Colleran, Gabrielle C
2009-01-01
BACKGROUND: Anterior triangle masses pose an important clinical dilemma. It is very difficult to distinguish the potential pathologies pre operatively by clinical and radiological assessment. CASE REPORT: The first case highlights the management of a bilateral chemodectoma, the second case is a presentation of castleman\\'s disease and the third is that of metastatic tonsillar adenocarcinoma. All three cases had a similar presentation and radiological appearance pre-operatively. CONCLUSION: Anterior triangle masses span the clinical spectrum of pathologies from chemodectoma to castleman\\'s disease to carcinoma. Expert vascular and radiological management is required for optimum patient care and should take place in a tertiary referral centre. Duplex US, CTA and MRA are important pre operative assessment tools to ensure that adequate information regarding the relationship of the lesion to the carotid artery is available to the operating surgeon who should have vascular expertise as deliberate practice volume has been repeatedly shown to result in improved patient outcome.
An ambiguous asymptomatic swelling in the maxillary anterior region—A case report
Surej Kumar, L.K.; Manuel, Suvy; Nair, Bindu J.; Nair S, Vinod
2016-01-01
Introduction Glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare and recently recognized type of developmental odontogenic cyst. Being odontogenic in origin, because of the pluripotentiality of the odontogenic epithelium it can show glandular or salivary features. Presentation of a case A 46 year old female patient was referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery department with chief complaint of painless swelling in the right anterior region of maxilla, radiographically associated with teeth 12, 13. Mucosa over the swelling was slightly bluish in colour and no associated palatal swelling was seen. No incidence of trauma was reported and involved teeth were not mobile. Discussion Although we have many differential diagnoses, our working diagnosis was a periapical cyst, so conventional treatment of root canal treatment, cyst enucleation, and apicoectomy was planned. Conclusion Here we present a case which was initially misdiagnosed and mismanaged but on subsequent histopathologic examination revealed the final diagnosis. PMID:27093689
McAteer Eamon
2005-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We highlight the steps to diagnosis of these injuries, and methods of managing these injuries. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for this injury in patients with seemingly innocuous trauma from sports injuries, who have significant ankle pain and swelling. Case presentation A young, professional sportsman presented with a swollen, painful ankle after an innocuous hyper-plantar flexion injury whilst playing football, which was initially diagnosed as a ligamentous injury after no bony injury was revealed on X-Ray. He returned 2 days later with a large ulcer at the lateral malleolus and further investigation by duplex ultrasound and transfemoral arteriogram revealed a Pseudo-Aneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery. This was initially managed with percutaneous injection of thrombin, and later open surgery to ligate the feeding vessel. The patient recovered fully and was able to return to recreational sport. Conclusion Vascular injuries remain a rare cause of ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries, however it is important to consider these injuries when no definite musculo-skeletal cause is found. Ultrasound duplex and Transfemoral arteriogram are appropriate, sensitive modalities for investigation, and may allow novel treatment to be directed percutaneously. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for the successful outcome in these patients.
切牙区黑三角与正畸治疗的研究进展%Research progress on anterior black triangle and orthodontic therapy
支方静
2011-01-01
Black triangle is common phenomenon in our dental clinical treatment, the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of which involving periodontics, prosthodontics and orthodontics. During the dental treatment, we should strengthen the understanding, pay attention to multidisciplinary cooperation, in order to prevent the happening of black triangle effectively. As the increasing of esthetic consciousness, patients put a high demanding on orthodontic treatment. The occurrence of black triangle after orthodontic therapy would not only be unesthetic, but also adversely affect the health of periodontium, occlusal relationship and stability of teeth arrangement. In this article, the prevalence of anterior black triangle after orthodontic treatment, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention were reviewed, in order to provide a reference for the orthodontic clinical.%黑三角在口腔临床中是较为常见的现象,其病因、诊断和治疗涉及牙周、修复、正畸等多个学科,临床诊疗过程中需要加强对黑三角的认识,注意多学科的密切合作,才能有效地预防黑三角的发生.随着审美意识的增强,正畸患者对治疗提出了更高的要求.正畸治疗后黑三角的发生不仅影响美观,而且严重影响了患者的牙周组织健康、咬合关系以及牙齿排列的稳定性.本文通过对切牙区黑三角在正畸治疗中的发病情况、相关危险因素、诊断、治疗和预防等作一综述,以期为临床提供参考.
Sierpinski, Waclaw
2011-01-01
The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the fundamental theorems of elementary geometry, and Pythagorean triangles - right triangles whose sides are natural numbers - have been studied by mathematicians since antiquity. In this classic text, a brilliant Polish mathematician explores the intriguing mathematical relationships in such triangles.Starting with ""primitive"" Pythagorean triangles, the text examines triangles with sides less than 100, triangles with two sides that are successive numbers, divisibility of one of the sides by 3 or by 5, the values of the sides of triangles, triangles with th
McAteer Eamon; Johnston Ruth; McKay Damian; Marron Conor D; Stirling WJ Ivan
2005-01-01
Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We hig...
Swelling of a joint ... Joint swelling may occur along with joint pain . The swelling may cause the joint to appear larger or abnormally shaped. Joint swelling can cause pain or stiffness. After an ...
Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia
Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma
2006-01-01
Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma a...
Bilateral Petit’s Triangle Hernia
Sanjay Kumar Bhasin, Arshad Bashir Khan, Sanjay Sharma
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Lumbar traingle hernia that occurs through lumbar triangles is very rare type of hernia. Only about 300 cases havebeen reported till date. Bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia find further rarity and the case under reference is probably thefirst ever reported case of Primary bilateral Petit’s triangle hernia. The present case is of a 46 years old married,multigravida female who presented with 1 year duration of LBA and subsequently notice of swelling both sides oflow back. FNAC revealed lipoma and on exploration it turned out to be rarest extra peritoneal bilateral Petit’s trianglehernia, fat as contents.
An approximate model is proposed for a system of three Schroedinger particles of equal masses, interacting mutually through a universal two-body potential. They are assumed to form during their motion a (generally) varying equilateral triangle corresponding to Lagrange's exact triangle solution of the classical three-body problem. The resulting wave equation is formally a two-body Schroedinger equation (in the centre-of-mass frame). This is applied to three constituent quarks in the nucleon. The present model, called ''Lagrange triangle of Schroedinger particles'', may be considered as a non-relativistic approximation to the much more complicated ''Lagrange triangle of Dirac particles'' constructed by the author a decade ago. (author)
A little noticed right triangle
Zelator, Konstantine "Hermes"
2008-01-01
Given a right triangle ABC, with the ninety degree angle at A; consider the triangle O1OO2.Where the point O is the midpoint of the hypotenuseBC(and so the center of the triangle ABC's circumcircle), the point O1 being the triangle AOB's circumcenter, and the point O2 being the triangle AOC circumcenter. The triangle O1OO2 is actually a right triangle similar to ABC. In the early part of this work, some geometrical formulas are derived, including some lengths of segments from a nearby trapezoid. After that, the focus changes. We examine the case when ABC is a Pythagorean triangle, and find the precise conditions under which the triangle O1OO2 is also Pythagorean. A numerical table of values is also offered at the end of the paper.
Irwin, Alan
2014-01-01
I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden.......I denne måneds klumme fra Direktionen skriver forskningsdekan Alan Irwin om den omvendte Bermuda-Trekant, The Copenhagen Triangle, et sted hvor mennesker, idéer og innovation opstår, og ansporer og nærer hinanden....
Mystery of the Bermuda Triangle
王雅骧
2004-01-01
The Bernmda Triangle is also called Devil's Triangle. It is an imaginary area in the Atlantic Ocean. It extends more than one-million square kilometers between the island of Bermuda, the coast of southern Florida
Gershon, Tim
2007-01-01
"Physicists at "B-factories" in the US and Japan are closing in on an abstract diagram called the unitarity triangle in the quest to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. But such measurements could also point the way to the discovery of new fundamental particles." (5 pages)
Bohman, Tom; Lubetzky, Eyal
2012-01-01
Starting from a complete graph on $n$ vertices, repeatedly delete the edges of a uniformly chosen triangle. This stochastic process terminates once it arrives at a triangle-free graph, and the fundamental question is to estimate the final number of edges (equivalently, the time it takes the process to finish, or how many edge-disjoint triangles are packed via the random greedy algorithm). Bollob\\'as and Erd\\H{o}s (1990) conjectured that the expected final number of edges has order $n^{3/2}$. An upper bound of $o(n^2)$ was shown by Spencer (1995) and independently by R\\"odl and Thoma (1996). Several bounds were given for variants and generalizations (e.g., Alon, Kim and Spencer (1997) and Wormald (1999)), while the best known upper bound for the original question of Bollob\\'as and Erd\\H{o}s was $n^{7/4+o(1)}$ due to Grable (1997). No nontrivial lower bound was available. Here we prove that with high probability the final number of edges in random triangle removal is equal to $n^{3/2+o(1)}$, thus confirming the...
The Geometry of Homological Triangles
Smarandache, Florentin
2012-01-01
This book is addressed to students, professors and researchers of geometry, who will find herein many interesting and original results. The originality of the book The Geometry of Homological Triangles consists in using the homology of triangles as a "filter" through which remarkable notions and theorems from the geometry of the triangle are unitarily passed. Our research is structured in seven chapters, the first four are dedicated to the homology of the triangles, while the last ones to their applications.
Triangle Tiling II: Nonexistence theorems
Beeson, Michael
2012-01-01
An N -tiling of triangle ABC by triangle T is a way of writing ABC as a union of N triangles congruent to T, overlapping only at their boundaries. The triangle T is the "tile". The tile may or may not be similar to ABC . We wish to understand possible tilings by completely characterizing the triples (ABC, T, N) such that ABC can be N -tiled by T. In particular, this understanding should enable us to specify for which N there exists a tile T and a triangle ABC that is N-tiled by T; or given N,...
DeMarco, Bobby; Kahn, Jeff
2010-01-01
With $\\xi$ the number of triangles in the usual (Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'enyi) random graph $G(m,p)$, $p>1/m$ and $\\eta>0$, we show (for some $C_{\\eta}>0$) $$\\Pr(\\xi> (1+\\eta)\\E \\xi) < \\exp[-C_{\\eta}\\min{m^2p^2\\log(1/p),m^3p^3}].$$ This is tight up to the value of $C_{\\eta}$.
Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot ...
The Triangle of Communicative "Didactique."
Lacotte, Jacqueline
This paper explores the symbolic representation of the teaching situation as a triangle involving teacher, student, and content. The paper explores what is meant by didactic communication, and then studies the meaning of the semiotic triangle in the light of two lines of research: the patterns used to analyze communication situations and ongoing…
An Alternative Triangle Area Strategy
Shockey, T. L.; Zhang, P.; Brosnan, P.
2016-01-01
We explore the mathematics engagement of a group of mathematics coaches, working in k-12 mathematics education. The incenter of a triangle is used to derive an alternative formula for the area of a triangle inspired by Usiskin, Peressini, Marhisotto, and Stanley (2002).
The Bermuda Triangle of Education.
Bertrand, Yves
The pedagogical triangle of teacher, learner, and subject matter has in its center a fourth element: the communication system. Each feature of the pedagogical triangle, and the communication system as well, relies on a very important cultural component. Problems occur when communication processes in a classroom are fragmented and related to…
Winkelsas, John
2006-01-01
The Bermuda Triangle is famous for the unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft, and for strange meteorological phenomena that allegedly have occurred within its boundaries. This article presents an activity wherein students are asked to create their own geographical triangles to research, but instead of focusing on the unexplainable,…
Antonella Del Rosso
2012-01-01
In the theory of the Standard Model, the masses, interactions and physical states of quarks – the basic constituents of matter – are described mathematically by a matrix known as the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Three angles enter into the definition of the elements of the matrix. If their sum is not 180°, new physics might be the reason. A typical LHCb event during the recent proton-lead ion run. The LHCb experiment at CERN has measured precisely for the first time at a hadron collider one of the three angles - the “gamma” angle – so far known with the largest uncertainty. It’s a matter of angles: if their sum is not exactly 180°, the geometric shape is not a triangle. And if the angles are those related to the CKM matrix, we enter the realm of physics beyond the Standard Model. Experiments at B-factories have measured the three angles – α, β and γ &...
Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.
Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms
2014-09-01
Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174
Update on anterior ankle impingement
Vaseenon, Tanawat; Amendola, Annunziato
2012-01-01
Anterior ankle impingement results from an impingement of the ankle joint by a soft tissue or osteophyte formation at the anterior aspect of the distal tibia and talar neck. It often occurs secondary to direct trauma (impaction force) or repetitive ankle dorsiflexion (repetitive impaction and traction force). Chronic ankle pain, swelling, and limitation of ankle dorsiflexion are common complaints. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis of the bony impingement but not for the soft tissue impingemen...
Cystic lymphangioma in the submandibular triangle in the adult
Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Sang Joon [Dankook Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2001-09-15
Cystic lymphangioma is an uncommon benign developmental tumor of the lymphatic system, seen rarely in adults. A 23-year-old man visited DKUDH complaining of the painless swelling in the right submandibular triangle area. It was reported that swelling had increased since 5 months ago. Clinically, fluctuant and mobile mass was palpated at the right submancivular area. CT scan showed a large, well-defined, homogenous low density mass, measuring 5.0X2.5X4.0 cm. T1W MRI scan demonstrated a large, multiseptated homogenous low signal mass with septum and rim enhancement. Proton-density and T2W MRI scan showed mass of high signal intensity. MRI scan was able to delineate better the enhanced multiseptation and extent of the lesion. Histopathologically, a lobulated cystic mass lined by a layer of flattened endothelium was observed.
Visualizing Elections Using Saari Triangles
Alfaro, Ricardo; Han, Lixing; Schilling, Kenneth; Birgen, Mariah
2010-01-01
Students sometimes have difficulty calculating the result of a voting system applied to a particular set of voter preference lists. Saari triangles offer a way to visualize the result of an election and make this calculation easier in the case of several important voting systems.
Atomic swelling upon compression
Dolmatov, V K
2012-01-01
The hydrogen atom under the pressure of a spherical penetrable confinement potential of a decreasing radius $r_{0}$ is explored, as a case study. A novel counter-intuitive effect of atomic swelling rather than shrinking with decreasing $r_{0}$ is unraveled, when $r_{0}$ reaches, and remains smaller than, a certain critical value. Upon swelling, the size of the atom is shown to increase by an order of magnitude, or more, compared to the size of the free atom. Examples of changes of photoabsorption properties of confined hydrogen atom upon its swelling are uncovered and demonstrated.
Young Children's Conceptual Understanding of Triangle
Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan
2016-01-01
This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…
Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty
Lucas Gomes Patrocínio
2004-10-01
Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95
Swelling of percolation clusters
Schulz, Michael
1992-01-01
The swelling of percolation clusters as models for gelling branched polymers is analyzed by using a simple mean-field approach (for all dimensions) and a Monte-Carlo simulation (for d=3, bond fluctuation method). The numerical swelling exponent μ'=0.443 ± 0.008 shows a significant deviation from the lattice animals solution μ'=0.5, which is caused by the difference between quenched and annealed average procedures.
An understanding of the mechanism of swelling in irradiated uranium has been handicapped by lack of data from experiments in which the parameters are accurately known. The present- concepts of swelling are based largely on data of this nature. In this study, uranium specimens with less than 0,01% impurity were irradiated below 300°C, and the swelling was induced by subsequent heat treatment outside the reactor where careful control of the temperature was possible. The results obtained by this technique were self'consistent but in considerable disagreement with rhe results of the in-pile investigations. The density and porosity of irradiated uranium specimens were determined following pulse annealing in the alpha, beta and gamma phases« Both the light microscope and the electron microscope were used to study porosity. The results may be summarized as follows: (1) Uranium specimens irradiated to 0.30%bum-up and heat-treated 75 h at temperatures less than 550°C in the α-phase swelled less than 1%. (2) Uranium specimens (0.30% bum-up) heat-treated 75 h at temperatures between 550°C and 650°C in the α- phase swelled up to 18%. This swelling was due to bubbles with diameters up to 15/μm. These results were diametrically opposed to recent data. (3) Uranium specimens (0.30% bum-up) heat-treated 75 h at temperatures in the ß-phase decreased their density by 4- 5%. This decrease in density is apparently the result of grain-boundary cracking rather than bubble formation, as there is evidence to suggest that fission gas is retained in the matrix of the γ-phase. These results suggest that a modification of the role of pressure and surface tension is required in the current theories of swelling. (4) A uranium specimen (0.30% bum- up) heat-treated for 15 h in the γ-phase at 820°C swelled 20%. In this case the swelling was primarily due to the formation of bubbles in the vicinity of and on grain boundaries. The explanation of these experimental results requires
Atomic swelling upon compression
Dolmatov, V. K.; King, J L
2012-01-01
The hydrogen atom under the pressure of a spherical penetrable confinement potential of a decreasing radius $r_{0}$ is explored, as a case study. A novel counter-intuitive effect of atomic swelling rather than shrinking with decreasing $r_{0}$ is unraveled, when $r_{0}$ reaches, and remains smaller than, a certain critical value. Upon swelling, the size of the atom is shown to increase by an order of magnitude, or more, compared to the size of the free atom. Examples of changes of photoabsorp...
Triangle-hinge models for unoriented membranes
Fukuma, Masafumi; Umeda, Naoya
2016-01-01
Triangle-hinge models [arXiv:1503.08812] are introduced to describe worldvolume dynamics of membranes. The Feynman diagrams consist of triangles glued together along hinges and can be restricted to tetrahedral decompositions in a large N limit. In this paper, after clarifying that all the tetrahedra resulting in the original models are orientable, we define a version of triangle-hinge models that can describe the dynamics of unoriented membranes. By regarding each triangle as representing a propagation of an open membrane of disk topology, we introduce a local worldvolume parity transformation which inverts the orientation of triangle, and define unoriented triangle-hinge models by gauging the transformation. Unlike two-dimensional cases, this local transformation generally relates a manifold to a nonmanifold, but still is a well-defined manipulation among tetrahedral decompositions. We further show that matter fields can be introduced in the same way as in the original oriented models. In particular, the mod...
