject and taboo for discussion not only among the Muslim communities but among the Asian communities as well. Despite the fact that Islam is concerned in placing a high value on chaste behaviour, prohibiting sexual intercourse outside marriage and homosexuality, the HIV/AIDS infection will not suppr...

  19. Mental health first aid for Indigenous Australians: using Delphi consensus studies to develop guidelines for culturally appropriate responses to mental health problems

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Claire M; Kanowski Leonard G; Jorm Anthony F; Hart Laura M; Langlands Robyn L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ethnic minority groups are under-represented in mental health care services because of barriers such as poor mental health literacy. In 2007, the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) program implemented a cultural adaptation of its first aid course to improve the capacity of Indigenous Australians to recognise and respond to mental health issues within their own communities. It became apparent that the content of this training would be improved by the development of best practic...

  20. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Shen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture conditions and restricts the development of academic culture. The construction strategies of academic culture and campus culture are as follows: university should stick to its mission, enhance cultural confidence and cultural consciousness, integrate culture into the process of talent cultivation, promote cultural development and innovation.

  1. Making Connections through Cultural Memory, Cultural Performance, and Cultural Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Rita L.; Rogers, Tony; Wan, Yuh-Yao

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the need for making connections between cultures, especially among Aboriginal and dominant cultures. Focuses on these themes: cultural memory, cultural performance, and cultural translation. Highlights three Aboriginal cultures on three continents (South Australia, Canada, and Taiwan) to encourage art educators and students to engage in…

  2. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  3. Response of a three-stage process for PHA production by mixed microbial cultures to feedstock shift: impact on polymer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Anouk F; Oliveira, Catarina S S; Carmo, Inês T D; Gouveia, Ana R; Pardelha, Filipa; Ramos, Ana M; Reis, Maria A M

    2014-06-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be produced by mixed microbial cultures (MMC) using a three-stage process. An attractive feature of MMC for PHA production is the ability to use waste/surplus feedstocks. In this study, the effect of a feedstock shift, mimicking a seasonal feedstock scenario and/or as a strategy for controlling polymer composition, on a MMC PHA production process was assessed using cheese whey (CW) and sugar cane molasses (SCM) as model feedstocks. The acidogenic stage responded immediately to the feedstock shift by changing the fermented products profile, with acetate and butyrate being the main acids produced from CW, while for SCM propionate and valerate were the dominant products. The fermentation process was then quite stable during long term operation. The PHA culture selection stage also responded quickly to the fermented feestocks shift, generating a polymer whose composition was linearly dependent on the concentration of HV and HB precursors produced in the acidogenic stage. The selected culture reached a maximum PHA content of 56% and 65% with fermented SCM and CW, respectively. Mixing fermented CW and SCM, in equal volume proportions, demonstrated the possibility of using different fermented feedstocks for tailoring polymer composition. PMID:24211366

  4. Molecular cloning of a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase cDNA from cell cultures of sweet potato and its expression in response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S-Y; Ryu, S-H; Jang, I-C; Kwon, S-Y; Kim, J-G; Kwak, S-S

    2004-04-01

    A cDNA encoding a cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase (APX), swAPX1, was isolated from cell cultures of sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas) by cDNA library screening, and its expression in the context of various environmental stresses was investigated. swAPX1 contains an ORF of 250 amino acids (27.5 kDa) encoding a protein with a pI value of 5.32. The swAPX1 ORF does not code for a transit peptide, suggesting that the product is a cytosolic isoform. RNA blot analysis showed that swAPX1 gene is expressed in cultured cells and mature leaves, but not in stems, non-storage or storage roots of sweet potato. The level of swAPX1 RNA progressively increased during cell growth in suspension cultures. In leaf tissues, the gene responded differentially to various abiotic stresses, as revealed by RT-PCR analysis. swAPX1 was highly induced in leaves by wounding, and treatment with methyl viologen (50 microM), hydrogen peroxide (440 mM), abscisic acid (ABA; 100 microM) or exposure to high temperature (37 degrees C). In addition, the gene was strongly induced in the leaves following inoculation with a bacterial pathogen ( Pectobacterium chrysanthemi). These results indicate that swAPX1 may be involved in hydrogen peroxide-detoxification and thus help to overcome the oxidative stress induced by abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:14986108

  5. Mapping of amino acid residues responsible for adhesion of cell culture-adapted foot-and-mouth disease SAT type viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Francois F; Blignaut, Belinda; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Visser, Nico; Rieder, Elizabeth A

