Reinemeyer Craig R
Full Text Available Abstract Since 2002, macrocyclic lactone resistance has been reported in populations of Parascaris equorum from several countries. It is apparent that macrocyclic lactone resistance developed in response to exclusive and/or excessively frequent use of ivermectin or moxidectin in foals during the first year of life. The development of anthelmintic resistance was virtually inevitable, given certain biological features of Parascaris and unique pharmacologic characteristics of the macrocyclic lactones. Practitioners can utilize the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test to detect anthelmintic resistance in Parascaris, and the same technique can be applied regularly to confirm the continued efficacy of those drugs currently in use. In the face of macrocyclic lactone resistance, piperazine or anthelmintics of the benzimidazole or pyrimidine classes can be used to control ascarid infections, but Parascaris populations that are concurrently resistant to macrocyclic lactones and pyrimidine drugs have been reported recently from Texas and Kentucky. Compared to traditional practices, future recommendations for ascarid control should feature: 1 use of only those anthelmintics known to be effective against indigenous populations, 2 initiation of anthelmintic treatment no earlier than 60 days of age, and 3 repetition of treatments at the longest intervals which prevent serious environmental contamination with Parascaris eggs. In the interest of decreasing selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, horse owners and veterinarians must become more tolerant of the passage of modest numbers of ascarid eggs by some foals. Anthelmintic resistance is only one of several potential responses to genetic selection. Although still only theoretical, changes in the immunogenicity of ascarid isolates or reduction of their prepatent or egg reappearance periods could pose far greater challenges to effective control than resistance to a single class of anthelmintics.
Tydén, E; Engström, A; Morrison, D A; Höglund, J
Benzimidazoles (BZ) are used to control infections of the equine roundworm Parascaris equorum and the poultry roundworm Ascaridia galli. There are still no reports of anthelmintic resistance (AR) to BZ in these two nematodes, although AR to BZ is widespread in several other veterinary parasites. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the β-tubulin genes have been associated with BZ-resistance. In the present study we have sequenced β-tubulin genes: isotype 1 and isotype 2 of P. equorum and isotype 1 of A. galli. Phylogenetic analysis of all currently known isotypes showed that the Nematoda has more diversity among the β-tubulin genes than the Vertebrata. In addition, this diversity is arranged in a more complex pattern of isotypes. Phylogenetically, the A. galli sequence and one of the P. equorum sequences clustered with the known Ascaridoidea isotype 1 sequences, while the other P. equorum sequence did not cluster with any other β-tubulin sequences. We therefore conclude that this is a previously unreported isotype 2. The β-tubulin gene sequences were used to develop a PCR for genotyping SNP in codons 167, 198 and 200. No SNP was observed despite sequencing 95 and 100 individual adult worms of P. equorum and A. galli, respectively. Given the diversity of isotype patterns among nematodes, it is likely that associations of genetic data with BZ-resistance cannot be generalised from one taxonomic group to another. PMID:23685342
Yazwinski, T A; Hamm, D; Williams, M; Greenway, T; Tilley, W
Fifteen horses harboring naturally acquired, patent Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi infections were equally allotted to 3 treatment groups given (1) injectable vehicle; (2) injectable ivermectin at the dose rate of 200 microgram/kg of body weight; and (3) injectable ivermectin at the rate of 300 microgram/kg. All treatments were given IM in the neck. All animals were killed 14 days after treatment and examined for the targeted nematodes. Regardless of dose rate, ivermectin proved 100% effective in the removal of adult O equi and P equorum infections. Levels of immature P equorum were decreased by 98.5% in both ivermectin-treated groups. Oxyuris equi 4th-stage larval injections were decreased by 95.7% and 99.9% by the 200 and 300 microgram/kg ivermectin treatments, respectively. Adverse reactions to the injections of drug were not seen. PMID:6896611
Technical elaboration of in vitro incubation of Parascaris equorum gonads with 3H-uridine has permitted, for the first time, the study of RNA synthesis during oogenesis along the whole gonadic tube. In germ cells, oocytes in diakinesis (oviduct) and in division of maturation (uterus) show no label. On the contrary oogonia and growing oocytes in ovary are labelled. RNA snthesis is always detected in all parietal cells but is more active in oviduct and uterus where the gonadic wall is particularly developed
de Carvalho, Lorendane Millena; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Domingues, Rafael Reis; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Lelis, Rosane Teixeira; de Paula, Alessandra Teixeira; da Silveira, Wendeo Ferreira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor
Research involving the use of nematophagous fungi in the biological control of parasites of interest to veterinarians has occurred over recent years, with promising results. This article reports the infection of Parascaris equorum eggs by the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (isolates VC1 and VC4). Six groups were formed for each isolate, with six different culture media: 2% water-agar (2% WA); agar-chitin (AC); YPSSA (yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4 ·7H2O, soluble starch); AELA extract (starch + water + agar); 2% corn-meal-agar (2% CMA); and 2% potato dextrose-agar (2% PDA). A total of 1000 eggs of P. equorum were transferred to each plate containing isolates grown for a period of 7 days (treatment group). Also, 1000 eggs were added to each plate without fungus (controlgroup). The plates were kept in an environmental chamber at 25 °C in the dark for 21 days. After, we analyzed the effects on ovicidal activity: effect 1 (accession shell); effect 2 (penetration hyphae); and effect 3 (destruction of the eggs). No differences were observed in the destruction of eggs between the two isolates. The decreasing effectiveness of the different culture media was: PDA (38.9%); CMA (38.3%); WA (36.7%); YPSSA (36.45%); and AC (32.5%). The highest percentage egg destruction was observed when the strains were grown in culture medium AELA (44.9%); this was the best medium. PMID:25088293
Full Text Available Recent investigations have shown that plants with medicinal peculiarities as good alternative to anthelmintics for livestock. In this study, the anthelmintic effects of three medicinal herbs (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Punica granatum flower and Capsicum annuum were screened in vitro against the infective larvae of Parascaris equorum. The recovered larvae of the parasite were exposed to four concentrations (50, 75, 100 and 125 mg/mL of the extracts and then they examined for the viability at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes after the challenge. The results revealed that all the concentrations of each plant extract had anthelmintic effects on P. equorum larvae. Also, the statistics indicated that there were significant interactions between the concentration of the extracts and time of exposure on the number of viable larvae. In addition, C. annuum extract seemed to be a strong potency to kill larvae at all concentrations from the beginning of the experiment. These results confirmed that those herbal extracts possess good antiparasitic effects against infective larvae of P. equorum and thus could be considered in anthelminth treatment strategies.
I Jana I Janssen
Full Text Available Macrocyclic lactones (MLs represent the major drug class for control of parasitic infections in humans and animals. However, recently reports of treatment failures became more frequent. In addition to human and ruminant parasitic nematodes this also is the case for the horse-nematode Parascaris equorum. Nevertheless, to date the molecular basis of ML resistance is still not understood. Unspecific resistance mechanisms involving transporters such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps are expected to contribute to ML resistance in nematodes. Here, complete sequences of two P. equorum Pgps were cloned and identified as orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans Ppg-11 and an unnamed Caenorhabditis briggsae Pgp designated as Pgp-16 using phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare expression between tissues. Significantly higher PeqPgp-11 expression was found in the gut for both genders, whereas for PeqPgp-16 the body wall was identified as predominant expression site. Furthermore, Pgps were analyzed regarding their participation in resistance development. Using SeqDoC analyses, Pgp-sequences of P. equorum populations with different ML susceptibility were compared. This approach revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs causing missense mutations in the PeqPgp-11 sequence which correlated with decreased ML susceptibility. However, no resistance associated differences in mRNA expression levels were detected between embryonated eggs of these populations. In contrast, comparison of two pre-adult groups with different ivermectin (IVM susceptibility revealed the presence of the three SNPs and in addition statistically significant PeqPgp-11 overexpression in the group of worms with reduced susceptibility. These results indicate that Pgp-11 might be involved in IVM resistance in P. equorum as it shows increased expression in an IVM exposed life-cycle stage of an IVM resistant population as well as occurrence of putatively resistance
Jacqueline B. Matthews
Full Text Available Anthelmintics have been applied indiscriminately to control horse nematodes for over 40 years. Three broad-spectrum anthelmintic classes are currently registered for nematode control in horses: benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, oxibendazole, tetrahydropyrimidines (pyrantel and macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin, moxidectin. Generally, control strategies have focused on nematode egg suppression regimens that involve the frequent application of anthelmintics to all horses at intervals based on strongyle egg reappearance periods after treatment. The widespread use of such programmes has substantially reduced clinical disease, especially that associated with large strongyle species; however, high treatment frequency has led to considerable selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance, particularly in cyathostomin species. Field studies published over the last decade indicate that benzimidazole resistance is widespread globally in cyathostomins and there are also many reports of resistance to pyrantel in these worms. Cyathostomin resistance to macrocyclic lactone compounds is emerging, principally measured as a reduction in strongyle egg reappearance time observed after treatment. Ivermectin resistance is a further concern in the small intestinal nematode, Parascaris equorum, an important pathogen of foals. These issues indicate that horse nematodes must now be controlled using methods less dependent on anthelmintic use and more reliant on management practices designed to reduce the force of infection in the environment. Such strategies include improved grazing management integrated with targeted anthelmintic administration involving faecal egg count (FEC-directed treatments. The latter require that the supporting diagnostic tests available are robust and practically applicable. Recent research has focused on maximising the value of FEC analysis in horses and on optimizing protocols for anthelmintic efficacy testing. Other studies have sought to develop
Larsen, Mette L.; Ritz, Christian; Petersen, Stig L.; Nielsen, Martin Krarup
cyathostomins and P. equorum in Danish horses. A total of 196 animals were selected from 52 farms, all of which were using a selective anthelmintic treatment strategy. ERP was investigated with weekly samples from 96 horses from nine farms. Horses were treated with ivermectin oral paste by their owners at an...... resistance were found in either cyathostomins or P. equorum in the studied horses....
Lassen, B; Peltola, S-M
There is evidence of resistance in horses to anthelmintic treatment using ivermectin and pyrantel. However, little information is available about the parasites, treatment practices or anthelmintic resistance in the horse population in Estonia. In the present study, we examined 41 trotting and riding horses aged < 3 years from four stables in Estonia. Faecal samples were collected, and horses were selected for treatment if the nematode egg count per gram faeces exceeded 200. Horses (n= 32) that shed strongyle-type eggs were treated with pyrantel, whereas Parascaris equorum-positive animals received ivermectin. Up to 78% of horses required anthelmintic treatment and the efficiency of the anthelmintics was evaluated using a faecal egg count reduction test. Resistance of P. equorum was observed in 50% of horses treated with ivermectin and of strongyles in 27% of horses treated with pyrantel. Ivermectin treatment resulted in a mean reduction of 100% for strongyle eggs and an 89% reduction in P. equorum, and pyrantel-treated horses exhibited an 88% reduction in strongyle eggs. These results are considered to be the first indication of resistance to pyrantel, but further studies of ivermectin resistance are required. According to questionnaires completed by the owners of horses, resistance might be explained by a lack of evidence-based strategies, a strong preference for using ivermectin and possibly a subjective evaluation of the body weight of horses. PMID:25007041
Shalaby, Hatem A
Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The development of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of grazing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointestinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been observed that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode populations is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the susceptible genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists towards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new class are likely to be gained by
Reinemeyer, Craig R
Since 2002, selected populations of Parascaris equorum in several countries have been reported to survive treatment with macrocyclic lactone (M/L) anthelmintics. Clinical treatment failures are characterized by negligible fecal egg count reduction, but M/L resistance has been confirmed in ascarids by controlled efficacy testing. Resistance was selected by current parasite control practices for foals, which often include exclusive and excessively frequent use of M/L dewormers, thereby minimizing refugia within the host and in the environment. Chemical control of M/L-resistant isolates can be accomplished with pyrimidine and/or benzimidazole anthelmintics, but a few M/L-resistant populations have recently exhibited resistance to pyrantel pamoate as well. Some specimens of Oxyuris equi regularly survive treatment with macrocyclic lactones, but it is uncertain whether this constitutes resistance or merely confirms the incomplete oxyuricidal efficacy of virtually all broad spectrum equine anthelmintics. Variations in other biological parameters of Oxyuris and Parascaris, specifically atypical infection of older hosts and shorter prepatent periods, have been reported anecdotally. These changes may represent genetic modifications that have evolved in parallel with resistance as a result of anthelmintic selection pressure. PMID:22078748
Hatem A Shalaby
Full Text Available Many parasitic helminthes of veterinary importance have genetic features that favor development of anthelmintic resistance, this becoming a major worldwide constrain in livestock production. The development of anthelmintic resistance poses a large threat to future production and welfare of grazing animals. Development of variable degrees of resistance among different species of gastrointestinal nematodes has been reported for all the major groups of anthelmintic drugs. It has been observed that frequent usage of the same group of anthelmintic; use of anthelmintics in sub-optimal doses, prophylactic mass treatment of domestic animals and frequent and continuous use of a single drug have contributed to the widespread development of anthelmintic resistance in helminthes. The degree and extent of this problem especially with respect to multidrug resistance in nematode populations is likely to increase. Maintaining parasites in refugia and not exposed to anthelmintics, seems to be a key point in controlling and delaying the development of resistance, because the susceptible genes are preserved. Targeted selective treatments attract the interest of scientists towards this direction. Additionally, adoption of strict quarantine measures and a combination drug strategy are two important methods of preventing of anthelmintic resistance. Experience from the development of anthelmintic resistance suggests that modern control schemes should not rely on sole use of anthelmintics, but employ other, more complex and sustainable recipes, including parasite resistant breeds, nutrition, pasture management, nematode-trapping fungi, antiparasitic vaccines and botanical dewormers. Most of them reduce reliance on the use of chemicals and are environmental friendly. Finally, if new anthelmintic products are released, an important question will be raised about how they should be used. It is suggested that slowing the development of resistance to a new
Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Enemark, Heidi L.
The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu...
Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.
A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America.
Kaplan, Ray M; Vidyashankar, Anand N
Over the past 10-15 years, we have witnessed a rapid increase in both the prevalence and magnitude of anthelmintic resistance, and this increase appears to be a worldwide phenomenon. Reports of anthelmintic resistance to multiple drugs in individual parasite species, and in multiple parasite species across virtually all livestock hosts, are increasingly common. In addition, since the introduction of ivermectin in 1981, no novel anthelmintic classes were developed and introduced for use in livestock until recently with the launch of monepantel in New Zealand. Thus, livestock producers are often left with few options for effective treatment against many important parasite species. While new anthelmintic classes with novel mechanisms of action could potentially solve this problem, new drugs are extremely expensive to develop, and can be expected to be more expensive than older drugs. Thus, it seems clear that the "Global Worming" approach that has taken hold over the past 40-50 years must change, and livestock producers must develop a new vision for parasite control and sustainability of production. Furthermore, parasitologists must improve methods for study design and data analysis that are used for diagnosing anthelmintic resistance, especially for the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Currently, standards for diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance using FECRT exist only for sheep. Lack of standards in horses and cattle and arbitrarily defined cutoffs for defining resistance, combined with inadequate analysis of the data, mean that errors in assigning resistance status are common. Similarly, the lack of standards makes it difficult to compare data among different studies. This problem needs to be addressed, because as new drugs are introduced now and in the future, the lack of alternative treatments will make early and accurate diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance increasingly important. PMID:22154968
Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Angus JD; Charles, Jennifer A; Gasser, Robin B
Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpac...
Gasbarre, Louis C
The first documented case of macrocyclic lactone resistance in gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of cattle was seen in the US approximately 10 years ago. Since that time the increase incidence of anthelmintic resistance has continued at an alarming rate. Currently parasites of the genera Cooperia and/or Haemonchus resistant to generic or brand-name macrocyclic lactones have be demonstrated in more than half of all operations examined. Both of these parasite genera are capable of causing economic losses by decreasing food intake and subsequently animal productivity. Currently, there are no easy and quick means to detect anthelmintic resistant GI nematodes. Definitive identification requires killing of cattle. The most commonly used field detection method is the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). This method can be adapted for use as a screening agent for Veterinarians and producers to identify less than desired clearance of the parasites after anthelmintic treatment. Further studies can then define the reasons for persistence of the egg counts. The appearance of anthelmintic resistance is largely due to the development of very effective nematode control programs that have significantly improved the productivity of the US cattle industry, but at the same time has placed a high level of selective pressure on the parasite genome. The challenges ahead include the development of programs that control the anthelmintic resistant nematodes but at the same time result in more sustainable parasite control. The goal is to maintain high levels of productivity but to exert less selective pressures on the parasites. One of the most effective means to slow the development of drug resistance is through the simultaneous use of multiple classes of anthelmintics, each of which has a different mode of action. Reduction of the selective pressure on the parasites can be attained through a more targeted approach to drug treatments where the producer's needs are met by selective
Young, K E; Garza, V; Snowden, K; Dobson, R J; Powell, D; Craig, T M
Diversity of parasite populations was compared between two herds of horses, one a regularly treated herd the other a feral herd which has bad no anthelmintic treatment for at least 25 years. Eggs obtained from fecal samples of both herds were tested for anthelmintic resistance by use of an in-vitro larval hatch/development assay (LDA), DrenchRite. A fecal egg reduction test was also performed with the domesticated herd using fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin. Cyathostomes were the predominant group of worms present in both herds. Trichostrongylus axei was seen in both herds, but Strongylus equinus, Strongylus vulgaris, Gyalocephalus capitatus, Poteriostomum spp. and Strongyloides westeri were only found in the feral horses. Larvae of Strongylus edentatus were found in a single domesticated horse. Fecal egg reduction tests with the domesticated herd showed a 32% egg count reduction for fenbendazole, a 93% reduction with pyrantel, and a 99% reduction with ivermectin. From the LDA, anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by determining the resistance ratio of the domesticated herd compared with the feral herd. For benzimidazoles in the domesticated herd, 45% of the cyathostome population was 9.4 times more tolerant than the feral herd's parasite population. The parasite population in the domesticated herd was 1.5 times more tolerant to Levamisole, and 1.7 times more tolerant to the benzimidazole/levamisole combination than the parasite population within the feral herd. 9% of the parasite population in the domesticated herd was 90 times more tolerant to avermectins than the feral herd's parasite population, even though a subpopulation of worms in the feral herd were tolerant to low concentrations of avermectins despite never being previously exposed to this class of anthelmintic. PMID:10485366
Chintoan-Uta, C.; Morgan, E R; Skuce, P. J.; Coles, G.C.
Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes are among the most important causes of production loss in farmed ruminants, and anthelmintic resistance is emerging globally. We hypothesized that wild deer could potentially act as reservoirs of anthelmintic-resistant GI nematodes between livestock farms. Adult abomasal nematodes and faecal samples were collected from fallow (n = 24), red (n = 14) and roe deer (n = 10) from venison farms and areas of extensive or intensive livestock farming. Principal componen...
Pook, J F; Power, M L; Sangster, N C; Hodgson, J L; Hodgson, D R
Resistance, especially to the anthelmintic benzimidazoles (BZ), has been reported in horse cyathostomes world-wide. Diagnosis of resistance has traditionally been made by faecal egg count reduction (FECR) trials, however, this technique has limitations. Some of the shortcomings may be resolved by refining the test or by using an in vitro test. FECR tests and the larval development assay (LDA) were performed on adult horses held on 15 different horse properties across a wide geographical area of NSW, Australia. FECR were measured before and 10-14 after days treatment with oxibendazole (OBZ), morantel (MOR) or ivermectin (IVM) at recommended dose rates. Eight properties were rejected following low pre-treatment egg counts, leaving seven in the study. On these, the majority of larvae recovered from faecal cultures were cyathostomes. Using a definition of resistance as a FECR of horse egg counts pre- and post-treatment was developed and results from the same properties compared with the results of the LDA. For example, for the BZ, correlation coefficients of values of lethal concentration to kill 50% of population (LC50) on LDA and FECR percentages were -0.536 before and -0.704 after OBZ treatment. We conclude that the LDA has the potential to be a single visit test for detection of anthelmintic resistance in horse cyathostomes but requires further investigation and standardisation. PMID:12079739
Holm Signe A.
Full Text Available The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR in 10 selected herds were investigated during April–September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137 with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclusion criterion of more than 10 young kids never treated with anthelmintics. Questionnaire data on management were collected, and faecal samples from 252 kids were analysed by the McMaster technique. From all herds with a mean faecal egg count (FEC above 300 eggs per g of faeces, pooled samples were stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6% and other Nematodirus species (15.0%. Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11 of 12 (92% tested herds. Anthelmintics were used in 89% of the herds with mean treatment frequencies of 0.96 and 0.89 treatments per year for kids and adults, respectively. In 2011, new animals were introduced into 44% of the herds of which 25% practised quarantine anthelmintic treatments. In 10 herds the presence of AR was analysed by egg hatch assay and FEC reduction tests using ivermectin (0.3 mg/kg or fenbendazole (10.0 mg/kg. AR against both fenbendazole and ivermectin was detected in seven herds; AR against fenbendazole in one herd, and AR against ivermectin in another herd. In conclusion, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark.
Bartley, David Jon
The studies within this thesis have made a valuable contribution to our understanding of anthelmintic resistance in Scotland and in particular to the prevalence of benzimidazole (BZ) and ivermectin (IVM) resistance, the expression of multiple resistance and its management. Parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE) is a major welfare issue not only for Scottish, UK and European farmers but also for livestock producers throughout the world. Parasites such as Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus ...
Andrew C. Kotze
Full Text Available Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance.
Kotze, Andrew C.; Hunt, Peter W.; Skuce, Philip; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Martin, Richard J.; Sager, Heinz; Krücken, Jürgen; Hodgkinson, Jane; Lespine, Anne; Jex, Aaron R.; Gilleard, John S.; Beech, Robin N.; Wolstenholme, Adrian J.; Demeler, Janina; Robertson, Alan P.; Charvet, Claude L.; Neveu, Cedric; Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Alberich, Melanie; Menez, Cecile; Prichard, Roger K.
Anthelmintic resistance has a great impact on livestock production systems worldwide, is an emerging concern in companion animal medicine, and represents a threat to our ongoing ability to control human soil-transmitted helminths. The Consortium for Anthelmintic Resistance and Susceptibility (CARS) provides a forum for scientists to meet and discuss the latest developments in the search for molecular markers of anthelmintic resistance. Such markers are important for detecting drug resistant worm populations, and indicating the likely impact of the resistance on drug efficacy. The molecular basis of resistance is also important for understanding how anthelmintics work, and how drug resistant populations arise. Changes to target receptors, drug efflux and other biological processes can be involved. This paper reports on the CARS group meeting held in August 2013 in Perth, Australia. The latest knowledge on the development of molecular markers for resistance to each of the principal classes of anthelmintics is reviewed. The molecular basis of resistance is best understood for the benzimidazole group of compounds, and we examine recent work to translate this knowledge into useful diagnostics for field use. We examine recent candidate-gene and whole-genome approaches to understanding anthelmintic resistance and identify markers. We also look at drug transporters in terms of providing both useful markers for resistance, as well as opportunities to overcome resistance through the targeting of the transporters themselves with inhibitors. Finally, we describe the tools available for the application of the newest high-throughput sequencing technologies to the study of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:25516826
Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;
Anthelmintic resistance is an increasing challenge for the control of parasites in livestock. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) is the practical gold standard method for evaluating resistance, but the interpretation is complicated due to high levels of variability. A hierarchical...... arithmetic calculations classified nine farms (14.1 %) as resistant and 11 farms (17.2 %) as suspect resistant. Using 10000 Monte Carlo simulated data sets, our methodology provides a reliable classification of farms into different resistance categories with a false discovery rate of 1.02 %. The methodology...
Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, D. K.; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup;
Parasites infecting horses are ubiquitous and clinically important across the world. The major parasitic threats to equine health are cyathostomins, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and Strongylus vulgaris. Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance reported world wide in equine...... cyathostomins holds great promise, and could become very useful in clinical practice. Several attempts have been made to construct assays for diagnosing the highly pathogenic migrating larvae of S. vulgaris, but none of these have performed sufficiently to make a useful test. The present review illustrates...
Craven, J.; Bjørn, H.; Barnes, E.H.;
This study reports a comparison between faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA) for detecting anthelmintic resistance in equine strongyles. Resistance to benzimidazoles was demonstrated in 33 of 42 (79%) farms tested by FECRT and in 32 (62......%) of the 52 farms tested by EHA. As the reference strain used was not fully susceptible to benzimidazoles it was not possible to determine the level of resistance by LDA. Pyrantel resistance was indicated on three of 15 farms by faecal egg count reduction. Resistance was also indicated by LDA for one...... of these farms. In addition resistance was indicated by LDA on two more farms that were not tested by FECRT. Further testing is needed to confirm if these findings are truly indicative of resistance. Generally, correlations between the tests were poor and it was not possible to use the outcome of one...
I. Jana I. Janssen
Full Text Available P-glycoproteins (Pgps are suspected to mediate drug extrusion in nematodes contributing to macrocyclic lactone resistance. This association was recently shown for Parascaris Pgp-11. Ivermectin resistance was correlated with the presence of three pgp-11 single nucleotide polymorphisms and/or increased pgp-11 mRNA levels. In the present study, the ability of Pgp-11 to modulate ivermectin susceptibility was investigated by its expression in a pgp-11-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans strain. Expression of Parascaris pgp-11 in two transgenic lines significantly decreased ivermectin susceptibility in a motility (thrashing assay conducted in liquid medium. The EC50 values increased by 3.2- and 4.6-fold in the two lines relative to a transgenic control strain. This is the first report on the successful functional analysis of a parasitic nematode Pgp in the model organism C. elegans.
Chagas, Alexandre Moura; Sampaio Junior, Francisco Dantas; Pacheco, Adlilton; da Cunha, Amanda Batista; Cruz, Juliana Dos Santos; Scofield, Alessandra; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo
The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of the F200Y polymorphism in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene of Haemonchus contortus from various sheep flocks in eastern Amazon, and to identify management practices that may favor the emergence of resistance to anthelmintic drugs in the same area. In total, 305 specimens of H. contortus were collected from sheep at 12 farms located in the state of Pará. An allele-specific PCR was performed to detect the F200Y polymorphism, and questionnaires were used to obtain information about the farms and flocks. All genotypes were detected as follows: 31% of the parasites were RR, 37% of the parasites were SR, and 32% were SS. The completed questionnaires revealed that all farms employed semi-intensive farming systems, performed suppressive anthelmintic treatment, and based their choice of drug on cost and availability rather than on any knowledge regarding drugs that remained effective on their property. It can thus be concluded that the SNP in codon 200 of the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene is present in the H. contortus populations from eastern Amazon, and that a series of management practices that favor the emergence of anthelmintic resistance are employed on these farms. PMID:27514894
Calcutt, Michael J.; Foecking, Mark F.; Hsieh, Hsin-Yeh; Perry, Jeanette; Stewart, George C.; Middleton, John R.
Intramammary infections in dairy cattle are frequently caused by staphylococci, resulting in mastitis and associated economic losses. A draft genome sequence was determined for Staphylococcus equorum UMC-CNS-924, isolated from the milk of a Holstein cow, to better understand the genetic basis of its pathogenesis and adaptation to the bovine mammary gland.
Retnoningrum, Debbie S; Rahayu, Anis Puji; Mulyanti, Dina; Dita, Astrid; Valerius, Oliver; Ismaya, Wangsa T
A recombinant hybrid of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase of Staphylococcus equorum and S. saprophyticus has successfully been overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified, and characterized. The recombinant enzyme suffered from degradation and aggregation upon storage at -20 °C, but not at room temperature nor in cold. Chromatographic analysis in a size exclusion column suggested the occurrence of dimeric form, which has been reported to contribute in maintaining the stability of the enzyme. Effect of monovalent (Na(+), K(+)), divalent (Ca(2+), Mg(2+)), multivalent (Mn(2+/4+), Zn(2+/4+)) cations and anions (Cl(-), SO4 (2-)) to the enzyme stability or dimeric state depended on type of cation or anion, its concentration, and pH. However, tremendous effect was observed with 50 mM ZnSO4, in which thermostability of both the dimer and monomer was increased. Similar situation was not observed with MnSO4, and its presence was detrimental at 200 mM. Finally, chelating agent appeared to destabilize the dimer around neutral pH and dissociate it at basic pH. The monomer remained stable upon addition of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Here we reported unique characteristics and stability of manganese dependent-superoxide dismutase from S. equorum/saprophyticus. PMID:26960678
Full Text Available The complete nucleotide sequences of lincomycin-resistance gene (lnuA-containing plasmids in Staphylococcus equorum strains isolated from the high-salt-fermented seafood jeotgal were determined. These plasmids, designated pSELNU1-3, are 2638-bp long, have two polymorphic sites, and encode typical elements found in plasmids that replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism including the replication protein gene (rep, a double-stranded origin of replication, a single-stranded origin of replication, and counter-transcribed RNA sequence, as well as lnuA. Plasmid sequences exhibit over 83% identity to other Staphylococcus plasmids that harbor rep and lnuA genes. Further, three pairs of identified direct repeats may be involved in inter-plasmid recombination. One plasmid, pSELNU1, was successfully transferred to other Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus in vitro. Antibiotic susceptibility of the transconjugants was host-dependent, and transconjugants maintained a lincomycin resistance phenotype in the absence of selective pressure over 60 generations.
