WorldWideScience
1

Evaluation of gelling agents on anther culture: response of two soybean cultivars  

OpenAIRE

Anthers of two soybean cultivars were cultured in B5 long basal culture media gelled with agarose or PhytagelTM. Cytological examinations of the anthers were carried out during the first 45 days of culture to assay the viability and developmental stage of microspores. Frequency of callus formation was recorded at 45 days of culture. The analysis of variance of the microspore viability assay showed significant Cultivar X Gelling Agent X Day of Culture interactions. The frequencies of viable mi...

Milena Barcelos Cardoso; Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini; Elsa Cristina de Mundstock; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos

2007-01-01

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Response of different genotypes of wheat, rice and black beans to anther, embryo and other tissue cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of the basic studies we have been conducting in our laboratory is to establish callus induction and in vitro plant regeneration protocols starting with several tissues of Guatemalan varieties of wheat (Triticum aesticum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and especially black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in order to obtain disease resistance, earliness, and dwarf plants. Wheat anthers and immature embryos of varieties Patzun, Comalapa, Chocoyo, and Xequijel cultured in N6, Potato II, and MS basal media supplemented with auxin and cytokinin gave the best responses in callus induction and plant regeneration. Anthers and mature embryos of indica rice varieties Precozicta and Virginai, when cultured in MS, B5, N6, and Potato II basal media with different hormonal combinations gave a good response in callus induction. However, a satisfactory response in plant regeneration was not obtained. With black beans, when hypocotyls and mature embryos of black bean varieties Quinack Che and Parramos were cultured in MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of NAA and kinetin, more than 60% callus induction was produced. When Quinack Che calli were transferred to MS basal medium supplemented with 1 mg/l NAA plus 0.5 mg/l BAP, green points of regeneration were visible in these calli. (author). 34 refs, 28 tabs

3

Study of genotype, cold pre-treatment, low-dosage Gamma irradiation and 2,4-D concentration effects on wheat anther culture response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study. effects of genotype, cold pre-treatment. low dosage Gamma irradiation and 2, 4-D concentration on response of three wheat genotypes (Atrak, F3 2005 and F3 2104) to anther culture were investigated. Seeds of donor genotypes were grown under field condition in early spring. Anthers from donor plants were collected and plated on modified CHB medium containing 2,4-D (2 and 4 mgl-1), 0.5 mgl-1 Kinetin and gl-1 Sucrose. Number of calli formed in 100 anthers and number of planet produced from 100 calli were counted. Results indicated that genotypes. cold pre-treatments and 2,4-D concentrations had significant effects on response of wheat genotypes to anther production, while F3 2104 the lowest. It would be concluded that androgenic traits are controlled by genotype and environmental factors. Furthermore this traits are controlled independently

4

Evaluation of effect of different gamma ray doses on anther culture response in two Iranian wheat landraces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wheat according to its importance as a source of food is the most important strategic agricultural product and has the highest level of under planting lands around the world. Double haploid induction methods are able to raise wheat breeding efficiency through decreasing length of breeding programming and increasing selection efficacy. In this experiment for determining the effect of gamma radiation of seeds on anther culture response of wheat, two recalcitrant Iranian wheat landraces, Graecum and Nigricum with no response to anther culture were chosen. Callus induction and plant regeneration traits from anther culture of these landraces and twenty of their random selected mutant genotypes which were produced through seed radiation with 100, 150, 200, 250Gy of gamma ray doses were evaluated. A factorial design based on completely randomized design with five replication was used to compare callus induction and plant regeneration percents of genotypes. Gamma ray doses levels and genotypes were two factors of this experiment which had a significant effect on both of callus induction and plant regeneration traits. An evaluation of the means revealed that the highest level of callus induction is noticed in 200Gy (12.5%) and that of plant induction is noticed in 150Gy (67.28%). the highest mean of callus induction (68.6%) was obtained in genotype L9.200.2 as a mutant of Nigricum landrace and The highest mean of plant induction (93.12%) was obtained in genotype L8.150.1 as a %) was obtained in genotype L8.150.1 as a mutant of Graecum landrace. (author)

5

Combined effect of induced mutations and media for improving genetic architecture of brassica through anther culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation and media effect on the anther culture response of two brassica napus varieties (i.e. Pak cheen and Salam) were studied. It was observed that low doses of gamma radiation (100-250 rads) enhanced the anther callusing response of the varieties on both of the cultured media. Different genotypic response was observed in case of plant regeneration. In variety Salam Plant lets were regenerated from the calli treated up to the dose of 750 rads. However, in case of variety Pak-cheen the calli could not be differentiated beyond 100 rads. (author)

6

Ethylene precursors and antagonists increase embryogenesis of Hordeum vulgare L. anther culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of ethylene in microspore embryogenesis and regeneration was analyzed by studying the effects of the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and the ethylene antagonists silver nitrate and silver thiosulphate on the androgenic response of in vitro cultured anthers of seven genotypes of barley. Incorporation of either ACC or silver salts in the culture medium lead to a significant increase in callus induction for five of the seven genotypes tested. The treatment that increased callus induction depended upon genotype. Only anthers cultured on 1 mg l(-1) silver thiosulphate gave rise to fertile plants in all seven genotypes tested. PMID:24193518

Evans, J M; Batty, N P

1994-09-01

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Effect of the genotype and gamma irradiation on the anther cultures of a 10x10 diallel cross of wheat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anther culture responsiveness, irradiation effect and reciprocal effect were evaluated on ten genotypes (V1-V10) and a 101x0 diallel cross. Gamma irradiation dose of 100 Gy was applied to seeds of parents and F1 cross from which the donor plants were grown. Non-irradiated donor plants were also used for comparison. Anthers were plated on potato-2 callus induction medium and calli formed were transferred to MS medium supplemented with sucrose (3%), indolacetic acid (1.0 mg/L), kinetin (1.0 mg/L), inositol (100 mg/L) and solidified with agar (0.7%). Genotypes showed big differences for callus induction, plant regeneration and anther culturability rate. The most responsive materials were V2, V10 and V5 with 76.0, 27.4 and 10.8 green plants per 100 anthers respectively. No irradiation effect was found for the parents nor the F1 crosses on the pooled data. Mean anther culture response of specific genotypes showed that irradiation significantly increased anther culturability rate of V3 from 0.1 to 27.6 green plants per 100 anthers. No reciprocal effect was observed. (author)

8

The Direct Regeneration of Maize Haploids Through Anther Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The genetics of plants regenerated from anther-derived callus was investigated using single crosses & inbreds of maize. Anther culture in maize (Zea mays L. usually follows an indirect procedure involving callus induction and differentiation on at least two different media. Alternatively, development of a direct procedure by which plantlets can be regenerated directly on one medium seems desirable, if acceptable frequency of plant regeneration could be obtained and an effective procedure of chromosome doubling of regenerated plantlets is available. Yupie (YP and N6 were used as basal media and 10 growth regulators (2,4-D, kinetin, NAA, IAA, IBA, dicamba, pCPA, 6-BA, 2ip and hypoxanthine were tested to evaluate the feasibility of direct regeneration of haploid plantlets of eight single cross hybrids and four inbred lines. The results indicated that the direct generation of plantlets is feasible through anther culture, though it is genotype and medium dependent. Ten plantlets were regenerated directly from single cross hybrid M60 X M96. The more effective medium was N6 basal medium plus 2,4-D (2.0 mg l-1 and kinetin (1.5 mg l-1. Regeneration frequency (percent of anthers producing plantlets ranged from 1 to 4%.

L. Hassan

2001-01-01

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High frequency production of haploid embryos in asparagus anther culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for obtaining a high frequency of haploid asparagus embryos through anther culture was developed. Flowers collected from plants in the field in July, August and September 1990, for the genotype G203, were stored at 5°C for 24 h. Anthers were placed on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 500 mg l (-1) casein hydrolysate, 800 mg l(-1) glutamine, 2 mg l (-1) NAA, 1 mg l (-1) BA and 5 % sucrose at 32 °C in the dark for three to four weeks to induce calli. Calli were then grown at 25 °C with a 16 h photoperiod for three to four weeks. Developing embryos and calli were transferred to embryo maturation medium, MS containing 6% sucrose, 0.1 mg l (-1) NAA, 0.1 mg l (-1) kinetin and 0.65 mg l (-1) ancymidol, for four weeks. More than 50% of the recovered mature embryos germinated on MS containing l mg l (-1) GA3. Anthers with microspores at the late-uninucleate stage had the highest frequency of total and embryogenic calli formation, 40% and 15%, respectively. Each embryogenic callus usually produced 10-15 embryos. Aproximately 75 plants per 100 anthers cultured were recovered: 76% haploid, 22% diploid and 2% triploid. High temperature was critical for the induction of embryogenic callus. PMID:24221333

Feng, X R; Wolyn, D J

1991-12-01

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Callus induction and plant regeneration from anther culture of rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthers of five mutant lines of rice derived from the variety ICTA VIRGINIA and five derived from the variety PRECOZICTA as well as the two parental varieties (both varieties indica) containing uninucleate pollen grains, were cultured on a N6 agar medium with 5% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l 2,4-D. The proportion of anthers that produced calli varied from 0% for the mutant lines 881 and 940 to 1.9% for the parental variety Precozicta. The calli were transferred to N6 medium with 3% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin and plantlets developed in 2-5 weeks. A total of 153 green plantlets were obtained. (author). 9 refs, 2 tabs

11

Microspore-derived embryos from Quercus suber anthers mimic zygotic embryos and maintain haploidy in long-term anther culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microspore-derived embryos produced from cork oak anther cultures after long-term incubations (up to 10-12 months) were analysed in order to determine the genetic variability and ploidy level stability, as well as morphology, developmental pattern and cellular organisation. Most of the embryos from long-term anther cultures were haploid (90.7%), corresponding to their microspore origin. The presence of a low percentage of diploid embryos (7.4%) was observed. Microsatellite analysis of haploid embryos, indicated different microspores origins of the same anther. In the diploid embryos, homozygosity for different alleles was detected from anther wall tissues, excluding the possibility of clonal origin. The maintenance of a high proportion of haploid embryos, in long-term anther cultures, is similar in percentage to that reported in embryos originating after 20 days of plating (Bueno et al. 1997). This suggests that no significant alterations in the ploidy level occurred during long incubations (up to 12 months). These results suggest that ploidy changes are rare in this in vitro system, and do not significantly increase during long-term cultures. Microscopical studies of the microspore embryos in various stages revealed a healthy and well developed anatomy with no aberrant or chimeric structures. The general morphology of embryos appearing at different times after plating, looked similar to that of earlier embryos, as well as the zygotic embryos, indicating that they represent high quality material for cork oak breeding. PMID:12964871

Bueno, Maria A; Gomez, Arancha; Sepulveda, Federico; Seguí, José M; Testillano, Pilar S; Manzanera, José A; Risueño, Maria-Carmen

2003-08-01

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Obtaining barley haploid embryos and seedlings using anther culture technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of three barley genotypes (Igri, Arabi abiad, and Taqa 76), three irradiation doses (0, 5, and 10 Gy), and two media (FW, modified FW), on the number of formed embryos, and the ratio between regenerated embryos to green seedlings and albinos, were studied using anther culture. Also the study involved the compatibility between seedling morphology and chromosome number. results indicated significant differences among the genotypes, and media in callus and embryos formation and also in the ratio and albino seedlings. However, the effect of gamma rays dose was significant only on embryos regeneration. A high percentage of compatibility (90%) was obtained between the seedling morphology and chromosome number. (author)

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Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L.) de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via ca [...] logênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias. Abstract in english Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture [...] by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.

Leonardo, Galli; Judith, Viégas; Eliane, Augustin; Marcia Ines, Eckert; João Baptista da, Silva.

1998-03-01

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Meiosis of anther culture regenerants in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pollen mother cells obtained from regenerated plants of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L., in a population composed exclusively of male plants, through the process of anther culture from the hybrid G27 X 22-8, were analyzed during meiosis. It was observed that, during theprocess of anther culture by organogenesis, the pollen mother cells of the regenerants had great genomic instability, as evidenced by disturbances in all the meiotic phases of the first and second division. Furthermore, structural chromosomal abnormalities, in addition to aneuploidy and polyploidy, were observed.Foi analisada a meiose em células mãe de pólen de plantas de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. de uma população composta exclusivamente de plantas masculinas, obtidas através do processo de cultura de anteras do híbrido G27 X 22-8. Foi observado que, durante o processo de cultura de anteras, via calogênese, as células mãe de pólen dos regenerantes apresentaram grande instabilidade genômica, evidenciada por irregularidades nas fases de diacinese, assim como de metáfase, anáfase, telófase da primeira e segunda divisão meiótica. Além disto, o processo originou anormalidades cromossômicas estruturais em adição às aneuploidias e poliploidias.

Leonardo Galli

1998-03-01

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Cucumber mosaic virus resistant mutant from tobacco's anthers treated with ? ray through anther culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Flower buds of Nicotiana tabacum cv. K326, NC89 and 8611, in which the microspore is in the phase of single nucleus and the nucleus is on the side, were irradiated with 60Co ?-ray. Plant lets from anther culture were transplanted and inoculated with poisonous fluid of CMV. The results showed that there was an orientation relation between the variation of disease resistance of plants of NC89, 8611 and the dose of 60Co ?-ray. The variation of leaves of plants was analogous to symptom of CMV when the dose was equal to or more than 4, which caused difficulty for selection. When dose was less than 2krad, there was no difference in disease resistance between the plants induced from irradiation of 60Co ?-ray and the control. However, when dose was equal to 2krad, the difference of disease resistance was at the level of significance. CMV-resistant mutants were selected from the population of haploid plant of NC89 and 8611 induced by 2.0 krad of 60Co ? ray

16

Radiation effect in anther cultures of rice variety Krispo-38  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of rice variety Krispo-38 were irradiated with 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy and sown in the greenhouse. Anthers from plants of each treatment containing uninucleate pollen grains were collected and cultured on an N6 agar medium with 5% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 3 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l kinetin and 1 mg/l 2,4-D. The pollen grains were induced to develop calli. The proportion of anthers that produced calli varied from 0.8% for the 400 Gy treatment to 3.3% for the control. The calli were transferred to N6 medium with 3% sucrose concentration and supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 1 mg/l kinetin. The proportion of calli that produced green plants varied from 1.9% for the 300 Gy treatment to 10.5% for the 200 Gy one. Plants developed in 2-5 weeks, 101 plants were obtained. (author). 7 refs, 1 tab

17

Evaluation of anther culture methods and androgenic capacity of wheat mutant lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several experiments were conducted with the aim of obtaining haploid plants via anther culture of Chilean spring wheat genotypes. The first experiments compared five culture media and the effect of different incubation conditions on anthers of the genotypes Austral-UACH, Carahue-INIA, Dalcahue-INIA and Pavon 76. The low androgenic response obtained in these experiments, with a maximum of 1.78% callus induction, resulted in a change in methodology. In other experiments, the effect of P-4 callus induction medium and 190-2 plant regeneration medium on M2 and M3 mutant lines of As-Baer, Carahue-INIA, Dalcahue-INIA and Pavon 76 were compared. The effect of two sterilization systems was also studied. These experiments gave a maximum of 55.7% callus formation and a variable organogenesis in three genotypes. Dalcahue-INIA irradiated with 20 krad gamma rays (200 Gy) gave a good organogenic response. The percentage of albino plants ranged between 0 and 83.3% of the total regenerants. (author). 24 refs, 5 tabs

18

Pretreatment Stress Enhances Embryogenic Callus Production in Anther Culture of Sturt’s Desert Pea (Swainsona formosa)  

OpenAIRE

The aims of the experiment were to investigate the effect of pretreatment stress on the proliferation of anther-derived embryogenic callus, and its subsequent embryo regeneration in Swainsona formosa. Anthers were pretreated in starvation medium at cold (4 oC) temperature and cultured. Cultures were initially placed in darkness for four weeks, followed by 16-h photoperiod at 25 + 1 oC. The stress pretreatment was found to enhance embryogenic callus formation on cultured anthers. Further, soma...

ZULKARNAIN

2007-01-01

19

Initial segmentation patterns of microspores and pollen viability in soybean cultured anthers: indication of chromosome doubling  

OpenAIRE

Anthers obtained from flowers buds of soybean cultivar IAS-5 were cultured in two basal culture media (B5 and B5 long). Cytological examinations of the in vitro anthers were performed during the first 20 days of culture to assay the viability (by propionic-carmine and fluorescein diacetate tests) and the stage of development of pollen grains. The frequencies of viable pollen grains varied significantly between bud sizes on the propionic-carmine analysis. The basal culture media and bud size h...

Milena Barcelos Cardoso; Eliane Kaltchuk-Santos; Elsa Cristina de Mundstock; Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini

2004-01-01

20

Improvement of rice anther culture and application of the technique in mutation breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for different rice type and varieties in anther culture. The differentiation and regeneration of green plants were obviously improved when the rice anthers at about 30 d after culture on induction medium were irradiated with 20 Gy of ?-rays and calli were cultured on the differentiation medium containing 30 mg/L colchicines. The stimulation effect of ?-irradiation combined with colchicines was much better than that of their single use. Mutation frequency and selective efficiency in M2 were obviously increased by application of the technique

21

Induced mutations and Anther culture for sesame improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of two Sri Lankan sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars MI 2 and MI 3 and of UCR82-203 NS which has indehiscent capsules were treated with gamma rays, ethyl methanesulphonate and diethyl sulphate. Selections were made in segregating populations for improved yield components and morphological characters. Radiation sensitivity studies indicated that the seeds of MI 3 variety were more resistant to irradiation than MI 2. The M1 plants also showed varietal differences in growth reduction. Fifty percent growth reduction for plant height in MI 2 was in the range of 500 - 600 Gy and that for MI 3 was 750 - 1000 Gy. Promising mutants after screening in preliminary trials were tested for yield and adaptability in multilocational trials in different agro-climatic zones. A wide variation and increased mean values of yield and components were recorded in selected mutants in the preliminary trials. Two mutants, MB 29 and MB 33, consistently outyielded the recommended cultivar MI 3 in regional trials. The mutant MB 13 was also promising. MB 29 and MB 29w have a brittle seed coat easy for decortication. A number of mutants with improved characters have been isolated, characterized and included in the cross-breeding programmes. Mutants MB 29 and MB 33 recorded better germination than MI 2 under high osmotic pressure and should be tested for tolerance to drought at early growth phases. The shoot/root ratio was lease in MB 29, MB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synMB 1 and MB 1-1. The shortest and more synchronous flowering period recorded in MB 29 and C 10 is important in reducing shattering losses and escaping from drought at flowering stage, Two mutants which have lost the undesirable effects associated with the indehiscent character in UCR82-203 NS were later found to have lost the indehiscent character too, suggesting that the undesirable effects of the indehiscent (id id) locus are pleiotropic. Anther culture studies were undertaken with the objective of using doubled haploids for sesame improvement. 25 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

22

Additives Promote Adventitious Buds Induction from Anther Culture of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L.)  

OpenAIRE

The effects of growth regulators, Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3), triacontanol and glutaminate on adventitious buds induction from anther culture of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) were investigated. It was found that triacontanol was advantageous for buds development and adventitious buds differentiated from anther culture of bitter melon first time. On medium supplemented with glutaminate 0.1 mg L-1, protuberant structures differentiated on the surface of callus. AgNO3 and ...

Qian Luo; Jia Lai; Zesheng Yan; Huanxiu Li; Yi Tang; Li Zhang

2012-01-01

23

Molecular characterization of three anther tissue culture varieties of tobaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) using RAPD analysis  

OpenAIRE

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPO) analysis was used to characterize two new Flue Cured and one black tobacco type varieties derived from in vitro anther tissue culture technique. RAPOs are proposed as an appropriate complement of the morphoagronomic characteristics evaluations to fulfil international seed registration standards established for the identification of tobacco varieties. The identification of three tobacco varieties and their parents was carried out using the RAPO analysi...

Gloria Azucena Fernández B.; Lucia Afanador; Nicolás Jaramillo; Edna Márquez; Tinoco, Jose? D.; Sergio Orduz

2011-01-01

24

GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF ANTHER CULTURE DERIVED RICE PLANTS USING MOLECULAR MARKERS  

OpenAIRE

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) primers were used to determine the occurrence and extent of variation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants regenerated from anther culture. Genetic diversity among 27 regenerants of the cross CO43/Nootripathu and their parents were assessed using 25 RAPD primers and 19 ISSR primers. RAPD primers used in the study produced 285 polymorphic markers (81.65% polymorphism) and ISSR primers produced 201 polymorphic...

Hemaprabha K; Hemalatha T; UmaMaheswari T; Anbukkarasi K; Shanmugasundaram P

2013-01-01

25

Antimitotic agents increase the production of doubled-haploid embryos from cork oak anther culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study is to induce the nuclear DNA duplication of anther-derived embryos of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) to obtain doubled-haploid plants. Anther culture of this species produces a low percentage (7.78%) of spontaneous diploids, as assessed by flow cytometry. Therefore, three antimitotic agents, colchicine, oryzalin and amiprophos-methyl (APM), were applied in vitro to anther-derived cork oak haploid embryos from six genotypes at different concentrations and for different treatment durations. Antimitotic toxicity was determined by embryo survival. Efficiency in inducing chromosome doubling of haploid embryos was evaluated by flow cytometry measurements and differences were observed between treatments. Nuclear DNA duplication and embryo survival of cork oak haploid embryos was most efficiently induced with oryzalin 0.01 mM for 48 h. Around 50% diploid embryos were obtained. The rate of chromosome duplication induced by APM 0.01 mM was also acceptable but lower than that induced by oryzalin, regardless of the duration of the treatment. Colchicine 1.3 or 8.8 mM was the least efficient, with the induction of necrosis and only a small rate of nuclear DNA duplication. PMID:17485138

Pintos, Beatriz; Manzanera, Jose A; Bueno, Maria A

2007-12-01

26

Microspores irradiation in anther culture: testing a new technique to obtain mutations immediatly detected and fixed (Application to Nicotiana tabacum)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to consider the effects of microspores irradiation on embryo development, and in order to observe the morphological responses of haploid plantlets derived from androgenetic anthers to ionizing irradiation, 1000, 1500 and 2000r of gamma rays were delivered on anthers of Nicotiana tabacum (DL50 range calculated: 1500r). The cytological studies of embryo development revealed an apparent increase in irradiated microspores: cell division is stimulated but followed by an early mortality. A sharp rise in lethality effects was observed when gamma rays were applied beyond the seventh day of culture, when the proembryo contains an average of 4 cells. Morphological aberrations and colour changes in the Mo progeny derived from irradiated microspores are diverse. But after chromosome doubling and mutation checking out, all the plants were not recorded to have transmitted their aberrant characters. Thus, heritable character 'mutations) and not heritable character (variations) were obtained. The variations characters include dwarfing, excessive branching, fasciation and dichotomy of the stems, altered flower form, especially of petals. As to the leaves, they usually show induced changes in their colour (chlorotic areas, mosaic-colour changes, or an over-all colour changes), in their form (irregularity in outline) and in their texture (thickening, hairless leaf). Among the mutants, a monster tobacco, with excrescences on the leaves and the flowers is certainly thehe leaves and the flowers is certainly the most conspicuous. But mutants also include altered leaf colour (over-all pale green) and altered flower colour, (dark red, clear pink, white)

27

In vitro Plant Regeneration Through Anther Culture of Some Iranian Local Rice (Oryza sativa L. Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In this study, effect of different genotypes, different callus induction and regeneration media were investigated using seven Iranian local rice. Anthers were cultured on N6, Fj and L8 media containing the same hormonal combination 3 mg L-1 NAA, 0.5 mg L-1 Kn and 0.5 mg L-1 2, 4-D and incubated at 25± 1° C in dark for callus induction. All varieties in L8 medium, five varieties in Fj medium and six varieties in N6 medium produced highest percentage of callus. Calli induced in different induction media were transferred to SK 11 and N 19 medium and incubated at 25± 1° C in light for plantlet regeneration. Among seven varieties upon transfer to SK 11 medium, highest percentage (40% of green plants were produced in Hassani and in N 19 medium the highest percentage (15.78 of green plants and albino plants (21.05 were produced in Anbarbo. The finding in the present investigation showed that the successfully emberyogenesis and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture dependent on medium culture components and are affected by the genetic mack-up of the plants.

Reza Talebi

2007-01-01

28

Calli Induction through Anther Culture in Peach-Tomato Plants (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal)  

OpenAIRE

Flower buds from peach tomato plants (Solanum sessiliflorum) were collected to the establishment of a protocol of calli induction from anthers culture. Aseptic cultures were achieved after the immersion of explants into 70% ethanol for 45 sec followed by 0.8% sodium hypochlorite for 5 min. Cultivated anthers developed 50 and 70% of calli with 0.1 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)+5 mg L-1 kinetin (KIN) and 0.1 mg L-1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)+10 mg L-1 kinetin (KIN), respectively. The calli ...

Romani, I.; Schuelter, A. R.; Mora, F.; Scapim, C. A.; Vendruscolo, E. C. G.

2009-01-01

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Stimulation effects of ?-irradiation combined with colchicine on callus formation and green plant regeneration in rice anther culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of callus formation and green plant regeneration was very different for various rice types and varieties in rice anther culture. It was quite effective that rice anthers were irradiated with 10-40 Gy of ?-rays after 30 d incubation on induction medium and calli were treated on differentiation medium contained 10-75 mg/L of colchicine for increase of callus formation and green plant regeneration. Among these treatments, 10 Gy of ?-rats was the best for callus formation, and 20 Gy of ?-rays or 30 mg/L of colchicine was the most favourable for green plant regeneration. The simulation effect of 20 Gy of ?-irradiation combined with 30 mg/L of colchicine on green plant regeneration was much better than that of their separate use in rice anther culture

30

Development of a short duration upland rice mutant line through anther culture of gamma irradiated plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This experiment was conducted in the field and at the tissue culture laboratory of the Plant Physiology Division, CARI, Yezin from 1994 to 1997. Upland rice, Yar-2 was used as the test variety. Dried seeds (14% moisture content) were treated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 300, 350, 400 and 450 Gy respectively. These seeds were planted separately according to the gamma-ray treatment they received. At booting stage, tillers were cut. Anthers from the top and middle portion of the panicle were taken. The pollen, at developmental stage in each anther, was examined using Acetocarmine dye. Pollens at the uninucleate to early binucleare stage were selected. Tillers having pollens at the above-mentioned stage were placed in a dark room at 25(±) 1 C and 16 hours photoperiod. When plantlets were obtained from these media, well-developed green plantlets were selected and planted in Yoshida solution to attain vigorous root growth. Diploid and haploid plants were formed from the anther culture method. At the heading stage, haploid plants were treated with colchicines to promote development into diploid plants. At maturity, plants produced from materials treated with different gamma doses were harvested separately. These homozygous lines were planted in the field and the characters were compared with their parents grown at the same time. The highest callus induction rate was found in materials treated with 450 Gy of gamma rays, but the lowest green plant regeneration rate was alsost green plant regeneration rate was also observed at this dose. Among the forty-five homozygous lines obtained of the above materials, 7 lines, all from the 450 Gy gamma rays treated material, flowered earlier than the parents. One of the 7 early flowering lines, mutant line No 18, matured 19 days earlier but had the same yield as the parent. All other lines had a lower yield than the parent. Comparisons of yield and yield components of mutant line 18 and Yar-2 (parent) and comparison of quality characters are shown in tables

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Molecular characterization of three anther tissue culture varieties of tobaco (Nicotiana tabacum L. using RAPD analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPO analysis was used to characterize two new Flue Cured and one black tobacco type varieties derived from in vitro anther tissue culture technique. RAPOs are proposed as an appropriate complement of the morphoagronomic characteristics evaluations to fulfil international seed registration standards established for the identification of tobacco varieties. The identification of three tobacco varieties and their parents was carried out using the RAPO analysis with 64 random primers. Polymorphic products, 214 in number, were amplified only from 14 primers. Statistical analysis realized with the NTSYS program version 1.2 using the Jaccard similarity coefficient. The visual inspection revealed that five primers allowed the separation of the varieties in two groups, according to the type of tobacco: the Flue Cured and Black; while a group of nine primers separates each variety and establish its genetic relationship with their parents. The results obtained show that this technique is appropiated to establish genetic differences between tobacco varieties.

Gloria Azucena Fernández B.

2011-12-01

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Linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de antera / Dihaploid wheat lines developed via anther culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Realizaram-se quatro experimentos de campo no Estado de São Paulo, tanto em condição de sequeiro como de irrigação por aspersão, empregando o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, visando a comparação de 20 genótipos de trigo, sendo 18 linhagens diaplóides obtidas e dois cultivares, IAC- [...] 24 e Anahuac, quanto à produção de grãos, características agronômicas, resistência à ferrugem-da-folha e outros componentes da produção. Também estudou-se a tolerância ao alumínio em soluções nutritivas em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides 11, 12, 14, 17 e 18, originárias do cruzamento IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24, de porte baixo, com resistência ao acamamento, com ciclo precoce da emergência ao florescimento e da emergência à maturação e tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos quatro experimentos. A linhagem 8 mostrou ser fonte genética de espiga comprida; a 15, de maior número de espiguetas por espiga; o cultivar Anahuac de maior número de grãos por espiga e por espigueta, e as linhagens 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 e 18 de grãos mais pesados. Todos os genótipos foram tolerantes à toxicidade de Al3+, exceto a linhagem 5, sendo que o cultivar Anahuac exibiu elevada sensibilidade. A técnica de obtenção de linhagens diaplóides via cultura de anteras de plantas em geração F1 de cruzamentos de trigo foi eficiente originando genótipos produtivos, com características agronômicas desejáveis e com tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, num menor período de tempo em relação ao método convencional de melhoramento genético do Instituto Agronômico. Abstract in english Four field experiments were carried out at two locations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, under upland and sprinkler irrigation conditions, using a randomized block design, to evaluate 18 dihaploid wheat lines and the cultivars IAC-24 and Anahuac for grain yield, with respect to agronomic characte [...] ristics, resistance to leaf rust and other yield components. Under laboratory conditions, the genotypes were analysed for their Al3+ toxicity tolerance in nutrient solutions. The dihaploid lines 11, 12, 14, 17 and 18 derived from the hybrid IAS-63/ALDAN "S"//GLEN/3/IAC-24 , demonstrated a short-plant type, resistance to lodging, early cycle from emergence to flowering as well as from emergence to maturity and tolerance to aluminum toxicity. In addition these lines showed high average productivity in the four experiments. Line 8 was a good genetic source for long spike, while line 15 was good for large number of spikelets per spike. The cultivar Anahuac produced a large number of grains per spike and per spikelet, while lines 10, 11, 13, 15, 16 and 18 had high grain weight. All genotypes were tolerant to aluminum toxicity except line 5. Anahuac cultivar exhibited high Al3+ sensitivity. The technique used to obtain wheat dihaploid lines via anther culture from plants in the F1 generation after a cross, was efficient in originating productive genotypes, with desirable agronomic characteristics and with tolerance to Al3+ toxicity in a short period of time in relation to the traditional method of genetic breeding used at the Instituto Agronomico.

Luis Carlos da Silva, Ramos; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo; Antonio Wilson Penteado, Ferreira Filho; Erica Yumi, Yokoo; Jairo Lopes de, Castro; Armando, Pettinelli Júnior; Marcos Roberto da, Silva.

2000-03-01

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Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration in Anther Culture of Rice  

OpenAIRE

An experiment was conducted to find the effects of different concentrations and combinations of growth regulators viz. 2, 4 D, IAA, ?-NAA and Kinetin on callus induction from the anthers of a commercial hybrid rice line IR-69690, developed by Bangladesh Rice Research Institute and subsequent plant regeneration. N6 medium was used as basal medium. Callus induction frequencies in different media combinations ranged from 1.2 to 35.5%. The medium supplemented with 2, 4 D 1 mg L-1, ?-NAA 2 mg L-1 ...

Md. Monirul Islam; Sanjay Kumar Adhikary; Purnendu Gain; Md.Mizanur Rahman; Noor-e-Alam Siddique

2004-01-01

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Callus and Green Spot Formation From Anther Culture of Chili Mutant Lines (Capsicum Annum.L) Using in-vitro Culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Callus and green spot formation from anther culture of chili mutant lines (Capsicum annum.L) were carried out using in-vitro culture. Two kinds of different media based on hormonal composition were used for callus induction. A half of an quantities were directly cultured on callus induction medium, while rest of them were treated with cold shock (4oC) for 3 and 6 days subsequently cultured on callus induction medium. The highest callus formation was observed in culture from Ac medium containing I mg/l 2,4-D and 0,1 mg/l kinetin and were obtained from 0 days cold shock with chili without irradiation (Kr 0) 30%, chili mutant lines with irradiation dose 20 Krad (Kr 20) 25% and chili mutant lines with irradiation dose 40 Krad (Kr 40) 30% respectively. While cold shock for 3 days increasing 15 % callus formation from Kr 40 mutant lines

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Ensuring Reproduction at High Temperatures: The Heat Stress Response during Anther and Pollen Development  

OpenAIRE

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is very sensitive to environmental stresses, particularly to thermal insults which frequently occur when plants grow in field conditions in the warm season. Although abnormalities in both male and female reproductive organs due to high temperatures have been described in several crops, the failure to set fruits has mainly been attributed to the high sensitivity of developing anthers and pollen grains, particularly at certain developmental stages. A glob...

Filomena Giorno; Mieke Wolters-Arts; Celestina Mariani; Ivo Rieu

2013-01-01

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ps2, the gene responsible for functional sterility in tomato, due to non-dehiscent anthers, is the result of a mutation in a novel polygalacturonase gene  

OpenAIRE

The recessive mutation ps-2, which appeared spontaneously in tomato, confers functional male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers. In this study, we isolated and characterized the PS-2 gene. A single nucleotide mutation in a novel tomato polygalacturonase gene is responsible for the ps-2 phenotype. The mutation in ps-2 is responsible for an alternative splicing during maturation of the pre-mRNA, which leads to an aberrant mRNA. Differentiation between ps-2 and wild type (PS-2) anthers only ...

Gorguet, B. J. M.; Schipper, E. H.; Lammeren, A. A. M.; Visser, R. G. F.; Heusden, A. W.

2009-01-01

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Investigation of the effect of 137Cs treatment on callus induction and plant regeneration anther culture in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anthers at a single-nucleus stage of dihaploid L44 line have been treated with 1000, 2000 and 3000 R (137Cs). Irradiation has shown general inhibition effect on the induction of callus of the anthers inoculated. It is thought that the treatment effect is connected with the switching of the microspores from gametophytous to sporophytous type of development. The number of the albino regenerates increases along with the increase in irradiation dose. It could be explained by the mutation effect of 137Cs on the multiple genes controlling the pigment-protein complex. 2 tabs., 10 refs

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Nuevos genotipos de arroz resistentes a la Piriculariosis obtenidos por cultivo de anteras / New blast resistant rice genotypes obtained by and anthers culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la Estación Experimental del Arroz Los Palacios, perteneciente al Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Agrícolas de Cuba (INCA), se efectuaron cruzamientos entre cuatro cultivares resistentes a la Piriculariosis y seis de buen comportamiento agronómico y las anteras de las plantas F2 fueron cultivadas [...] in vitro para evaluar la formación de callos en tres medios líquidos: N6-1, N6-m y NL, así como la regeneración de plantas verdes y albinas, en el medio MS. Las dos primeras generaciones de las nuevas líneas obtenidas fueron evaluadas para caracteres agronómicos y la segunda generación, además, para resistencia frente a la Piriculariosis. Las líneas que combinaron resistencia a la Piriculariosis y buenos caracteres agronómicos fueron evaluadas en condiciones de infección natural, con alta presión del patógeno. La utilización de la técnica del cultivo de anteras mostró alta dependencia del genotipo y el medio de cultivo. Con el medio NL se lograron los valores más altos para la formación de callos. Se obtuvieron nuevos genotipos resistentes a la Piriculariosis y de alto rendimiento agrícola. Abstract in english Crosses were made between four blast resistant and six rice varieties of good agronomic performance, at the Los Palacios Rice Research Station of the National Agricultural Sciences Institute of Cuba (INCA) and the anthers from F2 plants were in vitro culture using three liquid media: N6-1, N6m, and [...] NL, for callus formation and after plants regenerations using MS medium. The first two generations of breeding lines were evaluated for agronomic characters and the second generations, also, for Blast resistant. The lines that combined resistance to Blast and good agronomic performance were evaluated under high pressure of natural Blast infection conditions. The success rate of anther culture was highly dependent on the genotype and culture media used. NL medium led to the highest callus formation values. In the process, new blast resistant and high yielding genotypes were obtained.

Noraida de Jesús, Pérez; María Caridad, González; Rodolfo I, Castro; Manuel, Aguilar.

2012-06-01

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Analysis and sequencing of h6hmRNA, last enzyme in the tropane alkaloids pathway from anthers and hairy root cultures of Brugmansia candida (Solanaceae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Brugmansia candida (Solanaceae) is a native tree distributed across South-American and produces the pharmacologically- important group of tropane alkaloids including scopolamine. This biocompound is synthesised from hyoscyamine by action of Hyoscyamine 6-? hydroxylase (H6H, EC 1.14.11.11) at the end [...] of the tropane alkaloid pathway. Here are reported the tissue and organ-specific expression of h6hmRNA by RT-PCR analyses and the isolation, cloning and sequencing of the cDNA obtained from B. candida anthers and hairy root transformed cultures. Bioinformatic analysis of the nucleotide sequence revealed an uninterrupted ORF of 1038 bp and the predicted aminoacid sequence could be 344 aminoacid long. A database search showed that this sequence has high homology (97% identity) to Hyoscyamus niger H6H protein (Genbank accession number AAA33387.1).

Alejandra B., Cardillo; Ana M., Giulietti; Patricia L., Marconi.

2006-06-01

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Segregation distortion in homozygous lines obtained via anther culture and maize doubled haploid methods in comparison to single seed descent in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Background The quality of wheat grain depends on several characteristics, among which the composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits, encoded by Glu-1 loci, are the most important. Application of biotechnological tools to accelerate the attainment of homozygous lines may influence the pr [...] oportion of segregated genotypes. The objective was to determine, whether the selection pressure generated by the methods based on in vitro cultures, may cause a loss of genotypes with desirable Glu-1 alleles. Results Homozygous lines were derived from six winter wheat crosses by pollination with maize (DH-MP), anther culture (DH-AC) and single seed descent (SSD) technique. Androgenetically-derived plants that originated from the same callus were examined before chromosome doubling using allele-specific and microsatellite markers. It was found that segregation distortion in SSD and DH-MP populations occurred only in one case, whereas in anther-derived lines they were observed in five out of six analyzed combinations. Conclusions Segregation distortion in DH-AC populations was caused by the development of more than one plant of the same genotype from one callus. This distortion was minimized if only one plant per callus was included in the population. Selection of haploid wheat plants before chromosome doubling based on allele-specific markers allows us to choose genotypes that possess desirable Glu-1 alleles and to reduce the number of plants in the next steps of DH production. The SSD technique appeared to be the most advantageous in terms of Mendelian segregation, thus the occurrence of residual heterozygosity can be minimized by continuous selfing beyond the F6 generation.

Tadeusz, Adamski; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Anetta, Kuczynska; Krzysztof, Mikolajczak; Piotr, Ogrodowicz; Aleksandra, Ponitka; Maria, Surma; Aurelia, Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina.

2014-01-15

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Cultura in vitro de sementes e anteras de Sesamum indicum L. / Callus cultures from seeds and anthers of Sesamum indicum L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Sementes de gergelin (Sesamum indicum L.) foram cultivadas in vitro em meio de cultura de Wetherall contendo 0,5 mg/l de 2,4-D e em seguida transferidas para meio de Murashige e Skoog (MS) contendo 0,1 mg/l de 2,4-D e 100 mg/l de inositol. Ambos, 2,4-D e inositol mostraram-se ser necessários para o [...] desenvolvimento de calos a partir de sementes, do mesmo modo que para o contínuo crescimento dos meios em cultura. Foram também obtidos calos de explantes de anteras, cotiledones e de hipocotilo de Sesamum utilizando-se o meio MS com a ocorrência de estruturas globulares. Abstract in english Continuously growing Sesamum hypocotyl callus cultures were successfully initiated from hypocotyl tissues of seeds cultured on Wetherall's Medium containing 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and subcultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0.1 mg/1 2,4-D and 100 mg/l inositol. Both 2,4-D and inositol appe [...] ar to be essential for maintenance of continous growth. Callus cultures were likewise established from explants of anthers, cotyledon, and hypocotyl on the MS medium with the occurrence of arrested globular structures in some cultures.

L.S., Caldas; W.R., Sharp; O.J., Crocomo.

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Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2013-01-01

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Influence of copper ions on growth, lipid peroxidation, and proline and polyamines content in carrot rosettes obtained from anther culture.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 33, ?. 3 (2011), s. 851-859. ISSN 0137-5881 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Copper ions * Carrot culture * Lipid peroxidation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.639, year: 2011

Szafra?ska, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Górecka, K.; Górecky, R.; Martincová, Olga; Janas, K. M.

2011-01-01

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Anther ontogeny in Brachypodium distachyon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brachypodium distachyon has emerged as a model plant for the improvement of grain crops such as wheat, barley and oats and for understanding basic biological processes to facilitate the development of grasses as superior energy crops. Brachypodium is also the first species of the grass subfamily Pooideae with a sequenced genome. For obtaining a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling male gametophyte development in B. distachyon, here we report the cellular changes during the stages of anther development, with special reference to the development of the anther wall. Brachypodium anthers are tetrasporangiate and follow the typical monocotyledonous-type anther wall formation pattern. Anther differentiation starts with the appearance of archesporial cells, which divide to generate primary parietal and primary sporogenous cells. The primary parietal cells form two secondary parietal layers. Later, the outer secondary parietal layer directly develops into the endothecium and the inner secondary parietal layer forms an outer middle layer and inner tapetum by periclinal division. The anther wall comprises an epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and the secretory-type tapetum. Major documented events of anther development include the degradation of a secretory-type tapetum and middle layer during the course of development and the rapid formation of U-shaped endothecial thickenings in the mature pollen grain stage. The tapetum undergoes degeneration at the tetrad stage and disintegrates completely at the bicellular stage of pollen development. The distribution of insoluble polysaccharides in the anther layers and connective tissue through progressive developmental stages suggests their role in the development of male gametophytes. Until sporogenous cell stage, the amount of insoluble polysaccharides in the anther wall was negligible. However, abundant levels of insoluble polysaccharides were observed during microspore mother cell and tetrad stages and gradually declined during the free microspore and vacuolated microspore stages to undetectable level at the mature stage. Thus, the cellular features in the development of anthers in B. distachyon share similarities with anther and pollen development of other members of Poaceae. PMID:25149150

Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

2015-03-01

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Haploid Origin of Cork Oak Anther Embryos Detected by Enzyme and RAPD Gene Markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro-induced cork oak (Quercus suber L.) embryos from anther cultures proved to be of haploid origin both by enzyme and RAPD gene marker analysis. The problem considered was to ascertain if embryo cultures originated either from a single haploid cell, from a microspore, or from multiple haploid cells. Therefore, a heterozygotic gene was searched for in the parent tree. The gene coding for shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH1) proved to be heterozygous in the parental tree, and subsequently, these allozymes were screened for the embryos induced in anther cultures from the same tree. Only haploid embryos were found, confirming the microspore origin. Different genotypes were not identified inside each anther by isozyme analysis, probably because of selective pressure for one embryo early in development, but both parental SKDH1 alleles were found in the embryos of different anthers. The banding patterns detected by RAPD markers permitted the identification of multiple microspore origins inside each anther. PMID:10817971

Bueno; Agundez; Gomez; Carrascosa; Manzanera

2000-05-01

46

Isolation and culture of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) microspores and pollen grains  

OpenAIRE

In the last three decades, research on soybean microspore embryogenesis was restricted to anther culture, which presents limitations such as the small number of responsive microspores and the high embryogenic potential of sporophytic tissues. Therefore, a sequence of studies was performed to establish appropriate conditions for the isolation and culture of soybean microspores and pollen grains as an alternative to anther culture. First, a pollen and microspore isolation technique was develope...

Lia Rosane Rodrigues; Bianca de Camargo Forte; Maria Helena Bodanese-Zanettini

2006-01-01

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Efeitos de meios de cultura na formação de calos a partir de anteras de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L. Effects of the culture media on the calli formation from Asparagus officinalis L. anthers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Técnicas auxiliares, como a cultura de anteras, possibilitam melhor eficiência na obtenção de novos genótipos de aspargo. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas anteras contendo grãos de pólen, no estágio uninucleado, dos híbridos 56x22-8 e 47x22-8, em meio MS, semi-sólido e líquido, com diferentes concentrações de reguladores de crescimento: meio A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 20 g/l sacarose + 20 g/l glicose; meio B - 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 30 g/l sacarose; meio C - 3,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose e meio D - 2,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose. A formação de calos variou com o genótipo e o meio. Os meios líquidos apresentaram melhor eficiência na indução de calos do que os meios semi-sólidos. Para o híbrido 56x22-8 os melhores meios foram o A2 (líquido com 80,5% de indução de calos e dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o meio D1 com 41,6% de calos formados. Para o híbrido 47x22-8, o mais eficiente foi o meio D2 (líquido, com 68,1% de calos formados e, dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o D2, com 15,2%. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas, estatisticamente, entre os meios líquidos nem entre os meios semi-sólidos.Anther culture is an auxiliary technique to obtain new genotypes. In this work, anthers with pollen grains in the uninucleated stage of hybrids 56x22-8 and 47x22-8 were cultured in MS medium, semi-solid and liquid, with different concentrations of growth regulators: medium A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 20 g/l sucrose + 20 g/l glucose; medium B - 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 30 g/l sucrose; medium C - 3,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose and medium D - 2,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose. Callus formation varied with the genotype and the medium. Liquid media showed more efficiency in callus development than the semi-solids. For the hybrids 56x22-8 the best media were the liquid A2 with 80,5% of callus induction and among the semi-solids the D1, with 41,6%. For the hybrid 47x22-8 were liquid D2 with 68,1% and semi solid D1 with 15,2%. No significant differences were observed among the liquid media nor among the semi-solidones.