    2010-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects host cells by adhering to the alpha(V) subgroup of the integrin family of cellular receptors in a Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) dependent manner. FMD viruses, propagated in non-host cell cultures are reported to acquire the ability to enter cells via alternative cell surface molecules. Sequencing analysis of SAT1 and SAT2 cell culture-adapted variants showed acquisition of positively charged amino acid residues within surface-exposed loops of the outer capsid structural proteins. The fixation of positively charged residues at position 110-112 in the beta F-beta G loop of VP1 of SAT1 isolates is thought to correlate with the acquisition of the ability to utilise alternative glycosaminoglycan (GAG) molecules for cell entry. Similarly, two SAT2 viruses that adapted readily to BHK-21 cells accumulated positively charged residues at positions 83 and 85 of the beta D-beta E loop of VP1. Both regions surround the fivefold axis of the virion. Recombinant viruses containing positively charged residues at position 110 and 112 of VP1 were able to infect CHO-K1 cells (that expresses GAG) and demonstrated increased infectivity in BHK-21 cells. Therefore, recombinant SAT viruses engineered to express substitutions that induce GAG-binding could be exploited in the rational design of vaccine seed stocks with improved growth properties in cell cultures. PMID:20637812

  6. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  7. Paramilitary Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  8. Socio-Cultural Knowledge in Conversational Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomei Yang

    2009-01-01

    In addition to words and grammar, socio-cultural knowledge is also of vital importance in the interpretation of conversations. Socio-cultural knowledge helps participants to get contextualization cues and together with other signaling channels, participants will be able to perceive the context-bound information and prepare their appropriate responses. Socio-cultural knowledge is indispensable in our modern society where people have widely varying communicative and cultural backgrounds, which ...

  9. "Child Divorce": A Break from Parental Responsibilities and Rights Due to the Traditional Socio-Cultural Practices and Beliefs of the Parents

    OpenAIRE

    M Bekink

    2012-01-01

    In a recent ground-breaking case the South African courts were for the first time requested to use their discretion to interfere in the parent-child relationship due to the traditional socio-cultural beliefs of the parents. In what has been described as "every parent's nightmare; the fancy of many teenagers", a 16 year-old schoolgirl from Milerton in the Western Cape asked to be "freed" from her parents to live semi-independently from them because of her unhappiness with the conservative mann...

  10. Academic Culture and Campus Culture of Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Shen; Xianghong Tian

    2012-01-01

    Academic culture of universities mainly consists of academic outlooks, academic spirits, academic ethics and academic environments. Campus culture in a university is characterized by individuality, academic feature, opening, leading, variety and creativity. The academic culture enhances the construction of campus culture. The campus culture conditions and restricts the development of academic culture. The construction strategies of academic culture and campus culture are as follows: universit...

  11. Cultural Robotics: The Culture of Robotics and Robotics in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hooman Samani; Elham Saadatian; Natalie Pang; Doros Polydorou; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Ryohei Nakatsu; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the concept of "Cultural Robotics" with regard to the evolution of social into cultural robots in the 21st Century. By defining the concept of culture, the potential development of a culture between humans and robots is explored. Based on the cultural values of the robotics developers, and the learning ability of current robots, cultural attributes in this regard are in the process of being formed, which would define the new concept of cultural robotics. Ac...

  12. Evaluation of Culture Media Limited in Nitrogen and Silicates on the Production Response and Lipid Content of the Diatom Chaetoceros muelleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Elías

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton is a good option to obtain oil for biodiesel production and some marine diatoms contained up to 20% of lipids. Based on this, we evaluated mediums limited in nitrogen and silicate to enhance the production of lipids by Chaetoceros muelleri at laboratory condition. The cultures were made by quadruplicate in carboys (20 L. Three treatments (T1 with a reduction of 75% of nitrates; T2 with a reduction of 75% of silicate and T3with a reduction of 75% of nitrate and silicate from medium f/2 and a Control (C consisted of medium f/2, were evaluated. In general, cell density and dry biomass were higher in the control; however, the lipid content was greater in the treatments (24 to 34%, when compared to the control (15%. Similarly the production of lipids by cell was higher in the treatments (20 to 42 pcg/cell as compared to the control (16 pcg/cell, while the production by volume was similar among treatments and control. The fatty acid profile was different between treatments and control; a high proportion of saturated and less of poly unsaturated fatty acids were found in the media limited in nutrients. The results of the study suggest that C. muelleri, may be a good-potential specie to produce bio-combustibles due to its high content of lipid when cultured in media reduced in nitrogen and silicates at low production costs.

