WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Rash  

Science.gov (United States)

... wasps and hornets) Local irritants. This category includes diaper rash (caused by prolonged skin contact with urine ... allergy may last 3 to 14 days, whereas diaper rash almost always clears up within 1 week ( ...

2

Nail-patella syndrome with renal involvement and antecubital pterygia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nail-patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare, autosomal-dominant hereditary disorder characterized by nail dysplasia and multiple osseous abnormalities. Some patients may develop renal function impairment and even end-stage renal disease. We treated a 42-year-old female patient with proteinuria who presented with a web-like structure over the antecubital fossa and hypoplastic patellae. In addition, she had other characteristic findings, including bilateral iliac horn, triangular nail lunulae and hypoplastic radial head. She had impaired renal function, and renal biopsy showed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Additional cases were found in her family. Her mother had most of the signs of NPS as well as advanced renal failure. Her elder sister had knee abnormalities without the web-like elbow condition. Both daughters also had the characteristic features of NPS. During follow-up 30 months after the initial examination, the patient had stable renal function and mild proteinuria. PMID:12645195

Lee, Jia-Jung; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hwang, Shang-Jyh

2002-09-01

3

Diaper Rash  

Science.gov (United States)

... diaper rash that does not improve with self-care measures, is getting worse, or involves the skin creases or any area that is not covered by the diaper. Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe The doctor may suggest the following: Mild topical corticosteroids to treat inflamed areas of skin. Be ...

4

Rash - child under 2 years  

Science.gov (United States)

... The most common skin problem in infants is diaper rash. Diaper rash is an irritation of the skin caused ... dampness, urine, or feces. Most babies who wear diapers will have some type of diaper rash. Other ...

5

Babies and heat rashes  

Science.gov (United States)

... is only a gentle breeze drifting over the infant. Avoid the use of powders, creams, and ointments. Baby powders don't improve or prevent heat rash. Creams and ointments tend to keep the skin warmer and block the pores.

6

The antecubital organ of the primate slow loris (Nycticebus coucang coucang).  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the 'antecubital organ' of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang coucang), was undertaken in light and electron microscopes. As distinct from other prosimian primates there is a complete absence of interstitial cells in the gland suggesting its different functional role. The acinar cells in the 'antecubital organ', of slow loris contain large number of smooth ER and electron-dense secretory granules. The granules are seen both in the apical region of the cells as well as in their basal cytoplasmic processes. Some of these processes appear to terminate close to a blood capillary. The structural features of the 'antecubital organs' of slow loris suggest that it is a mixed gland of both exocrine and endocrine nature. PMID:821175

Ahmed, M M; Ling, E A

1976-01-01

7

Rashes: The Itchy Truth  

Science.gov (United States)

... it's red and might itch while it's healing. Allergic contact dermatitis is a rash caused by contact with an ... repellent when you'll be going outside. For allergic dermatitis or irritant contact dermatitis, try to avoid that substance. If you ...

8

Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Folliculitis)  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This image displays follicular elevations of the skin and small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of ...

9

Hot Tub Rash (Pseudomonas Dermatitis/Folliculitis)  

Science.gov (United States)

... How Do I Protect Myself and My Family? "Hot Tub Rash" ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) Below are answers ... hot tub rash and healthy swimming. What is Hot Tub Rash? Hot tub rash, or dermatitis, is ...

10

Lacosamide-induced rash.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous eruptions and hypersensitivity represent frequently reported side effects of anti-seizure medications. However, these side-effects have rarely been previously reported for lacosamide, a newer-generation anti-seizure medication with a novel mechanism of action. Here, we report a case of diffuse skin eruption in a patient with history of epilepsy soon after initiation of lacosamide. The rash resolved after discontinuation of lacosamide and use of antihistamines and steroids. We also review the information on drug hypersensitivity syndrome. PMID:25035958

Koubeissi, Mohamad Z; Vismer, Marta; Ehrlich, Alison

2014-09-01

11

Vena cava filter placement via the antecubital access: a report of 6 cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the methods and skill of vena cava filter placement via the antecubital access. Methods: Six patients with DVT (4 males and 2 females, mean age of 62) underwent vena cava filter placement via the antecubital access in Huashan Hospital from Oct. 2004 to May. 2006. The right basilic vein was punctured with the use of micropuncture technique. SNF(Simon nitinol filter, Bard)was inserted through its carrier into the 90-cm-long sheath. The filter was then deployed with a standard fashion in the IVC, 5 cm inferior to the renal vein. Results: The filter was once placed successfully in all six patients within average time of 25 min without complications, but with good healing, exclusion of bleeding and no phlebitis. The position of filter was accurate without deviation and no occurrence of pulmonary embolism. Conclusions: vena cava filter placement via antecubital access is easy, minimal invasive, no need of lying in bed postoperatively. It is beneficial for DVT patients as an alternative for the contra-indication to femoral venous access. (authors)

12

New Itchy Skin Rashes in Children  

Science.gov (United States)

... are several types of skin inflammation (such as diaper rash) and various allergic reactions (contact dermatitis). Determining ... Common allergens are nickel, chromates, rubber chemicals, and… Diaper Rash (Irritant Diaper Dermatitis) Diaper rash (irritant diaper ...

13

A Chinese New Year rash  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 28-year-old man presented with a chief complaint of rashes all over his body. He had a history of a trip to Langkawi Island, a famous island resort off the west coast of Malaysia, over the Chinese New Year’s weekend. According to him, he had a lot of fun with a group of friends at the sunny beach and the beautiful sea. There were no untoward incidents and they were perfectly well when they returned home after a 2-day trip. On the evening of the second day after his return, he noticed rashes appearing over his body, notably on shoulders and trunk. These rashes were little painful in nature.

Keah SH

2013-10-01

14

Pediatric Patient with a Rash  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 2 year old fully immunized male with no personal history of chicken pox presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of a rash for one week after returning from a hiking trip in a remote island in Canada. After initially being diagnosed with contact dermatitis, a diagnosis of herpes zoster was made by confirmatory viral polymerase chain reaction testing. The purpose of this case report is to examine the literature for the incidence and etiology of shingles in children without a prior history of a primary varicella rash outbreak.

Jared Sutton

2014-07-01

15

Pediatric patient with a rash.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2 year old fully immunized male with no personal history of chicken pox presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of a rash for one week after returning from a hiking trip in a remote island in Canada. After initially being diagnosed with contact dermatitis, a diagnosis of herpes zoster was made by confirmatory viral polymerase chain reaction testing. The purpose of this case report is to examine the literature for the incidence and etiology of shingles in children without a prior history of a primary varicella rash outbreak. PMID:25035735

Sutton, Jared; Walsh, Ryan; Franklin, Jillian

2014-07-01

16

Rash: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

Science.gov (United States)

... contact us Rash Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long have you had the rash? Is ... Have you had any recent sun exposure? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

17

New Itchy Skin Rashes in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

... reactions, hives (urticaria), viral infections, and scabies. Most skin rashes are not dangerous to others unless they are caused by an infectious disease, such as shingles or scabies. Many rashes go ...

18

Rash associated with Pregabalin: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 48-year-old man with erythematous, maculopapularrash localized to his extremities and lumbar region thathe had been receiving oral pregabalin 300 mg per day for2 months to treat his neuropathy was applied. The Naranjoprobability scale indicates a probable relationship betweenthe development of rash and use of pregabalin byour patient. Pregabalin was discontinued and antihistaminictreatment, oral methyprednisolone and topical steroidcream were given to treat the rash. The rash almostcompletely resolved one week after pregabalin was discontinued.Pregabalin-induced rash was rarely reportedin Phase 3 clinical trials, and there is currently only oneavailable report on the development of a rash coincidingwith the use of pregabalin. No clear mechanisms reportedfor rash associated with pregabalin. It is usually recommendedto start pregabalin with low doses and slow increasesmight prevent the incidence of side effects. J ClinExp Invest 2013; 4 (1: 107-109Key words: pregabalin, rash, multiple myelom

Burak Uz

2013-03-01

19

Rashes  

Science.gov (United States)

... caused by the same virus as chickenpox. The virus can lie dormant in your body for many years and re-emerge as shingles. Childhood illnesses such as chicken pox , measles , roseola , rubella , hand-foot-mouth disease , fifth disease , and scarlet ...

20

Pathology Case Study: Maculopapular Rash  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 38-year-old woman with a history of morbid obesity and gastric bypass surgery complains of fatigue, sore throat, and rash. Visitors are given the physical examination results and microscopic descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in dermatologic pathology.