Vera Lúcia Bobrowski

1995-07-01

48

Efeitos de meios de cultura na formação de calos a partir de anteras de aspargo (Asparagus officinalis L.) / Effects of the culture media on the calli formation from Asparagus officinalis L. anthers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Técnicas auxiliares, como a cultura de anteras, possibilitam melhor eficiência na obtenção de novos genótipos de aspargo. Neste trabalho, foram utilizadas anteras contendo grãos de pólen, no estágio uninucleado, dos híbridos 56x22-8 e 47x22-8, em meio MS, semi-sólido e líquido, com diferentes concen [...] trações de reguladores de crescimento: meio A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 20 g/l sacarose + 20 g/l glicose; meio B - 0,5 mg/l 2,4-D + 30 g/l sacarose; meio C - 3,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose e meio D - 2,0 mg/l ANA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sacarose. A formação de calos variou com o genótipo e o meio. Os meios líquidos apresentaram melhor eficiência na indução de calos do que os meios semi-sólidos. Para o híbrido 56x22-8 os melhores meios foram o A2 (líquido) com 80,5% de indução de calos e dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o meio D1 com 41,6% de calos formados. Para o híbrido 47x22-8, o mais eficiente foi o meio D2 (líquido), com 68,1% de calos formados e, dentre os meios semi-sólidos, o D2, com 15,2%. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas, estatisticamente, entre os meios líquidos nem entre os meios semi-sólidos. Abstract in english Anther culture is an auxiliary technique to obtain new genotypes. In this work, anthers with pollen grains in the uninucleated stage of hybrids 56x22-8 and 47x22-8 were cultured in MS medium, semi-solid and liquid, with different concentrations of growth regulators: medium A - 0,5 mg/l BAP + 0,1 mg/ [...] l NAA + 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 20 g/l sucrose + 20 g/l glucose; medium B - 0,5 mg/1 2,4-D + 30 g/l sucrose; medium C - 3,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose and medium D - 2,0 mg/l NAA + 0,5 mg/l Kin + 30 g/l sucrose. Callus formation varied with the genotype and the medium. Liquid media showed more efficiency in callus development than the semi-solids. For the hybrids 56x22-8 the best media were the liquid A2 with 80,5% of callus induction and among the semi-solids the D1, with 41,6%. For the hybrid 47x22-8 were liquid D2 with 68,1% and semi solid D1 with 15,2%. No significant differences were observed among the liquid media nor among the semi-solidones.

Vera Lúcia, Bobrowski; José Antônio, Peters; Eliane, Augustin; Judith, Viégas.

1995-07-01

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The impact of Cu treatment on phenolic and polyamine levels in plant material regenerated from embryos obtained in anther culture of carrot.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 45, ?. 1 (2007), s. 54-61. ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : carrot culture * copper ions * embryo regeneration Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding Impact factor: 1.669, year: 2007

Górecka, K.; Cvikrová, Milena; Kowalska, U.; Eder, Josef; Szafra?ska, K.; Górecki, R.; Janas, K. M.

2007-01-01

50

Estudios preliminares referidos a la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis de líneas isogénicas de arroz obtenidas por cultivo de anteras / Piriculariosis resistance inheritance of rice isogenic lines obtained from anthers culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el campo experimental de la Unidad Científico Tecnológica de Base «Los Palacios» fueron sembradas semillas de las plantas cosechadas de la primera generación de líneas isogénicas de arroz, procedentes del cultivo in vitro de anteras de plantas F2 de los cruces Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Am [...] istad´82/IR759-54-2-2 y Moroberekan/Amistad´82, con el objetivo de evaluar su comportamiento frente a infecciones naturales de P. grisea. Al parecer, no hay presencia de genes dominantes actuando en la herencia de la resistencia a la Piriculariosis y el comportamiento pudiera estar regido por la acción de genes mayores en homocigosis y de genes menores con efecto aditivo, lográndose la selección de cuatro líneas isogénicas resistentes a la enfermedad y de buen comportamiento agronómico, las que constituyen la base para la obtención de nuevos cultivares. Abstract in english In the Base Technological Scientist Unit «Los Palacios» seeds first generation of harvested rice isogenic lines, coming from F2 in vitro anthers culture from crossings Amistad´82/2077, 2077/Amistad´82, Amistad´82/IR759-54-2-2 and Moroberekan/Amistad´82, were sowed in field, with the objective to eva [...] luate their behaviour in natural Blast field infection. The absence of dominant genes in heterocigosis involved in the inheritance to Blast was confirmed and, apparently, the behaviour could be governed by major genes in homocigosis and small genes with additive effect. Four isogenic lines wit good agronomic behaviour and Blast resistant were selected. The same will be very useful to obtain new varieties.

Noraida de J, Pérez León; Rodolfo, Castro Menduiña; Maria Caridad, González Cepero; Marta, Álvarez Gil; Manuel, Aguilar Portero.

2013-03-01

51

Cross Section Through the Dehisced Anther of Xylopia collina  

Science.gov (United States)

Cross section through the dehisced anther of Xylopia collina of the pawpaw family (Annonaceae). Species of the genus Xylopia, as well as other members of this family, produce large pollen that is shed in units of four or sometimes even 32 grains (some tetrads visible in illustration). Associated with these compound pollen units in most genera are layers of sterile tissue, called septa, that separate the grains into chambers within each anther. Tsou and Johnson investigated the variation and development of the septa of Annonaceae, and found that despite variability in appearance, the septal tissues of all species were formed by the same developmental pathway. They propose that these tissues may have evolved in Annonaceae in response to a requirement for extra nutrients and support tissues for large pollen units.

Chih-Hua Tsou (Institute of Botany; Academia Sinica ADR; POSTAL)

2004-03-09

52

Ação do etileno em combinação com thidiazuron, nitrato de prata e ácido acetilsalicílico na cultura de anteras de pimentão / Ethylene action in combination with Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and acetylsalicylic acid on sweet pepper anther culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Verificou-se o efeito do etileno em combinação com o thidiazuron (TDZ), nitrato de prata (AgNO3) e ácido acetilsalicílico (AAS), na indução e regeneração de embriões em anteras de pimentão, genótipos F1 (PIX21C12#35 x Agronômico 08), (PIX21C04#4 x Linha 004), (PIX22C#31 x Linha 004), (PIX21C15#45 x [...] Ikeda) e (PIX22C#21 x Ikeda). Os botões foram coletados quando sépalas e pétalas tinham tamanhos aproximadamente iguais, correspondendo ao estádio de anteras com micrósporos uninucleados. As anteras foram inoculadas em placa de Petri contendo meio de cultura C adicionado de 4,5 mM de TDZ; meio C acrescido de 0,05 mM de 2,4-D, 0,05 mM de cinetina e 88,8 mM de AAS; meio C acrescido de 0,05 mM de 2,4-D, 0,05 mM de cinetina e 5,0 mg/L de AgNO3. Em seguida, foram colocadas em ambiente escuro a 35ºC durante oito dias e enriquecido com ethephon, por 0; 2; 4; 6 ou 8 dias num esquema fatorial com quatro repetições, sendo cada placa considerada uma parcela contendo 20 a 24 anteras.O período de permanência de quatro dias, em ambiente enriquecido com ethephon, e os meios com TDZ e AgNO3, foram os mais favoráveis à indução de anteras. O TDZ também promoveu maior indução de calos embriogênicos. As maiores taxas de necrose ocorreram no meio com AAS. Só ocorreu regeneração direta em plântulas no meio C acrescido de 5 mg/L de AgNO3, sendo oito dias o melhor período. Os genótipos mais responsivos foram PIX22C#31 x linha 004 e PIX22C#21 x Ikeda. Observou-se a formação de plântulas haplóides e diplóides mediante análise da ponta de raíz. Considerando-se que a regeneração foi direta, sem passar por calos, supõe-se que as plântulas diplóides obtidas sejam provenientes dos micrósporos, devendo portanto ter ocorrido uma diploidização in vitro. Abstract in english The influence of ethylene used in combination with Thidiazuron (TDZ), silver nitrate (AgNO3) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was evaluated on sweet pepper androgenesis of F1 genotypes (PIX21C12#35 x Agronômico 08, PIX21C04#4 x Line 004, PIX22C#31 x Line 004, PIX21C15#45 x Ikeda and PIX22C#21 x Ikeda) [...] . Floral buds were collected when sepals and petals were approximately of equal size, corresponding to the uninucleated stage of microspores. Anthers were placed in Petri dishes containing three mediums: C medium supplemented with TDZ (4.5mM); C medium plus 2,4-D (0,05mM), Kinetin (0.5mM) and ASA (88,8mM) or AgNO3 (5.0 mg/L). After inoculation, the anthers were kept in the environment with ethephon for 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 days at 35ºC for eight days in the dark. The experiment was conducted in a factorial design with four replications. Each replicate consisted of one Petri dish containing 20-24 anthers. TDZ and AgNO3 were most effective for inducing somatic embryos after four days with Ethrel. The greatest rates of necrosis took place on the medium with AAS. Direct regeneration of plantlets occurred only on medium supplemented with 5 mg/L of AgNO3 after an eight-day treatment with Ethrel. The most responsive genotypes were PIX22C#31 x Line 004 and PIX22C#21 x Ikeda. Chromosome number of the seedlings was verified through the root tip analysis which indicated the presence of haploid and diploid chromosome number. Since regeneration was direct, ie without going through callus phase, it is hypothesized that the diploid seedlings came from in vitro diploidization.

José Magno Q., Luz; José Eduardo B. P., Pinto; Polyana Aparecida D., Ehlert; Estér Solange, Cerqueira; Ivan, Bedin.

1999-11-01

53

Culturally Responsive Leadership: Graduate Program Egalitarianism  

Science.gov (United States)

As American society becomes increasingly diverse, it is paramount that university graduate programs produce culturally responsive leaders capable of synergistically energizing an increasingly heterogeneous work force. Inherent in this charge is the egalitarian approach to graduate program design. Culturally responsive leadership development is…

Farmer, Tod Allen; Higham, J. Russell, III

2007-01-01

54

Determination of suitable microspore stage and callus induction from anthers of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) is one of the important species of Hibiscus cultivated for fiber. Availability of homozygous parent lines is prerequisite to the use of the heterosis effect reproducible in hybrid breeding. The production of haploid plants by anther culture followed by chromosome doubling can be achieved in short period compared with inbred lines by conventional method that requires self pollination of parent material. In this research, the effects of the microspore developmental stage, time of flower collection, various pretreatments, different combinations of hormones, and culture condition on anther culture of KB6 variety of Kenaf were studied. Young flower buds with immature anthers at the appropriate stage of microspore development were sterilized and the anthers were carefully dissected from the flower buds and subjected to various pretreatments and different combinations of hormones like NAA, 2,4-D, Kinetin, BAP, and TDZ to induce callus. The best microspore development stage of the flower buds was about 6-8 mm long collected 1-2 weeks after flower initiation. At that stage, the microspores were at the uninucleate stage which was suitable for culture. The best callus induction frequency was 90% in the optimized semisolid MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/L BAP + 3.0 mg/L NAA. PMID:24757416

Ibrahim, Ahmed Mahmood; Kayat, Fatimah Binti; Hussin, Zeti Ermiena Surya Mat; Susanto, Dwi; Ariffulah, Mohammed

2014-01-01

55

Culturally and linguistically responsive teaching: part I.  

Science.gov (United States)

As increasing numbers of culturally and linguistically diverse learners are enrolled in nursing programs and employed in nursing service agencies, nurse educators must be aware of their own culture and how it influences their teaching and understand the learning needs of a diverse group of learners. This article offers strategies for nurse educators for being culturally and linguistically responsive while also establishing an inclusive learning environment. PMID:25633302

Billings, Diane M

2015-02-01

56

Aligning Collaborative and Culturally Responsive Evaluation Approaches  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors, three African-American women trained as collaborative evaluators, offer a comparative analysis of collaborative evaluation (O'Sullivan, 2004) and culturally responsive evaluation approaches (Frierson, Hood, & Hughes, 2002; Kirkhart & Hopson, 2010). Collaborative evaluation techniques immerse evaluators in the cultural milieu of the…

Askew, Karyl; Beverly, Monifa Green; Jay, Michelle L.

2012-01-01

57

Culture and Crisis Response in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

New Zealand is a bicultural nation, founded on the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by the native Maori and the British Crown. It is also home to people from many countries, cultures and ethnicities. Therefore, culturally-relevant response to crisis events has become a significant aspect of the Ministry of Education's interdisciplinary Traumatic…

Annan, Jean; Dean, Shelley; Henry, Geoff; McGhie, Desiree; Phillipson, Roger

2010-01-01

58

Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among their student and school communities. How effectively schools deal with difference and how well they are supported in their endeavours to build culturally response classrooms is a perennial issue for both teachers and educators. A major challenge for teachers is to at a minimum, understand cultural differences as they manifest in their particular school settings and to draw on approaches that support student learning in culturally appropriate ways so to assist them to better realise their full potential. In this paper we will consider cultural diversity in the context of recent school policies, highlight a number of frameworks for addressing cultural diversity in the classroom, in particular the approaches by Kalantzis and Cope’s (1999 and Hickling-Hudson (2003. We also draw on the findings from a recent qualitative study of representations of cultural diversity in a number of Sydney metropolitan schools to discuss the need for more greater resource and policy support for progressive teaching approaches that support the development of a more tolerant and inclusive multicultural society. Key words: cultural diversity, schools, teacher education, classroom practice, social inclusion

Nina Burridge

2009-11-01

59

Organizational culture during the accident response process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A large volume of literature hypothesizes a direct relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness. Culture data have been collected by the authors and others at nuclear power plants (NPPs) and other organizations that demand high reliability. In this paper, the literature and data are used to explore a critical dimension of the accident response process in an NPP: the transition from an anticipatory strategy to an ad hoc strategy. In particular, the effect of organizational culture on the implementation of each of these strategies is examined

60

Culturally Responsive Instruction: Listening to Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Culturally responsive instruction aims to promote the academic success of young children of diverse backgrounds, closing the achievement gap that typically exists between these children and their mainstream peers. Culturally responsive instruction is illustrated here through science lessons taught to young Hawaiian children around themes based on plants and the water cycle. Such place-based education provides a framework for building on the knowledge young children bring from the home and connecting them to the ways of their ancestors. Teachers seek to introduce themes in an engaging manner, including hands-on activities with artifacts and the reading aloud of literature.

Beverly Kutsunai

2013-12-01

61

Dealing with Difference: Building Culturally Responsive Classrooms  

OpenAIRE

Australia continues to develop as a multicultural society with levels of immigration increasing significantly over recent years as a result of government policies. More recently, the new period of financial turmoil, continuing threats from terrorism and environmental concerns, have all exacerbated the challenges of dealing with difference in our society. In response, schools continue to face the challenges of the impact of a range of different cultures, languages and religions among thei...

Nina Burridge; John Buchanan; Andrew Chodkiewicz

2009-01-01

62

Sugar and auxin signaling pathways respond to high-temperature stress during anther development as revealed by transcript profiling analysis in cotton.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male reproduction in flowering plants is highly sensitive to high temperature (HT). To investigate molecular mechanisms of the response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) anthers to HT, a relatively complete comparative transcriptome analysis was performed during anther development of cotton lines 84021 and H05 under normal temperature and HT conditions. In total, 4,599 differentially expressed genes were screened; the differentially expressed genes were mainly related to epigenetic modifications, carbohydrate metabolism, and plant hormone signaling. Detailed studies showed that the deficiency in S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase1 and the inhibition of methyltransferases contributed to genome-wide hypomethylation in H05, and the increased expression of histone constitution genes contributed to DNA stability in 84021. Furthermore, HT induced the expression of casein kinasei (GhCKI) in H05, coupled with the suppression of starch synthase activity, decreases in glucose level during anther development, and increases in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) level in late-stage anthers. The same changes also were observed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GhCKI overexpression lines. These results suggest that GhCKI, sugar, and auxin may be key regulators of the anther response to HT stress. Moreover, phytochrome-interacting factor genes (PIFs), which are involved in linking sugar and auxin and are regulated by sugar, might positively regulate IAA biosynthesis in the cotton anther response to HT. Additionally, exogenous IAA application revealed that high background IAA may be a disadvantage for late-stage cotton anthers during HT stress. Overall, the linking of HT, sugar, PIFs, and IAA, together with our previously reported data on GhCKI, may provide dynamic coordination of plant anther responses to HT stress. PMID:24481135

Min, Ling; Li, Yaoyao; Hu, Qin; Zhu, Longfu; Gao, Wenhui; Wu, Yuanlong; Ding, Yuanhao; Liu, Shiming; Yang, Xiyan; Zhang, Xianlong

2014-03-01

63

El turismo cultural. ¿Un negocio responsable? / Cultural Tourism. A Responsible Business?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Cuestiones como la degradación el medioambiente, la pérdida de la diversidad cultural y especialmente lo considerado como patrimonio cultural y la ecología, son actualmente aspectos consustanciales a la vida cotidiana, a la política, a la planificación y a los negocios. En la Cumbre de la Tierra (Rí [...] o de Janeiro, 1992) se acuña el concepto Turismo Responsable en un intento de impulsar el respeto y la preservación, implicando en la tarea a todos los actores. Bajo el paraguas de la responsabilidad, uno de los productos con mayor crecimiento y demanda en la última década ha sido el turismo cultural, planteado ahora como una de las fórmulas para la consecución del desarrollo integral de los pueblos. En este artículo se repasa el turismo cultural como producto, su importancia en el nuevo orden turístico y su alcance, constatando como a través de él el sistema turístico ha tendido a implicarse en la gestión de la cultura y condicionarla por su rentabilidad. Abstract in english Environmental degradation, the loss of cultural diversity and especially what is considered cultural heritage and ecology, are actually the main issues of every day life, politics, planning and business. During the Rio Meeting (Rio de Janeiro, 1992) the concept of Responsible Tourism was born in an [...] attempt to enhance respect and preservation with all actors involved. Under the umbrella of responsibility, cultural tourism was one product that showed the biggest growth under the premises of the formula of all-embracing development of society. This article presents a revision of cultural tourism as a product, its importance for the new tourist order and its range and establishing in which way the tourist system had a tendency to get involved in cultural management and therefore as conditioned its profitability.

Agustín, Santana Talavera.

2008-12-01

64

El turismo cultural. ¿Un negocio responsable? Cultural Tourism. A Responsible Business?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cuestiones como la degradación el medioambiente, la pérdida de la diversidad cultural y especialmente lo considerado como patrimonio cultural y la ecología, son actualmente aspectos consustanciales a la vida cotidiana, a la política, a la planificación y a los negocios. En la Cumbre de la Tierra (Río de Janeiro, 1992 se acuña el concepto Turismo Responsable en un intento de impulsar el respeto y la preservación, implicando en la tarea a todos los actores. Bajo el paraguas de la responsabilidad, uno de los productos con mayor crecimiento y demanda en la última década ha sido el turismo cultural, planteado ahora como una de las fórmulas para la consecución del desarrollo integral de los pueblos. En este artículo se repasa el turismo cultural como producto, su importancia en el nuevo orden turístico y su alcance, constatando como a través de él el sistema turístico ha tendido a implicarse en la gestión de la cultura y condicionarla por su rentabilidad.Environmental degradation, the loss of cultural diversity and especially what is considered cultural heritage and ecology, are actually the main issues of every day life, politics, planning and business. During the Rio Meeting (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 the concept of Responsible Tourism was born in an attempt to enhance respect and preservation with all actors involved. Under the umbrella of responsibility, cultural tourism was one product that showed the biggest growth under the premises of the formula of all-embracing development of society. This article presents a revision of cultural tourism as a product, its importance for the new tourist order and its range and establishing in which way the tourist system had a tendency to get involved in cultural management and therefore as conditioned its profitability.

Agustín Santana Talavera

2008-12-01

65

Cell Culture Assay for Human Noroviruses [response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We appreciate the comments provided by Leung et al., in response to our recently published article “In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses” by Straub et al. (1). The specific aim of our project was to develop an in vitro cell culture infectivity assay for human noroviruses (hNoV) to enhance risk assessments when they are detected in water supplies. Reverse transcription (RT) qualitative or quantitative PCR are the primary assays for waterborne NoV monitoring. However, these assays cannot distinguish between infectious vs. non-infectious virions. When hNoV is detected in water supplies, information provided by our infectivity assay will significantly improve risk assessment models and protect human health, regardless of whether we are propagating NoV. Indeed, in vitro cell culture infectivity assays for the waterborne pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum that supplement approved fluorescent microscopy assays, do not result in amplification of the environmentally resistant hard-walled oocysts (2). However, identification of life cycle stages in cell culture provides evidence of infectious oocysts in a water supply. Nonetheless, Leung et al.’s assertion regarding the suitability of our method for the in vitro propagation of high titers of NoV is valid for the medical research community. In this case, well-characterized challenge pools of virus would be useful for developing and testing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. As further validation of our published findings, we have now optimized RT quantitative PCR to assess the level of viral production in cell culture, where we are indeed finding significant increases in viral titer. The magnitude and time course of these increases is dependent on both virus strain and multiplicity of infection. We are currently preparing a manuscript that will discuss these findings in greater detail, and the implications this may have for creating viral challenge pools

Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza A.; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

2007-07-01

66

Organizational culture during the accident response process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research

67

Organizational culture during the accident response process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

1992-08-01

68

Organizational culture during the accident response process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ability of an organization to effectively move from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy may well depend on the organization having the ability to balance these two apparently dichotomous cultural styles. The organization which is most capable of making the necessary transition in an optimal manner may well exhibit some aspects of both cultural styles during normal operations. Data collected at one NPP does exhibit this pattern of results, with the organization exhibiting a clear hierarchical chain of command and perceived conventional behavioral expectations as well as exhibiting a more decentralized and collegial approach to decisionmaking, a team work orientation, and informal communications. Thus, it is expected that this organization possesses the capabilities to make a successful transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. Data collected at a second NPP more strongly exhibits the traditional style suggested as being important during the anticipatory strategy, with more formal communications and bureaucratically controlled decision-making. This organization may experience difficulty if faced with the need to make a transition from an anticipatory to an ad hoc strategy. These conclusions are further validated based on observation of Emergency Preparedness Exercise Inspections, which suggest that the more anticipatory types of behaviors actually inhibit successful performance during an ad hoc response. The final validation of these hypotheses needs to be demonstrated with cultural data collected during emergency simulations. The mechanism to obtain such data during these types of situations is an area for future research.

Shurberg, D.A.; Haber, S.B.

1992-01-01

69

Xanthan gum: an economical substitute for agar in plant tissue culture media.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xanthan gum, a microbial desiccation-resistant polysaccharide prepared commercially by aerobic submerged fermentation from Xanthomonas campestris, has been successfully used as a solidifying agent for plant tissue culture media. Its suitability as a substitute to agar was demonstrated for in vitro seed germination, caulogenesis and rhizogenesis of Albizzia lebbeck, androgenesis in anther cultures of Datura innoxia, and somatic embryogenesis in callus cultures of Calliandra tweedii. Culture media used for eliciting these morphogenic responses were gelled with either 1% xanthan gum or 0.9% agar. Xanthan gum, like agar, supported all these responses. PMID:16331459

Jain, R; Babbar, S B

2006-03-01

70

Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage / Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A aveia (Avena spp.) tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em ge [...] ral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das espiguetas aumentam as dificuldades para a identificação das anteras potencialmente androgenéticas e podem explicar, em parte, os baixos resultados da androgênese na aveia. Os dados mostram a necessidade de uma análise citológica prévia para auxiliar a determinar a fase ideal de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos potencialmente responsivos à cultura de anteras, para o uso da androgenese na aveia. Abstract in english Oat (Avena spp.) is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be id [...] entified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.

Taniela De, Cesaro; Maria Irene, Baggio; Silvia Andréia, Zanetti; Marilei, Suzin; Lizete, Augustin; Sandra Patussi, Brammer; Edson Jair, Iorczeski; Sandra Cristina Kothe, Milach.

2009-02-01

71

Haplodiploid androgenetic breeding in oat: genotypic variation in anther size and microspore development stage Melhoramento por haplodiploidização androgenética: variação genotípica no tamanho das anteras e no estágio de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos em aveia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oat (Avena spp. is poorly responsive to the haplodiploidization process, which leads to the production of homozygous lines in one step, increasing breeding efficiency. Androgenetic haploids in small grain cereal crops are obtained from microspores cultured at the mononucleate stage, which can be identified by the size of anthers. In order to identify the appropriate anther size for in vitro culture, microspore cytological analyses were made in Avena sativa cultivars UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout and Avena sterilis CAV 3361, cultivated in growth chamber under controlled light and temperature conditions. Variation was observed within and among genotypes for anther size at each microspore developmental stage and according to the position of spikelets in the panicle. Architecture variation in panicle shape and non-linear microsporogenesis maturation increased the challenge of identifying potentially androgenetic oat anthers. Cytological screening before culture is critical in identifying microspores at the right stage for oat androgenesis.A aveia (Avena spp. tem sido pouco responsiva à haplodiploidização, um processo que aumenta a eficiência da seleção no melhoramento por gerar, em uma etapa, linhas puras homozigóticas. A fase mononucleada do micrósporo é critica para o sucesso da androgênese in vitro nos cereais de inverno e, em geral, pode ser inferida pelo tamanho da antera. Foram medidas anteras e analisados citológicamente micrósporos das cultivares de Avena sativa UPF 7, UPF 18, UFRGS 14, Stout e da linhagem CAV 3361 de Avena sterilis, cultivadas em câmaras de crescimento sob temperaturas dia-noite variando de 16ºC a 9ºC e 12 horas de intensidade luminosa de 300 mol m-2 s-1. O tamanho das anteras em cada fase de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos variou significativamente entre genótipos e de acordo com a região de inserção das espiguetas na panícula. A variação na arquitetura da panícula e a maturação não linear das espiguetas aumentam as dificuldades para a identificação das anteras potencialmente androgenéticas e podem explicar, em parte, os baixos resultados da androgênese na aveia. Os dados mostram a necessidade de uma análise citológica prévia para auxiliar a determinar a fase ideal de desenvolvimento dos micrósporos potencialmente responsivos à cultura de anteras, para o uso da androgenese na aveia.

Taniela De Cesaro

2009-02-01

72

Culture shapes electrocortical responses during emotion suppression  

OpenAIRE

Previous work has shown that emotional control is highly valued in Asian culture. However, little is known about how this cultural value might influence emotional processing. Here, we hypothesized that Asians are ‘culturally trained’ to down-regulate emotional processing when required to suppress emotional expressions. Such down-regulation, however, is unlikely for European Americans because their culture values emotional expression (vs control) more. To test these predictions, we adopted...

Murata, Asuka; Moser, Jason S.; Kitayama, Shinobu

2012-01-01

73

Culturally Responsive: Art Education in a Global Era  

Science.gov (United States)

Facing the era of globalization, culturally responsive art teachers must recognize that students' home culture, including local artistic expression, is inevitably influenced by global forces. They should strive to engage with students systems and issues of globalization and its impact on their community culture and art. In this article, the author…

Lai, Alice

2012-01-01

74

A biomechanical model of anther opening reveals the roles of dehydration and secondary thickening  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the processes that underlie pollen release is a prime target for controlling fertility to enable selective breeding and the efficient production of hybrid crops. Pollen release requires anther opening, which involves changes in the biomechanical properties of the anther wall. In this research, we develop and use a mathematical model to understand how these biomechanical processes lead to anther opening. Our mathematical model describing the biomechanics of anther opening incorpo...

Nelson; Band, Lr; Dyson, Rj; Lessinnes, T.; Wells, Dm; Yang, C.; Everitt, Nm; Jensen, Oe; Wilson, Za

2012-01-01

75

Cultural Responses to Climate Change During the Late Holocene  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes the effect of drought on past civilizations and peoples and their response as civilizations or cultures. The site includes four case studies drawn from New and Old World civilizations that document societal responses to prolonged drought, including population dislocations, urban abandonment, and state collapse. Further study of past cultural adaptations to persistent climate change may provide valuable perspective on possible responses of modern societies to future climate change.

Peter deMenocal

76

A milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava: a milestone in the doubled haploid pathway of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz): cellular and molecular assessment of anther-derived structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was aimed at inducing androgenesis in cultured anthers of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to develop a protocol for the production of doubled haploids. Microspore reprogramming was induced in cassava by cold or heat stress of anthers. Since the anthers contain both haploid microspores and diploid somatic cells, it was essential to verify the origin of anther-derived calli. The origin of anther-derived calli was assessed by morphological screening followed by histological analysis and flow cytometry (FCM). Additionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragmented length polymorphism (AFLP) assays were used for the molecular identification of the microspore-derived calli. The study clearly demonstrated the feasibility of producing microspore-derived calli using heat- or cold-pretreated anthers. Histological studies revealed reprogramming of the developmental pathway of microspores by symmetrical division of the nucleus. Flow cytometry analysis revealed different ploidy level cell types including haploids, which confirmed their origin from the microspores. The SSR and AFLP marker assays independently confirmed the histological and FCM results of a haploid origin of the calli at the DNA level. The presence of multicellular microspores in the in vitro system indicated a switch of developmental program, which constitutes a crucial step in the design of protocols for the regeneration of microspore-derived embryos and plants. This is the first detailed report of calli, embryos, and abnormal shoots originated from the haploid cells in cassava, leading to the development of a protocol for the production of doubled haploid plants in cassava. PMID:24026343

Perera, P I P; Ordoñez, C A; Lopez-Lavalle, L A Becerra; Dedicova, B

2014-01-01

77

An Empirical Perspective on the Culture - Corporate Social Responsibility Relationship  

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Full Text Available Business competition and pressure of European directives put Romanian company in a position to find answers to issues related to long-term survival and development. In this context we believe it is necessary to analyze some of the most important components that should be taken into consideration at the strategic level: national and organizational culture. The results indicate that corporate social responsibility is supported by learning and change-oriented organizational culture, but also by a favorable cultural and national economic framework. Based on these theoretical considerations we intent to emphasize the relationships between national culture / corporate culture and corporate social responsibility (CSR, elaborating an empirical argument by analyzing the results provided by Global 100, an annual project initiated by Corporate Knights Inc. (Davos. Starting with 2005, it has the largest database in the world and an appropriate evaluation methodology that provides a ranking of the top 100 most responsible companies in the world.

Dumitru ZAI?

2013-12-01

78

Creating Culturally Responsive Literacy Programs in Inclusive Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This article intends to increase awareness of culturally responsive literacy instruction by describing components of a literacy program that effectively address the needs of diverse learners, specifically adolescents with learning disabilities.

Williams Shealey, Monika; Callins, Tandria

2007-01-01

79

Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

Devier Benjamin

2007-08-01

80

Faithfulness--Translator’s Responsibility in Cross-Cultural Communication  

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Full Text Available New trends in translation have led to a mistaken notion that faithfulness is obsolete. This article argues that faithfulness should be highlighted in cross-cultural communication to promote better understanding. As a result, a translator should cultivate a strong sense of responsibility, keeping in mind that faithfulness is the guarantee of successful cross-cultural communication. Erroneous translation, either because of incautious, incompetent translation ending in misinformation, or because of deliberate reading into the source language text the translator’s own ideas, ending in disinformation, is detrimental to effective cross-cultural communication. Faithful translation can never be overemphasized.

Feng WU

2014-06-01

81

Essay: Creating Culturally Responsive Learning Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

The population of the United States is more ethnically and racially diverse than ever, a fact particularly evident among young and school-age children. This presents today's elementary schools--including teachers, administrators, and policy makers--with an enormous challenge: promoting educational equity in the classroom and educating all students in order to achieve high academic standards. How can educators best meet this challenge? The answer the authors propose in this essay is: Create responsive learning communities.

Eugene E. Garc?a, Arizona State University

2008-01-01

82

Desempenho de linhagens diaplóides de trigo obtidas via cultura de anteras quanto à tolerância ao alumínio, produção de grãos e altura de planta / Performance of dihaploid wheat lines obtained via anther culture in relation to the aluminum tolerance, grain yield and plant height  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se 18 linhagens diaplóides de trigo, obtidas via cultura de anteras in vitro oriundas de híbridos F1, e dois cultivares IAC-24 e IAC-289, nos anos de 1999 e 2000, em dois locais do Estado de São Paulo: Capão Bonito (solo ácido, sem aplicação de calcário e em condição de sequeiro) e em Tatu [...] í (solo ácido, com aplicação de calcário e em condição de irrigação por aspersão). Em cada experimento avaliaram-se a produção de grãos e a altura das plantas. Foi, também, avaliada a tolerância à toxicidade de alumínio, empregando-se soluções nutritivas contendo 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg.L-1, em condição de laboratório. As linhagens diaplóides consideradas mostraram grande variabilidade para os caracteres agronômicos avaliados. Destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos, considerando a média dos experimentos de Capão Bonito, as linhagens 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/ IAC-24), 4 (PF70402/ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S" /3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60) e 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24). Em Tatuí, considerando-se a média dos dois anos, destacaram-se quanto à produção de grãos as linhagens 4 e 5, oriundas do mesmo cruzamento. A linhagem 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24) apresentou as plantas mais baixas nos quatro experimentos. Todos os genótipos, com exceção da cultivar IAC-289 e da linhagem 13, foram considerados tolerantes a 10 mg.L-1 de Al3+, quando avaliados em soluções nutritivas. Os resultados reforçam a possibilidade de selecionar os genótipos tolerantes ao alumínio, em condição de laboratório, antes que sejam avaliados em campo, em solo ácido, tornando o processo de obtenção de linhagens tolerantes mais eficiente. Abstract in english Eighteen dihaploid wheat lines originated via anther culture from F1 hybrid plants and two cultivars IAC-24 and IAC-289 were evaluated in 1999 and 2000, at two locations of the State of São Paulo: Capão Bonito (acid soil without lime application and upland condition) and Tatuí (acid soil with lime a [...] pplication and sprinkler irrigation condition). In each trial the genotypes were evaluated for grain yield and plant height. Aluminum toxicity tolerance was also evaluated in the laboratory in nutrient solutions containing 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg.L-1 of aluminum. The evaluated dihaploid lines showed high variability for the considered agronomic characters. The lines 9 (MRL"S"/BUC"S"//BUC"S"/3/IAC-24), 4 (PF70402/ ALD"S"//PAT72160/ALD"S"/3/PEW"S"/4/OPATA/5/IAC-60) and 3 (TEPOCA/IAC-24) displayed good performance in relation to grain yield considering the means of the Capão Bonito trials. In Tatuí the lines 4 and 5 originated from the same cross showed good behaviour for grain yield taking into account the means of the trials. The line 13 (JUN/GEN//IAC-24) exhibited short plants in all trials. All genotypes, except the cultivar IAC-289 and the line 13 were considered tolerant at 10 mg.L-1 to Al3+, in nutrient solution. The results indicated the possibility to select tolerant genotypes to aluminum toxicity in laboratory condition before they are evaluated in acid soil, making the process of obtaining tolerant lines more efficient.

Marcus Vinicius, Salomon; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira, Camargo; Antonio Wilson Penteado, Ferreira Filho; Armando, Pettinelli Júnior; Jairo Lopes de, Castro.

83

Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase of high specific activity from anther-derived haploid plants of Nicotiana tabacum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystalline ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was purified from several haploid plants of Nicotiana tabacum obtained by anther-culture. Specific activity of the enzyme ranged from 1.09 to 2.15 ?moles 14CO2 fixed mg protein-1 min-1 in growth chamber grown plants and 0.5 to 1.15 ?moles 14CO2 fixed mg protein-1 min-1 in greenhouse grown plants. No degradation of the large subunit was observed on SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of these purified preparations. A low specific activity of 0.25 units was obtained for a preparation of the enzyme from a plant grown under fluctuating growth conditions. This protein gave an additional band for the large subunit on electrophoresis, presumably a degradation product. Individual differences in specific activity under identical growth conditions in these haploids suggest a possible role for the small subunit in regulation of enzyme activity

84

A culturally responsive counter-narrative of effective teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

How do you recognize an effective teacher's sociocultural consciousness? Tamara Wallace's and Brenda Brand's argument that sociocultural consciousness is the "brain" of effective culturally responsive instruction for students of color comes at a time when the system of teacher evaluation is being overhauled nationwide. Teacher observation tools are being piloted to develop a common language of effective instruction but often there is little attention given to sociocultural consciousness in these frameworks. This article develops a culturally responsive counter-narrative to explore the complexity of a teacher's racial consciousness during a teaching episode.

Gist, Conra D.

2014-12-01

85

Pollen and anther ontogeny in Cabomba caroliniana (Cabombaceae, Nymphaeales).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cabomba is a small water lily genus that is native to the New World. Studies of pollen development and associated changes in the anther yield valuable characters for considering the evolution of reproductive biology in seed plants. Here we characterized the complete ontogenetic sequence for pollen in Cabomba caroliniana. Anthers at the microspore mother cell, tetrad, free microspore, and mature pollen grain stages were studied using scanning electron, transmission electron, and light microscopy. Tetragonal and decussate tetrads both occur in C. caroliniana, indicating successive microsporogenesis. The exine is tectate-columellate, and the infratectal columellae are the first exine elements to form, followed by a continuous tectum and a thin foot layer. A lamellate endexine initiates in the early free microspore stage, but becomes compressed in mature grains. Tectal microchannels and sculptural rods also initiate during the early free microspore stage, and significant pollenkitt deposition follows, supporting the hypothesis that these elements function in entomophily. The tapetum is morphologically amoeboid, with migratory tapetal cells directly contacting developing free microspores within the anther locule. Results from this study illustrate the importance of including ontogenetic data in analyzing pollen characters and in developing evolutionary and ecological hypotheses. The new palynological data also emphasize the character plasticity that occurs in basal angiosperms. PMID:21632364

Taylor, Mackenzie L; Gutman, Benjamin L; Melrose, Natalie A; Ingraham, Angela M; Schwartz, Julie A; Osborn, Jeffrey M

2008-04-01

86

Activity of carbon dioxide fixation by anthers and leaves of cereal grains  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper gives a comparative evaluation of the photosynthetic activity of anthers and flag leaves in winter wheat, rye, and triticale. The content of chlorophylls in anthers and leaves was determined. The activity of 14CO2 fixation by anthers and leaf disks was determined by the radiometric method in a chamber floating on mercury under standard exposure conditions (0.1% concentration of 14CO2, illumination of 15,000 1x, temperature of 23 C). Analyses were conducted in three replications and the results of typical biological experiments are cited. Data show that chlorophyll is actively synthesized in the anthers of cereal grains

87

Improved Androgenesis of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var italica) Anthers Using Sucrose and Growth Regulators  

OpenAIRE

The presented study was conducted to study the effects of BAP and its combinations with 2, 4-D and sucrose concentrations on androgenesis of broccoli cv. ‘Arcadia’. The MS Basel media supplemented with AC (0.5 g L-1) and 3% sucrose was used. The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) using 3 replicates. The effects of BAP in combination with 2, 4-D and sucrose concentrations on androgenesis of broccoli (cv Arcadia) anther cultures were ...

Mousa, Magdi A. A.; Haridy, Ashraf G.; Abbas, Hassan S.; Mohammed, Mohammed F.

2014-01-01

88

Culturally Responsive Instruction for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…

Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda

2014-01-01

89

Culturally Responsive Gifted Classrooms for Culturally Different Students: A Focus on Invitational Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article expands the notion of culturally responsive learning environments by including Purkey and Novak's (1996) work on invitational learning. Their typology of four types of schools is described and applied to gifted education classrooms, along with associated characteristics of each. Specific attention is focused on implications for…

Ford, Donna Y.

2015-01-01

90

Geoethics and geological culture: awareness, responsibility and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The international debate in the field of geoethics focuses on some of the most important environmental emergencies, while highlighting the great responsibilities of geoscientists, whatever field they work in, and the important social, cultural and economic repercussions that their choices can have on society. The GeoItalia 2009 and 2011 conferences that were held in Rimini and Turin, respectively, and were organized by the Italian Federation of Earth Science, were two important moments for the promotion of geoethics in Italy. They were devoted to the highlighting of how, and with what tools and contents, can the geosciences contribute to the cultural renewal of society. They also covered the active roles of geoscientists in the dissemination of scientific information, contributing in this way to the correct construction of social knowledge. Geology is culture, and as such it can help to dispel misconceptions and cultural stereotypes that concern natural phenomena, disasters, resources, and land management. Geological culture consists of methods, goals, values, history, ways of thinking about nature, and specific sensitivity for approaching problems and their solutions. So geology has to fix referenced values, as indispensable prerequisites for geoethics. Together, geological culture and geoethics can strengthen the bond that joins people to their territory, and can help to find solutions and answers to some important challenges in the coming years regarding natural risks, resources, and climate change. Starting from these considerations, we stress the importance of establishing an ethical criterion for Earth scientists, to focus attention on the issue of the responsibility of geoscientists, and the need to more clearly define their scientific identity and the value of their specificities.

Silvia Peppoloni

2012-07-01

91

Geoethics and geological culture: awareness, responsibility and challenges  

OpenAIRE

The international debate in the field of geoethics focuses on some of the most important environmental emergencies, while highlighting the great responsibilities of geoscientists, whatever field they work in, and the important social, cultural and economic repercussions that their choices can have on society. The GeoItalia 2009 and 2011 conferences that were held in Rimini and Turin, respectively, and were organized by the Italian Federation of Earth Science, were two important moments for th...

Silvia Peppoloni; Giuseppe Di Capua

2012-01-01

92

A Teacher's Perspective: Creating Culturally Responsive Learning Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

In their essay, "Creating Culturally Responsive Learning Communities," page 151, Eugene Garc?a and Okhee Lee begin with the idea that human beings construct knowledge by "applying knowledge of previous concepts to the new information that is presented." They use this as a jumping-off point for a discussion of the idea of responsive learning communities, which are learning environments in which students' out-of-school knowledge, values, experiences, beliefs, and histories are used as a foundation for learning academic subject matter. Ana Vaisenstein, a former first-grade teacher in a two-way bilingual school, shares her perspective.

Ana Vaisenstein, Sumner Elementary School, Boston Public Schools

2008-01-01

93

Glacial refugia in pathogens: European genetic structure of anther smut pathogens on Silene latifolia and Silene dioica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Climate warming is predicted to increase the frequency of invasions by pathogens and to cause the large-scale redistribution of native host species, with dramatic consequences on the health of domesticated and wild populations of plants and animals. The study of historic range shifts in response to climate change, such as during interglacial cycles, can help in the prediction of the routes and dynamics of infectious diseases during the impending ecosystem changes. Here we studied the population structure in Europe of two Microbotryum species causing anther smut disease on the plants Silene latifolia and Silene dioica. Clustering analyses revealed the existence of genetically distinct groups for the pathogen on S. latifolia, providing a clear-cut example of European phylogeography reflecting recolonization from southern refugia after glaciation. The pathogen genetic structure was congruent with the genetic structure of its host species S. latifolia, suggesting dependence of the migration pathway of the anther smut fungus on its host. The fungus, however, appeared to have persisted in more numerous and smaller refugia than its host and to have experienced fewer events of large-scale dispersal. The anther smut pathogen on S. dioica also showed a strong phylogeographic structure that might be related to more northern glacial refugia. Differences in host ecology probably played a role in these differences in the pathogen population structure. Very high selfing rates were inferred in both fungal species, explaining the low levels of admixture between the genetic clusters. The systems studied here indicate that migration patterns caused by climate change can be expected to include pathogen invasions that follow the redistribution of their host species at continental scales, but also that the recolonization by pathogens is not simply a mirror of their hosts, even for obligate biotrophs, and that the ecology of hosts and pathogen mating systems likely affects recolonization patterns. PMID:21187901

Vercken, Elodie; Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Jonot, Odile; Giraud, Tatiana

2010-01-01

94

Research on cotton anther development of three male-sterile lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60Co ?-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)

95

Analysis of anther transcriptomes to identify genes contributing to meiosis and male gametophyte development in rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants, the anther is the site of male gametophyte development. Two major events in the development of the male germline are meiosis and the asymmetric division in the male gametophyte that gives rise to the vegetative and generative cells, and the following mitotic division in the generative cell that produces two sperm cells. Anther transcriptomes have been analyzed in many plant species at progressive stages of development by using microarray and sequence-by synthesis-technologies to identify genes that regulate anther development. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of rice anther transcriptomes at four distinct stages, focusing on identifying regulatory components that contribute to male meiosis and germline development. Further, these transcriptomes have been compared with the transcriptomes of 10 stages of rice vegetative and seed development to identify genes that express specifically during anther development. Results Transcriptome profiling of four stages of anther development in rice including pre-meiotic (PMA, meiotic (MA, anthers at single-celled (SCP and tri-nucleate pollen (TPA revealed about 22,000 genes expressing in at least one of the anther developmental stages, with the highest number in MA (18,090 and the lowest (15,465 in TPA. Comparison of these transcriptome profiles to an in-house generated microarray-based transcriptomics database comprising of 10 stages/tissues of vegetative as well as reproductive development in rice resulted in the identification of 1,000 genes specifically expressed in anther stages. From this sub-set, 453 genes were specific to TPA, while 78 and 184 genes were expressed specifically in MA and SCP, respectively. The expression pattern of selected genes has been validated using real time PCR and in situ hybridizations. Gene ontology and pathway analysis of stage-specific genes revealed that those encoding transcription factors and components of protein folding, sorting and degradation pathway genes dominated in MA, whereas in TPA, those coding for cell structure and signal transduction components were in abundance. Interestingly, about 50% of the genes with anther-specific expression have not been annotated so far. Conclusions Not only have we provided the transcriptome constituents of four landmark stages of anther development in rice but we have also identified genes that express exclusively in these stages. It is likely that many of these candidates may therefore contribute to specific aspects of anther and/or male gametophyte development in rice. In addition, the gene sets that have been produced will assist the plant reproductive community in building a deeper understanding of underlying regulatory networks and in selecting gene candidates for functional validation.

Sharma Rita

2011-05-01

96

A Framework for Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Design of Response-to-Intervention Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Response to Intervention (RTI) was encoded into the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, and is being adopted on a wide scale as an alternative approach to identification of students with learning disabilities. For RTI to be an effective mechanism for addressing disproportionate representation of culturally and…

Garcia, Shernaz B.; Ortiz, Alba A.

2008-01-01

97

A culturally responsive, family-enhanced intervention model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Multicultural Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use, referred to as The Shadow Project, was a 3-year, NIAAA-funded pilot study involving 60 American Indian families who had a youth entering alcohol and drug inpatient treatment. Participation was voluntary and involved comparison of two different treatment modalities: treatment as usual and a brief family-enhanced intervention. In adapting this family-based intervention specifically for American Indian families, a cultural approach to assessment and intervention was integrated into the process, with the intervention focusing on building support around the youth to attain abstinence and assuring the youth that their family, community, and substance abuse counselor were motivating influences. Five areas were assessed in the family observation tasks: relationship building, positive reinforcement, limit setting, monitoring, problem solving, and communication. Cultural adaptation was made for two of the five tasks. Two legends were used to assess the families' skill level in relationship building, problem solving, and communication as a family unit. By incorporating Indian stories, families were encouraged to respond in a culturally appropriate manner. Preliminary findings show that these stories were linked to child prosocial behavior and the percentage of days abstinent from individual drug use. This pilot project also adapted culturally responsive instruments, tasks, and validity to this population. The first year required adaptation of recruitment methods, tribal and treatment center agreements, referral contacts, and implementation of intervention and follow-up with adolescents and their families. The second year was composed of intervention implementation and follow-up assessments. To determine the intervention program's long-term effect on reducing adolescent alcohol and other drug use, all families were followed up and assessed 11 months after they left treatment. The third and final year of the study included follow-up, data entry, and data analysis. PMID:12966339

Boyd-Ball, Alison J

2003-08-01

98

Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. / In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução d [...] esses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta), buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1) x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1) e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1) x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1) mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1) e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1) x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1). Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1) + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1) e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1) + AIB (1 mg.L-1)+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1); para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1) e cinetina (4 mg.L-1). Abstract in english The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aime [...] d to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis) aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce callogenesis in anthers of the 'Acaiá Cerrado' there were tested 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1) x kinetin (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg.L-1) and 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 and 2mg.L-1) x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 and 2mg.-1) plus 2 iP (2 mg.L-1) concentrations and for the 'Rubi' 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1) x kinetin (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg.L-1) concentrations. It was observed that the highest percentage of callogenesis induction in anthers of the 'Acaiá Cerrado' was provenient from 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1) + kinetin (1,9 mg.L-1) and 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1) + AIB (1 mg.L-1)+ 2iP (2mg.L-1) combinations for 'Rubi' 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1) and kinetin (4 mg.L-1).