  13. A functional assay to measure postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acidB responses in cultured spinal cord neurons: Heterologous regulation of the same K+ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimulation of postsynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptors leads to slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials due to the influx of K(+)-ions. This was studied biochemically, in vitro in mammalian cultured spinal cord neurons by using 86Rb as a substitute for K+. (-)-Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, produced a concentration-dependent increase in the 86Rb-influx. This effect was stereospecific and blocked by GABAB receptor antagonists like CGP 35 348 (3-aminopropyl-diethoxymethyl-phosphonic acid) and phaclofen. Apart from the GABAB receptors, both adenosine via adenosine1 receptors and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) via 5-HT1 alpha agonists also increased the 86Rb-influx. These agonists failed to show any additivity between them when they were combined in their maximal concentration. In addition, their effect was antagonized specifically by their respective antagonists without influencing the others. These findings suggest the presence of GABAB, adenosine1 and 5-HT1 alpha receptors in the cultured spinal cord neurons, which exhibit a heterologous regulation of the same K(+)-channel. The effect of these agonists were antagonized by phorbol 12,13-didecanoate, an activator of protein kinase C, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. This suggests that these agonists by acting on their own receptors converge on the same K(+)-channel through the Gi/Go proteins. In summary, we have developed a biochemical functional assay for studying and characterizing GABAB synapor studying and characterizing GABAB synaptic pharmacology in vitro, using spinal cord neurons

  14. LPS stimulates and Hsp70 down-regulates TLR4 to orchestrate differential cytokine response of culture-differentiated innate memory CD8(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amlan Kanti; Sinha, Debolina; Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2015-05-01

    Nonconventional innate memory CD8(+) T cells characteristically expressing CD44, CD122, eomesodermin (Eomes) and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) were derived in culture from CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive (DP) thymocytes of normal BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These culture-differentiated cells constitutively express toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and release interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-10. We show the TLR4-ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulate the TLR and up-regulate IFN-? skewing the cells towards type 1 polarization. In presence of LPS these cells also express suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 and thus suppress IL-10 expression. In contrast, heat shock protein (Hsp)70 down-regulated TLR4 augmenting the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In association with IL-10 release IFN-? was abrogated. The programmed cell death (PD)-1 mostly present in regulatory T cells was stimulated in these IL-10 producing cells by Hsp70 and not LPS indicating the cells can be driven to two contrast outcomes by the two TLR4 ligands. Our work provides a scope for in vitro monitoring of CD8(+) T cells to decipher important immune therapeutic option during infection or sepsis. PMID:25697138

  15. Cultural identity and cultural tourism - between the local and the global(a case study of Pula, Croatia)

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Uroševi?

    2012-01-01

    Cultural identity and tourism are today inevitably linked: in the globalized world of unified values and dramatic economic, political and social changes, tourism becomes an opportunity for cultural and social contact, communication and cultural exchange. A growing need for confirmation of local cultural identities as well as the tourists search for identity could be seen as a response to the globalization of cultural trends. In this paper we set the hypothesis that the cultural tourism, as a ...

  16. Maternal coping strategies in response to a child’s chronic and oncological disease: a cross-cultural study in Italy and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Fontana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A child’s oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child’s well-being and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child’s severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5 and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6. The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94=6.32, P=0.014, ?2=0.065, Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=20.06, P=0.001, ?2=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94=3.30, P=0.06, ?2=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers. Regarding child’s disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94=7.49, P=0.007, ?2=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease. The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers’ coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child’s care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.

  17. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  18. Invisible Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is invisible culture? In this instance, it is an electronic journal produced by the Visual & Cultural Studies graduate program within the Art and Art History Department at the University of Rochester. The journal was founded in 1998 under the editorship of Mario Caro and edited by a host of talented individuals since then. Currently, there are nineteen issues available online, including "Interrogating Subcultures," "The Loop as a Temporal Form," and "Making Sense of Visual Culture." Each issue contains thoughtful commentary, complemented by various slideshows of images and other complementary materials. One of the more recent issues takes on the world of the TV show "Mad Men" with the piece "Serializing the Past: Re-Evaluating History in Mad Men."

  19. Postmodern Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somehow it is not surprising that a journal titled Postmodern Culture would find a home on the Internet, which itself is a bricoleur of many different forms and styles, akin to the very notion of postmodernism. Located online since 1990, Postmodern Culture "has become the leading electronic journal of interdisciplinary thought on contemporary cultures." The journal itself is published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, with assistance by the University of Virginia and Vassar College. Visitors to the site can browse the entire contents of the current volume, and may browse through the text-only archive, which is also made available here. The current edition contains pieces by Chris Bongie titled "Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature" and a trenchant exchange by Leonard Wilcox and Brad Butterfield on "Baudrillard, September 11, and the Haunting Abyss of Reversal."

  20. Why Study Chinese Classics and How to Go about It: Response to Zongjie Wu's "Interpretation, Autonomy, and Transformation--Chinese Pedagogic Discourse in Cross-Cultural Perspective"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sor-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    This response to Zongjie Wu's "Interpretation, autonomy, and interpretation" focuses on the "battle between East and West" which contextualizes Wu's proposal to counter the current Western domination of Chinese pedagogic discourse with an "authentic language" recovered from the Chinese classics. It points out that it is impossible and undesirable…