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Zatulovskiy, Evgeny; Skotheim, Jan M.
2015-01-01
Cell volume and dry mass are typically correlated. However, in this issue, Zlotek-Zlotkiewicz et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505056) and Son et al. (2015. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201505058) use new live-cell techniques to show that entry to mitosis coincides with rapid cell swelling, which is reversed before division.
Representations of Subgroups of Universal Triangle Groups
Jianguo Xia
2007-01-01
Let G be a universal triangle group, and H a subgroup of G such that the chamber system △H is a tight triangle geometryThen H, which is canonically isomorphic to the topological fundamental group π1(△H) of △ H, is a finitely presented group.For some H we give their representations.
Fulfilling the Promise of the Learning Triangle
Nichols, Paul
2011-01-01
The learning triangle described by Black, Wilson, and Yao (this issue) offers a powerful vision for improved student learning. Learning theory clearly plays a central role in the construct-centered approach presented by the learning triangle. But the assumption of such an important role requires Black et al. to devote corresponding care to the…
What's Your Answer? Searching for Triangles
Meagher, Michael S.; Edwards, Michael Todd; Özgün-Koca, S. Asli
2016-01-01
The article opens with a Geoboard Triangle Quest in this form: "How many noncongruent triangles can be constructed on a 4 × 4 geoboard? How do you know? Justify your answer with significant supporting work." The use of advanced digital technologies as tools for problem solving receives much attention in the methods classes if the…
Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis
Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)
Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis
Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.
1982-11-01
Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.
Obtuse triangle suppression in anisotropic meshes
Sun, Feng
2011-12-01
Anisotropic triangle meshes are used for efficient approximation of surfaces and flow data in finite element analysis, and in these applications it is desirable to have as few obtuse triangles as possible to reduce the discretization error. We present a variational approach to suppressing obtuse triangles in anisotropic meshes. Specifically, we introduce a hexagonal Minkowski metric, which is sensitive to triangle orientation, to give a new formulation of the centroidal Voronoi tessellation (CVT) method. Furthermore, we prove several relevant properties of the CVT method with the newly introduced metric. Experiments show that our algorithm produces anisotropic meshes with much fewer obtuse triangles than using existing methods while maintaining mesh anisotropy. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pythagorean triangles of equal areas
Malvina Baica
1988-01-01
Full Text Available The main intent in this paper is to find triples of Rational Pythagorean Triangles (abbr. RPT having equal areas. A new method of solving a2+ab+b2=c2 is to set a=y−1, b=y+1, y∈N−{0,1} and get Pell's equation c2−3y2=1. To solve a2−ab−b2=c2, we set a=12(y+1, b=y−1, y≥2, y∈N and get a corresponding Pell's equation. The infinite number of solutions in Pell's equation gives rise to an infinity of solutions to a2±ab+b2=c2. From this fact the following theorems are proved.
Chiral Redox-Active Isosceles Triangles.
Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Liu, Zhichang; Wu, Yilei; Hermann, Keith R; Samanta, Avik; Kim, Dong Jun; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Wasielewski, Michael R; Stoddart, J Fraser
2016-05-11
Designing small-molecule organic redox-active materials, with potential applications in energy storage, has received considerable interest of late. Herein, we report on the synthesis, characterization, and application of two rigid chiral triangles, each of which consist of non-identical pyromellitic diimide (PMDI) and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based redox-active units. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic investigations in solution confirm the lower symmetry (C2 point group) associated with these two isosceles triangles. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal their rigid triangular prism-like geometries. Unlike previously investigated equilateral triangle containing three identical NDI subunits, both isosceles triangles do not choose to form one-dimensional supramolecular nanotubes by dint of [C-H···O] interaction-driven columnar stacking. The rigid isosceles triangle, composed of one NDI and two PMDI subunits, forms-in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide-two different types of intermolecular NDI-NDI and NDI-PMDI π-π stacked dimers with opposite helicities in the solid state. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that both isosceles triangles can accept reversibly up to six electrons. Continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance spectroscopic investigations, supported by density functional theory calculations, on the single-electron reduced radical anions of the isosceles triangles confirm the selective sharing of unpaired electrons among adjacent redox-active NDI subunit(s) within both molecules. The isosceles triangles have been employed as electrode-active materials in organic rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. The evaluation of the structure-performance relationships of this series of diimide-based triangles reveals that the increase in the number of NDI subunits, replacing PMDI ones, within the molecules improves the electrochemical cell performance of the batteries. PMID:27070768
The Asia-Pacific Strategic Triangle
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
2014-01-01
The objective of this paper is to give insight into the debate over the strategic triangle and how it impacts conflict and security in South Asia. First the new geopolitical motives of the United States in the Asia-Pacific are outlined. Then the concept of strategic triangle is elaborated and its...... foreign policy calculations and moves in the strategic triangle; and finally, some concluding remarks are offered to explain the recent shifts in interactions between these core players in the emerging world order and whether a new geopolitical architecture is emerging...
Unified theory for swelling deformation and swelling pressure of bentonite
The correlation of the water volume to vertical overburden pressure (p) is obtained as Vw/ Vm=KÞDs-3 for bentonite with fractal-textured surface. The maximum swelling strain is predicted according to the correlation of the water volume to vertical overburden pressure. The predictions of the maximum swelling strain and swelling pressure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data of Tsukinuno and Wyoming bentonite. (authors)
The solid angle through the isosceles triangle
Schröer, H.
We want to determine the solid angle through the isosceles triangle. We use the cosine law for sides and the spherical law of sines. The relation to luminous flux(radiant flux or radiant power) is shown.
How Do You Draw an Isosceles Triangle?
Vincent, Jill; McCrae, Barry
1999-01-01
Illustrates attempts by three students to construct an isosceles triangle in Cabri and the construction of a capital A by a fourth student. Discusses Cabri's potential for encouraging students to focus on geometric properties and develop correct geometric language. (ASK)
Brocard angle of the standard triangle in an isotropic plane
Kolar-Begović, Zdenka; Kolar - Šuper, Ružica; Volenec, Vladimir
2009-01-01
The concept of Brocard angle of the standard triangle in an isotropic plane I2 is introduced. The relationships between Brocard angles of the allowable triangle and circum-Ceva’s triangle of its centroid and circum-Ceva’s triangle of its Feuerbach point are investigated.
Density conditions for triangles in multipartite graphs
Bondy, Adrian; Shen, Jin; Thomassé, Stephan;
2006-01-01
subgraphs in G. We investigate in particular the case where G is a complete multipartite graph. We prove that a finite tripartite graph with all edge densities greater than the golden ratio has a triangle and that this bound is best possible. Also we show that an infinite-partite graph with finite parts has...... a triangle, provided that the edge density between any two parts is greater than 1/2....
Radiation swelling of carbon materials
Swelling rates of domestic carbon structural materials were studied, the results are presented. At T > 750-850 K and fluence of ∼ 1022 neutron/cm2 anisotropic secondary swelling is observed in them. 3 stages of swelling were singled out: incubation, transient and settled ones. The start of the transient stage with the temperature growth in the course of irradiation shifts to the side of lower fluences of neutrons. The swelling rate at the third stage is constant and has the maximum at 950-1300 K, the value of which is determined by structural arrangement of graphite and increases with an increase in its density
The shape of a sequence of dual random triangles
Gates, John
2006-01-01
Using the concept of the convex hull of a set of lines, a dual random triangle is defined by selecting three lines from a parent triangle of lines. The angles of the constructed triangle define the shape; calculation of the shape distribution is described. For a sequence of nested triangles constructed in this way it is shown that there is convergence to collinearity and to the collinear shape distribution derived by Mannion for a sequence of vertex-generated triangles.
Philip Pastides; Davinder Paul Singh Baghla; Sreeram Penna; Vivek Gulati; Jake Sloane
2010-01-01
A 41-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of gradually worsening anterior knee pain, swelling and inability to flex the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large intra-articular cystic swelling anterior to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), extending into the Hoffa's infrapatellar fat pad. Following manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst, the patient's symptoms were relieved with restoration of normal knee motion. ACL ganglion cyst...
Lang, Michael; Fischer, Jakob; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe
2014-03-01
The swelling equilibrium of Olympic gels is studied by Monte Carlo Simulations. We observe that gels consisting of flexible cyclic molecules of a higher degree of polymerization N show a smaller equilibrium swelling degree Q ~N - 0 . 28φ0- 0 . 72 for the same monomer volume fraction φ0 at network preparation. This observation is explained by a disinterpenetration process of overlapping non-concatenated polymers upon swelling. In the limit of a sufficiently large number of concatenations per cyclic molecule we expect that the equilibrium degree of swelling becomes proportional to φ0- 1 / 2 independent of N. Our results challenge current textbook models for the equilibrium degree of swelling of entangled polymer networks. Now at: Bio Systems Analysis Group, Jena Centre for Bioinformatics (JCB) and Department for Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.
Miliam, Palle B; Basse, Peter N
2009-01-01
Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It may be rare because it is underrecognized clinically.We present a case regarding a 29-year-old man, drummer, who for one and a half year experienced clinical...
Radiation swelling of carbonaceous materials
Radiation swelling occurs in practically all studied materials at a certain temperature range and irradiation dose. It consists of an increase of the volume and a corresponding decrease of the density and is accompanied by weakening. Swelling is usually divided into three stages (periods). Incubation involves little or no swelling. The transitional period occurs when the volume increases as a power function of the dose with an exponent n > 1. The dependence on the dose is linear in the steady period. The dependence of the swelling rate on temperature is bell-shaped. Anisotropic secondary swelling is observed in carbonaceous construction materials at T > 750-850 K and a flux ∼1022 neutrons/cm2. Three swelling stages are found. These are incubation, transitional, and steady. The transitional stage shifts to smaller neutron fluxes as the temperature increases. The swelling rate in the third stage is constant and has a maximum at 950-1300 K. The value of the maximum is determined by the structure of the graphite and increases with increasing density
LR: Compact connectivity representation for triangle meshes
Gurung, T; Luffel, M; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J
2011-01-28
We propose LR (Laced Ring) - a simple data structure for representing the connectivity of manifold triangle meshes. LR provides the option to store on average either 1.08 references per triangle or 26.2 bits per triangle. Its construction, from an input mesh that supports constant-time adjacency queries, has linear space and time complexity, and involves ordering most vertices along a nearly-Hamiltonian cycle. LR is best suited for applications that process meshes with fixed connectivity, as any changes to the connectivity require the data structure to be rebuilt. We provide an implementation of the set of standard random-access, constant-time operators for traversing a mesh, and show that LR often saves both space and traversal time over competing representations.
Cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs
Durocher, Stephane; Gunderson, David S.; Li, Pak Ching; Skala, Matthew
2015-01-01
Abstract We conjecture that the balanced complete bipartite graph K ⌊ n / 2 ⌋ , ⌈ n / 2 ⌉ contains more cycles than any other n -vertex triangle-free graph, and we make some progress toward proving this. We give equivalent conditions for cycle-maximal triangle-free graphs; show bounds on the...... numbers of cycles in graphs depending on numbers of vertices and edges, girth, and homomorphisms to small fixed graphs; and use the bounds to show that among regular graphs, the conjecture holds. We also consider graphs that are close to being regular, with the minimum and maximum degrees differing by at...
Traces in Complex Hyperbolic Triangle Groups
Pratoussevitch, Anna
2004-01-01
We present several formulas for the traces of elements in complex hyperbolic triangle groups generated by complex reflections. The space of such groups of fixed signature is of real dimension one. We parameterise this space by a real invariant alpha of triangles in the complex hyperbolic plane. The main result of the paper is a formula, which expresses the trace of an element of the group as a Laurent polynomial in exp(i alpha) with coefficients independent of alpha and computable using a cer...
Combinatorics Connections: Playoff Series and Pascal's Triangle.
Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.
1992-01-01
Applies Pascal's Triangle to determine the number of ways in which a given team can win a playoff series of differing lengths. Presents the solutions for one-, three-, five-, seven-, and nine-game series, and extends the solution to the general case for any series. (MDH)
Cactus: The Centres of a Triangle
Hyde, Hartley
2009-01-01
This is the first of two articles which describe how to use "JavaSketchPad" to explore the centres of a triangle. This introductory exercise is suggested in the GSP "Workshop Guide". Students can use "JavaSketchPad Interactive Geometry" (JSP) at home at no cost. They are likely to impress their parents with their enthusiasm for geometry and all…
Lattice QCD and the unitarity triangle
Andreas S Kronfeld
2001-12-03
Theoretical and computational advances in lattice calculations are reviewed, with focus on examples relevant to the unitarity triangle of the CKM matrix. Recent progress in semi-leptonic form factors for B {yields} {pi}/v and B {yields} D*lv, as well as the parameter {zeta} in B{sup 0}-{bar B}{sup 0} mixing, are highlighted.
The simulation research of a novel uwb triangle monopole antenna
Lin, Shu; Qiu, Jinghui; Gu, Xuemai; Ren, He; Zhao, Bo
2007-01-01
Based on that triangle monopole antenna has wide frequency band, this paper proposes a novel composite triangle monopole antenna, which is composed of three similar triangle metal plates. Through the electromagnetic simulation software CST Microwave Studioreg, we obtain its characteristics under the condition that its ground-plate is infinite perfect conductor. The simulation results show that the composite triangle monopole antenna not only has wide impedance frequency band, but also takes u...
The swelling of 316 type steel
The position of maximum swelling in pin cladding or wrappers gives an interesting guide to the effect of flux and temperature on swelling. There is no significant difference between the swelling of specimens and that of pin cladding or wrappers. The swelling at high temperatures is due to structural changes in the steel but these are complex. (author)
Interlocking Crawford triangles in frontalis suspension.
Antoszyk, J H; Tucker, N; Ling, C; Codere, F
1993-06-01
In Crawford's pattern of frontalis suspension, two bands are passed, one nasally and the other temporally, forming two base-down triangles with their apexes attached at the brow incisions. Over time, opposing vector forces in the center of the eyelid can cause "cheese-wiring" of the bands with resultant shortening of the inferior bases of both triangles and loosening of the suspensory loops. We modified the standard pattern by interlocking the bands centrally in the lid. A mathematical model was developed that demonstrates neutralization of these opposing forces, resulting in a symmetrical and flexible redistribution of the lifting forces. In support of this mathematical model, a retrospective analysis of 42 consecutive cases using this technique revealed good aesthetic results in terms of lid height, contour, and symmetry, with no important complications from this modification. PMID:8512494
On the Multiple Covering Densities of Triangles
Sriamorn, Kirati; Wetayawanich, Akanat
2014-01-01
Given a convex disk $K$ and a positive integer $k$, let $\\vartheta_T^k(K)$ and $\\vartheta_L^k(K)$ denote the $k$-fold translative covering density and the $k$-fold lattice covering density of $K$, respectively. Let $T$ be a triangle. In a very recent paper, K. Sriamorn proved that $\\vartheta_L^k(T)=\\frac{2k+1}{2}$. In this paper, we will show that $\\vartheta_T^k(T)=\\vartheta_L^k(T)$.
Dirichlet eigenvalues of asymptotically flat triangles
Ourmières-Bonafos, Thomas
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to the study of the eigenpairs of the Dirichlet Laplacian on a family of triangles where two vertices are fixed and the altitude associated with the third vertex goes to zero. We investigate the dependence of the eigenvalues on this altitude. For the first eigenvalues and eigenfunctions, we obtain an asymptotic expansion at any order at the scale cube root of this altitude due to the influence of the Airy operator. Asymptotic expansions of the eigenpairs are provided, ex...
Simplified unitarity triangles for the lepton sector
Encouraged by the latest SNO results, we consider the lepton mixing matrix in the approximation that the ν2 mass eigenstate is trimaximally (democratically) mixed. This suggests a new parameterization of the remaining mixing degrees of freedom, which eschews mixing angles, dealing instead, directly with the complex parameter Ue3 of the mixing matrix. Unitarity triangles then take a particularly simple form, which we hope will facilitate comparison with experiment
State of the Coral Triangle: Malaysia
Asian Development Bank (ADB)
2014-01-01
Malaysia has made a firm commitment to sustainable management and conservation of its coastal and marine resources, helping formulate and implement the Sulu–Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Initiative and the Coral Triangle Initiative. Rapid economic growth, uncontrolled tourism development, unregulated fishing, and unsustainable use of marine resources have depleted the country’s fish stocks, lost nearly 36% of its mangrove forests, and increased the number of endangered species. Despite impressive...
Simplified Unitarity Triangles for the Lepton Sector
Bjorken, James D; Scott, W G; Bjorken, James D.
2005-01-01
Encouraged by the latest SNO results, we consider the lepton mixing matrix in the approximation that the nu_2 mass eigenstate is trimaximally (democratically) mixed. This suggests a new parameterization of the remaining mixing degrees of freedom, which eschews mixing angles, dealing instead, directly with the complex parameter U_e3 of the mixing matrix. Unitarity triangles then take a particularly simple form, which we hope will faciltate comparison with experiment.
The Kanizsa triangle illusion in foraging ants.