Flynn, Kevin J.; Malone, Mark

2007-11-21

 
 
 
 
21

Hidroma subdural na fossa posterior Subdural hydroma of posterior fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de hidroma subdural na fossa craniana posterior conseqüente a traumatismo na região occipital. O paciente foi operado com pleno sucesso. A raridade da localização de hidroma na fossa posterior é salientada, sendo discutidos os possíveis mecanismos etio-patogênicos.A case of subdural hydroma in the posterior fossa is reported. The patient who had suffered an occipital traumatism was sucessfully operated. The rarity of the sub-tentorial hidromas is enphazised. The etiopathogenesis is discussed.

José Carlos Vasques

1970-03-01

22

"Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)  

Science.gov (United States)

Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

23

Infratemporal fossa schwannoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Due to its contents and relations with neighboring regions, the infratemporal fossa has a great clinical significance. Primary tumors of this region, both benign and malignant, are rare, but they do require surgical treatment, which is determined by the size and localization of the tumor. Case Report. The paper presents the case of a 72-year-old female patient who was referred to hospital for paresthesia in the left half of the face after having been found to have a tumor of left infratmeporal fossa by imaging methods. The tumor was completely removed by transfacial-transzygomatic approach and, according to histopathological findings, it was a schwannoma. The postoperative course was without complications and the patient did not have any discomforts at the check-up a month later. Conclusion. In addition to the accurate diagnosis, the success rate of the surgical treatment of tumors depends on the appropriate surgical approach to ensure the complete removal of the tumor while preserving the content of the infratemporal region.

Mijatov Ivana

2013-01-01

24

Medusae Fossae Formation  

Science.gov (United States)

(Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust or volcanic ash, and are thus more susceptible to windblown erosion. The Martian winds have actually been strong and relentless enough over time to strip the land in the bottom of this image of the material that once covered it, leaving it hard and bare to the eye.

2002-01-01

25

Hidroma subdural na fossa posterior / Subdural hydroma of posterior fossa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam um caso de hidroma subdural na fossa craniana posterior conseqüente a traumatismo na região occipital. O paciente foi operado com pleno sucesso. A raridade da localização de hidroma na fossa posterior é salientada, sendo discutidos os possíveis mecanismos etio-patogênicos. [...] Abstract in english A case of subdural hydroma in the posterior fossa is reported. The patient who had suffered an occipital traumatism was sucessfully operated. The rarity of the sub-tentorial hidromas is enphazised. The etiopathogenesis is discussed. [...

José Carlos, Vasques; Mário F., Coutinho.

26

Drug Rash (Unclassified Drug Eruption) in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Drug Eruption, Unclassified Information for adults A A A Acute drug eruption with numerous red, raised lesions. Overview A drug rash (drug eruption), also known as a drug ...

27

Clay at Nili Fossae  

Science.gov (United States)

This image of the Nili Fossae region of Mars was compiled from separate images taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) and the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), two instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The images were taken at 0730 UTC (2:30 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 4, 2006, near 20.4 degrees north latitude, 78.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. HiRISE's image was taken in three colors, but its much higher resolution shows features as small as 30 centimeters (1 foot) across. CRISM's sister instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft, OMEGA, discovered that some of the most ancient regions of Mars are rich in clay minerals, formed when water altered the planet's volcanic rocks. From the OMEGA data it was unclear whether the clays formed at the surface during Mars' earliest history of if they formed at depth and were later exposed by impact craters or erosion of the overlying rocks. Clays are an indicator of wet, benign environments possibly suitable for biological processes, making Nili Fossae and comparable regions important targets for both CRISM and HiRISE. In this visualization of the combined data from the two instruments, the CRISM data were used to calculate the strengths of spectral absorption bands due to minerals present in the scene. The two major minerals detected by the instrument are olivine, a mineral characteristic of primitive igneous rocks, and clay. Areas rich in olivine are shown in red, and minerals rich in clay are shown in green. The derived colors were then overlayed on the HiRISE image. The area where the CRISM and HiRISE data overlap is shown at the upper left, and is about 5 kilometers (3 miles) across. The three boxes outlined in blue are enlarged to show how the different minerals in the scene match up with different landforms. In the image at the upper right, the small mesa -- a flat-topped hill -- at the center of the image is a remnant of an overlying rock layer that was eroded away. The greenish clay areas at the base of the hill were exposed by erosion of the overlying rock. The images at the upper right and lower left both show that the reddish-toned olivine occurs as sand dunes on top of the greenish clay deposits. The image at the lower right shows details of the clay-rich rock, including that they are extensively fractured into small, polygonal blocks just a few meters in size. Taken together, the CRISM and HiRISE data show that the clay-rich rocks are the oldest at the site, that they are exposed where overlying rock has been eroded away, and that the olivine is not part of the clay-rich rock. Rather it occurs in sand dunes blowing across the clay. Many more images of Nili Fossae and other clay-rich areas will be taken over the next two years. They will be used to try to understand the earliest climate of Mars that is recorded in the planet's rocks. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. CRISM's mission: Find the spectral fingerprints of aqueous and hydrothermal deposits and map the geology, composition and stratigraphy of surface features. The instrument will also watch the seasonal variations in Martian dust and ice aerosols, and water content in surface materials o leading to new understanding of the climate. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the Califonia Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor and built the spacecraft.

2006-01-01

28

Erythema Gyratum Repens: A Rare Paraneoplastic Rash  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Erythema gyratum repens (EGR is a rare, and characteristic, paraneoplastic rash associated with a variety of malignancies, most notably lung, esophageal, and breast cancers. This case report details the appearance, epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of EGR. Prompt identification of EGR is essential, as the rash often precedes the diagnosis of malignancy by several months. Urgent patient referral to evaluate for malignancy is crucial, as this may lead to decreased morbidity and mortality. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:556–558.

Michael E Winters

2011-05-01

29

Ron Rash: One Foot in Eden  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An analysis of Ron Rash's novel One Foot in Eden, focusing on his attachment to place and his depiction of the internal conflicts between farmers and townspeople in a small Appalachian community. Rash depicts the contemporary Southerner’s struggle to maintain his or her roots in a time of rapid homogenization. The inherent conflicts in his fiction are simultaneously a reminder of the necessity of living with one’s past and a fierce attack on today’s merciless industrialization. The novel ultimately resonates with the continuous changes of the South in the new millennium.

Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

2010-01-01

30

Hematomas na fossa craniana posterior Haematomata in the posterior fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available São relatados 6 casos de hematomas sub-tentorias (um de hematoma subdural crônico, quatro de hematomas intra-cerebelares, um de hematoma extra-dural. Salientando a pequena freqüência dos hematomas da fossa craniana posterior, o autor mostra a necessidade de vários exames complementares para o diagnóstico exato, indispensável para a aplicação de terapêutica cirúrgica adequada.Six cases of sub-tentorial haematomata (one chronic sub-dural, four intra-cerebellar, one extra-dural are reported. Emphasizing the relative rarity of haematomata in the posterior cranial fossa, the author claims the necessity of complementary examinations for proper diagnosis, indispensable for adequate surgical treatment.

Mário S. Cademartori

1969-09-01

31

Glioblastoma Located In Posterior Fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 63-year-old woman operated eight months ago for glioblastoma (GB located in posterior fossa was admitted to emergency room for stuporous, nausea, vomiting and headache. CT and MR showed recurrence of posterior fossa cysticnecrotic tumour without any other intracranial contrast enhancing lesion. Tumour was removed near totally. Perseverative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula from the incision was occurred and  contaminated by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Two months after the tumour removal she was expired because of the septicaemia. GB located in posterior fossa is uncommon in both adults and children;and it appears as two different subsets: de novo (primary type and secondary  glioblastomas. Although our patient’s immunohistochemical findings werenot enough to demonstrate the tumour subset, we have thought that her tumour wasde novo because of no other brain involvement, staining with GFAP, vimentin, and  nearly absent p53 mutation.

Bulent Bakar

2013-01-01

32

Hematomas na fossa craniana posterior / Haematomata in the posterior fossa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese São relatados 6 casos de hematomas sub-tentorias (um de hematoma subdural crônico, quatro de hematomas intra-cerebelares, um de hematoma extra-dural). Salientando a pequena freqüência dos hematomas da fossa craniana posterior, o autor mostra a necessidade de vários exames complementares para o diagn [...] óstico exato, indispensável para a aplicação de terapêutica cirúrgica adequada. Abstract in english Six cases of sub-tentorial haematomata (one chronic sub-dural, four intra-cerebellar, one extra-dural) are reported. Emphasizing the relative rarity of haematomata in the posterior cranial fossa, the author claims the necessity of complementary examinations for proper diagnosis, indispensable for ad [...] equate surgical treatment.

Mário S., Cademartori.

33

Seizure-induced periorbital petechial rash  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 58-year-old man was admitted after a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The neurological examination was normal, except for bilateral periorbital, enoral and superior thoracic petechiae, which had only occurred after the seizure. The blood pressure, CT scan of the brain and routine laboratory were unremarkable. Seizure-related petechial rash is a rare finding that might be helpful for the diagnosis of an epileptic event in the absence of other objective signs [1, 2] . It ma...