Ednamar Gabriela, Palú; Adriano Bortolotti da, Silva; Moacir, Pasqual.

2004-08-01

99

Calogênese in vitro em anteras de coffea arabica L. In vitro callogenesis in anthers of Coffea arabica L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O café é um dos mais importantes produtos do mercado internacional; porém, o tempo gasto e os recursos despendidos são fatores limitantes para o melhoramento do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais. Contudo, a cultura de anteras surge como uma alternativa viável e de curto prazo para solução desses problemas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se a produção de dihaplóides com a cultura de anteras do cafeeiro (androgênese indireta, buscando um protocolo para a fase de indução de calos. Para tanto, foi efetuada a assepsia dos botões florais e das anteras, que, em seguida, foram inoculadas em meio IC e mantidas no escuro por 8 semanas, sob temperatura de 25ºC ± 1. Para induzir a calogênese em anteras da cv. Acaiá Cerrado, foram testadas as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 e 2 mg.L-1 mais 2iP (2 mg.L-1 e, para a cv. Rubi, as concentrações de 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 e 4 mg.L-1 x cinetina (0, 2, 4 e 8 mg.L-1. Foi observado que a maior porcentagem de indução de calogênese em anteras na cv. Acaiá Cerrado ocorre com as combinações de 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1 + cinetina (1,9 mg.L-1 e 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1 + AIB (1 mg.L-1+ 2iP (2 mg.L-1; para cv. Rubi, a combinação de 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1 e cinetina (4 mg.L-1.The coffee is one of the most important products of the international market, however the time and money wasted in breeding programs are limiting factors for its improvement. However, the anther culture appears as a viable alternative for a short time period solution for this problem. This work aimed to obtain the double haploids production from anther cultures of the coffee plant (indirect androgenesis aiming to optimize a protocol calluse induction. For this purpose, asseptic conditions of the flower budsand anthers were accomplished, folowed by inoculationin IC medium and the tissue were kept for eight weeks at 25ºC ± 1 in the dark. To induce callogenesis in anthers of the 'Acaiá Cerrado' there were tested 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1 x kinetin (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg.L-1 and 2,4-D (0; 0,5; 1 and 2mg.L-1 x AIB (0; 0,5; 1 and 2mg.-1 plus 2 iP (2 mg.L-1 concentrations and for the 'Rubi' 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg.L-1 x kinetin (0, 2, 4 and 8 mg.L-1 concentrations. It was observed that the highest percentage of callogenesis induction in anthers of the 'Acaiá Cerrado' was provenient from 2,4-D (2 mg.L-1 + kinetin (1,9 mg.L-1 and 2,4-D (0,86 mg.L-1 + AIB (1 mg.L-1+ 2iP (2mg.L-1 combinations for 'Rubi' 2,4-D (1,9 mg.L-1 and kinetin (4 mg.L-1.

Ednamar Gabriela Palú

2004-08-01

100

Hemopoietic cell precursor responses to erythropoietin in plasma clot cultures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The time dependence of the response of mouse bone marrow cells to erythropoietin (Ep) in vitro was studied. Experiments include studies on the Ep response of marrow cells from normal, plethoric, or bled mice. Results with normal marrow reveal: (1) Not all erythroid precursors (CFU-E) are alike in their response to Ep. A significant number of the precursors develop to a mature erythroid colony after very short Ep exposures, but they account for only approx. 13% of the total colonies generated when Ep is active for 48 hrs. If Ep is active more than 6 hrs, a second population of erythroid colonies emerges at a nearly constant rate until the end of the culture. Full erythroid colony production requires prolonged exposure to erythropoietin. (2) The longer erythropoietin is actively present, the larger the number of erythroid colonies that reach 17 cells or more. Two distinct populations of immediate erythroid precursors are also present in marrow from plethoric mice. In these mice, total colony numbers are equal to or below those obtained from normal mice. However, the population of fast-responding CFU-E is consistently decreased to 10 to 20% of that found in normal marrow. The remaining colonies are formed from plethoric marrow at a rate equal to normal marrow. With increasing Ep exposures, the number of large colonies produced increases. From the marrow of bled mice, total erythroid colony production is equal to or above that of normal marrow. Two populations of colony-forming cells are again evident, with the fast-responding CFU-E being below normal levels. The lack of colonies from this group was compensated in bled mice by rapid colony production in the second population. A real increase in numbers of precursors present in this pool increased the rate of colony production in culture to twice that of normal marrow. The number of large colonies obtained from bled mice was again increased as the Ep exposure was lengthened. (ERB)

Kennedy, W.L.

1979-01-01

101

Aquaporins of the PIP2 class are required for efficient anther dehiscence in tobacco  

OpenAIRE

Several processes during sexual reproduction in higher plants involve the movement of water between cells or tissues. Before flower anthesis, anther and pollen dehydration takes place before the release of mature pollen at dehiscence. Aquaporins represent a class of proteins that mediates the movement of water over cellular membranes. Aquaporins of the plasmamembrane PIP2 family are expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) anthers and may therefore be involved in the movement of water in this...

Bots, M. L.; Vergeldt, F. J.; Wolters-arts, M.; Weterings, K.; As, H.; Mariani, C.

2005-01-01

102

Modulation of insulin responses in cultured cells by calmodulin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main impetus of this work was to analyze the possible association of Ca++/calmodulin with the ? subunit tyrosine kinase of the insulin receptor in whole cells, and to correlate this association to insulin dependent biological responses. Initial in vitro assays with IM-9 lymphocyte receptor preparations demonstrated that calmodulin augments insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation in a calcium dependent manner. Furthermore, the specific calmodulin inhibitors calmidazolium and agent W-7 were effective at inhibiting insulin stimulated receptor autophosphorylation at concentrations reported to inhibit other calmodulin regulated systems. Utilizing the insulin-responsive cultured muscle cell line BC3H-1, we have investigated the effects of these calmodulin antagonists on insulin receptor autophosphorylation, insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis, and insulin-stimulated hexose uptake in intake in intact cells. Confluent BC3H-1 myocytes were assayed for responsiveness to insulin in the presence and absence of increasing concentrations of calmidazolium or W-7 at 37 degree C. Insulin-stimulated receptor tyrosine autophosphorylation of the 95 kDa ?-subunit was inhibited by both agents with IC50 values for each of ?30 ?M. 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA was also inhibited with an IC50 value for each of 20-30 ?M. Insulin-stimulated 3H-2-deoxyglucose uptake was not specifically affected by calmidazolium and demoy affected by calmidazolium and demonstrated inhibition by W-7 only at concentrations indication that the effect is not modulated by a calmodulin dependent mechanism

103

Successful development of a shed-microspore culture protocol for doubled haploid production in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)  

OpenAIRE

Various systems of anther and microspore cultures were studied to establish an efficient doubled haploid production method for Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). A shed-microspore culture protocol was developed which outperformed all the previously reported methods of haploid production in pepper. The critical factors of the protocol are: selection of flower buds with more than 50% late unicellular microspores, a 1 day 4°C pretreatment of the buds, followed by culture of the anthers...

Supena, E. D. J.; Suharsono, S.; Jacobsen, E.; Custers, J. B. M.

2006-01-01

104

The response of human glioblastoma in culture to radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cells from two human glioblastoma multiforme and one mouse glioma were grown in tissue cultures and their X-ray survival curve parameters were determined under oxygenated and hypoxic conditions. These were compared with the survival parameters for mouse fibroblasts (L5) and established cell lines from human carcinoma coli (HeLa S3) irradiated under identical conditions. There was no significant difference in response among the cell lines used. Repair of potentially lethal damage for human glioblastoma and HeLa S3 was assessed by the increase in survival which occurred as the cells were held in density inhibited stationary phase. The magnitude of repair of potentially lethal damage (slope modifying factors) for the glioblastoma and HeLa were 1.9 and 1.1, respectively. (author)

105

Differential radiation response of cultured endothelial cells and smooth myocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo observations have suggested that endothelial cells are the most radiosensitive elements of the vascular wall. To test whether this represents an intrinsic differential sensitivity, the response of bovine aortic endothelial cells and smooth myocytes was investigated in confluent cell cultures exposed to single doses of gamma radiation (250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 rad). Both cell types showed a dose-dependent decrease in attachment efficiency when dissociated and replated at six hours after radiation. However, the attachment efficiency in both cell types was similar when a 72-hour postirradiation incubation period was used prior to dissociation of the cells. Growth inhibition was significantly greater (7- to 10-fold) in endothelial cells than in myocytes when examined four days after attachment. Confluent endothelial monolayers showed a dose-dependent, progressive cell loss during the 72-hour postirradiation period (70% after 1,000 rad); the myocyte cultures showed no radiation effect on the cell numbers. In spite of the reduction in number, the endothelial cells maintained the continuity of their monolayer by compensation with an increase in mean cell size. Endothelial cells developed multiple structural lesions, including an increase in the number and size of residual and lysosomal bodies, electron-lucent cytoplasmic defects, interruptions in the plasma membrane and irregular aggregation of chromatin, causing electron-lucent nuclei. These changes increased in sevent nuclei. These changes increased in severity with time and dose and were most pronounced 24 to 72 hours after 1,000 rad. No significant ultrastructural alterations were detected in myocytes four days after 2,000 rad

106

Three Curriculum and Organisational Responses to Cultural Pluralism in New Zealand Schooling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines three educational responses to cultural diversity operating in New Zealand schools: incorporation of Maori culture programs in mainstream curriculums, organizational modification to accommodate Maori students, and the development of Maori culture and language immersion programs in primary schools. Application of similar programs to…

Corson, David

1990-01-01

107

A survey of anther glands in the mimosoid legume tribes Parkieae and Mimoseae.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a broad survey of anther glands in the mimosoid legume tribes Mimoseae and Parkieae, representatives from 30 genera with anther glands were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Four kinds of anther glands could be distinguished. The Piptadenia-type gland, found in all but four of the genera surveyed, is usually spherical to ellipsoid in shape and often borne on a stipe. The cells making up the gland vary in size among species and are often sculptured. Six different kinds of sculpturing can be recognized: smooth, reticulate, striate, rugulate, scabrate, and papillate. The Gagnebina-type gland is the least specialized, consisting of a simple extension of the connective with irregularly projecting cells. The Prosopis africana-type gland is borne ventrally between the thecae, the connective extending hump-like over the apex of the anther. The Pentaclethra-type gland, found only in the genus Pentaclethra, is distinguished by a median dorsal furrow and a ventral conical structure similar to a food body or osmophore. Anatomical sections revealed two different subtypes within the Piptadenia-type gland. Some glands are composed of a homogeneous matrix of isodiametric cells, whereas others have two layers: a peripheral layer of large radially elongated cells, and a central sphere of smaller isodiametric cells and large air spaces. Some characters of anther glands have clear taxonomic significance, and more detailed surveys within genera will undoubtedly provide additional taxonomic markers. PMID:21708582

Luckow, M; Grimes, J

1997-03-01

108

Survey Response Styles, Acculturation, and Culture Among a Sample of Mexican American Adults  

OpenAIRE

A number of studies have investigated use of extreme (ERS) and acquiescent (ARS) response styles across cultural groups. However, due to within-group heterogeneity, it is important to also examine use of response styles, acculturation, and endorsement of cultural variables at the individual level. This study explores relationships between acculturation, six Mexican cultural factors, ERS, and ARS among a sample of 288 Mexican American telephone survey respondents. Three aspects of acculturatio...

Davis, Rachel E.; Resnicow, Ken; Couper, Mick P.

2011-01-01

109

Toward a Conception of Culturally Responsive Classroom Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the increasing diversity of our classrooms, a lack of multicultural competence can exacerbate the difficulties that novice teachers have with classroom management. Definitions and expectations of appropriate behavior are culturally influenced, and conflicts are likely to occur when teachers and students come from different cultural

Weinstein, Carol S.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra; Curran, Mary

2004-01-01

110

Biculturalization: Developing Culturally Responsive Approaches to Family Participation  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript describes a process for addressing cultural differences that is effective when applied specifically to collaborating with families in planning an intervention or an Individualized Education Program (IEP). The process, known as biculturalization, is designed to create culturally appropriate interventions by identifying and…

Sheehey, Patricia; Ornelles, Cecily; Noonan, Mary Jo

2009-01-01

111

Culturable bacteria in Himalayan ice in response to atmospheric circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only recently has specific attention been given to culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers, but their relation to atmospheric circulation is less understood yet. Here we investigate the seasonal variation of culturable bacteria preserved in a Himalayan ice core. High concentration of culturable bacteria in glacial ice deposited during the pre-monsoon season is attributed to the transportation of continental dust stirred up by the frequent dust storms in Northwest China during spring. This is also confirmed by the spatial distribution of culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers. Culturable bacteria deposited during monsoon season are more diverse than other seasons because they derive from both marine air masses and local or regional continental sources. We suggest that microorganisms in Himalayan ice can be used to reconstruct atmospheric circulation.

S. Zhang

2006-06-01

112

A mixed methods study of culturally responsive teaching in science and math classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Through the dawn of education, student achievement has always been the primary focus of educators. The United States has not changed the structure of their educational institutions since the Industrial Revolution. With the achievement gap between mainstream and non-mainstream students continually growing, it is the responsibility of every educator to contribute to student success. However, teachers cannot be held accountable for teaching what they do not know. This study investigates the correlation between Culturally Responsive Teaching professional development and the effects on minority students. The yearlong professional development models as well as culturally responsive strategies are discussed in great length. The study reflects the attitudes of teachers before and after participation in the culturally responsive professional development. Student growth was tracked over the school year as well as teacher implementation of the culturally responsive strategies. The final teacher survey and overall student growth was analyzed for correlation.

Holocker, Angela Y.

113

Androgenic response of barley accessions and F1s with Fusarium head blight resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions perform relatively poorly from an agronomic point of view. Due to the polygenic inheritance of FHB resistance, introgression of this complex trait into well-adapted elite germplasm will likely require multiple cycles of hybridization and selection to combine resistance and agronomic performance. The use of anther culture to produce doubled haploids would seem well justified to reduce the time required to achieve this goal. Unfortunately, little is known concerning the androgenic response of the small number of genotypes with known partial FHB resistance. To make the best use of such FHB resistance donors in a barley improvement program, we first characterized the FHB resistance of eight reported FHB resistance sources (Chevron, Gobernadora, Seijo II, Shyri, Svanhals, Zhedar I, F104-250-9 and C97-21-38-3) in our own FHB nursery in Quebec City (QC, Canada). In parallel, we assessed the androgenic response of these same eight lines with that of three cultivars (ACCA, Léger and Cadette) of known androgenic response. Finally, the androgenic response of F(1) hybrids involving some of these genotypes used as parents was measured and compared to that of the parental genotypes. Very large and significant differences were observed in the number of green plants produced by the different accessions and F(1)s. Although anther culture seemed very promising for some accessions, for others, the androgenic response was so low that a conventional approach would seem more appropriate. PMID:18026956

Marchand, Suzanne; Fonquerne, Gaudéric; Clermont, Isabelle; Laroche, Liette; Huynh, Tung Thanh; Belzile, François J

2008-03-01

114

Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their oviposition active indices (OAI were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3 at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type, B. t. var. israelensis (mutant and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm, which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm, the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

Poonam S

2002-01-01

115

Oviposition Attractancy of Bacterial Culture Filtrates: response of Culex quinquefasciatus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Oviposition attractants could be used for monitoring as well as controlling mosquitoes by attracting them to lay eggs at chosen sites. In the present study, culture filtrates of seven bacterial species were tested for their attractancy against gravid females of Culex quinquefasciatus. When their ovi [...] position active indices (OAI) were studied, the culture filtrates of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibited oviposition attractancy (OAI = >0.3) at 100 ppm and the OAI were respectively 0.70 and 0.47. Culture filtrates of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (wild type), B. t. var. israelensis (mutant) and B. sphaericus showed attractancy at 2000 ppm with OAI of respectively 0.71, 0.59 and 0.68. However, the OAI of B. megaterium as well as Azospirillum brasilense was 0.13 (at 2000 ppm), which was less than 0.3 required to be considered them as attractants. When the oviposition attractancy of the bacterial culture filtrates were compared with that of a known oviposition attractant, p-cresol (at 10 ppm), the culture filtrates of B. t. var. israelensis (wild type) and B. cereus were found to be more active than p-cresol, respectively with 64.2 and 54.3% oviposition.

S, Poonam; KP, Paily; K, Balaraman.

2002-04-01

116

The development of a model of culturally responsive science and mathematics teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative theoretical study was conducted in response to the current need for an inclusive and comprehensive model to guide the preparation and assessment of teacher candidates for culturally responsive teaching. The process of developing a model of culturally responsive teaching involved three steps: a comprehensive review of the literature; a synthesis of the literature into thematic categories to capture the dispositions and behaviors of culturally responsive teaching; and the piloting of these thematic categories with teacher candidates to validate the usefulness of the categories and to generate specific exemplars of behavior to represent each category. The model of culturally responsive teaching contains five thematic categories: (1) content integration, (2) facilitating knowledge construction, (3) prejudice reduction, (4) social justice, and (5) academic development. The current model is a promising tool for comprehensively defining culturally responsive teaching in the context of teacher education as well as to guide curriculum and assessment changes aimed to increase candidates' culturally responsive knowledge and skills in science and mathematics teaching.

Hernandez, Cecilia M.; Morales, Amanda R.; Shroyer, M. Gail

2013-12-01

117

Effects of Cry1Ab-Expressing Corn Anthers on the Movement of Monarch Butterfly Larvae  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that anthers from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn, Zea mays L., do not pose a significant risk to the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.). However, adverse effects (decreased feeding and weight) have been detected after 4 days of exposure in the laboratory to a high density ...

118

Examination of Meiosis Anomalies in Anthers of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cavus  

OpenAIRE

Meiotic anomalies in pollen mother cells in anthers of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cavus (2n = 38) were examined by light microscopy. In most microspore mother cells, the course of meiosis is regular. In some cells irregularities were observed, including chromosome bridges, univalents and fragments. Microspore tetrads are isobilateral and tetrahedral.

Erol Kodak; Nurhan Buyukkartal, H.

2005-01-01

119

Social Justice and Cultural Responsiveness: Innovative Teaching Strategies for Group Work  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a teaching strategy for group work that enhances the social justice consciousness of course participants by increasing their knowledge of their own cultural identity, worldview, acculturation, privilege, and oppression to improve their cultural responsiveness and understanding of social justice issues. The focus is on group…

Ibrahim, Farah A.

2010-01-01

120

The Cultural Responsiveness of Teacher Candidates Towards Roma Pupils in Serbia and Slovenia--Case Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

In many countries, there is a growing need for teacher awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences, what is often called culturally responsive teaching. This is why teacher education institutions are making significant efforts to require student teachers to enrol in courses that focus on understanding, tolerance and acceptance of differences…

Pecek, Mojca; Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Vujisic-Živkovic, Nataša

2014-01-01

121

How Cultural Differences Affect Written and Oral Communication: The Case of Peer Response Groups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer response groups contribute to students' effectiveness as writers in any field, but cultural differences in communication affect interactions within the group. Culture-based dimensions on which communication may differ include individualism/collectivism, power distance, concept of "face," and communication style. Recommendations are made for…

Nelson, Gayle L.

1997-01-01

122

The response rate in postal epidemiological studies in the context of national cultural behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of national cultural differences on the response rate, obtained in questionnaire based epidemiological studies on allergy and asthma, performed in Sweden (DBH) and Bulgaria (ALLHOME). The two studies used one and the same methodology, but the obtained response rate was different: 78.8% in DBH and 34.5% in ALLHOME. The differences in the obtained response rate and the reasons for these differences were analyzed on the basis of the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions’ indexes, which clearly show the distinction in the national cultural behaviour of people in Sweden and Bulgaria. It was found that national culture could strongly influence the response behaviour of people in epidemiological studies and Hofstede’s indexes can be useful tool when designing and performing epidemiological studies, and in particular – questionnaire surveys.

Angelova, Radostina A.; Naydenov, Kiril

2012-01-01

123

Culturally Responsive L2 Education: An Awareness-Raising Proposal  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing prevalence of multilingual, multiethnic, and multicultural classrooms in varied educational contexts worldwide points to the importance of cultural factors in language education and education in general. In the EFL/ESL classroom of this century, ELT is seen as including much more than purely linguistic aspects as it focuses also on…

Porto, Melina

2010-01-01

124

Culturally Responsive Assessment Literacy: Assessment as a Democratic Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

To help preservice teachers develop and maintain a professional commitment to educational quality and educational equity, teacher education programs must promote culturally relevant assessment and evaluation practices. It is not enough to understand the ways that current assessment and evaluation practices are biased against specific student…

Sloan, Kris

2009-01-01

125

Culturally Responsive, Transformative Pedagogy in the Transnational Era: Critical Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This article addresses challenges of multicultural education in the context of increasing transnational mobility and growing diversity in schools, and suggests ways to convert these challenges into new resources in education. We start with a brief overview of the contemporary transnationalism and new understanding of space and culture (Levitt…

Kim, Sujin; Slapac, Alina

2015-01-01

126

The Cultural Responsiveness and Dual Language Education Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Early childhood programs are experiencing increasing numbers of children who are learning English as a second language. Staff members struggle with how to best support children and families who are working to preserve their home language and culture while helping their children succeed in educational settings outside the home where English is the…

Fort, Pilar; Stechuk, Robert

2008-01-01

127

Responsibility-sensitive fair compensation in different cultures  

OpenAIRE

Recently many philosophers and social choice theorists have questioned traditional welfare egalitarianism by introducing a notion of responsibility. They propose to distinguish between two sets of individual characteristics: those for which individuals are to be kept responsible and those for which they can be compensated. This approach raises the related questions of where to draw the line between those two sets of characteristics and how to operationalise the notion of 'responsibility-sensi...

Schokkaert, Erik; Devooght, Kurt

1999-01-01

128

Voting behavior is reflected in amygdala response across cultures  

OpenAIRE

Voting to determine one’s leaders is among the most important decisions we make, yet little is known about the brain’s role in how we come to these decisions. Behavioral studies have indicated that snap judgments of political candidates’ faces can predict election outcomes but that the traits that lead to these judgments differ across cultures. Here we sought to investigate the neural basis for these judgments. American and Japanese natives performed simulated voting judgments of actual...

Rule, Nicholas O.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Moran, Joseph M.; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Adams, Reginald B.; Ambady, Nalini

2009-01-01

129

Lihir Destiny : Cultural Responses to Mining in Melanesia  

OpenAIRE

The people of the Lihir Islands in Papua New Guinea have long held visions of a prosperous new future, often referred to by local leaders as the ‘Lihir Destiny’. When large-scale gold mining activities commenced on the main island of Lihir in 1995, many hoped that this new world had finally arrived. The Lihir Destiny provides a nuanced account of the social structural and cultural transformations engendered by large-scale resource extraction. Tracing the history of Lihirian engagement wit...

Bainton, Nicholas A.

2010-01-01

130

The Impact of Learning Culture on Worker Response to New Technology  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide a framework to measure the response of blue-collar workers to new technology in manufacturing and to establish the relationship between learning culture and that response. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected with a survey questionnaire from 12 manufacturing sites that were implementing…

Reardon, Robert F.

2010-01-01

131

Effects of cell type and culture media on Interleukin-6 secretion in response to environmental particles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kaolin particles along with soluble vanadium and lipopolysaccharide, applied to airway-derived cells grown in submerged culture. Cell types included A549, BEAS-2B, RAW 264.7, and primary macrophages. The cell culture models (specific combinations of cell types and culture conditions) were reproducibly different in the cytokine signaling responses to the suite of treatments. Further, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) response to the treatments changed when the same cells, BEAS-2B, were grown in KGM versus LHC-9 media or in media containing bovine serum. The effect of changing media composition was reversible over multiple changes of media type. Other variables tested included culture well size and degree of confluence. The observation that sensitivity of a cell type to environmental agonists can be manipulated by modifying culture conditions suggests a novel approach for studying biochemical mechanisms of particle toxicity.

Veranth, J.M.; Cutler, N.S.; Kaser, E.G.; Reilly, C.A.; Yost, G.S. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

2008-03-15

132

Effects of cortisol on the primary response of mouse spleen cell cultures to heterologous erythrocytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cell viability and the production of direct PFC were studied in mouse spleen cell cultures after cortisol treatment in vivo or in vitro at various times relative to primary stimulation with SRBC in vitro. Cortisol treatment in vivo reduced spleen cell numbers by 88 percent after 48 hr, but cultures of the remaining cells produced as many PFC in vitro as did cultures of equal numbers of normal spleen cells. In normal spleen cell cultures incubated with cortisol for 4 hr prior to the addition of antigen, peak responses of PFC/culture and PFC/106 cells occurred 24 hr later than in controls and averaged, respectively, 27 and 141 percent of control values. Minimum viable cell numbers were observed in cortisol-treated cultures after 3 days; thereafter cell numbers gradually increased. These results were not significantly altered when cultures were treated simultaneously with cortisol and antigen. The response was not suppressed if the addition of antigen preceded that of cortisol by more than 4 hr. Suppression was also considerably reduced if fetal calf serum was used when preparing cells for culture

133

Cartilage responses to a novel triaxial mechanostimulatory culture system.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a novel mechanically active cartilage culture device capable of modulating the interplay between compression and shear, at physiologic stress levels (2-5 MPa). This triaxial compression culture system subjects cylindrical cartilage explants to pulsatile axial compression from platen contact, plus pulsatile radially transverse compression from external fluid compression. These compressive loads can be independently modulated to impose stress states that resemble normal physiologic loading, and to investigate perturbations of individual components of the multi-axial stress state, such as increased shear stress. Based on the observation that joint incongruity predisposes cartilage to premature degeneration, we hypothesized that cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis would be inhibited under conditions of low transverse buttressing (high shear stress). To test this hypothesis, we compared ECM synthesis in human cartilage explants exposed to axial compression without transverse compression (high shear stress), versus explants exposed to axial compression plus an equal level of transverse compression (low shear stress). Both total (35)SO(4) incorporation and aggrecan-specific (35)SO(4) incorporation were significantly inhibited by axial compression, relative to axial plus transverse compression. PMID:15046998

Heiner, A D Anneliese D; Martin, J A James A

2004-05-01

134

Microbotryum silenes-saxifragae sp. nov. sporulating in the anthers of Silene saxifraga in southern European mountains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Currently, the monophyletic lineage of anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae includes 22 species classified in the genus Microbotryum. They are model organisms studied in many disciplines of fungal biology. A molecular phylogenetic approach was used to resolve species boundaries within the caryophyllaceous anther smuts, as species delimitation based solely on phenotypic characters was problematic. Several cryptic species were found amongst the anther smuts on Caryophyllaceae, although some morphologically distinct species were discernible, and most species were characterized by high host-specificity. In this study, anther smut specimens infecting Silene saxifraga were analysed using rDNA sequences (ITS and LSU) and morphology to resolve their specific status and to discuss their phylogenetic position within the lineage of caryophyllaceous anther smuts. The molecular phylogeny revealed that all specimens form a monophyletic lineage that is supported by the morphological trait of reticulate spores with tuberculate interspaces (observed in certain spores). This lineage cannot be attributed to any of the previously described species, and the anther smut on Silene saxifraga is described and illustrated here as a new species, Microbotryum silenes-saxifragae. This species clusters in a clade that includes Microbotryum species, which infect both closely and distantly related host plants growing in diverse ecological habitats. It appears possible that host shifts combined with changes to ecological host niches drove the evolution of Microbotryum species within this clade. PMID:23898410

Pi?tek, Marcin; Lutz, Matthias; Kemler, Martin

2013-07-01

135

The effects of corporate social responsibility on employees' affective commitment: a cross-cultural investigation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the moderating effects of several Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) cultural value dimensions on the relationship between employees' perceptions of their organization's social responsibility and their affective organizational commitment. Based on data from a sample of 1,084 employees from 17 countries, results showed that perceived corporate social responsibility (CSR) was positively related to employees' affective commitment (AC), after controlling for individual job satisfaction and gender as well as for nation-level differences in unemployment rates. In addition, several GLOBE value dimensions moderated the effects of CSR on AC. In particular, perceptions of CSR were more positively related to AC in cultures higher in humane orientation, institutional collectivism, ingroup collectivism, and future orientation and in cultures lower in power distance. Implications for future CSR research and cross-cultural human resources management are discussed. PMID:23067337

Mueller, Karsten; Hattrup, Kate; Spiess, Sven-Oliver; Lin-Hi, Nick

2012-11-01

136

The cultural basis of prosodic modifications to infants and children: a response to Fernald's universalist theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fernald and her colleagues have argued for the universality of prosodic modifications in speech addressed to infants (e.g. Fernald, 1987; Fernald, Taeschner, Dunn, Papousek, de Boysson-Bardies & Fukui, 1989). An alternative proposal in Bernstein-Ratner & Pye (1984) and Pye (1986) argues that speech modifications to children are the result of a set of conventions that may vary from culture to culture. This note presents arguments against Fernald and in support of the cultural account of prosodic modifications to infants and children. First, in response to criticisms in Fernald et al., data are presented which defend the conclusion in Bernstein-Ratner & Pye that Quiché mothers show less prosodic modification to children than do mothers in other cultures studied to date. Second, data used to support the universal position in Fernald (1987) on adult identification of infant affective states are reinterpreted and shown to be equally interpretable as the result of a set of culturally transmitted rules. PMID:7759581

Ingram, D

1995-02-01

137

Effect of 60Co ?-rays irradiation pretreatment on callus inductivity and differentiation of strawberry anther  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strawberry buds, in which a majority of pollen had single nuclear keeping to the side, were pretreated by 60Co ?-rays irradiation at different doses. The irradiation effect on the callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate of strawberry anther were studied. The results indicated that the pretreatment by 60Co ?-rays could increase the anther callus inductivity and plant differentiation rate significantly, and 20 Gy was the best dose. The callus inductivity of Akihime and Toyonoka increased by 39.09% and 35.68%, respectively, compared with the no-pretreatment materials. On the same media, the plant differentiation rate of Akihime and Toyonoka were also increased by 6.67%-6.72% and 4.73%-6.45%, respectively, compared with the two varieties of no-pretreatment. (authors)

138

Oxidative Stress and Glutathione Response in Tissue Cultures from Persons with Major Depression  

OpenAIRE

There is evidence that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased peripheral markers of oxidative stress. To explore oxidation and antioxidant response in MDD, we assayed human dermal fibroblast cultures derived from skin biopsies of age-, race-, and sex-matched individuals in depressed and normal control groups (n=16 each group), cultured in glucose and galactose conditions, for relative protein carbonylation (a measure of oxidative stress), glutathione reductase (GR) expre...

Gibson, Sara A.; Korade, Z?eljka; Shelton, Richard C.

2012-01-01

139

Effects of Cell Type and Culture Media on Interleukin-6 Secretion in Response to Environmental Particles  

OpenAIRE

Cultured lung cells provide an alternative to animal exposures for comparing the effects of different types of air pollution particles. Studies of particulate matter in vitro have reported proinflammatory cytokine signaling in response to many types of environmental particles, but there have been few studies comparing identical treatments in multiple cell types or identical cells with alternative cell culture protocols. We compared soil-derived, diesel, coal fly ash, titanium dioxide, and kao...

Veranth, John M.; Cutler, N. Shane; Kaser, Erin G.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Yost, Garold S.

2007-01-01

140

Chronotropic Response of Cultured Neonatal Rat Ventricular Myocytes to Short-Term Fluid Shear  

OpenAIRE

Ventricular myocytes are continuously exposed to fluid shear in vivo by relative movement of laminar sheets and adjacent cells. Preliminary observations have shown that neonatal myocytes respond to fluid shear by increasing their beating rate, which could have an arrhythmogenic effect under elevated shear conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate the characteristics of the fluid shear response in cultured myocytes and to study selected potential mechanisms. Cultured neonatal r...

Lorenzen-schmidt, Ilka; Schmid-scho?nbein, Geert W.; Giles, Wayne R.; Mcculloch, Andrew D.; Chien, Shu; Omens, Jeffrey H.

2006-01-01

141

Flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of tulips (Tulipa gesneriana L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The content of flavonoids in white and yellow perianths and yellow anthers of a few tulip cultivars were determined at the stage of full flowering. To analyses of flavonols a HPLC method was used. In anthers (yellow of all analyzed cultivars (Oscar, Pax, Profesor Wóycicki, Bia?a Dama, White Virgin, Calypso, Diana high content of quercetin (2,35 - 6,01 mg·g-1 F.W., kaempferol (1,09 - 9,47 mg·g-1 F.W. and apigenin (1,34 - 8,24 mg·g-1 F.W. was found. In analyzed white perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin also high content of quercetin (1,3 - 1,80 mg·g-1 F.W. and kaempferol (1,90 mg·g-1 F.W. was documented and only traces of apigenin was found. In the yellow perianth of cv. Profesor Wóycicki the level of quercetin and kaempferol was much lower than in perianth of cvs. Oscar and White Virgin, and apigenin was absent. Thus, yellow anthers and white and yellow perianth of tulip cultivars are a rich source of flavonols.

Marcin Horbowicz

2001-12-01

142

Probiotics in fish and shellfish culture: immunomodulatory and ecophysiological responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaculture is emerging as one of the most viable and promising enterprises for keeping pace with the surging need for animal protein, providing nutritional and food security to humans, particularly those residing in regions where livestock is relatively scarce. With every step toward intensification of aquaculture practices, there is an increase in the stress level in the animal as well as the environment. Hence, disease outbreak is being increasingly recognized as one of the most important constraints to aquaculture production in many countries, including India. Conventionally, the disease control in aquaculture has relied on the use of chemical compounds and antibiotics. The development of non-antibiotic and environmentally friendly agents is one of the key factors for health management in aquaculture. Consequently, with the emerging need for environmentally friendly aquaculture, the use of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in fish nutrition is now widely accepted. In recent years, probiotics have taken center stage and are being used as an unconventional approach that has numerous beneficial effects in fish and shellfish culture: improved activity of gastrointestinal microbiota and enhanced immune status, disease resistance, survival, feed utilization and growth performance. As natural products, probiotics have much potential to increase the efficiency and sustainability of aquaculture production. Therefore, comprehensive research to fully characterize the intestinal microbiota of prominent fish species, mechanisms of action of probiotics and their effects on the intestinal ecosystem, immunity, fish health and performance is reasonable. This review highlights the classifications and applications of probiotics in aquaculture. The review also summarizes the advancement and research highlights of the probiotic status and mode of action, which are of great significance from an ecofriendly, sustainable, intensive aquaculture point of view. PMID:24419543

C De, Bidhan; Meena, D K; Behera, B K; Das, Pronob; Das Mohapatra, P K; Sharma, A P

2014-06-01

143

Digital Repatriation: Constructing a Culturally Responsive Virtual Museum Tour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

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This paper describe a project that involved educators and three Native American communities in the construction of a virtual tour now available on the Web site of the National Museum of the American Indian(http://www. conexus.si.edu/. In fall 1998, the Pueblo of Laguna Department of Education, the College of Education and Graduate School of Library and Information Science at The University of Texas at Austin, and the Smithsonian?s National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI began the first collaboration that brought Native American students, teachers, and cultural representatives to the NMAI George Gustav Heye Center in New York City. The virtual tour makes extensive use of QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR. The panoramas of the exhibition space serve as an interface for accessing the featured objects selected by the students. Clicking on a hot spot over the museum display of a featured object causes the QTVR object to load in a separate Webpage frame accompanied by an interpreted essay written by a student. Clickable floor plans of the exhibition- space offer another method of navigating the virtual tour and accessing the virtual objects.

Loriene Roy?Mark Christal

2002-04-01

144

Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research. PMID:14681123

Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

2003-11-01

145

Cytogenetic adaptive response of cultured fish cells to low doses of X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The adaptive response was examining chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in cultured fish cells, ULF-23 (mudminnow) and CAF-31 (gold fish). When cultured fish cells were first irradiated with small doses of X-rays, they became less sensitive to subsequent exposures to high doses. The effective adaptive dose was 4.8 cGy-9.5 cGy. Adaptive doses given cells in the G1 phase were more effective than when given in the S phase. The adaptive response was maximal at 5 hours and disappeared at 10 hours after the adaptive dose. The expression of the response was inhibited by treatment with 3-aminobenzamide, as reported for mammalian cells, and with arabinofuranoside cytosine, an inhibitor of DNA polymerase alpha. Caffeine, an inhibitor of post-replicational repair, had no effect on the response. (author)

146

Angiotensin II receptor in primary liver cell culture: correlation between binding and biological response  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Angiotensin II (AII) binding sites were characterized in intact hepatocytes using [3H]AII. Computer analysis of the saturation curve indicated the presence of only one class of binding sites with a Kd = 9.5 +/- 0.9 nM which did not change during culture up to 25 h. On the other hand, the B/sub max/ decreased from 80 +/- 12 fmol/mg of protein on freshly isolated cells to 33 +/- 5 fmol/mg of protein at 5 h culture and to 2.8 +/- 0.7 fmol/mg of protein at 25 h culture. The calcium mobilization induced by AII was measured using the fluorescent indicator fura2. AII (10 nM) increased intracellular free calcium from 160 +/- 20 nM to 319 +/- 35 nM in fresh and 5 h-cultured cells, but was without effect at 24 h. The dose response curves showed a significant decrease in the efficacy of AII to mobilize Ca2+ in 5 h-cultured cells. These data indicate a reduction in the number and perhaps coupling efficiency of AII receptors during primary liver cell culture. Experiments are being conducted to determine whether culture also induces a change in AII inhibition of glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation

147

Phenotypic Responses of Differentiated Asthmatic Human Airway Epithelial Cultures to Rhinovirus  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Human airway epithelial cells are the principal target of human rhinovirus (HRV), a common cold pathogen that triggers the majority of asthma exacerbations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate an in vitro air liquid interface cultured human airway epithelial cell model for HRV infection, and 2) to identify gene expression patterns associated with asthma intrinsically and/or after HRV infection using this model. Methods Air-liquid interface (ALI) human airway epithelial cell cultures were prepared from 6 asthmatic and 6 non-asthmatic donors. The effects of rhinovirus RV-A16 on ALI cultures were compared. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ALI cultures following HRV infection at 24 hours post exposure were further analyzed using RNA-seq technology. Cellular gene expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion were further evaluated by qPCR and a Luminex-based protein assay, respectively. Main Results ALI cultures were readily infected by HRV. RNA-seq analysis of HRV infected ALI cultures identified sets of genes associated with asthma specific viral responses. These genes are related to inflammatory pathways, epithelial structure and remodeling and cilium assembly and function, including those described previously (e.g. CCL5, CXCL10 and CX3CL1, MUC5AC, CDHR3), and novel ones that were identified for the first time in this study (e.g. CCRL1). Conclusions ALI-cultured human airway epithelial cells challenged with HRV are a useful translational model for the study of HRV-induced responses in airway epithelial cells, given that gene expression profile using this model largely recapitulates some important patterns of gene responses in patients during clinical HRV infection. Furthermore, our data emphasize that both abnormal airway epithelial structure and inflammatory signaling are two important asthma signatures, which can be further exacerbated by HRV infection. PMID:25706956

Bai, Jianwu; Smock, Steven L.; Jackson, George R.; MacIsaac, Kenzie D.; Huang, Yongsheng; Mankus, Courtney; Oldach, Jonathan; Roberts, Brian; Ma, Yu-Lu; Klappenbach, Joel A.; Crackower, Michael A.; Alves, Stephen E.; Hayden, Patrick J.

2015-01-01

148

Developing Cultural Responsiveness in Environmental Design Students through Digital Storytelling and Photovoice  

Science.gov (United States)

As the Latino population in the United States grows, it will become increasingly important for undergraduate students in environmental design and related disciplines to become more culturally responsive and learn how to understand and address challenges faced by population groups, such as Latino youth. To this end, we involved environmental…

Cushing, Debra Flanders; Love, Emily Wexler

2013-01-01

149

Photoperiodic Response of an Albino Mutant of Einkorn Wheat in Aseptic Culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

An albino mutant of einkorn wheat which lacks plastid pigments was cultured in a test tube on nutrient agar medium containing 8 percent sucrose, under long and short photoperiods. The plants showed typical photoperiodic responses to long and short days, suggesting the presence of a pigment system, other than plastid pigments, which is sensitive to dim radiation. PMID:17800129

Sugino, M

1961-11-10

150

"Katherine With-a-K and Little Nato": A Case Study of Culturally Responsible Pedagogy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study, one of four, is part of a larger study, "Ethnographic Case Studies of Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (CRP) of At-Risk Students in Middle School Classrooms." The study provides relevant case literature regarding CRP for the enhancement of preservice teacher education and describes the characteristics of a multicultural classroom in…

Parscal, Jeannie N.

151

The Impact of an International Student Teaching Program on the Cultural Responsiveness of Participants  

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The purpose of this research was to explore the ways in which immersion into an international student teaching experience through participation in an international student teaching program can enhance the cultural responsiveness of American pre-service teachers. The population included in this study was eight students, including alumni, who…

Allaman, Lisa St. Louis

2012-01-01

152

The Coconut Wireless Project: Sharing Culturally Responsive Pedagogy through the World Wide Web.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beginning in the 1997-98 school year, WestEd staff, with the support of the Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), worked intensively with a group of five Chamorro teachers from Rota Elementary School (Hawaii) to develop culturally responsive, standards-based science units. The larger goal was to develop Web-based case examples of…

Nelson-Barber, Sharon; Trumbull, Elise; Wenn, Richard

153

Measuring Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Conceptualizations of a Culturally Responsive Classroom Ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increase of Latino preschoolers, it is pressing that early childhood teachers are prepared to create a high quality environment in which all children can succeed. Using the frameworks of cultural responsiveness and classroom management, we developed the Early Childhood Ecology Scale (ECES) as an observational and reflective tool to…

Flores, Belinda Bustos; Riojas-Cortez, Mari

2009-01-01

154

Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

2012-01-01

155

Empowering Equity in Postsecondary Transition for Marginalized Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Disabilities by Implementing a Culturally Responsive Summary of Performance Teacher Training and Support Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Marginalized culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs often struggle after high school. Many special educators are unaware of legal mandates and best practice in postsecondary transition, especially the intricate needs when working this group. The culturally responsive Summary of Performance (CRSOP) training and support…

Jez, Rebekka Joanne

2011-01-01

156

Culturally responsive middle school science: A case study of needs, demands, and challenges  

Science.gov (United States)

Culturally responsive programming has been proposed as a remedy for the well-documented disconnect between schools and the ethnically and culturally diverse students who attend them. These programs often focus on creating instructional materials and pedagogical practices that are aligned with the knowledges, perspectives and practices of these students. This study builds on that literature and examines the needs, demands, and challenges of developing a culturally responsive health science program for ethnically and culturally diverse urban middle school students. I approached this problem through a content analysis of the intended curriculum and a microethnography of the enacted curriculum. In my analysis of the intended curriculum, I adapted a science textbook analysis instrument created by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) to include criteria related to identified features of culturally responsive education. Using these modified analytic criteria, I found that the pilot drafts of the curricular materials excelled in the areas of engaging students in relevant phenomenon but lacked many of these specifically culturally responsive elements. Recommendations were made to redress these deficiencies. In my analysis of the enacted curriculum, I observed in five eighth grade classrooms where the program was being implemented. I used participant observation, audio and video tape recordings, artifacts, and interviews over a six-month period to investigate teacher/student interactions, the social organization of the classrooms, and students' culturally distinctive knowledge resources---or what is sometimes referred to as their "funds of knowledge." I found that the affective interactions between teachers and students were precursors to any reform, and that students and teachers similarly defined these interactions as "teacher care." In addition, I found that the social organization of the classroom often privileged official content and ways of knowing while limiting students' ability to publicly draw on their unique funds of knowledge or to access their scientific sensemaking resources. Through the use of data accumulated from my curriculum analysis and classroom observations, I concluded that culturally responsive program development must incorporate both curricular development and inservice professional development focused not only on science but also on fundamental aspects of classroom interactions.

Woodrow, Kelli Ellen

2007-12-01

157

Microbotryum heliospermae, a new anther smut fungus parasitic on Heliosperma pusillum in the mountains of the European Alpine System.  

Science.gov (United States)

The members of the smut genus Microbotryum are pathogens of a wide range of host plant species from nine dicotyledonous families. Within the genus, the species sporulating in anthers of Caryophyllaceae form a monophyletic group that in recent years attracted much interest in various biological studies. The phylogenetic framework developed for species delimitation within Microbotryum revealed that high level host-specificity is a major feature of most caryophyllaceous anther smuts. However, the great number of anther smut specimens on diverse host plant species reported worldwide has still not been included in phylogenetic analyses due to the inaccessibility of recently collected specimens, and thus many species remain still undiscovered. In this study, anther smut specimens on Heliosperma pusillum originating from all main mountain ranges of the European Alpine System were examined using partial rDNA sequence and/or morphological analyses. The investigation revealed that all specimens are morphologically uniform and phylogenetically represent a monophyletic lineage, sister to Microbotryum lagerheimii complex on Atocion rupestre/Silene lacera/Silene vulgaris/Viscaria vulgaris. This lineage cannot be attributed to any of the previously described species, and therefore the smut in anthers of H. pusillum is described and illustrated here as a new species, Microbotryum heliospermae. The species is known from subalpine zone of the Alps, the Carpathians, the Dinaric Alps, and the Pyrenees, inhabiting host plants growing in open spring communities or semihumid mountain meadows. PMID:22289764

Pi?tek, Marcin; Lutz, Matthias; Ronikier, Anna; Kemler, Martin; ?widerska-Burek, Urszula

2012-02-01

158

In vitro culture in barley breeding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the most useful biotechnics for plant breeders is in vitro culture of anthers or miscropores to induce haploids and homozygous diploids. High frequency of microspore-derived diploid plants could be produced by culturing anthers on Ficoll medium. The segregation ratios of certain morphological characters were not random and could be shifted by culture conditions. It was reported by a number of authors that true breeding and highly productive genotypes were obtained from microspore-derived diploid plants and doubled haploids derived from bulbosom techniques. There is a great possibility that a selective system for desirable characters can be built in an in vitro culture system. Where haploids can be induced in crop plants, they provide the most rapid technique for producing homozygous lines. Since the genetically controlled factors in homozygous lines are fixed and will be identical in the future generations, it becomes possible for a plant breeder to evaluate quantitative characters such as yield and quality very early in the breeding program. There are two methods which have been used extensively for production of homozygous diploid barley plants. They are bulbosum techniques and anther culture methods. (author). 14 refs, 5 tabs

159

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Content analysis revealed 11 themes, including students’ enlightenment of their privilege, experiences of cultural loss, and acknowledgment of biases as integral parts of culturally responsive practice. Implications for social work education and research are addressed. PMID:23255873

BENDER, KIMBERLY; NEGI, NALINI; FOWLER, DAWNOVISE N.