Sakiyama, Tomoko; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio
2016-01-01
The Kanizsa triangle, wherein three Pac-Man configurations symmetrically face inwards, is a well-known illusion. By exposing foraging ants (Lasius niger) to Kanizsa-shaped honeydew solutions, we studied the origin of this illusion. More specifically, we examined whether foraging ants showed different movement reactions to local honeydew patterns formed by nestmates. This novel phenomenon could serve as an abstract model of the Kanizsa triangle illusion under the assumption that such an illusion could arise through the sum of each agent's limited global cognitions, because each agent could not perceive the entire subjective contours. Even a subjective consciousness consists of some parts which have no identical perception and could be an illusion. We succeeded in inducing foragers to move along the sides of a Kanizsa triangle when Pac-Man-shaped inducers were introduced. Furthermore, foragers appeared to form Y-shaped trajectories when dot-shaped or inverse Kanizsa inducers were used. Based on our findings, we propose an agent-based ant model that compares modelled behaviour with experimental phenomena. Our abstract model could be used to explain such cognitive phenomena for bottom-up processes, because ants cannot perceive the given subjective contours, instead simply move along the edges. PMID:26930477
Optimal Design of Round Bottomed Triangle Channels
Ayman T. Hameed
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In optimal design concept, the geometric dimensions of a channel cross-section are determined in a manner to minimize the total construction costs. The Direct search optimization method by using MATALAB is used to solve the resulting channel optimization models for a specified flow rate, roughness coefficient and longitudinal slope. The developed optimization models are applied to design the round bottomed triangle channel and trapezoidal channels to convey a given design flow considering various design scenarios However, it also can be extended to other shapes of channels. This method optimizes the total construction cost by minimizing the cross-sectional area and wetted perimeter per unit length of the channel. In the present study, it is shown that for all values of side slope, the total construction cost in the round bottomed triangle cross-section are less than those of trapezoidal cross-section for the same values of discharge. This indicates that less excavation and a lining are involved and therefore implies that the round bottomed triangle cross-section is more economical than trapezoidal cross-section.
Leptonic Unitarity Triangles and Effective Mass Triangles of the Majorana Neutrinos
Xing, Zhi-zhong
2015-01-01
Given the best-fit results of six neutrino oscillation parameters, we plot the Dirac and Majorana unitarity triangles (UTs) of the $3\\times 3$ lepton flavor mixing matrix to show their real shapes for the first time. The connections of the Majorana UTs with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations and neutrino decays are explored, and the possibilities of right or isosceles UTs are discussed. In the neutrino mass limit of $m^{}_1 \\to 0$ or $m^{}_3 \\to 0$, which is allowed by current experimental data, we show how the six triangles formed by the effective Majorana neutrino masses $\\langle m\\rangle^{}_{\\alpha\\beta}$ (for $\\alpha, \\beta = e, \\mu, \\tau$) and their corresponding component vectors look like in the complex plane. The relations of such triangles to the Majorana phases and to the lepton-number-violating decays $H^{++} \\to \\alpha^+ \\beta^+$ in the type-II seesaw mechanism are also illustrated.
Leptonic unitarity triangles and effective mass triangles of the Majorana neutrinos
Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhu, Jing-yu
2016-07-01
Given the best-fit results of six neutrino oscillation parameters, we plot the Dirac and Majorana unitarity triangles (UTs) of the 3 × 3 lepton flavor mixing matrix to show their real shapes in the complex plane. The connections of the three Majorana UTs with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations and neutrino decays are explored, and the possibilities of right or isosceles UTs are discussed. In the neutrino mass limit of m1 → 0 or m3 → 0, which is definitely allowed by current data, we show how the six triangles formed by the effective Majorana neutrino masses αβ (for α , β = e , μ , τ) and their corresponding component vectors look like in the complex plane. The relations of such triangles to the Majorana phases and to the lepton-number-violating decays H++ →α+β+ in the type-II seesaw mechanism are also illustrated.
Swelling Properties of Water-Swelling Materials Exposed to Organic Water Pollution
Inazumi, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Wakatsuki, T; Shishido, K.
2011-01-01
A water-swelling material is one of the rubbery impermeable materials which mixed synthetic resin elastomers as a base material, high absorbency polymers, filler and solvents. In this study, swelling characteristics of the water-swelling material on the water polluted with COD and BOD, as an impermeable material at coastal landfill sites, are examined by laboratory swelling ratio test. Furthermore, the factor in which it influences the swelling pressure of water-swelling material is clarified...
Swelling-resistant nuclear fuel
Arsenlis, Athanasios; Satcher, Jr., Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei O.
2011-12-27
A nuclear fuel according to one embodiment includes an assembly of nuclear fuel particles; and continuous open channels defined between at least some of the nuclear fuel particles, wherein the channels are characterized as allowing fission gasses produced in an interior of the assembly to escape from the interior of the assembly to an exterior thereof without causing significant swelling of the assembly. Additional embodiments, including methods, are also presented.
Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities
Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-01-01
We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularit...
Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities
Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2016-01-01
We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singul...
Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities
Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2015-01-01
We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singul...
Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion
Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S.
2011-01-01
Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes tha...
The number of the maximal triangle-free graphs
Balogh, József; Petříčková, Šárka
2014-01-01
Paul Erd\\H{o}s suggested the following problem: Determine or estimate the number of maximal triangle-free graphs on $n$ vertices. Here we show that the number of maximal triangle-free graphs is at most $2^{n^2/8+o(n^2)}$, which matches the previously known lower bound. Our proof uses among others the Ruzsa-Szemer\\'{e}di triangle removal lemma, and recent results on characterizing of the structure of independent sets in hypergraphs.
On the Multiple Packing Densities of Triangles
Sriamorn, Kirati
2014-01-01
Given a convex disk $K$ and a positive integer $k$, let $\\delta_T^k(K)$ and $\\delta_L^k(K)$ denote the $k$-fold translative packing density and the $k$-fold lattice packing density of $K$, respectively. Let $T$ be a triangle. In a very recent paper, K. Sriamorn proved that $\\delta_L^k(T)=\\frac{2k^2}{2k+1}$. In this paper, I will show that $\\delta_T^k(T)=\\delta_L^k(T)$.
On the Tweety Penguin Triangle Problem
Dezert, Jean; Smarandache, Florentin
2004-01-01
In this paper, one studies the famous well-known and challenging Tweety Penguin Triangle Problem (TPTP or TP2) pointed out by Judea Pearl in one of his books. We first present the solution of the TP2 based on the fallacious Bayesian reasoning and prove that reasoning cannot be used to conclude on the ability of the penguin-bird Tweety to fly or not to fly. Then we present in details the counter-intuitive solution obtained from the Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST). Finally, we show how the solutio...
A Note on Tropical Triangles in the Plane
M.ANSOLA; M.J.de la PUENTE
2009-01-01
We define transversal tropical triangles (affine and projective) and characterize them via six inequalities to be satisfied by the coordinates of the vertices. We prove that the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle are tropically independent and they tropically span a classical hexagon whose sides have slopes ∞, 0, 1. Using this classical hexagon, we determine a parameter space for transversal tropical triangles. The coordinates of the vertices of a transversal tropical triangle determine a tropically regular matrix. Triangulations of the tropical plane are obtained.
Extremal problems on triangle areas in two and three dimensions
Dumitrescu, Adrian; Sharir, Micha; Toth, Csaba D.
2007-01-01
The study of extremal problems on triangle areas was initiated in a series of papers by Erd\\H{o}s and Purdy in the early 1970s. In this paper we present new results on such problems, concerning the number of triangles of the same area that are spanned by finite point sets in the plane and in 3-space, and the number of distinct areas determined by the triangles. In the plane, our main result is an $O(n^{44/19}) =O(n^{2.3158})$ upper bound on the number of unit-area triangles spanned by $n$ poi...
Phacoemulsification in anterior megalophthalmos.
Lee, Graham A; Hann, Joshua V; Braga-Mele, Rosa
2006-07-01
This case outlines the phacoemulsification technique used to overcome the challenge of the hyperdeep anterior chamber, weak zonules, abnormal anterior capsule, and large capsular bag. Key steps included trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule, a large capsulorhexis, prolapse of the nucleus into the anterior chamber with phacoemulsification anterior to the capsulorhexis, and a posterior chamber-placed iris-clip intraocular lens. Successful visual rehabilitation is achievable in these anatomically challenging eyes. PMID:16857490
Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images
Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique
2011-03-01
Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.
The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles
Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo
2016-01-01
Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during...
Catheter Ablation of Tachyarrhythmias in Koch’s Triangle
G-J.P. Kimman (Geert-Jan)
2005-01-01
textabstractKoch’s triangle is an intruiging area. On the atrial aspect, the triangular area itself is delineated by the tendon of Todaro, which inserts in the atrial aspect of the central fibrous body to mark the apex of Koch´s triangle. The ventricular border is formed by the septal leaflet of th
Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size
Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John
Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph of...
Teaching Pascal's Triangle from a Computer Science Perspective
Skurnick, Ronald
2004-01-01
Pascal's Triangle is named for the seventeenth-century French philosopher and mathematician Blaise Pascal (the same person for whom the computer programming language is named). Students are generally introduced to Pascal's Triangle in an algebra or precalculus class in which the Binomial Theorem is presented. This article, presents a new method…
Some Unusual Expressions for the Inradius of a Triangle
Osler, Thomas J.; Chandrupatla, Tirupathi R.
2005-01-01
Several formulae for the inradius of various types of triangles are derived. Properties of the inradius and trigonometric functions of the angles of Pythagorean and Heronian triangles are also presented. The entire presentation is elementary and suitable for classes in geometry, precalculus mathematics and number theory.
From Concept to Reality in Implementing the Knowledge Triangle
Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc
2016-01-01
The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional "one way" flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a "both ways" circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the…
Coloring triangle-free graphs with fixed size
Thomassen, Carsten; Gimbel, John
2000-01-01
Combining recent results on colorings and Ramsey theory, we show that if G is a triangle-free graph with e edges then the chromatic number of G is at most cel(1/3)(log e)(-2/3) for some constant c. In a previous paper, we found an upper bound on the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph of...
The CKM Matrix and the unitarity triangle
This report contains the results of the Workshop on the CKM Unitarity Triangle that was held at CERN on 13-16 February 2002. There had been several Workshops on B physics that concentrated on studies at e+e- machines, at the Tevatron, or at LHC separately. Here we brought together experts of different fields, both theorists and experimentalists, to study the determination of the CKM matrix from all the available data of K, D, and B physics. The analysis of LEP data for B physics is reaching its end, and one of the goals of the Workshop was to underline the results that have been achieved at LEP, SLC, and CESR. Another goal was to prepare for the transfer of responsibility for averaging B physics properties, that has developed within the LEP community, to the present main actors of these studies, from the B factory and the Tevatron experiments. The optimal way to combine the various experimental and theoretical inputs and to fit for the apex of the Unitarity Triangle has been a contentious issue. A further goal of the Workshop was to bring together the proponents of different fitting strategies, and to compare their approaches when applied to the same inputs. Since lattice QCD plays a very important role in the determination of the non-perturbative parameters needed to constrain the CKM unitarity triangle, the first Workshop was seen as an excellent opportunity to bring together lattice theorists with the aim of establishing a working group to compile averages for phenomenologically relevant quantities. Representatives from lattice collaborations around the world were invited to attend a meeting during the Workshop. A consensus was reached to set up three test working groups, collectively known as the ''CKM Lattice Working Group'', to review a number of well-studied quantities: quark masses, the kaon B-parameter, and the matrix elements relevant for neutral B-meson mixing. These proceedings are organized as a coherent document with chapters covering the domains of
How to get the magic triangle and the MAD triangle into your protein crystal
The handling of the phasing tools I3C and B3C is described, emphasizing practical aspects such as the preparation of solutions and incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals. The magic triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-triiodoisophthalic acid (I3C) and the MAD triangle 5-amino-2,4,6-tribromoisophthalic acid (B3C) are two representatives of a novel class of compounds that combine heavy atoms for experimental phasing with functional groups for protein interactions. These compounds are readily available and provide easy access to experimental phasing. The preparation of stock solutions and the incorporation of the compounds into protein crystals are discussed. As an example of incorporation via cocrystallization, the incorporation of B3C into bovine trypsin, resulting in a single site with high occupancy, is described
In the Tango experiments UO2 1 mm diameter microspheres were irradiated in the Siloe pool reactor in Grenoble. The main parameters are: 1. The initial density 10.11, 10.43, 10.78. 2. The temperatures from 9000C to 15000C. 3. The Burn up from 20,000 to 60,000 MWd tsub(U)-1. 15 out of 27 batches of 300 particles were examined in hot cell. The aim was to determine the diameter increase during irradiation by a microradiography technique associated with an optical density analysis. A tentative correlation is done between swelling and total porosity. An evolution of three populations of pores has been measured and their different aspects have been shown by scanning electron microscope. Finally the stable fission gases residual concentration was determined for each batch irradiated up to 20,000 MWd tsub(U)-1 by γ counting the gases collected by an evaporation technique. (author)
Malignant cerebral swelling following cranioplasty.
Honeybul, S; Damodaran, O; Lind, C R P; Lee, G
2016-07-01
Over the past few years there have been a number of case reports and small cohort studies that have described so called "malignant" cerebral swelling following an uneventful cranioplasty procedure. The pathophysiology remains to be established however it has been suggested that it may be related to a combination of failure of autoregulation and the use of closed vacuum suction drainage. The current study presents three further patients who had had a decompressive hemicraniectomy for ischaemic stroke. If decompressive craniectomy is utilised in the management of neurological emergencies, close attention and wider reporting of this type of complication is required not only to focus attention on possible management strategies, but also to determine which patients are at most risk of this devastating complication. PMID:27189792
Soil shrinkage characteristics in swelling soils
The objectives of this presentation are to understand soil swelling and shrinkage mechanisms, and the development of desiccation cracks, to distinguish between soils having different magnitude of swelling, as well as the consequences on soil structural behaviour, to know methods to characterize soil swell/shrink potential and to construct soil shrinkage curves, and derive shrinkage indices, as well to apply them to assess soil management effects
A CLINICAL STUDY ON SCROTAL SWELLINGS
Sobha Rani; Ramesh; Lokesh; Shyam Kumar; Mahesh Babu
2015-01-01
INTRODUCTION: The scrotum is a cutaneous bag containing the right and left testis, the epididymis and the lower parts of the spermatic cords. 1 Scrotal swellings are the commonest swellings affecting both children and adults. Though these swellings are frequently encountered, many times correct dia gnosis is not made and testis has been sacrificed . It also affects the physical wellbeing of the patient, is rath...
Swelling properties of the mudrocks at Harwell
Swelling and swelling pressure have an impact in areas of repository engineering in the context of radioactive waste disposal in clay. This report presents and assesses the results of a preliminary study on the swelling of mudrock cores from Harwell boreholes HW3 and HW4. Apparatus has been developed for a one-dimensional pressure test. Supplementary tests included free-swell tests, and the determination of dry density, natural moisture content, linear shrinkage and Atterberg consistency limits. Minerological details of test materials are also given. (U.K.)
Large swelling and percolation in irradiated zircon
Trachenko, K; Salje, E K H
2003-01-01
We study the effect of large swelling in irradiated zircon. We perform molecular dynamics simulation of the overlap of two radiation events and find that the damage produced in the second event scatters away from the densified boundary of the damaged region implanted previously. This serves as the microscopic mechanism of the increase of volume occupied by the damage. The additive nature of this effect results in large swelling observed experimentally. We translate the damage accumulation into the percolation problem, and show that volume swelling is a percolation phenomenon, with the swelling curve increasing rapidly at the percolation threshold. (letter to the editor)
Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles
Zelator, Konstantine
2010-01-01
By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines ...
Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities
Szczepaniak, Adam P.
2016-06-01
We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularities do remain visible in Dalitz plot projections of individual channels.
Lucas组合数模P%Lucas Triangles Modulo p
胡宏
2000-01-01
We define the Lucas triangle [nk] L,and determine the Lucas triangle [nk] L(mod p)for any odd prime p. The result extends some known results in derived by D. Wells in The Fibonacci and Lucas triangles modulo 2.%本文给出Lucas组合数[nk]L的定义，获得了Lucas组合数[nk]Ｌ模奇素数p 的同余式，推广了 Wells 1994年在The Fibonacci and Lucas triangks modulo 2一文中的 相关工作．
Submandibular swelling: Tooth or salivary stone?
Pasquale Capaccio
2013-01-01
Sialolithiasis should always be considered in the diagnostic iter of painful submandibular swelling. A careful evaluation of recurrence and characteristics of signs and symptoms associated to the swelling can help in making the correct diagnosis and planning a proper therapeutic strategy.
A novel reversible thermo-swelling hydrogel
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A novel reversible thermo-swelling gel was prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol-trimellitate (PVA-T by crosslinking with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDGE. Only in the presence of sulfate anion, this polymer gel showed a significant and reversible swelling behavior with increasing the temperature from 5 to 40°C, and vice versa, probably due to the scission and formation of the inter- and/or intramolecular hydrogen-bondings (HBs between the carboxyls on the side groups. The involvement of inter- and/or intramolecular HBs for the thermo-swelling behavior was also suggested by a significant dependence on HCl concentration of the swelling degree. In addition, the swelling reversibility and reproducibility were confirmed via the temperature jump between 5 and 40°C, well satisfying for a candidate as a thermosensitive material.
A Heuristic Algorithm for Solving Triangle Packing Problem
Ruimin Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The research on the triangle packing problem has important theoretic significance, which has broad application prospects in material processing, network resource optimization, and so forth. Generally speaking, the orientation of the triangle should be limited in advance, since the triangle packing problem is NP-hard and has continuous properties. For example, the polygon is not allowed to rotate; then, the approximate solution can be obtained by optimization method. This paper studies the triangle packing problem by a new kind of method. Such concepts as angle region, corner-occupying action, corner-occupying strategy, and edge-conjoining strategy are presented in this paper. In addition, an edge-conjoining and corner-occupying algorithm is designed, which is to obtain an approximate solution. It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is highly efficient, and by the time complexity analysis and the analogue experiment result is found.
Relativistic reactions visualized through right triangles in space
Apostolatos, Theocharis A.
2009-01-01
In this article we exploit the fact that the special relativistic formula which relates the energy and the 3-momentum of an elementary particle with its rest mass, resembles the pythagorean theorem for right triangles. Using such triangles, suitably arranged, we can prove all kind of equalities or inequalities concerning the kinematical properties of elementary particles in a wide variety of cases regarding particles' collision, decay or production. Moreover, relations that are somehow hard t...