Roth, P.; Zumsteg, D.

2009-01-01

34

Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine with prominent anticonvulsant action than other members of the group at equisedating doses. It especially blocks pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Other important actions include anxiolysis. Common adverse effects to Clonazepam include drowsiness and lethargy. In this submission we report a case of Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash in a 30 year old female treated for panic disorder. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 647-649

S. Mabu Shareef

2013-10-01

35

Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine with prominent anticonvulsant action than other members of the group at equisedating doses. It especially blocks pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures. Other important actions include anxiolysis. Common adverse effects to Clonazepam include drowsiness and lethargy. In this submission we report a case of Clonazepam induced maculopapular rash in a 30 year old female treated for panic disorder. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000): 647-649

Mabu Shareef, S.; Sai Krishna, P.; Tadvi, Naser A.; Naidu, C. Dinesh M.

2013-01-01

36

Late-Onset Rash Associated with Lamotrigine: Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of lamotrigine in Bipolar Disorder has been approved by the F.D.A since 2003. Rash is the more frequent adverse effect related to the treatment with Lamotrigine and in several cases is the cause for discontinuation of medical treatment. The less frequent related cases of rash are the late onset ones. About a women’s case with a late onset of rash, we revised the clinical use of Lamotrigine in Bipolar Disorder published bibliography which is followed by a special focus in the rash itself and finally we present some particular issues about late onset rash.

Raquel Ribeiro

2014-10-01

37

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency presenting as a rash.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We report on the case of a 2-year-old girl recently diagnosed with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency who originally presented in the neonatal period with a distinctive rash. At 11 weeks of age she developed seizures, she had acquired microcephaly and developmental delay. The rash deteriorated dramatically following commencement of phenobarbitone; both rash and seizures abated following empiric introduction of pyridoxine and folinic acid as treatment of possible vitamin responsive seizures. We postulate that phenobarbitone in combination with MTHFR deficiency may have caused her rash to deteriorate and subsequent folinic acid was helpful in treating the rash and preventing further acute neurological decline as commonly associated with this condition.

Crushell, Ellen

2012-09-01

38

Diseases of the optic fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using a whole body CT unit for coronal tomography, it is possible to observe the extraocular muscles at the same time. Diseases of the optic fossa that can be investigated by CT include muscular hypertrophy due to toxic goiter, calcification of the sclera in hyperparathyroidismus, foreign bodies, inflammatory pseudotumor, retrobulbar tumor, tumor of the retina, tumor of the choroidea, and tumor of the sclera

39

Internal antecubital fold line: A new useful anatomical repair to identify the medial epicondyle and avoid iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury in patients with supracondylar fracture of the humerus / Línea del pliegue antecubital interno: Un nuevo reparo anatómico útil para identificar la epitróclea y evitar lesiones iatrogénicas del nervio ulnar en pacientes con fractura supracondílea del humero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish La fractura supracondílea del húmero distal es la más común alrededor del codo en niños. Las técnicas actualmente aceptadas de fijación son dos clavos laterales paralelos, dos clavos cruzados laterales, dos clavos laterales divergentes y dos clavos retrógrados cruzados. Los clavos retrógrados cruzad [...] os, proporcionan la mejor estabilidad mecánica. La mayoría de los niños con fractura supracondílea presentan inflamación alrededor del codo, haciendo difícil la palpación de la epítroclea, aumentando el riesgo de lesión del nervio cubital. Objetivo: evaluar la correspondencia de la línea del pliegue antecubital interno con la epitróclea en pacientes con fractura supracondílea y la incidencia de las lesiones iatrogénicas del nervio cubital. Metodología: Realizamos una serie de casos clínicos. El primer grupo incluyó 56 niños con fractura supracondílea tipo III de Gartland, entre agosto de 2000 a septiembre de 2007, tratados con reducción cerrada y fijación con clavos cruzados retrógrados. El segundo grupo incluyó 241 (481 codos) pacientes de consulta externa. En ambos grupos utilizamos la línea antecubital interna para identificar la epitróclea. Resultados: La prolongación de la línea del pliegue antecubital intersecó la epitróclea en todos los participantes del primer grupo. No hubo lesión iatrogénica del nervio cubital. En el segundo grupo la línea del pliegue antecubital intersecó la epitróclea en el 96.3% de los pacientes. Ningún paciente presentó lesión del nervio cubital. Conclusiones: La extensión de la línea de pliegue antecubital interno puede ser útil para la identificación de la epitróclea y así evitar lesiones iatrogénicas del nervio cubital. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2): 9-14 Abstract in english Introduction: The supracondylar fracture of the distal humerus is the most common pediatric fracture around the elbow. The currently accepted techniques of fixation are two lateral parallel wires , crosswiring technique from the lateral side, two divergent wires laterally and two retrograde crossed [...] wires. The retrograde crossed wires provide the best mechanical stability. Many children with this fracture have swelling around the elbow, making difficult the feeling of the anatomic landmarks for percutaneous pinning, increasing the risk of ulnar nerve injury. Objective: To evaluate the correspondence of the internal antecubital fold line with the internal epicondyle in patients with supracondylar fracture and the incidence of iatrogenic ulnar nerve injuries . Methods: We conducted a series of clinical cases. In the first group we included 56 children with supracondylar fracture Gartland type III, from August 2000 to September 2007, who underwent closed reduction and crossed retrograde nail fixation. In the second group we included 241 (481 elbows) outpatients with no anatomic abnormality. We used the extension of antecubital fold line to find the internal epicondyle in both groups. Results: The prolongation of the antecubital fold line intersected the medial epicondyle in all participants of the first group. In 96.3% of the participants in the second group, the extension of antecubital fold line intersected the internal epicondyle. None patient had iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. Conclusions: The use of the antecubital internal fold line may be useful to identify the internal epicondyle and thus avoid iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury. Salud UIS 2012; 44 (2): 9-14

Luis José, Cespedes; Camilo, Turriago; Jairo, Goyeneche.

2012-12-01

40

Leflunomide Induced Drug Rash And Hepatotoxicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 57 year old female presented with generalized erythematous scay plaques of 11/2 months duration and jaundice since 1 month. She was on leflunomide since 3 months for chronic rheumatoid arthritis. Investigations revealed positive ANA, rheumatoid factor and negative anti-DsDNA. Bilirubin and liver enzymes were markedly raised. Viral markers were negative. Direct immunoflourescence did not show lupus band. A diagnosis of drug induced hepatitis and skin rash was made. She was treated with cholestyramine but she died after ten days of hospitalization.

Uppal Monica

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Lamotrigine overdose cause skin rash and angioedema  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 23 years old female presented to Lincoln Medical and Mental Health center with skin rash and angioedema after she received 20 pills of lamotrigine 25 mg, and the patient used to take this medication before two tables a day for many months, after she received the appropriate management she improved. After reviewing MEDLINE we found a few cases reported life threatening complications related to lamotrigine intoxication and sudden increase the dose, so we should be aware about these complications before prescribing this medication.

Mohammad Alkayem

2013-05-01

42

21 CFR 872.3950 - Glenoid fossa prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Glenoid fossa prosthesis. 872.3950 Section 872.3950...Devices § 872.3950 Glenoid fossa prosthesis. (a) Identification. A glenoid fossa prosthesis is a device that is intended to...

2010-04-01

43

Memnonia Fossae, Approximately Natural Color  

Science.gov (United States)

Tharsis-centered volcanic and tectonic activity resulted in the formation of radial grabens of Memnonia Fossae, which cut materials of the ancient cratered highlands and the relatively young, highland-embaying lava flows from the Tharsis volcanoes. Center of picture is at latitude 16 degrees S., longitude 142 degrees W. Natural color version shows albedo variations and uniform colors. The enhanced color version (PIA00151, following decorrelation stretch), however, reveals a diversity of subtle color variations; many of the color variations may be due to different lava flow units and variable amounts of weathering, possible alteration by water, and eolian redistributions. Viking Orbiter Picture Numbers 41B52 (green), 41b54 (red), and 41B56 (blue) at 198 m/pixel resolution. Picture width is 206 km. North is 119 degrees counter-clockwise from top.

1995-01-01

44

Late presentation of sorafenib-associated rash: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sorafenib, an oral multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is licensed for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Rash is one of the most common side effects of its use, generally appearing within days to a few weeks of commencing treatment. We report the first case of rash appearing nine months after starting treatment with sorafenib. Case presentation A 75-year-old Caucasian man initially presented with asymptomatic transient jaundice. He was diagnosed with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma after extensive investigation. He tolerated sorafenib 400 mg twice a day before presenting nine months later with a rash, confirmed to be drug-induced. Conclusions Sorafenib is a drug of choice in Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B hepatocellular carcinoma. It can cause protracted rash quite late into treatment. Successful management of the rash could contribute to achieving stable disease in hepatocellular carcinoma over a significant period of time.