Lee, Jong-Hoon; Jeong, Do-Won
The complete nucleotide sequences of lincomycin-resistance gene (lnuA)-containing plasmids in Staphylococcus equorum strains isolated from the high-salt-fermented seafood jeotgal were determined. These plasmids, designated pSELNU1-3, are 2638-bp long, have two polymorphic sites, and encode typical elements found in plasmids that replicate via a rolling-circle mechanism including the replication protein gene (rep), a double-stranded origin of replication, a single-stranded origin of replication, and counter-transcribed RNA sequence, as well as lnuA. Plasmid sequences exhibit over 83% identity to other Staphylococcus plasmids that harbor rep and lnuA genes. Further, three pairs of identified direct repeats may be involved in inter-plasmid recombination. One plasmid, pSELNU1, was successfully transferred to other Staphylococcus species, Enterococcus faecalis, and Tetragenococcus halophilus in vitro. Antibiotic susceptibility of the transconjugants was host-dependent, and transconjugants maintained a lincomycin resistance phenotype in the absence of selective pressure over 60 generations. PMID:26448648
Höglund, Johan; Gustafsson, Katarina; Ljungström, Britt-Louise; Engström, Annie; Donnan, Alison; Skuce, Philip
A faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) survey was conducted during the grazing season 2006 and 2007 to provide an updated indication of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in sheep flocks in Sweden. A total of 1330 faecal samples from 90 flocks on 45 farms, with a minimum of 20 ewes each, was collected by local sheep veterinarians. Per treatment group, approximately 15 lambs were dewormed either with oral suspensions of ivermectin (Ivomec vet.) or albendazole (Valbazen vet.). The efficacy on each farm was investigated either in 2006 or 2007 by faecal egg counts collected on the day of treatment and in a new sample from the same animals 7-10 days later. Third-stage larvae (L3) were initially identified morphologically from pooled cultures. These were then used as the source of genomic DNA template for two molecular tests. The first was a PCR-based test for specific identification of Haemonchus contortus, and the second was a Pyrosequencing assay for the analysis of benzimidazole (BZ) resistance targeting the P200 mutation in the parasite's beta-tubulin gene. Larval cultures indicated that Teladorsagia and Trichostrongylus were the predominant genera, but Haemonchus was diagnosed in 37% of the flocks. The PCR results revealed an almost 100% agreement with those farms that had previously been shown to have Haemonchus present, even when the % prevalence was low (approximately 3%). Only two (4%) of the surveyed farms showed evidence of BZ-resistant worm populations, with H. contortus being the species implicated according to post-treatment larval culture results. The Pyrosequencing assay detected BZ resistant allele frequencies of >40% in the Haemonchus-positive farms and 100% resistant alleles in the clinically most resistant farms. These preliminary results suggest that the FECRT is less sensitive than the molecular test at detecting BZ resistance. However, both tests need to be interpreted carefully, bearing in mind the relative proportions of species
... (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G. nasalis), large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. equinus, S. vulgaris), small strongyles, and pinworms (Oxyuris equi). (3) Limitations. Do...
...) (Cyathostomum spp., Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus spp.), pinworms (adult and fourth-stage larvae) (Oxyuris equi), large roundworms (adult) (Parascaris equorum), hairworms (adult) (Trichostrongylus axei),...
Муромцев А.Б.; Даугалиева Э.Х.
One recorded Strongylata, Parascaris equorum and Oxyuris equi in the Kaliningrad Region. Complex veterinary measures against helminthoses were developed for treatment and prophylaxis of nematodoses in horses.
...): Oxyuris equi; Ascarids (adults and third- and fourth-stage larvae): Parascaris equorum; Hairworms (adults... fourth-stage larvae), Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicodontophorus spp., Cylicostephanus spp.); Pinworms (Oxyuris equi (adult and fourth-stage larvae)); Ascarids (Parascaris equorum (adult and third- and...
RESISTÊNCIA ANTI-HELMÍNTICA EM REBANHOS OVINOS DA REGIÃO DA ASSOCIAÇÃO DOS MUNICÍPIOS DO ALTO IRANI (AMAI, OESTE DE SANTA CATARINA ANTHELMINTIC RESISTANCE ON SHEEP FLOCKS FROM ASSOCIATION OF THE MUNICIPALITIES OF THE ALTO IRANI REGION (AMAI, WEST OF SANTA CATARINA STATE, BRAZIL
Ingrid Kelly Zanchet
Full Text Available
Para conhecer a situação da resistência anti-hel-míntica em ovinos de propriedades localizadas nos mu-nicípios da Associação dos Municípios do Alto Irani (AMAI, oeste de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foram avalia-dos nove rebanhos pelo teste de redução da OPG (ovos por grama de fezes. Este teste consiste na comparação da média da OPG de um grupo de animais quatorze dias após o tratamento com a média de um grupo controle não-medicado. Consideraram-se efetivas as drogas capazes de reduzir a OPG em 95%. Os princípios ativos utilizados foram: levamisol (7,5 mg/kg, closantel (7,5 mg/Kg, al-bendazol (10 e 5 mg/Kg, ivermectin e moxidectin (0,2 mg/Kg. Detectou-se resistência dos nematódeos gastrin-testinais a todos os grupos anti-helmínticos testados, sen-do que 100% das propriedades apresentam resistência ao ivermectin; 66,7% ao moxidectin, 44,4% ao levamisol e 75% aos benzimidazóis. Para as lactonas macrocíclicas e benzimidazóis, tanto o gênero Haemonchus sp. quanto Trichostrongylus sp. apresentaram resistência. Para o le-vamisol, a resistência está restrita a Trichostrongylus sp. Também foi detectada a presença de uma população de Haemonchus sp. resistente ao closantel e uma de Nema-todirus sp. resistente ao albendazol. Estes dados mostram a urgência de difundir medidas de controle integrado de parasitoses, visando prolongar a vida útil dos princípios ativos ainda disponíveis para uso.
PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ovinos, resistência anti-helmíntica, Santa Catarina.
In order to know the situation of the anthelmintic resistance in sheep farms in the municipalities of Asso-ciation of the municipalities of the High Irani Region - AMAI, West of Santa Catarina State, Brazil, nine flocks were submitted to the faecal egg counts reduction test (FECRT. This test consists in comparing the mean FEC of a group of sheep, 14 days after treatment with the mean FEC of a non-treated control group. Only drugs that could
Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.;
stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for specific detection of Haemonchus contortus. Strongyle eggs were detected with an individual prevalence of 69%, including Nematodirus battus (3.6%) and other Nematodirus species (15.0%). Eimeria spp. were observed in 99.6% of the kids. H. contortus was found in 11...
AlGusbi, Salha; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina
Effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide and the P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil on the efficacy of ivermectin and thiabendazole were studied in vitro in susceptible and resistant isolates of the cattle parasitic nematodes Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. The effects of combined use of drug and piperonyl butoxide/verapamil, respectively, were investigated in the Egg Hatch Assay, the Larval Development Assay and the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay. The effects of piperonyl butoxide and verapamil as inhibitors of thiabendazole and ivermectin responses were particularly marked for larval development, where both inhibitors were able to completely eliminate all differences between susceptible and resistant isolates. Even the lowest concentrations of anthelmintics used in combination with inhibitors caused complete inhibition of development. Differences and/or similarities among responses in different isolates were only obtained in the two other assays: in the Egg Hatch Assay piperonyl butoxide caused a shift in concentration-response curves obtained with thiabendazole to the left for all isolates tested, changing relative differences between isolates. In contrast, an effect of verapamil in the Egg Hatch Assay was only apparent for benzimidazole-resistant isolates. In the Larval Migration Inhibition Assay only ivermectin was tested and piperonyl butoxide shifted the concentration-response curves for all isolates to the left, again eliminating differences in EC50 values between susceptible and resistant isolates. This was not the case using verapamil as an inhibitor, where curves for both susceptible and benzimidazole-resistant isolates shifted to the left in Ostertagia isolates. In Cooperia the picture was more complex with ivermectin-resistant isolates showing a larger shift than the susceptible isolate. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene were investigated. Significantly increased frequencies of resistance-associated alleles were observed for the codons 167 and 200 in one benzimidazole-resistant isolate but not in an isolate selected for benzimidazole resistance at an early stage of selection. PMID:24907555
Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L
The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria. PMID:23076819
Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;
contribute to cause this high variability and these must be taken into account to accurately identify a reduction in anthelmintic efficacy. To address this problem, we developed a hierarchical statistical model for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. The model includes animal effect and farm clusters...... (48.4 %) testing positive. The efficacy of pyrantel was unaffected by the presence of S. vulgaris on the farm. The cutoff LCL values used for classifying farms as pyrantel resistant were: >92%: no resistance, 88-92%: suspect resistance, and <88%: resistance. Using model-adjusted LCLs, we classified 7...... as random effects. Resistance classifications are based on model adjusted lower confidence limit (LCL) values of predicted mean efficacies on each farm. The model was used to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel embonate paste from 64 Danish horse farms. On these farms 614 out of 1644 horses had egg...
Lätti, Reet, 1983-
Hobustel esinevad parasiitide - askariidid e varsasolkmed (Parascaris equorum), väikesed ümarussid (Cyathostominae), suured strongüliidid (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus), väikesed ümarussid (Strongyloides westeri), paeluss (Anoplocephala perfoliata) - tõrjest ning nakatumise kontrollimisest
Поцхверия Ш.О.; Авалиани Л.З.
In Georgia the prevalence rates of gastrointestinal Strongylata infection among horses and donkeys appeared to be 73,6 and 85,9%, Parascaris equorum infection – 26,2 and 15,9% respectively. Oxyuris equi infection was recorded only in horses (3,6%). In one case Dictyocaulus arnfieldi and Anoplocephala perfoliata were recorded in a horse.
... gastrointestinal worms: Large roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi... for the removal and control of the following worms: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach...
... roundworms (Parascaris equorum), mature and 4th stage larvae pinworms (Oxyuris equi), large strongyles...: lungworms (Dictyocaulus viviparus—adult, L4); stomach worms: barberpole worms (Haemonchus contortus and H. placei—adult), small stomach worms (Trichostrongylus axei—adult), brown stomach worms...
McMahon, C; Barley, J P; Edgar, H W J; Ellison, S E; Hanna, R E B; Malone, F E; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I
A questionnaire to obtain information on nematode control practices and sheep management was sent to over 1000 farmers in Northern Ireland. Replies were received from 305 flock owners, and data from 252 of them were analysed. Farms were divided into lowland and upland areas. Sizes of pasture and stocking rates on lowland and upland farms were 59.5 hectares, 6.99 sheep/hectare and 62.9 hectares and 10.01 sheep/hectare, respectively. Mean drenching rates for lambs and adults were 2.33 and 2.44, respectively, in lowland flocks and 2.73 and 2.71, respectively, in upland flocks. Between 2008 and 2011, the most frequently identified compounds in use were benzimidazoles and moxidectin in lowland flocks, and benzimidazoles and avermectins in upland flocks. Over the same period the most frequently identified commercial formulations were Tramazole(®), Panacur(®) and Allverm(®) (white drench), Levacide(®) (yellow drench), Oramec(®) (clear drench; avermectin), Cydectin(®) (clear drench; moxidectin) and Monepantel(®) (orange drench). Most respondents (56.35%) treated their lambs at weaning and the most common time to treat ewes was identified to be pre-mating (67.86% of respondents). The results of the questionnaire survey revealed that lowland annual drench frequency was 2.33 and 2.44 in lambs and ewes, respectively, although drench frequencies were higher in upland flocks: 2.73 and 2.71 for lambs and ewes, respectively. Annual drench rotation was practiced by 43.96% of flock owners, but whether this was true rotation or pseudo-rotation (i.e., substitution of one anthelmintic product by another product belonging to the same chemical group of anthelmintics) could not be explicitly determined. PMID:23228496
von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Harder, A; Sangster, N C; Coles, G C
Resistance against the major currently available anthelmintics has reached a critical level in many small ruminant herds world-wide, and is increasingly becoming a problem in horses and cattle. Therefore, new products with different modes of action are urgently needed. Recently, such a new class of compounds, the anthelmintically active cyclooctadepsipeptides, was described. Here, the effects of cyclooctadepsipeptides on benzimidazole-, levamisole- and ivermectin-resistant populations of Haemonchus contortus in sheep as well as an ivermectin-resistant Cooperia oncophora population in cattle were studied. Experimentally infected sheep and cattle were used. Animals were treated orally, subcutaneously, or intravenously with cyclooctadepsipeptides. The anthelmintic effects were assessed by means of fecal egg count reductions and/or worm count reductions. Both, PF1022A and emodepside were found to be fully effective against these parasite populations. These findings confirm that this new class of compounds acts by a different mode of action compared to the above-mentioned anthelmintics. PMID:15796017
Kwa, M.S.G.; Okoli, M.N.; Schulz-Key, H.; Okongkwo, P.O.; Roos, M.H.
A P-glycoprotein gene probe from the sheep parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus was developed and used to analyse restriction fragment length polymorphisms between susceptible isolates and isolates resistant to either benzimidazole; levamisole and benzimidazole; or benzimidazole, ivermectin and c
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective against multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematodes.
Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores
Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70-100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7-10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7-10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective against multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. PMID:27054068
Fernanda Ramos; Luiza Pires Portella; Fernando de Souza Rodrigues; Caroline Zamperete Reginato; Luciana Pötter; Alfredo Skrebsky Cezar; Luís Antônio Sangioni; Fernanda Silveira Flores Vogel
Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul...
Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores
Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups were effective against multi-drug resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. PMID:27054068
S. A. Esmaeel
The study was included 70 native donkeys at age 3-4 years, 60 animals naturally infected with gastrointestinal parasite and10 clinically normal served as control group. Coprological examinations revealed that the donkeys were infected withNematodes such as Large strongyles Strongylus spp. 70%, Triodontophorusspp. 36.6%, Smallstrongyles (caythostomines)33.3%, Trichostrongylus axei 33.3%, Parascaris equorum 20%, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi 13.3%, Strongyloides westeri 10%,Habronema musca 10%, Oxyuri...
A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR
The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan) was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%), Oxyuris equi (12%), Parascaris equorum (8%) and mixed infection (5%). Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal paras...
Nielsen, Martin K; Kaplan, Ray M; Thamsborg, Stig M; Monrad, Jesper; Olsen, Susanne N
Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs by horse strongyles constitutes a growing threat to equine health because it is unknown when new drug classes can be expected on the market. Consequently, parasite control strategies should attempt to maintain drug efficacy for as long as possible. The proportion of a parasite population that is not exposed to anthelmintic treatment is described as being "in refugia" and although many factors affect the rate at which resistance develops, levels of refugia are considered the most important as these parasites are not selected by treatment and so provide a pool of sensitive genes in the population. Accordingly, treatment should be avoided when pasture refugia are small because such treatments will place significant selection pressure for resistance on worm populations. Given this new paradigm for parasite control, it has become important to identify seasons and circumstances wherein refugia are diminished. Free-living stages of equine strongyles are highly dependent on climatic influences, and this review summarises studies of strongyle development and survival under laboratory and field conditions in Northern (cool) temperate, Southern (warm) temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. In Northern temperate climates, refugia are smallest during the winter. In contrast, refugia are lowest during the summer in warm temperate and subtropical/tropical climates. Although adverse seasonal changes clearly have significant effects on the ability of free living stages of strongyle nematode parasites to survive and develop, available data suggest that climatic influences cannot effectively "clean" pastures from one grazing season to the next. PMID:16815051
Determining the Degree of Anthelmintic Resistance against Macrocyclic Lactones in Small Strongylus, Based on the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA in Horses from Grasslands in the Department of Casanare
Germán Alonso Prada
Full Text Available This study was conducted in the grasslands of the Department of Casanare, seeking to determine the degree of anthelmintic susceptibility or resistance against macrocyclic lactones in small populations of Strongylus in this region of the country. Samples were taken from four municipalities in the department: Aguazul, Paz de Ariporo, Maní and El Yopal, between June, 2006 and April, 2007, where ten fresh fecal samples were collected in each municipality, directly from the field and in a completely random way. The samples were processed using the MacMaster coprological technique, thus determining the highest count of fecal epg by municipality. L3 larvae were extracted from each of the six samples with the highest count of fecal epg through the coprological and Baermann-Wetzel tests with which the Larvae Development Analysis (LDA test was run, detecting Small Strongylus highly susceptible to the action of macrocyclic lactones (ivermectin.
Fernández, V; Estein, S; Ortiz, P; Luchessi, P; Solana, V; Solana, H
The helminth parasite Fasciola hepatica causes fascioliasis in human and domestic ruminants. Economic losses due to this infection are estimated in U$S 2000-3000 million yearly. The most common method of control is the use of anthelmintic drugs. However, there is an increased concern about the growing appearance of F. hepatica resistance to Triclabendazole (TCBZ), an anthelmintic with activity over adult and young flukes. F. hepatica has eight Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) isozymes, which are enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of substrates through chemical conjugation with glutathione. In the present work we identified and characterized the GST mu gene isolated from the TCBZ-susceptible and TCBZ-resistant F. hepatica strains. Total RNA was transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcription and a 657 bp amplicon corresponding to the GST mu gene was obtained. The comparative genetic analysis of the GST mu gene of the TCBZ susceptible strain (Cullompton) and TCBZ resistant strain (Sligo) showed three nucleotide changes and one amino acid change at position 143 in the GST mu isozyme of the TCBZ-resistant strain. These results have potential relevance as they contribute better understand the mechanisms that generate resistance to anthelmintics. PMID:26542261
Sheferaw, Desie; Alemu, Melese
The prevalence of equines helminthosis studied from November 2011 to May 2012 in two agroecological zones Damot-Gale district, Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence, and to see the distribution of internal helminth parasites of equines. A total of 500 faecal samples collected for coprological examination of gastrointestinal helminth ova. From each species of studied animals 200 positive faecal samples were pooled and cultured, and then the larvae recovered and identified. The coprological examination revealed 100 % Strongyle, 16.6 % Fasciola species, 10.2 % Parascaris equorum, 2.1 % Oxyuris equi, 1.1 % Strongyloides westeri, and 0.7 % Gastrodiscus species in donkeys. The coproscopic examination of horse faeces revealed prevalence of 100 % Strongyle, 17.5 % Fasciola species, 5.5 % Parascaris equorum, 1.4 % Oxyuris equi, 0.5 % Strongyloides westeri. A statistically significant variations in the prevalence of equines helminthes were not observed among putative risk factors (P > 0.05), except in the case of Parascaris equorum and Fasciola species, in which statistical significant variations were observed with age and purpose of the animal, respectively (P < 0.05). The average egg per gram of faeces in this study was 689.8, with a range of 100-1,600 eggs per gram of faeces. Statistically significant variations in mean eggs per gram of faeces were observed in all the considered putative risk factors (P < 0.05), except in the case of sexes. The coproculture performed on 200 pooled faecal samples revealed that Cyathostome species, Strongyius vulgaris, Trichostrongylus axei, Triodontophorus species, Strongylus equinus, Strongylus edentatus and Oesophagodontus robustus were the major helminth parasites of equines in Damot-Gale district, Wolaita. PMID:26064026
M. K. Aldelami
Full Text Available Examination of 19 fecal samples showed positive results for nematodes. It was classified as a single and mixed infestation 58.0% and 42.1% respectively. The percentages of infestation with Strongylus spp, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum were 31.58%, 15.75%, 10.52% respectively. Administration of a single dose of mixture of ivermectin and closantel (0.05 ml/kg body weight revealed a significant reduction in average egg count in feces of the treated horses with both single and mixed infection. Efficacy of mixture of ivermectin and closantel for was 100% in removing eggs of the Parascaris equorm and Oxyuris equi and 99.42% for Strongylus spp at 14 days post-treatment. The preparation was also effective in removing larvae of Gastrophilus nasalis.
Sorin Morariu; Ion Oprescu; Narcisa Mederle,; Marius Ilie; Gheorghe Dărăbuș
The paper describes the prevalence of helminth species in horses from five localities of Arad County, western Romania: Vinga, Pecica, Arad, Șiria and Lipova. A total of 56 horses (5 foals, 10 yearlings and 41 adults) were sampled in order to establish the parasite spectrum. Faecal samples were processed by McMaster technique. All horses (100%) were parasitized, and five types of helminthes were identified. Digestive strongyles were found in 73.21% of horses, roundworms (Parascaris equorum) in...
Reinecke, R K; Loots, L J; Reinecke, P M
Dichlorvos in a special slow release formulation at 31 mg/kg body mass in equines was highly effective against all adult strongyles and Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara and bots of Gasterophilus spp. It has no effect on 4th stage larvae of Trichonema ssp. nor the stomach worms Draschia megastoma and Habronema spp. Doses of dichlorovos 10 and 20 times the therapeutic dose (310 and 620 mg/kg body mass) caused transient clinical signs but these disappeared 96 hours after dosing. PMID:7452653
Malan, F S; Reinecke, R K; Scialdo, R C
A single oral dose of fenbendazole (FBZ) paste at 7,5 mg/kg body mass was given to 5 horses. It was highly effective against adults of the following genera: Cyathostomum, Cylicostephanus, Cylicondontophorus, Poteriostomum, Cylicocyclus, Triodontophorus, Oesophagodontus (and other genera belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae). Similarly, high efficacy was obtained against the adults of the following species: Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus equinus and Probstmayria vivipara. These results were confirmed in 12 horses and in addition FBZ at 7,5 mg/kg was highly effective against Parascaris equorum, Craterostomum and Gyalocephalus. PMID:7277372
Schröder, J; Swan, G E
Ivermectin, described as 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1, was the compound chosen from the avermectin group of compounds for development as an antiparasitic agent in horses. A review of the literature indicates that parenteral administration in horses at 200 microgram/kg body mass is highly effective against the strongyles Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus and triodontophorus spp., and adult and immature cyathostomes, including strains resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics. Other nematodes controlled in horses include Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Trichostrongylus axei, and Habronema spp. Ivermectin is also highly effective against stomach bots (Gastrophilus spp.). PMID:6750120
Marcelo Beltrão Molento
Os eqüinos apresentam uma grande variedade de parasitas em sua fauna helmíntica, e algumas espécies/gêneros são de relevada importância, como: Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Oxyuris equi, Cyathostomum spp. e Strongylus spp. O controle destas infecções depende principalmente da utilização de produtos antiparasitários de forma supressiva ou estratégica e, em menor escala, de forma curativa. O tratamento supressivo é o fator mais importante na promoção da seleção de organismos res...
Cirak, V Y; Hermosilla, C; Bauer, C
Quantitative faecal and post-mortem examinations of 16 ponies, 1 to 2 1/2 years of age, originating from 3 farms in northern Germany were performed in February 1995 to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites in these animals. A total of 33 species of metazoan parasites was recovered: three tapeworm species (Anoplocephala perfoliata, A. magna, Paranoplocephala mamillana), Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, small strongyles (including four Triodontophorus spp., Craterostomum acuticaudatum and 19 cyathostome species), Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Habronema majus and Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae. Triodontophorus minor and Cylicocyclus triramosus were reported for the first time in Germany. PMID:9060170
Louw, J P; Meyer, S; Schröder, J
The anthelmintic efficacy of a 44.5% paste formulation of cambendazole was evaluated in a critical trial performed on 5 horses and a donkey. A dosage of 20 mg/kg showed reduction of mean parasite burdens as follows: Strongylinae greater than 99%; Cyathostominae 94%; immature and adult Oxyuris equi 89 and greater than 99%; Probstmayria vivipara greater than 99% and Habronema muscae 97%. Parascaris equorum and Anoplocephala perfoliata were present in small numbers in individual animals only, and while all were removed by treatment, the small numbers did not justify calculation of a percentage efficacy for these 2 parasites. PMID:7017145
GÜL, Abdurrahman; DEĞER, Serdar; Ayaz, Erol
The faeces of 464 horses and 110 donkeys were cOllected and examined by the flotation, sedimentation and Baermenn-Wetzel methods in a parasitology laboratory. The examinations showed that 327 of 464 (70.5%) horses and 85 of 110 (77.3%) donkeys were infected with the following species: in horses, Strongylidae sp. 62.7%, Strongyloides westeri 5.8%, Parascaris equorum 3.2%, Anoplocephalidae sp. 2.4 %, Fasciola hepatica 0.9%, Oxyuris equi 0.6%, and Paranoplocephala mamillana 0.2%; and in donkeys;...
M. K. Aldelami; B. A. Albadrani
Examination of 19 fecal samples showed positive results for nematodes. It was classified as a single and mixed infestation 58.0% and 42.1% respectively. The percentages of infestation with Strongylus spp, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum were 31.58%, 15.75%, 10.52% respectively. Administration of a single dose of mixture of ivermectin and closantel (0.05 ml/kg body weight) revealed a significant reduction in average egg count in feces of the treated horses with both single and mixed infect...
Etter, A; Aboutanos, M; Tobler, H; Müller, F.
Chromatin diminution in the nematodes Parascaris equorum and Ascaris lumbricoides leads to the formation of somatic cells that contain less DNA than the germ-line cells. We present molecular evidence for the coding potential of germ-line-specific DNA. We report on a cDNA clone that codes for a putative ribosomal protein (ALEP-1, for A. lumbricoides eliminated protein 1). That the corresponding gene is located in the eliminated portion of the genome indicates a difference in germ-line and soma...
Al Anazi, Abdullah D; Alyousif, Mohamed S
This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. PMID:23961139
Mfitilodze, M W; Hutchinson, G W
A quantitative post-mortem study of 57 horses from northern Queensland was done to determine the prevalence and intensity of non-strongyle intestinal parasites. The following species (% prevalence) were found: Draschia megastoma (39%); Habronema muscae (43%); Gasterophilus intestinalis (34%), G. nasalis (30%); Parascaris equorum (15%); Strongyloides westeri (6%); Probstmayria vivipara (2%); Oxyuris equi (26%); Anoplocephala magna (2%); A. perfoliata (32%). Mean parasite numbers of individual species ranged from 10 to 1310. Prevalence and intensity data were compared to recent studies in Western Australia and in the United States of America. Differences between stabled and paddocked horses were noted, particularly for botfly larvae and spiruroids. Climatic and seasonal changes in prevalence were restricted to H. muscae, G. nasalis and P. equorum with highest prevalence in the wet season or in horses from wet coastal areas. Only P. equorum showed any age effect being restricted to horses less than 5 years old. Breed and sex of horses was not important. The likelihood of changing parasite population dynamics with improved anthelmintic regimen is discussed. PMID:2930389
Adeppa, J; Ananda, K J; Krishna Murthy, C M; Satheesha, G M
A study was conducted to ascertain the incidence of gastrointestinal parasites in horses of Shimoga region, to generate the data regarding status of parasitic infections of equines in Karnataka state due to paucity of information. A total of 100 fresh fecal samples of equines were collected and examined by direct and sedimentation method for the detection of parasitic egg/ova. Among 100 samples examined, 84 (84.0 %) were found positive for various gastrointestinal helminths. Out of 84 positive cases, 44 (52.38 %) were found positive for Strongylus spp. eggs, 09 (10.71 %) showed Parascaris equorum eggs, 06 (7.14 %) had Gastrodiscus spp. eggs, 04 (4.76 %) harbored Oxyuris equi and the remaining 21 (25.0 %) had a mixed infection of Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp. and Gastrodiscus spp. PMID:27605810
Ehizibolo, David O; Kamani, Joshua; Ehizibolo, Peter O; Egwu, Kinsley O; Dogo, Goni I; Salami-Shinaba, Josiah O
This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of parasites of horses in northern Nigeria. Blood and faecal samples were randomly collected from 243 horses from different stables in some states of northern Nigeria for laboratory analyses. Fifty-seven horses (23.5%) were found infected with parasites. The hemoparasites detected, 21 (8.6%), include Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma evansi. The endoparasites encountered, 29 (11.9%) were Strongylus spp., Strongyloides spp., Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Paragonimus spp. and Dicrocoelium spp., 3 (1.2%) was Eimeria spp. Four horses (1.6%) had mixed infection of hemo- and endoparasites. This preliminary finding shows that parasitism is a problem in the horse stables examined, and calls for proper stable hygiene, routine tick control and regular deworming programme. PMID:24833991
Full Text Available The paper describes the prevalence of helminth species in horses from five localities of Arad County, western Romania: Vinga, Pecica, Arad, Șiria and Lipova. A total of 56 horses (5 foals, 10 yearlings and 41 adults were sampled in order to establish the parasite spectrum. Faecal samples were processed by McMaster technique. All horses (100% were parasitized, and five types of helminthes were identified. Digestive strongyles were found in 73.21% of horses, roundworms (Parascaris equorum in 28.57%, threadworms (Strongyloides westeri in 8.92%, pinworms (Oxyuris equi in 12.50%, and tapeworms (Anoplocephala spp. in 19.64%, respectively. At least two helminth species were found in each individual.
Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Buzzulini, Carolina; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Costa, Alvimar José da
With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais. PMID:25517536
A. MAHFOOZ, M. Z. MASOOD, A. YOUSAF, N. AKHTAR AND M. A. ZAFAR
Full Text Available The prevalence and anthelmintic efficacy of Abamectin against gastrointestinal parasites under field conditions in Faisalabad (Punjab, Pakistan was studied in 100 horses. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was 75%, including Strongylus spp. (50%, Oxyuris equi (12%, Parascaris equorum (8% and mixed infection (5%. Among these naturally infected animals, 15 were selected. These horses were assigned to three groups on the basis of prevalent species of gastrointestinal parasites. Each group had five animals, comprising four treatment horses and a control horse. Abamectin was evaluated against these gastrointestinal parasites with a single shot at the dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg body weight administered through subcutaneous route which resulted in 98% reduction in faecal egg count after day 14 post-treatment. Non-treated horses remained positive for gastrointestinal parasites. No adverse reactions were observed during the experimental period. It was concluded that Abamectin is highly effective against gastrointestinal parasites in horses.
Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C
Antiparasitic activity of a micronized formulation of the benzothiazole compound, tioxidazole, at the dose rate of 11 mg/kg, was evaluated by the critical test method. Drug was given by stomach to 3 horses and on feed to 3 horses. Excellent removal activity was found for Strongylus vulgaris (100%) in 5 naturally infected horses, S edentatus (91% to 100%) in 5 horses, small strongyles (88% to 99%) in 6 horses, immature Oxyuris equi (100%) in 5 horses, and Parascaris equorum (100%) in 5 horses (a 6th horse had 10 small specimens present at necropsy). There was no measurable activity against bots, tapeworms, or stomach worms. Tioxidazole, administered in the feed, was palatable. Signs of toxicosis were not observed. PMID:7283235
Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C
Critical tests were completed on six horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of a paste formulation mixture of morantel citrate and trichlorfon, administered intraorally at the dose rate of 6 mg morantel base kg-1 and trichlorfon at 30 mg kg-1. Aggregate average removals were: 78% for two horses infected with 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis; 100% for one infected with 2nd instar G. nasalis; 96% for six infected with 3rd instar G. intestinalis; 100% for four infected with 3rd instar G. nasalis; 100% for five infected with Parascaris equorum; 100% for one infected with mature Oxyuris equi; 100% for five infected with Strongylus vulgaris; 72% for five infected with S. edentatus; and partial removal (25%) of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection from one infected animal. Pre- and post-treatment EPG and LPG data indicated a reduction of 97% of the mature small strongyle infections. Evidence of toxicosis was not observed in any of the horses. PMID:6538366
Torbert, B J; Kramer, B S; Klei, T R
A controlled test was used in ponies to compare the antiparasitic efficacy of ivermectin (22,23-dihydro-avermectin B1) in an injectable micelle solution administered IM with the efficacy of the same drug in an oral paste formulation. Parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern Louisiana. The drug was tested in both formulations at a dosage level of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. Ivermectin in both formulations tested had an efficacy greater than 98% against Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis larvae. Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema spp, Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, and species of small strongyles present. Efficacy of ivermectin against Oxyuris equi larvae was 100% in the paste formulation and 93% in the injectable formulation. The ponies were less uniformly infected with S equinus, Draschia megastoma, Parascaris equorum, O equi adults, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and A magna. However, observations indicated that the drug in either formulation was also effective against these parasites, except Anoplocephala spp. PMID:6896613
Duncan, J L; Reid, J F
In a controlled trial in naturally-infected young ponies, oxfendazole administered orally at dose-rates of 10 mg per kg and 50 mg per kg resulted in complete elimination of Trichostrongylus axei, Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi and adult Strongylus vulgaris. Also, all migrating Strongylus edentatus larvae recovered from the subperitoneal tissues of the flank were found to be dead. Minimum efficiencies of 99.8 per cent and 99.1 per cent were obtained against adult small strongyles (Trichonema spp) and 97.6 per cent and 100 per cent of developing small strongyle larvae at dose-rates of 10 mg per kg and 50 mg per kg respectively. Although the arterial lesions caused by migrating S vulgaris larvae were less severe in the treated compared with the untreated animals, reductions in mean larval numbers over controls were only in the region of 49 to 59 per cent. PMID:364817
Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C
Thirteen critical tests were conducted in horses naturally infected with helminths and bots. Single doses of thiabendazole (44 mg/kg of body weight) and trichlorfon (40 mg/kg of body weight) powder formulations were administered as suspensions sequentially given via stomach tube to evaluate the efficacy of the combination against the large parasites of horses. Parasite removal efficacies were 100% against 2nd instar Gasterophilus intestinalis and 2nd and 3rd instar Gasterophilus nasalis and 82 to 100% against 3rd instar G intestinals. There were complete removals of mature and immature Parascaris equorum and mature Oxyuris equi. Removal efficacies against Strongylus vulgaris were 89 to 100% and against Strongylus edentatus, 82 to 100%. Of 2 horses infected with Strongylus equinus, removals were 72 and 100%. Seven of the 13 horses treated had transient, semi-liquid feces during the posttreatment hours 1 through 24. PMID:879569
Malan, F S; Reinecke, R K
A single oral dose of fenbendazole (FBZ) at 10mg/kg body mass was given to 5 donkeys. A further 5 donkeys were dosed with a medicated lick (1 mg FBZ/g lick) until the oral consumption was 10mg/kg body mass. In both trials FBZ was highly effective against adults of the following genera: Cyathostomum, Cylicocyelus, Cylicostephanus, Cylicodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Cabellonema, Craterostomum and Triodontophorus; similarly high efficiency was obtained against the following species: Habronema majus, Habronema musca, Strongylus vulgaris and Oxyuris equi and worms identified as belonging to the subfamily Cyathostostominae. These results were confirmed in horses and in addition FBZ at 10mg/kg was highly effective against Gyalocephalus capitatus, Oesophagodontos robustus and Parascaris equorum. PMID:7241490
Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C
Critical tests of the activity on large strongyles, ascarids, mature pinworms, and bots were carried out in 11 horses intraorally treated with a paste formulation of thiabendazole. The dose level of 44 mg/kg was administered to 3 horses, and the dose level of 88 mg/kg to 8 horses. Removals of Strongylus vulgaris and mature Oxyuris equi were 100% at the 2 dose levels, and efficacy against Strongylus edentatus varied from 95 to 99% and 89 to 100% for the 44- and the 88-mg/kg dose levels, respectively. Strongylus equinus was completely removed from the 1 infected horse treated at the dose level of 88 mg/kg. Activity of the smaller dose against Parascaris equorum was 46%, and that of the larger dose varied from 32 to 100%. The drug was inactive on Gasterophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis. PMID:937790
Gawor, J J
The digestive tracts of 50 working horses from private farms in Poland were examined. Thirty-seven nematode species, two tapeworm species and one species of botfly were recovered. The most prevalent small strongyle species were Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicocyclus leptostomus and Cylicostephanus minutus. Thirteen cyathostome species showed a site preference in the ventral colon, five in the dorsal colon and three in the caecum. One species, Cylicocyclus triramosus, was new for Poland. Delafondia vulgaris was the most common large strongyle, with 74% prevalence, but low abundance. Parascaris equorum (26%) and Oxyuris equi (36%) were common. Strongyloides westeri (4%), Habronema majus (16%) and Habronema muscae (8%) were less prevalent. Both Habronema species were new for Poland. Tapeworm infection were not prevalent (Anoplocephala magna (4%) and Anoplocephala perfoliata (4%)). Botfly larvae were found in 40% of the horses examined. It was stated that no anthelmintics had been used on the farms. PMID:7676606
Weslen Fabricio Pires Teixeira
Full Text Available With the aim of studying the endoparasite fauna of horses from the Formiga city, located in center-west region of the state of Minas Gerais, 25 animals that were naturally infected with helminths were evaluated. By means of parasitological necropsies, different endoparasites were found. The subfamily Cyathostominae presented the highest incidence, followed by Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Triodontophorus serratus, Strongyloides westeri, Strongylus edentatus, Habronema muscae, Parascaris equorum, Probstmayria vivipara, Strongylus vulgaris, Gasterophilus nasalis, Anoplocephala magna and Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the present study, if the species Probstmayria vivipara was not considered in the prevalence, the frequency of Cyathostominae was equivalent to 94.85%. The results obtained in this study allowed us to detect and identify different species of helminths in horses, and confirmed the high incidence of nematodes belonging to the subfamily Cyathostominae in the center-west region of Minas Gerais.
Zuo, Chao; Sun, Jiasong; Zhang, Jialin; Hu, Yan; Chen, Qian
We demonstrate lensless quantitative phase microscopy and diffraction tomography based on a compact on-chip platform, using only a CMOS image sensor and a programmable color LED matrix. Based on the multi-wavelength phase retrieval and multi-angle illumination diffraction tomography, this platform offers high quality, depth resolved images with a lateral resolution of 3.72μm and an axial resolution of 5μm, across a wide field-of-view of 24mm2. We experimentally demonstrate the success of our method by imaging cheek cells, micro-beads, and fertilized eggs of Parascaris equorum. Such high-throughput and miniaturized imaging device can provide a cost-effective tool for telemedicine applications and point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited environments. PMID:26072796
Epe, C; Ising-Volmer, S; Stoye, M
The results of the coproscopical examinations in horses, dogs, cats and hedgehogs between 1984 and 1991 are presented. In 9192 samples from horses 55.5% stages of strongylids, 4.0% of Parascaris equorum, 2.2% of anoplocephalids, 1.6% Strongyloides westeri, 0.7% of Oxyuris equi, 0.6% of Eimeria leuckarti, 0.2% of Fasciola hepatica and 0.04% of Dictyocaulus arnfieldi were found. In 48.0% of the 46 samples from donkeys eggs from strongylids were detected, in 17.4% larvae from Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, in 2.2% eggs from Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris equorum and oocysts from Eimeria leuckarti, respectively. In 3329 samples of dogs 6.9% developmental stages of Toxocara canis, 6.0% of Giardia spp., 4.2% of Isospora spp., 3.0% of Sarcocystis spp., 2.5% each of ancylostomids and Trichuris vulpis, 1.1% of Toxascaris leonina and 1.1% of Dipylidium canium, up to 1.0% of taeniids, 0.6% of each Mesocestoides spp. and Metastrongylidae, 0.3% of Strongyloides stercoralis and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. and Hammondia heydorni were detected. In 9.5% of the 1147 samples of cats eggs from Toxocara mystax were found, in 4.7% eggs of taeniids, in 4.6% cysts of Isospora spp., in 2.4% of Giardia spp., in 1.4% eggs of Dipylidium caninum, in 1.0% of Capillaria spp. and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, in 0.6% development stages of Toxoplasma gondii, in 0.5% of ancylostomids and in 0.3% of Sarcocystis spp. and Opisthorchis felineus. In 1175 samples of hedgehogs 48.8% eggs of Capillaria spp., 35.9% of Crenosoma striatum, 17.9% oocysts of Isospora spp., 2.3% eggs of Brachylaemus erinacei were found. PMID:8261912
Getachew, M; Trawford, A; Feseha, G; Reid, S W J
The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide. PMID:19548106
Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors are pentameric ligand-gated channels involved in excitatory neuro-transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In nematodes, they represent major targets for cholinergic agonist or antagonist anthelmintic drugs. Despite the large diversity of acetylcholine-receptor subunit genes present in nematodes, only a few receptor subtypes have been characterized so far. Interestingly, parasitic nematodes affecting human or animal health possess two closely related members of this gene family, acr-26 and acr-27 that are essentially absent in free-living or plant parasitic species. Using the pathogenic parasitic nematode of ruminants, Haemonchus contortus, as a model, we found that Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 are co-expressed in body muscle cells. We demonstrated that co-expression of Hco-ACR-26 and Hco-ACR-27 in Xenopus laevis oocytes led to the functional expression of an acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to the anthelmintics morantel and pyrantel. Importantly we also reported that ACR-26 and ACR-27, from the distantly related parasitic nematode of horses, Parascaris equorum, also formed a functional acetylcholine-receptor highly sensitive to these two drugs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living model nematode, we demonstrated that heterologous expression of the H. contortus and P. equorum receptors drastically increased its sensitivity to morantel and pyrantel, mirroring the pharmacological properties observed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results are the first to describe significant molecular determinants of a novel class of nematode body wall muscle AChR.
Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C
Critical tests were conducted in 11 naturally infected horses to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of parbendazole. Single doses at the rates of 30, 20, 10, 5, or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight were administered by stomach tube to 1, 4, 2, 2, and 2 horses, respectively. Parbendazole was active against Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi, Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, and small strongyles throughout the range of doses. Generally, small numbers of P equorum were present, but apparently a dose rate higher than 2.5 mg/kg is necessary for complete clearance. Removal of O equi was virtually 100%, even at the 2.5 mg/kg dose rate, although mature forms were present in small numbers. Removal of S vulgaris and S edentatus was 98% to 100% at the largest and smallest dose rates and was somewhat inconsistent, especially of S edentatus, at most intermediate dose rates. Overall removal of small strongyles was good even at smallest dose rate. Activity was limited or lacking against stomach parasites. Transient diarrhea was observed for 24 to 48 hours after treatment at each dose rate tested. PMID:6892671
Chapman, M R; French, D D; Klei, T R
Parasite-naive pony foals were used as sentinels to monitor transmission of gastrointestinal parasites of equids in Louisiana during 4 seasons of the year. Two annual periods were studied, 1988-1989 and 1992-1993. Two or 3 foals each season were turned out to graze a contaminated pasture along with resident parasitized mares and their foals. After a grazing period of 8 wk, sentinel ponies were held in a parasite-free box stall for a period of 6 wk to allow parasites to develop, thus enhancing the evaluation of hypobiotic stages. Following this holding period, necropsies were performed for complete parasite recoveries. Data show that transmission of large and small strongyles occurs during all seasons in southern Louisiana, with highest levels of transmission occurring in the winter and only minimal transmission taking place in the summer. Numbers of mucosal cyathostomes, as well as total cyathostome numbers, were highest in the winter, and luminal cyathostome numbers were highest in the spring. Transmission of Anoplocephala perfoliata and Parascaris equorum occurred during all seasons of the year, although numbers of P. equorum were reduced in spring 1989 and 1993. Gasterophilus intestinalis instars were recovered from fall and winter sentinels only. Oxyuris equi L4 were found all seasons 1 yr, but only during the fall and winter of the final year. PMID:11780824
Upjohn, Melissa M; Shipton, Kate; Lerotholi, Thabo; Attwood, Gillian; Verheyen, Kristien L P
This study aimed to (1) estimate infection prevalence of strongyle, Oxyuris equi and Parascaris equorum species and the intensity of infection with strongyles in working horses in lowland Lesotho and (2) investigate associations between infection and horse age, sex and owner-reported use of anthelmintics. In a cross-sectional survey, fresh faecal samples were obtained from 305 randomly selected horses and worm egg counts performed using a validated field laboratory kit. Details of anthelmintic use were collected using a standardised face-to-face owner questionnaire. Infection prevalence estimates for each species were calculated, as were infection intensity estimates for strongyle species. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between exposure variables and infection status/intensity. Prevalence of strongyle infection was 88.2%; 11.8% of horses were not infected and infection intensity was low (1-500 eggs per gram (epg)) in 19.7%, medium (501-1,000 epg) in 19.7%) and high (>1,001 epg) in 48.8%. Decreasing strongyle infection intensity was associated with the use of proprietary equine anthelmintic products (OR 0.18, 95%CI 0.11-0.30, pequi infection was 6.2%; the odds of infection with this parasite decreased with increasing horse age (OR 0.84, 95%CI 0.72-0.97, p = 0.02). P. equorum infection prevalence was 21.6%; no statistically significant associations with the investigated exposure variables were found. In conclusion, strongyle infection is endemic in working horses in lowland Lesotho, but proprietary equine anthelmintics assist in managing infection. The apparent lack of age-acquired immunity to P. equorum infection may deserve further investigation. Although O. equi infection is less widespread, measures to protect younger animals may be appropriate. PMID:20574819
Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C
Critical tests were carried out in 10 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of febantel given alone or with trichlorfon. Paste formulations were administered intraorally at dose levels of 6 mg of febantel (active ingredient)/kg and 35 mg of trichlorfon (active ingredient)/kg. In 5 tests with febantel alone, removal of 100% was recorded for mature or immature Parascaris equorum from 2 infected horses. Strongylus vulgaris from 4 infected horses, S edentatus from 5 infected horses, and mature Oxyuris equi from 1 infected horse; and removal of 96% was recorded for small strogyles from 1 horse tested, and bots in 5 infected horses were not affected. In 5 horses treated with both compounds, removal of 100% was recorded for mature P equorum from 2 infected horses, immature P equorum from 1 infected horse, S vulgaris from 5 infected horses, Sedentatus from 5 infected horses, mature O equi from 2 infected horses, immature O equi from 1 horse tested, 2nd Gasterophilus intestin-equi from 1 infected horse, 2nd-instar C nasalis from 1 infected horse, and 3rd-instar C nasalis from 4 infected horses. Removal of 98% was recorded for small strongyles from 1 horse tested, and removal of 65% to 100% for 3rd-instar C intestinalis from 5 infected horses. In the aggregate, removal of 3rd-instar C intestinalis was 99%. Untoward effects of treatment were quite limited. Only a transient softening of feces in 1 of 5 horses given the trichlorfon paste plus the febantel paste was recorded. PMID:697152
Schurer, Janna; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily
Fecal samples from wild and domestic carnivores are routinely frozen for three days at -80°C to kill eggs of Echinococcus spp., following recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO) and World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). This is done to decrease the risk of zoonotic infection with these pathogenic cestodes. In addition, it is often necessary to freeze fecal samples collected for research prior to batch processing by a limited number of personnel, especially large numbers of samples or those collected in remote locations. The effect of freezing on the recovery of endoparasite eggs, cysts and oocysts from fecal samples is not well documented, even in hosts for which veterinary diagnostic submissions are relatively common. In this study, fecal samples from naturally infected dogs and horses were split into four treatment groups: fresh; -80°C for 3 days; -20°C for 30 days; and -80°C for 3 days followed by -20°C for an additional 30 days. Temperatures and times were chosen to simulate diagnostic and research protocols currently in place. Helminth eggs and sporocysts of Sarcocystis spp. were counted using a quantitative double centrifugation sucrose fecal flotation (modified Stoll egg count). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect differences in egg/sporocyst counts between the treatment groups for Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts, taeniid eggs (Taenia and/or Echinococcus spp.), ascarid eggs (Parascaris equorum, Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina), and strongylid type eggs (Uncinaria stenocephala, and equine strongylids, most likely cyathostomins). Counts for P. equorum and strongylid type eggs (both equine and canine) decreased significantly following freezing. Post-freezing, some samples that had been positive on fresh examination became negative for Parascaris and strongylid eggs. This study suggests that protocols requiring freezing artificially lowers recovery of eggs of Parascaris and strongylid nematodes in fecal surveys; however
Marcelo Beltrão Molento
Full Text Available Os eqüinos apresentam uma grande variedade de parasitas em sua fauna helmíntica, e algumas espécies/gêneros são de relevada importância, como: Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Oxyuris equi, Cyathostomum spp. e Strongylus spp. O controle destas infecções depende principalmente da utilização de produtos antiparasitários de forma supressiva ou estratégica e, em menor escala, de forma curativa. O tratamento supressivo é o fator mais importante na promoção da seleção de organismos resistentes, prejudicando a sustentabilidade de qualquer programa sanitário. As formas de detecção da resistência parasitária são onerosas e as mais comuns expressam resultados imprecisos. Entretanto, estas técnicas servem para monitorar a evolução e determinar os organismos envolvidos. A combinação de drogas é uma ferramenta que deve ser utilizada com muita cautela, pois esta alternativa não garante uma redução significativa de organismos resistentes aos compostos envolvidos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar formas de planejamento que auxiliem a melhorar a condição sanitária, o bem-estar dos animais e preserve o efeito tóxico dos produtos antiparasitários.Equines harbour a variety of parasitic organisms on their helminth fauna and there are a few species/genus of interest, such as: Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Oxyuris equi, Cyathostomum spp. and Strongylus spp. The control of these infections relies mostly on the suppressive or strategic usage of antiparasitic compounds, and to a less extent on curative/salvage treatments. Suppressive treatment is the most important factor regarding the selection of resistant organisms, causing the impairment of sanitary programs. Detection methods of parasite resistance are expensive and the most common ones express variable results. Although, these techniques allow monitoring the evolution and the determination of which organisms are involved. Drug combination is a
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxocarosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis (T. canis and/or Toxocara cati (T. cati, two worldwide distributed roundworms which are parasites of canids and felids, respectively. Infections of humans occur through ingestion of embryonated eggs of T. canis or T. cati, when playing with soils contaminated with dogs or cats feces. Accordingly, the assessment of potential contamination of these areas with these roundworms eggs is paramount. Methods A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (2qPCR targeting the ribosomal RNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 has been developed and used for rapid and specific identification of T. canis and T. cati eggs in fecal and soil samples. The assay was set up on DNA samples extracted from 53 adult worms including T. canis, T. cati, T. leonina, Ascaris suum (A. suum and Parascaris equorum (P. equorum. The assay was used to assess the presence of T. cati eggs in several samples, including 12 clean soil samples spiked with eggs of either T. cati or A. suum, 10 actual soil samples randomly collected from playgrounds in Brussels, and fecal samples from cats, dogs, and other animals. 2qPCR results on dogs and cats fecal samples were compared with results from microscopic examination. Results 2qPCR assay allowed specific detection of T. canis and T. cati, whether adult worms, eggs spiked in soil or fecal samples. The 2qPCR limit of detection (LOD in spiked soil samples was 2 eggs per g of soil for a turnaround time of 3 hours. A perfect concordance was observed between 2qPCR assay and microscopic examination on dogs and cats feces. Conclusion The newly developed 2qPCR assay can be useful for high throughput prospective or retrospective detection of T.canis and/or T. cati eggs in fecal samples as well as in soil samples from playgrounds, parks and sandpits.
Mirck, M H
In 3,791 horses and ponies submitted to the Department of Internal Disease of Farm Animals of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht, the faeces were studied for the presence of parasites. The results were classified by age groups and months of arrival. Eggs of the Strongylus type were found to be present in 57.3 per cent of the faecal samples, eggs of Parascaris equorum were present in 6.1 per cent, eggs of Oxyuris equi in 1.2 per cent, eggs or larvae of Dictyocaulus arnfieldi in 0.2 per cent, eggs of Anoplocephala in 2.5 per cent and oocysts of Eimeria leuckarti in 0.3 per cent. Eggs of Strongyloides westeri were found to be present in 56.4 per cent of the foals under six months and in 12.3 per cent of those in the 6-12 month range. Eggs of Fasciola hepatica were observed in 0.6 per cent of the faecal samples of horses and ponies over twelve months of age (3,340). The highest proportion of faecal samples containing eggs of the Strongylus type was recorded in Augusts (65.2 per cent), whereas this proportion was 52.4 and 50.7 per cent respectively in April and October. Eggs of O. equi, eggs or larvae of D. arnfieldi and oocysts of E. leucarkti were not observed in horses and ponies over ten years of age. On the other hand, eggs of P. equorum were still found to be present in animals up to fifteen years of age. PMID:567859
Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Drudge, J H; Granstrom, D E; Collins, S S; Stamper, S
The activity of moxidectin was evaluated in 1988 and 1989 against natural infections of internal parasites in 20 critical tests (n = 20 equids) and three controlled tests (n = 20 equids). Two formulations, injectable administered intramuscularly (i.m.) or intraorally (i.o.) and gel i.o., were given at dose rates of 0.2, 0.3 or 0.4 mg kg-1 body weight. For the critical tests (all three dose rates evaluated), removals of second instar Gasterophilus intestinalis were 93-100%, except (89%) for the injectable formulation (i.m.) at 0.2 mg kg-1. Removals of third instar G. intestinalis were 88-100% for the injectable formulation given i.m. or i.o. and 93-100% for the gel formulation, except (53%) for one batch (0.4 mg kg-1). Activity was 100% for third instar Gasterophilus nasalis, Parascaris equorum, Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus. For Oxyuris equi, removals were 91-100%, except (27%) for one batch of the injectable formulation given i.o. at 0.3 mg kg-1. There was apparent activity against migrating S. vulgaris and S. edentatus at various dose rates and routes of administration for both formulations. At necropsy, there were local reactions observed at the injection site of three equids. In the controlled tests, dose rates were 0.2 or 0.4 mg kg-1. Removal of third instar G. intestinalis was highest for the injectable formulation given i.m. All formulations and dose rates were highly effective against S. vulgaris and S. edentatus, but variable and incomplete against O. equi. Removal was excellent on Habronema muscae and on migrating S. vulgaris and S. edentatus, although incomplete on S. vulgaris. Gasterophilus nasalis third instars and P. equorum were present in low numbers in some non-treated equids, but none were recovered from treated equids. Toxicosis was not evident. PMID:1502789
Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C
The basic-dose confirmation tests of tioxidazole for removal of susceptible populations of gastrointestinal parasites of the horse were made in 10 naturally infected horses, using the critical test method (experiment A). A single dose of toxidazole, given at the rate of 11 mg/kg of body weight, was administered to 5 horses by stomach tube and to 5 horses by mixing the drug with the daily grain ration. In the 5 horses given the drug by stomach tube, aggregate average removals were 90% or more for 5 horses infected with Stronglyus vulgaris, 5 infected with S edentatus, 5 infected with small strongyles, 3 infected with Parascaris equorum, 3 infected with mature Oxyuris equi, and 5 infected with immature O equi. Bots (Gastrophilus intestinalis and G nasalis) in 5 infected horses and tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata or A magna) in 3 infected horses were not removed. Activity against stomach worms (Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, and Drashia megastoma) was not evidenced. In the 5 horses given the drug in the feed, aggregate average removals were 90% or more for 5 horses infected with S vulgaris, 5 infected with S edentatus, 1 infected with S equinus, 5 infected with small strongyles, 3 infected with P equorum, 3 infected with mature O equi, and 5 infected with immature O equi. Activity against bots, tapeworms, and stomach worms was not detected. Larval count data on fecal samples also indicated liited, if any, activity against Strongyloides westeri by tioxidazole at this dosage (11 mg/kg). In addition to experiment A, tioxidazole (11 mg/kg) was administered via stomach tube in a single dose in a critical test to a foal naturally infected with benzimidazole-resistant small strongyles (population B) and removal was only 27% (experiment B). The same 5 species of small strongyles refractory to the benzimidazoles also exhibited resistance to tioxidazole. Specimens of P equorum and S vulgaris were all removed from the foal. Untoward effects of tioxidazole treatment
Rao, U R; Chapman, M R; Singh, R N; Mehta, K; Klei, T R
Transglutaminases (E.C. 184.108.40.206) are a family of Ca(2+)-dependent enzymes that stabilize protein structure by catalyzing the formation of isopeptide bonds. A novel form of transglutaminase has been identified and characterized that seem to play an important role in growth, development, and molting in adult and larval stages of filarial nematodes. The aim of this study was to identify the ubiquitous nature of this enzyme in other nematodes and to measure its significance to larval growth, molting, and development. For this purpose, equine Strongylus spp. were used. Activity of this enzyme was identified in extracts of larvae and adults of Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, Parascaris equorum and Cylicocyclus insigne. The significance of transglutaminase in the early growth and development of Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus and S. equinus was tested by adding specific inhibitors, monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or cystamine (CS), to in vitro cultures of third (L3) and fourth stage larvae (L4). The viability, molting and growth of these nematode species were affected by both inhibitors. Cystamine promoted abnormal development of Strongylus edentatus L3, resulting in an aberrant expansion of the anterior end. Addition of these inhibitors to cultures of L4 also reduced growth of the three species. The results indicated that transglutaminase is present in a wide array of nematode parasites and may be important in growth and development of their larval stages. PMID:10416187
Dunsmore, J D; Jue Sue, L P
A survey was conducted on the prevalence of the major gastrointestinal parasites in 140 horses necropsied in Perth, Western Australia, during 1979 to 1982. Adult Strongylus vulgaris were found in 22.5 per cent of horses and verminous arteritis in 62.9 per cent. The peak worm prevalence was in November to January (summer). S edentatus had a similar prevalence and seasonality but S equinus was not found in this survey. Draschia megastoma and Habronema muscae were found in 66.2 per cent and 35.3 per cent of horses respectively. Infection is probably acquired in summer when 8 per cent of the Musca domestica in the vicinity of the stables carried third stage spiruroid larvae. Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis occurred in 36.4 per cent and 22.1 per cent of the horses respectively and 52.1 per cent of horses were infected with one or both species. The peak prevalence of G intestinalis larvae occurred in December with a trough in February-April; the peak prevalence of G nasalis was in May with a trough in November-December. Parascaris equorum was found in 9.9 per cent of the horses and in 21.3 per cent of those less than three years old. Anoplocephala perfoliata was found in 4.9 per cent of the horses and most of these were in older horses. PMID:2934246
Maesano, Gianpaolo; Capasso, Michele; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura
The aim of this study was to estimate the occurrence of intestinal parasites in groups of mammals kept in the Warsaw zoological garden (Poland). 71 pools of fecal samples were analyzed using the FLOTAC techniques. 48% of animals were positive and 47% of positivities showed multiple infections. Toxocara cati (71.4%) was found in felines; marsupials were infected with Coccidia (90%). Giardia spp. (24.0%), Blastocystis spp. (12.3%), Iodamoeba spp. (10.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (6.0%) and Entamoeba coli (3.3%) were found in primates. Gastrointestinal strongyles (60.5%) were prevalent in ruminants which resulted positive also to Coccidia (Eimeria spp. = 50.0%), Trichuris spp. (25.0%) and Nematodirus (14.0%). Strongyles (34.0%) were the most frequent parasites in monogastric herbivores, followed by Parascaris equorum (17.0%). None of the animals showed any symptom associated with gastrointestinal parasitic infections. According to our results the need to prevent, diagnose, control, and treat intestinal parasitism trough specific control programs is mandatory for animal welfare in order to limit the spread of parasitic infections in animals and humans. PMID:24827109
Ahmed Abdurhman Ismail
Full Text Available Out of 92 donkeys examined for gastrointestinal parasites, 90 animals were found infected by one or more gastrointestinal parasites with an overall prevalence rate of 97.78%. The distributions of the recovered parasites in the different parts of the body were as follows: stomach, 92.4%, small intestine, 19.6%, caecum, 88%, colon, 80.4%, rectum, 73.9%, and cranial mesenteric artery, 64.1%. A significant difference was found between mean parasite counts and seasons. Hot wet season had higher mean parasites count (5411.5±1694.4 in comparison with hot dry (1795.9±399.6 and cool dry (1719.9±522.4 seasons. Although there was no significant difference between age and mean parasite count, animals more than four years old had high mean count (3361.3±921.8 in comparison with 2330±744.3 and 2030.2±873.1 for young and adults animals, respectively. No significant positive or negative correlation was found between total parasite counts of infected animals and any of the climatic factors. The parasites identified were Habronema spp. (40.2%, Trichostrongylus axei (30.4%, Parascaris equorum (18.5%, Anoplocephala perfoliata (4.35%, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (8.7%, large strongyles (84%, small strongyles (72%, and Oxyuris equi (1.1%.