2012-01-01

160

Chemical residues and biochemical responses in wild and cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cultured and wild sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) from the Arade Estuary were sampled in summer and winter and the degree of exposure to metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) assessed, together with some biochemical responses against those and other pollutants. The highest levels of copper (up to 997 ?g g-1 dry weight) and cadmium (up to 4.22 ?g g-1 dry weight) were detected in the liver and kidney of cultured specimens, whereas the highest exposure to PAHs was observed in wild fish. Significant alterations in some biochemical markers were detected and associated to pollutant exposure. Thus, metallothionein concentrations were higher in the tissues of cultured fish and positively correlated with metal residues. The activity 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase ranged from 28 pmol/min/mg protein in cultured fish to 83 pmol/min/mg protein in wild fish collected near a marina area. Cultured fish and wild fish from the marina area had depressed acetylcholinesterase in muscle tissue and a parasitic infection in the gonads. The obtained results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollutants in both wild and cultured fish

161

Writing the male abuser in cultural responses to domestic violence in Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range of primarily Spanish studies on domestic aggression, with the aim of showing how and why the chosen authors engage with bodies of theory that address battery. The study concludes that some cultural producers devise a strategy of eliding the male aggressor in an attempt to subvert the power he wields over the female victim. PMID:22834049

Godsland, Shelley

2012-01-01

162

Indução de calos e regeneração de embriões em anteras de Coffea arabica L. por nitrato de prata e etileno / Callus induction and embryo regeneration in Coffea arabica L. anthers by silver nitrate and ethylene  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para aquisição de uma nova cultivar. Através da cultura de anteras podem-se obter linhagens homozigóticas rapidamente, oriundas de dihaplóides. O objetivo foi utilizar na cultura de anteras na cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 [...] de Coffea arabica L., nitrato de prata (AgNO3) e etileno para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas dihaplóides. As anteras foram inoculadas em meio MS acrescido de 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D com e sem AgNO3 (5 mg L-1), juntamente com etileno por diferentes dias: (testemunha; 2; 4; 6, e 8). Ao final de 12 dias, estas foram transferidas para o meio de regeneração, acrescido de 0,108 mg L-1 de cinetina. Foi observada uma oxidação e intumescimento maior nos primeiros dias de inoculação em exposição ao etileno, e a cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 respondeu a formação de calos e também a embriogênese direta na presença do etileno. Abstract in english The genetic breeding of coffee by conventional methods to obtain new cultivars is time-consuming. Anther culture can yield homozygous lines quickly from bi-haploids. This study used anther cultures of Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99, and tested the effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and ethyl [...] ene in callus-formation induction and bi-haploid seedling regeneration. The anthers were inoculated in MS to which 2 mg L-1 2,4-D had been added with AgNO3 (5 mg L-1) together with ethylene being introduced or not, for different periods (the control, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days). At the end of 12 days, the anthers were transferred to the regeneration medium, to which 0.108 mg L-1 kinetin had been added. Greater oxidation and intumescence were observed in the first days after exposure to ethylene; the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho 99 responded to callus formation and also direct embryogenesis in the presence of ethylene.

Adelaide Siqueira, Silva; José Magno Queiroz, Luz; Tatiana Michlovská, Rodrigues; Cecília Alves, Bittar; Leandro de Oliveira, Lino.

2011-12-01

163

Indução de calos e regeneração de embriões em anteras de Coffea arabica L. por nitrato de prata e etileno Callus induction and embryo regeneration in Coffea arabica L. anthers by silver nitrate and ethylene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para aquisição de uma nova cultivar. Através da cultura de anteras podem-se obter linhagens homozigóticas rapidamente, oriundas de dihaplóides. O objetivo foi utilizar na cultura de anteras na cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 de Coffea arabica L., nitrato de prata (AgNO3 e etileno para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas dihaplóides. As anteras foram inoculadas em meio MS acrescido de 2 mg L-1 de 2,4-D com e sem AgNO3 (5 mg L-1, juntamente com etileno por diferentes dias: (testemunha; 2; 4; 6, e 8. Ao final de 12 dias, estas foram transferidas para o meio de regeneração, acrescido de 0,108 mg L-1 de cinetina. Foi observada uma oxidação e intumescimento maior nos primeiros dias de inoculação em exposição ao etileno, e a cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99 respondeu a formação de calos e também a embriogênese direta na presença do etileno.The genetic breeding of coffee by conventional methods to obtain new cultivars is time-consuming. Anther culture can yield homozygous lines quickly from bi-haploids. This study used anther cultures of Coffea arabica L. cv. Catuaí Vermelho 99, and tested the effect of silver nitrate (AgNO3 and ethylene in callus-formation induction and bi-haploid seedling regeneration. The anthers were inoculated in MS to which 2 mg L-1 2,4-D had been added with AgNO3 (5 mg L-1 together with ethylene being introduced or not, for different periods (the control, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. At the end of 12 days, the anthers were transferred to the regeneration medium, to which 0.108 mg L-1 kinetin had been added. Greater oxidation and intumescence were observed in the first days after exposure to ethylene; the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho 99 responded to callus formation and also direct embryogenesis in the presence of ethylene.

Adelaide Siqueira Silva

2011-12-01

164

Differential Proteomic Analysis of Anthers between Cytoplasmic Male Sterile and Maintainer Lines in Capsicum annuum L  

OpenAIRE

Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), widely used in the production of hybrid seeds, is a maternally inherited trait resulting in a failure to produce functional pollen. In order to identify some specific proteins associated with CMS in pepper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied to proteomic analysis of anthers/buds between a CMS line (designated NA3) and its maintainer (designated NB3) in Capsicum annuum L. Thirty-three spots showed more than 1.5-fold in either CMS or its mai...

Wu, Zhiming; Cheng, Jiaowen; Qin, Cheng; Hu, Zhiqun; Yin, Caixia; Hu, Kailin

2013-01-01

165

Plant response to heavy metals and organic pollutants in cell culture and at whole plant level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Increasing awareness in the last decade concerning environmental quality had prompted research into 'green solutions' for soil and water remediation, progressing from laboratory in vitro experiments to pot and field trials. In vitro cell culture experiments provide a convenient system to study basic biological processes, by which biochemical pathways, enzymatic activity and metabolites can be specifically studied. However, it is difficult to relate cell cultures, calli or even hydroponic experiments to the whole plant response to pollutant stress. In the field, plants are exposed to additional a-biotic and biotic factors, which complicate further plant response. Hence, we often see that in vitro selected species perform poorly under soil and field conditions. Soil physical and chemical properties, plant-mycorrhizal association and soil-microbial activity affect the process of contaminant degradation by plants and/or microorganisms, pointing to the importance of pot and field experiments. Objective. This paper is a joint effort of a group of scientists in COST action 837. It represents experimental work and an overview on plant response to environmental stress from in vitro tissue culture to whole plant experiments in soil. Results. Results obtained from in vitro plant tissue cultures and whole plant hydroponic experiments indicate the phytoremediation potential of different plant species and the biochemical mechanisms involved in plant tolerance. In pot experiments, several selected desert plant species, which accumulated heavy metal in hydroponic systems, succeeded in accumulating the heavy metal in soil conditions as well. Conclusions and recommendations. In vitro plant tissue cultures provide a useful experimental system for the study of the mechanisms involved in the detoxification of organic and heavy metal pollutants. However, whole plant experimental systems, as well as hydroponics followed by pot and field trials, are essential when determining plant potential to remediate polluted sites. Multidisciplinary research teams can therefore increase our knowledge and promote a practical application of phytoremediation. (orig.)

Golan-Goldhirsh, A.; Barazani, O. [Ben-Gurion Univ. of The Negev, The Jacob Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research, Albert Katz Dept. of Dryland Biotechnologies, Desert Plant Biotechnology Lab., Sede Boqer Campus (Israel); Nepovim, A.; Soudek, P.; Vanek, T. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry (Czech Republic); Smrcek, S.; Dufkova, L.; Krenkova, S. [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Charles Univ. (Czech Republic); Yrjala, K. [Univ. of Helsinki, Dept. of Biosciences, Div. of General Microbiology, Helsinki (Finland); Schroeder, P. [Inst. for Soil Ecology, GSF National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

2004-07-01

166

Culture modulates the brain response to human expressions of emotion: electrophysiological evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand how culture modulates on-line neural responses to social information, this study compared how individuals from two distinct cultural groups, English-speaking North Americans and Chinese, process emotional meanings of multi-sensory stimuli as indexed by both behaviour (accuracy) and event-related potential (N400) measures. In an emotional Stroop-like task, participants were presented face-voice pairs expressing congruent or incongruent emotions in conditions where they judged the emotion of one modality while ignoring the other (face or voice focus task). Results indicated that while both groups were sensitive to emotional differences between channels (with lower accuracy and higher N400 amplitudes for incongruent face-voice pairs), there were marked group differences in how intruding facial or vocal cues affected accuracy and N400 amplitudes, with English participants showing greater interference from irrelevant faces than Chinese. Our data illuminate distinct biases in how adults from East Asian versus Western cultures process socio-emotional cues, supplying new evidence that cultural learning modulates not only behaviour, but the neurocognitive response to different features of multi-channel emotion expressions. PMID:25477081

Liu, Pan; Rigoulot, Simon; Pell, Marc D

2015-01-01

167

Exploring intergenerational relations in a multi-cultural context: the example of filial responsibility in Mauritius.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to explore attitudes towards filial responsibility amongst dyads of parents and young adult children using qualitative data from Mauritius, and to draw on the intergenerational solidarity-conflict and ambivalence frameworks to see whether they provide relevant interpretive tools for understanding these attitudes in a multi-cultural society. The study shows that although both generations agree that younger kin should support parents in later life, their motives vary: parents' attitudes reflect norms of obligation, children those of reciprocity; parents want autonomy and independence, but are ambivalent about expectations of future support. Both generations think providing support will be mediated by past parent-child relationships, socialization experiences, gender expectations and cultural tradition. The study suggests that attitudes towards filial responsibility are influenced by a broad set of mechanisms, which can be equated with concepts of structure, function, association, consensus and norm, as well as conflict and ambivalence. PMID:20195896

Hillcoat-Nallétamby, Sarah

2010-03-01

168

Intra and interspecific variability of in vitro culture response in Lycopersicon (tomatoes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Intra and interspecific variability was measured in the genus Lycopersicon for the traits: productivity rate (PR, total number of regenerated shoots/total number of cultures, regeneration percentage (%R, number of cultures regenerating shoots or primordia/total number of cultures and callus percentage (%C, number of cultures only producing callus/total number of cultures. Leaf explants from various genotypes of L. esculentum, L. esculentum var. cerasiforme, L. pimpinellifolium and L. peruvianum were placed on Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-493, 1962 medium + 0.175 mg/l IAA + 2.25 mg/l BA. Significant differences among species and among genotypes within the same species were found, while genotypes from different species showed similar responses.A variabilidade intra e interespecífica foi avaliada no gênero Lycopersicon para as variáveis: taxa de produtividade (PR, número total de brotos/número total de culturas, percentagem de regeneração (%R, número de culturas que regeneraram brotos ou primórdios/número total de culturas e percentagem de calo (%C, número de culturas que só desenvolveram calo/número total de culturas. Os explantes foliares de vários genótipos de L. esculentum, L. esculentum var. ceraciforme, L. pimpinellifolium e L. peruvianum foram colocados em meio de cultura Murashige and Skoog (Physiol. Plant. 15: 473-493, 1962 + 0.175 mg/l AIA + 2.25 mg/l BA. Detectaram-se diferenças significativas entre espécies e entre genótipos de uma mesma espécie, apresentando genótipos de diferentes espécies a mesma resposta.

Guillermo Pratta

1997-03-01

169

Corporate Social Responsibility and Culture : A Study of European Multinational Corporations’ adaptation of Community Involvement Practices  

OpenAIRE

Corporate social responsibility (CSR), which has emerged as a global trend, has gained increased focus in the everyday media and among practitioners on the political agenda. CSR has also risen as an important research topic in the field of organization. This study investigates European multinational corporations’ tendencies to adapt CSR policies and practices, or more specifically corporate community involvement, to different national cultures. The paper explores if/how and why companies wi...

Henriksson, Sebastian; Hodjikj, Armin; Ognyanova Dinkova, Evgeniya

2012-01-01

170

Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light  

OpenAIRE

The development of methods for the off–on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of three di...

Jun Nakanishi, Hidekazu Nakayama

2011-01-01

171

An Empirical Research on Chinese-English Bilinguals’ Compliment Responses—A Cross-cultural Perspective  

OpenAIRE

Compliments and compliment responses (CRs) are decided by linguistic and sociocultural norms, and further reflect cultural values and social norms. The study of CRs has generated a great number of studies in pragmatics. Previous studies, including Chinese as participants, have investigated Chinese CRs and compared Chinese CRs with people of other languages. According to Holmes’ (1988) taxonomy, CRs can be classified into three categories: Agreeing, Deflecting/Evading and Rejecting. Look...

Xuehua An

2013-01-01

172

Salicylic-acid elicited phospholipase D responses in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plant response to different stress types can occur through stimulus recognition and the subsequent signal transduction through second messengers that send information to the regulation of metabolism and the expression of defense genes. The phospholipidic signaling pathway forms part of the plant response to several phytoregulators, such as salicylic acid (SA), which has been widely used to stimulate secondary metabolite production in cell cultures. In this work, we studied the effects of SA treatment on [(32)-P]Pi phospholipid turnover and phospholipase D (PLD) activity using cultured Capsicum chinense cells. In cultured cells, the PIP2 turnover showed changes after SA treatment, while the most abundant phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), did not show changes during the temporal course. SA treatment significantly increased phosphatidic acid (PA) turnover over time compared to control cells. The PA accumulation in cells treated with 1-butanol showed a decrease in messengers; at the same time, there was a 1.5-fold increase in phosphatidylbutanol. These results suggest that the participation of the PLD pathway is a source of PA production, and the activation of this mechanism may be important in the cell responses to SA treatment. PMID:25766278

Rodas-Junco, B A; Muñoz-Sánchez, J A; Vázquez-Flota, F; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M T

2015-05-01

173

Contrasting Nephropathic Responses to Oral Administration of Extract of Cultured Penicillium polonicum in Rat and Primate  

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Full Text Available Liquid- or solid substrate-cultured Penicillium polonicum administered in feed to rats over several days evokes a histopathological response in kidney involving apoptosis and abnormal mitosis in proximal tubules. The amphoteric toxin is yet only partly characterized, but can be isolated from cultured sporulating biomass in a fraction that is soluble in water and ethanol, and exchangeable on either anion- or cation-exchange resins. After several weeks of treatment renal proximal tubule distortion became striking on account of karyocytomegaly, but even treatment for nearly two years remained asymptomatic. Extract from a batch of solid substrate fermentation of P. polonicum on shredded wheat was incorporated into feed for rats during four consecutive days, and also given as an aqueous solution by oral gavage to a vervet monkey daily for 10 days. Treatment was asymptomatic for both types of animal. Rat response was evident as the typical renal apoptosis and karyomegaly. In contrast there was no such response in the primate; and neither creatinine clearance nor any haematological characteristic or serum component concentration deviated from a control or from historical data for this primate. The contrast is discussed concerning other negative findings for P. polonicum in pigs and hamsters. Renal karyomegaly, as a common rat response to persistent exposure to ochratoxin A, is not known in humans suspected as being exposed to more than the usual trace amounts of dietary ochratoxin A. Therefore the present findings question assumptions that human response to ochratoxin A conforms to that in the rat.

John E. Fincham

2010-08-01

174

Distribution of the anther-smut pathogen Microbotryum on species of the Caryophyllaceae.  

Science.gov (United States)

*Understanding disease distributions is of fundamental and applied importance, yet few studies benefit from integrating broad sampling with ecological and phylogenetic data. Here, anther-smut disease, caused by the fungus Microbotryum, was assessed using herbarium specimens of Silene and allied genera of the Caryophyllaceae. *A total of 42,000 herbarium specimens were examined, and plant geographical distributions and morphological and life history characteristics were tested as correlates of disease occurrence. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to determine the association between disease and plant life-span. *Disease was found on 391 herbarium specimens from 114 species and all continents with native Silene. Anther smut occurred exclusively on perennial plants, consistent with the pathogen requiring living hosts to overwinter. The disease was estimated to occur in 80% of perennial species of Silene and allied genera. The correlation between plant life-span and disease was highly significant while controlling for the plant phylogeny, but the disease was not correlated with differences in floral morphology. *Using resources available in natural history collections, this study illustrates how disease distribution can be determined, not by restriction to a clade of susceptible hosts or to a limited geographical region, but by association with host life-span, a trait that has undergone frequent evolutionary transitions. PMID:20406409

Hood, Michael E; Mena-Alí, Jorge I; Gibson, Amanda K; Oxelman, Bengt; Giraud, Tatiana; Yockteng, Roxana; Arroyo, Mary T K; Conti, Fabio; Pedersen, Amy B; Gladieux, Pierre; Antonovics, Janis

2010-07-01

175

Functional monoecy due to delayed anther dehiscence: a novel mechanism in Pseuduvaria mulgraveana (Annonaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike most genera in the early-divergent angiosperm family Annonaceae, Pseuduvaria exhibits a diversity of floral sex expression. Most species are structurally andromonoecious (or possibly androdioecious), although the hermaphroditic flowers have been inferred to be functionally pistillate, with sterile staminodes. Pseuduvaria presents an ideal model for investigating the evolution of floral sex in early-divergent angiosperms, although detailed empirical studies are currently lacking. The phenology and pollination ecology of the Australian endemic species Pseuduvaria mulgraveana are studied in detail, including evaluations of floral scent chemistry, pollen viability, and floral visitors. Results showed that the flowers are pollinated by small diurnal nitidulid beetles and are protogynous. Pollen from both hermaphroditic and staminate flowers are shown to be equally viable. The structurally hermaphroditic flowers are nevertheless functionally pistillate as anther dehiscence is delayed until after petal abscission and hence after the departure of pollinators. This mechanism to achieve functional unisexuality of flowers has not previously been reported in angiosperms. It is known that protogyny is widespread amongst early-divergent angiosperms, including the Annonaceae, and is effective in preventing autogamy. Delayed anther dehiscence represents a further elaboration of this, and is effective in preventing geitonogamy since very few sexually mature flowers occur simultaneously in an individual. We highlight the necessity for field-based empirical interpretations of functional floral sex expression prior to evaluations of evolutionary processes. PMID:23555844

Pang, Chun-Chiu; Scharaschkin, Tanya; Su, Yvonne C F; Saunders, Richard M K

2013-01-01

176

Osmotic stress responses of individual white oak (Quercus section, Quercus subgenus) genotypes cultured in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

White oaks (Quercus section, Quercus subgenus) are widely distributed in Europe. Quercus petraea (sessile oak), an economically important species is predicted to be affected by climate change. Q. pubescens (pubescent oak) and Q. virgiliana (Italian pubescent oak) are economically less important, drought tolerant species. Frequent hybridization of white oaks was observed and currently the introgression of Q. pubescens and Q. virgiliana in non-mediterranean regions of Europe has been reported. Our goal was to use tissue cultures established from individual trees of the above taxa and their putative hybrids, all present in the forest stand of Síkf?kút LTER Research Area (NE Hungary) as simple experimental model systems for studying drought/osmotic stress tolerance. Tissue cultures are more suitable models for such studies, than seedlings, because they are genetically identical to the parent plants. Polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) treatments were used for this purpose. The identification of taxa was based on leaf morphological traits and microsatellite analysis and showed that Q. petraea is genetically distinct to all other taxa examined. We established six callus lines of Quercus. As expected, in Q. petraea cultures PEG6000 induced severe loss of fresh weight and the ability to recover after removal of the osmoticum, which was not characteristic for Q. pubescens and Q. virgiliana. Putative hybrids exhibited an intermediate response to osmotic stress. Activity gels showed the increase of single-strand preferring (SSP) nuclease and no significant change of guaiacol-peroxidase activities in drought-sensitive genotypes/cultures and no significant increase of SSP nuclease activities accompanied with increases of guaiacol-peroxidase activities in drought-tolerant ones. This indicates that drought/osmotic stress tolerance is associated to increased capacity of scavenging reactive oxygen species and hence less susceptibility to DNA damage. Our results confirm that tissue cultures of oak are suitable model systems for studying drought/osmotic stress responses. PMID:24331415

Demeter, Zita; Kanalas, Péter; Máthé, Csaba; Cseke, Klára; Sz?ll?si, Erzsébet; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jámbrik, Katalin; Kiss, Zoltán; Mészáros, Ilona

2014-01-15

177

Ethylene is involved in stress responses induced by fusicoccin in sycamore cultured cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The phytohormone ethylene is involved in many physiological and developmental processes of plants, as well as in stress responses and in the development of disease resistance. Fusicoccin (FC) is a well-known phytotoxin, that in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, induces a set of stress responses, including synthesis of ethylene. In this study, we investigated the possible involvement of ethylene in the FC-induced stress responses of sycamore cells by means of Co(2+), a well-known specific inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis. Co(2+) inhibited the accumulation of dead cells in the culture, the production of nitric oxide (NO) and of the molecular chaperone Binding Protein (BiP) in the endoplasmic reticulum induced by FC. By contrast, Co(2+) was ineffective on the FC-induced accumulation of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, and only partially reduced the accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol. In addition, we compared the effect of FC on the above parameters with that of the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon (2-chloroethane phosphonic acid). The results suggest that ethylene is involved in several stress responses induced by FC in sycamore cells, including a form of cell death that does not show apoptotic features and possibly involves NO as a signaling molecule. PMID:20630615

Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

2010-11-15

178

The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher. Metaphorically, the teachers differed vividly. One was a nurturing mother, sister, and friend who assisted her students to cross the cultural line between the science classroom and their home and community. The other was a stern disciplinarian who painted a picture of order and hard work as keys for her students' success in school science. The researcher, who promotes a social justice ideology, made implications and recommendations for science teacher education and public policy.

Bondima, Michelle Harris

179

Construção e avaliação de um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras Construction and evaluation of an anther collector prototype machine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras foi projetado e construído, e seu desempenho foi avaliado, comparando - se com o método de coleta manual, em flores rosáceas e campanuladas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica. O trabalho foi conduzido utilizando-se do delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial (2 métodos de remoção x 2 formas florais, com 12 repetições de 30 balões florais. O protótipo apresentou maior velocidade de processamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do pólen, mesmo sendo armazenadas anteras com maior quantidade de filetes e descartado maior número de anteras do que o método manual.An anther collector prototype machine was projected and built. Its performance was evaluated by comparisons between the use of the prototype and the traditional manual method, both for showy and non-showy peach-tree flowers (Prunus persica. The study was accomplished in August 2011 using a completely randomized experimental design, arranged in a bi-factorial scheme (2 collection methods x 2 flower forms, with 12 repetitions, each consisted by 30 flowers. The prototype proved to be faster in the anther extraction time without losses in the pollen quality, even harvesting anthers with higher fillet amounts and discarding a higher quantity of anthers than the manual method.

Rodrigo Tonet

2013-03-01

180

Construção e avaliação de um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras / Construction and evaluation of an anther collector prototype machine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um protótipo de máquina coletora de anteras foi projetado e construído, e seu desempenho foi avaliado, comparando - se com o método de coleta manual, em flores rosáceas e campanuladas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica). O trabalho foi conduzido utilizando-se do delineamento experimental inteiramente ao [...] acaso, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial (2 métodos de remoção x 2 formas florais), com 12 repetições de 30 balões florais. O protótipo apresentou maior velocidade de processamento, sem diminuir a qualidade do pólen, mesmo sendo armazenadas anteras com maior quantidade de filetes e descartado maior número de anteras do que o método manual. Abstract in english An anther collector prototype machine was projected and built. Its performance was evaluated by comparisons between the use of the prototype and the traditional manual method, both for showy and non-showy peach-tree flowers (Prunus persica). The study was accomplished in August 2011 using a complete [...] ly randomized experimental design, arranged in a bi-factorial scheme (2 collection methods x 2 flower forms), with 12 repetitions, each consisted by 30 flowers. The prototype proved to be faster in the anther extraction time without losses in the pollen quality, even harvesting anthers with higher fillet amounts and discarding a higher quantity of anthers than the manual method.

Rodrigo, Tonet; Marcos Robson, Sachet; Idemir, Citadin; Alcir José, Modolo.

2013-03-01

181

Defective Pollen Wall is Required for Anther and Microspore Development in Rice and Encodes a Fatty Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aliphatic alcohols naturally exist in many organisms as important cellular components; however, their roles in extracellular polymer biosynthesis are poorly defined. We report here the isolation and characterization of a rice (Oryza sativa) male-sterile mutant, defective pollen wall (dpw), which displays defective anther development and degenerated pollen grains with an irregular exine. Chemical analysis revealed that dpw anthers had a dramatic reduction in cutin monomers and an altered composition of cuticular wax, as well as soluble fatty acids and alcohols. Using map-based cloning, we identified the DPW gene, which is expressed in both tapetal cells and microspores during anther development. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant DPW enzyme shows that it is a novel fatty acid reductase that produces 1-hexadecanol and exhibits >270-fold higher specificity for palmiltoyl-acyl carrier protein than for C16:0 CoA substrates. DPW was predominantly targeted to plastids mediated by its N-terminal transit peptide. Moreover, we demonstrate that the monocot DPW from rice complements the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana male sterile2 (ms2) mutant and is the probable ortholog of MS2. These data suggest that DPWs participate in a conserved step in primary fatty alcohol synthesis for anther cuticle and pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis in monocots and dicots.

Shi, J.; Shanklin, J.; Tan, H.; Yu, X.-H.; Liu, Y.; Liang, W.; Ranathunge, K.; Franke, R. B.; Schreiber, L.; Wang, Y.; Kai, G.; Ma, H.; Zhang, D.

2011-06-01

182

Activation of the antioxidant response element in primary cortical neuronal cultures derived from transgenic reporter mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many phase II protective genes contain a cis -acting enhancer region known as the antioxidant response element (ARE). Increased expression of these genes contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Transgenic reporter mice were created that carry in their genome the core ARE coupled to the human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPAP) reporter gene. Primary cortical cultures derived from these mice were treated with tBHQ resulting in a dose-dependent increase in hPAP activity. Histochemical staining for hPAP activity was observed in both glia and neurons from tBHQ-treated cultures. The tBHQ-mediated increase in hPAP was not affected by the antioxidant glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHEE), whereas the increase in hPAP following DEM treatment was completely blocked by GSHEE. Pre-treatment of cultures with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY 294002 demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in tBHQ-induced hPAP activity. In addition, the tBHQ-mediated expression of ARE-driven genes in primary cortical cultures was blocked by LY 294002. Interestingly, basal expression of Nrf2 was also inhibited by LY 294002. We theorize that increased levels of genes controlled by the ARE are important for cellular protection against oxidative stress. These ARE-hPAP transgenic mice will be an important in vivo model for testing our hypothesis. PMID:12068071

Johnson, D A; Andrews, G K; Xu, W; Johnson, J A

2002-06-01

183

DNA double-strand break repair and radiation response in human tumour primary cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The accumulation and repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) were determined by neutral filter elution on 20 primary cultures obtained from ovarian cancer and malignant melanoma clinical specimens. The initial frequency of DNA dsbs after exposure to 50 Gy ?-irradiation varied greatly for the individual cultures. However, melanomas were generally more efficient than ovarian cancers in repairing these DNA lesions (mean percentage of DNA dsb rejoined after 2 h: 83 versus 62%). In 13 of 20 cultures radiosensitivity was also assessed by the Courtenay clonogenic assay. The mean ''+'' SD of the surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was slightly higher for melanomas (0.56 ± 0.25) than for ovarian carcinomas (0.43 ± 0.23). No correlation was observed between SF2 and in vitro plating efficiencies or any biological characteristics of the tumour cell population, such as proliferative activity and DNA ploidy. Similarly, we failed to find any relation between the initial frequencies of DNA dsbs and SF2 in individual tumours. In contrast, a significant and direct relationship (r = 0.86, p 2 and the percentages of DNA dsbs rejoined after irradiation. In agreement with reported data on human tumour cell lines, our results indicate that the ability to repair DNA dsbs is an important determinant for radiation response even in primary cultures of clinical tumours. (author)mours. (author)

184

Organizational Institutions and Their Responsible Behavioral-Cultural Gene Codes and A Measurement for Organizational Efficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This essay has two goals. The first is to classify two different types of organizational institutions from the four-dimensional system-thinking perspective, and to identify the relationship between such organizational institutions and their relevant behavioral-cultural gene codes embedded within their (P-individuals. Unlike the popular belief that authoritarian or totalitarian institutions are caused by ideologies or created/dominated by tyrannical leaders, the author defines a concept of behavioral-cultural gene code and extends the application of self-organization theory to suggest that behavioral-cultural gene codes carried by the members of the organization are responsible for the formation of, either democratic or authoritarian, institutions. Therefore, transformation of an authoritarian organization into a democratic one, no matter at the level of groups, of business enterprises, or of a government, must start from transforming behavioral-cultural gene codes. The second goal is to define Organizational Friction Coefficient for capturing the characteristics of these two types of organizational institutions, thus adding clarity to the widely used concept of organizational efficiency in the contexts of both business organizations and systems of government.

Jason Jixuan

2010-10-01

185

An Empirical Research on Chinese-English Bilinguals’ Compliment Responses—A Cross-cultural Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Compliments and compliment responses (CRs are decided by linguistic and sociocultural norms, and further reflect cultural values and social norms. The study of CRs has generated a great number of studies in pragmatics. Previous studies, including Chinese as participants, have investigated Chinese CRs and compared Chinese CRs with people of other languages. According to Holmes’ (1988 taxonomy, CRs can be classified into three categories: Agreeing, Deflecting/Evading and Rejecting. Looking from a cross-cultural perspective, Chinese tend to use less Accepting strategies and more Rejecting strategies than Australians do (Tang and Zhang, 2009. Within the same language community, CR strategies might also change over time, as has been suggested in Chen and Yang’s (2010. However, research on Chinese English-knowing bilinguals’ CRs in the two languages is rare. The present study, focuses on a group of Chinese English-knowing bilinguals’ CR speech act. It aims at finding out whether Chinese English bilinguals will respond to compliments differently, when they are exposed to different media—Chinese language and English language, which might shed new light on how language influences and shapes people’s social and cultural norms. Written discourse completion task (DCT is used to elicit the participants’ responses to compliments on one’s look, ability, character, possession. The survey was conducted on a cohort of 31 Chinese English teachers, during the period when they were in Singapore. Results show that there are differences in CR strategies employed in Chinese DCT and English DCT.

Xuehua An

2013-09-01

186

Developing Culturally Responsive Surveys: Lessons in Development, Implementation, and Analysis from Brazil's African Descent Communities  

Science.gov (United States)

Considerable empirical research, along with a growing body of conceptual and theoretical literature, exists on the role of culture and context in evaluation. Less scholarship has examined culturally responsive surveys in the context of international evaluation. In this article, the authors present lessons learned from the development,…

Bowen, Merle L.; Tillman, Ayesha S.

2015-01-01

187

Cadmium inhibition of vitamin D-mediated responses in organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When added to the medium, cadmium (4 x 10/sup -5/ M) inhibits 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol(1..cap alpha..,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/)-mediated responses in the organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum: decreases induction of a specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP), prevents the elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduces the ability of the tissue to absorb radiocalcium at the mucosal surface. The cadmium effect is clearly not generalized cytotoxicity: total protein concentration actually increased after cadmium treatment, and the effect of a 24-h culture in the presence of cadmium is largely reversed during a subsequent 24-h period. These results may be taken as evidence that cadmium can interfere with vitamin D action at the level of the target organ itself and is not necessarily secondary to alteration in Vitamin D metabolism.

Corradino, R.A.

1979-01-01

188

Exploring the Relationship between Self-Awareness and Student Commitment and Understanding of Culturally Responsive Social Work Practice  

OpenAIRE

This study explores the relationship between self-awareness and social work students’ commitment and understanding of culturally responsive social work practice. Data consisted of assigned papers (N = 23), submitted by graduate social work students, which asked them to describe their ethnic/racial background and ancestors’ process of assimilation, and to reflect on their ethnic and racial identity as a means toward increased self-awareness and future culturally responsive practice. Conten...

Bender, Kimberly; Negi, Nalini; Fowler, Dawnovise N.

2010-01-01

189

Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia  

OpenAIRE

This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurv...

Dietmar Sternad

2012-01-01

190

DNA damage in the early primordial anther is closely correlated with stamen arrest in the female flower of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of sex expression in cucumber, morphological observations and biochemical analyses were carried out on inappropriate stamen development of female flowers of cucumber. It was found that developmental arrest of the inappropriate stamen mainly occurs at the anther primordium. This arrest is closely correlated with DNA damage, as detected by TUNEL assay, and might result from anther-specific DNase activation. It was also found that the DNA damage does not lead to cell degeneration, although chromatin condensation is observed in the anther primordia. PMID:12898252

Hao, Yu-Jin; Wang, Dong-Hui; Peng, Yi-Ben; Bai, Su-Lan; Xu, Li-Yun; Li, Yi-Qin; Xu, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Shu-Nong

2003-10-01

191

The Generation X Librarian Essays on Leadership, Technology, Pop Culture, Social Responsibility and Professional Identity  

CERN Document Server

Generation X includes individuals born roughly between 1961 and 1981. This generation has faced major advances in technology, environmental degradation, and widening economic injustice, all of which affect libraries and librarians. This collection of critical essays highlights the special challenges that face Generation X librarians. Topics covered include management and leadership, rapidly changing technology, social attitudes and stereotypes within popular culture, and how Generation X librarians have responded to or developed in response to those themes. This work fills many of the gaps pre

Wallace, Martin K,; Estep, Erik Sean

2011-01-01

192

A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes  

OpenAIRE

In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked...

Ute Hofmann; Melanie Priem; Christine Bartzsch; Thomas Winckler; Karl-Heinz Feller

2014-01-01

193

Dismantling Cultural Prejudice: Responses to Huntington’s Thesis in the Indonesian Media  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The ideas contained in Huntington's article, "Clash of Civilization?", are provoking. Since its publication in Foreign Affairs (summer 1993, several responses have appeared in the media world-wide. In this home country, Huntington's article was critized from various angles.  His assumptions, model, data and even his potition were scrutunized mostly by social scientists and Islamicist. These criticisms, however, highlight the article's significant importance in the debates of political and cultural problems faced in the post-cold war world.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v1i1.869

Hendro Prasetyo

2014-05-01

194

Cadmium inhibition of vitamin D-mediated responses in organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When added to the medium, cadmium inhibits 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-mediated responses in the organ-cultured embryonic chick duodenum: decreases induction of a specific calcium-binding protein (CaBP), prevents the elevation of alkaline phosphatase activity, and reduces the ability of the tissue to absorb radiocalcium at the mucosal surface. The cadmium effect is clearly not generalized cytotoxicity. These results may be taken as evidence that cadmium can interfere with vitamin D action at the level of the target organ itself and is not necessarily secondary to alteration in vitamin D metabolism.

Corradino, R.A.

1979-01-01

195

Biometrical characteristics of R2 generation of anther-derived pepper (Capsicum spp. plants  

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Full Text Available Eight anther-derived DH lines of pepper hybrids: two red-fruited (AP14, AP15 and two yellow lines (AP25 and AP32 of C. annuum (ATZ1 × POF2, two lines of (C. frutescens × C. annuumF1 (FA1, FA2, and two of (C. frutescens × C. chinenseF1 (FCH2, FCH3, were studied regarding important morphological plant and fruit characters. C. annuum breeding line 'ATZ1' was used as a standard. The following traits were evaluated: total fruit yield, fruit weight, weight of placenta with seeds, technological matter, pericarp thickness, extract content, dry matter content, weight and number of seeds per fruit. The level of homogeneity within the DH lines was analysed with a one-way analysis of variance, additionally the values of coefficient of variation (CV were determined for the tested plant characters. The highest phenotypic uniformity was noted for the red-fruited lines obtained from anthers of (ATZ1 × POF2 and for the DH lines of (C. frutescens × C. annuum F1, while the least uniform were FCH2 and FCH3 lines of (C. frutescens × C. chinenseF1. The DH lines AP14 and AP15, as well as FA1 and FA2 were phenotype homogeneous in respect of weight of fruit, technological matter, pericarp thickness and extract content. For these parameters, also the values of CV were the lowest. Statistically significant interline polymorphism between the androgenic lines of the same origin was detected among the lines of C. annuum (ATZ1 × POF2.

Anna Kisia?a

2011-09-01

196

A Letter of Apology Nearly 50 Years in the Making: How We've Failed to Solve the Cultural Bind of the American Male. Response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male"  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the author's letter of apology as a response to "The Cultural Bind of the American Male". In the letter, the author offers his apologies because educators have failed to solve the cultural bind of the American male.

McCandless, Greg

2012-01-01

197

Número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras / Number of anthers per flower, pollen grains per anther and pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número de anteras por flor, grãos de pólen por antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen de diferentes cultivares de macieiras. O trabalho foi executado no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Desenvolvimento e Genética Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina [...] , e as coletas a campo foram realizadas na Epagri/Estação Experimental de Caçador-SC, em outubro de 2005. Foram utilizadas as seguintes cultivares comerciais de macieira desenvolvidas no Brasil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz e Joaquina. As cultivares de macieira Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa e Suprema produzem pólen em quantidade suficiente e com boa capacidade germinativa. A cv. Condessa, embora apresente alta capacidade germinativa de pólen, produz menos anteras e grãos de pólen por antera que as demais. A cv. Princesa é a que apresenta o melhor perfil como polinizadora, por conjugar número de anteras/flor, número de grãos de pólen/antera e capacidade germinativa do pólen mais satisfatórios. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of anthers per flower, the number of pollen grains per anther and the pollen germination capacity of different cultivars of apple trees. The study was performed at the Physiology and Plant Genetics Laboratory of Federal University of Santa Catar [...] ina. The field collecting were performed at Epagri / Caçador Experimental Station, in Santa Catarina State during October, 2005. It was used the following apple cultivars developed in Brazil: Primícia, Princesa, Fred Hough, Catarina, Baronesa, Lisgala, Suprema, Condessa, Daiane, Duquesa, Imperatriz and Joaquina. It was concluded that the apple cultivars Condessa, Princesa, Eva, Duquesa, Imperatriz, Gala, Fred Hough, Daiane, Baronesa and Suprema produce pollen grains of satisfactory quantity and of good germination capacity. The cv. Condessa, although having high pollen germination capacity, produces less anthers and less pollen grains per anther than the others. Princesa is the cultivar of best pattern as pollinizer, once it combines number of anthers/flower, number of pollen grains/anther and pollen germination capacity in a better satisfactory level.

Celso Lopes de, Albuquerque Junior; Frederico, Denardi; Adriana Cibele de Mesquita, Dantas; Rubens Onofre, Nodari.

1255-12-01

198

Isoflavone Augmentation in Soybean Cell Cultures Is Optimized Using Response Surface Methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glycine max contains potential therapeutic isoflavones, and its productivity in plants is considerably influenced worldwide by several biotic and abiotic factors. Optimization of soybean cell suspension cultures (Indian variety, JS 335) to maximize the cell growth and isoflavone production in the present study was performed using response surface methodology (RSM) with three independent variables of plant growth regulators, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (?-NAA), and kinetin (Kn). The maximum biomass achieved was 70.62 g/L dry weight (dw) using the optimized medium of 2.10 mg/L 2,4-D, 5.52 mg/L ?-NAA, and 0.35 mg/L Kn supplemented in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The total isoflavone content of 38.59 mg/g of dw was obtained in the medium with optimized conditions of 1.33 mg/L 2,4-D, 1.76 mg/L ?-NAA, and 0.15 mg/L Kn. In comparison to field-grown soybean seeds, the cell suspension cultures profoundly augmented isoflavone concentrations. The optimized conditions for both biomass and total isoflavone content were evaluated by superimposing the contour plots. The results suggested that the optimized medium of cell suspension cultures possibly be used for scale-up studies in bioreactors to offer a high content of bioactive isoflavones. PMID:24678665

Akitha Devi, M K; Giridhar, P

2014-03-31

199

Phenotypic stress response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa following culture in water microcosms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential behavioural changes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa following growth in different aquatic environmental conditions. To achieve this, P. aeruginosa was cultured in various water microcosms for 12 months under fixed (pH, nutrients and temperature) factors. P. aeruginosa responses to these conditions were investigated using colony morphotype, biochemical and enzymatic characterisation, pyocin typing, serotyping, sensitivity to different classes of antibiotics and molecular identification. Results show that starvation in water microcosms lead to unusual phenotypes. Of interest is that the pyocin changed from 24/n in the wild type to 83/a following culture in the water microcosms, and the serotype changed from O6 in the wild type to O1 in microcosm-cultured P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, the starvation period in various aquatic microcosms enhanced the resistance of P. aeruginosa against beta-lactam antibiotics. Compared to the other aquatic environments, the seawater microcosm produced the greatest amount of variations in P. aeruginosa. Overall, data demonstrated a high adaptability of P. aeruginosa to environmental changes. This may explain the unusual antibiotic-resistant phenotypes belonging to P. aeruginosa species, and their capacity for spreading that leads to human infections. PMID:22361708

Cheriaa, Jihane; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Maatallah, Makaoui; Bakhrouf, Amina

2012-03-01

200

Response to hypogravity of normal in vitro cultured follicular cells from thyroid  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of this investigation is the study of molecular modifications occurring in differentiated mammalian cells exposed to gravitational changes. The test system chosen is a well characterized clone of differentiated, normal thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5) in long-term culture. As a follow-up to our recent experiment performed during the MASER-7 sounding rocket mission, flown for European Space Agency by Swedish Space Corporation in May 1996, we evaluated FRTL5 cells responses to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone dependent cAMP production under acute hypogravity conditions obtained in a fast rotating clinostat. Following this approach, we evaluated the FRTL5 cells response to TSH under microgravity conditions in order to optimize experimental tools and strategies in preparation to, and in between real flight missions.

Meli, Antonella; Perrella, Giuseppina; Curcio, Francesco; Saverio, F.; Impiombato, Ambesi

201

Effect of dexamethasone on the cytotoxic and enzymatic response of cultured endothelial cells to radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments were conducted to determine (1) whether glucocorticoids directly protected endothelial cells (EC) from radiation and (2) if angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, known to be increased by glucocorticoid, played a role in the EC response to radiation. Confluent monolayers of EC cultured from bovine aorta EC were treated with dexamethasone (10-6 M); after irradiation (5.0 Gy, 60Co ?) ACE and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, DNA and protein contents, and nuclei number were measured. Combined dexamethasone treatment and radiation increased cellular ACE activity at a time when neither agent alone had an effect (24-hr dexamethasone exposure before 5 Gy and assayed 24 hr after 5 Gy). This interaction between radiation and dexamethasone treatment suggests that the glucocorticoid modifies the cell's response to injury. Although this interaction does not ameliorate radiation cytotoxicity, maintenance of ACE levels in injured vessels by hormones may have physiological significance in the hemodynamics of irradiated tissues

202

Temperature stress differentially modulates transcription in meiotic anthers of heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive tomato plants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in temperature occur naturally during plant growth and reproduction. However, in the hot summers this variation may become stressful and damaging for the molecular mechanisms involved in proper cell growth, impairing thus plant development and particularly fruit-set in many crop plants. Tolerance to such a stress can be achieved by constitutive gene expression or by rapid changes in gene expression, which ultimately leads to protection against thermal damage. We have used cDNA-AFLP and microarray analyses to compare the early response of the tomato meiotic anther transcriptome to moderate heat stress conditions (32°C in a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype. In the light of the expected global temperature increases, elucidating such protective mechanisms and identifying candidate tolerance genes can be used to improve breeding strategies for crop tolerance to heat stress. Results The cDNA-AFLP analysis shows that 30 h of moderate heat stress (MHS alter the expression of approximately 1% of the studied transcript-derived fragments in a heat-sensitive genotype. The major effect is gene down-regulation after the first 2 h of stress. The microarray analysis subsequently applied to elucidate early responses of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive tomato genotype, also shows about 1% of the genes having significant changes in expression after the 2 h of stress. The tolerant genotype not only reacts with moderate transcriptomic changes but also exhibits constitutively higher expression levels of genes involved in protection and thermotolerance. Conclusion In contrast to the heat-sensitive genotype, the heat-tolerant genotype exhibits moderate transcriptional changes under moderate heat stress. Moreover, the heat-tolerant genotype also shows a different constitutive gene expression profile compared to the heat-sensitive genotype, indicating genetic differences in adaptation to increased temperatures. In the heat-tolerant genotype, the majority of changes in gene expression is represented by up-regulation, while in the heat-sensitive genotype there is a general trend to down-regulate gene expression upon MHS. The putative functions associated with the genes identified by cDNA-AFLP or microarray indicate the involvement of heat shock, metabolism, antioxidant and development pathways. Based on the observed differences in response to MHS and on literature sources, we identified a number of candidate transcripts involved in heat-tolerance.

Pezzotti Mario

2011-07-01

203

Studies in tissue culture of some indigenous rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) accessions in Ghana  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted with the aim of developing separate protocols for callus induction and plant regeneration from different parts of three O. glaberrima accessions indigenous to Ghana. The three O. glaberrima accessions, Guame, N/4 and SARI 1 were assessed for their callus induction and plant regeneration ability from leaf segments, mature dehusked seeds and anthers on different concentrations of plant growth regulators, incorporated into Murashige and Skoog, (1962) (MS) basal medium. For leaf segments, callus was induced on MS supplemented with (0-10) mg/l 2,4-D. Callus induction frequency was significantly (p?0.05) different among accessions, as well as among the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) levels tested. Highest callus induction frequency was exhibited at a concentration of 6 mg/l 2,4-D for all accessions tested. Callus obtained was sub-cultured on regeneration medium consisting of MS supplemented with (1:0-5) mg.l NAA:BAP. Plant regeneration was nil. Instead, prolific root formation was observed. For mature dehusked seeds, callus induction medium consisted of MS supplemented with (0-6) mg/l 2,4-D. All tested accessions exhibited highest callus frequency at 4 mg/l 2,4-D. Similarly callus induction frequency was significantly (p?0.05) different among accessions, as well as among concentrations of 2,4-D tested. Calli obtained were sub-cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0-2.5) mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and exhibited the highest regeneratio and exhibited the highest regeneration frequency on medium containing 2.0 mg/l BAP. However, callus induced on a concentration of 3 mg/l 2,4-D and sub-cultured on a concentration of 2 mg/l BAP gave the best response n terms of shoot proliferation, growth and root development and therefore were considered to be the optimum concentrations for callus induction and plant regeneration respectively. Plantlet regeneration was achieved only in accession N/4 while Guame and SARI 1 exhibited poor regeneration response. Among the three rice accessions evaluated, N/4 was the most promising accession in terms of callus induction frequency and regeneration ability. The three accessions of O. glaberrima were again studied for their response to anther culture in terms of callus induction and frequency of plant regeneration using N, Garfish and D oy, MS and Nis tch tissue culture media, and supplemented with 2,4-D (1:(0-5) mg/l) were used for callus induction. No response to callus formation was obtained after 16 weeks of culture and a conclusion was drawn that all three accessions were recalcitrant to anther culture. (au)

204

Assessing the Impact of the National Cultural Framework on Responsible Corporate Behaviour towards Consumers: an Application of Geert Hofstede`s Cultural Model  

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Full Text Available This article aims to define and measure responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers in EU countries by defining an index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers and to establish the impact of Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions on the responsible behaviour of organisations towards consumers. The index uses a specific measurement methodology based on three major components of responsible corporate behaviour towards customers and on content analysis of the Eurostat databases, the RAPEX 2012 Annual Report, the 2012-2013 Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Reporting Initiative database. We used the multifactorial regression and the Wald significance test to demonstrate that organisations operating in countries characterised by low power distance, individualism, femininity, tolerance of unknown and long-term orientation pay more attention to responsible corporate behaviour towards customers. The study highlights theoretical considerations that support the influence of the national cultural framework on responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers. The methodology for calculating the index of responsible corporate behaviour towards consumers can become a basis of analysis of responsible corporate behaviour towards local consumers or other stakeholders.