Ross Paul

2010-10-01

45

Skin conditions: common skin rashes in infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants exhibit many skin rashes. Erythema toxicum neonatorum presents as erythematous macules, papules, and pustules on the face, trunk, and extremities; it typically resolves spontaneously within 1 week. Neonatal acne presents as comedones or erythematous papules on the face, scalp, chest, and back. Infantile acne is similar but starts after the neonatal period. Both conditions typically resolve spontaneously; failure to resolve within 1 year warrants evaluation for androgen excess. Neonatal cephalic pustulosis is an acne variant caused by hypersensitivity to Malassezia furfur. It is typically self-limited, but severe cases are managed with topical ketoconazole. Miliaria and milia are caused by sweat retention and present as tiny vesicles or papules; they resolve spontaneously. Contact diaper dermatitis is managed by keeping the diaper area clean and with open air exposure. Diaper dermatitis due to Candida albicans is managed with topical antifungals. Seborrheic dermatitis causes scaling on the scalp. Management involves shampooing and removing scales with a soft brush after applying mineral oil or petrolatum; severe cases are managed with tar or ketoconazole shampoo. Atopic dermatitis is related to food allergy in approximately one-third of children. Food allergy can be confirmed with oral food challenges or skin prick tests. Management includes elimination of irritants and triggers and use of low-potency topical steroids. PMID:23600337

Zuniga, Ramiro; Nguyen, Tam

2013-04-01

46

[Effectiveness of steroids for the rash side effect of pemetrexed].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rash is a common side effect of pemetrexed(PEM). In clinical trials overseas, patients were prescribed with dexamethasone(DEX), as a prevention against skin rash. Four mg of DEX was orally administered twice daily on the day prior to, day of,and day after the infusion of pemetrexed. The results showed suppression of the incidence and severity of rash. However, the dosage and period of medication was not fully verified. A recent survey was conducted retrospectively, with 81 patients who started PEM monotherapy from May 2009 to August 2010, to study the effectiveness of steroid rash prevention. The patients were classified into the non-administered group(47 patients), who were not given DEX, and the prophylaxis group(34 patients), who were given a median dose of DEX(2mg×3 days). The incidence of rash in the non-administered group was 36.2%, and 23.5% for the prophylaxis group. The severity of rash for the non-administered group was G1: 27.7%, G2: 8.5%; and for the prophylaxis group it was G1: 20.6%, G2: 2.9%. The incidence and severity of rash of the prophylaxis group was statistically and significantly lower than that of the non-administered group. This study shows that a small dosage of steroid is a possible precautionary or preventive measure for rash. Therefore, in order to reduce the incidence and severity of rash, a study with higher doses of medication similar to the clinical trials overseas should be conducted. PMID:23306922

Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Onishi, Tomohisa; Kobayashi, Rie; Ohashi, Yasukata; Suzuki, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Shino, Michihiro

2013-01-01

47

Rash y anemia aplásica inducidos por fenitoína: caso clínico / Phenytoin-induced rash and aplastic anemia: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El rash es un efecto secundario común asociado al uso de fármacos antiepilépticos. La frecuencia de rash con fenitoína se ha estimado en un 5,9% y asciende a un 25% en pacientes que han presentado rash con otro fármaco antiepiléptico. La anemia aplásica es una anomalía adquirida de las células madre [...] hematopoyéticas caracterizada por pancitopenia de la sangre periférica y médula ósea hipocelular. Los pacientes tratados con fenitoína presentan un riesgo 3,5 veces mayor de desarrollar anemia aplásica. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 70 años que desarrolló dos reacciones adversas severas y simultáneas a la fenitoína: un exantema maculopapular pruriginoso con compromiso de mucosas y una anemia aplásica. Ambas condiciones se resolvieron completamente con la suspensión del fármaco. Abstract in english Rash is a common side effect associated with antiepileptic drugs. The rate of a phenytoin rash is 5.9% and increases to 25% in those with another antiepileptic drug rash. Aplastic anemia is an adquired hematopoietic stem-cell disorder characterized by pancytopenia of the peripheral blood and hypocel [...] lular bone marrow. The use of phenytoin is associated with a 3.5 fold increased risk of aplastic anemia. We report a case of a 70-year-old woman who developed two severe adverse reactions simultaneously with phenytoin: a maculopapular pruritic rash with involvement of mucous and an aplastic anemia. Both conditions normalized after phenytoin withdrawal.

Álvaro, Soto V; Manuel, Lavados M; Fernando, Araya D.

48

Red, Itchy Rash? Get the Skinny on Dermatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

... more allergic to things.” A skin allergy, or allergic contact dermatitis, produces a red, itchy rash that sometimes comes ... of dermatitis that is seen anywhere is an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel,” says Katz. “Why? Because of ear ...

49

Gliomas of the posterior fossa in adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infratentorial gliomas are relatively rare tumors compared to their supratentorial counterparts. As such they have not been extensively characterized as a group and are usually excluded from clinical studies. Using our database we aimed to characterize adult gliomas involving the posterior fossa with respect to their clinical behavior and prognostic factors. We reviewed our neurosurgical and neuro-oncological data bases for adult patients diagnosed with gliomas involving the posterior fossa between 1996 and 2010. Of 1,283 glioma patients, 57 patients with gliomas involving the posterior fossa were identified (4.4 %). Tumors were further classified by location as primary brainstem (n = 21) and primary cerebellar (n = 18) tumors. On univariate analysis survival was correlated to tumor grade and KPS. In addition we have identified a unique group of patients (n = 18) with previously diagnosed supratentorial gliomas who subsequently developed noncontiguous secondary infratentorial extension of their tumors with subsequent rapid clinical deterioration. Gliomas of the posterior fossa comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors. Histological grade of the tumor was found to be the main prognostic factor. Survival of primary cerebellar gliomas is comparable to supra-tentorial gliomas, while brainstem gliomas in adults fare better than in the pediatric population. Secondary extension of supratentorial gliomas to the posterior fossa signifies a grave prognosis. PMID:23979683

Strauss, Ido; Jonas-Kimchi, Tali; Bokstein, Felix; Blumenthal, Deborah; Roth, Jonathan; Sitt, Razi; Wilson, Jefferson; Ram, Zvi

2013-12-01

50

Arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The middle cranial fossa is the most common site for intracranial arachnoid cysts. Galassi and his associates have provided a useful classification of middle fossa arachnoid cysts based on their computed tomographic appearances. The Type I cyst is a small lenticular lesion. The Type II cyst is quadrangular in shape, reflecting a completely open insula. The Type III cyst appears as a large area of smoothly rounded lucency, with a significant compression of the brain. We report a 2-year-old boy with a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. This cyst differed from the type of Galassi's classification in its extension. Computerized tomograms showed low-density lesions of the bilateral middle cranial fossa and suprasellar area, which was not enhanced with contrast medium. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed a CSF-like pattern (Kjos) and revealed delicate anatomical structures in the surrounding brain. Arachnoid cysts are usually single lesions. However, not infrequently these cystic cavities may be divided by membranous septa into two or more compartments. Bilateral, more or less symmetrical arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa as seen in this patient, however, seem to be very rare. Only a few such cases have been reported previously. MRI was superior to X-ray CT in characterizing intracranial cystic lesions because of its ability to categorize cysts into Kjos's three groups on the basis of the intensity pattern of the cyst contents, thereby improving diagnostic specificits, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management. (author)

51

Radiographic imaging of the canine intercondylar fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intercondylar fossa is believed to play an important role in the pathology of cranial cruciate ligament rupture and therefore has received considerable attention in the last decade. Accurate radiographic imaging of the intercondylar fossa requires that the central x-ray beam pass through the center of the intercondylar “tunnel”. The anatomy of the canine intercondylar fossa is similar to humans, however, the orientations of the intercondylar fossa's differ. Consequently, the positioning techniques described for humans are not appropriate for the dog. To pass through the center of the dog, intercondylar fossa, the central x-ray beam should be 12° (S.D. 1.7°) caudal from the femoral diaphysis in the sagittal plane and obliqued caudolateral to craniomedial 7° (S.D. 0.60°) (caudo78°proximo7° lateralcraniodistomedial oblique). Cross table positioning was used with the hip flexed and the radiograph cassette placed on the cranial surface of the stifle. However, superimposition of the tuber ischii and soft tissues caudal to the femur made 15° to 20° the best angle obtainable. There was not a significant difference (p = 0.17) in the notch width index between a 12° versus 20° angle of the central x-ray beam caudal to the femoral diaphysis, both with 7° of external rotation of the stifle. The notch width index of 0.252 obtained from radiographic measurements was not significantly different from measurements obtained grossly of 0.254 (n = 26; p = 0.69). Failure to oblique the central x-ray beam caused a significant (p = 0.0008) decrease in the apparent fossa width radiographically