Revisiting the didactic triangle: from the particular to the general
Goodchild, Simon; Sriraman, Bharath
2012-01-01
The basic notion of a didactic triangle is explained with historical annotations on its origins and subsequent theorization in the literature. Instances of its application to classroom environments to demonstrate its representational capabilities are presented. Generalizations of the triangle are proposed that integrate the role of technology, the researcher in mathematics teaching developmental research, and mediating complexes in the student–teacher–content interfaces. Further, the use of t...
Kidney herniation through lumbar triangle following open pyeloplasty
Qais Al Hooti; Abdulsalam Taher Ahmed Saleh; Ali Bin Mahfooz; Mohammed Aslam; Maher Moazin
2014-01-01
Kidney herniation through the lumbar triangle is an uncommon type of hernia which is classically managed surgically. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography revealed lower pole of the right kidney herniating through the lumbar triangle in a 60-year-old woman, 10 years after an open right pyeloplasty. Surgical intervention was advised, however, patient opted for non-surgical management. Patient was successfully treated conservatively in clinic requiring regular analgesics for relief of mild ...
Kidney herniation through lumbar triangle following open pyeloplasty
Qais Al Hooti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Kidney herniation through the lumbar triangle is an uncommon type of hernia which is classically managed surgically. Contrast enhanced computerised tomography revealed lower pole of the right kidney herniating through the lumbar triangle in a 60-year-old woman, 10 years after an open right pyeloplasty. Surgical intervention was advised, however, patient opted for non-surgical management. Patient was successfully treated conservatively in clinic requiring regular analgesics for relief of mild pain.
Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation
Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek
2013-01-01
Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...
A CLINICAL STUDY ON SCROTAL SWELLINGS
Sobha Rani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The scrotum is a cutaneous bag containing the right and left testis, the epididymis and the lower parts of the spermatic cords. 1 Scrotal swellings are the commonest swellings affecting both children and adults. Though these swellings are frequently encountered, many times correct dia gnosis is not made and testis has been sacrificed . It also affects the physical wellbeing of the patient, is rather a mental agony for him. Most of the times, patients hesitate to come early and may come with late complications. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To determine and confirm various etiological aspects of different swellings of scrotum. 2. To study various modes of presentations, relative incidence and diagnostic procedures for swellings of scrotum. 3. To study the various techniques and proc edures done . MATERIALS AND METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Clinical Study . STUDY AREA: Sri Venkateswara Medical College , Tirupathi . SOURCE OF DATA: The material for the present study is collected from the patients who present to the Out Patient Department of Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Medical College with swelling in the scrotal region fulfilling the inclusion criteria. SAMPLE SIZE: 100 patients fulfil ling the inclusion criteria . METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA: Detailed history taking , Complete clinical examination , Appropriate Investigations Blood & Urine Examination, USG , Performing surgery for the indicated cases & Operative findings were recorded. INC LUSION CRITERIA: Patients aged between 13 to 60yrs. Cystic swellings from the testes & its coverings, epididymis, spermatic cord & from scrotal skin. EXCLUSION CRITERIA : Cystic inguino - scrotal swellings. Patients aged above 60. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: Major ity of the patients with swelling of the scrotum belonged to the 31 - 40 years of age group (50% followed by 41 - 50 years (18% and 21 - 30 years (12%. Scrotal swelling was the common mode of presentation (60%. Right side was
Voltage Swell mitigation in Wind Farm System
Kadam D.P
2014-01-01
As the wind power penetration into the grid is increasing quickly, the influence of wind turbine on the power quality is becoming an important issue. Wind power penetration is the impact on power system stability. Power quality problems such as voltage sag and swell are some major concern. In this paper voltage swell issues is analyzed. Wind turbine connected to squirrel cage induction generator is modelled using PSCAD simulation software to analyse the said issues where STATC...
Swell prediction for the East Korean coast
J. H. Yuk; Kim, K. O.; Choi, B. H.; K. T. Jung
2013-01-01
Long-period abnormally high swell waves have been generated in the East Sea near Hokkaido, Japan, in winter during the atmospheric depression. These waves, named Yorimawari in Japanese, occasionally attack the coasts of both Korea and Japan. Waves significantly higher than normal years were recorded along the east Korean coast in 2006. In 2008, the swell caused considerable damages in Toyama and the Niigata coastal area of Japan and in Anmok east coast of Korea. This paper attempts to hindcas...
Sternoclavicular joint swellings: diagnosis and management.
Searle, A E; Gluckman, P; Sanders, R; Breach, N M
1991-01-01
Five patients with sternoclavicular swellings are described. The group presents a variety of diagnoses which highlight the need for thorough investigation and appropriate management of swellings around the sternoclavicular joint. Although frequently assumed to be benign, this series demonstrates the potential occurrence of malignant disease, and the dangers of pursuing a simple conservative course. Conversely, a substantiated benign diagnosis may avoid the use of unnecessary surgical treatment. PMID:1933108
Occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery after head trauma
2013-01-01
Intracranial arterial occlusion is rarely encountered in association with head injury. Only six cases of traumatic occlusion of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) have previously been reported. In this paper, the authors describe a case of a posttraumatic occlusion of ACA. A 35-year-old male presented to the emergency room with severe head injury. Computed tomography (CT) scan displayed diffuse brain swelling with multiple skull fractures. Follow up CT scan showed extensive cerebral infarctio...
Implementing the Law of Sines to solve SAS triangles
Zelator, Konstantine
2010-01-01
By "solving a triangle", one refers to determining the three sidelengths and the three angles, based on given information.Depending on the specific information, one or more triangles may satisfy the requirements of the given information.In the SAS case, two of sidelengths are given, as well as the angle contained by the two sides.According to Euclidean Geometry, such a triangle must be unique. In reference [1], and pretty much in standard trigonometry and precalculus texts,the Law of Cosines is employed in solving a SAS triangle. In this work we use an alternative approach by using the Law of Cosines.In Section 2, we list some basic trigonometric identities and in Section 3 we prove a lemma which is used in Section4. In Section4, we demonstrate the use of the Law of Sines in solving an SAS triangle. In Section 5 we offer three examples in detail; the last one being more general in nature.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries
... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...
Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2005-01-01
A new method for robust generation of distance fields from triangle meshes is presented. Graphics hardware is used to accelerate a technique for generating layered depth images. From multiple layered depth images, a binary volume and a point representation are extracted. The point information is...... then used to convert the binary volume into a distance field. The method is robust and handles holes, spurious triangles and ambiguities. Moreover, the method lends itself to Boolean operations between solids. Since a point cloud as well as a signed distance is generated, it is possible to extract an...... iso-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....
Hyperbolic triangle in the special theory of relativity
Ko, Y
2002-01-01
The vector form of a Lorentz transformation which is separated with time and space parts is studied. It is necessary to introduce a new definition of the relative velocity in this transformation, which plays an important role for the calculations of various invariant physical quantities. The Lorentz transformation expressed with this vector form is geometrically well interpreted in a hyperbolic space. It is shown that the Lorentz transformation can be interpreted as the law of cosines and sines for a hyperbolic triangle in hyperbolic trigonometry. So the triangle made by the two origins of inertial frames and a moving particle has the angles whose sum is less than $180 ^o$.
Triangle-free graphs whose independence number equals the degree
Brandt, Stephan
2010-01-01
In a triangle-free graph, the neighbourhood of every vertex is an independent set. We investigate the class S of triangle-free graphs where the neighbourhoods of vertices are maximum independent sets. Such a graph G must be regular of degree d = α (G) and the fractional chromatic number must...... satisfy χ (G) = | G | / α (G). We indicate that S is a rich family of graphs by determining the rational numbers c for which there is a graph G ∈ S with χ (G) = c except for a small gap, where we cannot prove the full statement. The statements for c ≥ 3 are obtained by using, modifying, and re...
Robust Generation of Signed Distance Fields from Triangle Meshes
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
A new method for robust generation of distance fields from triangle meshes is presented. Graphics hardware is used to accelerate a technique for generating layered depth images. From multiple layered depth images, a binary volume and a point representation are extracted. The point information is...... iso-surface of the distance field and fit it to the point set. Using this method, one may recover sharp edge information. Examples are given where the method for generating distance fields coupled with mesh fitting is used to perform Boolean and morphological operations on triangle meshes....
From concept to reality in implementing the Knowledge Triangle
Sjoer, Ellen; Nørgaard, Bente; Goossens, Marc
2016-05-01
The concept of Knowledge Triangle (KT) links together research, education and innovation and replaces the traditional 'one way' flow of knowledge, essentially from research to education, by a 'both ways' circular motion between all the corners of a triangle that, besides research and education, also includes innovation, the 'poor relation' of many universities. What are the main issues - barriers and drivers - and what could be done in order to make the concept of KT a strong reality in engineering education? In this paper, the authors intend to bring some answers by analysing three cases coming from actors operating at the three corners of the KT: students, academic staff and engineers in industry.
Triangle based TVD schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws
Durlofsky, Louis J.; Osher, Stanley; Engquist, Bjorn
1990-01-01
A triangle based total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme for the numerical approximation of hyperbolic conservation laws in two space dimensions is constructed. The novelty of the scheme lies in the nature of the preprocessing of the cell averaged data, which is accomplished via a nearest neighbor linear interpolation followed by a slope limiting procedures. Two such limiting procedures are suggested. The resulting method is considerably more simple than other triangle based non-oscillatory approximations which, like this scheme, approximate the flux up to second order accuracy. Numerical results for linear advection and Burgers' equation are presented.
Gonugunta V
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.
Patellofemoral syndrome; Chondromalacia patella; Runner's knee; Patellar tendinitis; Jumper's knee ... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more ... skiers, bicyclists, and soccer players who exercise often ...
... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more common in: People who are overweight People who have had a dislocation, fracture, or other injury to the kneecap Runners, jumpers, ...
Shi, Yan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Liu, Yuntong; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Xiaoduo
2016-08-01
The potential of polyvinyl alcohol/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVA/PVP) hydrogels as articular cartilage replacements was in vitro evaluated by using a macromolecule-based solution to mimic the osmotic environment of cartilage tissue. The effects of osmotic pressure solution on the morphology, crystallinity, swelling, mechanical and friction properties of PVA/PVP hydrogels were investigated by swelling them in non-osmotic and osmotic pressure solutions. The results demonstrated that swelling ratio and equilibrium water content were greatly reduced by swelling in osmotic solution, and the swelling process was found to present pseudo-Fickian diffusion character. The crystallization degree of hydrogels after swelling in osmotic solution increased more significantly when it compared with that in non-osmotic solution. After swelling in osmotic solution for 28days, the compressive tangent modulus and storage modulus of hydrogels were significantly increased, and the low friction coefficient was reduced. However, after swelling in the non-osmotic solution, the compressive tangent modulus and friction coefficient of hydrogels were comparable with those of as-prepared hydrogels. The better material properties of hydrogels in vivo than in vitro evaluation demonstrated their potential application in cartilage replacement. PMID:27157740
Swelling of p H -sensitive hydrogels
Drozdov, A. D.; deClaville Christiansen, J.
2015-02-01
A model is derived for the elastic response of polyelectrolyte gels subjected to unconstrained and constrained swelling. A gel is treated as a three-phase medium consisting of a solid phase (polymer network), solvent (water), and solutes (mobile ions). Transport of solvent and solutes is modeled as their diffusion through the network accelerated by an electric field formed by ions and accompanied by chemical reactions (dissociation of functional groups attached to the chains). Constitutive equations (including the van't Hoff law for ionic pressure and the Henderson-Hasselbach equation for ionization of chains) are derived by means of the free energy imbalance inequality. Good agreement is demonstrated between equilibrium swelling diagrams on several pH-sensitive gels and results of simulation. It is revealed that swelling of polyelectrolyte gels is driven by electrostatic repulsion of bound charges, whereas the effect of ionic pressure is of secondary importance.
Voltage Swell Mitigation by Using UPFC
Tandra Sutradhar
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with modeling and simulation of UPFC in IEEE 14 bus System with Induction Motor load for avoiding voltage swell. UPFC is an effective device, combining the features of the STATCOM and SSSC. UPFC can control active and reactive power flows and to optimize the system stability in a transmission line. When no UPFC is installed, real and reactive power through the transmission line cannot be controlled. The effect of reactive power compensation to prevent Swell has been analyzed with UPFC. A Power System Computer Aided Design/ Electromagnetic Transients including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC is used to carry out simulations of the system under study and detailed results are shown to access the performance of UPFC on the voltage swell of the system
Postoperative pectoral swelling after shoulder arthroscopy
ERCIN, ERSIN; BILGILI, MUSTAFA GOKHAN; ONES, HALIL NADIR; KURAL, CEMAL
2015-01-01
Fluid extravasation is possibly the most common complication of shoulder arthroscopy. Shoulder arthroscopy can lead to major increases in the compartment pressure of adjacent muscles and this phenomenon is significant when an infusion pump is used. This article describes a case of pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy. A 24-year-old male underwent an arthroscopic Bankart repair for recurrent shoulder dislocation. The surgery was performed in the beach chair position and lasted two hours. At the end of the procedure, the patient was found to have left pectoral swelling. A chest radiography showed no abnormality. Pectoral swelling due to fluid extravasation after shoulder arthroscopy has not previously been documented. PMID:26889473
Swelling of particle-encapsulating random manifolds.
Haleva, Emir; Diamant, Haim
2008-08-01
We study the statistical mechanics of a closed random manifold of fixed area and fluctuating volume, encapsulating a fixed number of noninteracting particles. Scaling analysis yields a unified description of such swollen manifolds, according to which the mean volume gradually increases with particle number, following a single scaling law. This is markedly different from the swelling under fixed pressure difference, where certain models exhibit criticality. We thereby indicate when the swelling due to encapsulated particles is thermodynamically inequivalent to that caused by fixed pressure. The general predictions are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of two particle-encapsulating model systems: a two-dimensional self-avoiding ring and a three-dimensional self-avoiding fluid vesicle. In the former the particle-induced swelling is thermodynamically equivalent to the pressure-induced one, whereas in the latter it is not. PMID:18850811
Determination of the CKM unitarity triangle parameters by end 1999
Caravaglios, F; Roudeau, Patrick; Stocchi, A
2000-01-01
Within the Standard Model, a review of the current determination of the CKMunitarity triangle parameters is presented, using experimental constraints fromthe measurements of |epsilon_K|, V_ub/V_cb, Delta m_d and from the limit onDelta m_s, available by end 1999.
Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle
Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei
2010-01-01
In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)
The comfort triangles: a new tool for bioclimatic design
Evans, J.M.
2007-01-01
This thesis presents a new graphic tool to identify and select bioclimatic strategies according to climate conditions and comfort requirements. The Comfort Triangle relates outdoor daily temperature variations with the modification of thermal performance achieved indoors, using two key variables, av
Symmetries of faces models and the double triangle algebra
Trinchero, R
2005-01-01
Symmetries of trigonometric integrable two dimensional statistical face models are considered. The corresponding symmetry operators on the Hilbert space of states of the quantum version of these models define a weak *-Hopf algebra isomorphic to the Ocneanu double triangle algebra(DTA).
The triangle anomaly in the tripple-regge limit
The U(l) triangle anomaly is present, as an infra-red divergence, in the six-reggeon triple-regge interaction vertex obtained from a maximally non-planar Feynman diagram in the full triple-regge limit of three-to-three quark scattering
Characteristic mixing triangles in the Bay of Bengal
Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.
Temperature-salinity structures in the inner part of Bay of Bengal showed complete mixing processes in the upper bay, less than about 600 m can be characterisEd. by a mixing triangle constitutEd. by three characteristic water properties. In outer...
Cohabitation promotes high diversity of clownfishes in the Coral Triangle.
Camp, Emma F; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; De Brauwer, Maarten; Dumbrell, Alex J; Smith, David J
2016-03-30
Global marine biodiversity peaks within the Coral Triangle, and understanding how such high diversity is maintained is a central question in marine ecology. We investigated broad-scale patterns in the diversity of clownfishes and their host sea anemones by conducting 981 belt-transects at 20 locations throughout the Indo-Pacific. Of the 1508 clownfishes encountered, 377 fish occurred in interspecific cohabiting groups and cohabitation was almost entirely restricted to the Coral Triangle. Neither the diversity nor density of host anemone or clownfish species alone influenced rates of interspecific cohabitation. Rather cohabitation occurred in areas where the number of clownfish species exceeds the number of host anemone species. In the Coral Triangle, cohabiting individuals were observed to finely partition their host anemone, with the subordinate species inhabiting the periphery. Furthermore, aggression did not increase in interspecific cohabiting groups, instead dominant species were accepting of subordinate species. Various combinations of clownfish species were observed cohabiting (independent of body size, phylogenetic relatedness, evolutionary age, dentition, level of specialization) in a range of anemone species, thereby ensuring that each clownfish species had dominant reproductive individuals in some cohabiting groups. Clownfishes are obligate commensals, thus cohabitation is an important process in maintaining biodiversity in high diversity systems because it supports the persistence of many species when host availability is limiting. Cohabitation is a likely explanation for high species richness in other obligate commensals within the Coral Triangle, and highlights the importance of protecting these habitats in order to conserve unique marine biodiversity. PMID:27030417
The triangle anomaly in the tripple-regge limit
White, A. R.
1999-11-22
The U(l) triangle anomaly is present, as an infra-red divergence, in the six-reggeon triple-regge interaction vertex obtained from a maximally non-planar Feynman diagram in the full triple-regge limit of three-to-three quark scattering.
The Religion of the Yao in the Golden Triangle
李坚
2004-01-01
IN the depth of the rugged mountains in the Golden Triangle dwells a group of unique people. More than 80,000 strong, living in over 300 villages scattered in Laos, Myanmar, and Thailand, 1 they constitute less than 4 percent of the total population of their Yao ethnic origin from in China. They have no modern technology, no formal social
NMR imaging and cryoporometry of swelling clays
Dvinskikh, Sergey V.; Szutkowski, Kosma; Petrov, Oleg V.; Furó, István.