Cristina G?nescu

2014-02-01

205

Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role.

Applegate, L.A.; Luscher, P.; Tyrrell, R.M. (Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research, Epalinges (Switzerland))

1991-02-01

206

Induction of heme oxygenase: A general response to oxidant stress in cultured mammalian cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of heme oxygenase mRNA is strongly stimulated by treatment of cultured human skin fibroblasts with ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide, or the sulfhydryl reagent sodium arsenite. Since this will result in a transient reduction in the prooxidant state of cells, the phenomenon may represent an important inducible antioxidant defense mechanism. To examine the generality of the response, we have measured the accumulation of the specific mRNA in a variety of human and mammalian cell types after inducing treatments. Induction by sodium arsenite is observed in all additional human cell types tested. This includes primary epidermal keratinocytes and lung and colon fibroblasts as well as established cell lines such as HeLa, TK6 lymphoblastoid, and transformed fetal keratinocytes. Strong induction of heme oxygenase mRNA is also observed following sodium arsenite treatment of cell lines of rat, hamster, mouse, monkey, and marsupial origin. The agents which lead to induction in cultured human skin fibroblasts fall into two categories: (a) those which are oxidants or can generate active intermediates (ultraviolet A radiation, hydrogen peroxide, menadione, and the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate); (b) agents which are known to interact with or modify cellular glutathione levels (buthionine sulfoximine, sodium arsenite, iodoacetamide, diamide, and cadmium chloride). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that induction of the enzymehe hypothesis that induction of the enzyme is a general response to oxidant stress in mammalian cells and are consistent with the possibility that the cellular redox state plays a key role

207

Adriamycin response of two human tumor xenografts using a double-radiolabel organ culture method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A double-radiolabel method of quantitating drug response in a simple organ culture system was used to study the effects of adriamycin on two human tumor xenografts in vitro. Explants of X56, an adenocarcinoma of the colon, and HXG2, an amelanotic melanoma, both maintained by serial transplantation in athymic mice, were sequentially incubated in vitro with 14C-thymidine, one of several concentrations of adriamycin, and then 3H-thymidine. The ratios of second to first radiolabel incorporation declined as a function of adriamycin concentration. HXG2 was significantly more responsive to adriamycin than X56 in the double-radiolabelled assay. Greater sensitivity of HXG2 was confirmed by three additional methods: the human tumor stem cell assay (HTSCA), chemotherapy trials in tumor-bearing athymic mice, and a double-radiolabel protocol in vivo in tumor-bearing athymic mice. An organ culture method of this type may be useful in screening individual patients' tumors for drug resistance. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 15 refs

208

In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

Maria Weso?wska

1985-03-01

209

The Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Cross cultural adaptation, reliability, validity and responsiveness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire to produce an equivalent Korean version. A total of 53 patients completed the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months after open carpal tunnel release. All 53 also completed the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire pre-operatively and 3 months post-operatively. Reliability was measured by determining the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients and paired t-tests, and internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Pearson correlation analysis was carried out on the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores and the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores to assess construct validity. Responsiveness was evaluated using effect sizes and standardized response means. The reliability of the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was good. The scores in the Korean version of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand strongly correlated with the scores in the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. Standardized response mean and effect size were both large for the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire. The study shows that the Korean version of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire is a reliable, valid and responsive instrument for measuring outcomes in carpal tunnel syndrome. PMID:25005562

Kim, J K; Lim, H M

2015-02-01

210

The EXCESS MICROSPOROCYTES1 gene encodes a putative leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase that controls somatic and reproductive cell fates in the Arabidopsis anther  

OpenAIRE

Cell differentiation is essential for the development of multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, the haploid male gametophytes (pollen grains) are generated in the anther from reproductive cells called microsporocytes. Several types of somatic cells ensure successful pollen development, and thus reproduction. However, it is not clear what genes regulate the differentiation of these diverse, highly specialized cells in the anther. We report here the isolation and characterization of a no...

Zhao, Da-zhong; Wang, Guan-fang; Speal, Brooke; Ma, Hong

2002-01-01

211

Molecular analysis of chondrocytes cultured in agarose in response to dynamic compression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Articular cartilage is exposed to high mechanical loads under normal physiological conditions and articular chondrocytes regulate the composition of cartilaginous matrix, in response to mechanical signals. However, the intracellular pathways involved in mechanotransduction are still being defined. Using the well-characterized chondrocyte/agarose model system and dynamic compression, we report protocols for preparing and characterizing constructs of murine chondrocytes and agarose, and analyzing the effect of compression on steady-state level of mRNA by RT-PCR, gene transcription by gene reporter assay, and phosphorylation state of signalling molecules by Western-blotting. The mouse model is of particular interest because of the availability of a large choice of bio-molecular tools suitable to study it, as well as genetically modified mice. Results Chondrocytes cultured in agarose for one week were surrounded by a newly synthesized pericellular matrix, as revealed by immunohistochemistry prior to compression experiments. This observation indicates that this model system is suitable to study the role of matrix molecules and trans-membrane receptors in cellular responsiveness to mechanical stress. The chondrocyte/agarose constructs were then submitted to dynamic compression with FX-4000C™ Flexercell® Compression Plus™ System (Flexcell. After clearing proteins off agarose, Western-blotting analysis showed transient activation of Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK in response to dynamic compression. After assessment by capillary electrophoresis of the quality of RNA extracted from agarose, steady-state levels of mRNA expression was measured by real time PCR. We observed an up-regulation of cFos and cJun mRNA levels as a response to compression, in accordance with the mechanosensitive character observed for these two genes in other studies using cartilage explants submitted to compression. To explore further the biological response of mouse chondrocytes to the dynamic compression at the transcriptional level, we also developed an approach for monitoring changes in gene transcription in agarose culture by using reporter promoter constructs. A decrease in promoter activity of the gene coding for type II procollagen, the most abundant protein in cartilage, was observed in response to dynamic loading. Conclusion The protocols developed here offer the possibility to perform an integrated analysis of the molecular mechanisms of mechanotransduction in chondrocytes, at the gene and protein level.

Mallein-Gerin Frédéric

2008-09-01

212

Anti-CagA Immunoglobulin G Responses Correlate with Interleukin-8 Induction in Human Gastric Mucosal Biopsy Culture  

OpenAIRE

Helicobacter pylori persists in the human stomach despite eliciting both cellular and humoral immune responses and inducing proinflammatory cytokines. To determine whether local humoral and cytokine responses are related to each other and to histologic responses, we studied 66 Japanese patients who underwent gastroscopy. Using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, we examined gastric antral mucosal-organ biopsy culture supernatants to assess interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8...

Ando, Takafumi; Perez-perez, Guillermo I.; Kusugami, Kazuo; Ohsuga, Masahiro; Bloch, Karen C.; Blaser, Martin J.

2000-01-01

213

The unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured astrocytes and rat brain during experimental diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammatory responses are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic retinopathy, raising the possibility that disturbances in ER protein processing may contribute to CNS dysfunction in diabetics. Upregulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic response to accumulation of abnormal proteins in the ER, and the present study tested the hypothesis that the UPR is upregulated in two models for diabetes, cultured astrocytes g...

Lind, Katrine R.; Ball, Kelly K.; Cruz, Nancy F.; Dienel, Gerald A.

2013-01-01

214

Suppression of in vitro primary immune response by L1210 cells and their culture supernatant: evidence for cytotoxic effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

L1210 cells and their culture supernatants were found to inhibit the generation of PFC in the in vitro primary immune response of spleen cells to SRBC. As few as 1 percent of L1210 cells and 1 percent of culture fluid were inhibitory. Inhibition of DNA or protein synthesis of L1210 cells did not abolish their immunosuppressive activity, excluding exhaustion of culture medium as a possible mechanism of inhibition of PFC. Heating of the supernatant completely abrogated the suppressive effect and resulted in a marked increase of PFC. Daily evaluation of cell viability in the cultures revealed that, in the presence of L1210 and supernatants, the fraction of surviving cells is markedly reduced. We conclude that a direct cytotoxic effect on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages is the predominant immunosuppressive mechanism of L1210 cells and their culture supernatants

215

Proteome Analysis of the Wild and YX-1 Male Sterile Mutant Anthers of Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.)  

OpenAIRE

Pollen development is disturbed in the early tetrad stage of the YX-1 male sterile mutant of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.). The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed anther proteins and to reveal their possible roles in pollen development and male sterility. To address this question, the proteomes of the wild-type (WT) and YX-1 mutant were compared. Approximately 1760 protein spots on two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) gels were detected. A number o...

Zheng, Rui; Sijun Yue,; Xu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jianyu; Xu, Qing; Wang, Xiaolin; Han, Lu; Yu, Deyue

2012-01-01

216

Defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, non-toxic, and inexpensive compound obtained by partial alkaline deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and other arthropods. The unique physiological and biological properties of CHT make this polymer useful for a wide range of industries. In agriculture, CHT is used to control numerous pre- and postharvest diseases on various horticultural commodities. In recent years, much attention has been devoted to CHT as an elicitor of defense responses in plants, which include raising of cytosolic Ca(2+), activation of MAP kinases, callose apposition, oxidative burst, hypersensitive response, synthesis of abscisic acid, jasmonate, phytoalexins, and pathogenesis-related proteins. In this work, we investigated the effects of different CHT concentrations on some defense/stress responses of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells. CHT induced accumulation of dead cells, and of cells with fragmented DNA, production of H(2)O(2) and nitric oxide, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion, accumulation of regulative 14-3-3 proteins in the cytosol and of HSP70 molecular chaperone binding protein in the endoplasmic reticulum, accompanied by marked modifications in the architecture of this cell organelle. PMID:21327845

Malerba, Massimo; Crosti, Paolo; Cerana, Raffaella

2012-01-01

217

Isolation and characterization of CaMF3, an anther-specific gene in Capsicum annuum L.  

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Full Text Available Previous work on gene expression analysis based on RNA sequencing identified a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum L. In this work, we examined the accumulation of one of the transcript-derived fragments (TDFs, CaMF3 (male fertile 3, in the flower buds of a fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF3 was 1,951 bp long and contained 6 exons and 5 introns, with the complete sequence encoding a putative 25.89 kDa protein of 234 amino acids. The predicted protein of CaMF3 shared sequence similarity with members of the isoamyl acetate-hydrolyzing esterase (IAH1 protein family. CaMF3 expression was detected only in flower buds at stages 7 and 8 and in open flowers of a male fertile line; no expression was observed in any organs of a male sterile line. Fine expression analysis revealed that CaMF3 was expressed specifically in anthers of the fertile line. These results suggest that CaMF3 is an anther-specific gene that may be essential for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

Xuefeng Hao

2012-01-01

218

Isolation and characterization of CaMF3, an anther-specific gene in Capsicum annuum L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Previous work on gene expression analysis based on RNA sequencing identified a variety of differentially expressed cDNA fragments in the genic male sterile-fertile line 114AB of Capsicum annuum L. In this work, we examined the accumulation of one of the transcript-derived fragments (TDFs), CaMF3 (ma [...] le fertile 3), in the flower buds of a fertile line. The full genomic DNA sequence of CaMF3 was 1,951 bp long and contained 6 exons and 5 introns, with the complete sequence encoding a putative 25.89 kDa protein of 234 amino acids. The predicted protein of CaMF3 shared sequence similarity with members of the isoamyl acetate-hydrolyzing esterase (IAH1) protein family. CaMF3 expression was detected only in flower buds at stages 7 and 8 and in open flowers of a male fertile line; no expression was observed in any organs of a male sterile line. Fine expression analysis revealed that CaMF3 was expressed specifically in anthers of the fertile line. These results suggest that CaMF3 is an anther-specific gene that may be essential for anther or pollen development in C. annuum.

Xuefeng, Hao; Changming, Chen; Guoju, Chen; Bihao, Cao; Qinghua, Chen; Jianjun, Lei.

219

Rice CYP703A3, a cytochrome P450 hydroxylase, is essential for development of anther cuticle and pollen exine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anther cuticle and pollen exine act as protective envelopes for the male gametophyte or pollen grain, but the mechanism underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers remains unclear. Previously, a tapetum-expressed CYP703A3, a putative cytochrome P450 fatty acid hydroxylase, was shown to be essential for male fertility in rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, the biochemical and biological roles of CYP703A3 has not been characterized. Here, we observed that cyp703a3-2 caused by one base insertion in CYP703A3 displays defective pollen exine and anther epicuticular layer, which differs from Arabidopsis cyp703a2 in which only defective pollen exine occurs. Consistently, chemical composition assay showed that levels of cutin monomers and wax components were dramatically reduced in cyp703a3-2 anthers. Unlike the wide range of substrates of Arabidopsis CYP703A2, CYP703A3 functions as an in-chain hydroxylase only for a specific substrate, lauric acid, preferably generating 7-hydroxylated lauric acid. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analyses revealed that the expression of CYP703A3 is directly regulated by Tapetum Degeneration Retardation, a known regulator of tapetum PCD and pollen exine formation. Collectively, our results suggest that CYP703A3 represents a conserved and diversified biochemical pathway for in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid required for the development of male organ in higher plants. PMID:24798002

Yang, Xijia; Wu, Di; Shi, Jianxin; He, Yi; Pinot, Franck; Grausem, Bernard; Yin, Changsong; Zhu, Lu; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

2014-10-01

220

Initiating Culturally Responsive Teaching for Identity Construction in the Malaysian Classrooms  

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Full Text Available This article presents evidence to the need for Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT to construct students’ identity in the Malaysian classrooms. Since an important objective of education is to prepare individuals to exercise efficaciously in their environment, all students in multicultural society could benefit from exposure to CRT (Gay, 2000. In this study, a specific text (Ah Khaw Goes to Heaven was used in the English literature classroom, which depicted conflicts in multicultural Malaya in the 1940s. A qualitative inquiry employing semi-structured, in depth interviews with 9 English language teachers in 6 schools around Kuala Lumpur were carried out. Classroom observations were conducted, and group interviews with 6 groups of students were also carried out. Thematic analysis were performed and the findings suggest that students’ interpretation of CRT were influenced by an orthodox perception of their identity in the classroom and in the teaching and learning process, while teachers were more skeptical and reserved in developing CRT.

Faizah Idrus

2014-03-01

221

Optimization of culture conditions for production of yeast biomass using bamboo wastewater by response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize culture conditions for the growth of Candida utilis with bamboo wastewater. A significant influence of initial pH, fermentation time and yeast extract on biomass of C. utilis was evaluated by Plackett-Burman design (PBD). These factors were further optimized using a central composite design (CCD) and RSM. A combination of initial pH 6.1, fermentation time 69 h and yeast extract 1.17 g/L was optimum for maximum biomass of C. utilis. A 1.7-fold enhancement of biomass of C. utilis was gained after optimization in shake-flask cultivation. The biomass of C. utilis reached 19.17 g/L in 3 L fermentor. PMID:19342227

Li, Xin; Ouyang, Jia; Xu, Yong; Chen, Mu; Song, Xiangyang; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

2009-07-01

222

Responses of Well-Differentiated Airway Epithelial Cell Cultures from Healthy Donors and Patients with Cystic Fibrosis to Burkholderia cenocepacia Infection  

OpenAIRE

Well-differentiated cultures established from airway epithelia of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF cultures) exhibited goblet cell hyperplasia, increased secretion of mucus, and higher basal levels of interleukin-8 than similarly cultured cells from healthy donors. Upon apical infection with low doses (104 to 105 CFU) of Burkholderia cenocepacia isolate BC7, the two cultures gave different responses. While normal cultures trapped the added bacteria in the mucus layer, killed and/or inhibited...

Sajjan, Umadevi; Keshavjee, Shaf; Forstner, Janet

2004-01-01

223

Adaptive Strategies in Response to the Economic Crisis: A Cross-Cultural Study in Austria and Slovenia  

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Full Text Available This study builds on prior research on culture-specific differences instrategic decision-making and strategic issue analysis, and extends it tothe field of strategic crisis adaptation. Taking an upper echelons perspective,it is investigated whether the cultural dimension of uncertaintyavoidance had an effect on strategic directions that managerschose in response to the 2008–2009 global financial and economic crisis.Building on a framework of strategic crisis responses and a quantitativesurvey conducted among 257 managers in Austria and Slovenia,the findings suggest that strategic issue interpretations of the economiccrisis as well as country differences influence whether firms are usingexternally versus internally-directed strategic responses, and pro-activeversus retrenchment strategies. The differences in strategy deploymentbetween the two countries, however, could not be consistently tracedto differences in the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance, thussuggesting that other country-specific factors like institutional or socialdifferences also play an important role.

Dietmar Sternad

2012-01-01

224

Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

2014-01-01

225

Response to Dengue virus infections altered by cytokine-like substances from mosquito cell cultures  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background With both shrimp and commercial insects such as honey bees, it is known that stable, persistent viral infections characterized by absence of disease can sometimes shift to overt disease states as a result of various stress triggers and that this can result in serious economic losses. The main research interest of our group is to understand the dynamics of stable viral infections in shrimp and how they can be destabilized by stress. Since there are no continuous cell lines for crustaceans, we have used a C6/36 mosquito cell line infected with Dengue virus to test hypotheses regarding these interactions. As a result, we accidentally discovered two new cytokine-like substances in 5 kDa extracts from supernatant solutions of acutely and persistently infected mosquito cells. Results Naïve C6/36 cells were exposed for 48 h to 5 kDa membrane filtrates prepared from the supernatant medium of stable C6/36 mosquito cell cultures persistently-infected with Dengue virus. Subsequent challenge of naïve cells with a virulent stock of Dengue virus 2 (DEN-2 and analysis by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-DEN-2 antibody revealed a dramatic reduction in the percentage of DEN-2 infected cells when compared to control cells. Similar filtrates prepared from C6/36 cells with acute DEN-2 infections were used to treat stable C6/36 mosquito cell cultures persistently-infected with Dengue virus. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy revealed destabilization in the form of an apoptosis-like response. Proteinase K treatment removed the cell-altering activities indicating that they were caused by small polypeptides similar to those previously reported from insects. Conclusions This is the first report of cytokine-like substances that can alter the responses of mosquito cells to Dengue virus. This simple model system allows detailed molecular studies on insect cytokine production and on cytokine activity in a standard insect cell line.

Laosutthipong Chaowanee

2010-11-01

226

Functional and biochemical responses of cultured heart cells to angiotensin II  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have utilized a cultured neonatal rat heart myocyte system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the stimulation of heart cells by angiotensin II (AII). The intact cultured cells, and membranes from these cells, have specific, high affinity receptors for 125I-AII and for an AII antagonist, 125I-Sar1,Leu8-AII. Binding affinity was in the nanomolar range and was inhibited by guanine nucleotides. Functional studies on intact, beating cells revealed a maximal increase in contractile frequency of 50%, observed at 5 nM AII, with half maximal effects noted at around 1 nM. These responses were reversible and specific as the antagonist, Sar1, Ala8-AII, inhibited AII-induced chronotropic stimulation. AII (100 nM) had no effect on basal adenylate cyclase activity (20 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg2+) in cell membranes. Further, in membranes where cyclase activity was stimulated with isoproterenol (290 pmoles cAMP/mg prot/min at 2.5mM Mg2+), addition of AII had no effect. The cyclase-inhibitory muscarinic agonist, carbachol, also failed to reduce isoproterenol-stimulated activity. In preliminary work with the intact cells, AII again did not alter basal cAMP levels (3-10 pmoles cAMP/mg prot). However, the hormone increased isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP levels by almost 50%. These cells are an excellent system for correlating AII receptor binding with functional and biochemical responses

227

Effect of genotype, Culture medium and cold pretreatment on another culture of wheat (T. aestivum L.) mutant lines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was conducted in Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine in the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran in 1996-1997. The objective was to investigate the effect of genotype, culture medium and cold pretreatment in calli production from anthers. Anthers of four mutant lines obtained from three cvs, (Omid, Tabassi and Roshan) were produced in the Nuclear Agriculture Center and two check cvs, (Omid and Tabassi) were cultured in two media PII and modified C17. Some of the spikes before plating were kept in dark at 4-5 deg C for one week. The result indicated that the genotype of donar plants had a significant effect on the calli and plants formation. Cold pre-treatment and medium type had no effect on the calli formation, but interaction between the two factors was very significant, and the best result was obtained when anthers were cultured in modified C17 medium without cold pre-treatment

228

The unfolded protein response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured astrocytes and rat brain during experimental diabetes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammatory responses are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic retinopathy, raising the possibility that disturbances in ER protein processing may contribute to CNS dysfunction in diabetics. Upregulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is a homeostatic response to accumulation of abnormal proteins in the ER, and the present study tested the hypothesis that the UPR is upregulated in two models for diabetes, cultured astrocytes grown in 25mmol/L glucose for up to 4weeks and brain of streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats with diabetes for 1-7months. Markers associated with translational blockade (phospho-eIF2? and apoptosis (CHOP), inflammatory response (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS), and nitrosative stress (nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH) were not detected in either model. Nrf2 was present in nuclei of low- and high-glucose cultures, consistent with oxidative stress. Astrocytic ATF4 expression was not altered by culture glucose concentration, whereas phospho-IRE and ATF6 levels were higher in low- compared with high-glucose cultures. The glucose-regulated chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94, were also expressed at higher levels in low- than high-glucose cultures, probably due to recurrent glucose depletion between feeding cycles. In STZ-rat cerebral cortex, ATF4 level was transiently reduced at 4months, and p-IRE levels were transiently elevated at 3months. However, GRP78 and GRP94 expression was not upregulated, and iNOS, amyloid-?, and nuclear accumulation of GAPDH were not evident in STZ-diabetic brain. High-glucose cultured astrocytes and STZ-diabetic brain are relatively resistant to diabetes-induced ER stress, in sharp contrast with cultured retinal Müller cells and diabetic rodent retina. PMID:23411409

Lind, Katrine R; Ball, Kelly K; Cruz, Nancy F; Dienel, Gerald A

2013-04-01

229

Culture & Advertising : How masculinity or femininity of a culture is influencing the consumers’ responses on the gender appearance in advertisements?  

OpenAIRE

Everybody has seen advertisements in his/her life even if this person is never watching television or listening to radio. However, an average person watches television 1 to 4 hours per day. In these hours of watching television, there is a big probability that this person will see an advertisement. But how does he/she react to this advertisement? There are probabilities of reacting positively or negatively or indifferently. Culture is one of the significant aspects that can determine the reac...

Sadek-endrawes, Marlin

2008-01-01

230

In vitro ?-ray-induced inflammatory response is dominated by culturing conditions rather than radiation exposures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inflammatory pathway has a pivotal role in regulating the fate and functions of cells after a wide range of stimuli, including ionizing radiation. However, the molecular mechanisms governing such responses have not been completely elucidated yet. In particular, the complex activation dynamics of the Nuclear transcription Factor kB (NF-kB), the key molecule governing the inflammatory pathway, still lacks a complete characterization. In this work we focused on the activation dynamics of the NF-kB (subunit p65) pathway following different stimuli. Quantitative measurements of NF-kB were performed and results interpreted within a systems theory approach, based on the negative feedback loop feature of this pathway. Time-series data of nuclear NF-kB concentration showed no evidence of ?-ray induced activation of the pathway for doses up to 5Gy but highlighted important transient effects of common environmental stress (e.g. CO2, temperature) and laboratory procedures, e.g. replacing the culture medium, which dominate the in vitro inflammatory response. PMID:25791775

Babini, G; Morini, J; Baiocco, G; Mariotti, L; Ottolenghi, A

2015-01-01

231

Phylogenetic evidence of host-specific cryptic species in the anther smut fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cryptic structure of species complexes confounds an accurate accounting of biological diversity in natural systems. Also, cryptic sibling species often become specialized to different ecological conditions, for instance, with host specialization by cryptic parasite species. The fungus Microbotryum violaceum causes anther smut disease in plants of Caryophyllaceae, and the degree of specialization and gene flow between strains on different hosts have been controversial in the literature. We conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses on M. violaceum from 23 host species and different geographic origins using three single-copy nuclear genes (beta-tub, gamma-tub, and Ef1alpha). Congruence between the phylogenies identified several lineages that evolved independently for a long time. The lineages had overlapping geographic ranges but were highly specialized on different hosts. These results thus suggest that M. violaceum is a complex of highly specialized sibling species. Two incongruencies between the individual gene phylogenies and one intragene recombination event were detected at basal nodes, suggesting ancient introgression events or speciation events via hybridizations. However, incongruencies and recombination were not detected among terminal branches, indicating that the potentials for cross-infection and experimental hybridization are often not sufficient to suggest that introgressions would likely persist in nature. PMID:17300424

Le Gac, Mickael; Hood, Michael E; Fournier, Elisabeth; Giraud, Tatiana

2007-01-01

232

History of the invasion of the anther smut pathogen on Silene latifolia in North America.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the routes of pathogen introduction contributes greatly to efforts to protect against future disease emergence. Here, we investigated the history of the invasion in North America by the fungal pathogen Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae, which causes the anther smut disease on the white campion Silene latifolia. This system is a well-studied model in evolutionary biology and ecology of infectious disease in natural systems. Analyses based on microsatellite markers show that the introduced American M. lychnidis-dioicae probably came from Scotland, from a single population, and thus suffered from a drastic bottleneck compared with genetic diversity in the native European range. The pattern in M. lychnidis-dioicae contrasts with that found by previous studies in its host plant species S. latifolia, also introduced in North America. In the plant, several European lineages have been introduced from across Europe. The smaller number of introductions for M. lychnidis-dioicae probably relates to its life history traits, as it is an obligate, specialized pathogen that is neither transmitted by the seeds nor persistent in the environment. The results show that even a nonagricultural, biotrophic, and insect-vectored pathogen suffering from a very strong bottleneck can successfully establish populations on its introduced host. PMID:23406496

Fontaine, Michael C; Gladieux, Pierre; Hood, Michael E; Giraud, Tatiana

2013-05-01

233

Culture Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology for in vitro Shoot Bud Development of Solanum melongena L. for Micropropagation  

OpenAIRE

Response surface methodology was used for the optimization of shoot bud response and shoot bud induction in leaf explants of Solanum melongena cultivar Arka Shirish. Three independent variables were evaluated for shoot bud response and shoot bud induction. The variables include the concentrations of nitrogen (N2), sucrose and growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ). The shoot bud response for cultured explant was optimized at 4.34 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.65% of sucrose and 0.67 mg/l of TDZ with 9...

Sila Bhattacharya; Padma Mallaya Naveenchandra; Gokare Aswathanarayana Ravishankar

2011-01-01

234

Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a...

McDermott Jason E; Shankaran Harish; Eisfeld Amie J; Belisle Sarah E; Neuman Gabriele; Li Chengjun; McWeeney Shannon; Sabourin Carol; Kawaoka Yoshihiro; Katze Michael G; Waters Katrina M

2011-01-01

235

Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ? We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ? MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ? MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ? Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

Robinson, Joshua F. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Verhoef, Aart; Beelen, Vincent A. van; Pennings, Jeroen L.A. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Piersma, Aldert H., E-mail: aldert.piersma@rivm.nl [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

2012-10-01

236

Dynamic culture substrate that captures a specific extracellular matrix protein in response to light  

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Full Text Available The development of methods for the off–on switching of immobilization or presentation of cell-adhesive peptides and proteins during cell culture is important because such surfaces are useful for the analysis of the dynamic processes of cell adhesion and migration. This paper describes a chemically functionalized gold substrate that captures a genetically tagged extracellular matrix protein in response to light. The substrate was composed of mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of three disulfide compounds containing (i a photocleavable poly(ethylene glycol (PEG, (ii nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA and (iii hepta(ethylene glycol (EG7. Although the NTA group has an intrinsic high affinity for oligohistidine tag (His-tag sequences in its Ni2+-ion complex, the interaction was suppressed by the steric hindrance of coexisting PEG on the substrate surface. Upon photoirradiation of the substrate to release the PEG chain from the surface, this interaction became possible and hence the protein was captured at the irradiated regions, while keeping the non-specific adsorption of non-His-tagged proteins blocked by the EG7 underbrush. In this way, we selectively immobilized a His-tagged fibronectin fragment (FNIII7–10 to the irradiated regions. In contrast, when bovine serum albumin—a major serum protein—was added as a non-His-tagged protein, the surface did not permit its capture, with or without irradiation. In agreement with these results, cells were selectively attached to the irradiated patterns only when a His-tagged FNIII7-10 was added to the medium. These results indicate that the present method is useful for studying the cellular behavior on the specific extracellular matrix protein in cell-culturing environments.

Jun Nakanishi, Hidekazu Nakayama, Kazuo Yamaguchi, Andres J Garcia and Yasuhiro Horiike

2011-01-01

237

Variability of in vitro culture response in wheat genotypes, genotype and environmental effects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The tissue culture response (TCR of immature embryos, evaluated according to callus formation, percentage of regenerative green-spotted calli and the number of plants per embryo, was investigated in 96 wheat genotypes of worldwide origins. Immature embryos were collected 12-15 DAP from field-grown plants during three successive years 2003, 2004 and 2005. Year 2003 was with high air temperatures and tropical days during a period of vegetation, while the environmental conditions were more favorable for plant growth in the next two years, 2004 and 2005. Embryos were cultured on standard MS medium containing 2 mg l-1 2, 4-D. In all genotypes calli were efficiently induced, ranging from 36.7 to 100% (2003, 68.4 to 100% (2004, and 94.3 to 100% (2005. The calli occasionally formed green spots, but frequencies markedly differed among genotypes that varied from 0 to 72.5% (2003, 0 to 97.9% (2004, and 0 to 94.0% (2005. Coefficient of variation was highest in term of percent of regenerative calli (66.7% following by a number of plants per embryo (35.6% and callus formation (5.1%. Components of phenotypic variance showed that factor year (71.4% had the highest impact on expression of callus formation, genetic factor (47,1% on percentage of regenerative green-spotted calli and interaction year/genotype (30.3% on number of plants per embryo. The results indicated factor genotype as the most important for determining regeneration potential in wheat.

Miti? Nevena

2006-01-01

238

Dose–response analysis of phthalate effects on gene expression in rat whole embryo culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rat postimplantation whole embryo culture (WEC) model serves as a potential screening tool for developmental toxicity. In this model, cultured rat embryos are exposed during early embryogenesis and evaluated for morphological effects. The integration of molecular-based markers may lead to improved objectivity, sensitivity and predictability of WEC in assessing developmental toxic properties of compounds. In this study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effects of two phthalates differing in potency, mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and monomethyl phthalate (MMP, less toxic), on the transcriptome in WEC to examine gene expression in relation with dysmorphogenesis. MEHP was more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes as well as changes on morphology. MEHP induced significant enrichment of cholesterol/lipid/steroid (CLS) metabolism and apoptosis pathways which was associated with developmental toxicity. Regulation of genes within CLS metabolism pathways represented the most sensitive markers of MEHP exposure, more sensitive than classical morphological endpoints. As shown in direct comparisons with toxicogenomic in vivo studies, alterations in the regulation of CLS metabolism pathways has been previously identified to be associated with developmental toxicity due to phthalate exposure in utero. Our results support the application of WEC as a model to examine relative phthalate potency through gene expression and morphological responses. Additionally, our results further define the applicability domain of the WEC model for developmental toxicological investigations. -- Highlights: ? We examine the effect of two phthalates on gene expression and morphology in WEC. ? MEHP is more potent than MMP in inducing gene expression changes and dysmorphogenesis. ? MEHP significantly disrupts cholesterol metabolism pathways in a dose-dependent manner. ? Specific phthalate-related mechanisms in WEC are relevant to mechanisms in vivo.

239

Sharpening the lens of culturally responsive science teaching: a call for liberatory education for oppressed student groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Wallace and Brand's framing of culturally responsive science teaching through the lens of critical race theory honors the role of social justice in science education. In this article, I extend the discussion through reflections on the particular learning needs of students from oppressed cultural groups, specifically African Americans. Understanding the political nature of education, I explore the importance of transforming science education so that it has the capacity to provide African American students with tools for their own liberation. I discuss Wallace and Brand's research findings in relation to the goal of liberatory education, and offer ideas for how science educators might push forward this agenda as they strive for culturally responsive teaching with oppressed student groups.

Codrington, Jamila

2014-12-01

240

Interrogating Practice in Culturally Diverse Classrooms: What Can an Analysis of Student Resistance and Teacher Response Reveal?  

Science.gov (United States)

As classrooms have increasingly become diverse and complex, developing culturally responsive pedagogies is a professional imperative for teachers. However, considerable international research suggests that meeting the needs of diverse pupil cohorts is challenging for many teachers. In this article, we highlight how curriculum and teaching…

Santoro, Ninetta; Forghani-Arani, Neda

2015-01-01

241

Theory and Practice of Positive Feminist Therapy: A Culturally Responsive Approach to Divorce Therapy with Chinese Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive Feminist Therapy (PFT) is a strength-based culturally responsive therapy model specifically designed for helping Chinese women facing marital conflicts and divorce, integrating Empowerment Feminist Therapy, systems theory, and positive psychology. To help clients become change agents, PFT uses clients' existing strengths to develop…

Tzou, Jean Yuh-Jin; Kim, Eunha; Waldheim, Kim

2012-01-01

242

A Case Study of Science Teacher Candidates' Understandings and Actions Related to the Culturally Responsive Teaching of "Other" Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this explanatory case study using critical theory as a philosophical lens was to focus on two science teacher candidates' understandings of Otherness and their culturally responsive teaching (or the lack thereof) of students they believe are the "Others". The researchers found that even though the participants had different goals…

Atwater, Mary M.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Draper-Morris, Jessie

2010-01-01

243

Professional Development for Culturally Responsive and Relationship-Based Pedagogy. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 24  

Science.gov (United States)

The work presented here is a large-scale evaluation of a theory-driven school reform project in New Zealand, which focuses on improving the educational achievement of Maori students in public secondary schools. The project's conceptual underpinnings are based on Kaupapa Maori research, culturally responsive teaching, student voice, and…

Sleeter, Christine E., Ed.

2011-01-01

244

Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

2012-01-01

245

Creation of Culturally Responsive Classrooms: Teachers' Conceptualization of a New Rationale for Cultural Responsiveness and Management of Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Presently, there are a growing number of ethnic minority students in Hong Kong schools. This article examines teachers' views of the cross-cultural experience of ethnic minority students, their influence on the performance of these students, and how the diverse learning needs of these students are being addressed. Qualitative data were collected…

Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry J.

2012-01-01

246

Regeneração in vitro de anteras de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L.) e mapeamento de QTL associado / In vitro regeneration of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L.) anthers and detection of associated QTL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A baixa taxa de regeneração in vitro de alguns cultivares de arroz da subespécie indica limita a utilização de técnicas de cultura de anteras como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares. A identificação de regiões genômicas associadas à formação de calos e regeneração de plantas, a pa [...] rtir do cultivo de anteras, poderá permitir a transferência do caráter por seleção assistida. Duas populações de retrocruzamento foram utilizadas para o mapeamento genético e estudo destes caracteres, sendo Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genótipos) e BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genótipos). Duzentas anteras imaturas de cada genótipo utilizado no estudo foram inoculadas em meio NL líquido e, após 40 dias, os calos formados foram transferidos para o meio MS sólido para regeneração de plantas. Todas as plantas doadoras de anteras foram usadas na extração de DNA genômico e sete primers RAPD foram utilizados na geração de marcadores para a construção dos mapas de ligação dos retrocruzamentos estudados. A taxa de formação de calos variou de 2,27 a 3,36% e a taxa de regeneração de plantas 1,38 a 1,82%, não se diferenciando significativamente. Seis grupos de ligação foram obtidos, três em cada população. Um QTL com LOD 3,10 foi detectado para o caráter formação de calos na população Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. Nenhum QTL foi detectado para a característica regeneração de plantas. Abstract in english The low in vitro regeneration of some indica rice cultivars, limits the use of anther culture techniques as a tool to reduce the time for releasing new cultivars. The identification of genomic regions associated with callus formation and in vitro regeneration from anther culture, will facilitate sel [...] ection of these traits through marker assisted techniques. Two backcross populations were used to study and map these traits, Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genotypes) and BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genotypes). Two hundred immature anthers, from each genotype used in this study, were inoculated in liquid NL medium for callus induction and, after 40 days, the formed callus were transferred to solid MS medium for plant regeneration. Each anther donor plant was used for DNA extraction and seven RAPD primers were used to assess genomic regions associated to callus formation and plant regeneration. As results, callus formation ranged from 2.27 up to 3.36% and plant regeneration ranged from 1.38 up to 1.82%, no significant differences were observed. Six linkage groups were obtained, being three from each population. One QTL was detected associated to callus formation, with LOD score 3.10, in the population Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. No QTL association was detected to the trait plant regeneration.

Sérgio Dias, Lannes; Paulo Dejalma, Zimmer; Antonio Costa de, Oliveira; Fernando Irajá Félix de, Carvalho; Eduardo Alano, Vieira; Ariano Martins de, Magalhães Junior; Maurício Marini, Kopp; Fábio Almeida de, Freitas.

1355-13-01

247

Regeneração in vitro de anteras de arroz irrigado (Oryza sativa L. e mapeamento de QTL associado In vitro regeneration of irrigated rice (Oryza sativa L. anthers and detection of associated QTL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A baixa taxa de regeneração in vitro de alguns cultivares de arroz da subespécie indica limita a utilização de técnicas de cultura de anteras como ferramenta para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares. A identificação de regiões genômicas associadas à formação de calos e regeneração de plantas, a partir do cultivo de anteras, poderá permitir a transferência do caráter por seleção assistida. Duas populações de retrocruzamento foram utilizadas para o mapeamento genético e estudo destes caracteres, sendo Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genótipos e BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genótipos. Duzentas anteras imaturas de cada genótipo utilizado no estudo foram inoculadas em meio NL líquido e, após 40 dias, os calos formados foram transferidos para o meio MS sólido para regeneração de plantas. Todas as plantas doadoras de anteras foram usadas na extração de DNA genômico e sete primers RAPD foram utilizados na geração de marcadores para a construção dos mapas de ligação dos retrocruzamentos estudados. A taxa de formação de calos variou de 2,27 a 3,36% e a taxa de regeneração de plantas 1,38 a 1,82%, não se diferenciando significativamente. Seis grupos de ligação foram obtidos, três em cada população. Um QTL com LOD 3,10 foi detectado para o caráter formação de calos na população Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. Nenhum QTL foi detectado para a característica regeneração de plantas.The low in vitro regeneration of some indica rice cultivars, limits the use of anther culture techniques as a tool to reduce the time for releasing new cultivars. The identification of genomic regions associated with callus formation and in vitro regeneration from anther culture, will facilitate selection of these traits through marker assisted techniques. Two backcross populations were used to study and map these traits, Taipei 309// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (53 genotypes and BRS 7 "Taim"// BRS 7 "Taim"/Taipei 309 (74 genotypes. Two hundred immature anthers, from each genotype used in this study, were inoculated in liquid NL medium for callus induction and, after 40 days, the formed callus were transferred to solid MS medium for plant regeneration. Each anther donor plant was used for DNA extraction and seven RAPD primers were used to assess genomic regions associated to callus formation and plant regeneration. As results, callus formation ranged from 2.27 up to 3.36% and plant regeneration ranged from 1.38 up to 1.82%, no significant differences were observed. Six linkage groups were obtained, being three from each population. One QTL was detected associated to callus formation, with LOD score 3.10, in the population Taipei 309 // BRS 7 "Taim" / Taipei 309. No QTL association was detected to the trait plant regeneration.

Sérgio Dias Lannes

2004-10-01

248

Effects of exposure times on the toxic response of ammonia oxidizing mixed culture (AOMC) to phenol and chlorinated phenols.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of exposure times on the response of ammonia oxidizing mixed culture (AOMC) to phenolic compounds while having the future goal to develop a biosensor using AOMC for toxicity monitoring. AOMC was used instead of purified nitrifying culture because of the ease of culture development. The oxygen utilization rate (OUR) was measured during three exposure periods; 0-15, 25-40 and 50-65 min. It was found that phenolic compounds have a strong inhibitory effect on AOMC. The percentage of OUR reduction increased with higher concentrations and the extended exposure times improved the toxic response of AOMC, especially to the lower concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/L). Further, AOMC detoxifying mechanisms might result in the reduction of toxic response when the longest exposure time was applied. However, at the higher concentrations (2.5 and 5.0 mg/L), the extended exposure times did not have a critical effect on the response pattern of AOMC, especially for phenol and mono-chlorinated phenols. It was illustrated that AOMC is very sensitive to phenolic compounds and its sensitivity is high enough for the detection of phenolic compounds at the level of effluent standard in Thailand and Japan with a rapid response time of 15 min. To improve the sensitivity of AOMC to low phenolic compound concentrations, an extended exposure time of 25-40 min would be recommended. PMID:17302331

Tantasut, J; Satoh, H; Parkpian, P; Mongkolsuk, S

2006-01-01

249

Dual response of BDNF to sublethal concentrations of beta-amyloid peptides in cultured cortical neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposition is one important pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, low levels of Abeta may modify critical endogenous protection systems before neurodegeneration occurs. We examined the time-course effect of sublethal concentrations of Abeta on total BDNF (panBDNF), BDNF transcripts (I, II, IV and VI), trkB.FL, trkB.T1 and p75(NGFR) mRNA expression in cultured cortical neurons. We have shown that Abeta exhibited a dual response on BDNF mRNA, i.e. an increase at short times (3-5 h) and a dramatic decrease at longer times (24 or 48 h). The early increase in BDNF expression seems to be driven by increased expression of transcripts I and IV. The BDNF drop was specific since did not occur for other mRNAs examined. The BDNF protein content showed a similar profile but did not follow the dramatic reduction as its encoding mRNA. These observations may help to explain cognitive deficits observed at initial stages of AD. PMID:19822210

Aliaga, E; Silhol, M; Bonneau, N; Maurice, T; Arancibia, S; Tapia-Arancibia, L

2010-01-01

250

Cross-cultural sex differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines male and female individual differences in situational triggers of aggressive responses (STAR) in three countries as well as cross-cultural sex differences in trait aggression (aggression questionnaire, AQ). Convenience sampling was employed (university students) for the descriptive correlational study (Poland N = 300, 63% female, mean age 21.86, SD = 2.12; UK N = 196, 60% female, mean age 20.48, SD = 3.79; Greece N = 299, 57% female, mean age 20.71, SD = 4.42). The results showed that the STAR scale is an equivalent construct across all three countries. Overall, females were more sensitive to both provocation (SP) and frustration (SF) than males. When controlling for trait aggression, Polish and Greek females scored similarly in SP and higher than UK females. No sex differences in SP or SF were found in the UK sample. Additionally, Polish participants scored the highest in SP. Furthermore, when trait aggression was removed, the Greek participants were most sensitive to frustration, whereas Polish and English participants' SF did not differ. We discuss the results with regard to intercultural differences between investigated countries. PMID:25178957

Zajenkowska, Anna; Mylonas, Kostas; Lawrence, Claire; Konopka, Karolina; Rajchert, Joanna

2014-10-01

251

Growth response and survival of Heterobranchus longifilis cultured at different water levels in outdoor concrete tanks  

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Full Text Available Thirteen-day-old hatchery-raised fry obtained from hormonally-induced spawns of mature African catfish H. longifilis brood stock were introduced to three different water levels (0.35, 0.50 and 0.65m in four replicates in 12 units of 2x2x1m3 outdoor concrete tanks. The fry were similarly stocked initially at 50 fry m-2 and later thinned down to 5 fish m-2 and cultured for 6 months. Fish were fed twice daily with commercial pellet feeds (Coppens™ while adjusting the feeding rate from 10 to 4% body weight and pellet size from 0.2 to 4.5 mm. The effects of pond water levels were evaluated in growth responses and survival. Water quality variables were similar (p > 0.05 in all compartments. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were at the optimum level for fish. The results reveal significant (P H. longifilis from fry to sub-adult and from the grow-out/fattening of sub-adult to adult, respectively, in outdoor concrete tanks.

Anthony A. Nlewadim

2011-07-01

252

Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-? expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: ? Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-?, and a low proliferation rate. ? PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. ? Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. ? Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-?. ? Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

253

Characterization and response of newly developed high-grade glioma cultures to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High-grade gliomas (HGG), are the most common aggressive brain tumours in adults. Inhibitors targeting growth factor signalling pathways in glioma have shown a low clinical response rate. To accurately evaluate response to targeted therapies further in vitro studies are necessary. Growth factor pathway expression using epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mutant EGFR (EGFRvIII), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), C-Kit and C-Abl together with phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression and downstream activation of AKT and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P70S6K) was analysed in 26 primary glioma cultures treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib, gefitinib and imatinib. Response to TKIs was assessed using 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC{sub 50}). Response for each culture was compared with the EGFR/PDGFR immunocytochemical pathway profile using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Erlotinib response was not strongly associated with high expression of the growth factor pathway components. PTEN expression did not correlate with response to any of the three TKIs. Increased EGFR expression was associated with gefitinib response; increased PDGFR-{alpha} expression was associated with imatinib response. The results of this in vitro study suggest gefitinib and imatinib may have therapeutic potential in HGG tumours with a corresponding growth factor receptor expression profile. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-responders had low EGFR expression, high PDGFR-{beta}, and a low proliferation rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN is not indicative of response to a TKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erlotinib response was not associated with expression of the proteins examined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Imatinib-response correlated with expression of PDGFR-{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gefitinib response correlated with increased expression of EGFR.