52

Herpes zoster meningitis with multidermatomal rash in an immunocompetent patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of herpetic rash in an immunocompetent patient is described, which was present in multiple dermatomes at the same time. First, patient was thought to have immunodeficiency, but further workup turned out to be negative for it. Patient also had pleocytic lymphocytosis in cerebrospinal fluid, which was suggestive of viral meningitis. Later, the patient responded well to the acyclovir therapy and was discharged home without any sequel. This case illustrates the need for emergency physicians to be extra vigilant for involvement of other dermatomes in case a patient presents with herpetic rash in 1 dermatome because patients with multidermatomal/disseminated herpetic rash need to be started on airborne isolation in addition to contact precautions to prevent the transmission of disease in health care settings. PMID:23891595

Goyal, Hemant; Thakkar, Nirav; Bagheri, Farshad; Srivastava, Sneha

2013-11-01

53

Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

Lips, Irene M.; Vonk, Ernest J.A. [Radiotherapeutisch Instituut Stedendriehoek en Omstreken (RISO), Deventer (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Koster, Mariska E.Y. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Lung Diseases; Houwing, Ronald H. [Deventer Hospital (Netherlands). Dept. of Dermatology

2011-08-15

54

Erlotinib-induced rash spares previously irradiated skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Erlotinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor prescribed to patients with locally advanced or metastasized non-small cell lung carcinoma after failure of at least one earlier chemotherapy treatment. Approximately 75% of the patients treated with erlotinib develop acneiform skin rashes. A patient treated with erlotinib 3 months after finishing concomitant treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer is presented. Unexpectedly, the part of the skin that had been included in his previously radiotherapy field was completely spared from the erlotinib-induced acneiform skin rash. The exact mechanism of erlotinib-induced rash sparing in previously irradiated skin is unclear. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon needs to be explored further, because the number of patients being treated with a combination of both therapeutic modalities is increasing. The therapeutic effect of erlotinib in the area of the previously irradiated lesion should be assessed. (orig.)

55

New concepts on posterior fossa malformations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A full description of the embryology of the posterior fossa (PF) is beyond the scope of this review; several recent publications are recommended. Specific aspects of the processes involved are, however, reviewed as a background to malformations that involve defects or errors occurring at critical stages during the embryogenesis of the PF structures. (orig.)

Jaspan, Tim [Imaging Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

2008-06-15

56

Extensive VZV Encephalomyelitis without Rash in an Elderly Man  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalomyelitis with cranial nerve involvement is rare. Characteristically it is preceded by a rash and primarily presents in the immunocompromised. The spectrum of VZV neurologic disease is extensive and it is not uncommon to present without rash. We report the case of an elderly otherwise immunocompetent patient who presented with diverse manifestations of VZV CNS infection all occurring without rash. Case Report. A 78-year-old man presented with 1 week of progressive paraparesis and sensory loss, malaise, and fevers. MRI of the neuraxis demonstrated numerous enhancing lesions: intramedullary, leptomeningeal, pachymeningeal, and cranial nerves. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed a white blood cell count of 420/?L with elevated protein (385?mg/dL). CSF VZV qualitative PCR was positive and CSF VZV immunofluorescence assay detected IgM antibody, confirming the diagnosis of VZV encephalomyelitis. Clinical and radiological improvement was observed after intravenous acyclovir treatment. Conclusion. This is a rare report of an immunocompetent patient with extensive VZV encephalomyelitis. We highlight the importance of considering this diagnosis even in the absence of the characteristic rash, and the potential risk of premature discontinuation of antiviral therapy once HSV has been excluded. Prompt recognition and treatment can dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality in patients. PMID:24864218

Agarwal, Prakhar

2014-01-01

57

The Measurement of Dispositions to Rash Action in Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Among adolescents and adults, there appear to be at least four different personality traits that dispose individuals to rash or ill-advised action: sensation seeking, negative urgency, lack of planning, and lack of perseverance. The four are only moderately correlated and they appear to play different roles in dysfunction. It is important to…

Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Stairs, Agnes M.; Settles, Regan Fried; Combs, Jessica L.; Smith, Gregory T.

2010-01-01

58

[Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach].  

Science.gov (United States)

The inner part of cochlear implant is inserted into inner ear during surgery through mastoid and middle ear. It is a classical method, used in the majority cochlear centers in the world. This is not a suitable method in case of chronic otitis media and middle ear malformation. In these cases Colletti proposed the middle fossa approach and cochlear implant insertion omitting middle ear structures. In patient with bilateral chronic otitis media underwent a few ears operations without obtaining dry postoperative cavity. Cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach was performed in this patient. The bone fenster was cut, temporal lobe was bent and petrosus pyramid upper surface was exposed. When the superficial petrosal greater nerve, facial nerve and arcuate eminence were localised, the cochlear was open in the basal turn and electrode were inserted. The patient achieves good results in the postoperative speech rehabilitation. It confirmed Colletti tesis that deeper electrode insertion in the cochlear implantation through the middle fossa approach enable use of low and middle frequencies, which are very important in speech understanding. PMID:11766315

Szyfter, W; Colletti, V; Pruszewicz, A; Kope?, T; Szymiec, E; Kawczy?ski, M; Karlik, M

2001-01-01

59

Computed tomography of lacrimal fossa tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lacrimal fossa can be involved by a wide spectrum of orbital pathology. The correct diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary procedure and to do appropriate management. 14 patients with mass lesions in the lacrimal fossa were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings. The results were as follows: 1. Final diagnosis of 14 cases with lacrimal fossa tumors was pleomorphic adenoma in 3 cases, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 1 case, pseudotumor in 5 cases, lymphoma in 2 cases, neurofibroma in 1 case, chloroma in 1 case and metastatic adenocarcinoma in 1 case. 2. The duration of symptoms of pleomorphic adenoma was more than 1 year and characteristic CT findings were globular masses with pressure erosion of the adjacent bone. Patient with adenoid cystic carcinoma had a short history of symptoms. CT showed a fusiform mass but intracranial extension with frank destruction of sphenoid bone. 3. Patients with pseudotumor and lymphoma had symptoms for less than 1 year. The CT findings were ill-defined infiltrative patterns with scleral thickening and the differential diagnosis of them was difficult. 4. The margins of neurofibroma and chloroma were well defined while that of the metastic adenocarcinoma was ill-defined. 5. The degree and the extent of the contrast enhancement gave no benefit in the differential diagnosis of each disease entities and even of the benign and malignant lesions

60

Benign neurilemmoma in the infratemporal fossa involving maxillary sinus and pterygopalatine fossa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neurilemmoma is a benign tumor of the nerve sheath that arises on cranial and spinal nerve roots as well as along the course of peripheral nerves. A case of a neurilemmoma that arose in the left infratemporal fossa of a 29- year-old male was presented. Plain radiographs, enhanced computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a large, well-circumscribed, heterogeneously enhanced mass with extension into the pterygopalatine fossa. Displaced by the large mass, bowing-in of the posterior maxillary antral wall was noted and a provisional diagnosis of a benign soft tissue tumor was made. The mass was completely excised and a diagnosis of neurilemmoma was confirmed.

Choi, Jin Woo; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Jin Koo; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Chang Hyeon [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2004-12-15

 
 
 
 
61

[A case of disseminated gonococcal infection without typical skin rash].  

Science.gov (United States)

Few case reports have been published on disseminated gonococcal infection in Japan. We report such a non-HIV case without typical skin rash. A 49-year-old Japanese man living in Thailand on business was seen for fever and multiple arthralgia after returning to Japan. Given the travel history, differential diagnoses included endemic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue fever, and chikungunya. Diagnosis was based on right-knee arthrocentesis, and synovial fluid culture followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolated strain was sensitive to penicillin. The man was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone and oral levofloxacin. Disseminated gonococcal infection should thus be considered when examining those with classical polyarthralgia symptoms even without a typical skin rash. PMID:21861441

Yokota, Kazuhisa; Gomi, Harumi; Morisawa, Yuji

2011-07-01

62

Poison Ivy Taking the Itch Out of the Rash  

Science.gov (United States)

A longstanding belief that has it roots in Native American folklore is that the crushed leaves of jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) relieve the skin's allergic reaction to the toxin of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans). This case was developed for an introductory majors or non-majors biology or plant class. It first examines students' conceptions about the rash of poison ivy, what in the plant causes the rash, and how the body responds to the toxin. Then students in small groups plan an experiment using the scientific method to test the ability of jewelweed to reduce the reaction. Following a comparison of experimental designs from different groups, data from a scientific paper is presented for interpretation and analysis. An important outcome of this case is that students recognize the need for evaluating myths and misconceptions using scientific evidence.