2010-05-01
Compacted bentonite clay is currently attracting attention as a promising "self-sealing" buffer material to build in-ground barriers for the encapsulation of radioactive waste. It is expected to fill up the space between waste canister and surrounding ground by swelling and thus delay flow and migration from the host rock to the canister. In environmental sciences, evaluation and understanding of the swelling properties of pre-compacted clay are of uttermost importance for designing such buffers. Major goal of present study was to provide, in a non-invasive manner, a quantitative measure of bentonite distribution in extended samples during different physical processes in an aqueous environment such as swelling, dissolution, and sedimentation on the time scale from minutes to years. The propagation of the swelling front during clay expansion depending on the geometry of the confining space was also studied. Magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were adapted and used as main experimental techniques. With this approach, spatially resolved movement of the clay/water interface as well as clay particle distributions in gel phase can be monitored [1]. Bulk samples with swelling in a vertical tube and in a horizontal channel were investigated and clay content distribution profiles in the concentration range over five orders of magnitude and with sub-millimetre spatial resolution were obtained. Expansion rates for bulk swelling and swelling in narrow slits were compared. For sodium-exchanged montmorillonite in contact with de-ionised water, we observed a remarkable acceleration of expansion as compared to that obtained in the bulk. To characterize the porosity of the clay a cryoporometric study [2] has been performed. Our results have important implications to waste repository designs and for the assessment of its long-term performance. Further research exploring clay-water interaction over a wide variety of clay composition and water ionic
A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles
Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David
2007-01-01
By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…
Swell transformation across the continental shelf
Tinder, Cynthia Viernes
2000-01-01
A preliminary analysis of swell decay across the continental shelf was conducted using data from the SHOaling Waves EXperiment (SHOWEX). Six Datawell Directional Waverider buoys were deployed along a cross-shelf transect, offshore of Duck, North Carolina during an active hurricane season in the fall of 1999.
Pool swell in a nuclear containment wetwell
A brief description is presented of scale model tests conducted to study LOCA induced wetwell pool swelling in the BWR Mk 1 containment pressure suppression system. The Mk 1 containment configuration is described together with the scale model design, the conduct of the tests, and the experimental results
Swelling of spent fuel storage tubes
Unexpected swelling phenomena have been reported in the storage racks of the spent fuel pool at several nuclear power plants. Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out in order to identify the governing mechanism and to analyze the interaction of the storage tube and the spent fuel element housed in the tube. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs
Dominant factors in carbide fuel swelling
Identification of the dominant factors involved in carbide fuel fission gas swelling and release behaviour has been attempted by comparison between experimental data and the results predicted by means of a physical model. The model assumes that fission gas release occurs entirely through gas atom migration in the matrix solid and that fission gas bubbles, intra and intergranular, grow as the net result of gas atom precipitation into the bubbles and gas atom re-solution from the bubbles. Further, it is assumed that local gas atom redistribution process in the immediate neighbourhood of a bubble is so rapid that the bubble size always corresponds to the equilibrium size that maintains exact balance between the rate of resolution and that of precipitation. Computation runs performed with the model using carefully chosen combination of physical parameters have successfully reproduced the spread of experimental gas release and swelling data. Comparisons between the predicted results and the experimental data readily identify the grain size, and not the temperature, as the dominant factor affecting fission gas behaviour. The effect of other fuel design parameters such as fission rate density, hydrostatic pressure, etc. is generally shown to be minor. Further study, however, indicates that the external fuel dimensional changes resulting from fuel cracking very often overshadow that from fission gas swelling alone. It is concluded that efforts to control carbide fuel swelling should be directed towards the control of fuel microstructure rather than the control of fuel porosity as has been generally practiced so far. (author)
... symptoms will go away. This improvement will often last for years. Alternative Names A/P repair; Vaginal wall repair; Anterior and/ ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016
[Toxic anterior segment syndrome].
Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C
2011-01-01
Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994
Triangle-based key management scheme for wireless sensor networks
Hangyang DAI; Hongbing XU
2009-01-01
For security services in wireless sensor net-works, key management is a fundamental building block.In this article, we propose a triangle-based key predis-tribution approach and show that it can improve the effectiveness of key management in wireless sensor networks. This is achieved by using the bivariate polynomial in a triangle deployment system based on deployment information about expected locations of the sensor nodes. The analysis indicates that this scheme can achieve higher probability of both direct key establishment and indirect key establishment. On the other hand, the security analysis shows that its security against node capture would increase with a decrease of the sensor node deployment density and size of the deployment model and an increase of the polynomial degree.
Triangle Interception Scenario: A Finite-Time Guidance Approach
Yang Guo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Considering an aircraft threatened by an interceptor, one of the effective penetration strategies is to release a Defender from the aircraft to confront the interceptor. In this case, the aircraft, the Defender, and the interceptor constitute the three-body guidance relationship, and the cooperation of the aircraft and its Defender to achieve the best tactical effects turns into a concerned problem. This paper studies the triangle interception guidance problem via the finite-time theory. The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS method. The sufficient conditions of the linear system, being IO-FTS, under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB constraint are proposed, by which the state feedback controllers design method is obtained, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs. The triangle interception guidance problems are studied in three different cases, where the proposed methods are applied to the guidance design. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Remarks on the $P_c$ structures and triangle singularities
Guo, Feng-Kun; Nieves, Juan; Yang, Zhi
2016-01-01
It was proposed that the narrow $P_c(4450)$ structure observed by the LHCb Collaboration in the reaction $\\Lambda_b\\to J/\\psi p K$ might be due to a triangle singularity around the $\\chi_{c1}$--proton threshold at 4.45~GeV. We discuss the occurrence of a similar triangle singularity in the $J/\\psi p$ invariant mass distribution for the decay $\\Lambda_b\\to J/\\psi p \\pi$, which could explain the bump around 4.45~GeV in the data. More precise measurements of this process would provide valuable information towards an understanding of the $P_c$ structures.
On degree sums of a triangle-free graph
Brandt, Stephan; Harant, J.; Naumann, S.
2014-01-01
For a simple triangle-free k-chromatic graph G with k >= 2 the upper bound m(n-f (k-2)) on the sum Sigma(2)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(2)(x) of the squares of the degrees of G is proved, where n, m, and f(1) are the order of G, the size of G, and the minimum order of a triangle-free l......-chromatic graph, respectively. Consequences of this bound are discussed. Moreover, we generalize the upper bound on Ep (G) = Sigma(p)(G) = Sigma(x is an element of V(G))d(x)) for p = 2 to P >= 3. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
The fine triangle intersections for maximum kite packings
Zhang, Guizhi; Chang, Yanxun; Feng, Tao
2012-01-01
In this paper the fine triangle intersection problem for a pair of maximum kite packings is investigated. Let $Fin(v)={(s,t):$ $\\exists$ a pair of maximum kite packings of order $v$ intersecting in $s$ blocks and $s+t$ triangles$}$. Let $Adm(v)={(s,t): s+t\\leq b_v, s,t$ are non-negative integers$}$, where $b_v=\\lfloor v(v-1)/8\\rfloor$. It is established that $Fin(v)= Adm(v)\\setminus {(b_v-1,0),(b_v-1,1)}$ for any integer $v\\equiv 0,1 ({\\rm mod} 8)$ and $v\\geq 8$; $Fin(v)=Adm(v)$ for any integ...
Emerging lattice approach to the K-Unitarity Triangle
Lehner, Christoph; Soni, Amarjit
2015-01-01
It has been clear for past many years that in low energy observables new physics can only appear as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made on the lattice in recent years in $K\\to \\pi \\pi$, $\\Delta M_K$, the long-distance part of $\\varepsilon$ and rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this should allow for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.
Natural gas hydrates and the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle
Gruy, H.J.
1998-03-01
Natural gas hydrates occur on the ocean floor in such great volumes that they contain twice as much carbon as all known coal, oil and conventional natural gas deposits. Releases of this gas caused by sediment slides and other natural causes have resulted in huge slugs of gas saturated water with density too low to float a ship, and enough localized atmospheric contamination to choke air aspirated aircraft engines. The unexplained disappearances of ships and aircraft along with their crews and passengers in the Bermuda Triangle may be tied to the natural venting of gas hydrates. The paper describes what gas hydrates are, their formation and release, and their possible link to the mystery of the Bermuda Triangle.
Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles
Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand
2014-09-01
A rare variety of self-assembledmolecular triangle [Pd3(bpy)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1 is prepared by the combination of Pd(bpy)(NO3)2 with imidazole, at 1:1 ratio, in acetonitrile-water. Deprotonation of imidazole happened during the course of the complexation reaction where upon the metallomacrocycle is formed. The bowl-shaped trinuclear architecture of 1 is crafted with three peripheral bpy units capable of - stacking interactions. While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear manner utilizing intermolecular - interactions where upon two out of three bpy units of each molecule participated in the chain formation.
Acyclic Edge Coloring of Planar Graphs without Adjacent Triangles
Dezheng XIE; Yanqing WU
2012-01-01
An acyclic edge coloring of a graph G is a proper edge coloring such that there are no bichromatic cycles.The acyclic edge chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum number k such that there exists an acyclic edge coloring using k colors and is denoted by x'a(G).In this paper we prove that x'a(G)≤ Δ(G)+ 5 for planar graphs G without adjacent triangles.
Economics of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Coral Triangle
Asian Development Bank
2014-01-01
Marine resources in the Coral Triangle provide food, income, and jobs to its more than 350 million residents. However, the countries bordering this species-rich area—Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste—share closer links in their ecology than in their economy. Case studies explore the potential benefits of integrating these countries’ small-scale fisheries into global markets by developing opportunities for market differentiation, ensuring ...
Numerical problems with the Pascal triangle in moment computation
Kautsky, J.; Flusser, Jan
2016-01-01
Roč. 306, č. 1 (2016), s. 53-68. ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : moment computation * Pascal triangle * appropriate polynomial basis * numerical problems Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 1.266, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0459096.pdf
Sistem Prevensi School Violence di Madura Berbasis Galtung Conflict Triangle
Auliya Ridwan
2014-01-01
School violence may be understood as the threat or use of physical force with the intention to cause physical injury, damage of property or intimidation of another person at school. School violence is also violence that happens outside school as a result of a social interaction among the students. With regards to their prevention, many theories and propositions have been introduced including that of Conflict Triangle theory by Johan Galtung. This paper is aimed at analyzing school violence in...
What is the difference between a square and a triangle?
Limic, V.; Tarres, P.
2007-01-01
We offer a reader-friendly introduction to the attracting edge problem (also known as the "triangle conjecture") and its most general current solution of Limic and Tarr\\`es (2007). Little original research is reported; rather this article ``zooms in'' to describe the essential characteristics of two different techniques/approaches verifying the almost sure existence of the attracting edge for the strongly edge reinforced random walk (SERRW) on a square. Both arguments extend straightforwardly...
Quantum Algorithms for Finding Claws, Collisions and Triangles
Buhrman, H; Hoyer, P; Magniez, F; Santha, M; De Wolf, R; Buhrman, Harry; Durr, Christoph; Hoyer, Peter; Magniez, Frederic; Santha, Miklos; Wolf, Ronald de
2000-01-01
We present several applications of quantum amplitude amplification to finding claws and collisions in ordered or unordered functions. Our algorithms generalize those of Brassard, Hoyer, and Tapp, and imply an N^{3/4} log(N) quantum upper bound for the element distinctness problem (contrasting with N\\log(N) classical complexity). We also give an algorithm to finding a triangle in a graph more efficiently than classically.
An Internationalization Model to Enter the Northern Triangle Market
Marín Cadavid, Carolina; García, John J.
2013-01-01
An internationalization model is proposed for a Colombian company specialized in design and consulting engineering services related to the energy sector. The study of these services is relatively new in internationalization and competitiveness, therefore of great interest for research purposes. The model is created with the purpose of conquering the Northern Triangle market (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador). Different internationalization theories,such as the Eclectic Paradigm, the Upp...
The feedback triangle and the enhancement of dialogic feedback processes
Yang, M; Carless, DR
2013-01-01
This article explores some of the main barriers to the enhancement of feedback processes and proposes a framework for using dialogic feedback to foster productive student learning in the discipline. The framework suggests a feedback triangle focused on the content of feedback (cognitive dimension), the interpersonal negotiation of feedback (social-affective dimension) and the organisation of feedback provision (structural dimension). The interplay between these three elements is central to pr...
On the Tits alternative for some generalized triangle groups
Barkovich, Oksana; Benyash-Krivets, Valery
2004-01-01
One says that the Tits alternative holds for a finitely generated group G if G contains either a non abelian free subgroup or a solvable subgroup of finite index. Rosenberger states the conjecture that the Tits alternative holds for generalized triangle groups $T(k,l,m,R)=$. In the paper Rosenberger's conjecture is proved for groups T(2,l,2,R) with l=6,12,30,60 and some special groups T(3,4,2,R).
On the swelling resistance of ferritic steel
Transmission electron microscopy has been used to study the microstructural features associated with void swelling resistance in FV448 martensitic stainless steel after fast reactor irradiation to damage levels of 30 dpa at temperatures in the range 380-4600C. A characteristic feature of the microstructures is the presence of domains in which the high pre-irradiation network dislocation density is eliminated, and replaced by a homogeneous population of interstitial dislocation loops with a Burgers vectors. These domains grow but remain interspersed within a martensitic-type matrix that still retains high network dislocation densities. It is suggested that the observed evolution of the damage structure and the associated swelling resistance in such b.c.c. materials is due to the relative rates of nucleation and growth of the two interstitial dislocation loop types, with 1/2a and a Burgers vectors. (author)
A simplified analytical model for pool swell
Vapour suppression pool is being used in the containment of PHWR's to limit the pressure and temperature build-up in the containment following a LOCA. The discharge of high pressure water due to LOCA flashes into steam in the drywell, causes a rapid pressure build-up and forces an air-steam mixture into the suppression pool via the vent system. The containment and the pool internal structures need to withstand the hydrodynamic loading due to jet impingement and general motion of the pool water during the water clearing phase from the vents, the loads associated with pool swell in the subsequent air-clearing phase and those due to chugging - the oscillatory condensation of steam - apart from the general thermodynamic loading due to the mass and energy releases from the LOCA. This paper presents a simplified analytical model for pool swell assuming that the bubble is spherical in shape and it migrates vertically. (orig./HP)
Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel
Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin
2014-02-01
Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.
Glial K(+) Clearance and Cell Swelling
Macaulay, Nanna; Zeuthen, Thomas
2012-01-01
space into the glial cell are debated. Although spatial buffer currents may occur, their quantitative contribution to K(+) clearance is uncertain. The concept of spatial buffering of K(+) precludes intracellular K(+) accumulation and is therefore (i) difficult to reconcile with the K(+) accumulation...... repeatedly observed in glial cells during K(+) clearance and (ii) incompatible with K(+)-dependent glial cell swelling. K(+) uptake into non-voltage clamped cultured glial cells is carried out by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter in combination. In brain slices and intact optic...... nerve, however, only the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase has been demonstrated to be involved in stimulus-evoked K(+) clearance. The glial cell swelling associated with K(+) clearance is prevented under conditions that block the activity of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter. The Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter is...
Morphological effect on swelling behaviour of hydrogel
Yacob, Norzita; Hashim, Kamaruddin [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NUKLEAR MALAYSIA) Bangi, 43000 Kajang (Malaysia)
2014-02-12
Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer networks that are capable of imbibing large amounts of water. In this work, hydrogels prepared from natural and synthetic polymers were irradiated by using electron beam irradiation. The morphology of hydrogel inter-polymeric network (IPN) was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The studies reveal correlations between pore sizes of IPN with degree of cross-linking. This relation also has an effect on swelling properties of the hydrogel. The results indicated that hydrogel with smaller pore size, as a result of much dense IPN, would decrease water uptake capacity. Combination of natural and synthetic polymers to form hydrogel affects the pore size and swelling property of the hydrogel as compared to each component of polymer.
Swelling of acetylated wood in organic liquids
Obataya, E; Obataya, Eiichi; Gril, Joseph
2005-01-01
To investigate the affinity of acetylated wood for organic liquids, Yezo spruce wood specimens were acetylated with acetic anhydride, and their swelling in various liquids were compared to those of untreated specimens. The acetylated wood was rapidly and remarkably swollen in aprotic organic liquids such as benzene and toluene in which the untreated wood was swollen only slightly and/or very slowly. On the other hand, the swelling of wood in water, ethylene glycol and alcohols remained unchanged or decreased by the acetylation. Consequently the maximum volume of wood swollen in organic liquids was always larger than that in water. The effect of acetylation on the maximum swollen volume of wood was greater in liquids having smaller solubility parameters. The easier penetration of aprotic organic liquids into the acetylated wood was considered to be due to the scission of hydrogen bonds among the amorphous wood constituents by the substitution of hydroxyl groups with hydrophobic acetyl groups.