Kinsella, Paula, E-mail: paula.kinsella@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Howley, Rachel, E-mail: rhowley@rcsi.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Doolan, Padraig, E-mail: padraig.doolan@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clarke, Colin, E-mail: colin.clarke@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Madden, Stephen F., E-mail: maddens@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Clynes, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Clynes@dcu.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Farrell, Michael, E-mail: michaelfarrell@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Amberger-Murphy, Verena, E-mail: Verena.Murphy@icorg.ie [National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); All Ireland Co-operative, Oncology Research Group, 60 Fitzwilliam Square, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

2012-03-10

254

La mujer responsable de la salud de la familia: Constatando la universalidad cultural del cuidado Women in charge of family health-verifying cultural universality of care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: La reducida familiarización de los prestadores de cuidados a la salud sobre el proceso socio-cultural que orienta el comportamiento de los individuos en el cuidado de su salud, motivó este estudio. Objetivo: Identificar factores culturales presentes en las acciones de la mujer al cuidar al familiar con afecciones físicas y o mentales. Método: Se trata de un estudio transcultural formado por dos investigaciones que adoptaron la Antropología cultural y el método etnográfico. Uno de los estudios fue realizado con 6 mujeres que vivían en una comunidad urbano marginal de São Paulo-Brasil y otro con mujeres de 6 familias de dos provincias de Lambayeque-Perú. Resultados: Ambas investigaciones mostraron que, frente a una enfermedad física o mental del familiar, la mujer se responsabiliza de su tratamiento empleando prácticas domésticas, místicas o buscando atención médica rápida y eficaz. Mostraron que es la mujer la que percibe alteraciones en el estado de salud del familiar. Conclusión: Los diferentes contextos culturales presentan semejanzas que los aproximan y apuntan la necesidad de atención, de los profesionales de salud, al cuidado centrado en la mujer, considerando su cultura.Introduction: Health Care Providers' little familiarization with the socio-cultural process that directs the behavior of individuals concerning their health care brought about this study. Objective: To identify the cultural factors present in the woman's action when taking care of a family member with either physical or mental disability. Method: This is a transcultural study made up of two researches that adopted the Cultural Anthropology and ethnographic study as well. One of the studies was carried out with six inhabitants in a slum in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil and the other with women from six families of two provinces in Lambayeque, Peru. Results: Both researches showed that, in the face of either a physical or mental disability of a family member, the woman takes responsibility for their treatment adopting domestic, mystic practices and/or searches for prompt and effective medical service. The researches also showed that it is the woman who notices alterations in their health pattern. Conclusion: The different cultural contexts have similarities that approximate them and both indicate the need for health care providers' attention towards a kind of care focused on the women considering their culture.

María Concepción Pezo Silva

2004-11-01

255

La mujer responsable de la salud de la familia: Constatando la universalidad cultural del cuidado / Women in charge of family health-verifying cultural universality of care  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: La reducida familiarización de los prestadores de cuidados a la salud sobre el proceso socio-cultural que orienta el comportamiento de los individuos en el cuidado de su salud, motivó este estudio. Objetivo: Identificar factores culturales presentes en las acciones de la mujer al cuida [...] r al familiar con afecciones físicas y o mentales. Método: Se trata de un estudio transcultural formado por dos investigaciones que adoptaron la Antropología cultural y el método etnográfico. Uno de los estudios fue realizado con 6 mujeres que vivían en una comunidad urbano marginal de São Paulo-Brasil y otro con mujeres de 6 familias de dos provincias de Lambayeque-Perú. Resultados: Ambas investigaciones mostraron que, frente a una enfermedad física o mental del familiar, la mujer se responsabiliza de su tratamiento empleando prácticas domésticas, místicas o buscando atención médica rápida y eficaz. Mostraron que es la mujer la que percibe alteraciones en el estado de salud del familiar. Conclusión: Los diferentes contextos culturales presentan semejanzas que los aproximan y apuntan la necesidad de atención, de los profesionales de salud, al cuidado centrado en la mujer, considerando su cultura. Abstract in english Introduction: Health Care Providers' little familiarization with the socio-cultural process that directs the behavior of individuals concerning their health care brought about this study. Objective: To identify the cultural factors present in the woman's action when taking care of a family member wi [...] th either physical or mental disability. Method: This is a transcultural study made up of two researches that adopted the Cultural Anthropology and ethnographic study as well. One of the studies was carried out with six inhabitants in a slum in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil and the other with women from six families of two provinces in Lambayeque, Peru. Results: Both researches showed that, in the face of either a physical or mental disability of a family member, the woman takes responsibility for their treatment adopting domestic, mystic practices and/or searches for prompt and effective medical service. The researches also showed that it is the woman who notices alterations in their health pattern. Conclusion: The different cultural contexts have similarities that approximate them and both indicate the need for health care providers' attention towards a kind of care focused on the women considering their culture.

María Concepción, Pezo Silva; Neide de, Souza Praça; Maguida, Costa Stefanelli.

2004-11-01

256

Multiple infections by the anther smut pathogen are frequent and involve related strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population models of host-parasite interactions predict that when different parasite genotypes compete within a host for limited resources, those that exploit the host faster will be selected, leading to an increase in parasite virulence. When parasites sharing a host are related, however, kin selection should lead to more cooperative host exploitation that may involve slower rates of parasite reproduction. Despite their potential importance, studies that assess the prevalence of multiple genotype infections in natural populations remain rare, and studies quantifying the relatedness of parasites occurring together as natural multiple infections are particularly scarce. We investigated multiple infections in natural populations of the systemic fungal plant parasite Microbotryum violaceum, the anther smut of Caryophyllaceae, on its host, Silene latifolia. We found that multiple infections can be extremely frequent, with different fungal genotypes found in different stems of single plants. Multiple infections involved parasite genotypes more closely related than would be expected based upon their genetic diversity or due to spatial substructuring within the parasite populations. Together with previous sequential inoculation experiments, our results suggest that M. violaceum actively excludes divergent competitors while tolerating closely related genotypes. Such an exclusion mechanism might explain why multiple infections were less frequent in populations with the highest genetic diversity, which is at odds with intuitive expectations. Thus, these results demonstrate that genetic diversity can influence the prevalence of multiple infections in nature, which will have important consequences for their optimal levels of virulence. Measuring the occurrence of multiple infections and the relatedness among parasites within hosts in natural populations may be important for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of disease, the consequences of vaccine use, and forces driving the population genetic structure of parasites. PMID:18020704

López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Jonot, Odile; Coantic, Amélie; Hood, Michael E; Enjalbert, Jérôme; Giraud, Tatiana

2007-11-01

257

The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content, (2) fostering positive student-student interactions, and (3) creating a safe learning environment. Results also indicated that these student teachers demonstrated their ability to develop students academically by creating opportunities for learning in the classroom through their knowledge of students and by the use of research-based instructional strategies. However, based on the data collected as part of this study, the student teachers' abilities to illustrate or model social justice during science and math instruction were not demonstrated.

Hernandez, Cecilia M.

2011-12-01

258

Customer’s Responses to Crowded Restaurant Environment: Cross Cultural Differences between American and Chinese  

OpenAIRE

The study aims at demonstrating cultural differences between Americans and Chinese in terms of customer's perceptions and satisfaction of crowded environments within the context of restaurant settings. It has been noted that culture has a substantial impact on customer affection and judgment, and crowding in service environments is a critical antecedent of customer satisfaction. Considering these main themes, this study examined how cultural differences play a role in predicting customer sati...

Kim, Dae-young; Park, Sangwon

2008-01-01

259

Mutations responsible for adaptation of hepatitis A virus to efficient growth in cell culture.  

OpenAIRE

Chimeric genomes of hepatitis A virus strain HM-175 were constructed from cDNA clones of the wild-type virus and its cell culture-adapted variant. RNA transcribed in vitro from each construct was assayed for infectivity by transfection of cultured cells. RNA transcribed from the wild-type cDNA clone was minimally infectious and produced virus that grew inefficiently in vitro, whereas that transcribed from certain chimeric genomes consistently produced virus that grew efficiently in cultured c...

Emerson, S. U.; Mcrill, C.; Rosenblum, B.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R. H.

1991-01-01

260

ECHIDNA Protein Impacts on Male Fertility in Arabidopsis by Mediating trans-Golgi Network Secretory Trafficking during Anther and Pollen Development1[C][W][OPEN  

Science.gov (United States)

The trans-Golgi network (TGN) plays a central role in cellular secretion and has been implicated in sorting cargo destined for the plasma membrane. Previously, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) echidna (ech) mutant was shown to exhibit a dwarf phenotype due to impaired cell expansion. However, ech also has a previously uncharacterized phenotype of reduced male fertility. This semisterility is due to decreased anther size and reduced amounts of pollen but also to decreased pollen viability, impaired anther opening, and pollen tube growth. An ECH translational fusion (ECHPro:ECH-YELLOW FLUORESCENT PROTEIN) revealed developmentally regulated tissue-specific expression, with expression in the tapetum during early anther development and microspore release and subsequent expression in the pollen, pollen tube, and stylar tissues. Pollen viability and production, along with germination and pollen tube growth, were all impaired. The ech anther endothecium secondary wall thickening also appeared reduced and disorganized, resulting in incomplete anther opening. This did not appear to be due to anther secondary thickening regulatory genes but perhaps to altered secretion of wall materials through the TGN as a consequence of the absence of the ECH protein. ECH expression is critical for a variety of aspects of male reproduction, including the production of functional pollen grains, their effective release, germination, and tube formation. These stages of pollen development are fundamentally influenced by TGN trafficking of hormones and wall components. Overall, this suggests that the fertility defect is multifaceted, with the TGN trafficking playing a significant role in the process of both pollen formation and subsequent fertilization. PMID:24424320

Fan, Xinping; Yang, Caiyun; Klisch, Doris; Ferguson, Alison; Bhaellero, Rishi P.; Niu, Xiwu; Wilson, Zoe A.

2014-01-01

261

Transformation and analysis of tobacco plant var Petit havana with T-urf13 gene under anther-specific TA29 promoter  

OpenAIRE

T-urf13, a well-documented cms-associated gene from maize, has been shown to render methomyl sensitivity to heterologous systems like rice, yeast and bacteria when expressed constitutively. Since these transgenic plants were fertile, it was hypothesized that T-urf13 gene if expressed in anthers may result in male sterility that could be used for hybrid seed production. Hence, this work was aimed at analysing whether T-urf13 gene when expressed in anthers can result in male sterile plants or r...

Arun, V.; Kuriakose, Boney; Sridhar, Vaniyambadi V.; Thomas, George

2011-01-01

262

A sensitive sensor cell line for the detection of oxidative stress responses in cultured human keratinocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B' promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B'. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B' gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B' promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS) that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings. PMID:24967604

Hofmann, Ute; Priem, Melanie; Bartzsch, Christine; Winckler, Thomas; Feller, Karl-Heinz

2014-01-01

263

Population dynamics among the Totos of West Bengal: a positive response to culture contact.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population structure of the Toto tribe at Totopara, a small village in West Bengal, District Jalpaiguri, is studied in this report. Since 1951 the Totos have been coming more and more in contact with the outside world and undergoing a process of cultural and developmental change. Using data from census records for the years 1901, 1911, 1921, 1931, 1951 and 1979-80, as well as interviews with all Toto heads of families or their wives, demographic data was collected on age sex structure, marital status, fertility, birth rate, death rate and population growth trends in the precontact and contact era. A total of 130 families and 697 people were recorded for 1980. 48% were under age 15; 44% were between 15 and 50 years old; and only 7% were over 50. No marriage was reported in the age group below 10 to 14 years. The male sex ration in 1980 was 104:100. Traditional practices still play a role in population structure. Individuals below 12 years of age are not considered responsible enough to be entrusted with tasks needing efficiency and experience on the part of the performer. Since most of the marriages are arranged on the basis of bringing in additional household help, this limits marriages in the younger age groups, starting from 10 to 14. Reproductive maturity appears rather late in both sexes of the Totos, confirmed by low fertility rates in the age groups 15 to 19 and 20 to 24. The crude birth rate has increased from 36.1/1000 in 1959 to 43.0/1000 in 1980. The Totos have a higher rate of fertility in the age groups 35 to 39, attributed to not using any known conventional contraceptive. The data are compared to fertility and demographic variables for other isolated groups, including the Asmats, Australian migrants, Hutterites and populations at West Bengal, Assam, and Mipur. At present the Toto population shows a trend towards increase. PMID:6841387

Sinha, D; Pal, B C

1983-04-01

264

Thermotolerance and the heat shock response in normal human keratinocytes in culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protective responses of normal human epidermal keratinocytes in culture, after exposure to elevated temperatures (heat shock), were examined. Cell viability, measured 24-48 h after a 20-min heat challenge at temperatures between 37 degrees C and 54 degrees C, declined sharply within a narrow 2 degrees-3 degrees C range. However, conditioning with a mild thermal pretreatment (40 degrees C or 42 degrees C for 1 h) protected the keratinocytes against a subsequent heat challenge. This induced thermotolerance was apparent when cells were challenged at 1, 3, and 6 h after the thermal pre-treatment, but disappeared by 24 h. Heating conditions that induce thermotolerance also stimulated the synthesis of heat-shock proteins (hsp) in these cells. Inductions of prominent 35S-methionine labeled bands at 70, 78, and 90 kDa were observed. However, the increases in synthesis of these heat-shock proteins did not correlate well with thermotolerance, because large increases were also observed at certain elevated temperatures that did not produce improved survival. Keratins observed in these cells (50 and 58 kDa classes) were not induced by heat shock. The development of thermotolerance, and the induction of hsp, were both completely blocked by 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin), an inhibitor of newly synthesized messenger RNA, but not by adenosine, the normal analog. While heat-inducible mRNA apparently mediate some function important for the development of thermotolerance, the nature of topment of thermotolerance, the nature of that role remains speculative. Overall, our findings establish the existence of a functional thermal protective mechanism in human keratinocytes that appears to require the synthesis of new mRNA

265

A Sensitive Sensor Cell Line for the Detection of Oxidative Stress Responses in Cultured Human Keratinocytes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the progress of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis, chemicals that cause the generation of reactive oxygen species trigger a heat shock response in keratinocytes. In this study, an optical sensor cell line based on cultured human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the stress-inducible HSP70B’ promoter were constructed. Exposure of HaCaT sensor cells to 25 µM cadmium, a model substance for oxidative stress induction, provoked a 1.7-fold increase in total glutathione and a ~300-fold induction of transcript level of the gene coding for heat shock protein HSP70B’. An extract of Arnica montana flowers resulted in a strong induction of the HSP70B’ gene and a pronounced decrease of total glutathione in keratinocytes. The HSP70B’ promoter-based sensor cells conveniently detected cadmium-induced stress using GFP fluorescence as read-out with a limit of detection of 6 µM cadmium. In addition the sensor cells responded to exposure of cells to A. montana extract with induction of GFP fluorescence. Thus, the HaCaT sensor cells provide a means for the automated detection of the compromised redox status of keratinocytes as an early indicator of the development of human skin disorders and could be applied for the prediction of skin irritation in more complex in vitro 3D human skin models and in the development of micro-total analysis systems (µTAS that may be utilized in dermatology, toxicology, pharmacology and drug screenings.

Ute Hofmann

2014-06-01

266

Culturable bacteria in Himalayan glacial ice in response to atmospheric circulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only recently has specific attention been given to culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers, but their relation to atmospheric circulation is less understood yet. Here we present the results of culturable bacteria preserved in an ice core drilled from the East Rongbuk (ER glacier, Himalayas. The average concentrations of culturable bacteria are 5.0, 0.8, 0.1 and 0.7 CFU mL?1 for the glacier ice deposited during the premonsoon, monsoon, postmonsoon and winter seasons, respectively. The high concentration of culturable bacteria in ER glacier deposited during the premonsoon season is attributed to the transportation of continental dust stirred up by the frequent dust storms during spring. This is also confirmed by the spatial distribution of culturable bacteria in Tibetan glaciers. Continental dust originated from the Northwest China accounts for the high abundance of culturable bacteria in the northern Tibetan Plateau, while monsoon moisture exerts great influence on culturable bacteria with low abundance in the southern plateau. The numbers of representatives with different ARDRA patterns from RFLP analysis are 10, 15, 1 and 2 for the glacial ice deposited during the premonsoon, monsoon, postmonsoon and winter seasons, respectively, suggesting that culturable bacteria deposited in ER glacier during monsoon season are more diverse than that deposited during the other seasons, possibly due to their derivation from both marine air masses and local or regional continental sources, while culturable bacteria deposited during the other seasons are from only one possible origin that is transported by westerlies. Our results show the first report of seasonal variations of abundance and species diversity of culturable bacteria recovered from glacial ice in the Himalayas, and we suggest that microorganisms in Himalayan ice might provide a potential new proxy for the reconstruction of atmospheric circulation.

S. Zhang

2007-01-01

267

Emerging HIV epidemics in Muslim countries: assessment of different cultural responses to harm reduction and implications for HIV control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Harm reduction, including needle exchange and opioid substitution therapy, has been demonstrated to reduce high-risk behavior and HIV infection among injection drug users. An increasing number of countries in the Middle East, North Africa, and Asia, including those with Muslim majorities, have experienced or are at risk for HIV epidemics initiated by burgeoning injection drug use. Although use of intoxicants is expressly forbidden within Islam, the local culture impacts the interpretation of Islamic law and influences the response to drug misuse, whether punitive or therapeutic. Harm reduction programming has received varying acceptance within this global region, which may be reflected by national trends in HIV prevalence. The purpose of this paper is to examine cultural and religious response to injecting drug use and associated HIV prevalence trends in Malaysia and Iran, with possible application of lessons learned to an emerging situation in Afghanistan. PMID:18366945

Todd, Catherine S; Nassiramanesh, Bijan; Stanekzai, Mohammad Raza; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

2007-12-01

268

?PKC Participates in the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Response in Cultured Cardiac Myocytes and Ischemic Heart  

OpenAIRE

The cellular response to excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress includes the activation of signaling pathways, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Here we show that treatment of cultured cardiac myocytes with tunicamycin, an agent that induces ER stress, causes the rapid translocation of ?PKC to the ER. We further demonstrate that inhibition of ?PKC using the ?PKC-specific antagonist peptide, ?V1-1, reduces tunicamycin-induced apoptotic cell death, and inhibits expression of specific...

Qi, Xin; Vallentin, Alice; Churchill, Eric; Mochly-rosen, Daria

2007-01-01

269

From Inaction to External Whistleblowing: The Influence of the Ethical Culture of Organizations on Employee Responses to Observed Wrongdoing  

OpenAIRE

Putting measures in place to prevent wrongdoing in organizations is important, but detecting and correcting wrongdoing is just as vital. Employees who observe wrongdoing should therefore be encouraged to respond in a manner that supports corrective action. This paper examines the influence of the ethical culture of organizations on employee responses to observed wrongdoing. The findings show that, contrary to transparency and congruency of management, many other dimensions of ethical cultu...

Kaptein, S. P.

2009-01-01

270

Preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math using the Geophysical Institute Framework for Professional Development in Alaska  

Science.gov (United States)

The Geophysical Institute (GI) Framework for Professional Development was designed to prepare culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Professional development programs based on the framework are created for rural Alaskan teachers who instruct diverse classrooms that include indigenous students. This dissertation was written in response to the question, "Under what circumstances is the GI Framework for Professional Development effective in preparing culturally responsive teachers of science, technology, engineering, and math?" Research was conducted on two professional development programs based on the GI Framework: the Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) and the Science Teacher Education Program (STEP). Both programs were created by backward design to student learning goals aligned with Alaska standards and rooted in principles of indigenous ideology. Both were created with input from Alaska Native cultural knowledge bearers, Arctic scientists, education researchers, school administrators, and master teachers with extensive instructional experience. Both provide integrated instruction reflective of authentic Arctic research practices, and training in diverse methods shown to increase indigenous student STEM engagement. While based on the same framework, these programs were chosen for research because they offer distinctly different training venues for K-12 teachers. STEP offered two-week summer institutes on the UAF campus for more than 175 teachers from 33 Alaska school districts. By contrast, ACMP served 165 teachers from one rural Alaska school district along the Bering Strait. Due to challenges in making professional development opportunities accessible to all teachers in this geographically isolated district, ACMP offered a year-round mix of in-person, long-distance, online, and local training. Discussion centers on a comparison of the strategies used by each program to address GI Framework cornerstones, on methodologies used to conduct program research, and on findings obtained. Research indicates that in both situations the GI Framework for Professional Development was effective in preparing culturally responsive STEM teachers. Implications of these findings and recommendations for future research are discussed in the conclusion.

Berry Bertram, Kathryn

2011-12-01

271

Anatomical Responses of Roots in Trifoliate Orange Budded with Satsuma Mandarin to Aerated and Stagnant Culture Solutions  

OpenAIRE

Anatomical responses of roots in trifoliate orange budded with satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. cv. Okitsu Wase) to aerated and stagnant culture solutions were investigated. Roots, under aerated condition, had sharply pointed tips and showed intact anatomical features having a few starch grains on the rootcap and cortical cells. The cortical cells were smaller close to the root tip and gradually became elongated towards the base. All these characteristics maintained the same level even u...

Pear Mohammad; Masaya Shiraishi

1999-01-01

272

Effects of Nuclear Genomes on Anther Development in Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Chicories (Cichorium intybus L.): Morphological Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cichorium intybus flower development in fertile, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS 524) and various phenotypes carrying the 524 male sterile cytoplasm was investigated macroscopically and by light microscopy. The development was similar in fertile and in male sterile florets up to meiosis, and then it was affected in anther wall structure and pollen grain development in male sterile floret. In the male sterile plants, the tapetum intrusion after meiosis was less remarkable, the microspores started to abort at vacuolate stage, the connective tissue collapsed, and endothecium failed to expand normally and did not undergo cell wall lignification, which prevented anther opening since the septum and stomium were not disrupted. Crosses undertaken in order to introduce the CMS 524 into two different nuclear backgrounds gave rise to morphologically diversified progenies due to different nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. Macroscopic and cytological investigations showed that pollen-donor plants belonging to Jupiter population had potential capacity to restore fertility while the CC line could be considered as a sterility maintainer.

Habarugira, Ildephonse; Hendriks, Theo; Quillet, Marie-Christine; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Rambaud, Caroline

2015-01-01

273

Maximized virulence in a sterilizing pathogen: the anther-smut fungus and its co-evolved hosts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Host sterilization is a common feature of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Because host reproductive failure may free up resources for pathogen reproduction and transmission, theory predicts that selection on sterilizing pathogens will favour maximum virulence (i.e. complete sterilization). We examined patterns of infection in sexually transmitted anther-smut fungi (Microbotryum) on four of their host species in the Caryophyllaceae. Using controlled fungal matings and experimental inoculations, we compared disease expression in inoculations ranging from host-specific pathogens to hybrids and cross-species treatments. Our data support the existence of host-specific sibling species within the genus Microbotryum based on a low infection rate from cross-inoculations and reduced fitness for hybrid pathogens. These patterns of host specificity and reproductive isolation, however, were not absolute. We did observe some successful cross-species and hybrid infections, but the expression of disease was frequently incomplete, including only partial host sterilization and the failed dehiscence of pathogen spores. The prevalence of these maladapted disease phenotypes may greatly inhibit the emergence of novel host pathogen combinations. Infections by hybrid pathogen genotypes were intermediate, in terms of both infection rate and the normality of disease symptoms, between host-specific and cross-inoculated pathogens. In addition, the frequency with which hybrid and cross-inoculated anther-smut pathogens were able to infect but not sterilize new hosts supports the prediction that sterilizing STDs are under selection to maximize virulence in natural populations. PMID:18717748

Sloan, D B; Giraud, T; Hood, M E

2008-11-01

274

Impact of disease frequency and host density on pollination and transmission of an African anther-smut fungus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vast majority of flowering plants rely solely on insects for pollination. A number of pathogens have evolved mechanisms to exploit these close associations and use pollinators as vectors of infective propagules. Factors that affect pollinator movements and successful pollination may in turn also influence successful transmission of fungal spores. Here we investigate the effect of host density and the frequency of diseased Oxalis lanata individuals infected by the anther-smut fungus, Thecaphora capensis, on the likelihood of receiving pollen and fungal spores. Specifically, we determined the numbers of spores and pollen grains deposited on stigmatic surfaces of selected flowers under natural and standardized conditions where host density and disease frequency varied. The effect of host flower density and diseased flower frequency on pollen and spore transfer was variable under natural conditions and these factors interacted significantly. However, an increase in host density and disease frequency significantly influenced pollen and spore deposits under standardized conditions. The effect of host density was, however, not linear and an optimal flower density for pollen and fungal spore transmission was found. Similar to other systems of vector-borne disease, the transmission of anther-smut of Oxalis lanata is more frequency-dependent than density-dependent. This study represents a first step towards understanding the disease transmission process of T. capensis on Oxalis and lays the foundation for future comparative studies between this and other systems to develop and test general hypotheses of disease dynamics in vector-borne disease transmission systems. PMID:22864595

Curran, Helen R; Dreyer, Léanne L; Roets, Francois

2012-12-01

275

Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a global level beyond known immune signaling cascades. Results In the present study, we employed a multivariate modeling approach to characterize and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks between these three model systems after infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype. Using this approach we identified functions and pathways that display similar behavior and/or regulation including the well-studied impact on the interferon response and the inflammasome. Our results also suggest a primary response role for airway epithelial cells in initiating hypercytokinemia, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses. We further demonstrate that we can use a transcriptional regulatory model from the human cell culture data to make highly accurate predictions about the behavior of important components of the innate immune system in tissues from whole organisms. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a global regulatory network modeling conserved host response between in vitro and in vivo models.

McDermott Jason E

2011-11-01

276

Radiation-induced p53 protein response in the A549 cell line is culture growth-phase dependent  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One role of the p53 tumor suppressor protein has been recently revealed. Kastan, M.B. reported that p53 protein accumulates in cells exposed to ionizing radiation. The accumulation of p53 protein is in response to DNA damage, most importantly double-strand breaks, that results from exposure to ionizing radiation. The rise in cellular p53 levels is necessary for an arrest in the G{sub 1} phase of the cell cycle to provide additional time for DNA repair. The p53 response has also been demonstrated to enhance PCNA-dependent repair. p53 is thus an important regulator of the cellular response to DNA-damaging radiation. From this data, it can be concluded that the magnitude of the p53 response is not dependent on the phase of culture growth.

Johnson, N.F.; Gurule, D.M.; Carpenter, T.R.

1995-12-01

277

Evolutionary Responses to a Constructed Niche: Ancient Mesoamericans as a Model of Gene-Culture Coevolution  

OpenAIRE

Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a...

Hu?nemeier, Ta?bita; Guerra Amorim, Carlos Eduardo; Azevedo, Soledad; Contini, Vero?nica; Acun?a-alonzo, Victor; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-michel; Mazie?res, Ste?phane; Barrantes, Ramiro; Villarreal-molina, Maria Teresa; Paixa?o-co?rtes, Vanessa; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Canizales-quinteros, Samuel; Ruiz-linares, Andre?s; Bortolini, Maria

2012-01-01

278

Effects of Culture and Education on Ethical Responses on Our Global Society  

OpenAIRE

Two trends that affect communications are prevalent today: a focus on ethics in the U.S. business operations and an increasingly global society and marketplace. This research project brings together these trends to gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of culture on ethical education. By surveying students in six countries around the globe, this study was able to get at the divergent cultural frameworks utilized in ethical decision making. The results offer a significant contributi...

Comiskey, Christina Pryor; Schutte, Kelli J.; Scarfino, Deborah Reed; Campbell, Tanna White

2012-01-01

279

Heritability of stigma position and the effect of stigma-anther separation on outcrossing in a predominantly self-fertilizing weed, Datura stramonium (Solanaceae).  

Science.gov (United States)

A polymorphism for anthocyanin production was used as a genetic marker to document the relationship between anther-stigma separation and outcrossing rate in the predominantly self-fertilizing weed Datura stramonium. White-flowered plants that differed in anther-stigma separation were placed into populations consisting exclusively of purple-flowered plants. Self vs. outcross origin of progeny was evident in the hypocotyl color of the seedlings. Outcrossing rates measured for single flowers were significantly positively correlated with anther-stigma separation, albeit with some scatter around the regression line, especially for flowers with exserted stigmas. We also performed an 8 × 8 diallel cross to determine whether anther-stigma separation is genetically determined. Heritability in two field plots was ?0.3 and in the greenhouse was ?0.2. Maternal effects, epistasis, and dominance appeared to be relatively unimportant. Genotypes performed consistently across the three environments, although total plant size varied more than fivefold. It appears that the mixed-mating system of D. stramonium has a heritable basis and would be capable of responding to selection. PMID:10718994

Motten, A F; Stone, J L

2000-03-01

280

The Investigation of the Relationship between Cultural Values and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Organizational Commitment (OC) and Personal Benefit (PB) in Accounting System of Iran  

OpenAIRE

This research aims to study the relationships between cultural values and ethical dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), Organizational Commitment (OC) and Personal Benefit (PB) in accounting system of Iran. The cultural values criteria in this study include Power Distance Index (PDI), Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI), Individualism (IDV) and Masculinity (MAS). For measuring the cultural values, Hofstede questionnaire (1991) and in order to collect data for CSR, OC, and PB, Sin...

Saeid Jabbarzadeh Kangarlouei; Morteza Motavassel

2011-01-01

281

Organisational Culture in Innovative Small to Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) : Leadership’s Responsibilities when Implementing Change as a Result of M&As  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates what culturally related responsibilities leaders in innovative SMEs have when preparing employees prior to M&As in order to mitigate drawbacks due to culturally related discrepancies. The findings of this study especially confirm previous studies on culturally related difficulties in change management by emphasising the significant meaning of evaluating soft factors prior to change. The study was conducted by examining an innovative SME in the telecom industry that...

Rasmussen, Sara

2013-01-01

282

A noninvasive transfer system for polarized renal tubule epithelial cell sheets using temperature-responsive culture dishes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We used temperature-responsive culture dishes onto which the temperature-responsive polymer, poly(Nisopropylacrylamide, was covalently grafted for tissue engineering. Confluent cells harvested as intact sheets from these surfaces by simple temperature reduction can be transferred to various surfaces including additional culture dishes, other cell sheets, and tissues. In order to examine the maintenance of cell polarity, Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and human primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells which had developed apical-basal cell polarity in culture, were subjected to cell sheet transfer. This functional and structural cell polarity, which is susceptible to treatment with trypsin, was examined by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. Using our cell-sheet method, the noninvasive transfer of these cell sheets retaining typical distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, GLUT-1, SGLT-1, aquaporin-1, neutral endopeptidase and dipeptidylendopeptidase IV, could be achieved. The transferred cell sheets also developed numerous microvilli and tight junctions at the apical and lateral membranes, respectively. For biochemical analysis, immunoblotting of occludin, a transmembrane protein that composes tight junctions, was conducted and results confirmed that occludin remained intact after cell sheet transfer. This two-dimensional cell sheet manipulation method promises to be useful for tissue engineering as well as in the investigation of epithelial cell polarity.

Kushida A.

2005-08-01

283

The response of human nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures to repeated whole cigarette smoke exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is linked to the development of respiratory diseases, and there is a need to understand the mechanisms whereby CS causes damage. Although animal models have provided valuable insights into smoking-related respiratory tract damage, modern toxicity testing calls for reliable in vitro models as alternatives for animal experimentation. We report on a repeated whole mainstream CS exposure of nasal and bronchial organotypic tissue cultures that mimic the morphological, physiological, and molecular attributes of the human respiratory tract. Despite the similar cellular staining and cytokine secretion in both tissue types, the transcriptomic analyses in the context of biological network models identified similar and diverse biological processes that were impacted by CS-exposed nasal and bronchial cultures. Our results demonstrate that nasal and bronchial tissue cultures are appropriate in vitro models for the assessment of CS-induced adverse effects in the respiratory system and promising alternative to animal experimentation. PMID:25297719

Talikka, Marja; Kostadinova, Radina; Xiang, Yang; Mathis, Carole; Sewer, Alain; Majeed, Shoaib; Kuehn, Diana; Frentzel, Stefan; Merg, Celine; Geertz, Marcel; Martin, Florian; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

2014-01-01

284

Response of white mice to cells and culture constituents of Clostridium perfringens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Broth cultures of Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 10543) were fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex G-150 chromatography. Components isolated, as well as some enzymes present in the culture, were assayed for toxicity by feeding to white mice. Early work indicated that when a meat-fat-starch slurry, infected with C. perfringens, was fed to mice, the intestinal passage time was reduced. By using large numbers of mice as test animals and analyzing the data statistically, we found that C. perfringens and several fractions from the culture supernatant significantly affected the mice. A toxic material present in the supernatant was not identifiable as phospholipase C. Phospholipase C and physphorylcholine affected the intestinal passage time of the mice only when large amounts were given. The enzyme, neuraminidase, and another unidentified compound present in the supernatant affected the passage time when very small amounts were fed to mice. PMID:4308935

Satterlee, L D; Walker, H W

1969-08-01

285

Culturally responsive suicide prevention in indigenous communities: unexamined assumptions and new possibilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indigenous communities have significantly higher rates of suicide than non-Native communities in North America. Prevention and intervention efforts have failed to redress this disparity. One explanation is that these efforts are culturally incongruent for Native communities. Four prevalent assumptions that underpin professional suicide prevention may conflict with local indigenous understandings about suicide. Our experiences in indigenous communities led us to question assumptions that are routinely endorsed and promoted in suicide prevention programs and interventions. By raising questions about the universal relevance of these assumptions, we hope to stimulate exchange and inquiry into the character of this devastating public health challenge and to aid the development of culturally appropriate interventions in cross-cultural contexts. PMID:22420786

Wexler, Lisa M; Gone, Joseph P

2012-05-01

286

No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds. PMID:24473471

Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

2014-05-01

287

Concentration-dependent gene expression responses to flusilazole in embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The murine embryonic stem cell test (EST) is designed to evaluate developmental toxicity based on compound-induced inhibition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation into cardiomyocytes. The addition of transcriptomic evaluation within the EST may result in enhanced predictability and improved characterization of the applicability domain, therefore improving usage of the EST for regulatory testing strategies. Transcriptomic analyses assessing factors critical for risk assessment (i.e. dose) are needed to determine the value of transcriptomic evaluation in the EST. Here, using the developmentally toxic compound, flusilazole, we investigated the effect of compound concentration on gene expression regulation and toxicity prediction in ESC differentiation cultures. Cultures were exposed for 24 h to multiple concentrations of flusilazole (0.54-54 ?M) and RNA was isolated. In addition, we sampled control cultures 0, 24, and 48 h to evaluate the transcriptomic status of the cultures across differentiation. Transcriptomic profiling identified a higher sensitivity of development-related processes as compared to cell division-related processes in flusilazole-exposed differentiation cultures. Furthermore, the sterol synthesis-related mode of action of flusilazole toxicity was detected. Principal component analysis using gene sets related to normal ESC differentiation was used to describe the dynamics of ESC differentiation, defined as the 'differentiation track'. The conceas the 'differentiation track'. The concentration-dependent effects on development were reflected in the significance of deviation of flusilazole-exposed cultures from this transcriptomic-based differentiation track. Thus, the detection of developmental toxicity in EST using transcriptomics was shown to be compound concentration-dependent. This study provides further insight into the possible application of transcriptomics in the EST as an improved alternative model system for developmental toxicity testing.

288

Regulation of gonadotropin receptors, gonadotropin responsiveness, and cell multiplication by somatomedin-C and insulin in cultured pig Leydig cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author have investigated the effects of insulin and somatomedin-C/insulin like growth factor I(Sm-C) in purified porcine Leydig cells in vitro on gonadotrophins (hCG) receptor number, hCG responsiveness (cAMP and testosterone production), and thymidine incorporation into DNA. Leydig cells cultured in a serum-free medium containing transferrin, vitamin E, and insulin (5 ?g/ml) maintained fairly constant both hCG receptors and hCG responsiveness. When they were cultured for 3 days in the same medium without insulin, there was a dramatic decline (more than 80%) in both hCG receptor number and hCG responsiveness. However the cAMP but not the testosterone response to forskolin was normal. Both insulin and Sm-C at nanomolar concentrations prevent the decline of both hCG receptors and hCG-induced cAMP production. At nanomolar concentrations, Sm-C and insulin enhanced hCG-induced testosterone production but the effect of Sm-C was significantly higher than that of insulin. However, the effect of insulin at higher concentrations (5 ?g/ml) was significantly higher than that of Sm-C at 50 ng/ml. In contrast, at nanomolar concentrations only Sm-C stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA and cell multiplication, the stimulatory effect of insulin on these parameters, was seen only at micromolar concentrations. These results indicate that both Sm-C and insulin acting through the receptors increase Leydig cell steroidogenic responsiveness to hCG by increasing nic responsiveness to hCG by increasing hCG receptor number and improving some step beyond cAMP formation. In contrast, the mitogenic effects of insulin are mediated only through Sm-C receptors

289

Responses of Cultured Astrocytes, C6 Glioma and 1321NI Astrocytoma Cells to Amyloid ?-Peptide Fragments  

OpenAIRE

The effect of amyloid ?-peptide (?AP), which can have both neurotrophic or neurotoxic effects on neurons and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), was studied on astrocytes using primary cultures and astrocyte cell lines (rat C6 glioma, human 1321NI astrocytoma cells). The cultures were exposed to 0.0005–50 ?g/ml) ?AP fragments 1–40, 25–35, 31–35, or 40–41 (control) for 24 hr. Some of the fragments were maintained at 37°C for 48 hr to induce agg...

Pentreath, V. W.; Mead, C.

2004-01-01

290

Effects of anodizing parameters and heat treatment on nanotopographical features, bioactivity, and cell culture response of additively manufactured porous titanium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anodizing could be used for bio-functionalization of the surfaces of titanium alloys. In this study, we use anodizing for creating nanotubes on the surface of porous titanium alloy bone substitutes manufactured using selective laser melting. Different sets of anodizing parameters (voltage: 10 or 20V anodizing time: 30min to 3h) are used for anodizing porous titanium structures that were later heat treated at 500°C. The nanotopographical features are examined using electron microscopy while the bioactivity of anodized surfaces is measured using immersion tests in the simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, the effects of anodizing and heat treatment on the performance of one representative anodized porous titanium structures are evaluated using in vitro cell culture assays using human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs). It has been shown that while anodizing with different anodizing parameters results in very different nanotopographical features, i.e. nanotubes in the range of 20 to 55nm, anodized surfaces have limited apatite-forming ability regardless of the applied anodizing parameters. The results of in vitro cell culture show that both anodizing, and thus generation of regular nanotopographical feature, and heat treatment improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. In particular, cell proliferation measured using metabolic activity and DNA content was improved for anodized and heat treated as well as for anodized but not heat-treated specimens. Heat treatment additionally improved the cell attachment of porous titanium surfaces and upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. Anodized but not heat-treated specimens showed some limited signs of upregulated expression of osteogenic markers. In conclusion, while varying the anodizing parameters creates different nanotube structure, it does not improve apatite-forming ability of porous titanium. However, both anodizing and heat treatment at 500°C improve the cell culture response of porous titanium. PMID:25842117

Amin Yavari, S; Chai, Y C; Böttger, A J; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

2015-06-01

291

Culture Media Optimization through Response Surface Methodology for in vitro Shoot Bud Development of Solanum melongena L. for Micropropagation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used for the optimization of shoot bud response and shoot bud induction in leaf explants of Solanum melongena cultivar Arka Shirish. Three independent variables were evaluated for shoot bud response and shoot bud induction. The variables include the concentrations of nitrogen (N2, sucrose and growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ. The shoot bud response for cultured explant was optimized at 4.34 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.65% of sucrose and 0.67 mg/l of TDZ with 95% response. The optimum medium conditions for shoot bud induction was found to be Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium supplemented with 4.02 g/l of total nitrogen, 2.36% of sucrose and 1.0 mg/l of TDZ with 10 number of bud per explant. The shoot buds so formed were elongated in 0.5 mg/l 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA and 0.1 mg/l Gibberellic acid (GA3. The elongated shoots were rooted in MS with 1 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. The rooted plants were transferred to pots with farmyard manure upon hardening. This study has validation value for optimization of micropropagation protocol and is further useful in genetic transformation studies for Solanum melongena variety Arka Shirish to maximize regenerative response for automation.

Sila Bhattacharya

2011-11-01

292

COASTAL SALT MARSH COMMUNITY CHANGE IN NARRAGANSETT BAY IN RESPONSE TO CULTURAL EUTROPHICATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal salt marshes are susceptible to cultural eutrophication, particularly the over-enrichment of nitrogen, because they are often located where surface water and groundwater discharge into estuaries. In this report, the current areal extent of coastal salt marshes in Narrag...

293

Response to cadmium of Daucus carota hairy roots dual cultures with glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 15, - (2005), s. 217-224. ISSN 0940-6360 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * heavy metal * monoxenic culture Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2005

Janoušková, Martina; Vosátka, Miroslav

2005-01-01

294

Growth response of cabbage plants to arsenic and antimony under water culture conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of various levels of arsenic and antimony in a culture solution on the growth of cabbage plants was investigated. Growth rates and injuries at various levels were observed and harvested samples were tested for arsenic and antimony content. Roots, stems, outer leaves, and inner leaves were tested separately and the results are reported.

Hara, T.; Sonoda, Y.; Iwai, I.

1977-01-01

295

Increasing School Success Among Aboriginal Students: Culturally Responsive Curriculum or Macrostructural Variables Affecting Schooling?  

Science.gov (United States)

Aspects of Aboriginal cultural knowledge/perspectives were integrated into the Grade 9 social studies curriculum of a high school in a western Canadian city to appraise the impact on academic achievement, class attendance, and school retention among specific groups of Aboriginal students. The results suggest cautious optimism about increasing…

Kanu, Yatta

2007-01-01

296

Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Connecting New Zealand Teachers of Science with Their Maori Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper illustrates how important changes can occur in science learning and teaching if teachers take the trouble to understand and respect the cultural worlds of Indigenous students, and incorporate something of this understanding within their teaching practice. Ten teachers participated in a specially-designed one-year university postgraduate…

Glynn, Ted; Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Macfarlane, Angus

2010-01-01

297

The Cultural Basis of Prosodic Modifications to Infants and Children: A Response to Fernalds' Universalist Theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents arguments against A. Fernald's (1987, 1989) universality of prosodic modifications in speech addressed to infants and supports the cultural account of prosodic modifications to infants and children. Data are presented to defend N. Bernstein-Ratner and C. Pye (1984) conclusions on Quiche mothers and are used to reinterpret the universal…

Ingram, David

1995-01-01

298

Transformative Pedagogy: From High Stake Testing to Culturally Responsive Mathematic Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

Mathematics curriculums and pedagogy do not cater to minority students. This paper will concentrate on Latina/o students with the understanding of the battle of all minorities and the poor with insensitive curriculums and un-culturalized schooling. With the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) law, schools must perform according to standards and levels…

Falcon, Raymond

2009-01-01

299

Identification and expression analysis of methyl jasmonate responsive ESTs in paclitaxel producing Taxus cuspidata suspension culture cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxol® (paclitaxel promotes microtubule assembly and stabilization and therefore is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against wide range of cancers. Methyl jasmonate (MJ elicited Taxus cell cultures provide a sustainable option to meet the growing market demand for paclitaxel. Despite its increasing pharmaceutical importance, the molecular genetics of paclitaxel biosynthesis is not fully elucidated. This study focuses on identification of MJ responsive transcripts in cultured Taxus cells using PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH to identify genes involved in global pathway control. Results Six separate SSH cDNA libraries of paclitaxel-accumulating Taxus cuspidata P991 cell lines were constructed at three different post-elicitation time points (6h, 18h and 5 day to identify genes that are either induced or suppressed in response to MJ. Sequencing of 576 differentially screened clones from the SSH libraries resulted in 331 unigenes. Functional annotation and Gene Ontology (GO analysis of up-regulated EST libraries showed enrichment of several known paclitaxel biosynthetic genes and novel transcripts that may be involved in MJ-signaling, taxane transport, or taxane degradation. Macroarray analysis of these identified genes unravelled global regulatory expression of these transcripts. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a set of 12 candidate genes further confirmed the MJ-induced gene expression in a high paclitaxel accumulating Taxus cuspidata P93AF cell line. Conclusions This study elucidates the global temporal expression kinetics of MJ responsive genes in Taxus suspension cell culture. Functional characterization of the novel genes identified in this study will further enhance the understanding of paclitaxel biosynthesis, taxane transport and degradation.

Lenka Sangram K

2012-04-01

300

The T84 human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line produces mucin in culture and releases it in response to various secretagogues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The T84 colonic adenocarcinoma cell line, which has been used extensively as a model for studies of epithelial chloride secretion, also produces mucin and secretes it in culture. Electron microscopy of fixed sections of cultured cells, along with Immunogold labelling with an antibody to human small intestine (SI) mucin, revealed the presence of goblet-like cells with mucin-containing secretory granules. The mucin was of high molecular mass, had an amino acid composition similar to that of purified human SI and colonic mucins, and competed effectively with SI mucin for binding to the anti-(SI mucin) antibody. A sensitive solid-phase immunoassay specific for intestinal mucins was developed and used to measure mucin secretion by T84 cells. Cultures were treated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with a number of agents known to cause chloride secretion by T84 cell monolayers and the amount of mucin appearing in the medium was measured. Carbachol (1 mM), A23187 (10 microM), prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) (1 microM) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) (0.1 microM) all stimulated mucin release, but histamine (1 mM) had no effect. Whereas VIP is reported to stimulate chloride secretion more strongly than carbachol, it was less effective than carbachol in stimulating mucin secretion. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (0.1-10 microM) also stimulated mucin release strongly, implicating a responsive protein-kinase C-dependent pathway. Additive secretory responses were obtained with combined stimulation by VIP (10 nM-1 microM) and carbachol (1 mM). Responses to stimulation with A23187 (1-10 microM) together with PMA (10 nM-10 microM) suggest that cytosolic Ca2+ concentration is a modulator of PMA activity. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2110452

McCool, D J; Marcon, M A; Forstner, J F; Forstner, G G

1990-01-01

301

Responses of Well-Differentiated Airway Epithelial Cell Cultures from Healthy Donors and Patients with Cystic Fibrosis to Burkholderia cenocepacia Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

Well-differentiated cultures established from airway epithelia of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF cultures) exhibited goblet cell hyperplasia, increased secretion of mucus, and higher basal levels of interleukin-8 than similarly cultured cells from healthy donors. Upon apical infection with low doses (104 to 105 CFU) of Burkholderia cenocepacia isolate BC7, the two cultures gave different responses. While normal cultures trapped the added bacteria in the mucus layer, killed and/or inhibited bacterial replication, and prevented bacterial invasion of the cells, CF cultures failed to kill and/or supported the growth of bacteria, leading to invasion of underlying epithelial cells, compromised transepithelial permeability, and cell damage. Depletion of the surface mucus layer prior to bacterial infection rendered the normal cultures susceptible to bacterial invasion, but the invading bacteria were mainly confined to vacuoles within the cells and appeared to be nonviable. In contrast, bacteria that invaded cells in CF cultures were found free in the cytoplasm surrounded by intermediate filaments and also between cells. Cultured CF airway epithelium was therefore more susceptible to infection than normal epithelium. This mimics CF tissue in vivo and illustrates differences in the way epithelia in CF patients and normal subjects handle bacterial infection. In addition, we found that the CF and normal cell cultures responded differently not only to isolate BC7 but also to isolates of other B. cepacia complex species. We therefore conclude that this cell culture model is suitable for investigation of B. cepacia complex pathogenesis in CF patients. PMID:15213163

Sajjan, Umadevi; Keshavjee, Shaf; Forstner, Janet

2004-01-01

302

Histamine release from the cultured mouse mast cell line PT18 in response to immunologic and non-immunologic stimuli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cultured mouse mast cells that are dependent on spleen-derived factors for their proliferation and maintenance have been shown rapidly to release histamine in response to immunologic stimuli, concanavalin A, and ionophores A23187 and Br-x537A. These cells did not, however, release histamine when treated with compound 48/80 or adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Immunologically mediated histamine release was inhibited by theophylline and quercetin, but not by disodium cromoglycate. The results presented here are discussed in terms of the possible relationship of this cell line to mucosal mast cells. PMID:6203372

Barrett, K E; Pluznik, D H; Metcalfe, D D

1984-04-01

303

Morphogenetic responses of cultured cells of cambial origin of a mature tree - Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.  