Ford, Rosemary H.

2011-01-01

63

An itchy rash on the fingertips - a case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case study A previously healthy woman, aged 37 years, presented with a 4-week history of pruritic periungual rash and subungual pain. Physical examination revealed scaly, fissured, erythematous plaques around her fingernails (Figure 1). Underneath the acrylic artificial nails that she had been wearing for 6 weeks, onycholysis and nail bed hyperkeratosis were evident. Oral terbinafine and amorolfine nail polish were prescribed by the general practitioner but had no clinical benefit. PMID:24563892

Machado, Patricia; Pereira, Diogo; Morais, Paulo

2014-01-01

64

Posterior fossa involvement in a recurrent gliosarcoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gliosarcoma (GSM) is a WHO grade 4 tumor and a variant of glioblastoma multiforme with predilection for the temporal lobe. We record, perhaps the first case in literature, of a temporal lobe GSM with recurrence involving the posterior fossa. A 50-year-old man presented to us with headache, vomiting, and lethargy of relatively recent onset. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-circumscribed lesion in the left temporal lobe for which left temporal craniotomy with radical excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathology was suggestive of GSM. He presented to us within a month of the first surgery with a large recurrence involving the temporal lobe. He underwent a second surgery with radical excision of the tumor. Histopathology was confirmatory of GSM. He was administered concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Within a fortnight of starting adjuvant therapy, the bone flap started bulging and a repeat computed tomography scan revealed a large recurrence extending into the posterior fossa. The patient's relatives refused consent for third surgery and he finally succumbed on postoperative day 21. GSMs are aggressive tumors that have a temporal lobe predilection, but they may present anywhere in the brain. Detailed studies on larger cohort of cases are needed to understand the true nature of these biphasic tumors. PMID:22346196

Balasubramaniam, Srikant; Tyagi, Devendra K; Sawant, Hemant V; Epari, Sridhar

2012-01-01

65

MRI diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 58 patients with posterior fossa tumors were compared with computed tomography (CT). Spin echo (SE) technique and inversion recovery (IR) technique were obtained using 0.22 tesla resistive magnetic resonance unit. MRI was superior to CT in detecting the lesions and showing internal archtecture, hemorrhage, edema of the tumor and displacement of the normal brain. CT was superior to MRI in demonstrating calcification. MRI and CT were comparable in detecting erosions of the skull base, while MRI was superior to CT in showing erosions of the clivus. Most tumors showed hypointensity on T1 weighted images and hyperintensity on T2 weighted images. Meningioma showed equal or almost equal intensity to cerebral gray matter on both SE images. The boundary of intra-axial tumors was unclear in many cases without contrast enhancement using Gd-DTPA, while most extra-axial tumors showed clear margin surrounded by a thin band (rim). In 81.8 % of acoustic neurinomas, signal void rims were demonstrated on both SE images, and they were considered to be vessels around the tumor. The rims of meningioma, on the other hand, were hypointense on T1 weighted images and hyperintense on T2 weighted images. They were considered to be cerebrospinal fluid or capsule around the tumor. It has been concluded that MRI is the most important technique for diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors.

Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Sakamoto, Yuuji; Kojima, Ryutarou; Bussaka, Hiromasa; Korogi, Yukunori

1988-02-01

66

MRI diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 58 patients with posterior fossa tumors were compared with computed tomography (CT). Spin echo (SE) technique and inversion recovery (IR) technique were obtained using 0.22 tesla resistive magnetic resonance unit. MRI was superior to CT in detecting the lesions and showing internal archtecture, hemorrhage, edema of the tumor and displacement of the normal brain. CT was superior to MRI in demonstrating calcification. MRI and CT were comparable in detecting erosions of the skull base, while MRI was superior to CT in showing erosions of the clivus. Most tumors showed hypointensity on T1 weighted images and hyperintensity on T2 weighted images. Meningioma showed equal or almost equal intensity to cerebral gray matter on both SE images. The boundary of intra-axial tumors was unclear in many cases without contrast enhancement using Gd-DTPA, while most extra-axial tumors showed clear margin surrounded by a thin band (rim). In 81.8 % of acoustic neurinomas, signal void rims were demonstrated on both SE images, and they were considered to be vessels around the tumor. The rims of meningioma, on the other hand, were hypointense on T1 weighted images and hyperintense on T2 weighted images. They were considered to be cerebrospinal fluid or capsule around the tumor. It has been concluded that MRI is the most important technique for diagnosis of posterior fossa tumors. (author)

67

The Pediatric Posterior Fossa: an Embryologist's View.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paediatric posterior fossa is a complex structure made up of both neural elements and skeletal pieces. The first structures to be formed are the neural elements followed later by bones moulded around the already patterned neural elements. The nervous structures derive from the neural tube at the exact level of the rhombencephalon (also called the hindbrain). This neural tube is segmented into neuromeres called the rhombomeres. These structures form compartments in which cell migration is restricted. Furthermore, these compartments display specific gene expression and if the expression of a gene is forced into an aberrant rhombomere, a severe defect is determined in its own development. The cerebellum, that is one of the major neural components at this level, derives from rhombomere 1. It grows in a rostral to caudal direction like a curtain because its rostral progression is prevented by the cerebellar tentorium. The cerebellum arises as two distinct primordia that unite on the midline thanks to migration of the primordium of this structure. An impairment of this structure will generate a defective fusion at the midline. It is important to note that the different anatomical parts of the cerebellum are not regulated by the same molecular processes leading to a heterogeneity of this organ. Lastly, the bony structures of the posterior fossa derive from the mesoderm. We will review the exact contribution of both the somites and the cephalic mesoderm in such a context. PMID:24299698

Catala, M; Morgand, C

2007-08-31

68

Respuesta anómala de anticuerpos de infecciones virales productoras de rash  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se estudiaron 20 pares de sueros provenientes del Sistema de Vigilancia Seroepidemiológica Nacional de la vacuna triple viral que llegaron al laboratorio con el diagnóstico de rash febril. Mediante la técnica de inhibición de la hemaglutinación se observó una respuesta anormal de nticuerpos, tanto a rubeola como a sarampión, manifiesta por una caída del título de anticuerpos a una o ambas entidades o a una de ellas con seroconversión a la otra. Con el objetivo de definir la respuesta de anticuerpos a la familia Herpesviridae (HSV, EBV, CMV, VZV, se encontró el 80 % de la respuesta a estos virus. Los resultados se presentan y se iscuten.

SONIA RESIK AGUIRRE

1996-04-01

69

Allergic skin rash with lamotrigine and concomitant valproate therapy: evidence for an increased risk Rash cutâneo com lamotrigina e concomitante uso de valproato: evidências de maior risco  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cutaneous rash is one of the commonest adverse events associated with lamotrigine. We assessed whether the risk is increased in patients receiving concomitant valproate therapy in a population of 103 adult patients with intractable epilepsy, who had lamotrigine added to their treatment. Of the 33 patients taking valproate, 10 (30% developed a rash, whilst of the 70 not taking valproate, only 6 (8% developed a rash. This suggests a significantly higher risk of cutaneous rash when starting lamotrigine in patients already taking valproate (pRash cutâneo é um dos efeitos adversos mais comuns associados ao início de tratamento com lamotrigina, uma nova medicação antiepiléptica. Avaliamos se esse risco é maior em pacientes medicados concomitantemente com valproato em 103 pacientes adultos com epilepsia refratária, que tiveram lamotrigina adicionada a seu tratamento. Dez dos 33 pacientes (30% que faziam uso de valproato e 6 (8% dos 70 pacientes que não usaram valproato desenvolveram rash. Isto sugere que existe maior risco de desenvolver rash cutâneo quando se adiciona lamotrigina em pacientes em uso de valproato (p<0,02.