Vaal Triangle air pollution health study. Addressing South African problems
Terblanche, P.; Nel, R. [CSIR Environmental Services, Pretoria (South Africa); Surridge, T. [Dept. of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa); Annegarn, H. [Annegarn Environmental Research, Johannesburg (South Africa); Tosen, G. [Eskom, Johannesburg (South Africa); Pols, A. [CSIR Informationtek, Pretoria (South Africa)
1995-12-31
Situated in the central region of South Africa, the Vaal Triangle is an area which plays a vital role in driving the economic dynamo of South Africa. Also, because of the concentration of heavy industry, it is an area which provides a challenge in effective air pollution control. The Vaal Triangle lies within the Vaal River Basin, at an altitude of 1 500 m above sea level. Meteorological conditions in the area are highly conducive to the formation of surface temperature inversions, resulting in a poor dispersion potential. Because of multiple sources of air pollution in the area, poor dispersion conditions increase the risk pollution build-up and subsequent adverse impacts. The situation is further exacerbated by the continued combustion of coal in households, even after the electrification of residences. This is particularly chronic in the developing communities and during winter. Vaal Triangle Air Pollution Health Study (VAPS) was initiated in 1990 by the Department of Health, the Medical Research Council and major industries in the area to determine effects of air pollution on the health of the community. The final results of that study summarised in this article, and options to ameliorate problems are addressed. (author)
Pythagorean Triangles with Repeated Digits-Repeated Bases
Muzaffar, Habib
2009-01-01
In 1998, in the winter issue of the journal Mathematics and Computer education (see [1]), Monte Zerger posed the following problem. He had noticed the Pythagorean triple (216,630,666);(216)^2+(630)^2=(666)^2. Note that 216=6^3 and 666 is the hypotenuse length. The question was then, whether there existed a digit d and a positive integer k(other than the above); such that d^k is the leglength of a Pythagorean triangle whose hypotenuse length has exactly k digits, each being equal to d. In 1999, F.Luca and P.Bruckman, answered the above question in the negative. In 2001, K.Zelator(see [2]), took this question further and showed that no Pythagorean triangle exists such that one leg has length d^k, while the other leglegth has exactly k digits in its decimal expansion, with each digit bein equal to d. In this work, we explore the above phenomenon from the point of view of number bases other than 10. We prove five Theorems. As an example, in Theorem 1, we prove that there exists no Pythagorean triangle with one of...
Emerging lattice approach to the K-unitarity triangle
Lehner, Christoph; Lunghi, Enrico; Soni, Amarjit
2016-08-01
It has been clear for the past several years that new physics in the quark sector can only appear, in low energy observables, as a perturbation. Therefore precise theoretical predictions and precise experimental measurements have become mandatory. Here we draw attention to the significant advances that have been made in lattice QCD simulations in recent years in K → ππ, in the long-distance contribution to indirect CP violation in the Kaon system (ε) and in rare K-decays. Thus, in conjunction with experiments, the construction of a unitarity triangle purely from Kaon physics should soon become feasible. We want to emphasize that in our approach to the K-unitarity triangle, the ability of lattice QCD methods to systematically improve the calculation of the direct CP-violation parameter (ε‧) plays a pivotal role. Along with the B-unitarity triangle, this could allow, depending on the pattern of new physics, for more stringent tests of the Standard Model and tighter constraints on new physics.
Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis
2016-05-01
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed. PMID:26657398
Swelling kinetics of the onion phase
Diamant, H.; Cates, M. E.
2000-01-01
A theory is presented for the behavior of an array of multi-lamellar vesicles (the onion phase) upon addition of solvent. A unique feature of this system is the possibility to sustain pressure gradients by tension in the lamellae. Tension enables the onions to remain stable beyond the unbinding point of a flat lamellar stack. The model accounts for various concentration profiles and interfaces developing in the onion as it swells. In particular, densely packed `onion cores' are shown to appea...
Note on pool swell dynamics during depressurization
A relationship between (1) formalism and kinematic wave analysis for the swelling of a saturated liquid pool during continuous pressure release, and (2) the extensive kinematic wave analysis of transient volumetric pool boiling is described. When the primary contribution to vapor generation, the liquid enthalpy, is the only contribution considered, and when the pressure release rate is essentially uniform, approximate results for depressurization are found to be obtained directly from existing volumetric boiling presentations. (Auth.)
Modeling of pool swell dynamics. Progress report
Anderson, W.G.; Huber, P.W.; Sonin, A.A.
1977-03-01
The purpose of this research program is to develop and verify the scaling laws which apply to LOCA-induced pool swell in BWR pressure-suppression containment systems. The work has now progressed to a stage where several critical series of experiments have been completed. The experimental test program for checking the scaling laws is outlined. Some of the experimental results obtained to date and the conclusions one can draw from them are summarized.
Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt
Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian
2005-01-01
Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility t...
Hydrochemical behaviour of compacted swelling soils
The use of compacted soils in engineering practice is very wide spread, especially in geotechnical and environmental engineering. These soils can be submitted to moisture variations, i.e. suction changes, that induce volumetric deformations. The main objective of this thesis is to study the suction influence on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a compacted swelling soil in the range of suction comprised between 0 and 300 MPa. For this purpose, two kinds of suction controlled odometers, using the osmotic method or the salt solutions technique. were employed. The salt solutions odometer were especially developed for this study. The samples were made with a compacted swelling material. The experimental study has shown that the apparent pre-consolidation stress reaches a constant value above a suction of 38.9 MPa. The slope of the plastic compression curve had a maximum value under a suction of 4 MPa. These results seem to be related to the initial internal structure of the samples. Then the influence of complex hydro-mechanical stress paths was also investigated. It appeared that the results of the tests conducted on a swelling soil depended on the followed stress path even if a wetting is performed during a test. In the last part of this work, the test results were interpreted with the Barcelona Basic Model and Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM). The possibilities of both models were compared. To interpret the test results with the BExM, it is necessary to conduct some additional tests that include a suction cycle and also a constant volume test with a suction controlled wetting. As a conclusion, two suction controlled experimental devices were developed and validated in this study. With these devices, the influence of structure and suction on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a compacted swelling soils was characterised. (author)
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... confirm the diagnosis. It may also show other knee injuries. First aid for an ACL injury may include: ...
[Extensive swelling reaction after a pentavalent vaccination].
Gébus, M; Barbier, C; Bost-Bru, C; Michard-Lenoir, A P; Plantaz, D
2015-09-01
Injection site reactions (ISRs) are quite common side effects defined by a local adverse drug reaction directly caused by a vaccine. Twenty-four hours after an intramuscular injection (in the deltoid muscle) of the diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenza type b (DTPCa-Hib) combined vaccine, a 3-year-old boy developed fever. A few hours later, local redness and swelling appeared at the injection site, with rapid extension to the entire limb, it was pain-free, and no other clinical anomalies were present. The patient received intravenous antibiotics for suspected cellulitis. The progression was favorable in 12h (apyrexia and decreased limb swelling), allowing the intravenous antibiotic treatment to be discontinued. Since the child was in excellent general health and recovery was fast, an ISR was diagnosed. Extensive limb swelling is frequent, mostly after the fourth dose of DTPCa-Hib. Deltoid muscle injection of DTP vaccine increases the risk of ISR compared to injection in the thigh, before the age of 3 years. The introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine decreased the risk of general side effects but may increase the risk of ISR. These reactions disappear with symptomatic treatment and do not contraindicate the product. PMID:26239287
Infections after reconstructions of anterior cruciate ligament
Ristić Vladimir
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Infections after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are rare, but, on the other hand, they are difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to analyze causes of infections, risk factors, diagnostics, and possibilities of their prevention. Material and Methods. Seventeen deep infections (1.2% were found in 1425 patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Fifteen patients were males and two were females. Out of 475 professional athletes nine (1.9% had this postoperative complication. Eleven patients with septic arthritis were allergic to penicillin. Three of them had immunosuppressive diseases. Results. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in eleven cases (65%, other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus groups were found in four and three patients, respectively; while one patient had infection although the punctate was negative. Out of 965 patients with the patellar tendon grafts, ten (1.03% had this complication, while the incidence was 1.52% (7/460 in those with the hamstring grafts. Fifteen infections were acute with obvious symptoms within 14 days after surgery. Severe pain, limited range of motion, swelling of the knee joint and fever were the most common symptoms, while rubor and pus developed rarely. The infection was three times more frequent in the patients who had undergone surgery lasting more than 1.5 hour. Discussion and Conclusion. The following population groups are at risk of developing septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions: professional athletes, those who are allergic to penicillin, and those with immunosuppressive diseases. Staphyllococus aureus is the most common cause of infection. The patients with the hamstring autografts have a higher risk than those with the patellar tendon grafts. Preventive measures that should be performed include aseptic conditions in operative rooms, irrigation of the graft before its placement into the bone tunnels
Swelling clay pellets. Elaboration and characterization
Sealing structure, used in deep radioactive waste disposal, must prevent the radionuclides to diffuse to the biosphere. The main asset of pellets is their easy put in place. Yet porosity of such structures is higher and the swelling pressure lower in the structure performed with compacted blocks. As at such depth, hydraulic pressure could reach several MPa, the first goal of the study was to demonstrate that such a pressure does not alter the swelling pressure. A bibliographic study on the structural organisation of clayey media and stresses occurring in such media, associated to injection tests with high water pressure, has allowed- to validate the effective stress concept in saturated swelling clays and so to show that hydraulic pressure are not restrictive for using pellets. Different processes have also been studied to produce pellets: all of them give pellets with sizes around 20 mm and dry density higher than 1,90 g/cm3. Nevertheless, soaking test emphasised that porosity between pellets is to high to get a swelling pressure. Two approaches was then adopted to decrease this porosity: (i) mixing pellets with different sizes and (ii) mixing pellets with powder. In the first case, numerical calculation points out that, according to the processes, it would be better to use at least three different sizes to get the right porosity. in the second case, the introduction of pellets in the samples brings a new scale in the structural organisation (layer - particle - aggregate- pellet) in such a way that phenomena are more emphasized in the mixtures. Nevertheless, whatever the medium is like, the decrease of the axial and radial stresses during hydration is due to the decrease simultaneously to the increase of the swelling pressure. Finally, at same homogenized dry density heterogeneous and homogeneous samples have quite the same hydrodynamic and hydro-mechanical properties. That's why, it is suggested to describe heterogeneous media behaviour with modelling based on
Water holding capacity and swelling of casein hydrogels
de Kruif, C; Anema, Skelte G.; Zhu, Changjun; Havea, Palatasa; Coker, Christina
2015-01-01
The water holding capacity of casein gels was investigated by measuring the swelling and de-swelling under a variety of conditions of temperature and salt concentration. Transglutaminase cross-linked sodium caseinate (15% w/w) gels will swell in good solvents or shrink in poor solvents until an equi
Synthesis and Swelling Properties of Thermosensitive Hydrogels based on Terpolymerization
Cai Hua NI; Xian Yu ZENG; He HUANG
2005-01-01
Novel thermosensitive hydrogels based on polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide,Sodium acrylate, and diacetone acrylamide were synthesized. The swelling ratio and dynamic swelling were investigated. The results indicated that the hydrogels exhibited high water uptake and themosensitivity. The swelling properties and volume phase transition temperature could be adjusted by contents of the comonomers in the gels.
A novel chiral phase of achiral hard triangles and an entropy-driven demixing of enantiomers.
Gantapara, Anjan P; Qi, Weikai; Dijkstra, Marjolein
2015-11-28
We investigate the phase behavior of a system of hard equilateral and right-angled triangles in two dimensions using Monte Carlo simulations. Hard equilateral triangles undergo a continuous isotropic-triatic liquid crystal phase transition at packing fraction ϕ = 0.7. Similarly, hard right-angled isosceles triangles exhibit a first-order phase transition from an isotropic fluid phase to a rhombic liquid crystal phase with a coexistence region ϕ ∈ [0.733, 0.782]. Both these liquid crystals undergo a continuous phase transition to their respective close-packed crystal structures at high pressures. Although the particles and their close-packed crystals are both achiral, the solid phases of equilateral and right-angled triangles exhibit spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking at sufficiently high packing fractions. The colloidal triangles rotate either in the clockwise or anti-clockwise direction with respect to one of the lattice vectors for packing fractions higher than ϕχ. As a consequence, these triangles spontaneously form a regular lattice of left- or right-handed chiral holes which are surrounded by six triangles in the case of equilateral triangles and four or eight triangles for right-angled triangles. Moreover, our simulations show a spontaneous entropy-driven demixing transition of the right- and left-handed "enantiomers". PMID:26376756
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
Vilaseca, Tomas; Chahla, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gustavo Gomez; Arroquy, Damián; Herrera, Gonzalo Perez; Orlowski, Belen; Carboni, Martín
2015-01-01
Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze whether it is more frequent the presence of a decreased range of motion in the hips of recreational athletes with primary injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) than in a control group of volunteers without knee pathology. Methods: We included prospectively recreational athletes between 18 and 40 years with an acute ACL injury between January 2011 and January 2013. They were compared with a control group of volunteers recreational...
The objective of this study was to assess the value of soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs as a predictor of radiographically occult fracture, after acute ankle injury (trauma). Patients with acute ankle trauma and plain radiographic evidence of soft-tissue swelling were included in this study. Patients were excluded if ankle trauma was sustained more than 48 hours previously or if fracture was visible on plain radiographs. All subjects (n=25) underwent computed tomography (CT) of the ankle in sagittal and coronal planes. Size of soft-tissue swelling was measured from initial Antero-posterior (AP) radiographs. The subjects in the study were placed into two groups according to whether a fracture was identified on CT or not. The results identified that those subjects without a fracture demonstrated by CT, had a soft-tissue swelling of less than 12.6 mm, while those with over 17.1mm swelling, showed a fracture on CT. Twelve patients (48 per cent) had radiographically occult fractures identified with CT. Fracture sites included: Talus/Talar Dome (n=9), posterior or lateral malleolos (n=2), distal tibia/fibula (n=1). CT detected significant soft-tissue injuries in six patients (24 per cent), composed of damaged anterior talo-fibular ligament (n=4), torn flexor tendons (n=1), and damaged fibular calcaneal ligament (n=1). One patient also showed gas in the talar dome. This study concludes that presence of a large soft-tissue swelling on plain radiographs after acute ankle trauma suggests an underlying fracture. A soft-tissue swelling of >15 mm is a reasonable threshold to prompt further imaging. Helical computed tomography provides good visualisation of subtle bone injuries and may detect clinically important soft-tissue injuries. While the study has a small sample, there is clear evidence that there is a trend worth investigating. Future research will seek to investigate a larger sample. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography
Relationship between swelling and the shear modulus of irradiated metal
In three alloy systems, AISI 316, the Ni-Al binary system, and the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary system, a relationship exists between the shear modulus of the unirradiated alloys and the resultant swelling observed. An alloying addition which reduces the shear modulus will subsequently reduce the irradiation-induced swelling in a solid solution hardened alloy system. The reduction in swelling is thought to be associated with the void nucleation phase of the swelling phenomenon. Thus, relative high temperature swelling behavior of the solid solution hardened alloys can be described with reasonable certainty from room temperature shear modulus measurement
Swelling transition of a clay induced by heating.
Hansen, E L; Hemmen, H; Fonseca, D M; Coutant, C; Knudsen, K D; Plivelic, T S; Bonn, D; Fossum, J O
2012-01-01
Clays are of paramount importance for soil stability, but also in applications ranging from oil recovery to composites and hydrogels. Generically, clays are divided into two subclasses: macroscopically swelling, 'active' clays that have the capacity for taking up large amounts of water to form stable gels, and 'passive' or non-swelling clays; the former stabilize soils whereas the latter are known to lead to landslides. However, it has been unclear so far what mechanisms underlie clay swelling. Here, we report the first observation of a temperature-induced transition from a passive to an active, swelling clay. We propose a simple description of the swelling transition; while net attractive interactions are dominant at low temperatures so that the clay particles remain attached to each other in stacks, at higher temperatures it is energetically favourable for the clay to swell due to the entropy that is gained by counterions which are liberated during swelling. PMID:22943004
Occipital Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Rare Scalp Swelling
Nagpal, Nitin; Bhargava, Gopal Swaroop; Singh, Bhupinder
2012-01-01
Traumatic pseudoaneurysm occurring in face and temple is commonly reported to occur in superficial temporal artery, and so far only four cases have reported involvement of the occipital artery. We report a case of 25-year-old male patient presented to us with a pulsatile swelling in the occipital region following a trauma at the same site 5 years ago. A CT angiogram revealed the pseudoaneurysm of the left occipital artery and was surgically excised after ligation of proximal and distal parts ...
Trigonometric and Ssub(N)-symmetric solutions of triangle equations with variables on the faces
General properties of triangle equations with variables on faces are discussed. The solution of triangle equations is a main point for study of different problems in quantum mathematical physics. A simple method to search for the solutions of these equations is offered. The statistical vertex model is formulated. The unitarity and crossing symmetry conditions are derived. Solutions of triangle equations for Ssub(N)-symmetric model are obtained
Variability in reef connectivity in the Coral Triangle
Thompson, D. M.; Kleypas, J. A.; Castruccio, F. S.; Watson, J. R.; Curchitser, E. N.
2015-12-01
The Coral Triangle (CT) is not only the global center of marine biodiversity, it also supports the livelihoods of millions of people. Unfortunately, it is also considered the most threatened of all reef regions, with rising temperature and coral bleaching already taking a toll. Reproductive connectivity between reefs plays a critical role in the reef's capacity to recover after such disturbances. Thus, oceanographic modeling efforts to understand patterns of reef connectivity are essential to the effective design of a network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to conserve marine ecosystems in the Coral Triangle. Here, we combine a Regional Ocean Modeling System developed for the Coral Triangle (CT-ROMS) with a Lagrangian particle tracking tool (TRACMASS) to investigate the probability of coral larval transport between reefs. A 47-year hindcast simulation (1960-2006) was used to investigate the variability in larval transport of a broadcasting coral following mass spawning events in April and September. Potential connectivity between reefs was highly variable and stochastic from year to year, emphasizing the importance of decadal or longer simulations in identifying connectivity patterns, key source and sink regions, and thus marine management targets for MPAs. The influence of temperature on realized connectivity (future work) may add further uncertainty to year-to-year patterns of connectivity between reefs. Nonetheless, the potential connectivity results we present here suggest that although reefs in this region are primarily self-seeded, rare long-distance dispersal may promote recovery and genetic exchange between reefs in the region. The spatial pattern of "subpopulations" based solely on the physical drivers of connectivity between reefs closely match regional patterns of biodiversity, suggesting that physical barriers to larval dispersal may be a key driver of reef biodiversity. Finally, 21st Century simulations driven by the Community Earth System Model (CESM
Optimal Triangle Stripifications as Minimum Energy States in Hopfield Nets
Šíma, Jiří
Berlin : Springer, 2005 - (Duch, W.; Kacprzyk, J.; Oja, E.; Zadrozny, S.), s. 199-204 ISBN 3-540-28752-3. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3696). [ICANN 2005. International Conference on Artificial Neural Network s /15./. Warsaw (PL), 11.09.2005-15.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : sequential triangle strip * combinatorial optimization * Hopfield network * minimum energy * simulated annealing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science
Drug trafficking in and out of the Golden Triangle
Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud
2013-01-01
The Golden Triangle is the name given to the area of mainland Southeast Asia where most of the world's illicit opium has originated since the early 1950s and until 1990, before Afghanistan's opium production surpassed that of Burma. It is located in the highlands of the fan-shaped relief of the Indochinese peninsula, where the international borders of Burma, Laos, and Thailand, run. However, if opium poppy cultivation has taken place in the border region shared by the three countries ever sin...