Science.gov (United States)

Regeneration of plantlets was achieved from cell suspension derived calli of cambial origin from mature 'elite' trees of Dalbergia sissoo. Callus proliferation occurred on the cambial tissue pieces cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.0 mg/1) and benzylaminopurine (0.1 mg/l). Suspension cultures were obtained by transferring and agitating callus lumps in liquid medium composed as above. Aggregates of about 30 cells were plated on semi solid medium, which developed into calli. Shoot bud differentiation was observed in the calli transferred to medium devoid of auxin but containing 0.5-2.0 mg/1 benzylaminopurine. The isolated microshoots were rooted on modified MS medium containing low organic salts and auxins. PMID:24213698

Kumar, A; Tandon, P; Sharma, A

1991-04-01

304

Calcium ion propagation in cultured keratinocytes and other cells in skin in response to hydraulic pressure stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously suggested that a variety of environmental factors might be first sensed by epidermal keratinocytes, which represent the frontier of the body. To further examine this idea, in the present study, we examined the intracellular calcium responses of cultured keratinocytes to external hydraulic pressure. First, we compared the responses of undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes with those of fibroblasts, vascular endothelial cells (VEC), and lymphatic endothelial cells. Elevation of intracellular calcium was observed after application of pressure to keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and VEC. The calcium propagation extended over a larger area and continued for a longer period of time in differentiated keratinocytes, as compared with the other cells. The response of the keratinocytes was dramatically reduced when the cells were incubated in medium without calcium. Application of a non-selective transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker also attenuated the calcium response. These results suggest that differentiated keratinocytes are sensitive to external pressure and that TRP might be involved in the mechanism of their response. PMID:20432375

Goto, Makiko; Ikeyama, Kazuyuki; Tsutsumi, Moe; Denda, Sumiko; Denda, Mitsuhiro

2010-07-01

305

Bovine paratuberculosis II. A comparison of fecal culture and the antibody response.  

OpenAIRE

Fecal culture for Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and a complement fixing serological test using a carbohydrate antigen were compared for diagnostic efficiency in cattle naturally infected with M. paratuberculosis. Serological reactivity was associated with the persistent fecal shedding of large numbers of bacteria and in the absence of false positives in the population studied, was considered an efficient method for the identification of this segment of infected cattle. Minimally infected cat...

Lisle, G. W.; Samagh, B. S.; Duncan, J. R.

1980-01-01

306

Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches  

OpenAIRE

This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening influences. Focus groups and individual interviews patterned on the culturally familiar practice of talk story were conducted with 60 Hawaiian women recr...

Ka’opua, Lana Sue

2008-01-01

307

Enhanced triterpene production in Tabernaemontana catharinensis cell suspension cultures in response to biotic elicitors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cell suspension cultures of Tabernaemontana catharinensis were treated with autoclaved homogenates of Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium avelanium and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects caused by the concentration, exposure time and the type of elicitor on the accumulation of pentacyclic triterpenes were monitored. When exposed to biotic elicitors for longer periods, some cell lines redoubled the production of those triterpenes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae homogenate was the best elicitor of triterpenes in all cell lines investigated.

Paulo Sérgio Pereira

2007-01-01

308

Banking culture and collective responsibility: A memorandum to the UK Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards  

OpenAIRE

Basic assumptions • There is wide interest in connecting issues of (i) occupational culture, (ii) compliance/ misconduct, (iii) remuneration and (iv) clawback (the bonus/malus debate). • Individual-focussed measures (supervision, remuneration and measures in civil or criminal law) must be supplemented by a wider, whole-firm regulatory strategy. • Whilst attention has been drawn to ‘the tone at the top’, ‘the tone in the middle’ and ‘the tone at the bottom’ are as important. ...

Dorn, N.

2013-01-01

309

Uranium uptake and stress responses of in vitro cultivated hairy root culture of Armoracia rusticana.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 55, ?. 1 (2011), s. 15-28. ISSN 0002-1857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09082; GA MŠk 2B06187 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Armoracia rusticana * hairy-root culture * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.250, year: 2011 http://home.ueb.cas.cz/publikace/2011_Soudek_AGROCHIMICA_15.pdf

Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Van?k, Tomáš

2011-01-01

310

Metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses in, cultured and wild, white seabream from Northwest Atlantic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metals are environmentally ubiquitous and can be found at high concentrations in seawater and subsequently in marine organisms. Metals with high redox potential can trigger oxidative stress mechanisms with damaging effects in biological tissues. In aquatic species, oxidative stress has been evaluated by assessing antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative damages in tissues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers and metal residues in white seabream (Diplodus sargus), a species entering aquaculture production in Portugal. Metal residues (Cu, Cd, As and Pb), in liver and muscle, as well as oxidative stress biomarkers were assessed at different stages in the life cycle of white seabream under culture conditions and in wild specimens, of a marketable size. Metal concentrations in tissues were low, and below the established limits. However, wild white seabream showed higher accumulation than cultured ones. Antioxidant enzymes, namely catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), were correlated with metal accumulation. Oxidative damages to tissues were low, with wild white seabream showing lower levels than cultured fish. This study showed that white seabream has a good antioxidant defense system, capable of reducing oxidative damages in tissues resulting from the presence of metals. PMID:18783819

Ferreira, Marta; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Joana; Pousão-Ferreira, Pedro; Vale, Carlos; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda

2008-12-15

311

Neutral lipid content and biomass production in Skeletonema marinoi (Bacillariophyceae) culture in response to nitrate limitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microalgae are one of the most promising biodiesel feedstocks due to their efficiency in CO2 fixation and high neutral lipid productivity. Nutrient-stress conditions, including nitrogen starvation, enhance neutral lipid content, but at the same time lead to a reduction of biomass. To maximize lipid production in the diatom Skeletonema marinoi, we investigated two different nitrogen starvation approaches. In the first experimental approach, inocula were effectuated in modified f/2 media with decreasing nitrogen concentration, while in the second experiment, nitrate concentration was gradually reduced through a collection/resuspension system in which the culture was periodically collected and resuspended in culture medium with a lower nitrate concentration. In the first approach, the neutral lipid accumulation was accompanied by a strong biomass reduction, as was expected, whereas the second experiment generated cultures with significantly higher neutral lipid content without affecting biomass production. The total proteins and total carbohydrates, which were also quantified in both experiments, suggest that in S. marinoi, neutral lipid accumulation during nutrient starvation did not derive from a new carbon partition of accumulated carbohydrates. PMID:23712793

Bertozzini, Elena; Galluzzi, Luca; Ricci, Fabio; Penna, Antonella; Magnani, Mauro

2013-08-01

312

Effects of polysaccharide elicitors on secondary metabolite production and antioxidant response in Hypericum perforatum L. shoot cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of polysaccharide elicitors such as chitin, pectin, and dextran on the production of phenylpropanoids (phenolics and flavonoids) and naphtodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin) in Hypericum perforatum shoot cultures were studied. Nonenzymatic antioxidant properties (NEAOP) and peroxidase (POD) activity were also observed in shoot extracts. The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and chalcone-flavanone isomerase (CHFI) were monitored to estimate channeling in phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways of elicited shoot cultures. A significant suppression of the production of total phenolics and flavonoids was observed in elicited shoots from day 14 to day 21 of postelicitation. This inhibition of phenylpropanoid production was probably due to the decrease in CHFI activity in elicited shoots. Pectin and dextran promoted accumulation of naphtodianthrones, particularly pseudohypericin, within 21 days of postelicitation. The enhanced accumulation of naphtodianthrones was positively correlated with an increase of PAL activity in elicited shoots. All tested elicitors induced NEAOP at day 7, while chitin and pectin showed increase in POD activity within the entire period of postelicitation. The POD activity was in significantly positive correlation with flavonoid and hypericin contents, suggesting a strong perturbation of the cell redox system and activation of defense responses in polysaccharide-elicited H. perforatum shoot cultures. PMID:25574489

Gadzovska Simic, Sonja; Tusevski, Oliver; Maury, Stéphane; Delaunay, Alain; Joseph, Claude; Hagège, Daniel

2014-01-01

313

Effects of culture conditions on estrogen-mediated hepatic in vitro gene expression and correlation to in vivo responses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Refinement of in vitro systems for predictive toxicology is important in order to develop high-throughput early toxicity screening assays and to minimize animal testing studies. This study assesses the ability of mouse Hepa-1c1c7 hepatoma cell model under differing culture conditions to predict in vivo estrogen-induced hepatic gene expression changes. Custom mouse cDNA microarrays were used to compare Hepa-1c1c7 temporal gene expression profiles treated with 10 nM 17?-estradiol (E2) in serum-free and charcoal-stripped serum supplemented media at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h. Stripped serum supplemented media increased the number gene expression changes and overall responsiveness likely due to the presence of serum factors supporting proliferation and mitochondrial activity. Data from both experiments were compared to a gene expression time course study examining the hepatic effects of 100 ?g/kg 17?-ethynyl estradiol (EE) in C57BL/6 mice at 2, 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 h. Only 18 genes overlapped between the serum-free and in vivo studies, whereas 238 genes were in common between Hepa-1c1c7 cells in stripped serum data and C57BL/6 liver samples. Stripped serum cultured cells exhibited E2-elicited gene expression changes associated with proliferation, cytoskeletal re-organization, cholesterol uptake and synthesis, increased fatty acid ?-oxidation, and oxidative stress, which correlated with in vivo hepatic responses. These results demonstrate that E2 treatment of Hepa-1c1c7 trate that E2 treatment of Hepa-1c1c7 cells in serum supplemented media modulate responses in selected pathways which appropriately model estrogen-elicited in vivo hepatic responses

314

Elicitor-induced cellular and molecular events are responsible for productivity enhancement in hairy root cultures: an insight study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide range of external stress stimuli triggers a plant cell to undergo a complex network of reactions that ultimately lead to the synthesis and accumulation of secondary metabolites. These secondary metabolites help the plant to survive under stress challenge. The potential of biotic and abiotic elicitors for the induction and enhancement of secondary metabolite production in various culture systems including hairy root (HR) cultures is well-known. The elicitor-induced defense responses involves signal perception of elicitor by a cell surface receptor followed by its transduction involving some major cellular and molecular events including activation of major secondary message signaling pathways. This result in induction of gene expressions escorting to the synthesis of various proteins mainly associated with plant defense responses and secondary metabolite synthesis and accumulation. The review discusses the elicitor-induced various cellular and molecular events and correlates them with enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis in HR systems. Further, this review also concludes that combining elicitation with in-silico approaches enhances the usefulness of this practice in better understanding and identifying the rate-limiting steps of biosynthetic pathways existing in HRs which in turn can contribute towards better productivity by utilizing metabolic engineering aspects. PMID:21909631

Goel, Manoj Kumar; Mehrotra, Shakti; Kukreja, Arun Kumar

2011-11-01

315

Hatching response to temperature along a latitudinal gradient by the fairy shrimp Branchinecta lindahli (Crustacea; Branchiopoda; Anostraca in culture conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Branchinecta lindahli is a broadly distributed fairy shrimp, reported from a range of temporary wetland habitat types in arid western North America. This species’ eggs hatch after the habitat dries, refills from seasonal rain, and receives a strong cold shock during the winter low temperatures. I studied phenotypic variation in temperature responses in cultures collected from four populations across 8° of latitude with low average temperatures ranging from -8 to 8°C. Time to maturation, mature body size and first clutch size decreased, as temperature increased, with only minor body size variability at mortality, regardless of culture origin. No variation in individual egg size was observed, demonstrating that body size is sacrificed to produce at least a few normal eggs during unfavourable years. Latitudinal variation in hatching temperature demonstrated a pattern of adaptive significance, with some overlap between regional temperature hatching cues.  Phenotypic hatching temperature and growth rate responses may cause genetic segregation, selecting one cohort for warmer, dryer years and one cohort for cooler, wetter years.  Drier year selected cohorts can exploit habitats that have shorter hydroperiods even in wet years. This may lead to population specialisation and speciation by adapting to more extreme habitats

D. Christopher Rogers

2014-02-01

316

Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by /sup 125/I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10/sup -10/ M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less /sup 125/I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by /sup 125/I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by /sup 125/I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with /sup 35/S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF.

Buck, P.A.

1986-01-01

317

Modulation of cultured porcine granulosa cell responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone and epidermal growth factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ovarian follicular development is dependent upon the coordinated growth and differentiation of the granulosa cells which line the follicle. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) induces granulosa cell differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates granulosa cell proliferation in vitro. The interaction of these two effectors upon selected parameters of growth and differentiation was examined in monolayer cultures of porcine granulose cells. Analysis of the EGF receptor by 125I-EGF binding revealed that the receptor was of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant of 4-6 x 10-10 M. The average number of receptors per cell varied with the state of differentiation both in vivo and in vitro; highly differentiated cells bound two-fold less 125I-EGF and this effect was at least partially induced by FSH in vitro. EGF receptor function was examined by assessing EGF effects on cell number and 3H-thymidine incorporation. EGF stimulated thymidine incorporation in both serum-free and serum-supplemented culture, but only in serum-supplemented conditions was cell number increased. EGF receptor function was inversely related to the state of differentiation and was attenuated by FSH. The FSH receptor was examined by 125I-FSH binding. EGF increased FSH receptor number, and lowered the affinity of the receptor. The function of these receptors was assessed by 125I-hCG binding anassessed by 125I-hCG binding and progesterone radioimmunoassay. If EGF was present continuously in the cultures. FSH receptor function was attenuated regardless of FSH receptor number. A preliminary effort to examine the mechanism of this interaction was performed by analyzing hormonally controlled protein synthesis with 35S-methionine labeling, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. FSH promoted the expression of a 27,000 dalton protein. This effect was attenuated by EGF

318

Responses of neotropical mangrove seedlings grown in monoculture and mixed culture under treatments of hydroperiod and salinity  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the combined effects of salinity and hydroperiod on seedlings of Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa grown under experimental conditions of monoculture and mixed culture by using a simulated tidal system. The objective was to test hypotheses relative to species interactions to either tidal or permanent flooding at salinities of 10 or 40 g/l. Four-month-old seedlings were experimentally manipulated under these environmental conditions in two types of species interactions: (1) seedlings of the same species were grown separately in containers from September 2000 to August 2001 to evaluate intraspecific response and (2) seedlings of each species were mixed in containers to evaluate interspecific, competitive responses from August 2002 to April 2003. Overall, L. racemosa was strongly sensitive to treatment combinations while R. mangle showed little effect. Most plant responses of L. racemosa were affected by both salinity and hydroperiod, with hydroperiod inducing more effects than salinity. Compared to R. mangle, L. racemosa in all treatment combinations had higher relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, stem elongation, total length of branches, net primary production, and stem height. Rhizophora mangle had higher biomass allocation to roots. Species growth differentiation was more pronounced at low salinity, with few species differences at high salinity under permanent flooding. These results suggest that under low to mild stress by hydroperiod and salinity, L. racemosa exhibits responses that favor its competitive dominance over R. mangle. This advantage, however, is strongly reduced as stress from salinity and hydroperiod increase. ?? Springer 2006.

Cardona-Olarte, P.; Twilley, R.R.; Krauss, K.W.; Rivera-Monroy, V.

2006-01-01

319

The influence of exogenous eicosanoids on the radiation response of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radioprotection by several eicosanoids was investigated in cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells. One hour before irradiation (0-500 cGy, 137Cs gamma rays) 10 micrograms/ml of PGD2, PGE1, PGI2, misoprostol (PGE1-analog), 16,16-dimethyl PGE2, PGA2, or 1 microgram/ml LTC4 was added. Radiation decreased incorporation of (3H)thymidine at 4 h, cell number/culture at 24 h, and cell survival as measured by colony formation. Under these conditions the eicosanoids were not radioprotective. Two eicosanoids, PGD2 and PGA2, appeared to be toxic. Because receptors might mediate eicosanoid-induced radioprotection, radioligand binding of PGE2 and LTC4 and levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) were measured. Evidence for a receptor was equivocal; there was nonspecific binding and metabolism of LTC4. The level of cAMP was elevated by 16-16-dimethyl-PGE2 in the presence of isobutyl methylxanthine; however, this combination of the prostaglandin and the methylxanthine was not radioprotective. These investigations suggest that an elevated cAMP level alone does not lead to eicosanoid-induced radioprotection of bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers in vitro.

Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Stone, A.M.; Walden, T.L. Jr.; Hanson, W.R. (Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke' s-Medical Center, Chicago, IL (USA))

1991-01-01

320

The influence of exogenous eicosanoids on the radiation response of cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioprotection by several eicosanoids was investigated in cultures of bovine aortic endothelial cells. One hour before irradiation (0-500 cGy, 137Cs gamma rays) 10 micrograms/ml of PGD2, PGE1, PGI2, misoprostol (PGE1-analog), 16,16-dimethyl PGE2, PGA2, or 1 microgram/ml LTC4 was added. Radiation decreased incorporation of [3H]thymidine at 4 h, cell number/culture at 24 h, and cell survival as measured by colony formation. Under these conditions the eicosanoids were not radioprotective. Two eicosanoids, PGD2 and PGA2, appeared to be toxic. Because receptors might mediate eicosanoid-induced radioprotection, radioligand binding of PGE2 and LTC4 and levels of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) were measured. Evidence for a receptor was equivocal; there was nonspecific binding and metabolism of LTC4. The level of cAMP was elevated by 16-16-dimethyl-PGE2 in the presence of isobutyl methylxanthine; however, this combination of the prostaglandin and the methylxanthine was not radioprotective. These investigations suggest that an elevated cAMP level alone does not lead to eicosanoid-induced radioprotection of bovine aortic endothelial cell monolayers in vitro

321

Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p <0.05 in soils with glucose and inoculated with the fungi (except F. verticillioides, in relation to soil without glucose. Amylase activity increased 1.3 to 1.5 times due to the addition of glucose in the soil. Increased amylase activity was observed in the DRL soil with glucose and inoculated with A. flavus and Penicillium sp. when compared to control.

Beatriz de Oliveira Costa

2012-03-01

322

Growth and enzymatic responses of phytopathogenic fungi to glucose in culture media and soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The effect of inoculation of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, and Penicillium sp. in Dystrophic Red Latosol (DRL) and Eutroferric Red Latosol (ERL) soils with or without glucose on the total carbohydrate content and the dehydrogenase and amylase activities was studied. The fungal growth [...] and spore production in culture medium with and without glucose were also evaluated. A completely randomized design with factorial arrangement was used. The addition of glucose in the culture medium increased the growth rate of A. flavus and Penicillium sp. but not of F. verticillioides. The number of spores increased 1.2 for F. verticillioides and 8.2 times for A. flavus in the medium with glucose, but was reduced 3.5 times for Penicillium sp. The total carbohydrates contents reduced significantly according to first and second degree equations. The consumption of total carbohydrates by A. flavus and Penicillium sp. was higher than the control or soil inoculated with F. verticillioides. The addition of glucose to soils benefited the use of carbohydrates, probably due to the stimulation of fungal growth. Dehydrogenase activity increased between 1.5 to 1.8 times (p

Beatriz de Oliveira, Costa; Ely, Nahas.

2012-03-01

323

Growth response of cabbage plants to beryllium and strontium under water culture conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cabbage plants (B. oleracea L. var. capitata L.) were grown for 37 days in culture solutions containing 4 levels (0, 0.5, 5, 25 ppm) of beryllium or strontium with a low or high supply (20 or 200 ppm) of calcium, and the effects of the cations supplied on the grwoth of the plants were studied. The total dry weights of the plants decreased successively with increasing levels of Be and Sr in the culture solution, concurrent with an increase in the contents of each cation in the plants. The decrease in the yield (dry weight of inner leaves) was most pronounced in the Be treatment with the low Ca supply. The critical contents of Be and Sr which resulted in a 50% decrease in the yield due to the excess injury were estimated to be about 0.0006 and 0.4% on a dry basis in the outer leaves and 0.3 and 0.4% in the roots, respectively, regardless of the Ca supply.

Hara, T.; Furuta, T.; Sonoda, Y.; Iwai, I.

1977-01-01

324

BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and ASA at 0, 8, 16, 32 or 64 mg L-1. 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' calli were subcultured on MS supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg L-1 and 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg L-1. The increase in ASA concentrations decreased the pro-embryoid formation on calli of both cultivars and only 2,4-D promoted the formation of friable calli. However, the balance of auxin and cytokinin used in this study favored the production of friable calli.

Adelaide Siqueira Silva

2009-10-01

325

BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L / BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica [...] da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU). Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1) e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1). Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis. Abstract in english Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on differe [...] nt C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU). Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1 2,4-D and ASA at 0, 8, 16, 32 or 64 mg L-1. 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' calli were subcultured on MS supplemented with different concentrations of BAP (0, 2, 4 or 8 mg L-1) and 2,4-D (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg L-1). The increase in ASA concentrations decreased the pro-embryoid formation on calli of both cultivars and only 2,4-D promoted the formation of friable calli. However, the balance of auxin and cytokinin used in this study favored the production of friable calli.

Adelaide Siqueira, Silva; José Magno Queiroz, Luz; Tatiana Michlovská, Rodrigues; Cecília Alves, Bittar; Leandro de Oliveira, Lino.

1205-12-01

326

A Mixed Methods Study of Culturally Responsive Teaching in Science and Math Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

Through the dawn of education, student achievement has always been the primary focus of educators. The United States has not changed the structure of their educational institutions since the Industrial Revolution. With the achievement gap between mainstream and non-mainstream students continually growing, it is the responsibility of every educator…

Holocker, Angela Y.

2010-01-01

327

Probiotics cultures in animal feed: Effects on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to infectious diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effects of probiotics included in dairy cattle and mice feed on ruminal fermentation, immune responses, and resistance to Johne’s disease. To unveil the underlying mechanisms, dairy cattle were either fed Bovamine (1.04 x 10**9 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51 plus 2.04 x 10**...

328

Using Mathematics Strategies in Early Childhood Education as a Basis for Culturally Responsive Teaching in India  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this small study was to elicit responses from early childhood teachers in India on mathematics learning strategies and to measure the extent of finger counting technique adopted by the teachers in teaching young children. Specifically, the research focused on the effective ways of teaching mathematics to children in India, and…

Guha, Smita

2006-01-01

329

Defence responses induced in embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce by two fractions of Gremmeniella abietina mycelia.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 40, ?. 6 (2010), s. 467-484. ISSN 1437-4781 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH82303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : defence response * Norway spruce * Gremmeniella abietina Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.948, year: 2010

Cvikrová, Milena; Malá, J.; Hrubcová, Marie; Martincová, Olga; Cvr?ková, H.; Lipavská, H.

2010-01-01

330

Toxicity monitoring with primary cultured hepatocytes underestimates the acetaminophen-induced inflammatory responses of the mouse liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro gene expression profiling with isolated hepatocytes has been used to assess the hepatotoxicity of certain chemicals because of animal welfare issues. However, whether an in vitro system can completely replace the in vivo system has yet to be elucidated in detail. Using a focused microarray established in our laboratory, we examined gene expression profiles in the mouse liver and primary cultured hepatocytes after treatment with different doses of acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic that frequently causes liver injury. The acute hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen was confirmed by showing the induction of an oxidative stress marker, heme oxygenase-1, elevated levels of serum transaminase, and histopathological findings. In vivo microarray and network analysis showed that acetaminophen treatment provoked alterations in relation to the inflammatory response, and that tumor necrosis factor-? plays a central role in related pathway alterations. By contrast, pathway analyses in in vitro isolated hepatocytes did not find such prominent changes in the inflammation-related networks compared with the in vivo situation. Thus, although in vitro gene expression profiles are useful for evaluating the direct toxicity of chemicals, indirect toxicities including inflammatory responses mediated by cell-cell interactions or secondary toxicity due to pathophysiological changes in the whole body may be overlooked. Our results indicate that the in vitro hepatotoxicity prediction system using isolated hepatocytes does not fully reflect the in vivo cellular response. An in vitro system may be appropriate, therefore, for high throughput screening to detect the direct hepatotoxicity of a test compound. PMID:22083109

Tachibana, Shinjiro; Shimomura, Akiko; Inadera, Hidekuni

2011-01-01

331

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in defense/stress responses activated by chitosan in sycamore cultured cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chitosan (CHT) is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation. PMID:25642757

Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella

2015-01-01

332

Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Defense/Stress Responses Activated by Chitosan in Sycamore Cultured Cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chitosan (CHT is a non-toxic and inexpensive compound obtained by deacetylation of chitin, the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods as well as of the cell walls of many fungi. In agriculture CHT is used to control numerous diseases on various horticultural commodities but, although different mechanisms have been proposed, the exact mode of action of CHT is still unknown. In sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L. cultured cells, CHT induces a set of defense/stress responses that includes production of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO. We investigated the possible signaling role of these reactive molecules in some CHT-induced responses by means of inhibitors of production and/or scavengers. The results show that both reactive nitrogen and oxygen species are not only a mere symptom of stress conditions but are involved in the responses induced by CHT in sycamore cells. In particular, NO appears to be involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that shows apoptotic features like DNA fragmentation, increase in caspase-3-like activity and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondrion. On the contrary, reactive oxygen species (ROS appear involved in a cell death form induced by CHT that does not show these apoptotic features but presents increase in lipid peroxidation.

Massimo Malerba

2015-01-01

333

Reflexiones sobre la actualidad del relativismo cultural: respuesta a Nicolás Sánchez Durá / Considerations about the Pertinence of Cultural Relativism: Response to Nicolás Sánchez Durá  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este ensayo propone entablar una discusión con las tesis contenidas en el artículo de Nicolás Sánchez Durá, "Actualidad del relativismo cultural". En primer lugar, se analizan el etnocentrismo y el relativismo como dos respuestas éticas distintas al fenómeno de la diversidad cultural. En segundo lug [...] ar, se desarrollan la formulación del relativismo y el concepto de cultura propuestos por Sánchez Durá para analizarlos a la luz de la epistemología elaborada por el Wittgenstein tardío. En tercer lugar, se agregan argumentos a favor del relativismo cultural. El relativismo cultural, visto como una doctrina, tropieza con dilemas lógicos y conceptuales; considerado como una actitud contextual de índole moral y política, contribuye a combatir la autoridad del etnocentrismo basado en la exclusividad del otro. Abstract in english This essay proposes to develop and to discuss some thesis included in the article by Nicolás Sánchez Durá: "The Pertinence of Cultural Relativism". Firstly, the ethnocentric and relativistic positions are both considered as two different ethical attitudes towards the cultural diversity. Secondly, th [...] e concepts of "relativism" and "culture" are developed and analyzed in the light of Ludwig Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Although, the cultural relativism considered as a philosophical doctrine faces logical and conceptual dilemmas, the latter disappear when relativism is treated as contextual, mostly moral and political attitude, which contributes to undermine the legacy of ethno-centrism based on the other's exclusivity.

Witold, Jacorzynski.

2013-04-01

334

Growth Characteristics Modeling of Mixed Culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Different culture conditions viz. additional carbon and nitrogen content, inoculum size and age, temperature and pH of the mixed culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophilus were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN). Kinetic growt [...] h models were fitted for the cultivations using a Fractional Factorial (FF) design experiments for different variables. This novel concept of combining the optimization and modeling presented different optimal conditions for the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus growth from their one variable at-a-time (OVAT) optimization study. Through these statistical tools, the product yield (cell mass) of the mixture of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus was increased. Regression coefficients (R2) of both the statistical tools predicted that ANN was better than RSM and the regression equation was solved with the help of genetic algorithms (GA). The normalized percentage mean squared error obtained from the ANN and RSM models were 0.08 and 0.3%, respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximum biomass yield were at temperature 38°C, pH 6.5, inoculum volume 1.60 mL, inoculum age 30 h, carbon content 42.31% (w/v), and nitrogen content 14.20% (w/v). The results demonstrated a higher prediction accuracy of ANN compared to RSM.

Ganga Sahay, Meena; Gautam Chandra, Majumdar; Rintu, Banerjee; Nitin, Kumar; Pankaj Kumar, Meena.

2014-12-01

335

Influence of culture media on biofilm formation by Candida species and response of sessile cells to antifungals and oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of the study were to evaluate the influence of culture media on biofilm formation by C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis and to investigate the responses of sessile cells to antifungals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to planktonic cells. For biofilm formation, the Candida species were grown at different periods of time in YP or YNB media supplemented or not with 0.2 or 2% glucose. Sessile and planktonic cells were exposed to increasing concentrations of antifungals, H2O2, menadione or silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and quantified by the XTT assay. C. albicans formed biofilms preferentially in YPD containing 2% glucose (YPD/2%), C. glabrata in glucose-free YNB or supplemented with 0.2% glucose (YNB/0.2%), while C. krusei and C. parapsilosis preferred YP, YPD/0.2%, and YPD/2%. Interestingly, only C. albicans produced an exopolymeric matrix. This is the first report dealing with the in vitro effect of the culture medium and glucose on the formation of biofilms in four Candida species as well as the resistance of sessile cells to antifungals, AgNPs, and ROS. Our results suggest that candidiasis in vivo is a multifactorial and complex process where the nutritional conditions, the human immune system, and the adaptability of the pathogen should be considered altogether to provide an effective treatment of the patient. PMID:25705688

Serrano-Fujarte, Isela; López-Romero, Everardo; Reyna-López, Georgina Elena; Martínez-Gámez, Ma Alejandrina; Vega-González, Arturo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra

2015-01-01

336

A culture-sensitive taxonomy of response tokens: moving from listnership to speakership  

OpenAIRE

This thesis compares conversations between British tutors and British students, and conversations between British tutors and Japanese students, in English in order to investigate differences and similarities in their listenership behaviour in relation to the use of response tokens in the context of academic supervision sessions. A new method for conversation analysis to synthesise visual data with verbal data on timeline has been established. The concept of leadtime, which is a time scale...

Tsuchiya, Keiko

2010-01-01

337

Study of stress response to uranium uptake by hairy root culture of Armoracia rusticana L.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Santiago de Compostela : Univesidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2006. s. 67. [Scientific Meeting of WG1 /1./ Root to shoot translocation of pollutants and nutrients. COST Action /859./. 22.06.2006-24.06.2006, Santiago de Compostela] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Armoracia rusticana * uranium * stress response Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

Valenová, Šárka; Benešová, D.; Soudek, Petr; Kafka, Z.; Van?k, Tomáš

338

Recombinant bromelain production in Escherichia coli: process optimization in shake flask culture by response surface methodology  

OpenAIRE

Bromelain, a cysteine protease with various therapeutic and industrial applications, was expressed in Escherichia coli, BL21-AI clone, under different cultivation conditions (post-induction temperature, L-arabinose concentration and post-induction period). The optimized conditions by response surface methodology using face centered central composite design were 0.2% (w/v) L-arabinose, 8 hr and 25°C. The analysis of variance coupled with larger value of R2 (0.989) showed that the quadratic mo...

Muntari, Bala; Amid, Azura; Mel, Maizirwan; Jami, Mohammed S.; Salleh, Hamzah M.

2012-01-01

339

The university as an encounter for deliberative communication - creating cultural citizenship and professional responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can higher and professional education contribute to the development of responsible citizenship and professional responsibility? In recent discussions on the role of the educational system, the idea of “deliberative communication” has been brought into focus and stands for communication in which different opinions and values can be set against each other in educational settings. It implies an endeavour by each individual to develop his or her view by listening, deliberating, seeking arguments and valuing, coupled to a collective and cooperative endeavour to find values and norms which everyone can accept, at the same time as pluralism is acknowledged. Within higher education deliberative communication might explicitly be used to develop professional responsibility and analysing consequences of different ways of solving problems. To what extent are and can universities become public spaces for encounters dealing with controversial questions of how to solve different problems and analyse different ways of professional acting? Can universities recreate their selective traditions, “institutionalize dissensus”, and “make the university a site of public debate” through deliberative communication?

Tomas Englund

2008-01-01

340

Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Callus Growth Rate (CGR, Relative Fresh Weight Growth (RFWG, Relative Growth Rate (RGR and Percentage of Callus Induction (PCI indicating the presence of genetic variability, different responses of bread wheat genotypes to callus induction and possible selection of callus induction at in vitro level using immature embryos. Mean comparison of the traits measured in callus induction showed that genotypes 1 and 6 had the highest PCI (100%. Analysis of variance for CGR, RFWG and RGR, Relative Water Content (RWC, Percent of Callus Chlorosis (PCC and Proline Content (PC exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters in the stress condition (15% PEG. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes (6, (19 and (1 as the most drought tolerant.

Parvin Elyasi

2012-07-01

341

Mutation in continuous cultures of Schizosaccharomyces pombe II. Effect of amino acid starvation on mutational response and DNA concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

In agreement with the results obtained in Escherichia coli by other workers and our own previous data, the kinetics with which spontaneous mutations to resistance to the 12,13-epoxytrichothecene trichodermin accumulate in a lysine auxotroph of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are dependent upon the nutrilite used to limit the growth of the population. Under conditions of glucose-limitation mutation accumulation is proportional to generation time, while under lysine-limitation it becomes proportional to chronological time. In contrast to observations made in bacterial system, however, no significant change in the DNA content per cell is noted in slow growing cultures grown under amino acid starvation. These findings help to eliminate some of the theories put forward to explain the differential mutational responses observed under different growth limiting regimes. PMID:651937

McAthey, P; Kilbey, B

1978-05-01

342

Investigation of magnesium-zinc-calcium alloys and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell response in direct culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crystalline Mg-Zn-Ca ternary alloys have recently attracted significant interest for biomedical implant applications due to their promising biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to characterize as-cast Mg-xZn-0.5Ca (x=0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0wt.%) alloys, and determine the adhesion and morphology of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) at the interface with the Mg-xZn-0.5Ca alloys. The direct culture method (i.e. seeding cells directly onto the surface of the sample) was established in this study to probe the highly dynamic cell-substrate interface and thus to elucidate the mechanisms of BMSC responses to dynamic alloy degradation. The results showed that the BMSC adhesion density on these alloys was similar to the cell-only positive control and the BMSC morphology appeared more anisotropic on the rapidly degrading alloy surfaces in comparison with the cell-only positive control. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6mM Mg(2+) ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on BMSC responses. We speculated that degradation-induced dynamic surface topography played an important role in modulating cell morphology at the interface. This study presents a clinically relevant in vitro model for screening bioresorbable alloys, and provides useful design guidelines for determining the degradation rate of implants made of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys. PMID:25449917

Cipriano, Aaron F; Sallee, Amy; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Tayoba, Myla; Sanchez, Jorge; Liu, Huinan

2015-01-01

343

Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers ch The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

344

Dynamics of the transcriptome response of cultured human embryonic stem cells to ionizing radiation exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the key consequences of exposure of human cells to genotoxic agents is the activation of DNA damage responses (DDR). While the mechanisms underpinning DDR in fully differentiated somatic human cells have been studied extensively, molecular signaling events and pathways involved in DDR in pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESC) remain largely unexplored. We studied changes in the human genome-wide transcriptome of H9 hESC line following exposures to 1 Gy of gamma-radiation at 2 h and 16 h post-irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to verify the expression data for a subset of genes. In parallel, the cell growth, DDR kinetics, and expression of pluripotency markers in irradiated hESC were monitored. The changes in gene expression in hESC after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) are substantially different from those observed in somatic human cell lines. Gene expression patterns at 2 h post-IR showed almost an exclusively p53-dependent, predominantly pro-apoptotic, signature with a total of only 30 up-regulated genes. In contrast, the gene expression patterns at 16 h post-IR showed 354 differentially expressed genes, mostly involved in pro-survival pathways, such as increased expression of metallothioneins, ubiquitin cycle, and general metabolism signaling. Cell growth data paralleled trends in gene expression changes. DDR in hESC followed the kinetics reported for human somatic differentiated cells. The expression of pluripotency markers characteristic of undifferentiated hESC was not affected by exposure to IR during the time course of our analysis. Our data on dynamics of transcriptome response of irradiated hESCs may provide a valuable tool to screen for markers of IR exposure of human cells in their most naive state; thus unmasking the key elements of DDR; at the same time, avoiding the complexity of interpreting distinct cell type-dependent genotoxic stress responses of terminally differentiated cells.

Sokolov, Mykyta V., E-mail: sokolovm@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Irina V., E-mail: ipanyutinv@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Panyutin, Igor G., E-mail: igorp@helix.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Neumann, Ronald D., E-mail: rneumann@mail.nih.gov [Nuclear Medicine Division, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

2011-05-10

345

Impact of corporate social responsibility claims on consumer food choice : A cross-cultural comparison  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose - The study assesses the impact of two different corporate social responsibility (CSR) claims, relating to social and environmental dimensions, on consumers’ wine choice across international markets. It is analysed how point of purchase CSR claims compete with other food claims and their awareness, penetration and consumers’ trust are examined. Design/methodology/approach - A discrete choice experiment with a visual shelf simulation was used to elicit consumer preferences and to estimate marginal willingness to pay for CSR and other food claims across the UK, France, Germany, the US Eastcoast, the US Midwest, Anglophone and Francophone Canada. Findings - CSR claims relating to social and environmental responsibility have a similar awareness, penetration and consumer trust, but differ in their impact on consumer choice, where environmental corporate responsibility claims benefit from a higher marginal willingness to pay. Consumer valuation of CSR claims significantly differs across international markets, but is consistently lower than for organic claims. Research limitations/implications - The study was limited to wine and future research is required to generalise findings to other food categories and different origins. Practical implications - CSR claims are competing with existing food claims and have a lower awareness, lower purchase penetration and less positive impact on consumer choice than organic claims. Producers are recommended to focus on communicating environmental rather than social CSR activities. The relative value of CSR claims differs across countries and companies need to adapt their strategies to specific market conditions. Originality/value - This is the first cross-national study that analyses the impact of CSR claims on consumer food choice relative to other food claims using large representative consumer samples. The strength of the paper also pertains to the utilisation of innovative choice experiments covering a large range of choice relevant product attributes.

Mueller Loose, Simone; Remaud, Hervé

2013-01-01

346

Statistical optimization of culture conditions by response surface methodology for synthesis of lipase with Enterobacter aerogenes  

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Full Text Available Optimization of lipase production by Enterobacter aerogenes was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM where the statistical model was obtained by fractional factorial central composite design. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters, viz. temperature, oil concentration, inoculum volume, pH and incubation period on lipase production was examined. Optimization of physico-chemical parameters resulted 1.4- fold increase in lipase activity. The optimum levels of parameters were 34°C, oil concentration 3%, inoculum volume 7%, pH 7 and incubation time 60 h for obtaining a maximum lipase activity of 27.25 U/ml.

Annapurna Kumari

2009-12-01

347

Statistical optimization of culture conditions by response surface methodology for synthesis of lipase with Enterobacter aerogenes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Optimization of lipase production by Enterobacter aerogenes was carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) where the statistical model was obtained by fractional factorial central composite design. The influence of various physico-chemical parameters, viz. temperature, oil concentration, i [...] noculum volume, pH and incubation period on lipase production was examined. Optimization of physico-chemical parameters resulted 1.4- fold increase in lipase activity. The optimum levels of parameters were 34°C, oil concentration 3%, inoculum volume 7%, pH 7 and incubation time 60 h for obtaining a maximum lipase activity of 27.25 U/ml.

Annapurna, Kumari; Paramita, Mahapatra; Rintu, Banerjee.

1349-13-01

348

Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 ?g/cm2 of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-?, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-?, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-? and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smos. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent

349

Quantification of dynamic morphological drug responses in 3D organotypic cell cultures by automated image analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glandular epithelial cells differentiate into complex multicellular or acinar structures, when embedded in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix. The spectrum of different multicellular morphologies formed in 3D is a sensitive indicator for the differentiation potential of normal, non-transformed cells compared to different stages of malignant progression. In addition, single cells or cell aggregates may actively invade the matrix, utilizing epithelial, mesenchymal or mixed modes of motility. Dynamic phenotypic changes involved in 3D tumor cell invasion are sensitive to specific small-molecule inhibitors that target the actin cytoskeleton. We have used a panel of inhibitors to demonstrate the power of automated image analysis as a phenotypic or morphometric readout in cell-based assays. We introduce a streamlined stand-alone software solution that supports large-scale high-content screens, based on complex and organotypic cultures. AMIDA (Automated Morphometric Image Data Analysis) allows quantitative measurements of large numbers of images and structures, with a multitude of different spheroid shapes, sizes, and textures. AMIDA supports an automated workflow, and can be combined with quality control and statistical tools for data interpretation and visualization. We have used a representative panel of 12 prostate and breast cancer lines that display a broad spectrum of different spheroid morphologies and modes of invasion, challenged by a library of 19 direct or indirect modulators of the actin cytoskeleton which induce systematic changes in spheroid morphology and differentiation versus invasion. These results were independently validated by 2D proliferation, apoptosis and cell motility assays. We identified three drugs that primarily attenuated the invasion and formation of invasive processes in 3D, without affecting proliferation or apoptosis. Two of these compounds block Rac signalling, one affects cellular cAMP/cGMP accumulation. Our approach supports the growing needs for user-friendly, straightforward solutions that facilitate large-scale, cell-based 3D assays in basic research, drug discovery, and target validation. PMID:24810913

Härmä, Ville; Schukov, Hannu-Pekka; Happonen, Antti; Ahonen, Ilmari; Virtanen, Johannes; Siitari, Harri; Åkerfelt, Malin; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Nees, Matthias

2014-01-01

350

Comparative Tissue Culture Response of Wheat Cultivars and Evaluation of Regenerated Plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three wheat genotypes i.e. Bakhtawar-92, Punjab-96 and Inqilab-91 were tested for their response to callus induction frequency and their subsequent regeneration on a variety of media combinations. Bakhtawar-92 appeared to be the most responsive genotype to callus induction followed by Inqilab-91 and Punjab-96. It also produced significantly higher amount of callus as compared with other genotypes. However, the medium containing 2 mg l-1 2,4-D (2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid was found to be optimum for callus induction irrespective of the genotypes studied. Regeneration frequency of Bakhtawar-92 was 40% on the medium containing 0.1 mg l-1 IAA (Indole acetic acid and 2.5 mg l-1 BAP (6-benzyl amino purine. Punjab-96 and Inqilab-91 showed regeneration of 25 and 33% on the medium supplemented with combination of 0.1 mg l-1 IAA and 0.5 mg l-1 BAP. Regenerated plants were evaluated for plant height, maturity and seed set. They had favourable significant differences from the control plants for the most important agronomic traits; plant height, days to maturity and kernels/spike etc.

Muhammad Farooq

2004-01-01

351

Degeneration of the nonrecombining regions in the mating-type chromosomes of the anther-smut fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dimorphic mating-type chromosomes in fungi are excellent models for understanding the genomic consequences of recombination suppression. Their suppressed recombination and reduced effective population size are expected to limit the efficacy of natural selection, leading to genomic degeneration. Our aim was to identify the sequences of the mating-type chromosomes (a1 and a2) of the anther-smut fungi and to investigate degeneration in their nonrecombining regions. We used the haploid a1 Microbotryum lychnidis-dioicae reference genome sequence. The a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes were both isolated electrophoretically and sequenced. Integration with restriction-digest optical maps identified regions of recombination and nonrecombination in the mating-type chromosomes. Genome sequence data were also obtained for 12 other Microbotryum species. We found strong evidence of degeneration across the genus in the nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes, with significantly higher rates of nonsynonymous substitution (dN/dS) than in nonmating-type chromosomes or in recombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes. The nonrecombining regions of the mating-type chromosomes also showed high transposable element content, weak gene expression, and gene losses. The levels of degeneration did not differ between the a1 and a2 mating-type chromosomes, consistent with the lack of homogametic/heterogametic asymmetry between them, and contrasting with X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes. PMID:25534033

Fontanillas, Eric; Hood, Michael E; Badouin, Hélène; Petit, Elsa; Barbe, Valérie; Gouzy, Jérôme; de Vienne, Damien M; Aguileta, Gabriela; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Chen, Zehua; Toh, Su San; Cuomo, Christina A; Perlin, Michael H; Gladieux, Pierre; Giraud, Tatiana

2015-04-01

352

The biological effect of gamma radiation on in vitro culture in rice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiobiological effects of gamma radiation on different types of rice before or during in vitro culture, combined treatments of 137Cs ?-rays and NaN3 on mature embryo culture, and irradiation on growth of calli derived from anther in rice were studied. The dose-effects relations of callus induction rate and callus growth rate could be fitted according to the multi-target and single-hit model. Effect of somatic cultures of different types in rice was different. Increase in plant regeneration capacity was found with 100, 150 Gy gamma rays. Decrease of callus induction rate, callus growth rate and callus differentiation rate (especially in the 1st culture) were observed in combined treatments of ?-rays and NaN3. However, mutagenic effects of treatments with ?-rays were much higher than those of combined treatment of ?-rays and NaN3 in the 2nd and the 3rd culture. Combined treatments of 137Cs ?-rays with 200 Gy and 2 mmol NaN3 were suitable for explant in rice before culture. To irradiate the calli derived from anther in rice with 30 Gy gamma rays can rise plant regeneration capacity during continuing culture

353

Inflammatory cytokine and microRNA responses of primary human dendritic cells cultured with Helicobacter pylori strains.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary human dendritic cells (DC were used to explore the inflammatory effectors, including cytokines and microRNAs, regulated by Helicobacter pylori. In a 48 h ex-vivo co-culture system, both H. pylori B38 and B45 strains activated human DCs and promoted a strong inflammatory response characterized by the early production of pro-inflammatory TNF? and IL-6 cytokines, followed by IL-10, IL-1ß and IL-23 secretion. IL-23 was the only cytokine dependent on the cag pathogenicity island status of the bacterial strains. DC activation and cytokine production were accompanied by an early miR-146a upregulation followed by a strong miR-155 induction, which mainly controlled TNF? production. These results pave the way for further investigations into the nature of H. pylori antigens and the subsequently activated signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory response to H. pylori infection, the deregulation of which may likely contribute to gastric lymphomagenesis.