L. M. Li

1996-03-01

70

Allergic skin rash with lamotrigine and concomitant valproate therapy: evidence for an increased risk / Rash cutâneo com lamotrigina e concomitante uso de valproato: evidências de maior risco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Rash cutâneo é um dos efeitos adversos mais comuns associados ao início de tratamento com lamotrigina, uma nova medicação antiepiléptica. Avaliamos se esse risco é maior em pacientes medicados concomitantemente com valproato em 103 pacientes adultos com epilepsia refratária, que tiveram lamotrigina [...] adicionada a seu tratamento. Dez dos 33 pacientes (30%) que faziam uso de valproato e 6 (8%) dos 70 pacientes que não usaram valproato desenvolveram rash. Isto sugere que existe maior risco de desenvolver rash cutâneo quando se adiciona lamotrigina em pacientes em uso de valproato (p Abstract in english Cutaneous rash is one of the commonest adverse events associated with lamotrigine. We assessed whether the risk is increased in patients receiving concomitant valproate therapy in a population of 103 adult patients with intractable epilepsy, who had lamotrigine added to their treatment. Of the 33 pa [...] tients taking valproate, 10 (30%) developed a rash, whilst of the 70 not taking valproate, only 6 (8%) developed a rash. This suggests a significantly higher risk of cutaneous rash when starting lamotrigine in patients already taking valproate (p

L. M., Li; M., Russo; M. F., O' Donoghue; J. S., Duncan; J. W. A. S., Sander.

71

On the reproductive biology of the Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox Bennet, 1833) belongs to the family herpestidae and is the largest endemic carnivore on Madagascar. It is the only predator of large lemur species and thus plays a potential key role in the predator-prey-relationship of this island. Since 2002 the fossa is listed in the red list of endangered species. The fossa is a solitary animal with a brief breeding season in spring. The aim of the present study was to describe the European zoo population using reproducti...

Vogler, Barbara Renate

2010-01-01

72

Management of EGFR-inhibitor associated rash: a retrospective study in 49 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years inhibitors directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR have evolved as effective targeting cancer drugs. Characteristic papulopustular exanthemas, often described as acneiform rashes, are the most frequent adverse effect associated with this class of novel cancer drugs and develop in > 90% of patients. Notably, the rash may significantly compromise the patients' quality of life, thereby potentially leading to incompliance as well as dose reduction or even termination of the anti-EGFR therapy. Yet, an effective dermatologic management of cutaneous adverse effects can be achieved. Whereas various case reports, case series or expert opinions on the management of EGFR-inhibitor (EGFRI induced rashes have been published, data on systematic management studies are sparse. Methods Here, we present a retrospective, uncontrolled, comparative study in 49 patients on three established regimens for the management of EGFRI-associated rashes. Results Strikingly, patients' rash severity improved significantly over three weeks of treatment with topical mometason furoate cream, topical prednicarbate cream plus nadifloxacin cream, as well as topical prednicarbate cream plus nadifloxacin cream plus systemic isotretinoin. Conclusions In summary our results demonstrate that EGFRI-associated rashes can be effectively managed by specific dermatologic interventions. Whereas mild to moderate rashes should be treated with basic measures in combination with topical glucocorticosteroids or combined regiments using glucocorticosteroids and antiseptics/antibiotics, more severe or therapy-resistant rashes are likely to respond with the addition of systemic retinoids.

Gerber Peter

2012-02-01

73

Estudo eletrencefalográfico das afecções cirúrgicas da fossa posterior / Electroencephalography in posterior fossa lesions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os resultados eletrencefalográficos em 22 casos verificados de afecção cirúrgica da fossa posterior, obtidos com uma rotina de exame detalhado como preconiza Bagchi, são relatados de modo sintético, em quadros comparativos entre dados eletrencefalográficos e neurocirúrgicos. Dessa análise podem-se d [...] eduzir as seguintes idéias conclusivas: 1. Dos 22 casos estudados, 9 foram normais e 13 anormais. Entre as anormalidades eletrencefalográficas destacamos: a) surtos de ondas bilaterais e síncronas, substituindo o ritmo de base, de potencial ligeiramente superior ao de base e de freqüência 4 a 7 c/s (ritmo ?) : b) ondas lentas e irregulares, difusas ou localizadas (ondas ?), mas sempre com sensível dispersão temporal em relação às áreas de predominante projeção. 2. As alterações eletrencefalográficas não diferiram em casos de tumores das de lesão de tipo inflamatorio (quadro 1). 3. Os surtos de ritmo 4 a 7 c/s bilateral síncrono não diferençaram afecções da linha mediana das paramedianas (quadro 4). 4. Os casos de EEG normal apareceram preferentemente entre afecções extraparenquimatosas, comparativamente com as de lesão intraparen-quimatosa (quadro 3). 5. Nos casos em que houve nítida lateralização das ondas ?;, o processo era contralateral na fossa posterior (quadro 2). 6. Os surtos de ondas ? difusas apareceram mais freqüentemente nos casos de afecção mediana da fossa posterior (quadro 4). Abstract in english The authors have analysed 22 cases of verified infratentorial surgical lesions and found: 1. In 9 cases the EEG was normal and in 13 abnormal. The predominant EEG modifications were: outbursts of bilateral synchronous waves, 4 to 7 c/s. (? rhythm) and ? waves, diffuse or localized, with temporal dis [...] persion in relation to predominant projection areas. 2. The EEG changes did not differentiate the inflammatory lesions from the tumors. 3. The outbursts of 4 to 7 c/s. bilateral synchronous waves did not differentiate the midline lesions from the lateral lesions. 4. The normal EEG was dominant in the cases of extraencephalic lesions in relation to the intraparenchymatous lesions. 5. In the cases of definite localized ? waves the lesions were contralateral in the posterior fossa. 6. The outburst of diffuse ? waves were more frequent in the midline lesions.

Aloysio Mattos, Pimenta; Paulo Pinto, Pupo; Eliova, Zukerman.

1954-09-01

74

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma in the Infratemporal Fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in late adult life, but its incidence in oral and maxillofacial region is extremely rare. We report a case of malignant fibrous histiocytoma which occurred in the infratemporal fossa. Conventional radiograph of this case showed an ill-defined radiolucent lesion in the alveolar bone of the right maxillary first molar area, the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, and the ascending ramus of mandible. MRI demonstrated well defined mass of intermediate signal intensity in T1 weighted images but T2 weighted images showed two distinctive regions of different characteristics. Infratemporal portion of the lesion was of hyperintense signal but under that region, the signal intensity decreased clearly, which might mean this case composed of two different subtypes, though it couldn't be confirmed by histopathological examination. Biopsy was taken in the only soft tissue of the maxillary posterior alveolar region and confirmed the lesion as the storiform-pleomorphic type of malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Histopathological subtype was well consistent with the relatively aggressive imaging findings of that region. We expect more detailed analysis of the nature of malignant fibrous histiocytoma with improvement of the imaging modality and the identification of the relationship between diagnostic imaging and histopathologic findings.

75

MRI of the fetal posterior fossa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

MRI is a useful tool to complement US for imaging of the fetal posterior fossa (PF). In France, the discovery of a PF malformation in the fetus frequently leads to termination of pregnancy (80% in a personal series). However, despite improved accuracy in the diagnosis of PF abnormalities, prognosis remains uncertain. The first objective of this review is to document the normal MRI landmarks of the developing fetal PF. Because of their thinness, the visibility of the cerebellar fissures is dramatically delayed on MRI compared to macroscopic data. An important landmark is identification of the primary fissure of the vermis, normally seen at around 25-26 weeks' gestation (WG) on the sagittal slice, separating the larger posterior lobe from the anterior lobe (volume ratio around 2:1). The prepyramidal and secondary fissures are usually only identifiable after 32 WG and the hemispheric fissures are difficult to see until the end of pregnancy. Considering the signal changes, high signal on T2-weighted (T2-W) sequences is seen from 25 WG in the posterior part of the brain stem (tegmentum and ascending sensory tracts) related to myelination. The low signal intensities seen within the cerebellum on T2-W images correspond to high cellularity of grey matter (deep nuclei), as there is no myelination within the white matter before 38 WG. The second objective is to highlight the signs highly predictive of a poor neurological prognosis. Lack of pontine curvature or vermian agenesis without a PF cyst (small volume of PF) is greatly associated with poor neurological status. The third objective is to propose a diagnostic strategy in difficult cases where prognosis is important, e.g. the Dandy Walker continuum. (orig.)

Adamsbaum, Catherine; Andre, Christine; Merzoug, Valerie; Ferey, Solene [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Moutard, Marie Laure [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Department of Neuropaediatrics, Paris (France); Quere, Marie Pierre [CHU, Department of Radiology, Nantes (France); Lewin, Fanny [St Vincent de Paul Hospital, Maternity Department, Paris (France); Fallet-Bianco, Catherine [Ste Anne Hospital, Department of Neuropathology, Paris (France)

2005-02-01

76

Posterior fossa syndrome after cerebellar stroke.  