Tavassoli, M; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Esmaeili-Sani, S
Fecal samples for detection of gastrointestinal parasites were collected from 221 working horses from September 2002 to May 2003 from 14 villages in Urmia, North West of Iran. Fecal samples of 46 horses (20.8%) were negative for parasite eggs or oocysts. One hundred and seventy five positive horses (48.9%) were infected with a single parasite type and 49 (22.2%) and 18 (8.1%) of horses had multiple infections with two and three parasites, respectively. The highest prevalence and intensity rate belonged to small strongyles. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites eggs and oocyst in the positive horses were: strongyles 72.9%, Oxyuris equi 22.6%, Parascaris equorum 12.2%, Anoplocephalidae 6.3%, Fasciola spp. 3.2% and Eimeria leuckarti 0.5%. Larval identification showed that small strongyle larvae were most frequent (97.6%) followed by Strongylus edentatus (22.6%), S. equinus (18.5%) and S. vulgaris (6.5%). This study suggests that the high rate of infection with gastrointestinal parasites could contribute to low performance and life expectancy of working horses in the region. PMID:20731187
Cutolo, André Antonio; Santos, Anderson Tintino dos; Allegretti, Silmara Marques
Twenty horses naturally infected with nematodes were included in a blind, controlled field study on efficacy and safety of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation at a dose of 0.2 mg.kg(-1). Horses were divided into treated and non-treated (control) groups with ten animals each based on preliminary counts of eggs per gram of feces (EPG). Stool samples were collected after treatment for identification of nematode species. Clinical evaluations and EPG counts were performed on days 0, +5, +14 and +19. Nineteen nematode species were identified: Coronocyclus ulambajari, Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum pateratum, Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicocyclus leptostomum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus, Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus poculatus, Habronema muscae, Habronema spp., Parascaris equorum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Oxyuris equi and Triodontophorus spp. The mean EPG counts of treated and non-treated (control) groups on Days �15, 0, +5, +14 and +19 were 1925, 1340, 0, 12.5, 0, 1470, 790, 875, 1605 and 1240 respectively. The efficacy of treatment on Days +5, +14 and +19 was 100, 99.2 and 100% respectively, with a significant difference compared to the control group (p < 0.01). The product was considered to be safe with no findings of clinical significant changes during the study. PMID:21722495
S. A. Esmaeel
Full Text Available The study was included 70 native donkeys at age 3-4 years, 60 animals naturally infected with gastrointestinal parasite and10 clinically normal served as control group. Coprological examinations revealed that the donkeys were infected withNematodes such as Large strongyles Strongylus spp. 70%, Triodontophorusspp. 36.6%, Smallstrongyles (caythostomines33.3%, Trichostrongylus axei 33.3%, Parascaris equorum 20%, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi 13.3%, Strongyloides westeri 10%,Habronema musca 10%, Oxyuris equi 6.6% and Trematode Worm Gastrodiscus spp., Dicroceolium spp. 3.3%. The rate of asingle infection was 20% and mixed infection was 80%. Diagnoses was based on the measurement and the characteristicshapes of eggs and larvae. Results indicate that diseased donkeys exhibited emaciation 30%, rough coat 68.3%, pale mucousmembranes 60%, Pica 53.3%, colic 68.3%, moist ralse 6.6%. Significant decrease (P<0.05 were encountered in the RBCScount (P<0.01 and Hb and PCV values of infected donkeys compared with control, while there were significant increase at(P<0.05 in WBCS and eosinophils at (P<0.01.
Zolfaghari Emameh, Reza; Kuuslahti, Marianne; Näreaho, Anu; Sukura, Antti; Parkkila, Seppo
Trichinellosis is a helminthic infection where different species of Trichinella nematodes are the causative agents. Several molecular assays have been designed to aid diagnostics of trichinellosis. These assays are mostly complex and expensive. The genomes of Trichinella species contain certain parasite-specific genes, which can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. We selected β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) gene as a target, because it is present in many parasites genomes but absent in vertebrates. We developed a novel β-CA gene-based method for detection of Trichinella larvae in biological samples. We first identified a β-CA protein sequence from Trichinella spiralis by bioinformatic tools using β-CAs from Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Thereafter, 16 sets of designed primers were tested to detect β-CA genomic sequences from three species of Trichinella, including T. spiralis, Trichinella pseudospiralis and Trichinella nativa. Among all 16 sets of designed primers, the primer set No. 2 efficiently amplified β-CA genomic sequences from T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. nativa without any false-positive amplicons from other parasite samples including Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara cati and Parascaris equorum. This robust and straightforward method could be useful for meat inspection in slaughterhouses, quality control by food authorities and medical laboratories. PMID:26639312
Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C
Three formulations of cambendazole were evaluated for anthelmintic activity by critical testing method in 21 horses. Cambendazole suspension was administered via stomach tube at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg to 3 horses and at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg to 3 horses. Cambendazole paste was given intraorally to 8 horses, and the pellet formulation was fed to 7 horses at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg. Anthelmintic activity of cambendazole was similar for all dose rates and formulations. Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Draschia megastoma, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and Anoplocephala magna appeared to be refractory. The 3 formulations removed (1) 100% of Parascaris equorum and mature Oxyuris equi, (2) 82 to 100% of Strongylus vulgaris, (3) 80 to 100% of Strongylus edentatus, (4) 85 to 99% of small strongyles, and (5) 79 to 100% of immature Oxyuris equi. Probstmayria vivipara was present in only 1 horse and removal was 99%. There was some evidence of activity on Habronema muscae. Toxicosis was not observed. PMID:123710
Francisco, I; Arias, M; Cortiñas, F J; Francisco, R; Mochales, E; Sánchez, J A; Uriarte, J; Suárez, J L; Morrondo, P; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Díez-Baños, P; Paz-Silva, A
Two groups of autochthonous Pura Raza Galega (PRG) horses, one comprising 483 animals under a silvopasturing regime, and the other comprising 72 PRG horses managed in farms, were used to analyse the effect of silvopasture on infection by endoparasites. Results were considered according to the age and the sex of the horses. Faecal samples were individually collected from each animal and analysed by the coprological flotation, sedimentation and migration techniques. Coprocultures were also done to identify the main strongylid genera affecting the horses. Eggs from the gastrointestinal nematoda Parascaris equorum, strongyles and Oxyuris equi were the only endoparasites observed in the faeces of the horses. Larvae of Trichonema and Cyalocephalus spp. (small strongyles) and Strongylus and Triodontophorus (large strongyles) were identified in the coprocultures. The silvopasturing horses had the highest prevalence of the helminth parasites. The percentage of horses passing ascarid eggs was significantly higher in pasturing horses younger than 3 years. The prevalence of strongyles was statistically greater in the oldest grazing equines. Mares reached the highest prevalence of helminth egg output. Our results showed that native horses kept under silvopasture had the highest prevalence of the ascarids, strongyles and oxyurids, possibly due to their exposure to contaminated grazing areas, lack of appropriate feeding and control of their health status. We conclude that silvopasture increases the presence of infection by gastrointestinal nematoda in wild horses, especially by strongyles. Suitable measures to control parasitic diseases affecting horses in silvopasture should be considered in those systems. PMID:19632049
Colglazier, M L; Enzie, F D; Kates, K C
The comparative efficacy of four benzimidazoles against gastrointestinal parasites of ponies was evaluated by the critical test method. Mebendazole (8.8 mg/kg), cambendazole (20 mg/kg), fenbendazole (5 mg/kg), and albendazole (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) given in single oral doses were highly effective against adult large strongylids (Strongylus vulgaris, S. endentatus, S. equinus) and adult small strongylids (genera identified in order of frequency: Cylicostephanus, Cylicocyclus, Cyathostomum, Triodontophorus, Poteriostomum, Oesophagodontus, Cylicodontophorus, Gyalocephalus, and Craterostomum). Limited data indicated that all benzimidazoles were completely effective against adult Oxyuris equi and 95 to 100% effective against the 4th stage larvae. There was activity also against the large roundworm, Parascaris equorum, although the low levels of infection and skew distribution among the test animals did not permit a definitive determination of efficacy. Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, and Trichostrongylus axei were found in digests of the stomach but none were recovered in the feces after treatment; percent efficacy for these species was not calculated. None of the benzimidazoles showed activity against stomach bots, Gasterophilus spp., and tapeworms, Anoplocephala spp. nor against immature large and small strongylids outside the lumen of the digestive tract. PMID:886410
Klei, T R; Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Langholff, W K; Chapman, M R; French, D D; Hanson, P
Two trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy of ivermectin paste against endoparasites of horses. In these trials, 20 ponies were treated with ivermectin oral paste at 200 mcg x kg body weight once on Day 0, and 20 ponies served as unmedicated controls. The animals carried naturally acquired parasite infections as confirmed by pretrial fecal examination. The animals were necropsied for worm recovery on Days 14, 15 or 16. Parasites recovered were identified to species. Horses treated with ivermectin had significantly (P99.0% reduction) adult small strongyles (Coronocyclus spp including C. coronatus, C. labiatus, C. labratus; Cyathostomum spp including C. catinatum, C. pateratum; Cylicocyclus spp including C. ashworthi, C. elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum, C. nassatus, C. radiatus; Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus; Cylicostephanus spp including C. asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. calicatus, C. goldi, C. longibursatus, C. minutus; Gyalocephalus capitatus; Parapoteriostomum spp including P. euproctus, P. mettami; Petrovinema poculatum; Poteriostomum spp including P. imparidentatum, P. ratzii) and adult large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris; Triodontophorus spp including T. brevicauda, T. serratus; Craterostomum acuticaudatum) than the controls. Ivermectin was also highly effective (94% to >99%, POxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum. The data from these two trials confirm that ivermectin paste administered to horses orally at 200mcg x kg(-1) continues to be highly effective for treatment and control of a broad range of small and large strongyle species as well as other species of gastrointestinal parasites. PMID:11423189
Seibert, B P; Newcomb, K M; Michael, B F
Critical tests were done on 24 naturally parasitized horses to compare the antiparasitic activity of an oral paste preparation of mebendazole and trichlorfon with that of the marketed powder formulation. Each formulation was administered at the recommended dosages of 8.8 mg of mebendazole and 40 mg of trichlorfon/kg of body weight. Efficacy of the paste formulation ranged from 97.7% to 100% against 2nd- and 3rd-stage Gasterophilus spp, adult Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, Parascaris equorum, small strongyles; and larval and adult forms of Oxyuris equi. Adverse effects were generally limited to slight softening of the feces. Mild and transient restlessness or sweating were also observed in 2 of 12 horses treated with the paste formulation. The toxic effects of the paste, administered at 2.2 times the therapeutic dose, were examined in 6 horses and compared with the effects of a nonmedicated paste, administered in similar volumes to 6 other horses. Drug-related changes were not detected in clinical chemical analyses, hematologic values, or liver function tests. Transient clinical signs of organophosphate toxicosis (primarily the passage of loose feces) and prolonged inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase activity were evident within 1 hour after drug treatment. These effects were similar to those reported for the 2.2 X dose of marketed powder formulation. PMID:3524328
Klei, T R; Torbert, B J
The controlled test method was used to evaluate the antiparasitic efficacy of IM inoculated 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1 (ivermectin) against gastrointestinal parasites of horses (ponies). Parasite infections were naturally acquired in southern Louisiana. Dose levels of the drug tested were 0.2 mg/kg, 0.3 mg/kg, and 0.5 mg/kg. Ivermectin at all dose levels tested had an efficacy greater than 97% (P less than 0.05) against Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae, Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi larvae, Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, 15 species of small strongyles, and small strongyle larvae. Ponies were less uniformly infected with Habronema sp larvae, G nasalis larvae, Parascaris equorum, O equi adults, Anoplocephala perfoliata, S equinus, and 11 small strongyle species, and statistical analysis was not possible to do. However, observations indicate that the drug was also highly effective against these species. There were no gross or clinical reactions observed in treated animals. Dissections of the injection sites revealed spindle-shaped lesions, 3 to 5 cm long, in a few ponies in all treatment groups, including those given the placebo injection. PMID:6894221
Nawalinski, T; Theodorides, V J
Twenty ponies were allotted to 4 groups of 5 ponies each, and oxibendazole was orally administered at dose levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg. In the 3 groups of ponies given the largest doses, efficacy against 3 species of Strongylus was between 92 and 100% and that against small strongylids of the genera Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus, Cylicodontophorus, and Cylicostephanus was more than 99%. All adults and 95 to 100% of larvae of the pinworm Oxyuris equi were removed. In the group of ponies given 5 mg/kg, 86 to 100% of the large strongylids and 84 to 100% of the small strongylids were removed, as were all larval and adult pinworms. Trichostrongylus axei was found only in 4 of the 5 ponies given 5 mg/kg; results were encouraging, but not consistent. Almost all of the Parascaris equorum were found in this group of ponies; no anthelmintic activity was detected at this dose level. Oxibendazole removed approximately 99% of small strongylid 4th-stage larvae. No efficacy against the larval stages of Gasterophilus intestinalis and against Habronema spp and Setaria equina was observed. PMID:1267243
Torbert, B J; Klei, T R; Lichtenfels, J R; Chapman, M R
Ponies reared with minimal or no exposure to anthelmintics were surveyed for intestinal helminths in order to estimate prevalence and intensity of parasite populations unaltered by frequent exposure to anthelmintics. Thirty-seven mixed breed ponies of varying ages were examined. Thirty-four species of nematodes and 2 species of cestodes were found. Twenty-four of the nematode species (including 1 new species) were in the subfamily Cyathostominae (small strongyles). Eighty-seven percent of the total burden of adult small strongyles in the large intestine was composed of 10 species. By comparing the results of the present survey with those of recent surveys of horses from herds which had been subjected to treatments with anthelmintics, the effect of prolonged usage of anthelmintic treatment on the prevalence of individual species possibly can be estimated. The general ranking of the 10 most common cyathostome species was similar to those described in recent surveys of horses, suggesting that anthelmintic pressure does not affect the prevalence of most cyathostome species. The lack of anthelmintic treatment appeared not to affect prevalence rates for Anoplocephala perfoliata and Anoplocephala magna when compared to other studies. Conversely, prevalence rates for Strongylus spp., Triodontophorus spp., Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Oxyuris equi, and Parascaris equorum were higher than those reported for these species in recent studies of horses. PMID:3819969
Presson, B L; Hamm, D; Yazwinski, T A; Pote, L M
Critical tests were performed on 6 horses to evaluate the antiparasitic effectiveness of oxfendazole given in combination with trichlorfon in a paste formulation. Treatments were given orally as a single dose. The rates of active ingredient administration were 2.5 and 40 mg/kg of body weight for oxfendazole and trichlorfon, respectively. The combined activities of the 2 antiparasitic compounds proved 100% efficacious in the removal of adult Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, Oxyuris equi, and Parascaris equorum. Fourth stage O equi, and 2nd and 3rd instars of Gasterophilus nasalis also were completely removed. Second and 3rd stage instars of G intestinalis were removed at the rates of 98.1% and 98.8%, respectively. Nematodes of the "small strongyle" category were removed at the combined rate of 97.0%. Pronounced larvicidal effects of the test formulation were demonstrated via culturing fecal nematode eggs during the trial. Untoward effects of treatment were not seen in any of the trial animals. PMID:6742583
Pereira, J R; Vianna, S S S
Over a period of 12 years, from 1988 to 2000, a total of 20 individual equines (16 horses and 4 mules) were selected at random, from 10 municipalities in the Paraíba Valley, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and then subjected to necropsy for collection of gastrointestinal worms. Individual samples of 10% of the intestinal contents were also taken for counting and identifying the species present, and to establish the prevalence of worms in equine species in the Paraíba Valley. In the sample considered, the presence of parasites ranged from 155 to 1249 worms. Tapeworms (Cestoidea) were present in about 85% of the animals studied, and roundworms (Nematoda) in 100% of the individuals. All the tapeworms collected were of one single species, Anoplocephala perfoliata. In the case of the roundworms, the prevalence of individual species was: 100% for Cyathostomineae, 90% for Oxyuris equi, 70% for Strongylus vulgaris, 45% for S. edentatus, 15% for Strongylus equinus, 60% for Triodontophorus sp., 50% for Gyalocephalus capitatus, 15% for Oesophagodontus robustus and Craterostomum acuticaudatum, and 5% each for Parascaris equorum, Probstimayria vivipara, Habronema muscae, and Trichostrongylus axei. No specimens of flukes (Trematoda) were found in any of the animals studied. PMID:16687215
Craig, T M; Kunde, J M
Ivermectin was injected IM into 12 yearling Shetland ponies. The following reactions in percentages of parasites recovered from ponies given 200 microgram/kg or 300 microgram/kg, as compared with the parasitic population in those given the vehicle at 1 week after injection, were as follows: Otobius megnini nymphs--no reduction; Gasterophilus intestinalis--100% and 99.9%; G nasalis--100% and 99.9%; Parascaris equorum adults--100% and 96%; Strongylus vulgaris adults--100% and 100%; S edentatus adults--100% and 100%; cyathostome adults of the genera Gyalocephalus, Cylicocyclus, Cyathostomum, Cylicostephanus, and Poteriostomum--99.9% and 100%; 4th-stage larvae--97.3% and 96.8%; Oesophagodontus robustus adults--100% and 100%; Triodontophorus spp--adults--100% and 100%, 4th-stage larvae--95.1% and 100%; and Oxyuris equi adult males--66.7% and 77.7%, adult females--96.5% and 100%, and 4th-stage larvae--94.1% and 96.9%. Other parasites encountered were too few in number to estimate drug efficacy. PMID:7027848
Bucknell, D G; Gasser, R B; Beveridge, I
A quantitative post mortem study of 150 horses from Victoria was conducted to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasites. A total of 42 species of metazoan parasite was found. The following species of non-cyathostome parasite were found (% prevalence): Trichostrongylus axei (51%); Habronema muscae (13%); H. majus (2%); Draschia megastoma (5%); Gastreophilus intestinalis (81%); G. nasalis (29%); Parascaris equorum (5%); Anoplocephala perfoliata (29%); Fasciola hepatica (0.7%); Oxyuris equi (7%); Strongylu vulgaris (23%); S. edentatus (23%); S. equinus (3%); Craterostomum acuticaudatum (7%); Triodontophorus serratus (8%); T. tenuicollis (8%); T. brevicauda (3%). Ninety-five per cent of horses were infected with gut-wall encysted stages of cythostomes with a mean intensity of 113,000 larvae per horse. Ninety-three per cent of all horses harboured adult cyathosome worms; 24 species representing 6 genera were found. The 3 most prevalent species were Cylicostephanus longiburstatus (76%); Cyathostomum catinatum (68%) and Cylicocyclus nassatus (54%). Seventeen species of strongyle were present in high abundance, which allowed their site distribution in the large intestine to be determined. Twelve species preferred the large colon to the small colon and caecum, and the remaining 5 species preferred the caecum. Statistical analysis of the parasitological data set allowed effects of sex, age, type, and physical condition of the horse as well as the season and environment on the prevalence and mean intensity of infection to be determined. PMID:7657457
Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; Tolliver, S C
Critical tests were conducted in 14 naturally infected equids (13 horses and 1 pony) to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of haloxon. Single doses were administered by stomach tube to 3 horses and 1 pony (60 mg/kg of body weight), by addition to the feed of 3 horses (60 mg/kg), and intraorally by powder gun to 7 horses (65 mg/kg). Haloxon was efficacious (99% to 100%) against infections of Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi (mature and immature), and Strongylus vulgaris at both dosage levels. Probstmayria vivipara parasites were removed in 1 horse treated at 60 mg/kg by stomach tube and S equinus was removed (1 specimen) in 1 horse treated at 65 mg/kg with the powder gun. Removal activity against small strongyles varied from 67% to 92%, and averaged 88% in ther aggregate. Removal of S edentatus fluctuated from 2% to 100%, and was 49% in the aggregate. Haloxon was generally ineffective against Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis, except that it seemed active against 2nd instar G intestinalis when administered at the 60 mg/kg dosage rate in feed and at the 65 mg/kg dosage rate by powder gun. The compound was inactive against Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and A magna. Clinical signs of toxicosis were not observed after treatment. Problems were not encountered in administration of haloxon directly into the back of the mouth with the powder gun. PMID:7283234
Niwa, Hidekazu; Hobo, Seiji; Kinoshita, Yuta; Muranaka, Masanori; Ochi, Akihiro; Ueno, Takanori; Oku, Kazuomi; Hariu, Kazuhisa; Katayama, Yoshinari
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Abortusequi is a pathogen restricted to horses. Our investigation targeted 4 draft horses (9-10 months old) kept on a Japanese farm that had suffered an outbreak of S. Abortusequi abortion. The 4 horses were suspected to be carriers of the bacterium owing to their high agglutination titers (≥1:2,560) in tube agglutination testing. The owners' on-farm observations confirmed that the horses had no apparent abnormalities, and S. Abortusequi was not isolated from their blood, rectal swabs, or sternal bone marrow fluid at antemortem investigation. However, at autopsy, all horses displayed the following: suppurative aneurysm of the cranial mesenteric artery with heavy infection with Strongylus vulgaris larvae; heavy intestinal parasitic infection with Gasterophilus intestinalis, Parascaris equorum, Anoplocephala perfoliata, and S. vulgaris; and enlargement of the systemic lymph nodes. In each case, large numbers of S. Abortusequi were isolated from the anterior mesenteric artery thrombus. The thrombus isolates harbored a single virulence plasmid, and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the isolates were identical not only to each other but also to those of Japanese enzootic strains of S. Abortusequi. These results reveal that parasitic aneurysms of the cranial mesenteric artery should be considered an important possible site of carriage of S. Abortusequi in horses. The results also suggest high clonality of the isolated serovar in the horse population in Japan. PMID:27271985
Desrues, O.; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Hansen, T. V.;
BACKGROUND: Increasing anthelmintic-resistance in nematodes of ruminants emphasises the need for sustainable parasite control. Condensed tannin-containing legume forages such as sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) have shown promising anthelmintic properties in small ruminants but this has never been...
André Antonio Cutolo
Full Text Available Twenty horses naturally infected with nematodes were included in a blind, controlled field study on efficacy and safety of an oral 2% ivermectin formulation at a dose of 0.2 mg.kg-1. Horses were divided into treated and non-treated (control groups with ten animals each based on preliminary counts of eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Stool samples were collected after treatment for identification of nematode species. Clinical evaluations and EPG counts were performed on days 0, +5, +14 and +19. Nineteen nematode species were identified: Coronocyclus ulambajari, Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum pateratum, Cylicocyclus brevicapsulatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicocyclus leptostomum, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus ultrajectinus, Cylicocyclus spp., Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus poculatus, Habronema muscae, Habronema spp., Parascaris equorum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Oxyuris equi and Triodontophorus spp. The mean EPG counts of treated and non-treated (control groups on Days -15, 0, +5, +14 and +19 were 1925, 1340, 0, 12.5, 0, 1470, 790, 875, 1605 and 1240 respectively. The efficacy of treatment on Days +5, +14 and +19 was 100, 99.2 and 100% respectively, with a significant difference compared to the control group (p Vinte equinos naturalmente infectados com nematódeos foram utilizados em estudo cego, controlado, de eficácia e segurança clínica a campo de uma formulação oral de ivermectina a 2%, na dosagem de 0,2 mg.kg-1. Foram distribuídos em grupos: tratado e sem tratamento, de dez animais cada, baseados na contagem prévia de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG. Amostras de fezes foram colhidas pós-tratamento para identificação da helmintofauna. Avaliações clínicas e OPG foram realizados nos dias 0, +5, +14 e +19. Identificou-se dezenove espécies de nematódeos: Coronocyclus ulambajari, Craterostomum acuticaudatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum pateratum
Ricci, M; Sabatini, A
Intestinal helminths from coecum and colon were studied in 93 equidae including 40 horses, 36 donkeys and 17 mules. A total of 38 species, 36 nematodes and 2 cestodes, were identified as follows: 1) Triodontophorus serratus, 2) Triodontophorus brevicauda, 3) Strongylus equinus, 4) Strongylus edentatus, 5) Strongylus vulgaris, 6) Cyathostomum tetracanthum, 7) Cyathostomum coronatum, 8) Cyathostomum labiatum, 9) Cyathostomum labratum, 10) Cyathostomum alveatum, 11) Cyathostomum pateratum, 12) Cyathostomum catinatum, 13) Cyathostomum sagittatum, 14) Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, 15) Cylicocyclus radiatus, 16) Cylicocyclus auriculatus, 17) Cylicocyclus elongatus, 18) Cylicocyclus nassatus, 19) Cylicocyclus insigne, 20) Cylicocyclus leptostomus, 21) Cylicostephanus calicatus, 22) Cylicostephanus poculatus, 23) Cylicostephanus minutus, 24) Cylicostephanus longibursatus, 25) Cylicostephanus hybridus, 26) Cylicostephanus goldi, 27) Cylicostephanus ornatus, 28) Cylicostephanus skrjabini, 29) Poteriostomum ratzii, 30) Gyalocephalus capitatus, 31) Parascaris equorum*, 32) Probstmayria vivipara, 33) Draschia megastoma*, 34) Habronema muscae*, 35) Habronema majus*, 36) Setaria equina*, 37) Anoplocephala perfoliata, 38) Paranoplocephala mamillana. The asterisked species are those not usually localized in the examined material. The most frequent parasites were found in all three hosts. Species 1, 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 21, 22, 30 and 35 showed significant differences in prevalence between horses and donkeys, the mule generally having intermediate values. Multiple infections and total worm burden appear to decrease in older animals (> 15 years). Parasite associations occur mostly at random as expected from the values of the respective total prevalences. Some significant excesses on expected values were recorded but not significant deficits. The total worm burden increases with the number of parasite species and the increase appears to follow an exponential pattern. PMID:1339978
图尔荪·萨迪尔; 卡丽比努尔·尔肯; 朱玉涛; 木合牙提·沙得别克; 恰布旦·阿仔拜; 巴音查汗
In order to gather information on gastrointestinal nematode infection in house-raised and pasteurized horses, 74 fecal samples were randomly collected from horses in Fuyun County, Altay, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and examined using conventional parasitological method. Total infection rate was 94.59% (70/74) in the tested samples. The major parasite species (infection rates) were Strongylus equines (83.78%),Trichostrongylu (83.78%),Nematodirus spp (24.32%),Parascaris equorum (4.05%). These results could provided reference for the government to expel parasites in local horse and offer a basis for animal health work.%为了解新疆维吾尔自治区阿勒泰地区富蕴县马匹在舍饲和放牧2种饲养条件下感染的消化道线虫情况,随机采集样品74份,采用常规寄生虫病原学检查方法进行调查.调查结果显示,当地马总感染率为94.59%,主要感染的虫种为马圆线虫、毛线虫、细颈三齿线虫、马副蛔虫,感染率分别为83.78%、83.78%、24.32%、4.05%.本次调查数据可为当地马寄生虫病的计划性驱虫保健提供科学依据.