PHILIPPELEHOURS

2013-08-01

354

Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

Watson Andrew J

2007-01-01

355

Evaluating virulence of waterborne and clinical Aeromonas isolates using gene expression and mortality in neonatal mice followed by assessing cell culture’s ability to predict virulence based on transcriptional response  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aims: To assess the virulence of Aeromonas spp. using two models, a neonatal mouse assay and a mouse intestinal cell culture. Methods and Results: After artificial infection with a variety of Aeromonas spp., mRNA extracts from the two models were processed and hydridized to murine microarrays to determine host gene response. Definition of virulence was determined based on host mRNA production in murine neonatal intestinal tissue and mortality of infected animals. Infections of mouse intestinal cell cultures were then performed to determine whether this simpler model system’s mRNA responses correlated to neonatal results and therefore be predictive of virulence of Aeromonas spp. Virulent aeromonads up-regulated transcripts in both models including multiple host defense gene products (chemokines, regulation of transcription and apoptosis and cell signalling). Avirulent species exhibited little or no host response in neonates. Mortality results correlated well with both bacterial dose and average fold change of up-regulated transcripts in the neonatal mice. Conclusions: Cell culture results were less discriminating but showed promise as potentially being able to be predictive of virulence. Jun oncogene up-regulation in murine cell culture is potentially predictive of Aeromonas virulence. Significance and Impact of the Study: Having the ability to determine virulence of waterborne pathogens quickly would potentially assist public health officials to rapidly assess exposure risks.

Hayes, S L; Rodgers, M R; Lye, D J; Stelma, G N; McKinstry, Craig A.; Malard, Joel M.; Vesper, Sephen J.

2007-10-01

356

Varietal Response of Wheat, Triticum aestivum L. To Tissue Culture and Assessment of Somaclonal Variation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three wheat genotypes i.e chakwal-86, NR-58 and Inqilab-91 were tested. Chakwal-86 appeared to be the most responsive genotype to callus induction followed by NR-58 and Inqilab-91. It also produced significantly higher amount of callus compared to other genotypes. Callus induction frequencies varied from 66.65 to 100 percent in Chakwal 86, 49 to 75.80 % in Inqilab-91 and 60.90 to 75.50 % NR-58 on various levels of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy Acetic Acid. However, medium containing 2mg of 2,4-D was found to be optimum for callus induction. Regeneration frequency of Chakwal-86 was 33.33 % on the medium containing 0.1mg of IAA (Indole Acetic Acid and 2.5 mg of BAP (6-Benzyle Amino Purine. While NR-58 and Inqilab-91 showed regeneration percentage of 40 and 25 % respectively on medium having 0.1 mg of IAA and 0.5mg of BAP. Regenerated plants were transferred to free living conditions. Regenerated plants were evaluated for plant height, maturity and seed set. Regenerated plants showed favourable significant differences from control plants at 5 % confidence level for most of the studied traits; such as plant height, days to maturity and etc.

Ihsan Ullah

2000-01-01

357

Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Novel Mechanistic Insight into Murine Biological Responses to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Lungs and Cultured Lung Epithelial Cells  

OpenAIRE

There is great interest in substituting animal work with in vitro experimentation in human health risk assessment; however, there are only few comparisons of in vitro and in vivo biological responses to engineered nanomaterials. We used high-content genomics tools to compare in vivo pulmonary responses of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) to those in vitro in cultured lung epithelial cells (FE1) at the global transcriptomic level. Primary size, surface area and other properties of MWCNT- X...

Søs Poulsen, Sarah; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Labib, Sarah; Wu, Dongmei; Husain, Mainul; Williams, Andrew; Bøgelund, Jesper P.; Andersen, Ole; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Saber, Anne T.; Wallin, Ha?kan; Yauk, Carole L.; Vogel, Ulla

2013-01-01

358

Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

2012-03-15

359

Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 ?g L?1 of CdCl2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 ?g L?1 as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 ?g L?1, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductionximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

360

Yield response of Bere, a Scottish barley landrace, to cultural practices and agricultural inputs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is very little documented about the response of cereal landraces to modern agricultural practices. Bere is a Scottish barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landrace which is grown in Orkney to supply meal for baking. A recent research programme has improved yields and the security of the Bere harvest, making it possible to supply a new market for grain to produce specialist whiskies. At the start of this research, a survey of Orkney farmers who had grown Bere since the 1980s showed that most had planted it at the traditional time in mid-May, used few inputs and considered the main constraints of the crop to be low yield (2.8 to 3.8 t/ha and susceptibility to lodging. Three years of trials in Orkney between 2003 and 2005 showed very significant increases in grain yield (17-76% and thousand grain weight from planting Bere earlier, in the second half of April. This also had the advantage of an earlier and more secure harvest. Yields showed smaller, but often significant, increases (5-11% from applying mineral fertiliser, growth regulator or fungicide, while combinations of growth regulator and fungicide increased yields from 10- 22%. In spite of usually increasing grain yield, growth regulator did not always control lodging. Although the use of inputs often increased the gross margins of growing Bere, a trial in 2005 showed that early planting was a more cost effective single intervention than either the use of fungicide or growth regulator. By increasing grower profits and reducing harvesting risks, these results have made it viable for more farmers to grow Bere in its region of origin, providing growers and end-users with additional income and contributing to the in situ conservation of this landrace.

Peter J. Martin

2011-11-01

361

Biochemical and morphological responses to abiotc elicitor chitin in suspension-cultured sugarcane cells  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Células de Saccharum officinarum quando submetidas a quitina hidrolisada por 1 a 8h produziram material fenólico. Essas alterações foram observadas por meio de métodos citoquímicos como o Azul de Toluidina e Floroglucinol/HCl. Após 4 h, além das mudanças nas paredes celulares houve uma mudança no pa [...] drão nuclear das células tratadas com quitina. Por observação da reação de Feulgen, houve um aumento de 96% na área nuclear no material em 6h. Para as células tratadas foram observadas regiões de cromatina compactada e um processo de degeneração do nucléolo. Nas áreas externas da parede celular existia uma desagregação dos polisacarídios confirmando os resultados obtidos para diferentes plantas com o uso de outros elicitores. A atividade da peroxidase foi maxima após 4 h e então decresceu progressivamente. A atividade da PAL aumentou a partir de 4 h de incubação. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado de quitina estimula as respostas de defesa em células de cana. Abstract in english Cells of Saccharum officinarum submitted to hydrolyzated chitin for 1 to 8h produced phenolic compounds. These alterations were observed through cytochemical methods using Toluidine Blue and Phloroglucinol/HCl. After 4 h, besides cell wall change, there was a change in nuclear pattern of chitin trea [...] ted cells. There was a 96% increase in nuclear area in 6 h chitin treated material, as observed by Feulgen reaction. The treated cells showed chromatin compacted regions and a degeneration process of nucleoli. In the outer areas of cell wall, there was a polysaccharide desagregation, confirming results obtained for different plants with the use of other elicitors. Peroxidase activity was maximal after 4 h and decreased progressively. PAL activity started to increase at 4 h of incubation. These results showed that chitin hydrolyzate stimulated a defense response in sugarcane cells.

Maria Izabel, Gallão; Ângelo Luiz, Cortelazzo; Manuel Pedro Salema, Fevereiro; Edy Sousa de, Brito.

2010-04-01

362

Frequent biphasic cellular responses of permanent fish cell cultures to deoxynivalenol (DON)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contamination of animal feed with mycotoxins is a major problem for fish feed mainly due to usage of contaminated ingredients for production and inappropriate storage of feed. The use of cereals for fish food production further increases the risk of a potential contamination. Potential contaminants include the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) which is synthesized by globally distributed fungi of the genus Fusarium. The toxicity of DON is well recognized in mammals. In this study, we confirm cytotoxic effects of DON in established permanent fish cell lines. We demonstrate that DON is capable of influencing the metabolic activity and cell viability in fish cells as determined by different assays to indicate possible cellular targets of this toxin. Evaluation of cell viability by measurement of membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity and lysosomal function after 24 h of exposure of fish cell lines to DON at a concentration range of 0-3000 ng ml-1 shows a biphasic effect on cells although differences in sensitivity occur. The cell lines derived from rainbow trout are particularly sensitive to DON. The focus of this study lies, furthermore, on the effects of DON at different concentrations on production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the different fish cell lines. The results show that DON mainly reduces ROS production in all cell lines that were used. Thus, our comparative investigations reveal that the fish cell lines show distinct species-related endpoilines show distinct species-related endpoint sensitivities that also depend on the type of tissue from which the cells were derived and the severity of exposure. - Highlights: ? DON uptake by cells is not extensive. ? All fish cell lines are sensitive to DON. ? DON is most cytotoxic to rainbow trout cells. ? Biphasic cellular responses were frequently observed. ? Our results are similar to studies on mammalian cell lines.

363

Increasing the Writing Performance of Urban Seniors Placed At-Risk through Goal-Setting in a Culturally Responsive and Creativity-Centered Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to support marginalized students require not only identifying systemic inequities, but providing a classroom infrastructure that supports the academic achievement of all students. This action research study examined the effects of implementing goal-setting strategies and emphasizing creativity in a culturally responsive classroom (CRC) on…

Estrada, Brittany; Warren, Susan

2014-01-01

364

A Qualitative Examination of the Impact of Culturally Responsive Educational Practices on the Psychological Well-Being of Students of Color  

Science.gov (United States)

Scholars have shown that educational experiences within the classroom may marginalize students of color which may result in psychological distress. However, the utilization of culturally responsive educational practices (CRE) can create environments in which marginalized students can thrive not only academically, but psychologically. The authors…

Cholewa, Blaire; Goodman, Rachael D.; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Amatea, Ellen

2014-01-01

365

CHANGES IN BETA-1, 3-GLUCANASE MRNA LEVELS IN PEACH IN RESPONSE TO TREATMENT WITH PATHOGEN CULTURE FILTRATES, WOUNDING, AND OTHER ELICITORS  

Science.gov (United States)

The response of three different peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, genotypes to bacterial and fungal culture filtrates (Cfs), wounding, and sterile nutrient broth (NB) treatments were studied by evaluating B-1, 3-glucanase mRNA levels. Northern blot analysis was conducted using the 3' end of a peach...

366

The Effects of an Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy: A Culturally Responsive Teaching Approach for Fifth-Grade Students' Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

The study evaluated the effects of the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy on two levels. The Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy integrated story grammar instruction and story maps, prior knowledge and prediction method, and word webs through a culturally responsive teaching framework; the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy…

Bui, Yvonne N.; Fagan, Yvette M.

2013-01-01

367

Listening to Their Voices Connect Literary and Cultural Understandings: Responses to Small Group Read-Alouds of "Malcolm X: A Fire Burning Brightly."  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the kinds of literary understandings that become evident in African American second graders' unprompted oral and physical responses to "Malcolm X" and the cultural resources that children draw as they demonstrate these literary understandings. Concludes that discussion of multicultural literature can prompt the construction of complex…

Copenhaver, Jeane F.

2001-01-01

368

Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Serving Bias: Responses to the Attributional Style Questionnaire by American and Finnish Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents results of a study of cultural differences in causal attributions and self-serving bias. Reports more self-serving attributional bias among U.S. than Finn students. Suggests that cultural differences in self-serving bias may result from differences in need to protect self-esteem, coping mechanisms, and cultural differences in coping with…

Nurmi, Jari-Erik

1992-01-01

369

A robust human T-cell culture method suitable for monitoring CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses from cancer clinical trial samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many tumor antigenic determinants have been identified and included in cancer clinical trials. Due to low T-cell frequencies even after vaccination, few T-cell responses can be revealed ex vivo without in vitro stimulation. Various expansion protocols have been employed for this purpose and the outcomes tend to be quite variable, partly due to the high complexity involved in the protocols. Here we systematically studied various common culture conditions including sera, cytokines and feeders and describe a reliable "bulk" culture method that is robust, simpler and more economical. We demonstrated that fetal calf serum (FCS) supported T-cell proliferation better than multiple commercially available pooled human AB sera. IL-2 is critical in our cultures, but IL-7, IL-15 and anti-CTLA-4 in combination with IL-2 did not further enhance T-cell expansion. We typically achieve more than a 40-fold expansion within a 10-day culture period for antigen-specific T cells measured by HLA-peptide tetramer before and after culture. This method was not only validated by multiple operators as a standard operating procedure for monitoring T-cell responses but was also successfully used for discovering novel CD8+ and CD4+ T cells specific to previously unknown epitopes from the NY-ESO-1 tumor antigen. PMID:15345304

Jackson, Heather M; Dimopoulos, Nektaria; Chen, Qiyuan; Luke, Tina; Yee Tai, Tsin; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Old, Lloyd J; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan; Chen, Weisan

2004-08-01

370

Analysis of sensitive questions across cultures: an application of multigroup item randomized response theory to sexual attitudes and behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Answers to sensitive questions are prone to social desirability bias. If not properly addressed, the validity of the research can be suspect. This article presents multigroup item randomized response theory (MIRRT) to measure self-reported sensitive topics across cultures. The method was specifically developed to reduce social desirability bias by making an a priori change in the design of the survey. The change involves the use of a randomization device (e.g., a die) that preserves participants' privacy at the item level. In cases where multiple items measure a higher level theoretical construct, the researcher could still make inferences at the individual level. The method can correct for under- and overreporting, even if both occur in a sample of individuals or across nations. We present and illustrate MIRRT in a nontechnical manner, provide WinBugs software code so that researchers can directly implement it, and present 2 cross-national studies in which it was applied. The first study compared nonstudent samples from 2 countries (total n = 927) on permissive sexual attitudes and risky sexual behavior and related these to individual-level characteristics such as the Big Five personality traits. The second study compared nonstudent samples from 17 countries (total n = 6,195) on risky sexual behavior and related these to individual-level characteristics, such as gender and age, and to country-level characteristics, such as sex ratio. PMID:22823289

de Jong, Martijn G; Pieters, Rik; Stremersch, Stefan

2012-09-01

371

Phylogenetic and structural response of heterotrophic bacteria to dissolved organic matter of different chemical composition in a continuous culture study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and heterotrophic bacteria are highly diverse components of the ocean system, and their interactions are key in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of major elements. How chemical and phylogenetic diversity are linked remains largely unexplored to date. To investigate interactions between bacterial diversity and DOM, we followed the response of natural bacterial communities to two sources of phytoplankton-derived DOM over six bacterial generation times in continuous cultures. Analyses of total hydrolysable neutral sugars and amino acids, and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry revealed large differences in the chemical composition of the two DOM sources. According to 454 pyrosequences of 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes, diatom-derived DOM sustained higher levels of bacterial richness, evenness and phylogenetic diversity than cyanobacteria-derived DOM. These distinct community structures were, however, not associated with specific taxa. Grazing pressure affected bacterial community composition without changing the overall pattern of bacterial diversity levels set by DOM. Our results demonstrate that resource composition can shape several facets of bacterial diversity without influencing the phylogenetic composition of bacterial communities, suggesting functional redundancy at different taxonomic levels for the degradation of phytoplankton-derived DOM. PMID:24020678

Landa, M; Cottrell, M T; Kirchman, D L; Kaiser, K; Medeiros, P M; Tremblay, L; Batailler, N; Caparros, J; Catala, P; Escoubeyrou, K; Oriol, L; Blain, S; Obernosterer, I

2014-06-01

372

Effects of inhibitors of protein kinase C and NO-synthase on the radiation-induced cytogenetic adaptive response in Chinese hamster cells in culture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of the serine-threonin kinase inhibitor - staurosporine and inhibitor of NO-synthase - L-NAME on the radiation-induced adaptive response were studied in fibroblasts of Chinese hamster in culture. It is shown that staurosporine and L-NAME inhibit cytogenetic adaptive response induced by ?-particles in low doses. Inhibition is not connected with radiosensitizing effect of these agents. L-NAME decreases significantly the ?-rays-induced chromosome aberration yield also. Study confirms the role of protein kinase C in induction of the adaptive response and participation of NO-synthase in this process is noticed for the first time

373

Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement is the availability of seed mussels collected with minimum impact on the benthic ecosystem. To examine whether mussels collected in suspended cultures can be used for bottom culture production and as tool in habitat improvement, the differences in predatory defence responses between suspended and bottom mussels exposed to the predatory shore crab (Carcinus maenas L.) were tested in laboratory experiments and in the field. Predatory defence responses (byssal attachment and aggregation) and morphological traits were tested in laboratory, while growth and mortality were examined in field experiments. Suspended mussels had an active response in relation to the predator by developing a significantly firmer attachment to the substrate and a closer aggregated structure. Bottom mussels had a passive strategy by having a thicker shell and larger relative size of the adductor muscle. In a field experiment mussels originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels has to be tested further in large-scale field experiments

Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per

2011-01-01

374

Microsporogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Autofluorescence of pollen wall of Lilium and changes in pollen wall of Gasteria in Lilium anther  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Autafluarescence of the pollen wall of Lilium shows a correlative change with its development. When the pollen of Gasteria is injected into the anther of Lilium, it exhibits almost the same characteristics of wall autofluorescence as those of Lilium. Only the last stages of wall development are dissimilar. During this period the pollenkitt sticks to the pollen wall in Lilium only. The conclusion is that in the exine of Gasteria pollen, in contact with the locular fluid of Lilium, polymerization of Lilium sporapollenin occurs instead of a structural addition to the wall. This polymerization is a continuous process during the entire development.

M. T. Willemse

1981-06-01

375

Dehistoricized Cultural Identity and Cultural Othering  

Science.gov (United States)

The assumption that each culture has its own distinctive identity has been generally accepted in the discussion of cultural identities. Quite often identity formation is not perceived as a dynamic and interactive ongoing process that engages other cultures and involves change in its responses to different challenges at different times. I will…

Weiguo, Qu

2013-01-01

376

Intra-operative stone culture as an independent predictor of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after percutaneous nephrolithotomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the correlation between preoperative urine culture and stone culture findings during PCNL and choosing the appropriate antimicrobial treatment of patients with urinary tract infection or SIRS after PCNL. From April 2007 to March 2008, 51 patients aged 24-66 years underwent PCNL under general anesthesia. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (v.18), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student's t test, and the Chi square or Fisher's exact tests. Before operation, 11 patients (21.6 %) had positive urine culture. Sixteen patients (31.4 %) had positive stone culture during operation. SIRS occurred in 13 patients (25.5 %). In female group (10 cases, 45.5 %), SIRS was significantly higher than male group (3 cases, 10.3 %) (P = 0.008). Positive stone culture was significantly more prevalent in cases with positive pre-operative urine culture than cases with negative pre-operative urine culture (P = 0.023). But positive stone culture in group with SIRS, was significantly more common than group without SIRS (P = 0.001). Also positive stone culture in female group had significantly higher than male group (P = 0.003). We found a significant, tenfold increase in the risk of developing SIRS after PNCL, only in patients with positive stone culture (OR = 9.96; 95 % CI = 2.37-41.85, P = 0.002). Positive stone culture is a significant predictor of SIRS after PCNL, regardless of other related factors. Therefore, in order to avoid using blind empirical antibiotic regimen and to reduce the risk of subsequent microbial resistance due to use of prevalent broad-spectrum antibiotics, it would be wise to choose appropriate antibiotic therapy based on the results of intraoperative stone culture. PMID:25077454

Roushani, Ali; Falahatkar, Siavash; Sharifi, Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Mahfoozi, Lida; Saadat, Seyed Mohammad Seyed; Allahkhah, Aliakbar; Herfeh, Nadia Rastjou; Moghaddam, Keivan Gholamjani

2014-10-01

377

Correlation of antigen-specific IFN-? responses of fresh blood samples from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected heifers with responses of day-old samples co-cultured with IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of the intestine of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Early stage MAP infection can be detected by measuring cell-mediated immune responses using the interferon gamma (IFN-?) assay. Whole blood samples are cultured overnight with specific MAP antigens followed by quantification of IFN-? by ELISA. It is recommended that the time interval from sampling to culture does not exceed eight hours but addition of the co-stimulating cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) or anti-IL-10 antibodies to culture have been demonstrated to enhance IFN-? responses of cultures stimulated with Johnin purified protein derivative (PPDj). Here we examined the correlation of IFN-? production in response to PPDj and 15 recombinant antigens in day-old blood samples from heifers 10–21 months of age from a MAP infected herd with addition of either recombinant bovine IL-12 or anti-bovine IL-10 antibody with IFN-? production in sample day samples. IFN-? responses of sample day samples showed high correlation with responses to some antigens in day-old samples with addition of IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies to cultures, indicating that day-old protocols can be applied as an alternative to the conventional IFN-? protocol. Immunogenicity of the novel antigens was generally low for day-old samples. The most promising antigen using the day-old protocol with addition of IL-12 was latency protein LATP-2 as correlations, immunogenicity and diagnostic specificity collectively was high. The latency protein LATP-1 was the most promising antigen in the day-old protocol with addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies.

Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus

2012-01-01

378

Planning and designing urban places in response to climate and local culture: A case study of Mussafah District in Abu Dhabi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with how climate and local culture specifics contribute to urban diversity, and how they affect the way urban spaces are being conceived, planned and designed. The authors argue that regardless of the globally accepted principles of sustainability which emphasize smart responses, diversity and culture as the prime drives in urban development of, cities around the world are continually experiencing the all-alike solutions, which often compromise their identity and character. Having taken the genuine stands of the philosophy as a starting point for examining the subject, the authors explore and present how the climate specifics, along with the uniqueness of local culture, lead toward the solutions which make a difference to their cities. The discussion is illustrated by the case study the authors were engaged in, the Mussafah District project in Abu Dhabi, a redevelopment proposal recently initiated and developed by International Society of Urban and Regional Planners -ISOCARP and Urban Planning Council of Abu Dhabi.

Baji?-Brkovi? Milica

2011-01-01

379

Responses of cultured human airway epithelial cells treated with diesel exhaust extracts will vary with the engine load.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiologic evidence suggests that increased morbidity and mortality are associated with the concentrations of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Many sources contribute to the particulate fraction of ambient air pollution, including diesel exhaust particulates (DEP). Diesel exhaust also contributes gas-phase pollutants to the atmosphere, and gaseous copollutants may influence the toxicity of PM. The composition of diesel exhaust varies greatly depending on the engine load conditions as well as other factors. To determine whether different diesel exhaust composition can affect lung cell resposes, the effects of of diesel exhaust extracts derived from different engine loads were examined on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) in vitro. Diesel exhaust was collected into chilled impingers containing phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Cultured NHBE cells were treated with 0 to 500 microg/well extract from approximately 0% engine load (termed low load or LL) or extract from approximately 75% engine load (termed high load or HL) for 24 h. The HL extract was cytotoxic at 500 microg compared to controls as measured by (51)Cr release. Production of the neutrophil chemotaxin interleukin 8 (IL-8) was decreased 4.7-fold in cells treated with 500 microg LL extract, whereas cells treated with 500 microg HL extract showed a 2.4-fold increase in IL-8 release. Production of the inflammatory and immune system mediator prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was increased up to 2.5-fold in cells treated with HL extract, but unchanged with other treatments. Melittin stimulation of cells showed that the LL extract had an inhibitory effect on PGE(2) release at 500 microg. Differences in carbonyl content of the extracts were found by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy HPLC/MS, with the HL extract having more intermediate size carbonyls (i.e. with six to nine carbons). The data suggest that the response of NHBE cells to treatment with diesel exhaust will vary depending on the constituent components of the exhaust. PMID:14686339

Madden, Michael C; Dailey, Lisa A; Stonehuerner, Jacqueline G; Harris, Bruce D

2003-12-26

380

Optimization of decolorization of palm oil mill effluent (POME) by growing cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus using response surface methodology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conventional treatment process of palm oil mill effluent (POME) produces a highly colored effluent. Colored compounds in POME cause reduction in photosynthetic activities, produce carcinogenic by-products in drinking water, chelate with metal ions, and are toxic to aquatic biota. Thus, failure of conventional treatment methods to decolorize POME has become an important problem to be addressed as color has emerged as a critical water quality parameter for many countries such as Malaysia. Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from POME sludge was successfully grown in POME supplemented with glucose. Statistical optimization studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of the types and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources, pH, temperature, and size of the inoculum. Characterization of the fungus was performed using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Brunauer, Emmet, and Teller surface area analysis. Optimum conditions using response surface methods at pH 5.7, 35 °C, and 0.57 % w/v glucose with 2.5 % v/v inoculum size resulted in a successful removal of 71 % of the color (initial ADMI of 3,260); chemical oxygen demand, 71 %; ammoniacal nitrogen, 35 %; total polyphenolic compounds, 50 %; and lignin, 54 % after 5 days of treatment. The decolorization process was contributed mainly by biosorption involving pseudo-first-order kinetics. FTIR analysis revealed that the presence of hydroxyl, C-H alkane, amide carbonyl, nitro, and amine groups could combine intensively with the colored compounds in POME. This is the first reported work on the application of A. fumigatus for the decolorization of POME. The present investigation suggested that growing cultures of A. fumigatus has potential applications for the decolorization of POME through the biosorption and biodegradation processes. PMID:23054764

Neoh, Chin Hong; Yahya, Adibah; Adnan, Robiah; Abdul Majid, Zaiton; Ibrahim, Zaharah

2013-05-01

381

Respiration and protein synthesis in nongrowing cultured pear fruit cells in response to ethylene and modified atmospheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The respiration of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L. Passe Crassane) cells was monitored after subculture into an auxin-free, mannitol-enriched medium in which the cells remained viable but did not grow. Respiration rates were affected by the presence or absence of sucrose in the medium even though the cells retained reserves of sucrose and starch. Provided the medium contained respirable carbohydrate, exposure to ethylene (1-10 microliters per liter) increased the respiration rate with some acceleration of cell death. In the range from 10 to 2% oxygen by volume, the respiration rate of the cells decreased with oxygen concentration resulting in some prolongation of cell life. Thus, in their responses to ethylene and modified atmospheres, the cells reflected the behavior of harvested fruits. Having defined conditions under which respiration rate could be varied without apparent influence on the quiescent state of the cells, they sought a connection between maintenance respiration and protein turnover. Relative rates of protein synthesis were assessed by measuring ribosome distribution between monosomes and polysomes. In general, the higher the respiration rate the higher the proportion of polysomes supporting the thesis that protein turnover is a variable component of maintenance metabolism. Protein turnover in cells incubated in the presence or absence of sucrose was measured as retained ?-amino-3H following a pulse of 3H2O. Turnover was 3H2O. Turnover was shown to be a quantitatively important component of the maintenance budget and to be more rapidly in cells in media supplemented with sucrose through the chase period. The experiments illustrate that cultured cells may be used to explore aspects of the maintenance metabolism of resting or senescent cells that are not amenable to study in bulky fruit tissues

382

Simvastatin modulates the heat shock response and cytotoxicity mediated by oxidized LDL in cultured human endothelial smooth muscle cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidized low density lipoproteins (OxLDL) are toxic to cells of the arterial wall and trigger the expression of the inducible form of hsp 70 in cultured endothelial cells (EAhy-926) and smooth muscle cells (HUVSMC). The latter response is believed to protect cells from toxicity since heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) is synthesized by cells under stress condition to protect proteins from irreversible denaturation. Simvastatin (10(-8) M to 10(-5) M), a competitive inhibitor of hydroxy methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis, enhanced the toxicity of OxLDL (300 micrograms/mL) to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by 3H-adenine release and the MTT test. In EAhy, 3H-adenine release with OxLDL was 0.419 +/- 0.048 (ratio of radioactivity released in the medium to total radioactivity) versus 0.337 +/- 0.008 of control; in the presence of simvastatin and OxLDL this value increased from 0.49 +/- 0.01 at 10(-8) M to 0.918 +/- 0.001 at 10(-5) M with simvastatin alone (10(-5) M) this value was 0.463 +/- 0.025. Furthermore simvastatin reduced in a dose-dependent manner the expression of hsp 70 triggered by OxLDL, as detected by immunoblotting. To address whether this finding was due to the effect of simvastatin on the cholesterol pathway, mevalonate (100 microM) was used to bypass the HMG-CoA reductase block. This compound completely prevented the enhancement of OxLDL toxicity by simvastatin and restored the expression of hsp70. To verify whether cholesterol synthesis was required for the induction of hsp70 by OxLDL, squalestatin I (25 nM to 100 nM), an inhibitor of squalene synthase, another key enzyme of the cholesterol pathway, was used: OxLDL toxicity and hsp70 expression were not affected by this compound. These results indicate that simvastatin increases OxLDL cytotoxicity in vitro with a concomitant decrease of hsp70 expression triggered by OxLDL and that the key step in the cholesterol synthesis responsible for these effects must be between mevalonate and squalene formation. PMID:9070296

Pirillo, A; Jacoviello, C; Longoni, C; Radaelli, A; Catapano, A L

1997-02-13

383

Cotton LIM domain-containing protein GhPLIM1 is specifically expressed in anthers and participates in modulating F-actin.  

Science.gov (United States)

As one form of actin binding protein (ABP), LIM domain protein can trigger the formation of actin bundles during plant growth and development. In this study, a cDNA (designated GhPLIM1) encoding a LIM domain protein with 216 amino acid residues was identified from a cotton flower cDNA library. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that GhPLIM1 is specifically expressed in cotton anthers, and its expression levels are regulated during anther development of cotton. GhPLIM1:eGFP transformed cotton cells display a distributed network of eGFP fluorescence, suggesting that GhPLIM1 protein is mainly localised to the cell cytoskeleton. In vitro high-speed co-sedimentation and low co-sedimentation assays indicate that GhPLIM1 protein not only directly binds actin filaments but also bundles F-actin. Further biochemical experiments verified that GhPLIM1 protein can protect F-actin against depolymerisation by Lat B. Thus, our data demonstrate that GhPLIM1 functions as an actin binding protein (ABP) in modulating actin filaments in vitro, suggesting that GhPLIM1 may be involved in regulating the actin cytoskeleton required for pollen development in cotton. PMID:25294521

Li, L; Li, Y; Wang, N-N; Li, Y; Lu, R; Li, X-B

2015-03-01

384

The Investigation of the Relationship between Cultural Values and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, Organizational Commitment (OC and Personal Benefit (PB in Accounting System of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research aims to study the relationships between cultural values and ethical dimensions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR, Organizational Commitment (OC and Personal Benefit (PB in accounting system of Iran. The cultural values criteria in this study include Power Distance Index (PDI, Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI, Individualism (IDV and Masculinity (MAS. For measuring the cultural values, Hofstede questionnaire (1991 and in order to collect data for CSR, OC, and PB, Singhapakdi et al. (1996, Hunt et al. (1989, and Clikeman and Henning standard questionnaire (2000 were used, respectively, because of their high validity and reliability. Research sample consists of 115 accepted companies in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE during the period of 2004-2010. The regression models and econometric software EViews 6 are used to test the hypotheses. Research findings indicate that there is a weak correlation between cultural values and ethical dimensions of CRS, OC, and PB that results in the rejection of research hypotheses. In addition, among the variables of cultural values, UAI has the most and MAS index has the least impact on CSR.

Saeid Jabbarzadeh Kangarlouei

2011-11-01

385

Comparison of responses to X-rays of normal MER-1 cells and syngeneic R-1, M tumour cells grown in vitro in single and in mixed cultures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the consequences of a radiotherapeutic treatment in relation to the impairment of the reproductive capacity of normal and malignant cells which are in close contact and interact, radiation experiments were performed, employing an in vitro system as a first approximation. Dose response relations were determined for normal MER-1 cells and for R-1, M tumour cells, which were isolated either from single or from mixed cultures and dose survival curves ccnstructed. (Auth./C.F.)

386

Identification and expression analysis of methyl jasmonate responsive ESTs in paclitaxel producing Taxus cuspidata suspension culture cells  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Taxol® (paclitaxel) promotes microtubule assembly and stabilization and therefore is a potent chemotherapeutic agent against wide range of cancers. Methyl jasmonate (MJ) elicited Taxus cell cultures provide a sustainable option to meet the growing market demand for paclitaxel. Despite its increasing pharmaceutical importance, the molecular genetics of paclitaxel biosynthesis is not fully elucidated. This study focuses on identification of MJ responsive transcripts in cult...

Lenka Sangram K; Boutaoui Nadia; Paulose Bibin; Vongpaseuth Kham; Normanly Jennifer; Roberts Susan C; Walker Elsbeth L

2012-01-01

387

Evaluation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars Response to Salinity Stress Through Greenhouse Experiment and Tissue Culture Technique  

OpenAIRE

The response to salinity stress of 4 rice cultivars was evaluated through a greenhouse experiment and a tissue culture technique at Agricultural College, Mazandaran University, Sari, Iran, during 2003. In the first experiment, carried out at seedling stage, three salinity levels (0, 75 and 150 mmol NaCl) were used, pots arranged as a split plot based on completely randomized design with four replications and traits including seedling dry weight, wet weight, shoot length and root length were m...

Sahab Rahmanzadeh; Kamal Kazemitabar; Shahin Yazdifar; Azarakhsh Torabi Jafroudi

2008-01-01

388

Phytoremediation by poplar: polyphenols polyamines and oxidative damage in the response to heavy metals in in vitro and in hydroponic cultures.  

OpenAIRE

Poplar is considered a good candidate for phytoremediation, but its tolerance to heavy metals has not been fully investigated yet. In the present work, two different culture systems (in vitro and aeroponic/hydroponic) and two different stress tolerant clones of Populus alba (AL22 and Villafranca) were investigated for their total polyphenol and flavonoid content, individual phenolic compounds, polyamine, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide levels in response to Cu. In AL22 poplar plants ...

Tamanti, Fiorella

2012-01-01

389

Oral fibroblasts produce more HGF and KGF than skin fibroblasts in response to co-culture with keratinocytes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The production of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) in subepithelial fibroblasts from buccal mucosa, periodontal ligament, and skin was determined after co-culture with keratinocytes. The purpose was to detect differences between the fibroblast subpopulations that could explain regional variation in epithelial growth and wound healing. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured on polystyrene or maintained in collagen matrix and stimulated with keratinocytes cultured on membranes. The amount of HGF and KGF protein in the culture medium was determined every 24 h for 5 days by ELISA. When cultured on polystyrene, the constitutive level of KGF and HGF in periodontal fibroblasts was higher than the level in buccal and skin fibroblasts. In the presence of keratinocytes, all three types of fibroblasts in general increased their HGF and KGF production 2-3 times. When cells were maintained in collagen, the level of HGF and KGF was decreased mainly in skin cultures. However, in oral fibroblasts, induction after stimulation was at a similar level in collagen compared to on polystyrene. Skin fibroblasts maintained in collagen produced almost no HGF whether with or without stimulation. The results demonstrate that the secretion of KGF and HGF in both unstimulated fibroblasts and in fibroblasts co-cultured with keratinocytes is dependent on the type of fibroblasts. In general, the periodontal fibroblasts had the highest level of cytokine production. This high level of growth factor production may influence the proliferation and the migration of junctional epithelium and thereby influence the development of periodontal disease.

GrØn, Birgitte; Stoltze, Kaj

2002-01-01

390

Increased production of azadirachtin from an improved method of androgenic cultures of a medicinal tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss  

OpenAIRE

Present report is the first direct evidence of azadirachtin production in androgenic haploid cultures of Azadirachta indica, a woody medicinal tree. Anther cultures at early-late-uninucleate stage of microspores were established on MS medium with BAP (5 µM), 2,4-D (1 µM) and NAA (1 µM) containing 12% sucrose. The calli, induced, were further multiplied on 2,4-D and Kinetin media. Shoots, differentiated on BAP (2.2 µM) + NAA (0.05 µM) medium, were elongated on MS + BAP (0.5 µM) and multi...

Srivastava, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Rakhi

2011-01-01

391

Food Allergen-induced IgE Response Mouse Model Created by Injection of in vitro Differentiated Th2 Cell Culture and Oral Antigen Intake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is a mediator of food allergic reaction; however, the mechanisms of its production in response to an ingested antigen are not fully understood. For analysis of IgE production, here we propose an IgE response mouse model created by injection of a Th2 cell culture and feeding of an egg white diet. According to this manipulation, total and ovalbumin specific IgE production were elevated in this model. We think our model enables us to analyze IgE induction by Th2 cells in food allergy and can contribute to the development of a treatment for food allergy. PMID:24936381

Shibahara, Kyoko; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Kaminuma, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Mori, Akio; Hachimura, Satoshi

2014-01-01

392

Food Allergen-induced IgE Response Mouse Model Created by Injection of in vitro Differentiated Th2 Cell Culture and Oral Antigen Intake  

OpenAIRE

Immunoglobulin (Ig) E is a mediator of food allergic reaction; however, the mechanisms of its production in response to an ingested antigen are not fully understood. For analysis of IgE production, here we propose an IgE response mouse model created by injection of a Th2 cell culture and feeding of an egg white diet. According to this manipulation, total and ovalbumin specific IgE production were elevated in this model. We think our model enables us to analyze IgE induction by ...

Shibahara, Kyoko; Nakajima-adachi, Haruyo; Kaminuma, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Mori, Akio; Hachimura, Satoshi

2014-01-01

393

Making Pono Choices: a collaborative approach to developing a culturally responsive teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections prevention curriculum in Hawai'i.  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall extent of evidence-based culturally responsive health education programs targeting ethnic minority groups in Hawai'i is limited. The few that do exist were adapted from models developed with other majority ethnic groups in mind and may not always be appropriate for Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander youth (Okamoto et al. in J Alcohol Drug Educ 54(1):56-75, 2010; Helm and Baker in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 20(2):131-149, 2011; Po'a-Kekuawela et al. in J Ethn Cult Divers Soc Work 18(3):242-258, 2009). The need for a culturally responsive, evidence-based health curriculum is clear considering the large disparities reported among Hawaiian youth in health, academic achievement, and other identified risk factors. School-based health interventions are an opportunity not only to improve the physical well being of students, but also to increase their ability to learn and succeed in school. The University of Hawai'i at Manoa-Center on Disability Studies (UH-CDS) received a highly competitive grant from the US Office of Adolescent Health to develop a teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention curriculum for Hawai'i middle school youth. The authors will detail a collaborative process that led to a culturally responsive sexual health curriculum for middle school youth designed to meet the rigorous standards of an evidenced-based review and more importantly reduce teen pregnancies and STI transmission. PMID:24293268

Manaseri, Holly; Uehara, Denise; Roberts, Kelly

2014-12-01

394

Response to artificial inoculation with Phytophthora infestans of potato clones insensitive to culture filtrate of the fungus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Induction of general resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary by in vitro culture has been reported for cvs. 'Bintje' and 'Kennebec'. In both cases, sporangia suspension of the fungus were used as selective agent. As reported for many host-pathogen interactions, culture filtrate or purified toxins may also contribute to the selection of resistant genotypes. Challenge of mutagenized buds of cv. 'Spunta' with culture filtrate of P. infestans allowed selection of insensitive clones. To verify the possible correlation between culture filtrate insensitivity and disease resistance, different inoculation technique were applied to these clones. Considering that general resistance to late blight is a complex trait, different tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour during various stages of pathogenesis, such as infection, invasion, mycelial growth and sporulation. 7 refs, 1 tab

395

Nursing Responses to Transcultural Encounters: What Nurses Draw on When Faced with a Patient from Another Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: We explored nurses' experiences when they encounter patients from cultures other than their own and their perception of what helps them deliver culturally competent care. Methods: Registered nurses from all shifts and units at Kaiser Permanente Santa Clara Medical Center were invited to complete a questionnaire. Within the time frame allowed, 111 nurses participated by returning completed questionnaires. A descriptive survey was conducted using a questionnaire that contained multiple-choice, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended items. Results: A large majority of respondents reported that they drew on prior experience, including experience with friends and family, and through their education and training, and more than half also included travel experience and information obtained through the Internet and news media. They also expressed a desire for more training and continuing education, exposure to more diverse cultures, and availability of more interpreters. When respondents were asked to enumerate the cultures from which their patients have come, their answers were very specific, revealing that these nurses understood culture as going beyond ethnicity to include religious groups, sexual orientation, and social class (eg, homeless). Discussion: Our research confirmed our hypothesis that nurses are drawing heavily on prior experience, including family experiences and experiences with friends and coworkers from different cultures. Our findings also suggest that schools of nursing are providing valuable preparation for working with diverse populations. Our research was limited to one geographic area and by our purposeful exclusion of a demographic questionnaire. We recommend that this study be extended into other geographic areas. Our study also shows that nurses are drawing on their experiences in caring for patients from other cultures; therefore, we recommend that health care institutions consider exposing not only nurses but also other health care professionals to different cultures by creating activities that involve community projects in diverse communities, offering classes or seminars on different cultures and having an active cultural education program that would reach out to nurses. The experiences provided by such activities and programs would help nurses become more sensitive to the differences between cultures and not immediately judge patients or make assumptions about them. PMID:20740086

Cang-Wong, Celeste; Murphy, Susan O; Adelman, Toby

2009-01-01

396

Gene expression of a putative glutathione S-transferase is responsive to abiotic stress in embryogenic cell cultures of Cyclamen persicum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Background: Cyclamen persicum is an economically important ornamental crop that is propagated exclusively through seeds as vegetative propagation using cuttings is not possible. Therefore a micropropagation method through somatic embryogenesis is of high interest; however the method suffers from low [...] reliability concerning quality and quantity of the produced plantlets. A crucial step of the protocol is the removal of plant growth regulators (PGRs) that triggers embryo development. In order to get a better insight in this crucial step of the propagation process, a gene expression analysis has been set up using five different genes of glutathione S-transferases (GST) as these are known to be auxin responsive as well as stress reactive. Results: One out of the five genes of glutathione S-transferases (CpGST1) displayed a clear down-regulation 72 hrs after removal of PGRs compared to 4 hrs after, implying auxin responsiveness. However, a more detailed analysis including the time points 0, 4 and 72 hrs revealed an initial strong up-regulation after 4 hrs before it was down-regulated after 72 hrs. In comparison fold-changes of the additional four GST-genes were marginal. Comparing cultures on semisolid medium to that in suspension, transcript abundances of CpGST1 were clearly decreased in suspension culture. Conclusions: Against the initial hypothesis CpGST was not auxin responsive but stress reactive, probably especially indicating drought stress imposed on the cells upon transfer from submerged suspension culture to semisolid medium. Mechanical stress caused by shaking of suspensions cultures seemed to be less important.

Claudia, Hoenemann; Juliane, Ambold; Annette, Hohe.

2012-01-15

397

[In vitro regeneration and applications using vegetable cell and tissue culture].  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant cells by means of their totipotency and aided by in vitro culture techniques can be induced to perform morphogenesis leading to somatic embryoids and massive clonal multiplication; microspores or pollen can be triggered to recover haploid plants, then characters expressed via haploidy can be selected and fixed. Protoplasts from different species can lead to recombinations. We report here work done on Carica pubescens, where somatic embryoids were obtained from cells; in Prunus avium androgenesis leading to pollen calli was triggered, while plants were recovered from Nicotiana tabacum anthers. Fusion products were obtained using C. pubescens and C. papaya protoplasts, leading up to calli and shoots. PMID:2133516

Jordán, M

1990-10-01

398

Cophylogeny of the anther smut fungi and their caryophyllaceous hosts: Prevalence of host shifts and importance of delimiting parasite species for inferring cospeciation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Using phylogenetic approaches, the expectation that parallel cladogenesis should occur between parasites and hosts has been validated in some studies, but most others provided evidence for frequent host shifts. Here we examine the evolutionary history of the association between Microbotryum fungi that cause anther smut disease and their Caryophyllaceous hosts. We investigated the congruence between host and parasite phylogenies, inferred cospeciation events and host shifts, and assessed whether geography or plant ecology could have facilitated the putative host shifts identified. For cophylogeny analyses on microorganisms, parasite strains isolated from different host species are generally considered to represent independent evolutionary lineages, often without checking whether some strains actually belong to the same generalist species. Such an approach may mistake intraspecific nodes for speciation events and thus bias the results of cophylogeny analyses if generalist species are found on closely related hosts. A second aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the impact of species delimitation on the inferences of cospeciation. Results We inferred a multiple gene phylogeny of anther smut strains from 21 host plants from several geographic origins, complementing a previous study on the delimitation of fungal species and their host specificities. We also inferred a multi-gene phylogeny of their host plants, and the two phylogenies were compared. A significant level of cospeciation was found when each host species was considered to harbour a specific parasite strain, i.e. when generalist parasite species were not recognized as such. This approach overestimated the frequency of cocladogenesis because individual parasite species capable of infecting multiple host species (i.e. generalists were found on closely related hosts. When generalist parasite species were appropriately delimited and only a single representative of each species was retained, cospeciation events were not more frequent than expected under a random distribution, and many host shifts were inferred. Current geographic distributions of host species seemed to be of little relevance for understanding the putative historical host shifts, because most fungal species had overlapping geographic ranges. We did detect some ecological similarities, including shared pollinators and habitat types, between host species that were diseased by closely related anther smut species. Overall, genetic similarity underlying the host-parasite interactions appeared to have the most important influence on specialization and host-shifts: generalist multi-host parasite species were found on closely related plant species, and related species in the Microbotryum phylogeny were associated with members of the same host clade. Conclusion We showed here that Microbotryum species have evolved through frequent host shifts to moderately distant hosts, and we show further that accurate delimitation of parasite species is essential for interpreting cophylogeny studies.

Yockteng Roxana

2008-03-01

399

A Quantitative and a Qualitative Analysis of the Effect of Culture and Language on Arab Students? Response to Authentic Literature in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reading in a foreign language is laborious (Gorsuch & Taguchi, 2008, involving interaction between bottom-up and top-down movement in the process of creating meaning. When reading authentic literature, students must grapple not only with the text’s linguistic code but with the cultural code as well. Thus, language and culture can have profound effects on how students respond to and comprehend literature. The aim of this article, therefore, is to investigate the effect of these two factors on Arab student response to authentic American literature. Part of a major study, the article analyses quantitatively and qualitatively the responses of 23 female students while reading the American short story “I Want to Be Miss America”. The analysis shows clearly how students’ native culture and language come into play during the process of reading and understanding the text. Appreciating the effect of these factors offers literature teachers an insight into the sources of student difficulties with native literature. This in turn enhances their ability to negotiate meaning with their students and arrive at a plausible understanding of the target text. A further consequence is improved language acquisition by the students (Cheon, 2003.

Rahma I. Al-Mahrooqi

2011-11-01

400

Evaluation of factors contributing to the achievement of students participating in a culturally responsive curriculum in Hawai`i public schools  

Science.gov (United States)

This research explored the effectiveness of Ka Hana 'Imi Na 'auao, a culturally responsive science curriculum developed for Hawaiian and other students in Hawai'i high schools. An instrument, The Culturally Responsive Science Perception (CRSP) inventory was developed to measure students' (a) perceptions of their science self-efficacy, (b) perceived frequency of behaviors valued by members of the Hawaiian community and (c) frequency of perceptions of behaviors conducive to learning. Initial validation for the three-factor construct was obtained using Exploratory Factor Analysis and further validated utilizing Confirmatory Factor Analysis with an oblique rotation and 24 items were found to measure the three aspects with a multicultural group of 332 students on Oahu and Hawai'i island. A multi-level analysis was conducted by (a) testing for internal consistency and growth patterns over time utilizing Confirmatory Factor Analysis, (b) developing a 2-level model using a Growth Curve Modeling approach as the final method of measuring growth over time and analyzing the differences between treatment and control groups. Results indicated a significant change ( p < .05) in science self-efficacy and frequency of pono behaviors (p <.05), as well as significant gains in overall GPA (p < .01) in the treatment group. These positive findings suggest that when curriculum developers in Hawai'i are more culturally conscious, it may benefit all learners.

Bowditch, Scott A.

401

Corporate social responsibility development from instrumental, cultural and myth perspectives :a case study of logonet group, finland  

OpenAIRE

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has gained much focus in today’s societies and business env