Electromagnetic triangle anomaly and neutral pion condensation in QCD vacuum
Cao, Gaoqing
2015-01-01
We study the QCD vacuum structure under the influence of an electromagnetic field with a nonzero second Lorentz invariant $I_2=\\vec{E}\\cdot{\\vec B}$. We show that the presence of $I_2$ can induce neutral pion ($\\pi^0$) condensation in the QCD vacuum through the electromagnetic triangle anomaly. Within the frameworks of chiral perturbation theory at leading small-momenta expansion as well as the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model at leading $1/N_c$ expansion, we quantify the dependence of the $\\pi^0$ condensate on $I_2$. The stability of the $\\pi^0$-condensed vacuum against the Schwinger charged pair production due to electric field is also discussed.
Deformation theory and finite simple quotients of triangle groups I
Larsen, Michael; Lubotzky, Alexander; Marion, Claude
2014-01-01
Let $2 \\leq a \\leq b \\leq c \\in \\mathbb{N}$ with $\\mu=1/a+1/b+1/c$ be the corresponding hyperbolic triangle group. Many papers have been dedicated to the following question: what are the finite (simple) groups which appear as quotients of $T$? (Classically, for $(a,b,c)=(2,3,7)$ and more recently also for general $(a,b,c)$.) These papers have used either explicit constructive methods or probabilistic ones. The goal of this paper is to present a new approach based on the theory of representati...
Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries
Triangle Tiling IV: A non-isosceles tile with a 120 degree angle
Beeson, Michael
2012-01-01
An N-tiling of triangle ABC by triangle T is a way of writing ABC as a union of N trianglescongruent to T, overlapping only at their boundaries. The triangle T is the "tile". The tile may or may not be similar to ABC. We wish to understand possible tilings by completely characterizing the triples (ABC, T, N) such that ABC can be N-tiled by T. In particular, this understanding should enable us to specify for which N there exists a tile T and a triangle ABC that is N-tiled by T; or given N, det...
Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory annual report - TUNL XXIV, 1 July 1984-31 August 1985
Research programs of the Triangle Nuclear Laboratory are discussed. These studies are based on reactions induced by polarized beam, protons, deuterons and neutrons. Individual programs are cataloged separately
Pavlović D.M.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.
Swelling of biological and semiflexible polyelectrolytes
We have developed a theoretical model of swelling of semiflexible (biological) polyelectrolytes in salt solutions. Our approach is based on separation of length scales which allowed us to split a chain's electrostatic energy into two parts that describe local and remote electrostatic interactions along the polymer backbone. The local part takes into account interactions between charged monomers that are separated by distances along the polymer backbone shorter than the chain's persistence length. These electrostatic interactions renormalize chain persistence length. The second part includes electrostatic interactions between remote charged pairs along the polymer backbone located at distances larger than the chain persistence length. These interactions are responsible for chain swelling. In the framework of this approach we calculated effective chain persistence length and chain size as a function of the Debye screening length, chain degree of ionization, bare persistence length and chain degree of polymerization. Our crossover expression for the effective chain's persistence length is in good quantitative agreement with the experimental data on DNA. We have been able to fit experimental datasets by using two adjustable parameters: DNA ionization degree (α = 0.15-0.17) and a bare persistence length (lp = 40-44 nm).
An analysis of pressure suppression pool swell
An analysis of the pressure suppression pool swell phenomenon has been carried out for a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) of Indian design. In the event of a Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), the upper chamber of the containment, i.e., Drywell, would experience higher pressure because of mass and energy release from the reactor coolant system into the drywell. To alleviate the problem of drywell overpressurization, there is a large volume of water or suppression pool at the bottom of the containment where steam from the drywell could flow and condense. The present analysis models the transient air-steam mixture flow from drywell through the vent shafts, distribution headers and downcomers into the pool. After the initial vent-clearing stage, bubble growth at the exit of individual downcomers is modeled. Finally, the coalesced bubble growth and rise are modeled for groups of downcomers. For all these stages, the pool-swell and wetwell air-space pressure are also calculated. A four-equation model consisting of conservation of mixture mass, momentum, energy and noncondensible (air) mass has been used
Refraction of swell by surface currents
Gallet, Basile
2014-01-01
Using recordings of swell from pitch-and-roll buoys, we have reproduced the classic observations of long-range surface wave propagation originally made by Munk et al. (1963) using a triangular array of bottom pressure measurements. In the modern data, the direction of the incoming swell fluctuates by about $\\pm 10^\\circ$ on a time scale of one hour. But if the incoming direction is averaged over the duration of an event then, in contrast with the observations by Munk et al. (1963), the sources inferred by great-circle backtracking are most often in good agreement with the location of large storms on weather maps of the Southern Ocean. However there are a few puzzling failures of great-circle backtracking e.g., in one case, the direct great-circle route is blocked by the Tuamoto Islands and the inferred source falls on New Zealand. Mirages like this occur more frequently in the bottom-pressure observations of Munk et al. (1963), where several inferred sources fell on the Antarctic continent. Using spherical ra...
Swelling behavior of a simple ferritic alloy
The swelling behavior which results from simulated fusion environment irradiation of Fe-10% Cr has been characterized with transmission electron microscopy. Specimens were bombarded at 850 K with: a triple-beam of He+, D+2, and 4 MeV Fe++ ions to 0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 dpa, a dual-beam of He+ and 4 MeV Fe++ ions to 30 and 100 dpa; and a single-beam of 4 MeV Fe++ ions to 30 dpa. The helium and hydrogen injection rates were approx. 10 appm He/dpa and approx. 40 appm D/dpa. Cavities were observed for damage levels of 3 dpa and greater. The swelling was 111approx. =0.8 γ100 for these cavities. At 30 dpa, the cavities in the specimen irradiated with the single-beam technique were larger and had a lower concentration than the specimens irradiated with specimens irradiated with the dual- and triple-ion beams suggests that deuterium has an effect on the damage microstructures in Fe-10% Cr
A case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with uveitis
Sugahara M
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Michitaka Sugahara, Takayuki Fujimoto, Kyoko Shidara, Kenji Inoue, Masato Wakakura Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Here, we describe a patient who presented with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and subsequently developed uveitis. Case: A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital and initially presented with best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA of 20/40 (right eye and 20/1000 (left eye and relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination revealed no signs of ocular inflammation in either eye. Fundus examination revealed left-eye swelling and a pale superior optic disc, and Goldmann perimetry revealed left-eye inferior hemianopia. The patient was diagnosed with nonarteritic AION in the left eye. One week later, the patient returned to the hospital because of vision loss. The BCVA of the left eye was so poor that the patient could only count fingers. Slit-lamp examination revealed 1+ cells in the anterior chamber and the anterior vitreous in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed vasculitis and exudates in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis, and treatment with topical betamethasone was started. No other physical findings resulting from other autoimmune or infectious diseases were found. No additional treatments were administered, and optic disc edema in the left eye improved, and the retinal exudates disappeared in 3 months. The patient's BCVA improved after cataract surgery was performed. Conclusion: Panuveitis most likely manifests after the development of AION. Keywords: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, uveitis
Irradiation creep relaxation of void swelling-driven stresses
Hall, M. M.
2013-01-01
Swelling-driven-creep test specimens are used to measure the compressive stresses that develop due to constraint of irradiation void swelling. These specimens use a previously non-irradiated 20% CW Type 316 stainless steel holder to axially restrain two Type 304 stainless steel tubular specimens that were previously irradiated in the US Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II) at 490 °C. One specimen was previously irradiated to fluence levels in the void nucleation regime (9 dpa) and the other in the quasi-steady void growth regime (28 dpa). A lift-off compliance measurement technique was used post-irradiation to determine compressive stresses developed during reirradiation of the two specimen assemblies in Row 7 of EBR-II at temperatures of 547 °C and 504 °C, respectively, to additional damage levels each of about 5 dpa. Results obtained on the higher fluence swelling-driven-creep specimen show that compressive stress due to constraint of swelling retards void swelling to a degree that is consistent with active load uniaxial compression specimens that were irradiated as part of a previously reported multiaxial in-reactor creep experiment. Swelling results obtained on the lower fluence swelling-driven creep specimen show a much larger effect of compressive stress in reducing swelling, demonstrating that the larger effect of stress on swelling is on void nucleation as compared to void growth. Test results are analyzed using a recently proposed multiaxial creep-swelling model.
Conservation Narratives and Their Implications in the Coral Triangle Initiative
Samantha Berdej
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Conserving coral reefs, sustaining fisheries, and ensuring food security are multi-faceted challenges. Six nations in the Southeast Asia Coral Triangle have agreed to a region-wide framework to address these challenges through the Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security (CTI. Based on a review of documentation, selected discussions and ongoing work in the region, we offer an initial assessment of narratives influencing conservation practice in the CTI. Current efforts in the CTI are framed by a crisis narrative that emphasises the importance of maintaining critical ecosystems and baseline conditions. This narrative has a strong empirical basis but it can also exacerbate a dualistic view of people and nature. However, CTI documentation and programming also reflect a recognition of linked social-ecological change and the historical co-evolution of communities and coastal-marine systems. This emerging narrative places an emphasis on building resilience to change, rather than resisting change. We do not advocate here for a single narrative with which to frame policy responses in the CTI, but rather draw attention to the ways that mainstreaming of certain narratives will have material effects on initiatives and programmes promoted in this region of globally significant marine biodiversity.
The Propagation Matrix and Flavor Triangle for Cosmic Neutrinos
Fu, Lingjun; Weiler, Thomas J
2014-01-01
The Tribimaximal (TBM) ansatz for neutrino mixing has recently been invalidated. Since the TBM ansatz yielded a vanishing determinant for the neutrino propagation matrix, $\\mathscr{P}$, the door is now open for a non-vanishing determinant, i.e., for an invertible $\\mathscr{P}$, which would allow an inference of flavor ratios at cosmic sources directly from measurements at Earthly observatories. However, we show that the determinant of $\\mathscr{P}$ can still vanish if the CP-violating phase $\\delta$ is equal to a unique value determined by the three leptonic mixing angles. Validation of this result would beg for a new symmetry in the three-neutrino sector. Neutrino flavor ratios evolve according to this $\\mathscr{P}$ matrix. The evolved flavor ratios are best exhibited in a triangular flavor diagram. We prove a theorem, that the area of this Earthly flavor triangle is proportional to the determinant of the $\\mathscr{P}$ matrix. This theorem therefore relates the triangle's area to the invertiblity of $\\mathsc...
A metallic carbon consisting of helical carbon triangle chains
Carbon is the basis of life on Earth and many technological applications. We computationally report an sp3-hybridization-assembled carbon allotrope constructed by helical triangle chains through the evolutionary structure prediction method. Different from the previous metallic carbon K4, this carbon, called Tri-carbon, is mechanically and dynamically stable at ambient pressure. High ring strain in the carbon triangle blocks forces the C–C bond in Tri-carbon to be a ‘bent bond’, rather than the common single bond in diamond or the π bond in graphite. Unlike the unstrained sp3-hybridization in semiconductive diamond, valence electrons in the ‘bent bond’ are recombined to form extremely anisotropic sp3-hybridized bonds, thus conferring metallicity to Tri-carbon. Under nonhydrostatic conditions, Tri-carbon shows significantly anisotropic ideal tensile and compressive strength. Tri-carbon is expected to be achieved through chemical methods, such as the synthesis of cyclopropane derivatives (e.g. triangulane and tetrahedrane). These methods eliminate the restriction of ultra-high pressure to obtain metallic carbons. (paper)
Linking Leptonic CP violation to Quark Unitarity Triangle
Tanimoto, Morimitsu
2015-01-01
We study the linking between the CP violating phase of the lepton sectors and the unitarity triangle of the B0 meson system. Antusch, King, Malinsky and Spinrath have shown that the quark mass matrices with the negligible 1-3 mixing give an interesting relation between the phase of the quark mixing matrices and CP violating measure phi_2(alpha). This approach is extended by considering the SO(10) GUT including the Pati-Salam symmetry, which links the Yukawa matrices of the quark sector to the one of the lepton sector. We discuss the relation of the CP violating phases between both quark and lepton sectors as well as the mixing angles. Then, the leptonic CP violating phase is predicted in terms of the angle of the unitarity triangle of the B0 meson system. The leptonic CP violating phase deltaPMNS is predicted in the region -74 to -89, which is the consistent with the recent T2K results. Our predicted phase is sensitive to phi_2(alpha) and phi_3(gamma). These predictions will be clearly tested in the future ne...
Is chronic groin pain a Bermuda triangle of sports medicine?
Šebečić, Božidar; Japjec, Mladen; Janković, Saša; Vencel Čuljak; Dojčinović, Bojan; Starešinić, Mario
2014-12-01
Chronic groin pain is one the most complex conditions encountered in the field of sports medicine. Conservative treatment is long lasting and the result of treatment is often uncer- tain and symptom recurrences are common, which can be very frustrating for both the patient and the physician. The complex etiology and uncertainties during treatment of chronic groin pain is the reason why some authors call it the Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. In our prospective, 7-year study, 114 athletes with chronic groin pain resistant to conservative therapy were treated surgically. In 109 athletes with sports hernia, we performed nerve neurolysis along with resection of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve and we also reinforced the posterior wall of inguinal canal using a modified Shouldice technique. In 26 athletes that had concomitant adductor tendinosis and in 5 athletes with isolated tendinosis we performed tenotomy. Eighty-one of 83 patients with isolated sports hernia returned to sports within a mean of 4.4 (range, 3-16) weeks. Thirty-one athletes with adductor tenotomy returned to sports activity within a mean of 11.8 (range, 10-15) weeks. If carefully diagnosed using detailed history taking, physical examination and correct imaging techniques, chronic groin pain can be treated very successfully and quickly, so it need not be a Bermuda Triangle of sports medicine. PMID:25868316
Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata
Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino;
2007-01-01
Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance the...... aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology and...
Swelling Behaviors of Polyaniline-Poly(Acrylic Acid) Hydrogels
ZHANG You-wei; ZHAO Jiong-xin; LI Xiao-feng; TAO Yong; WU Cheng-xun
2005-01-01
Using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) aqueous solution, NaOH aqueous solution, aniline(An) and ammonim persulfate(APS), PAn-PAA hydrogels with a semi-interpenetrating structure connected by physical interlocks, chemical ion bonds and hydrogen bonds wcre prepared. The swelling properties of the hydrogels in solutions of different pH values(adjusted by adding NaOH or HCl) were studied. All the hydrogels prepared have similar swelling curves (the curves of equilibrium swelling ratio vs. pH value) and reach their maximum swelling at pH of 8 - 10. The maximum swelling ratio of the hydrogels is dependent on composition, including molecular weight of PAA, polymer content of the hydrogel,and molar ratios of AA to An, APS to An, and NaOH to AA.And the compositional dependence of the swelling capacity of PAn-PAA hydrogels was also studied.
Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report. [BWR
Chambre, P.L.
1978-01-01
The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure.
Suppression pool swell analysis. Special report
The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure suppression system during the early air discharge phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) is studied mathematically. The mathematical analysis of the surface swell caused by the initial discharge, located a finite depth below the free surface, is described in detail with the surface elevation shape as a function of time being one of the results. The initial approach considers the case of an infinite pool with the approach progressing to vertical boundary walls and finally to the semicircular pool cross section of the Mark I pressure suppression system. This analysis is valid for the time interval before the free surface impacts any structure
Dual swelling mechanism model for saturated and unsaturated compacted bentonite
Document available in extended abstract form only. In the current concept of repository for radioactive waste disposal, compacted bentonite as well as bentonite-based material will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. Since compacted bentonite swells when it is saturated, dry density of compacted bentonite will be redistributed and container of radioactive wastes will move during infiltration of underground water. Accurate evaluation of these events is effective in decreasing uncertainty in long term safety evaluation of radioactive waste facilities. However, sufficient evaluation is not conducted because behaviour of bentonite material during saturation process is not clarified sufficiently. Thus, stress-strain model of bentonite material during saturation process is proposed and applicability of the model is investigated. It is well known that compacted bentonite swells with large deformation by infiltration of water. Swelling behaviour of bentonite is mainly attributable to osmotic pressure caused by the difference between concentration of ions inside of montmorillonite flakes and that outside of montmorillonite flakes. Thus, swelling which is attributable to osmotic pressure is named 'swelling by osmotic pressure' here. By contrast, unsaturated ordinary clay swells or shrinks during infiltration of water without effect of osmotic pressure. Since this phenomenon is mainly attributable to reduction of suction during infiltration of water, it is reasonable to assume that unsaturated bentonite swells or shrinks during infiltration of water by reduction of suction. Thus, swelling which is attributable to reduction of suction is named 'swelling by reduction of suction' here. It is assumed in this paper that swelling by osmotic pressure occurs when bentonite is fully saturated, while swelling by reduction of suction occurs when bentonite is unsaturated. Swelling deformation under a constant vertical load is measured
Radiation swelling of emitters in nuclear thermoemission converters
Novikov, V.S.
1976-01-01
A mathematical model is proposed for the radiation swelling of emitters in nuclear thermoemission converters. This model takes into account the temperature gradients and concentrations of uranium decay products along the emitter cross-section, and also the external pressure and the simultaneous action of various mechanisms of swelling. In the particular case of swelling caused by an increase in gaseous pores, a solution is obtained for this model that is in qualitative agreement with the experiment data.