Güiris, A D M; Rojas, H N M; Berovides, A V; Sosa, P J; Pérez, E M E; Cruz, A E; Chávez, H C; Moguel, A J A; Jimenez-Coello, M; Ortega-Pacheco, A
A cross sectional survey was performed to identify gastrointestinal helminths and protozoans in naturally infected horses from the biosphere reserve known as "La Sierra Madre de Chiapas", Mexico (El Triunfo and La Sepultura). During a three-year survey, fecal samples from 90 horses and parasites from 2 necropsied animals were collected. Five families from the Nematoda class: Ascaridae, Kathlanidae, Oxyuridae, Strongylidae and Trichostrongylidae were found, whereas, only one family from the class Cestoda, was observed: Anoplocephalidae. One family from the class Insecta, was observed: Gasterophiilidae. The number of species of parasites ranged from 13 to 18 with an average of 15 per animal. Adult parasites were recovered from the large intestine luminal contents at necropsy. Species recovered included: Strongylus vulgaris, S. equinus, S. edentatus, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Coronocyclus coronatum, C. labiatus, C. labratus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus insigne, C. leptostomus, Cylicodontophorus bicoronatus, Cylicostephanus asymetricus, C. bidentatus, C. minutus, C. longibursatus, Petrovinema poculatum, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, Cylicostephanus goldi, Tridentoinfundibulum gobi, Triodontophorus serratus and T. tenuicollis. One species of Diptera were recovered from stomach and identified: Gasterophilus intestinalis. Furthermore, different species of protozoa were recovered from fresh horse-dung and identified in four classes: Sporozoa, Litostomatea, Ciliasida and Suctoria. Nine families: Cryptosporidiidae, Eimeriidae, Balantidiidae, Buetschliidae, Blepharocorythidae, Cycloposthiidae, Spirodiniididae, Ditoxidae, Acinetidae; and 31 ciliates species were recorded: Allantosoma dicorniger, A. intestinalis, Alloiozona trizona, Blepharosphaera intestinalis, Blepharoprosthium pireum, Blepharoconus benbrooki, Bundleia postciliata, Didesmis ovalis, D. quadrata, Sulcoarcus pellucidulus, Blepharocorys angusta, B. cardionucleata, B. curvigula, B. juvata, B
Seyoum, Zewdu; Tesfaye, Mulualem; Derso, Samuel
Prevalence, intensity and risk factors of major gastrointestinal nematode infestation in equines were studied through a cross-sectional survey in 384 equids from October 2013 to April 2014 in and around Shashemane, southern Ethiopia. Three hundred and fifteen equids (82 %) were demonstrated harbouring one or more gastrointestinal (GIT) nematodes using the faecal flotation technique. The prevalence of GIT nematode infestation was 73.4, 85 and 86.5 % for horses, mules and donkeys, respectively. The identified nematodes were strongyle type (73.4 %), Parascaris equorum (21.4 %) and Oxyuris equi (4.4 %). Species of equines had a significant (χ (2) = 9.35, P < 0.01) association with the occurrence of GIT nematode infestation. Donkeys were two times (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI 1.27-4.28, P < 0.01) more likely getting GIT nematode infestation than horses. Moreover, donkeys had the highest mean faecal egg counts (1831.2 egg per gram (EPG)) followed by mules (915.7 EPG) and horses (772.5 EPG). There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between mean EPG and body condition score in each equine species. In conclusion, this study provides information which might help in designing upcoming control strategies to control nematode infestation in equines. Moreover, suitable tropical climatic conditions, low level of management and owners' awareness, and poor animal health services are expected to contribute for high nematode infestation. Therefore, emphasis should be given to awareness creation about the strategic deworming, animal welfare and management. PMID:26205906
Bello, T R
A controlled test was performed to titrate the anthelmintic dosage of dienbendazole in 24 mixed-breed ponies naturally infected with Strongylus vulgaris, S edentatus, and small strongyle species, as determined by parasitic egg and larval counts in feces. Comparison of results of treatment was made among 3 dienbendazole dosages--2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg of body weight--and a gum (excipient) mixture given by nasogastric intubation. All ponies were euthanatized and necropsied at 7 or 8 days after treatment. Trichostrongylus axei, Habronema muscae, S vulgaris, S edentatus, small strongyles, and Oxyuris equi were efficaciously eliminated in response to all doses of dienbendazole; Gasterophilus spp were not affected by any dose. There were not sufficient numbers of Draschia megastoma, Anoplocephala spp, or Parascaris equorum in the ponies to evaluate drug effect. Changes in the appearance of the intestinal lining were dose-dependent; in the ponies treated with 5 and 10 mg of dienbendazole/kg, the mucosa appeared clean and smooth, though in ponies given 2.5 mg/kg, it appeared clean, but was nodular and moderately reactive to embedded immature small strongyles. In the gum mixture-treated ponies, the large intestinal mucosa was inflamed, with edematous areas, in response to infections caused by large and small strongyles. A limited clinical titration was done in 12 ponies that were fecal culture negative for S vulgaris larvae, although other strongyles were detected. Two ponies in each of 6 groups were given the following dosages: 0 (gum mixture only), 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg of dienbendazole/kg. One group of 2 ponies was given 5 mg of fenbendazole/kg as a standard treatment control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2619127
Ethyl-6-ethoxybenzothiazole-2-carbamate (Sch 18099) was evaluated for efficacy against natural helminth infections in ponies, pigs, lambs and chickens. Sixteen critical trials were conducted in ponies at dosages of 15 to 150 mg/kg. At 15 mg/kg, efficacy against adult and larval Oxyuris equi was 100% and 91% and against small strongyles it was 98%. Efficacy levels were 95% against Strongylus vulgaris and S. edentatus at the 20 mg/kg dosage. In two trials at 100 mg/kg efficacy against Parascaris equorum was 77%. No efficacy was observed against Gastrophilus spp. or Anoplocephala spp. In swine single oral doses of 10 to 100 mg/kg were not effective. 500 ppm Sch 18099 in the diet for seven days resulted in 100% efficacy against Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis but had no effect on Stongyloides ransomi. Efficacy at 250 ppm against A. suum was 77%. Efficacy at 200 mg/kg in lambs was greater than 90% for Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus axei, Marshallagia marshalli, Bunostomum trignocephalum, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Trichuris ovis, and Chabertia spp. Efficacy was less than 80% for Trichostrongylus vitrinus, Nematodirus filicollis, Ostertagia circumcinta and Cooperia curticei. Except for O. circumcinta and C. curticei, drug efficacy was reduced for these worms in lambs treated at 100 mg/kg. Efficacies of 14.3-89% against Ascaridia galli were obtained with dietary levels of 125-1000 ppm Sch 18099 fed for 7 days. Efficacy of 100% was recorded against Heterakis gallinarum at the 1000 ppm dietary drug level. PMID:864223
Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S
Two closed horse herds (Old Lot 4 and Field 24), infected since 1966 with Population B small strongyles resistant to thiabendazole (TBZ) and phenothiazine (PTZ), were terminated in February, March, and May, 2005. At necropsy, only the large endoparasites were identified and counted. The number of horses on pasture was 14 (239 days of age to 23 years old) for Old Lot 4 and two (3 to 20 years old) for Field 24. The time of the last antiparasitic treatment, relative to the year (2005) of necropsy, was 26 years for Old Lot 4 and 9 years for Field 24 horses. Gasterophilus intestinalis third instars (three to 113 specimens/horse) were found in all 16 horses and second instars (one to two) in two horses. Gasterophilus nasalis third instars (one to three) were recovered from five horses. Parascaris equorum infections (23 to 144) were in four horses (239 days to 4 years old). Strongylus vulgaris were present in the large intestine (one to 155) of 13 horses from 239 days to 23 years old and in the cranial mesenteric artery (two to 79) in 10 horses from 239 days to 23 years old. Strongylus edentatus were in the large intestine (two to 101) of 12 horses, ranging in age from 2.5 to 23 years old and in the ventral abdominal wall (one to 53) of six horses from 239 days to 21 years old. Specimens (seven to 872) of Anoplocephala perfoliata were in all horses. Oxyuris equi (one to 129) were recovered from seven horses (330 days to 23 years old). Thelazia lacrymalis (one to 85) infected the eyes of five horses (317 days to 11 years old). PMID:16508764
Tolliver, S C; Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H
The prevalence and number of naturally acquired gastrointestinal parasites were compiled for horses used in critical tests of activity of parasiticides over a 28-year period (1956-1983). Data are presented as follows: n = number of horses examined; % = mean prevalence; number in parentheses after % = aggregate mean number of parasites in infected horses. Parasites found were: bots (n = 513) - Gasterophilus intestinalis, 2nd instar, 61%(58); 3rd instar, 94%(168); G. nasalis, 2nd instar, 36%(28); 3rd instar, 81%(51); stomach worms (n = 200) - Habronema muscae, 65%(179); Draschia megastoma, 29%(95); Trichostrongylus axei, 46%(3000); ascarids (n = 513) - Parascaris equorum, mature, 50%(25); immature, 23%(33); tapeworms (n = 513), Anoplocephala perfoliata, 17%(15); A. magna, 14%(10); large strongyles (n = 487), Strongylus vulgaris, 84%(80); S. edentatus, 79%(101); S. equinus, 6%(14); small strongyles (n = 210), 100%(142,000); pinworms (Oxyuris equi), immature (n = 210), 78%(9000); mature (n = 506), 40%(62); Probstmayria vivipara (n = 210), 12%(10(7]; S. vulgaris in cranial mesenteric artery (n = 472), 89%(57). The majority of the horses examined were mixed lighthorse type but several Thoroughbreds were included. Ages varied from about 4 months to 20 years old, with most being approximately 1-3 years old. They probably had either no or infrequent previous treatment with parasiticides. Most of the horses were selected for presence of certain internal parasites, usually large strongyles, prior to usage in the critical tests. PMID:3564356
Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Stamper, S; Drudge, J H; Granstrom, D E; Collins, S S
Studies were conducted on transmission of natural infections of several species of internal parasites in horses born and kept on the same pasture on a farm in central Kentucky. Data for the first year (1989) of a 4 year study on this farm have been published recently. The present research represents the second (1990), third (1991), and fourth (1992) years of the investigation. The number of animals (n = 28) examined varied from eight born in 1990 to ten each born in 1991 and 1992. For each year, examination was made of one horse per month, beginning in June of the year of birth and extending through January (1990) or March (1991 and 1992) the following year. Ages of the horses at necropsy ranged from 87 to 251 days. Major parasites present and months of recovery were: bots--Gasterophilus intestinalis in the mouth September-January and in the stomach August-March; stomach worms--Trichostrongylus axei in August and November, Habronema spp. (immature) in July-November and January, and Habronema muscae in October, January, and February; ascarids--Parascaris equorum in the small intestine and lungs all months; intestinal threadworms--Strongyloides westeri in all months except February; large strongyles--Strongylus vulgaris in the large intestine in all months except July and August and in the cranial mesenteric artery in all months, and Strongylus edentatus in the large intestine in January and in the ventral abdominal wall in all months; pinworms--Oxyuris equi in June and January-March; tapeworms--Anoplocephala perfoliata in August-October and December-March; and eyeworms--Thelazia lacrymalis August-February. Yearly differences and similarities of infections in the horses are discussed. The value of this type of research is mentioned. PMID:8073609
Chapman, Melanie R; French, Dennis D; Klei, Thomas R
A survey in Louisiana of gastrointestinal helminths recovered at necropsy from 117 ponies with minimal exposure to anthelmintics between 1989 and 2000 is compared with a survey conducted 20 yr earlier in the same region. An objective of this study was to determine whether species diversity has been affected by the advent and use of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) parasiticides and by the increased anthelmintic pressure on the helminth species infecting the general equine population. Twenty-six cyathostome species and 8 strongyle species were recovered. Two cyathostome species that were not found before, Cylicostephanus asymetricus and C. bidentatus, and 1 species of large strongyle, Oesophagodontus robustus, were added to the list of species found in Louisiana. All cyathostome and large strongyle species found previously were still present. But prevalences and intensities were significantly reduced for almost all large and small strongyle species. Prevalences and intensities of Oxyuris equi adults and larvae were reduced, whereas the prevalence of Parascaris equorum remained constant. The tapeworm Paranoplocephala mamillana was added to the list of parasite species found in Louisiana. Anoplocephala perfoliata remained the most common cestode. This species was found at the same level of intensity but increased slightly in prevalence. Anoplocephala magna was found less frequently than previously. The overall diversity of species remained reatively unchanged. The reasons for the differences in intensity and prevalence of strongyles between these 2 periods are unknown but might be related to the development and use of the broad-spectrum ML anthelmintics in the intervening period, a difference in the population of equids surveyed, different techniques used to identify the parasites, or differences in numbers of parasites identified (or to all). PMID:12537106
Verschave, Sien H; Rose, Hannah; Morgan, Eric R; Claerebout, Edwin; Vercruysse, Jozef; Charlier, Johannes
Cooperia oncophora is one of the most common intestinal nematodes in cattle. It is also the dose-limiting species for the most frequently used anthelmintics, and consequently, the species usually involved in reports of anthelmintic resistance. However, little information is available on its population dynamics, hindering the parameterisation of transmission models to support understanding of the impact of anthelmintic resistance, climate change and alternative control strategies on nematode epidemiology. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides estimates for key life history traits of the parasitic phase of C. oncophora and investigates potential influences of acquired immunity on these traits. PMID:27198786
.... (2) Indications for use. For removal of large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); ascarids (Parascaris equorum— sexually mature and immature); pinworms (Oxyuris equi— adult...
... control of infections from the following mature parasites: large strongyles (Strongylus vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus); small strongyles; pinworms (Oxyuris equi); and large roundworms (Parascaris...
High levels of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of small ruminants have created the need for animals with greater resistance to these parasites. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FAMACHA system in identification of parasite resilien...
Anthelmintic resistance in the bovine parasite Cooperia oncophora is developing and spreading rapidly worldwide. Vaccination is therefore often put forward as a cost-effective alternative for chemical drugs. Recently we reported the successful evaluation of a double domain activation-associated secr...
Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite responsible for major losses to small ruminant producers worldwide. The recent increase in populations of anthelmintic resistant parasites has produced a demand for alternative control methods. An orange oil emulsion that has shown activity...
Maingi, N.; Bjørn, H.; Gichohi, V.M.;
The occurrence of anthelmintic resistance on 25 sheep farms in the Nyandarua District of Kenya was investigated, using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), the egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval development assay (LDA). In the FECRT, resistance to both benzimidazoles (BZs) and levamisole...
Laurenson, Yan Christian Stephen Mountfort
Gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing lambs adversely affects animal performance and welfare, causing significant production losses for the sheep industry. Control of gastrointestinal parasitism using chemotherapeutic treatment is under threat due to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance, thus stimulating research into alternative control strategies. Whilst investigating control strategies experimentally can be costly and time consuming, using a mathematical modelling appro...
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continue to hinder small ruminant production because of anthelmintic resistance and lack of effective products for GIN control in organic production. The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a commercially available certified organic garlic pr...
Andersen, Ulla Vestergaard; Howe, Daniel K.; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny;
virtually undetectable as there currently is no test available for diagnosing prepatent S. vulgaris infection. Presence of S. vulgaris larvae in the arterial system causes endarteritis and thrombosis with a risk of non-strangulating intestinal infarctions. Emergence of anthelmintic resistance among...
Increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in ovine gastrointestinal strongylids, especially Haemonchus contortus, have led many investigators worldwide to examine potential anthelmintic effects of naturally occurring plant products. In previous work, we have shown that 1200 mg/kg of an orange oi...
Nielsen, Martin Krarup
that Danish veterinarians are now deeply involved with parasite management in equine establishments. However, little is known about the impact on levels of anthelmintic resistance and the risk of parasitic disease under these circumstances. In addition, the legislation makes huge demands on diagnosis...
Costa, A J; Barbosa, O F; Moraes, F R; Acuña, A H; Rocha, U F; Soares, V E; Paullilo, A C; Sanches, A
A total of 24 male and female equines of mixed breed, 10-20 months of age and naturally infected with internal parasites was utilized in a controlled test to evaluate the efficacy of a moxidectin 2% gel formulation at the dosage of 0.4 mg moxidectin per kg of live weight and an ivermectin 1.87% commercial paste formulation at the dosage 0.2 mg ivermectin per kg applied orally. Animals were allocated into three groups of eight horses each based on pre-treatment eggs per gram (EPG) counts and treatments were randomized among the groups. One group was kept as untreated controls. One animal in the moxidectin-treated group died before the end of the trial from a cause unrelated to treatment leaving a total of seven animals in this group. Fecal egg counts were performed three times post-treatment and the number of parasites remaining in each animal was determined. Statistical analyses using geometric means were performed at the 1% level of significance. Both moxidectin and ivermectin preparations reduced initial EPG from a mean of 1600 to 0 on Days 5, 7 and at the end of the trial on Day 14. Efficacy percentages of moxidectin and ivermectin against immature and adult nematodes were as follows: Trichostrongylus axei, Parascaris equorum, Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, Triodontophorus spp. and Gyalocephalus capitatus, 100% for both products; Habronema muscae 99.5 and 99.6%, respectively, Strongyloides westeri, 100 and 99.2%, respectively; Oxyuris equi, 99.6 and 100%, respectively; small strongyles, 99.7% for both products. Of the latter, the most numerous were: Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicostephanus longibursatus and Cyathostomum catinatum. No Gasterophilus nasalis were found in horses from either treated group, while two of eight control horses had infections with thisparasite. Moxidectin showed greater efficacy (84.9%) than ivermectin (67.8%) against Strongylus vulgaris larvae found in the mesenteric artery aneurisms, but the difference was not statistically
Drudge, J H; Lyons, E T; Taylor, E L
Three series of critical tests were completed on a combined total of 46 horses to determine the efficacy of single doses of trichlorfon against bots, ascarids, pinworms, and large strongyles. Different formulations of trichlorfon were administered by tubing intragastrically, mixing with the daily grain ration, injecting intramuscularly, or pouring on the back at dose rates between 20 and 100 mg/kg. Administration by feeding tended to be more efficacious for removal of bots and less toxic to the horese than administration by stomach tube. In many of the tests, trichlorfon was given in the grain ration at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg of body weight, and the aggregate average removals of 2nd and 3rd instars of Gastrophilus intestinalis and Gasterophilus nasalis in the 3 series of tests were between 97 and 100%. Removal of Parascaris equorum was equally efficacious with both the intubation and the grain feeding methods of dosing, and at the dose rate of 40 mg/kg, the aggregate averages were 99 and 100% in the 3 series. Removal of Oxyuris equi was variable--aggregate averages were between 11 (1 infected horse in the initial series) and 96 (5 infected horses in the 3rd series) to 100% (7 infected horses in the 2nd series). Large strongyles, Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus were almost completely refractory to the 40-mg/kg dose rate of trichlorfon. Dose rates of 40 mg/kg and less were generally well tolerated by the critical test horses. Higher dose rates (60 and 80 mg/kg) administered by stomach tube induced moderately severe to severe colic and diarrhea, whereas a dose of 80 mg/kg given in the feed resulted in only a transient softening of the feces. Likewise, 5 consecutive doses, 1 week between doses, of a bolus formulation given at the rate of 80 mg/kg to 4 horses were well tolerated. Clinical trials involving a total of 2,294 treatments of trichlorfon at dose rate of 35 to 40 mg/kg in pregnant and nonpregnant mares, stallions, suckling and weanling foals
Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; Taylor, H W; French, D D; Klei, T R
Two dosages of moxidectin oral gel were evaluated and compared to a therapeutic dose of ivermectin oral paste in the control of a spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites of ponies naturally infected in southern Louisiana or Mississippi. Thirty-two mixed-breed ponies ranging in age from one to 21 years were used in this controlled test. Eight weeks prior to the experiment, ponies grazing on contaminated pasture were moved to a paddock and fed a pelleted ration, thus reducing or eliminating the potential for additional infection and ensuring the existence of a population of encysted larvae. Ponies were then allocated to replicates of four animals based on values of fecal strongyle egg counts and percent strongyle larvae composition determined from Baermann sedimentations of fecal cultures. Members of replicates were allocated to one of four treatment groups: moxidectin oral gel administered at 300 micrograms kg-1 body weight, moxidectin oral gel at 400 micrograms kg-1, the oral gel vehicle as negative control, and ivermectin oral paste at 200 micrograms kg-1. Prior to treatment, ponies were confined in pairs to covered concrete runs by treatment group. Two weeks following treatment, necropsy examinations of all animals were performed. Parasites were recovered from the lumen of the stomach, the intestinal tract, the cranial mesenteric artery and its major branches, the peritoneal body wall and from pepsin digests of mucosal scrapings taken from the cecum and large colon. Encysted cyathostome larval burdens were also compared using mural transillumination of segments of the large colon for visualization of the encysted forms. Control ponies were not uniformly infected with the spectrum of parasites; however, moxidectin, at either dosage, compared favorably with ivermectin in the control of the adults of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Triodontophorus spp., Oesophagodontus robustus, Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Habronema muscae, as
Kuzmina, T A; Kharchenko, V A; Starovir, A I; Dvojnos, G M
Communities of intestinal helminths in horses are commonly studied post mortem. The study objectives were here to examine the species composition of the strongylid community in brood horses in Ukraine after deworming with an aversectin drug Univerm. The site distribution of the strongylid species was analysed according to dynamics of their expulsion in faeces. Forty-four horses of different ages from Poltavska oblast (22 horses), Kyivska oblast (17 horses) and Sumska oblast (5 horses) of Ukraine were included in the study. Horses were treated with Univerm anthelmintic (0.2% aversectin) at a dose rate of 0.5mg aversectin preparation per kg body weight. Faecal sampling (200 g each) was performed at 24, 36, 48 and 60 h post treatment, and all nematodes expelled were collected and identified. The largest numbers of strongylids were expelled at 24--36 h after treatment. Twenty-five nematode species from the subfamilies Strongylinae and Cyathostominae were identified. The number of strongylid species found per horse ranged from 7 to 20, on an average 11+/-3.6 (S.D.). The number of cyathostomin species found per horse ranged from 7 to 16, on an average 10+/-2.3 (S.D.). Cylicocyclus nassatus and Cyathostomum catinatum were the most dominant species were found in 100% of horses, amounting to 36.3% and 17.6% of the total number of strongylids collected, respectively. C. longibursatus, C. ashworthi, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. leptostomus and C. minutus were identified in more than 80% horses and represented 39.9% of the total number of strongylids collected. The dynamics of the different strongylid species expelled was irregular. Correlation between the time of cyathostomin species expulsion in faeces and their predicted localisation inside the horse intestine was found. Species mainly localised in the caecum were found in faeces later than those species localised in the dorsal and ventral colons. Larvae and adult Parascaris equorum, Oxyuris equi and botfly larvae from the
Full Text Available 50764_1( AY350764 |pid:none) Parascaris univalens ribosomal pro... 95 2e-18 AE016817_243( AE016817 |pid:none...5e-17 EU125004_1( EU125004 |pid:none) Eurythoe complanata ribosomal prot... 91 5e-17 AY350763_1( AY350763 |pid:none) Parascaris
Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.;
with EPG>300, and herds with a mean EPG>150 were offered a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). All herds were asked to complete a questionnaire about management and risk factors concerning parasites, particularly nematodes. Faecal egg counts were generally low; 2 out of 25 herds had a mean EPG>150......The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms...... using a modified McMaster technique (sensitivity 5 eggs per gr. of faeces (EPG)). From each herd, samples with EPG>500 were pooled and stained with peanut agglutinin (PNA) for detection of Haemonchus contortus. An egg hatch assay (EHA) for detection of anthelmintic resistance was performed on samples...
H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat
Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various conce...
Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Amy H Buck; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F.; Mclean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Knox, David P.; Tom N. McNeilly
Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication b...
This conference covered areas like, technology delivery, compared the precision of experiments in biometrics, the role of agro-veterinary shops in animal health services,Preliminary economic evaluation,anthelmintic resistance survey,Impact of AIDS/HIV, improvement of dairy cattle productivity, dry season feeding for smallholder dairy farmers, screening of tree species, diagnosis of cowdriosis in sheep in Kenya, Camel diseases, effect of growth environment, and many others
In sheep and goats the most pathogenous worm is the bloodsucking Barber’s pole worm Haemonchus contortus. Studies in South Africa confirmed the FAMACHA-Test to be a useful tool for identifying anaemic animals. Apart from the reduction of anthelmintic drugs, the targeted, selective treatment of single animals may delay the development of anthelmintic-resistant worms. Three field studies, carried out in Northern Germany in consecutive years, showed that at a comparatively low infestation of H....
Nielsen, Martin K
Given the increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance in equine parasites, parasitologists now recommend traditional treatment approaches to be abandoned and replaced by more sustainable strategies. It is of crucial importance to facilitate veterinary involvement to ensure that treatment decisions are based on parasitic knowledge. Despite recommendations given for the past two decades, strategies based on the selective therapy principle have not yet been implemented on a larger scale in equi...
1.0 Executive summary 1. Internal parasites are a major source of economic loss in grazing ruminants. To a greater or lesser degree, most farms in the UK rely on anthelmintics for control. In most situations these products continue to be highly effective, but anthelmintic resistance is increasing to the limited range of products available, raising serious concerns over the future of worm control. 2. Internal parasites are also of concern on organic farms, where the prophylactic us...
McRae, K. M.; Stear, M. J.; Good, B.; Keane, O. M.
Summary Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo‐dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from an...
Waller, P J; Lacey, E
Studies both in vitro and in vivo showed that the insect growth regulator, triflumuron, exhibited potent larvacidal effects against the free-living stages of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Effects were not as marked on the closely related nematodes, Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta. Nevertheless, these findings suggest that growth regulators may be used to develop novel methods of nematode control, and thus offer alternatives or adjuncts to conventional anthelmintic therapy and at the same time reduce the selection for anthelmintic resistance. PMID:3739204
Veer, Margreet van der
Cooperia oncophora is one of the most common intestinal parasitic nematodes of cattle in temperate climates worldwide contributing to serious production losses. It is considered as a mild pathogen which can be effectively controlled with anthelmintics. However, this control strategy is threatened by the development of anthelmintic resistance. Although resistance in cattle nematodes emerged just recently and is not yet common, it is a wide-spread phenomenon in nematode parasites of sheep. For ...
Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro; Isabel Martins Madrid; Cíntia Lidiane Guidotti Aguiar; Leonardo Mortagua de Castro; Marlete Brum Cleff; Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne; Fábio Pereira Leivas Leite
Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control co...
Scantlebury, Claire E; Peachey, Laura; Hodgkinson, Jane; Matthews, Jacqui B; Trawford, Andrew; Mulugeta, Getachew; Tefera, Gebre; Pinchbeck, Gina L.
Background Gastrointestinal nematode infections constitute a threat to the health and welfare of donkeys worldwide. Their primary means of control is via anthelmintic treatments; however, use of these drugs has constraints in developing countries, including cost, limited availability, access to cheaper generic forms of variable quality and potential anthelmintic resistance. As an alternative, bioactive plants have been proposed as an option to treat and control gastrointestinal helminths in d...
Vatn Synnøve; Leine Nils; Gjerde Bjørn; Chartier Christophe; Domke Atle VM; Østerås Olav; Stuen Snorre
Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in N...
HOSTE, H; Torres-Acosta, J.F.J.
Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) remain a major threat for ruminant production, health and welfare associated with outdoor breeding. The control of these helminth parasites has relied on the strategic or tactical use of chemical anthelmintic (AH) drugs. However, the expanding development and diffusion of anthelmintic resistance in nematode populations imposes the need to explore and validate novel solutions (or to re-discover old knowledge) for a more sustainable control of...
Waller, Peter J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.
Collectively, nematode parasites of domestic ruminants continue to pose the greatest disease problem in grazing livestock systems worldwide, despite the powerful and extensive chemotherapeutic arsenal available for their control. The widespread development of anthelmintic resistance, particularly in nematode parasites of small ruminants, and the trend towards nonchemical (ecological, organic, green) farming of livestock has provided an impetus for the research and development of alternative p...
Epe, C; Coati, N; Schnieder, T
The results of coproscopical examinations in horses, ruminants, pigs, dogs, cats, hedgehogs and rabbits between 1998 and 2002 are presented. In 4399 samples from horses 37.4% stages of strongylids, 1.4% anoplocephalids, 1.3% Strongyloides westeri, 0.9% Parascaris equorum, 0.04% Oxyuris equi, 0.04% Eimeria sp. and 0.04% Fasciola hepatica were found. In 998 samples of cattle 22.1% stages of strongylids, 11.2% of Eimeria spp., 3.5% of cryptosporidium, 2.9% of Moniezia spp., 1.3% of Trichuris spp., 0.7% of Dictyocaulus sp., 0.6% of Fasciola hepatica, 0.6% of Strongyloides sp., 0.5% of Nematodirus spp. and 0.4% of Capillaria sp. could be detected. In 524 samples of sheep 60.7% eggs of strongylids, 43.1% oozysts of Eimeria spp., 11.1% stages of Nematodirus spp., 9.5% of Moniezia spp., 7.8% of Trichuris spp., 6.7% of Strongyloides sp., 1.7% of Fasciola hepatica, 1% of Capillaria spp., 0.4% of protostrongylidae, 0.2% of Skrjabinema sp. and 0.2% of Dictyocaulus sp. were found. 33.9% of the 118 samples of goats that were examined were positive for oocysts of Eimeria spp., 30.5% for eggs of strongylids, 6.8% for Nematodirus spp., 4.2% for Trichuris spp., 3.4% for Moniezia spp., 0.8 for protostrongylids and 0.8% for Strongyloides sp. 5.7% of 1427 samples of pigs contained stages of strongylids, 1.5% of Ascaris suum, 0.4% of Isospora, 0.3% of Eimeria spp., 0.3% of Trichuris sp., 0.1% of Giardia sp., 0.1% of cryptosproidium as well as 0.1% of metastrongylids. In 1281 of the samples of dogs 2.3% Giardia sp., 2.3% Isospora sp., 2.2% Toxocara canis, 1.4% ancylostomids, 0.8% taeniids, 0.6% larvae of Crenosoma sp., 0.2% Capillaria sp, 0.2% Trichuris vulpis and 0.2% Hammondia-like oocysts were found. In 441 samples of cats 10.7% stages of Isospora sp., 3.9% eggs of Toxocara cati, 1.6% of ancylostomids, 1.4% of taeniids, 1.1% of Giardia sp., 0.7% of Toxoplasma-like oocysts, 0.7% of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, 0.5% of Toxascaris leonina and 0.2% of Capillaria spp. were found
O'Grady, M R; Slocombe, J O
Several variables in a standard vial fecal gravitational flotation technique were investigated. These were the specific gravity of the sodium nitrate flotation solution, duration of flotation and mesh sizes of strainers. The number of eggs which floated and adhered to a coverslip were counted and estimates of the number of eggs remaining in the strained fecal suspension and in the feces trapped on the strainer were made. Eggs from hookworms, Trichuris vulpis and Toxocara canis in feces from dogs, Nematodirus spp. from sheep and Parascaris equorum from horses floated equally well in solutions with specific gravities (SpGr) ranging from 1.22-1.38. Taenia spp. from dogs had a slightly narrower range (SpGr 1.27-1.38) for best recovery. Eggs from Haemonchus contortus from sheep appeared to float best between SpGr 1.22- 1.32. Strongyles from one horse floated best with SpGr 1.27-1.32 and from another with SpGr 1.11-1.38. Coccidial oocysts from sheep floated best in a narrow range of SpGr from 1.22-1.27. However, as the SpGr of the solution was increased the recognition of eggs under the coverslip was increasingly difficult and especially so at SpGr 1.38 with sheep feces. This was due to the increasing amount of debris and the more rapid formation of crystals with evaporation with solutions of higher SpGr. It appeared, therefore, that solutions with SpGr of 1.22-1.35 would be best for routine laboratory use. At specific gravity 1.27, there appeared to be no difference in the number of eggs recovered for a four, eight and 12 min flotation period. Only 3-7% of the eggs in 4 g of feces were counted under the coverslip. This poor efficacy resulted first because approximately 50% of the eggs were trapped in the feces and retained on the strainer. Secondly, only one half of the strained fecal suspension, containing approximately 25% of the eggs, was placed in the vial for examination. Thirdly, of those eggs in the vial only 16-29% were counted under the coverslip. When the
Lyons, E T; Tolliver, S C; Collins, S S
three horses at 6 days PT but in 26% for horse H-10 at 25 days PT. As mentioned earlier, only a few adults were found in one horse and several L(4) in the three horses at necropsy at 6 days PT. Therefore, in horse H-10, most adults found at 25 days PT presumably developed from "young" specimens not removed by ivermectin. Thus, data from the present critical tests indicate the probable cause of the "early" return of small strongyle EPG values after ivermectin treatment in the horses in field tests on Farm MC. It seems this was the result of incomplete removal of luminal specimens (L(4) and possibly young adults), some of which matured and began laying eggs by about 4 weeks PT (Lyons et al. Parasitol Res 103:209-215, 2008a). The research also showed that ivermectin was highly effective on adult small strongyles. At necropsy, the following other species of parasites (adult) were found, but none was recovered from the feces. These were (n = number of horses infected): (1) ascarids (Parascaris equorum-n = 1), (2) tapeworms (Anoplocephala perfoliata-n = 4), and (3) pinworms (Oxyuris equi-n = 3). Immature (L4) O. equi were present in two horses and removals were 0% in one horse and 39% in the other. Eyeworms (Thelazia lacrymalis) were found in one horse at necropsy. Even though a small number of horses were used in the present research, the commonality of their background made them ideal candidates as a group for this study. This aspect helps strengthen the validity of the interpretation of the findings. PMID:18931857
Nalubamba, King S; Mudenda, Ntombi B
There has been an increase in the number of wild ungulates kept in captivity for ecotourism and conservation in Zambia and these animals are susceptible to a number of diseases including gastrointestinal helminth infections. Surveys to determine anthelmintic efficacy to gastrointestinal nematodes in captive-wildlife are not common and there have been no reports of anthelmintic resistance in captive-wildlife in Zambia. This study was carried out to determine the efficacy of the benzimidazole anthelmintic fenbendazole in captive wild impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Zambia. During the month of April 2011, at the end of the rainy season, the faecal egg count reduction test was performed at a private game facility for assessing anthelmintic efficacy of oral fenbendazole and the anthelmintic treatment showed an efficacy of 90%. Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. were the predominant genera present before treatment, but Haemonchus spp. larvae were the only genus recovered from the faecal cultures after anthelmintic treatment. This represents the first documentation of anthelmintic treatment failure in captive wild-antelopes in Zambia. It also demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the common traditional practice of deworming captive-wild antelopes at the end of the rainy season due to the rapid re-infection of impala that occurs due to high pasture infectivity. Suggestions on changes to current anthelmintic use/practices that will make them more efficacious and reduce the possibility of development of anthelmintic resistance in captive wild game in Zambia are also made. PMID:22115945
Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu; Javier Carballo; Petru Alexe
Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A), one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B) and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C). Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing), and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid b...
The intestinal nematodes of horses were investigated in this study. Especially the gastrointestinal parasites of groups Strongylinae and Cyathostominae were studied: Strongyloides westeri, Parascaris eqourum a Oxyuris equi. Study concerns with preventive proceeding of inception of parasitic diseases, selection of right anthelmintics and antiparasitic programmes, resistance of gastrointestinal parasites on anthelmintics and their effective matters. Finally, the possible solutions are suggested...
Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene
). Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and S. equorum subsp. linens (all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses) using the AI-2 bioluminescence assay. This indicates that AI-2 signaling could take place between bacteria found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses....
Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene
). Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and S. equorum subsp. linens (all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses) using the AI-2 bioluminescence assay. This indicates that AI-2 signaling could take place between bacteria found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses....
H.P. Desai*, M.D. Kapadia and A.R. Kharat
Full Text Available Development of anthelmintic resistance and high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs lead to the evaluation of medicinal plants which acts as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The present study has been undertaken to perform the evaluation of anthelmintic activity of Plumbago zeylanica belonging to family Plumbaginaceae. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelminitic effects of various extracts of the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. Various concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20mg/ml of water and methanol extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Piperazine citrate was taken as a reference standard drug.The anthelmintic activity was observed by gradually increasing the dose of extract. Methanolic extract of Plumbago zeylenica showed higher activity as compared to water extract.
Campbell, Bronwyn E; Boag, Peter R; Hofmann, Andreas; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Wang, Conan K; Taylor, Paul; Hu, Min; Sindhu, Zia-Ud-Din; Loukas, Alex; Sternberg, Paul W; Gasser, Robin B
Almost nothing is known about atypical kinases in multicellular organisms, including parasites. Supported by information and data available for the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and other eukaryotes, the present article describes three RIO kinase genes, riok-1, riok-2 and riok-3, from Haemonchus contortus, one of the most important parasitic nematodes of small ruminants. Analyses of these genes and their products predict that they each play critical roles in the developmental pathways of parasitic nematodes. The findings of this review indicate prospects for functional studies of these genes in C. elegans (as a surrogate) and opportunities for the design of a novel class of nematode-specific inhibitors of RIO kinases. The latter aspect is of paramount importance, given the serious problems linked to anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematode populations of livestock. PMID:21262337
Alan D. Fisher
Full Text Available Controlled-release albendazole capsules (CRCs are currently registered for use in Australia and New Zealand as anthelmintic treatment in sheep. However, reports on the efficacy of such products on resistant parasite populations are sometimes controversial. This is the first study to report on the efficacy of such products under South African field conditions in sheep harbouring a population of Haemonchus contortus with known multiple anthelmintic resistance, including to albendazole. Treatment groups were comprised of CRC-treated and single dose albendazole-treated sheep, as well as negative controls. Groups were compared by using faecal egg count reduction tests, FAMACHA© anaemia scoring, conception rates and comparative weight gains over three and a half months. Based on a comparison of faecal egg counts, no advantage could be found using CRCs. Moreover, the use of the product actually decreased weight gain when compared with the control group animals.
Meemon, Krai; Sobhon, Prasert
Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica are the parasites that cause the zoonotic parasitic disease called fasciolosis. Although several anthelmintic drugs have been used to treat these parasitic infections, recombinant protein vaccines have been developed to overcome the anthelmintic resistance that has recently been reported in many regions of the world. These vaccines have been shown to induce high levels of immune responses and high percentages of protection in experimental and large animals. Efficacies of these vaccines suggest they could be an alternative and sustainable strategy to prevent fasciolosis in animals as well as humans in the future. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a protocol to develop a recombinant protein-based vaccine against Fasciola infection in mice. Moreover, this method can also be used as a guideline when the vaccination is performed in larger animals. PMID:27076294
Three studies were carried out to find out how livestock anthelmintics are used in Kenya. Using questioners in the first study, 342 farms were surveyed. In the second study a survey on anthelmintic resistance was carried out in 42 farms comprising of small and large scale concerns. The third study was carried out on 9 commonly used anthelmintic brands sold in Kenya. These were brought from agrochemical shops and pharmacies with the aim of determining their pharmaceutical quality. The results indicated that, farmers were ignorant of good anthelmintic practice. They either under or overdose their livestock. Few farmers recognized the value of drenching suckling or weaned animals. A prevalence of 75% of anthelmintic resistance was recorded. This was mainly against levamisoles and benzimidazoles in sheep and goats. Resistance was associated with increased dosing rates on both smallholder and large-scale farms. An analysis of the pharmaceutical quality of the drugs showed that there were some substandard drugs available on the market. Four out of seven brand names claiming to contain levamisole had the concentration at a much lower level than claimed on the label. Indeed two products did not contain any trace of levamisole. One product supposed to contain mebendazole had a drug at a substandard level. Two products supposed to contain oxyclosanide had the drug concentration at a satisfactory level although one had the concentration ata much higher level. The concentration of levamisole in two substandard drugs varied significantly between different batch products. These varied from 0% to 73.6%-85.4% of the concentration shown on the labels
van Wyk, J A; Hoste, H; Kaplan, R M; Besier, R B
Seriously escalating global anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants has spawned a variety of alternatives to anthelmintics for worm management, based on the need for sustainable Integrated Parasite Management (sIPM). Pivotal to the sIPM approach is the concept of refugia, the proportion of a given parasite population that escapes exposure to control measures. By balancing drug applications with the maintenance of refugia, the accumulation of anthelmintic resistance alleles in worm populations can be considerably delayed, while still providing good levels of control. The over-dispersed nature of parasitic infections provides an opportunity to achieve this balance, by targeting treatments to the members of a flock or herd that are least tolerant to nematode infection. However, implementation of this strategy has only recently become feasible, with the development of the FAMACHA((c)) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to haemonchosis. Subsequently, the use of milk yields has proven an effective indicator in dairy goats infected predominantly with nematodes other than Haemonchus contortus. In addition, short-term weight changes and perhaps also body condition scoring may provide indices of parasitism, permitting the rapid identification of animals likely to benefit from treatment. However, sIPM and refugia-based approaches are more complex than whole-flock treatments in conventional programs, and adoption by farmers is most likely where the theoretical basis is understood. As close communication with informed advisors is generally limited, there is a danger that sIPM will remain a theoretical concept without alternative modes of communication. The development of computer-based decision support programs, which use epidemiological, seasonal and clinical information to provide recommendations for specific situations, should be accorded high priority in the future development of worm management systems. PMID:16774807
Terrill, Thomas H; Miller, James E; Burke, Joan M; Mosjidis, Jorge A; Kaplan, Ray M
The generally warm, moist environmental conditions in the southern United States (U.S.) are ideal for survival and growth of the egg and larval stages of Haemonchus contortus and other gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of sheep and goats. Consequently, infection with GIN is the greatest threat to economic small ruminant production in this region. With anthelmintic resistance now reaching epidemic proportions in small ruminants in the U.S., non-chemical control alternatives are critically needed. The Southern Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (SCSRPC) was formed in response to this crisis and over the last decade has successfully validated the use of several novel control technologies, including FAMACHA(©) for the implementation of targeted selective treatments (TST), copper oxide wire particles (COWP), nematode-trapping fungi, and grazing or feeding hay of the high-tannin perennial legume sericea lespedeza [Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.-Cours. G. Don)]. Producer attitudes toward GIN control in the U.S. have been shifting away from exclusive dependence upon anthelmintics toward more sustainable, integrated systems of parasite control. Some novel control technologies have been readily adopted by producers in combination with appropriate diagnostic tools, such as FAMACHA(©). Others techniques are still being developed, and will be available for producer use as they are validated. Although new drugs will likely be available to U.S. goat and sheep producers in the future, these will also be subject to development of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, the adoption and implementation of sustainable GIN control principles will remain important. With emerging markets for grass-fed or organic livestock, there will continue to be a critical need for research and outreach on development and on-farm application of integrated GIN control systems for small ruminants in the U.S. for the foreseeable future. PMID:22178411
Besier, R B; Kahn, L P; Sargison, N D; Van Wyk, J A
Haemonchus contortus is a highly pathogenic, blood-feeding nematode of small ruminants, and a significant cause of mortalities worldwide. Haemonchosis is a particularly significant threat in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions, where warm and moist conditions favour the free-living stages, but periodic outbreaks occur more widely during periods of transient environmental favourability. The clinical diagnosis of haemonchosis is based mostly on the detection of anaemia in association with a characteristic epidemiological picture, and confirmed at postmortem by the finding of large numbers of H. contortus in the abomasum. The detection of impending haemonchosis relies chiefly on periodic monitoring for anaemia, including through the 'FAMACHA' conjunctival-colour index, or through faecal worm egg counts and other laboratory procedures. A range of anthelmintics for use against H. contortus is available, but in most endemic situations anthelmintic resistance significantly limits the available treatment options. Effective preventative programmes vary depending on environments and enterprise types, and according to the scale of the haemonchosis risk and the local epidemiology of infections, but should aim to prevent disease outbreaks while maintaining anthelmintic efficacy. Appropriate strategies include animal management programmes to avoid excessive H. contortus challenge, genetic and nutritional approaches to enhance resistance and resilience to infection, and the monitoring of H. contortus infection on an individual animal or flock basis. Specific strategies to manage anthelmintic resistance centre on the appropriate use of effective anthelmintics, and refugia-based treatment schedules. Alternative approaches, such as biological control, may also prove useful, and vaccination against H. contortus appears to have significant potential in control programmes. PMID:27238006
Full Text Available ts) Value sp|Q7Z7B0|FLIP1_HUMAN Filamin-A-interacting protein 1 OS=Homo sa... 46 1e-04 sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN ...E+ S+ +EC + E EK + L E+ V+ +R+ ELE SR Sbjct: 435 LEKLEEAFSKSKSECTQ-LHLNLEKEKNL------TKDLLNELEVVKSRVKELECSESR 486 >sp|O61308|PUMA..._PARUN 227 kDa spindle- and centromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens GN=PUMA
Full Text Available |O76463|NFT1_CAEEL Nitrilase and fragile histidine triad fusio... 34 0.83 sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spind...S NDL NF +++ AG Sbjct: 8 RTMATGRHF-IAVCQMTSDNDLEKNFQAAKNMIERAG 43 >sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spindle- and... centromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens GN=PUMA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length
Full Text Available .. 37 0.069 sp|Q9PW73|SOJO_XENLA Cytoskeletal protein Sojo OS=Xenopus laevis... 37 0.090 sp|O61308|PUMA_PARU...LEAKADAQENALRTTEDQLEHSRHILAEKERILQMFKDEMKAL 215 Query: 546 KEEL 557 KEEL Sbjct: 216 KEEL 219 >sp|O61308|PUMA..._PARUN 227 kDa spindle- and centromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens GN=PUMA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length
Full Text Available NDC80 OS=Cand... 32 2.6 sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spindle- and centromere-associated ... 32 3.3 sp|P40460...LVKFQKYVDSMKAKSEEWPIKLSKIEDELNEKKENIKLITEEISQIQDSLQRKGLS 438 Query: 289 EEQ 297 EQ Sbjct: 439 VEQ 441 >sp|O61308|PUMA..._PARUN 227 kDa spindle- and centromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens GN=PUMA
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are used in starter cultures for the production of fermented meat products due to their involvement in the development of desired red color, characteristic flavor as well as ensuring stability. But also other CNS species like S. condimenti, S. piscifermentans, S. equorum and S. succinus have a potential for future use in starter cultures. The safety of fermented food products is principally proven by long-term experience as traditional methods are consid...
Chagas, Ana Carolina S; Katiki, Luciana M; Silva, Ives C; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Esteves, Sérgio N; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina S; Barioni Júnior, Waldomiro
The aim of this work was to determine the resistance level of Haemonchus contortus isolated from the Santa Inês flock of the Embrapa (Brazilian government's Agricultural Research Company), Southeast Livestock Unit (CPPSE), as well as to determine costs of characterizing and maintaining this isolate in host donors. Forty-two male Santa Inês lambs were experimentally infected with 4000 H. contortus infective larvae of the field isolate of CPPSE, called Embrapa2010, and divided into six treatment groups, which received triclorfon, albendazol plus cobalt sulfate, ivermectin, moxidectin, closantel and levamisole phosphate, as well as a negative control group (water). Egg per gram (EPG) counts were performed at 0, 3, 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment when the animals were slaughtered for parasite count. The data were analyzed using the RESO statistical program, considering anthelmintic resistance under 95% of efficacy. EPG and worm count presented a linear and significant relation with 94% determination coefficient. The susceptibility results obtained by RESO through both criteria (EPG and worm count) were equal, except for closantel, showing that the isolate Embrapa2010 is resistant to benzimidazoles, macrocyclic lactones and imidazothiazoles. The need of a control group did not appear to be essential since the result for susceptibility in the analyses with or without this group was the same. Suppression in egg production after treatment did not occur in the ivermectin and moxidectin groups. In the control group, the establishment percentage was just 12.5 because of the low number of third-stage larvae, resistance (innate and infection immunity) of the animals studied plus good nutrition. Drug classes presented similar efficacy between adults and immature stages. The costs for isolate characterization were calculated for 42 animals during 60 days. The total cost based on local market rates was approximately US$ 8000. The precise identification of Brazilian isolates and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of
Learmount, Jane; Stephens, Nathalie; Boughtflower, Valerie; Barrecheguren, Alba; Rickell, Kayleigh; Massei, Giovanna; Taylor, Mike
Anthelmintics are commonly used on the majority of UK commercial sheep farms to reduce major economic losses associated with parasitic diseases. With increasing anthelmintic resistance worldwide, several countries have produced evidence-based, best practice guidelines with an example being the UK's Sustainable Control of Parasites in Sheep (SCOPS) initiative. In 2012, a pilot study demonstrated that SCOPS-managed farms used fewer anthelmintic treatments than traditionally managed farms, with no impact on lamb productivity and worm burden. Building on these results, we collected data for three consecutive years (2012-2014) with the following aims: (1) To compare the effects of traditional and SCOPS-based parasite management on lamb productivity and worm burden; (2) To evaluate the effect of region and farm type on lamb productivity and worm burden; (3) To compare the frequency and patterns of use of anthelmintic treatment on traditional and SCOPS-managed farms. The study was carried out on 16 farms located in the North east and the South west of England and Wales. Lamb productivity was assessed by quantifying birth, mid-season and finish weights and calculating daily live-weight gains and time to finish in a cohort of 40-50 lambs on each farm. Five annual faecal egg counts were carried out on each farm to assess worm burden. No differences in lamb productivity and worm burdens were found between farms that adopted SCOPS guidelines and traditional farms across the three years. However, mean infection levels increased for both the SCOPS and the traditional groups. Lamb production was not significantly different for farm type and region but the effect of region on infection was significant. For both ewes and lambs, SCOPS farms carried out significantly fewer anthelmintic treatments per year, and used fewer anthelmintic doses/animal than traditional farms. The data suggest a trend to increasing use of anthelmintics in ewes on traditional but not on the SCOPS farms and a
Full Text Available iss-Prot sp_hit_id O61308 Definition sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spindle- and ce... Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O61308|PUMA_...|CE290_MOUSE Centrosomal protein of 290 kDa OS=Mus musc... 41 0.002 >sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spindle- a...nd centromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens GN=PUMA1 PE=2 SV=1 Lengt
Full Text Available t : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id O61308 Definition sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spindle- and centromere-associated p....done Score E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spindle-...Paramyosin OS=Brugia malayi PE=2 SV=2 37 0.083 >sp|O61308|PUMA_PARUN 227 kDa spin...dle- and centromere-associated protein OS=Parascaris univalens GN=PUMA1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 1955 Score = 44.7
Full Text Available The faeces of 82 donkeys irrespective of sex and age were collected and examined for any parasitic ova. The faecal sample of68 donkeys were infected with: Strongylus sp. (54.87%, Parascaris sp. (29.26%, Strongyloides sp. (24.39%, Trichonema sp. (15.85%,Oxyuris sp. (8.53%, Gastrodiscus sp. (8.53%, Entamoeba sp. (8.53%, Dictyocaulus sp. (3.65%, and Triodontophorus sp. (2.43%. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 224-224
J.A. Van Wyk
Full Text Available In three trials conducted on two separate farms the production of sheep treated for naturally acquired haemonchosis using the FAMACHA© system of targeted selective treatment (TST (i.e. to treat only those animals unable to manage unaided in the face of heavy Haemonchus challenge was compared to that of suppressively drenched sheep in the same flock. As expected by the research team who developed and evaluated the FAMACHA© system, TST did result in some loss in production. However, despite high levels of worm challenge in two of the trials and the fact that the comparison was with suppressive drenching which is not sustainable, the total effect was relatively small in relation to the important advantage of using the TST as regards reduced selection for anthelmintic resistance (AR. Concerning the sustainability of worm control, it is concluded that the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics leaves sheep and goat farmers in South Africa no choice but to use methods of TST such as FAMACHA©. The FAMACHA© system can also be a useful clinical aid for early on-farm detection of AR by farmers; the degree of improvement in the colour of the ocular mucous membrane from pale to red in individually drenched anaemic animals over a period of 7-14 days can give a good indication of the efficacy of the compound(s used.
Garnier, Romain; Grenfell, Bryan T; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Graham, Andrea L
Gastrointestinal nematodes represent important sources of economic losses in farmed ruminants, and the increasing frequency of anthelmintic resistance requires an increased ability to explore alternative strategies. Theoretical approaches at the crossroads of immunology and epidemiology are valuable tools in that context. In the case of Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep, the immunological mechanisms important for resistance are increasingly well-characterized. However, despite the existence of a wide range of theoretical models, there is no framework integrating the characteristic features of this immune response into a tractable phenomenological model. Here, we propose to bridge that gap by developing a flexible modelling framework that allows for variability in nematode larval intake which can be used to track the variations in worm burdens. We parameterize this model using data from trickle infection of sheep and show that using simple immunological assumptions, our model can capture the dynamics of both adult worm burdens and nematode fecal egg counts. In addition, our analysis reveals interesting dose-dependent effects on the immune response. Finally, we discuss potential developments of this model and highlight how an improved cross-talk between empiricists and theoreticians would facilitate important advances in the study of infectious diseases. PMID:26283186
Campbell, Bronwyn E; Hofmann, Andreas; McCluskey, Adam; Gasser, Robin B
Little is known about the fundamental biology of parasitic nematodes (=roundworms) that cause serious diseases, affecting literally billions of animals and humans worldwide. Unlocking the biology of these neglected pathogens using modern technologies will yield crucial and profound knowledge of their molecular biology, and could lead to new treatment and control strategies. Supported by studies in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, some recent investigations have provided improved insights into selected protein phosphatases (PPs) of economically important parasitic nematodes (Strongylida). In the present article, we review this progress and assess the potential of serine/threonine phosphatase (STP) genes and/or their products as targets for new nematocidal drugs. Current information indicates that some small molecules, known to specifically inhibit PPs, might be developed as nematocides. For instance, some cantharidin analogues are known to display exquisite PP-inhibitor activity, which indicates that some of them could be designed and tailored to specifically inhibit selected STPs of nematodes. This information provides prospects for the discovery of an entirely novel class of nematocides, which is of paramount importance, given the serious problems linked to anthelmintic resistance in parasitic nematode populations of livestock, and has the potential to lead to significant biotechnological outcomes. PMID:20732402
Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B.; Buck, Amy H.; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F.; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Knox, David P.; McNeilly, Tom N.
Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. PMID:27084478
Nagy, Gábor; Csivincsik, Ágnes; Zsolnai, Attila; Sugár, László
Thirty Haemonchus contortus male worms were collected from farmed red deer yearlings in order to determine whether routine administration of albendazole for a long-term period (17 years) could select anthelmintic resistance. PCR-RFLP method based on single-nucleotide polymorphism of codon 200 in isotype 1 ß-tubulin gene (Phe200Tyr) was applied. The results showed a significant frequency of either the resistant allele (85 %) or the homozygous resistant genotype (70 %). By chi-square test, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of the population was accepted (p = 0.334, power of test 0.01). True prevalence of the resistant genotype (RR) was estimated to be 46.5-87.2 % (confidence interval 95 %) calculated by Sterne's exact method. These results confirmed that long-term use of benzimidazoles could change the relative allele frequency of genes associated with drug resistance and may cause a large-scale spread of the resistant allele. To our knowledge, this study supported benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus in red deer for the first time. PMID:27249966
Slusarewicz, Paul; Pagano, Stefanie; Mills, Christopher; Popa, Gabriel; Chow, K Martin; Mendenhall, Michael; Rodgers, David W; Nielsen, Martin K
Intestinal parasites are a concern in veterinary medicine worldwide and for human health in the developing world. Infections are identified by microscopic visualisation of parasite eggs in faeces, which is time-consuming, requires technical expertise and is impractical for use on-site. For these reasons, recommendations for parasite surveillance are not widely adopted and parasite control is based on administration of rote prophylactic treatments with anthelmintic drugs. This approach is known to promote anthelmintic resistance, so there is a pronounced need for a convenient egg counting assay to promote good clinical practice. Using a fluorescent chitin-binding protein, we show that this structural carbohydrate is present and accessible in shells of ova of strongyle, ascarid, trichurid and coccidian parasites. Furthermore, we show that a cellular smartphone can be used as an inexpensive device to image fluorescent eggs and, by harnessing the computational power of the phone, to perform image analysis to count the eggs. Strongyle egg counts generated by the smartphone system had a significant linear correlation with manual McMaster counts (R(2)=0.98), but with a significantly lower coefficient of variation (P=0.0177). Furthermore, the system was capable of differentiating equine strongyle and ascarid eggs similar to the McMaster method, but with significantly lower coefficients of variation (Psmartphones as relatively sophisticated, inexpensive and portable medical diagnostic devices. PMID:27025771
McRae, K M; Stear, M J; Good, B; Keane, O M
Gastrointestinal nematode infection represents a major threat to the health, welfare and productivity of sheep populations worldwide. Infected lambs have a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in morbidity and occasional mortality. The current chemo-dominant approach to nematode control is considered unsustainable due to the increasing incidence of anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is growing consumer demand for food products from animals not subjected to chemical treatment. Future mechanisms of nematode control must rely on alternative, sustainable strategies such as vaccination or selective breeding of resistant animals. Such strategies take advantage of the host's natural immune response to nematodes. The ability to resist gastrointestinal nematode infection is considered to be dependent on the development of a protective acquired immune response, although the precise immune mechanisms involved in initiating this process remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, current knowledge on the innate and acquired host immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection in sheep and the development of immunity is reviewed. PMID:26480845
Paraud, C; Marcotty, T; Lespine, A; Sutra, J F; Pors, I; Devos, I
Resistance to ivermectin and moxidectin was explored by a faecal egg count reduction test in two sheep flocks with suspected anthelmintic resistance. The FECRT confirmed one suspicion, with a mean percentage of reduction in egg excretion within the treated groups of 0% for ivermectin (CI 95%: -228 to 58) and 13% for moxidectin (CI 95%: -152 to 70). This was further explored by a controlled efficacy test. An experimental infection of 18 naïve lambs was set up using infective larvae isolated from this flock (5000 L3/lamb). Compared to the control group, abomasal worm burdens (Teladorsagia circumcincta) were reduced by 90% [CI 95%: 81.5-94.8] and 85% [CI 95%: 72.4-92.2] after ivermectin (p<0.05) and moxidectin (p<0.05) treatment respectively. Again, compared to the control group, there was a reduction for intestinal strongyles (Trichostrongylus colubriformis) of 100% and 99% [CI 95%: 97.5-99.7] for ivermectin and moxidectin respectively. No difference was found between the efficacy of moxidectin and ivermectin. Pharmacokinetic values indicated that the strongyles were submitted to anthelmintic concentrations usually lethal to them. This trial demonstrated the first multiple resistance of ovine strongyles in France. PMID:27514891
Luciana Laitano Dias de Castro
Full Text Available Due to anthelmintic resistance in nematodes, several research studies have been developed seeking control alternatives to these parasites. This study evaluated the in vitro action of Origanum vulgare on gastrointestinal nematode eggs of cattle. In order to evaluate the ability to inhibit egg hatch, different dried leaves extracts of this plant were tested, such as dye, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts at concentrations varying from 0.62 to 80 mg/mL. Each assay was accompanied by control containing levamisole hydrochloride (0.2 mg/mL, distilled water and 70 ºGL grain alcohol at the same concentration of the extracts. Test results showed that the different O. vulgare extracts inhibited egg hatch of cattle gastrointestinal nematodes at a percentage that varied from 8.8 to 100%; dye and hydroalcoholic extract were the most promising inhibitors. In view of this ovicidal property, O. vulgare may be an important source of viable antiparasitic compounds for nematodiosis control in ruminants.