Approach for Measuring Swelling Stress of Buffer Backfilling Material
Ming Zhang; Huyuan Zhang; Suli Cui; Lingyan Jia
2012-01-01
The characteristics of swelling stress of buffer backfilling material have been studied by forcebalance method and constant volume test method in this paper. The constant volume test apparatus was designed by the authors. Results show that swelling stress changing with time is a little different between the two methods. The value of swelling stress measured by constant volume test is more accurate; besides, uptaking water with time could also be monitored by constant volume test. The constant...
Mechanically Robust, Negative-Swelling, Mussel-Inspired Tissue Adhesives
Barrett, Devin G.; Grace G. Bushnell; Messersmith, Phillip B.
2012-01-01
Most synthetic polymer hydrogel tissue adhesives and sealants swell considerably in physiologic conditions, which can result in mechanical weakening and adverse medical complications. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of mechanically tough zero- or negative-swelling mussel-inspired surgical adhesives based on catechol-modified amphiphilic poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers. The formation, swelling, bulk mechanical, and tissue adhesive properties o...
Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus
Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
This paper determines the efficacy of MR imaging in evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) following reconstructive surgery. Forty-three MR examinations were performed in 33 patients who had undergone previous arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar bone-tendon- bone autografts (postoperative period, 1-24 months; mean, 5.2 months). Of the 40 studies performed in clinically stable knees (30 patients), MR demonstrated a well-defined, signal void ACL graft in 36. Of the three studies performed in three patients with clinical ACL laxity or suspected tear, the neoligament was of intermediate definition in one and nondiscernible in the other two. As in the native knee, buckling of the PCL was suggestive of ACL insufficiency. Bone tunnel placement, patellar tendon changes, and joint effusions were also evaluated
O'Kane, J W
1999-10-15
Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384
Counterion adsorption effects on the swelling pressure in clays
Greathouse, J.A.; McQuarrie, D.A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
1995-10-01
The effects arising due to counterion adsorption in interacting planar electrical double layers is studied using modified Gouy-Chapman theory. The conditions used here model clay swelling experiments that have shown a strong dependence on the choice of counterion. The results show that the swelling pressure between charged plates depends on counterion adsorption, but they do not explain the experimental data. If the adsorption is strong enough, the swelling pressure becomes so small that it is unaffected by the plate separation. The swelling pressure is also affected by the bulk electrolyte concentration, although for a given adsorption parameter the adsorbed charge density is independent of ion concentration.
Spherical f-Tilings by Scalene Triangles and Isosceles Trapezoids, Ⅱ
Catarina P. AVELINO; Altino F. SANTOS
2012-01-01
The study of the dihedral f-tilings of the sphere S2 whose prototiles are a scalene triangle and an isosceles trapezoid was initiated in a previous work.In this paper we continue this classification presenting the study of all dihedral spherical f-tilings by scalene triangles and isosceles trapezoids in some cases of adjacency.
76 FR 17327 - 100th Anniversary of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
2011-03-29
... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-7497 Filed 3-28-11... the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On March 25, 1911, a fire spread through the cramped floors of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory...
Pugh, Greg L.
2014-01-01
The pink triangle exercise is an example of an experiential learning exercise that creates cognitive dissonance and deep learning of unrealized internalized biases among social work students. Students wear a button with a pink triangle on it for 1 day and write a reflection paper. The exercise increases self-awareness, cultural competence, and the…
Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement
Full Text Available ... and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR- ... Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR ...
Shape recognition of profiled fibers using triangle-area representation
Triangle-area representation (TAR) is a multiscale method for shape depiction. In this paper, we proposed an ameliorative TAR method for high shape discrimination power, and implemented it for convexity and concavity detection and characterization for cross-section shape analysis of profiled fibers. Positive and negative TAR outputs were processed by an average filter and then accumulated to obtain two separate histograms. From the histograms, the number and positions of the convex or concave corners on a fiber contour can be determined, and the range and extent of each convexity or concavity can be calculated for more quantitative shape analysis. These parameters provide basic shape information for fiber classification and inspection, and are also helpful for detecting and separating adherent boundaries in the image. (paper)
Relative log-concavity and a pair of triangle inequalities
Yu, Yaming
2010-01-01
The relative log-concavity ordering $\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}$ between probability mass functions (pmf's) on non-negative integers is studied. Given three pmf's $f,g,h$ that satisfy $f\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}g\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}h$, we present a pair of (reverse) triangle inequalities: if $\\sum_iif_i=\\sum_iig_i<\\infty,$ then \\[D(f|h)\\geq D(f|g)+D(g|h)\\] and if $\\sum_iig_i=\\sum_iih_i<\\infty,$ then \\[D(h|f)\\geq D(h|g)+D(g|f),\\] where $D(\\cdot|\\cdot)$ denotes the Kullback--Leibler divergence. These inequalities, interesting in themselves, are also applied to several problems, including maximum entropy characterizations of Poisson and binomial distributions and the best binomial approximation in relative entropy. We also present parallel results for continuous distributions and discuss the behavior of $\\leq_{\\mathrm{lc}}$ under convolution.
Value Triangles in the Management of Building Projects
Jensen, Per Anker
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate value triangles and their implementation in the management of building projects. The paper is based on results from a research project on space strategies and building values, which included a major case study of the development of facilities for Danish....... The conclusion is that DR’s buildings have a strong focus on value and fulfilment of intentions. This is not surprising as DR is a public service broadcasting corporation. This means that the buildings on one side have to be high-tech production facilities and on the other side shall represent a cultural...... and maintaining project integrity with the right balance between value management and resource management throughout the project....
Simulating arbitrary-geometry ultrasound transducers using triangles
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1996-01-01
-echo field. The spatial impulse response has only been determined analytically for a few geometries and using apodization over the transducer surface generally makes it impossible to find the response analytically. A popular approach to find the general field is thus to split the aperture into small...... number of transducers can be defined and their properties manipulated. The program can calculate all types of ultrasound fields, and can also be used for simulating B-mode and color flow images. Both the focusing and apodization can be set to be dynamic with respect to time, and it is thus possible to......-field response of a rectangle, as the triangle equations are far more complicated. This approach is therefore best suited for accurate modeling of fields, whereas the rectangle program is better suited to make fast simulated images, since contributions from many scatterers are summed here and the error is...
Elementary hyper-trigonometry of the particle triangle
In the hyperspherical treatment of three-body rotational states we introduced earlier two special subsets of body-fixed hyperspherical harmonics. With their help elementary trigonometry-like identities are derived, interconnecting the familiar geometric angles of the triangle, the hyperspherical angles which intermix the geometric angles and the particle masses, and the so-called angles of the kinematic rotation which are purely mass-dependent. One set represents stringent constraints to be observed in any calculation using at the same time hyperspherical coordinates belonging to different fragmentations of the particles. The other one supports the conjecture of the nonexistence of simple coordinate transformation laws between hyperspherical angles belonging to different fragmentations. (author)
Counting all equilateral triangles in {0, 1, ..., n}3
E. J. Ionascu
2008-03-01
Full Text Available We describe a procedure of counting allequilateral triangles in the three dimensional space whosecoordinates are allowed only in the set {0, 1, ..., n}3. Thissequence is denoted here by ET(n and it has the entry A102698in "The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences". The procedure is implemented in Maple and its main idea is based on the results in [3]. Using this we calculated the values ET(n for n = 1 ... 55 extending previous calculations known for n £ 34. Some facts and conjectures about this sequence are stated. The main conjecture raised here is that limn ® ¥((ln ET(n / (ln n + 1 exists.
Seo, Joon Won; Park, Ji Woong; Jang, Jae Chil; Kim, Jae Wook; Lee, Yang Gyun; Kim, Yun Tae; Lee, Seok Min
2013-01-01
Anterior cervical osteophytes are common and usually asymptomatic in elderly people. Due to mechanical compressions, inflammations, and tissues swelling of osteophytes, patients may be presented with multiple complications, such as dysphagia, dysphonia, dyspnea, and pulmonary aspiration. Paradoxical vocal cord motion is an uncommon disease characterized by vocal cord adductions during inspiration and/or expiration. This condition can create shortness of breath, wheezing, respiratory stridor o...
Food supply depends on seagrass meadows in the coral triangle
The tropical seascape provides food and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of people, but the support of key habitats to this supply remains ill appreciated. For fisheries and conservation management actions to help promote resilient ecosystems, sustainable livelihoods, and food supply, knowledge is required about the habitats that help support fisheries productivity and the consequences of this for food security. This paper provides an interdisciplinary case study from the coral triangle of how seagrass meadows provide support for fisheries and local food security. We apply a triangulated approach that utilizes ecological, fisheries and market data combined with over 250 household interviews. Our research demonstrates that seagrass associated fauna in a coral triangle marine protected area support local food supply contributing at least 50% of the fish based food. This formed between 54% and 99% of daily protein intake in the area. Fishery catch was found to significantly vary with respect to village (p < 0.01) with habitat configuration a probable driver. Juvenile fish comprised 26% of the fishery catch and gear type significantly influenced this proportion (<0.05). Limited sustainability of fishery practices (high juvenile catch and a 51% decline in CPUE for the biggest fishery) and poor habitat management mean the security of this food supply has the potential to be undermined in the long-term. Findings of this study have implications for the management and assessment of fisheries throughout the tropical seascape. Our study provides an exemplar for why natural resource management should move beyond biodiversity and consider how conservation and local food security are interlinked processes that are not mutually exclusive. Seagrass meadows are under sustained threat worldwide, this study provides evidence of the need to conserve these not just to protect biodiversity but to protect food security. (letter)
Chimpanzee tool technology in the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.
Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B
2007-04-01
With the exception of humans, chimpanzees show the most diverse and complex tool-using repertoires of all extant species. Specific tool repertoires differ between wild chimpanzee populations, but no apparent genetic or environmental factors have emerged as definitive forces shaping variation between populations. However, identification of such patterns has likely been hindered by a lack of information from chimpanzee taxa residing in central Africa. We report our observations of the technological system of chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle, located in the Republic of Congo, which is the first study to compile a complete tool repertoire from the Lower Guinean subspecies of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes). Between 1999 and 2006, we documented the tool use of chimpanzees by direct observations, remote video monitoring, and collections of tool assemblages. We observed 22 different types of tool behavior, almost half of which were habitual (shown repeatedly by several individuals) or customary (shown by most members of at least one age-sex class). Several behaviors considered universals among chimpanzees were confirmed in this population, but we also report the first observations of known individuals using tools to perforate termite nests, puncture termite nests, pound for honey, and use leafy twigs for rain cover. Tool behavior in this chimpanzee population ranged from simple tasks to hierarchical sequences. We report three different tool sets and a high degree of tool-material selectivity for particular tasks, which are otherwise rare in wild chimpanzees. Chimpanzees in the Goualougo Triangle are shown to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported in wild chimpanzee populations. We highlight new insights from this chimpanzee population to our understanding of ape technological systems and evolutionary models of tool-using behavior. PMID:17194468
REGIONAL TOURISM COOPERATION IN TRIANGLE ZONE OF LIAONING PROVINCE
LONG Jiang-zhi
2005-01-01
Strengthening the regional tourism cooperation is the requirement of both tourism development and tourist competition drive. On the one hand, resources, products, market and infrastructure in tourism are characteristics of half-public goods, which are the externalities. On the other hand, tourism competition has evolved from individual scenic spot, or firm competition to regional competition, which also requires urgent regional tourism cooperation. In recent years, the regional economic cooperation has been becoming popular in the world. The triangle tourism zone of Liaoning Province, constituted by Shenyang, Dalian and Dandong, is the core region of Liaoning tourism system. This regional tourism cooperation has been raised for a long time, but has not made substantial progress as yet. In recent years, the strategic cooperation among them has been becoming urgent, along with the change of tourism competition models, as well as the desire for building a Northeast Asia tourist economy circle. Based on literature, this paper establishes a conceptual frame of regional tourism cooperation and applies it in the analysis of the strategic tourism cooperation of Liaoning Province's golden triangle zone. This paper firstly examines both qualifications and motives concerning with cooperation among the three cities, and believes that the biggest difficulties involve traditional ideas, administrative institutions, communications, economic performances, time constraints, and more overlap among their tourist markets. Then this paper continues to construct a cooperating mechanism, including participant arrangements, construction of operating mechanism and construction of assisting mechanism. At last, this paper proposes approaches to the strategic cooperation such as introducing Xiuyan County, strategic integration and developing differentiated and complemented tourism products.
Neutron noise simulation by GFEM and unstructured triangle elements
Highlights: ► We develop a 2-D, 2-group neutron noise simulator based on GFEM. ► The spatial discretization is performed using unstructured triangle elements. ► The effects of fluctuations in diffusion coefficient on results are investigated. ► The developed code can be applied for both rectangular and hexagonal reactor cores. ► We find that the developed code is reliable tool for neutron noise calculation. - Abstract: In the present study, the neutron noise, i.e. the stationary fluctuation of the neutron flux around its mean value, is calculated in 2-group forward and adjoint diffusion theory for both hexagonal and rectangular reactor cores. To this end, the static neutron calculation is performed at the first stage. The spatial discretization of equations is based on linear approximation of Galerkin Finite Element Method (GFEM) using unstructured triangle elements. Using power iteration method, forward and adjoint fluxes with the corresponding eigenvalues are obtained. The results are then benchmarked against the valid results for BIBLIS-2D and IAEA-2D benchmark problems and DONJON computer code. The dynamic calculations are performed in the frequency domain which leads to reducing the dimension of the variable space of the noise equations. The forward/adjoint noise in two energy group is obtained by assuming the neutron noise source as an absorber of variable strength type. The neutron noise induced by a vibrating absorber type of noise source is also obtained from the calculated adjoint Green's function. Comparison of the calculated neutron noise at zero frequency with the results of static calculation, and utilizing the results of adjoint noise calculations are two different procedures to validate the neutron noise calculations.
Effects of Heterogeneous Sink Distribution on Void Swelling
Leffers, Torben; Volobuyev, A. V.; Gann, V. V.;
1986-01-01
different shells by a finite-difference method. From these concentrations the local and the average swelling rate and the dependence of this effect of the heterogeneities in sink distribution on swelling rate and the dependence of this effect on various structural parameters are investigated....
Contribution to swelling analysis in ceramic nuclear fuels
In this work a swelling phenomenological model containing several experimental observation is presented. Observations such as dissolution and redi solution of gas atoms, bubble nucleations in defects, dislocations and grain boundary, bubbles migration and coalescence are included. The model gives a bubbles distribution according to their size and position the swelling rate is calculated through the bubble distribution changes. (Author) 17 refs
Ageing effects on swelling behaviour of compacted GMZ01 bentonite
Highlights: • Ageing effects on compacted GMZ01 bentonite are investigated. • Swelling property decreases with ageing and influenced by initial conditions. • Ageing effects are mainly attributed to the bonding effects and the hydration of smectites. - Abstract: Ageing effects on the swelling properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite are investigated in this paper. Samples were compacted to prescribed dry densities and water contents and kept for ageing under constant volume and K0 confined conditions for target days of 0, 1, 7, 15, 30 and 90. Then, swelling deformation and swelling pressure tests were performed on the aged samples. Results indicate that both the swelling deformation and swelling pressure decrease with ageing time, with a more significant decrease at the first few days of ageing. Ageing effects are more pronounced for samples with large dry density and high water content. At the same initial dry density and water content, samples aged under constant volume conditions show much smaller decrease of swelling pressure compared to that of samples aged under K0 confined conditions. The decrease of swelling potential of samples with ageing days is mainly attributed to the bonding effects and the internal redistribution of water within the bentonite, which was confirmed by the changes of microstructure of samples with ageing
Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels.
Joshi, G; Okeyoshi, K; Okajima, M K; Kaneko, T
2016-07-01
Directional control of diffusion and swelling in megamolecular polysaccharide hydrogels is demonstrated by focusing on the anisotropic structures for water absorption. Due to the presence of a layered structure in the hydrogel, the directional control for diffusion parallel to the planar direction and swelling in the lateral direction are possible. PMID:27223843
Voltage Sag and Swell Generator with Thyristor Controlled Reactor
Park, T. B.; Kwon, G. H.; Chung, Y. H.; Lee, J.; Lim, G. Y. [LG Industrial Systems Co.Ltd, Seoul (Korea)
2002-07-01
This paper describes a new economical voltage sag and swell generator suitable to the evaluations of high power custom power devices such as DVR (Dynamic Voltage Restorer) and DSTATCOM (Dynamic Static Compensator). This system was designed to generate the several power quality disturbances in MVA Power ratings - voltage sag and swell, under voltage, over voltage and harmonic distortions. The basic idea for voltage sag and swell is to use the voltage drop across a reactor, while the voltage swell is to use the step-up transformer and the TCR(Thyristor Controlled Reactor). In this paper, two identical 3 phase TCRs and a step-up transformer with tap changer are used. Additional harmonic filters are added to reduce the voltage distortion when TCRs are operated. Simulation results are given for several cases of voltage sag and swell generations. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Ocean swell within the kinetic equation for water waves
Badulin, Sergei I
2016-01-01
Effects of wave-wave interactions on ocean swell are studied. Results of extensive simulations of swell evolution within the duration-limited setup for the kinetic Hasselmann equation at long times up to $10^6$ seconds are presented. Basic solutions of the theory of weak turbulence, the so-called Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions, are shown to be relevant to the results of the simulations. Features of self-similarity of wave spectra are detailed and their impact on methods of ocean swell monitoring are discussed. Essential drop of wave energy (wave height) due to wave-wave interactions is found to be pronounced at initial stages of swell evolution (of order of 1000 km for typical parameters of the ocean swell). At longer times wave-wave interactions are responsible for a universal angular distribution of wave spectra in a wide range of initial conditions.