Peter J. Waller
Full Text Available In a balanced ecological system, both host and nematode parasite populations are firmly controlled by a complex array of interacting factors. However domestication of livestock has tipped the balance in favour of the parasites. This is due to increasing the proportion of susceptible animals in the herd or flock (lactating females and weaned young animals, increasing stocking rate, increasing productivity demands and decreasing the movement of the animals. In contrast with microbial infections, where multiplication takes place entirely within the host, metazoan parasites have both a parasitic phase and a free-living phase. Every worm present has been separately acquired by the ingestion of free-living stages on pasture. Immunity to nematodes develops slowly, it is labile, and its maintenance is dependent upon a good nutritional state of the animal. Consequently, worm parasites are ubiquitous wherever livestock are kept and they impose a constant and often a high infectious pressure on grazing animals. Nematode infections in grazing livestock are almost always a mixture of species. All have deleterious effects and collectively lead to chronic ill thrift. Economic evaluations repeatedly show that the major losses due to parasites are on animal production, rather than on mortality. This paper focuses on the problems of nematode parasites; problems associated with drug use (anthelmintic resistance, environmental impact and costs of nematode infections for the common ruminant livestock industries (cattle, sheep, goats, with possible analogies for the semi-domesticated reindeer industry.
Charlier, J; Morgan, E R; Rinaldi, L; van Dijk, J; Demeler, J; Höglund, J; Hertzberg, H; Van Ranst, B; Hendrickx, G; Vercruysse, J; Kenyon, F
Due to the development of anthelmintic resistance, there have been calls for more sustainable nematode control practices. Two important concepts were introduced to study and promote the sustainable use of anthelmintics: targeted treatments (TT), where the whole flock/herd is treated based on knowledge of the risk, or parameters that quantify the severity of infection; and targeted selective treatments (TST), where only individual animals within the grazing group are treated. The aim of the TT and TST approaches is to effectively control nematode-induced production impacts while preserving anthelmintic efficacy by maintaining a pool of untreated parasites in refugia. Here, we provide an overview of recent studies that assess the use of TT/TST against gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and investigate the economic consequences, feasibility and knowledge gaps associated with TST. We conclude that TT/TST approaches are ready to be used and provide practical benefits today. However, a major shift in mentality will be required to make these approaches common practice in parasite control. PMID:25217603
Kornaś, Sławomir; Sallé, Guillaume; Skalska, Marta; David, Ingrid; Ricard, Anne; Cabaret, Jacques
Equine internal parasites, mostly cyathostomins, affect both horse welfare and performance. The appearance of anthelmintic-resistant parasites creates a pressing need for optimising drenching schemes. This optimization may be achieved by identifying genetic markers associated with host susceptibility to infection and then to drench carriers of these markers. The aim of our study was to characterise the genetics of horse resistance to strongyle infection by estimating heritability of this trait in an Arabian pure blood population. A population of 789 Arabian pure blood horses from the Michałów stud farm, Poland were measured for strongyle egg excretion twice a year, over 8 years. Low repeatability values were found for faecal egg counts. Our analyses showed that less than 10% of the observed variation for strongyle faecal egg counts in this population had a genetic origin. However, additional analyses highlighted an age-dependent increase in heritability which was 0.04 (±0.02) in young horses (up to 3 years of age) but 0.21 (±0.04) in older ones. These results suggest that a significant part of the inter-individual variation has a genetic origin. This paves the way to a genomic dissection of horse-nematode interactions which might provide predictive markers of susceptibility, allowing individualised drenching schemes. PMID:25592965
Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance and the high cost of conventional anthelmintic drugs led to the evaluation of medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. In the current study, in-vitro experiments were conducted to determine the possible anthelmintic effects of crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides, Lawsonia inermis and seeds of Jatropha curcas, on eggs and adult Haemonchus contortus. Both extracts of C. ambrosioides and J. curcas inhibited the hatching of eggs at a concentration less than or equal to 2mg/ml, while the effect of L. inermis was not dose-dependent and did not inhibit the hatching of eggs of H. contortus, significantly, at all tested concentrations. Based on their ED 50 , the two most potent extracts using egg hatch assay were the hydroalcoholic extract of C. ambrosioides (0.09mg/ml and the aqueous extract of J. curcas (0.1mg/ml in a decreasing order of potency. With regard to the effect of extracts on the survival of adult parasites, extracts from C. ambrosioides have shown a moderate effect, while J. curcas and L. inermis have shown no statistically significant effect on the survival of adult parasites at the concentrations tested, and the few mortality cases recorded were not dose-dependent ( P < 0.05. The overall findings of the present study have shown that C. ambrosioides and J. curcas contain possible anthelmintic compounds and further evaluation of these plants should be carried out.
Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Mohamed, Mohamed Jamal; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath
The rapid development of anthelmintic resistance, associated with the high cost of the available anthelmintic drugs, has limited the success of gastrointestinal nematodiosis control in sheep and goats and thus created interest in studying medicinal plants as an alternative source of anthelmintics. The aim of this study was carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) were tested for in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus (Strongylida). Both extracts were evaluated at five concentrations: 12.5, 6.2, 3.12, 1.56, and 0.78 mg/ml. The leaves aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts inhibited 99.4% and 100% of the egg hatching and 100% of larval development at 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. In a similar way, the leaves hydro-alcoholic extract was the most active on egg inhibition (ED (50) = 1.97 and ED ( 90 ) = 5.05 mg/ml), leaves and seed aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts showed the best inhibition of larval development (ED ( 50 ) = 3.01, 2.43, 3.17, 2.40, and ED ( 90 ) = 10.53, 8.14, 11.94, and 8.19 mg/ml), respectively. These results suggest that utilization of M. azedarach extracts is useful in the control of H. contortus. PMID:20177909
Maciel, M V; Morais, S M; Bevilaqua, C M L; Camurça-Vasconcelos, A L F; Costa, C T C; Castro, C M S
Haemonchus contortus is responsible for severe economic losses in sheep and goat breeding in the Northeast of Brazil. However, the effectiveness of control is compromised due to anthelmintic resistance and misuse. In the search for natural anthelmintics, Melia azedarach L., a plant indigenous to India but now distributed throughout Brazil, was selected due to the reported anthelmintic properties of its seeds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of the seed and leaf extracts of the Brazilian adapted plant and investigate the type of organic chemical compounds present in the most active extracts. The ovicidal and larvicidal activity of M. azedarach extracts on H. contortus was evaluated through egg hatching and larval development tests. Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds and chloroform and ethanol extracts of leaves of M. azedarach were used in the tests. To perform the larval development test, feces of an animal free from parasites were mixed with third instar H. contortus larvae and extracts in several concentrations. The coprocultures were incubated for 7 days at 30 degrees C, then the larvae were recovered and counted. LC50 was calculated by probits using the SPSS 8.0 program. The seed ethanol extract was the most active on eggs (LC50=0.36mgmL(-1)) and the leaf ethanol extract showed the best inhibition of larval development (LC50=9.18mgmL(-1)). Phytochemical analysis of the most active extracts revealed the presence of condensed tannins, triterpenes and alkaloids. PMID:16621294
Hernández-Villegas, M M; Borges-Argáez, R; Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Méndez-Gonzalez, M; Cáceres-Farfan, M
The development of anthelmintic resistance has impacted on the success of conventional anthelmintics (AH) for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing/browsing sheep and goats. Medicinal plants from the traditional herbolary in Mexico may provide new candidates that can be explored as alternative sources of AHs for ruminants. This study evaluated the leaf extracts derived from Phytolacca icosandra against infective L(3) larvae and eggs from Haemonchus contortus collected from sheep. Three extracts of different polarities were obtained from the leaf plants using ethanol, n-hexane and dichloromethane as the solvents. The effectiveness of the in vitro AH activity of the plant extracts was evaluated using larval migration inhibition (LMI) and egg hatch (EHA) assays. For the LMI assays, the ethanolic extract of P. icosandra showed 55.4% inhibition of larval migration at 2mg/mL (pH. contortus life stages that were evaluated. In conclusion, the ethanolic and dichloromethane extracts of P. icosandra showed clear in vitro AH activity against the H. contortus eggs and the L(3) larvae. However, the hexanic extract of the plant leaves failed to show any in vitro AH activity. PMID:21439732
Tzelos, Thomas; Matthews, Jacqueline B; Buck, Amy H; Simbari, Fabio; Frew, David; Inglis, Neil F; McLean, Kevin; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Knox, David P; McNeilly, Tom N
Teladorsagia circumcincta is a major cause of ovine parasitic gastroenteritis in temperate climatic regions. The development of high levels of anthelmintic resistance in this nematode species challenges its future control. Recent research indicates that many parasite species release extracellular vesicles into their environment, many of which have been classified as endocytic in origin, termed exosomes. These vesicles are considered to play important roles in the intercellular communication between parasites and their hosts, and thus represent potentially useful targets for novel control strategies. Here, we demonstrate that exosome-like extracellular vesicles can be isolated from excretory-secretory (ES) products released by T. circumcincta fourth stage larvae (Tci-L4ES). Furthermore, we perform a comparative proteomic analysis of vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free Tci-L4ES. Approximately 73% of the proteins identified in the vesicle-enriched fraction were unique to this fraction, whilst the remaining 27% were present in both vesicle-enriched and vesicle-free fraction. These unique proteins included structural proteins, nuclear proteins, metabolic proteins, proteolytic enzymes and activation-associated secreted proteins. Finally, we demonstrate that molecules present within the vesicles-enriched material are targets of the IgA and IgG response in T. circumcincta infected sheep, and could potentially represent useful targets for future vaccine intervention studies. PMID:27084478
Turner, Joanne; Howell, Alison; McCann, Cathy; Caminade, Cyril; Bowers, Roger G; Williams, Diana; Baylis, Matthew
Fasciola hepatica, common liver fluke, infects cattle and sheep causing disease and production losses costing approximately $3billion annually. Current control relies on drugs designed to kill the parasite. However, resistance is evident worldwide and widespread in some areas. Work towards a vaccine has identified several antigens of F. hepatica that show partial efficacy in terms of reducing worm burden and egg output. A critical question is what level of efficacy is required for such a vaccine to be useful? We have created the first mathematical model to assess the effectiveness of liver fluke vaccines under simulated field conditions. The model describes development of fluke within a group of animals and includes heterogeneity in host susceptibility, seasonal exposure to metacercariae and seasonal changes in temperature affecting metacercarial survival. Our analysis suggests that the potential vaccine candidates could reduce total fluke burden and egg output by up to 43% and 99%, respectively, on average under field conditions. It also suggests that for a vaccine to be effective, it must protect at least 90% of animals for the whole season. In conclusion, novel, partial, vaccines could contribute substantially towards fasciolosis control, reducing usage of anthelmintics and thus delaying the spread of anthelmintic resistance. PMID:27009747
Olah, Sophie; van Wyk, Jan A; Wall, Richard; Morgan, Eric R
The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica causes considerable damage to the health, welfare and productivity of ruminants in temperate areas, and its control is challenged by anthelmintic resistance. Targeted selective treatment (TST) is an increasingly established strategy for preserving anthelmintic efficacy in grazing livestock, yet no practical indicators are available to target individuals for treatment against fluke infection. This paper evaluates the FAMACHA(©) system, a colour chart for the non-invasive detection of anaemia in small ruminants, for this purpose. FAMACHA(©) scores were collected from 288 sheep prior to slaughter during the winter period, when fluke infections were largely mature, and condemned livers were recovered and adult flukes extracted. Average FAMACHA(©) score was significantly higher (=paler conjunctivae) in animals whose livers were condemned (3.6, n=62) than in those whose livers were not condemned (2.1). The number of adult flukes recovered ranged from 2 to 485, and was positively correlated with FAMACHA(©) score (r(2)=0.54, phepatica, in support of refugia-based control of fluke and nematode infections, and further field evaluation is warranted. PMID:26223154
Solana, María Victoria; Mera y Sierra, Roberto; Scarcella, Silvana; Neira, Gisela; Solana, Hugo Daniel
Anthelmintic resistance in livestock parasites is currently a worldwide problem. Fasciola hepatica is a cosmopolitan parasite which causes considerable loss in sheep and cattle production systems all over the world. Chemotherapy is currently the main tool available for its control. The intensive use of triclabendazole, the drug of choice for more than 20 years, has resulted in the development of resistant strains. The therapeutic options are adulticides such as closantel (salicylanilide anthelmintic that binds extensively to plasma albumin) to treat chronic fascioliasis in sheep, and cattle. In the present work, an Egg Hatch Assay (EHA) and morphometric studies were used to evaluate in vivo the ovicidal activity and morphology F. hepatica eggs, recovered from closantel treated sheep collected at different time intervals post treatment. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.0001) were observed in egg morphometry between the control and the treated groups in all the parameters studied. Eggs recovered from treated animals tend to be narrower and longer. Significant differences were found in the embryonation and hatching of eggs between 36 h post treatment (32, 5%) vs. approximately 85% in control, 12 h and 24 h post treatment. Our results confirm that closantel affects in vivo the normal development of the eggs. As one of the first effects, this drug affects the performance of the trematode's reproductive physiology. Even though closantel treated animals may still eliminate eggs in the first days post treatment, these are not viable. PMID:26551411
Kingsbury, P A; Reid, J F
Oxfendazole was administered in paste or drench formulations to groups of five horses carrying naturally acquired worm burdens. At a dose rate of 10 mg/kg the efficacy of either formulation appeared similar. One hundred per cent of the adult populations of the following genera was removed: Parascaris, Oxyuris, Strongylus (S edentatus, S vulgaris), Triodontophorus and Trichostrongylus axei. Efficacy against adult small strongyles, adult Habronema microstoma and immature Oxyuris equi was in the region of 96 to 99 per cent. The level of efficacy against immature small strongyles was at least 74 to 75 per cent, against fourth stage larvae of S vulgaris in the mesenteric arteries between 83 and 88 per cent and against fourth stage S edentatus in flank lesions between 97 and 99 per cent. Early fifth stage sheathed S vulgaris larvae in arteries were less susceptible. The drug failed to remove very young parascaris and habronema and had no effect against Anoplocephala perfoliata and various instars of Gasterophilus intestinalis and G nasalis. Hatching tests on strongyle eggs passed in the faeces indicated that 24 hours must elapse before all become sterile. PMID:6461963
Full Text Available Histidine, lysine, ornithine and tyrosine decarboxylase activities were tested in 38 strains of Staphylococcus (15 of Staph. equorum, 11 of Staph. epidermidis, 7 of Staph. saprophyticus, and 5 of Staph. pasteuri and 19 strains of Bacillus (13 of B. subtilis and 6 of B. amyloliquefaciens isolated from two Spanish traditional sausage varieties.The four decarboxylase activities were present in most of the strains studied, but some variability was observed between strains within each microbial species.Accumulation of putrescine and cadaverine was assessed in the culture media of the strains that displayed ornithine and lysine decarboxylase activities. The aminogenic potential of the strains was low, with amounts accumulated lower than 25 mg/L for the putrescine and than 5 mg/L for the cadaverine, with the exception of a strain of Staph. equorum that produced 1415 mg/L of putrescine, and of a strain of Staph. epidermidis that accumulated 977 mg/L of putrescine and 36 mg/L of cadaverine.
Fernanda S. Fortes
Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is one of the most common and economically significant causes of disease in small ruminants worldwide, and the control programs of parasitic nematodes - including H. contortus - rely mostly on the use of anthelmintic drugs. The consequence of the use of this, as the sole sanitary strategy to avoid parasite infections, was the reduction of the efficacy of all chemotherapeutic products with a heavy selection for resistance. The widespread of anthelmintic resistance and the difficulty of its early diagnosis has been a major concern for the sustainable parasite management on farms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the ivermectin (IVM and moxidectin (MOX effect in a selected field strain of H. contortus with a known resistance status, using the in vitro larval migration on agar test (LMAT. Third stage larvae of the selected isolate were obtained from faecal cultures of experimentally infected sheep and incubated in eleven increasing diluted concentrations of IVM and MOX (6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 192, 384, 768, 1536, 3072 and 6144µg/mL. The dose-response sigmoidal curves were obtained using the R² value of >0.90 and the lethal concentration (LC50 dose for the tested anthelmintic drugs using a four-parameter logistic model. The LC50 value for MOX was significantly lower than IVM (1.253µg/mL and 91.06µg/mL, identifying the H. contortus isolate as considerably less susceptible to IVM compared to MOX. Furthermore, the LMAT showed a high consistency (p<0.0001 and provided to be a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the resistance status of IVM and MOX in H. contortus field isolate, as well as it may be used for official routine drug monitoring programs under the Ministry of Agriculture (MAPA guidance.
Moore, Hope; Pandolfi, Fanny; Kyriazakis, Ilias
A questionnaire was distributed electronically amongst sheep farmers in England; it aimed to provide a quantification of current anthelmintic practices, farmer awareness of the issue of anthelmintic resistance (AR) and the uptake, awareness and opinions surrounding conventional and alternative methods of nematode control. The majority of farmers relied on several anthelmintics and used faecal egg counts to identify worm problems. Although farmers were aware of the issue of AR amongst helminth parasites in the UK, there was a disconnection between such awareness and on farm problems and practice of nematode control. Grazing management was used by 52% of responders, while breeding for resistance and bioactive forages by 22 and 18% respectively. Farms with more than 500 ewes, and farmers who felt nematodes were a problem, had a higher probability of using selective breeding. Farmers who considered their wormer effective, had a qualification in agriculture and whose staff did not include any family members, were more likely to use bioactive forages; the opposite was the case if farmers dosed their lambs frequently. Amongst the alternatives, highest preference was for selective breeding and vaccination, if the latter was to become commercially available, with more respondents having a preference for breeding than actually using it. Several barriers to the uptake of an alternative were identified, the most influential factor being the cost to set it up and the length of time for which it would remain effective. The disconnection between awareness of AR and practice of nematode control on farm reinforces the need for emphasising the links between the causes of AR and the consequences of strategies to address its challenge. PMID:27084464
Walker, Josephine G; Ofithile, Mphoeng; Tavolaro, F Marina; van Wyk, Jan A; Evans, Kate; Morgan, Eric R
Due to the threat of anthelmintic resistance, livestock farmers worldwide are encouraged to selectively apply treatments against gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs). Targeted selective treatment (TST) of individual animals would be especially useful for smallholder farmers in low-income economies, where cost-effective and sustainable intervention strategies will improve livestock productivity and food security. Supporting research has focused mainly on refining technical indicators for treatment, and much less on factors influencing uptake and effectiveness. We used a mixed method approach, whereby qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined, to develop, implement and validate a TST system for GINs in small ruminants, most commonly goats, among smallholder farmers in the Makgadikgadi Pans region of Botswana, and to seek better understanding of system performance within a cultural context. After the first six months of the study, 42 out of 47 enrolled farmers were followed up; 52% had monitored their animals using the taught inspection criteria and 26% applied TST during this phase. Uptake level showed little correlation with farmer characteristics, such as literacy and size of farm. Herd health significantly improved in those herds where anthelmintic treatment was applied: anaemia, as assessed using the five-point FAMACHA(©) scale, was 0.44-0.69 points better (95% confidence interval) and body condition score was 0.18-0.36 points better (95% C.I., five-point scale) in treated compared with untreated herds. Only targeting individuals in greatest need led to similar health improvements compared to treating the entire herd, leading to dose savings ranging from 36% to 97%. This study demonstrates that TST against nematodes can be implemented effectively by resource-poor farmers using a community-led approach. The use of mixed methods provides a promising system to integrate technical and social aspects of TST programmes for maximum uptake and effect. PMID
Full Text Available Infections with parasitic helminths (nematodes and trematodes represent a significant economic and welfare burden to the global ruminant livestock industry. The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance means that current control programmes are costly and unsustainable in the long term. Recent changes in the epidemiology, seasonality and geographic distribution of helminth infections have been attributed to climate change. However, other changes in environment (e.g., land use and in livestock farming, such as intensification and altered management practices, will also have an impact on helminth infections. Sustainable control of helminth infections in a changing world requires detailed knowledge of these interactions. In particular, there is a need to devise new, sustainable strategies for the effective control of ruminant helminthoses in the face of global change. In this paper, we consider the impact of helminth infections in grazing ruminants, taking a European perspective, and identify scientific and applied priorities to mitigate these impacts. These include the development and deployment of efficient, high-throughput diagnostic tests to support targeted intervention, modelling of geographic and seasonal trends in infection, more thorough economic data and analysis of the impact of helminth infections and greater translation and involvement of end-users in devising and disseminating best practices. Complex changes in helminth epidemiology will require innovative solutions. By developing and using new technologies and models, the use of anthelmintics can be optimised to limit the development and spread of drug resistance and to reduce the overall economic impact of helminth infections. This will be essential to the continued productivity and profitability of livestock farming in Europe and its contribution to regional and global food security.
Full Text Available A major hindrance to evaluating nematode populations for anthelmintic resistance, as well as for screening existing drugs, new compounds, or bioactive plant extracts for anthelmintic properties, is the lack of an efficient, objective, and reproducible in vitro assay that is adaptable to multiple life stages and parasite genera. To address this need we have developed the “Worminator” system, which objectively and quantitatively measures the motility of microscopic stages of parasitic nematodes. The system is built around the computer application “WormAssay”, developed at the Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases at the University of California, San Francisco. WormAssay was designed to assess motility of macroscopic parasites for the purpose of high throughput screening of potential anthelmintic compounds, utilizing high definition video as an input to assess motion of adult stage (macroscopic parasites (e.g. Brugia malayi. We adapted this assay for use with microscopic parasites by modifying the software to support a full frame analysis mode that applies the motion algorithm to the entire video frame. Thus, the motility of all parasites in a given well are recorded and measured simultaneously. Assays performed on third-stage larvae (L3 of the bovine intestinal nematode Cooperia spp., as well as microfilariae (mf of the filarioid nematodes B. malayi and Dirofilaria immitis, yielded reproducible dose responses using the macrocyclic lactones ivermectin, doramectin, and moxidectin, as well as the nicotinic agonists, pyrantel, oxantel, morantel, and tribendimidine. This new computer based-assay is simple to use, requires minimal new investment in equipment, is robust across nematode genera and developmental stage, and does not require subjective scoring of motility by an observer. Thus, the “Worminator” provides a relatively low-cost platform for developing genera- and stage-specific assays with high efficiency and
Knapp-Lawitzke, Friederike; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Demeler, Janina
of anthelmintic resistance and the presence of hot/dry weather conditions. PMID:26828893
Lean, Ij; Westwood, Ct; Playford, Mc
This paper provides an overview of the changes in the pasture-based dairy systems of New Zealand and Australia that may influence the health of cattle. There are relatively few available data that can be used to quantify the effects of increased intensification of milk production on the health of cattle. There is evidence that increased production increases the risk of mastitis and culling for udder health. Increased risks of mastitis with treatment with somatotropin support these findings; however, the risk of mastitis may decrease with increased milking frequency. Larger herds with greater stocking density should increase the risk for infectious disease, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Very intensive grazing patterns associated with higher grass yields achieved using better cultivars and greater use of fertilisers favour nematode parasites. There is some evidence of anthelmintic resistance in both nematodes and liver fluke. Veterinarians will need to be aware of the potential for these to reduce the productivity of cattle. There have been benefits of improved nutrition on the efficiency of energy use for dairy production. Diseases such as bloat and ketosis appear to be of lower prevalence. It also appears that mineral nutrition of pasture-fed cattle is being better addressed, with gains in the control of milk fever, hypomagnesaemia and trace-element deficiencies. However, acidosis is a condition with a high point prevalence in pasture-based dairy systems where cows are fed supplements; one study in Australia found a point prevalence of approximately 11% of cows with acidosis. There is evidence from this study that the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in pasture-based diets may need to be higher than 30% of the diet to maintain rumen stability. Laminitis and acidosis are different conditions with a similar pathogenesis, specifically highly fermentable diets. The prevalence of lameness was 28% in herds in Australia, suggesting that this condition
Reinemeyer, Craig R; Prado, Julio C; Nichols, Eric C; Marchiondo, Alan A
In recent years, numerous veterinary practitioners have reported anecdotal episodes in which anthelmintic treatment did not appear to deliver the expected efficacy against equine pinworms (Oxyuris equi). Anthelmintic resistance has not been demonstrated formally in equine pinworms, so a clinical study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of paste formulations of pyrantel pamoate or ivermectin against naturally acquired infections with O. equi. Twenty-one horses (>4 months to 15 years of age) with patent, naturally acquired pinworm infections were blocked by source of origin and allocated randomly to one of three treatment groups: horses (n=7) assigned to Group 1 were treated orally with pyrantel pamoate paste at a dosage of 13.2 mg/kg (2x label dosage), Group 2 horses (n=7) were untreated controls, and horses (n=7) assigned to Group 3 were treated orally with ivermectin paste at a dosage of 200 microg/kg. Fourteen days after treatment, horses were euthanatized, necropsied, and large intestinal contents were processed for recovery of adult pinworms. In addition, duplicate 1% aliquots of intestinal contents from the cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon, and small colon were collected, preserved, and examined for recovery and enumeration of fourth-stage larval O. equi. Anthelmintic efficacy against pinworms was evaluated by comparing the post-treatment worm counts of Groups 1 and 3 to those of control animals. Mean numbers of O. equi adults recovered postmortem were significantly decreased by both pyrantel pamoate (P=0.0366) and ivermectin (P=0.0137) treatment, with respective efficacies of 91.2% and 96.0%. In addition, both products demonstrated >99% efficacy against fourth-stage O. equi larvae. The current study demonstrated acceptable adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of both pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin paste formulations against O. equi and did not support the existence of macrocyclic lactone or pyrimidine resistance in the pinworm populations evaluated. PMID
Walker, R S; Miller, J E; Monlezun, C J; LaMay, D; Navarre, C; Ensley, D
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite control recommendations are in a state of flux because of the increase in anthelmintic resistant cattle parasites, such as Cooperia spp. In addition, Cooperia spp. infection is typically high in warm-season grass pastures and can affect growth performance of grazing stocker calves in the Gulf Coast Region. This study evaluated the effects of moxidectin pour-on, oxfendazole oral suspension, or a combination of the two given at separate times on infection and performance of weaned beef calves grazing summer forages. Steers (n=42) and heifers (n=31) were stratified by sex, d-11 fecal egg count (FEC), and d-1 shrunk body weight (BW) to one of 10 pastures with four anthelmintic treatments and one control. Treatments included: (1) oxfendazole given on d 0 and moxidectin on d 73 (O+M), (2) moxidectin given on d 0 and oxfendazole on d 73 (M+O), (3) moxidectin given on d 0 (M), (4) oxfendazole given on d 0 (O) and (5) no anthelmintic given (CON). Calves grazed for d-110 beginning May 27th. Response variables were FEC (collected on d-11, 14, 31, 45, 59, 73, 87 and 108), coprocultures (evaluated for d 87 and 108), final shrunk BW, shrunk BW gain, average daily gain (ADG), and full BW gain (collected on d 31, 59, 73, 87, and 108). Calves treated with either oxfendazole (O+M and O) or moxidectin (M+O and M) on d 0 had significantly lower (Pparasite control and improve animal gains for stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures. PMID:23953143
Borloo, Jimmy; Geldhof, Peter; Peelaers, Iris; Van Meulder, Frederik; Ameloot, Paul; Callewaert, Nico; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin; Strelkov, Sergei V; Weeks, Stephen D
The cysteine-rich secretory/antigen 5/pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) protein superfamily is composed of a functionally diverse group of members that are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The excretome/secretome of numerous helminths (parasitic nematodes) contains abundant amounts of CAP members termed activation-associated secreted proteins (ASPs). Although ASPs are necessary for the parasitic life cycle in the host, the current lack of structural and functional information limits both understanding of their actual role in host-parasite interactions and the development of new routes in controlling parasitic infections and diseases. Alleviating this knowledge gap, a 1.85 Å resolution structure of recombinantly produced Oo-ASP-1 from Ostertagia ostertagi, which is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal parasites in cattle worldwide, was solved. Overall, Oo-ASP-1 displays the common hallmark architecture shared by all CAP-superfamily members, including the N-terminal CAP and C-terminal cysteine-rich domains, but it also reveals a number of highly peculiar features. In agreement with studies of the natively produced protein, the crystal structure shows that Oo-ASP-1 forms a stable dimer that has been found to be primarily maintained via an intermolecular disulfide bridge, hence the small interaction surface of only 306.8 Å(2). Moreover, unlike any other ASP described to date, an additional intramolecular disulfide bridge links the N- and C-termini of each monomer, thereby yielding a quasi-cyclic molecule. Taken together, the insights presented here form an initial step towards a better understanding of the actual biological role(s) that this ASP plays in host-parasite interactions. The structure is also essential to help to define the key regions of the protein suitable for development of ASP-based vaccines, which would enable the current issues surrounding anthelmintic resistance in the treatment of parasitic infections and diseases to be circumvented
Ademola, Isaiah O; Krücken, Jürgen; Ramünke, Sabrina; Demeler, Janina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg
Trichostrongyles are gastrointestinal parasites that occur globally and can cause subclinical to severe, sometimes life-threatening, infections in ruminants, particularly young animals. Benzimidazoles (BZ) are commonly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants. Increasing spread of worm populations with anthelmintics resistance has been reported and is considered a consequence of highly frequent and longstanding use of anthelmintics. To obtain initial information regarding the occurrence of putatively BZ-resistant Nigerian Haemonchus populations, screening based on the molecular analysis of BZ-resistance-associated β-tubulin isotype 1 gene sequence polymorphisms was undertaken. Genomic DNA was isolated from pooled adult Haemonchus sp. from 35 animals from each of the six states of southwestern Nigeria. Sequencing of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and external transcribed spacer (ETS) regions was used to determine the Haemonchus species. Pyrosequencing assays were used for detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 genes of the worms at codons 200 and 167 (TTC/TAC) or 198 (GAA/GCA). Exclusively, Haemonchus placei was detected and allele frequencies obtained at all three positions showed no evidence for the presence of resistance-related alleles. For Lagos State, pools of 10 worms from 30 different animals were analyzed separately for the codon 200 SNP, successfully excluding the presence of resistance-associated SNPs in very low frequencies. These positive findings, showing absence of elevated frequencies of BZ-resistance-associated β-tubulin alleles, have considerable significance since it suggests that farmers can still rely on the efficacy of this important drug class when used for controlling trichostrongyle infections in cattle in Nigeria. PMID:25782679
Sadia Rashid; Malik Irshadullah
Objective: To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms, Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus, and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD. Methods: The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method. Results: The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms. Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites. The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden. Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity (P Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery. The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack. SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world. The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential. One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could be exploited for further studies on diagnostic/control measures.
Walker, Martin; Hall, Andrew; Basáñez, María-Gloria
The importance of the mode of acquisition of infectious stages of directly-transmitted parasitic helminths has been acknowledged in population dynamics models; hosts may acquire eggs/larvae singly in a "trickle" type manner or in "clumps". Such models have shown that the mode of acquisition influences the distribution and dynamics of parasite loads, the stability of host-parasite systems and the rate of emergence of anthelmintic resistance, yet very few field studies have allowed these questions to be explored with empirical data. We have analysed individual worm weight data for the parasitic roundworm of humans, Ascaris lumbricoides, collected from a three-round chemo-expulsion study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with the aim of discerning whether a trickle or a clumped infection process predominates. We found that hosts tend to harbour female worms of a similar weight, indicative of a clumped infection process, but acknowledged that unmeasured host heterogeneities (random effects) could not be completely excluded as a cause. Here, we complement our previous statistical analyses using a stochastic infection model to simulate sizes of individual A. lumbricoides infecting a population of humans. We use the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a quantitative measure of similarity among simulated worm sizes and explore the behaviour of this statistic under assumptions corresponding to trickle or clumped infections and unmeasured host heterogeneities. We confirm that both mechanisms are capable of generating aggregates of similar-sized worms, but that the particular pattern of ICCs described pre- and post-anthelmintic treatment in the data is more consistent with aggregation generated by clumped infections than by host heterogeneities alone. This provides support to the notion that worms may be acquired in clumps. We discuss our results in terms of the population biology of A. lumbricoides and highlight the significance of our modelling approach for the study of the
Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G
Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota
Søndergaard, A.K.; Stahnke, Louise Heller
in sausage minces together with Pediococcus pentosaceus, incubated at 25 C for I week and the produced aroma compounds collected. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression and partial least squares regression analysis. The results showed that increasing pH and temperature from 4.6 to 6...... more salt tolerant than strains of S. equorum and S, xylosus, especially at high pH and temperature. Addition of glucose up to 0.5% w/v had no significant influence on growth of any of the strains. With regard to aroma production, species characteristics were detected. S. carnosus and S. xylosus were......A laboratory medium inoculated with 20 different Staphylococcus strains was prepared in accordance with a full Factorial experimental design investigating the effect of temperature. pH, NaCl and glucose on growth. The 32 strains most suited to growth in a fermented meat environment were inoculated...
Full Text Available Totally, 47 strains of S. aureus and 578 coagulase negative staphylococci were detected in samples from raw ewe milk. The 35 out 47 isolates of S. aureus from ewe milk were positive for the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes: sea(4 %, sec (48 % a sed (48 %. Staphylococcus epidermis (33.04%, Staphylococcus caprae (21.28% were more prevalent. Staphylococcus chromogenes (7.44 %, Staphylococcus hominis (7.09%, Staphylococcus xylosus (6,92 %, a Staphylococcus warneri (6.40 % were isolated also in ewes milk. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (3.11 %, Staphylococcus capitis (2.94 %, Staphylococcus simulans (2.08 % and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (1.73 % were isolated very rarely from the taken individual milk ewe samples. Sporadically, only in few cases, the others coagulase negative staphylococci were isolated (Staphylococcus cohnii cohnii, Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus closii, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus auricularis and Staphylococcus equorum. doi:10.5219/24
Cherroud, Sanâa; Cachaldora, Aida; Fonseca, Sonia; Laglaoui, Amin; Carballo, Javier; Franco, Inmaculada
The objective of this work was to define a simple technological process for dry-cured Halal goat meat elaboration. The aims of this study were to analyze physicochemical parameters and to enumerate the microbial population at the end of the different manufacturing processes (two salting times and the addition of olive oil and paprika covering) on 36 units of meat product. A total of 532 strains were isolated from several selective culture media and then identified using classical and molecular methods. In general, salt effect and the addition of olive oil and paprika were significant for all the studied microbial groups as well as on NaCl content and water activity. Molecular analysis proves that staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus equorum, were the most common naturally occurring microbiota. The best manufacturing process would be obtained with a longer salting time and the addition of the olive oil and paprika covering. PMID:24950081
Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu
Full Text Available Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A, one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C. Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing, and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid bacteria, salt tolerant flora, and Enterobacteriaceae and some physical-chemical parameters (moisture, NaCl, pH and aw values were determined. High microbial counts (log CFU were observed with values at the end of ripening period: for lactic acid bacteria 9.77 (A, 11.47 (B and 11.19 (C; for total aerobic mesophilic flora 9.89 (A, 11.38 (B and 11.30 (C; for salt tolerant flora 4.45 (A, 5.31 (B and 5.27 (C. The starter cultures had a significant inhibitory effect on Enterobacteriaceae counts (log CFU, values at the end of ripening period being 1.32 (A, 0.33 (B and not detected (C. A significant decrease in the pH values is observed until the seventh day of ripening, showing a slight, but progressive increase after the 14th day of ripening. Results show that the production and ripening process in a pilot scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes in obtaining safe and homogeneous products.
Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Koziróg, Anna; Otlewska, Anna; Piotrowska, Małgorzata; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Brycki, Bogumił; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Gutarowska, Beata
Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. Due to these advantages, QACs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipients in the protection of historical materials against microbial growth. The study determined the antimicrobial activity of three biocides against bacteria: Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus muralis, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians, and moulds: Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium citreonigrum, Cladosporium cladosporioides I, Acremonium strictum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium cladosporioides II, all isolated from historical wood and brick. Staphylococcus equorum, Bacillus cereus, Sporosarcina aquimarina and Rhodococcus fascians bacteria, and Cladosporium cladosporioides I and Acremonium strictum moulds showed high sensitivity to quaternary ammonium biocides. Historical wood can be effectively disinfected by three applications of biocide A (30% v/v) containing dodecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC), citric acid, propiconazole and propanol. Disinfection of historical brick can be carried out by three applications of 6% v/v solutions of biocide B (based on DDAC and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid - EDTA) or biocide C (containing a non-ionic surfactant, DDAC and EDTA). Effective protection of historical building materials against microbial growth for a period of seven days can be achieved by the application of biocide A (30% v/v) on the wood surface and biocide B (6% v/v) on the brick surface. PMID:26629794
Busconi, Matteo; Zacconi, Carla; Scolari, Gianluigi
The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiota of two typical Italian PDO delicatessens Coppa and Pancetta Piacentina, produced in Piacenza area (Italy). Classical and molecular approaches were employed, in order to acquire knowledge on their bacterial ecology and its evolution after slicing and MAP storing; thus, the biodiversity of characteristic bacterial community, already present or introduced during such procedures, was studied in both full ripened and sliced samples from two producers (A and B) of the PDO district, packaged under MAP and stored at 2 and 8 °C for 30 days. The microbiota of the two kinds of Italian delicatessen demonstrated peculiar differences, particularly regarding the staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) ratio. Moreover, some species within these two groups appeared to be linked to the kind of product: Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus versmoldensis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were found only in Pancetta while Lactobacillus pentosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus sciuri and Macrococcus caseolyticus occurred only in Coppa. Also, both delicatessens from producer A were richer in LAB compared to those of producer B and the opposite applied for staphylococci. Interestingly, Tetragenococcus halophilus was detectable in all the samples and its presence in the sausage environment has been reported only for Capocollo. Storage did not substantially modify the microbiota composition, the only changes being the relative abundance of same sequences; S. xylosus was prevalent before slicing process and S. equorum at the end of MAP storage at both 2 °C and 8 °C. Concerning microbial contamination during the slicing process, our results suggest that the adopted procedures assure high hygienic quality standard of these typical products, with exception of a contamination by Psychrobacter psychrophilus in Coppa B. The possible origin of species rarely or never reported in the sausage environment and
Full Text Available Fasciola spp. liver fluke cause pernicious disease in humans and animals. Whilst current control is unsustainable due to anthelmintic resistance, gene silencing (RNA interference, RNAi has the potential to contribute to functional validation of new therapeutic targets. The susceptibility of juvenile Fasciola hepatica to double stranded (dsRNA-induced RNAi has been reported. To exploit this we probe RNAi dynamics, penetrance and persistence with the aim of building a robust platform for reverse genetics in liver fluke. We describe development of standardised RNAi protocols for a commercially-available liver fluke strain (the US Pacific North West Wild Strain, validated via robust transcriptional silencing of seven virulence genes, with in-depth experimental optimisation of three: cathepsin L (FheCatL and B (FheCatB cysteine proteases, and a σ-class glutathione transferase (FheσGST.Robust transcriptional silencing of targets in both F. hepatica and Fasciola gigantica juveniles is achievable following exposure to long (200-320 nt dsRNAs or 27 nt short interfering (siRNAs. Although juveniles are highly RNAi-susceptible, they display slower transcript and protein knockdown dynamics than those reported previously. Knockdown was detectable following as little as 4h exposure to trigger (target-dependent and in all cases silencing persisted for ≥25 days following long dsRNA exposure. Combinatorial silencing of three targets by mixing multiple long dsRNAs was similarly efficient. Despite profound transcriptional suppression, we found a significant time-lag before the occurrence of protein suppression; FheσGST and FheCatL protein suppression were only detectable after 9 and 21 days, respectively.In spite of marked variation in knockdown dynamics, we find that a transient exposure to long dsRNA or siRNA triggers robust RNAi penetrance and persistence in liver fluke NEJs supporting the development of multiple-throughput phenotypic screens for control
Roger K Prichard
Full Text Available Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations. To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis
Taylor, M A
There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more
Sadaf Bukhari and Prabir Kumar Sanyal
Full Text Available Because of the environmental and consumer concerns arising out of exponential growth in human population the world over, a term Sustainable Development has become an integral international concept, which is defined as one which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Ruminant animals appear sustainable as they do not compete with man for food, play a crucial role in the conversion of low quality plant material and crop residues to high quality human food as well as return valuable plant nutrients to the soil. Parasite control in ruminant livestock is a first-order input in any sustainable animal production system. As sustainable development is a compromise between reducing environmental degradation and positive economic growth, sustainable parasite control should aim towards less intensive, lower input, lesser risk of parasite induced losses with greater opportunities for integration of all available control resources. The compound scenario of rising anthelmintic resistance, food and environmental security and apathy of the pharmaceutical industry to go for the invention of new anthelmintic compounds has triggered the need for optimising the use of available anthelmintics with integration of all other alternative means for sustainable worm control. The “Sustainable Control of Parasitic Gastroenteritis in Ruminants” is thus encompasses a multidisciplinary approach involving integration of chemotherapy, grazing management, biological control, worm vaccines, genetic resistance of hosts, mathematical model based decision support and other strategies, if any. There is no single requirement more crucial to the rational and sustainable control of helminth parasites in grazing animals than a comprehensive knowledge of the epidemiology of the parasite as it interacts with the host in a specific climatic, management and production environment. In its absence, anthelmintic treatment
Kenyon, Fiona; Rinaldi, Laura; McBean, Dave; Pepe, Paola; Bosco, Antonio; Melville, Lynsey; Devin, Leigh; Mitchell, Gillian; Ianniello, Davide; Charlier, Johannes; Vercruysse, Jozef; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Levecke, Bruno
In small ruminants, faecal egg counts (FECs) and reduction in FECs (FECR) are the most common methods for the assessment of intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes infections and anthelmintic drug efficacy, respectively. The main limitation of these methods is the time and cost to conduct FECs on a representative number of individual animals. A cost-saving alternative would be to examine pooled faecal samples, however little is known regarding whether pooling can give representative results. In the present study, we compared the FECR results obtained by both an individual and a pooled examination strategy across different pool sizes and analytical sensitivity of the FEC techniques. A survey was conducted on 5 sheep farms in Scotland, where anthelmintic resistance is known to be widespread. Lambs were treated with fenbendazole (4 groups), levamisole (3 groups), ivermectin (3 groups) or moxidectin (1 group). For each group, individual faecal samples were collected from 20 animals, at baseline (D0) and 14 days after (D14) anthelmintic administration. Faecal samples were analyzed as pools of 3-5, 6-10, and 14-20 individual samples. Both individual and pooled samples were screened for GI strongyle and Nematodirus eggs using two FEC techniques with three different levels of analytical sensitivity, including Mini-FLOTAC (analytical sensitivity of 10 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG)) and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 or 50 EPG).For both Mini-FLOTAC and McMaster (analytical sensitivity of 15 EPG), there was a perfect agreement in classifying the efficacy of the anthelmintic as 'normal', 'doubtful' or 'reduced' regardless of pool size. When using the McMaster method (analytical sensitivity of 50 EPG) anthelmintic efficacy was often falsely classified as 'normal' or assessment was not possible due to zero FECs at D0, and this became more pronounced when the pool size increased. In conclusion, pooling ovine faecal samples holds promise as a cost-saving and efficient
Guthrie, A D; Learmount, J; VanLeeuwen, J; Peregrine, A S; Kelton, D; Menzies, P I; Fernández, S; Martin, R C; Mederos, A; Taylor, M A
With increasing levels of anthelmintic resistance worldwide and a growing demand to produce more organic products, utilisation of control strategies for gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) that minimize the use of anthelmintics becomes even more important. This study evaluated the farm-level performance of an existing predictive sheep parasite model from the United Kingdom (UK), using Canadian data. The UK model simulates the epidemiology of three major GIN species of interest (Teladorsagia spp., Haemonchus spp. and Trichostrongylus spp.) and provides a prediction about seasonal parasite levels of lambs and ewes. Model inputs were generated by using data from the first 2 years of a 3-year study (2006-2008) which examined the epidemiology of GIN parasitism in Ontario sheep flocks. Required input data included ewe parasite egg output, pasture-related information and management dynamics. Farm visits in 2006 and 2007 provided relevant data that were collected monthly during the grazing season, on six and seven occasions respectively. These data were collected from 10 ewes and 10 lambs on each farm. For 23 Ontario farms with available data, only 11 farms in 2006 and 14 in 2007 had suitable data to run in the model because the Canadian study was not specifically designed with this simulation model in mind. Observed values for faecal egg counts (FEC) were compared to the model FEC outputs and assessed using linear regression analysis. There was adequate fit between observed and simulated data for 8 of the 11 farms modelled using data generated in 2006 (F=7.55-42.66, df=10-11, R(2)=0.43-0.81, p=0.021 to <0.001) and with 8 of the farms modelled using data generated in 2007 (F=5.56-35.82, df=9-11, R(2)=0.36-0.82, p=0.040 to <0.001). We suggest that the poor fit between observed and simulated data for some data sets may be attributable to low-level infection on farms making regression difficult due to insensitivity of the egg count method at low values, or a pattern for immunity
Vasileiou, N G C; Fthenakis, G C; Papadopoulos, E
The present paper discusses the spread of parasites by animal movements in small ruminant farms; it focuses in dissemination of parasitic forms that would lead to subsequent infection of sheep or goats. Systems of small ruminant production involve a component of animal movement (e.g., grazing) as part of routine husbandry, which favors spread of parasitic forms; that refers mainly to parasites of the digestive system (nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, protozoa), as well as helminthes of the respiratory system, although dissemination of the various parasitic forms in the environment would not always result to subsequent infection; external parasites may also be disseminated during movements, e.g., to inhabit wooden poles used in fencing. New livestock into a farm constitutes a biosecurity hazard and the most common means to introducing new parasitic pathogens into a farm; in contemporary small ruminant health management, this contributes in dissemination of anthelmintic resistant parasitic strains; other parasitic disease agents (e.g., mange mites, ticks) may also be spread into a farm that way. Often, especially in small scale farming, visits of rams or bucks take place from one farm to another during the mating season; in such cases, ectoparasites (e.g., mange mites) can be disseminated through direct contact of animals, as well other pathogens (e.g., Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum) via the semen. During transportation of sheep/goats, parasitic forms can also spread, as well as during movement of sheep or goats to slaughterhouses, in which case dogs present in these places would contribute to their dissemination. Spread of life forms of various parasites can also occur from animal species present in the environment of sheep or goats; these include animals present within a farm, stray dogs roaming around a farm (e.g., for spread of Multiceps multiceps, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia hydatigena, N. caninum), cats commanding the environment of a farm (e.g., for
Full Text Available Infestations of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in sheep result in significant costs to farmers. These infestations are controlled using synthetic anthelmintic treatments, which can result in the development of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes. The use of plants rich in condensed tannins (CTs is a promising alternative for controlling infestations of harmful parasites in sheep, and could allow reduction of the chemical products used. This study investigated the in vitro effect of CTs from Acacia mearnsii extract (AE on egg hatching and motility of third-stage larvae. Egg-hatching rate was measured after incubation with extracts for 48 h at 27 °C. The egg hatch test was performed with dilutions of 0.09, 0.19, 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. Distilled water was used as the negative control. The corresponding egg hatching inhibition percentages were 22.3, 32.3, 39.2, 49.1, 56.7, 59.0, 62.3, 77.3, 92.7, 98.3, and 100%. The concentration required to inhibit egg hatching in 50% of eggs (LC50 was 2.85 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 7.06%. A larval migration inhibition test was carried out after incubation with the extracts for 48 h at 27 oC, with AE and distilled water used in dilutions of 3.12, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg mL-1. The corresponding percentages of migration inhibition were 16.5, 37.0, 56.3, 79.4, 91.8, and 97.1%. The concentration required to inhibit migration of 50% of larvae (LC50 was 12.45 mg mL-1. The inhibition achieved with the negative control was 8.53%. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of CTs from AE indicate the anthelmintic effect of AE, suggesting the potential of CT extracts to be used as alternatives for controlling gastrointestinal nematode infestations in small ruminants.
Höglund, Johan; Dahlström, Frida; Sollenberg, Sofia; Hessle, Anna
A three-year trial was performed in south-western Sweden to compare animal performance and levels of parasite control in three grazing groups, each with 18-24 first-season grazing (FSG) calves in similar set-stocked pasture enclosures. These groups were subjected to: (1) no parasite control (NT), (2) monthly repeated doramectin (Dectomax(®)) injections (SP), or (3) targeted selective weight gain-based anthelmintic treatments (TST) but only when individual calf performance was inferior to the average of the poorer 50% of those calves in group SP. In each year, weight and parasitological variables were measured at turn-out and then at predetermined intervals for 22-24 weeks during the grazing season. The dewormed calves in group SP had a higher average weight gain at housing (range 0.39-0.61 kg/day) than those in TST (0.36-0.50 kg/day), which in turn always exceeded the NT group (0.23-0.42 kg/day). This indicates that the parasite challenge in the NT group was sufficiently high to result in production loss. However, the average cumulative faecal egg counts (FEC) at housing in NT were in the range 1271-1953 eggs per gram faeces (epg) and in TST 1221-1968 epg. In contrast, parasite eggs were rarely recorded in group SP and then only during the first two years (on average 12 and 38 epg). There were also no significant differences in FEC or serum pepsinogen levels between FSG in groups NT and TST. The animals in SP received 7 doses of doramectin each year, whereas those in TST received an average of 0.5 doses. Thus, the TST approach represented a 92% reduction in anthelmintic use. The average weight gain in animals subjected to TST was always significantly lower than in animals dewormed regularly. In addition, there were no signs of short-term selection for anthelmintic resistance in the group SP animals, despite the fairly intensive use of injectable doramectin. PMID:23608034
Easton, Stephanie; Bartley, David J; Hotchkiss, Emily; Hodgkinson, Jane E; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Matthews, Jacqueline B
Grazing livestock and equines are at risk of infection from a variety of helminths, for which the primary method of control has long been the use of anthelmintics. Anthelmintic resistance is now widespread in a number of helminth species across the globe so it is imperative that best practice control principles be adopted to delay the further spread of resistance. It is the responsibility of all who prescribe anthelmintics (in the UK, this being veterinarians, suitably qualified persons (SQPs) and pharmacists) to provide adequate information on best practice approaches to parasite control at the point of purchase. Poor uptake of best practice guidelines at farm level has been documented; this could be due to a lack of, or inappropriate, advice at the point of anthelmintics purchase. Therefore, the aim here was to evaluate levels of basic knowledge of helminthology, best practice guidelines and dispensing legislation among veterinarians and SQPs in the UK, through a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) test, that was distributed online via targeted emails and social media sites. For each respondent, the percentage correct was determined (for the MCQ test overall and for subsections) and the results analysed initially using parametric and non-parametric statistics to compare differences between prescribing channels. The results showed that channels generally performed well; veterinarians achieved a mean total percentage correct of 79.7% (range 34.0-100%) and SQPs, a mean total percentage correct of 75.8% (range 38.5-100%) (p=0.051). The analysis indicated that veterinarians performed better in terms of knowledge of basic helminthology (p=0.001), whilst the SQP group performed better on legislation type questions (p=0.032). There was no significant difference in knowledge levels of best practice between the two channels. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that veterinarians and those answering equine questions only performed significantly better than those
Sadia; Rashid; Malik; Irshadullah
Objective:To determine the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) in the male and female haematophagous caprine worms,Haemonchus contortus infecting Capra hircus,and their E/S products and also to analyse the effect of Haemonchus infection on the level of host SOD.Methods:The SOD activity was analysed by using the pyrogallol autoxidation assay and non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by specific enzyme staining by riboflavin-nitroblue tetrazolium method.Results:The adult females were found to have higher enzyme activity than the male worms.Appreciable amount of SOD activity was also detected in the worm culture medium and female worms secreted more SOD in comparison to the male parasites.The SOD activity was negatively correlated to the worm burden.Statistically significant decrease in SOD activity(P<0.05) was observed in the heavily infected host tissue in comparison to the control non-infected host tissue.SOD profile of the crude extracts of both the sexes revealed polymorphism and a fast migrating activity band being characteristic of E/S products.The SOD activities were found highly sensitive to potassium cyanide indicating the Cu/Zn form of SOD.Conclusions:Haemonchus contortus is a key model parasite for drug and vaccine discovery.The presences of SOD activity in appreciable amount in the parasite as well as its E/S products indicate that it has a well-developed active antioxidant system to protect itself from the host immune attack.SOD could be the target for vaccine development which is the need of the hour as mass drug administration for parasite control has resulted in anthelmintic resistance across the globe and threatens the viability of sheep and goat industry in many regions of the world.The infection with Haemonchus causes a drastic reduction in SOD activity of the host tissue thus effecting its protective potential.One characteristic SOD band was found in the females which was not present in any other preparations and thus could
Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Muchadeyi, F C; Matika, O; Riggio, V; Dzama, K
The control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is mainly based on the use of drugs, grazing management, use of copper oxide wire particles and bioactive forages. Resistance to anthelmintic drugs in small ruminants is documented worldwide. Host genetic resistance to parasites, has been increasingly used as a complementary control strategy, along with the conventional intervention methods mentioned above. Genetic diversity in resistance to GIN has been well studied in experimental and commercial flocks in temperate climates and more developed economies. However, there are very few report outputs from the more extensive low-input/output smallholder systems in developing and emerging countries. Furthermore, results on quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with nematode resistance from various studies have not always been consistent, mainly due to the different nematodes studied, different host breeds, ages, climates, natural infections versus artificial challenges, infection level at sampling periods, among others. The increasing use of genetic markers (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, SNPs) in GWAS or the use of whole genome sequence data and a plethora of analytic methods offer the potential to identify loci or regions associated nematode resistance. Genomic selection as a genome-wide level method overcomes the need to identify candidate genes. Benefits in genomic selection are now being realised in dairy cattle and sheep under commercial settings in the more advanced countries. However, despite the commercial benefits of using these tools, there are practical problems associated with incorporating the use of marker-assisted selection or genomic selection in low-input/output smallholder farming systems breeding schemes. Unlike anthelmintic resistance, there is no empirical evidence suggesting that nematodes will evolve rapidly in response to resistant hosts. The strategy of nematode control has evolved to a more practical manipulation of host-parasite equilibrium
Leroi, Françoise; Cornet, Josiane; Chevalier, Frédérique; Cardinal, Mireille; Coeuret, Gwendoline; Chaillou, Stéphane; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques
Biopreservation is a natural technology of food preservation, which consists of inoculating food with microorganisms selected for their antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to improve the quality of cold-smoked salmon (CSS). In this work, different strains representative of the 4 dominant species, identified in a previous study by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA gene, were isolated and their spoiling potential in CSS blocks, sterilized by ionization, was assessed by twelve trained panelists along the vacuum storage at 8°C. Photobacterium phosphoreum, Brochothrix thermosphacta and Serratia proteamaculans released strong off-odors whereas the spoiling potential of Carnobacterium divergens was weaker. The spoiling capacity of Lactococcus piscium EU2241, Leuconostoc gelidum EU2247, Lactobacillus sakei EU2885, Staphylococcus equorum S030674 and 4 commercial starters was tested by the same method and 2 strains were eliminated due to off-odor production. The effect of the 6 selected LAB against the 4 specific spoiling organisms (SSOs) selected was tested by challenge tests in sterile CSS blocks. The protective effect of the LAB differed from one SSO to another and no correlation could be established between the sensory improvement, SSO inhibition, and the implantation or acidification of protective cultures (PCs). All the PCs except L. piscium reduced the off-odors released by P. phosphoreum although some of them had no effect on its growth. S. equorum, which did not grow in CSS, favored the implantation of P. phosphoreum but prevented its off-odor formation. L. piscium was the only strain that prevented the spoilage of B. thermosphacta and S. proteamaculans although it did not grow very well and did not acidify the product. L. gelidum EU2247 inhibited the growth of these 2 SSOs and lowered the pH but had no effect on the sensory quality. Finally, L. piscium was tested in 2 naturally contaminated products, with a