Science.gov (United States)

Posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) due to vascular etiology is rare in children and adults. To the best of our knowledge, PFS due to cerebellar stroke has only been reported in patients who also underwent surgical treatment of the underlying vascular cause. We report longitudinal clinical, neurocognitive and neuroradiological findings in a 71-year-old right-handed patient who developed PFS following a right cerebellar haemorrhage that was not surgically evacuated. During follow-up, functional neuroimaging was conducted by means of quantified Tc-99m-ECD SPECT studies. After a 10-day period of akinetic mutism, the clinical picture developed into cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) with reversion to a previously learnt accent, consistent with neurogenic foreign accent syndrome (FAS). No psychometric evidence for dementia was found. Quantified Tc-99m-ECD SPECT studies consistently disclosed perfusional deficits in the anatomoclinically suspected but structurally intact bilateral prefrontal brain regions. Since no surgical treatment of the cerebellar haematoma was performed, this case report is presumably the first description of pure, "non-surgical vascular PFS". In addition, reversion to a previously learnt accent which represents a subtype of FAS has never been reported after cerebellar damage. The combination of this unique constellation of poststroke neurobehavioural changes reflected on SPECT shows that the cerebellum is crucially implicated in the modulation of neurocognitive and affective processes. A decrease of excitatory impulses from the lesioned cerebellum to the structurally intact supratentorial network subserving cognitive, behavioural and affective processes constitutes the likely pathophysiological mechanism underlying PFS and CCAS in this patient. PMID:23575947

Mariën, Peter; Verslegers, Lieven; Moens, Maarten; Dua, Guido; Herregods, Piet; Verhoeven, Jo

2013-10-01

77

Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

Tomomi Okamura

2011-04-01

78

Extrapineal mature teratoma of the posterior fossa in a child  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: teratomas are non-malignantgerm cell tumors commonly composed of cell types derived from all of the three germ layers. Intracerebral teratomas typically are midline or paraxial lesions located in the pituitary stalk or the pineal region. We report our experience with mature teratomas of the posterior fossa. Case report: we present the case of an 11-year-old caucasian female with progressive headache that caused interrupted sleep. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed a midline lesion in the posterior fossa with mass effect and without contrast enhancement. Anatomic pathology revealed a mature teratoma. Conclusion: differential diagnosis of midline lesions in pediatric patients must include teratomas in spite of being posterior fossa lesions.

Mónica Rivero-Garvía

2012-09-01

79

Drug-mediated rash: erythema multiforme versus Stevens-Johnson syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 92-year-old woman presented with an acute onset generalised maculopapular rash with associated mucosal involvement, on a background of recent start of griseofulvin. The rash progressed rapidly over 2?days to involve most of her body, however, mucosal involvement was limited to her oral mucosa. Characteristic target lesions appeared at 72?h, and a diagnosis of erythema multiforme secondary to griseofulvin was made after further investigation and skin biopsy. The patient was monitored closely for progression of the rash and other indicators of more severe dermatological conditions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome. She was managed symptomatically, with resolution of the rash in 4?weeks and full recovery to her premorbid level of functioning. This case details the diagnostic and management approach to erythema multiforme, a condition that warrants thorough consideration for the differential of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. PMID:25246464

Hidajat, Cassandra; Loi, Duncan

2014-01-01

80

Rosacea-like facial rash related to metformin administration in a young woman  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Since the skin represents a common site of adverse drug reactions, few data are reported at this time regarding the development of skin rash during the treatment with antidiabetic drugs. Case presentation We report a 29-year old woman that developed a facial skin rash during the treatment with metformin. Clinical and laboratory findings excluded the presence of systemic diseases, but several diagnosis and many drugs were administered without clinical improvement. The self-dismission of metformin induced an improvement of symptoms, while the re-challenge documented an impairments of skin rash. The Naranjo probability scale suggested a probable association between metformin and skin rash and metformin was definitively dismissed. Conclusion We report for the first time a non vasculitis facial skin manifestation related to metformin in a young woman. However, this case may emphasizes the need to consider the ADRs as a differential diagnosis in order to reduce medical errors and the related medical costs. PMID:24507578

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea secondary to anterior fossa osteoradionecrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) after radiation therapy of head and neck or brain tumor most often presents in the mandible, followed by the maxillary bone. This case report describes a patient who presented with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea 12 months after conventional external beam radiotherapy for frontotemporal anaplastic astrocytoma, and was diagnosed with anterior fossa ORN. Osteolysis in the anterior fossa on CT scan confirmed the diagnosis. A prompt temporal muscle graft with pericranial flap seal treated both the ORN and the CSF rhinorrhea, but observation would have been a suitable conservative option if ORN presented without CSF rhinorrhea. PMID:23517671

Hu, Zhebin; Godoy, Bruno L; Zadeh, Gelareh

2013-09-01

82

BILATERAL ANOMALOUS MUSCLE IN THE POPLITEAL FOSSA & ITS CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Muscle variation may occur due to genetic or developmental causes. Some variations may compromise the vascular, muscular or nervous system in the region. Bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa is very rare. In present study an instance of bilateral muscle variation in popliteal fossa, arising from different muscles like gastrocnemius and from biceps femoris is recorded. There is no report of such variations. These observations are rare of its kind because of bilateral asymmetrical presence and difference in the origins in different legs. This is the first report as for the literatures available. Clinical and functional importance of such variation is discussed with the morphological aspects of this anomalous muscle.

Sowmya S

2014-10-01

83

Prenatal diagnosis of posterior fossa anomalies: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the central nervous system is an integral part of a prenatal scan, and the development of imaging technologies has led to better diagnostic possibilities. Posterior fossa anomalies have traditionally been divided into Dandy Walke malformation, Dandy Walker variation and megacisterna magna, but this approach, due to diversity of the extensive number of possible disorders covered by this classification, unables accurate prognosis and therefore adequate counselling. An alternative approach to the classification of posterior fossa anomalies is to divide them into agenesis of the vermis, which could be partial or complete, cerebellar hypoplasia, pontocerebellar hypoplasia and cerebellar atrophy. Different ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imagining of appearances of the posterior fossa anomalies in prenatal period are discussed in the article, as well as possible syndromes and prognosis of different entities. Diversity of anomalies of the central nervous system, and in particular, subtle differences in prenatal appearances of posterior fossa anomalies, which may have major impact on the prognosis, demand a multidisciplinary approach that encompasses two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound scan, magnetic resonance imaging, infectious diseases and metabolic disorders work-ups as well as individual approach to every case involving of a team of experts in the field of perinatology, radiology, paediatrics, neurology and genetics.

Novakov-Miki? Aleksandra

2009-01-01

84

Transpterygoid Approach to a Dermoid Cyst in Pterygopalatine Fossa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective? To describe a case of dermoid cyst arising from the pterygopalatine fossa and review the literature. Methods? We report a case of a 23-year-old man who suffered a car accident 2 years before otolaryngologic attendance. He had one episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure and develope [...] d a reduction of visual acuity of the left side after the accident. Neurologic investigation was performed and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an incidental finding of a heterogeneous ovoid lesion in the pterygopalatine fossa, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. Results? Endoscopic sinus surgery with transpterygoid approach was performed. The ovoid lesion was noted in the pterygopalatine fossa. Puncture for intraoperative evaluation showed a transparent thick fluid. Surprisingly, hair and sebaceous glands were found inside the cyst capsule. The cyst was excised completely. Histologic examination revealed a dermoid cyst. The patient currently has no evidence of recurrence at 1?year postoperatively. Conclusion? This unique case is a rare report of a dermoid cyst incidentally diagnosed. An endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach may be performed to treat successfully this kind of lesion. Although rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of expansive lesions in the pterygopalatine fossa, including schwannoma, angiofibroma, esthesioneuroblastoma, osteochondroma, cholesterol granuloma, hemangioma, lymphoma, and osteoma.

Alexandre Beraldo, Ordones; Marco Aurélio, Fornazieri; Fábio de Rezende, Pinna; Thiago Freire Pinto, Bezerra; Richard Louis, Voegels; Luiz Ubirajara, Sennes.

85

Gliosarcoma of the posterior cranial fossa: MRI findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the MR findings of a biopsy-proven gliosarcoma of the posterior cranial fossa. Multiple homogeneously enhancing lesions had shaggy margins and broad-based dural attachments, which may reflect the gliomatous and sarcomatous element of this tumour. (orig.)

86

Transpterygoid Approach to a Dermoid Cyst in Pterygopalatine Fossa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Objective? To describe a case of dermoid cyst arising from the pterygopalatine fossa and review the literature. Methods? We report a case of a 23-year-old man who suffered a car accident 2 years before otolaryngologic attendance. He had one episode of generalized tonic-clonic seizure and develope [...] d a reduction of visual acuity of the left side after the accident. Neurologic investigation was performed and magnetic resonance imaging revealed an incidental finding of a heterogeneous ovoid lesion in the pterygopalatine fossa, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging. Results? Endoscopic sinus surgery with transpterygoid approach was performed. The ovoid lesion was noted in the pterygopalatine fossa. Puncture for intraoperative evaluation showed a transparent thick fluid. Surprisingly, hair and sebaceous glands were found inside the cyst capsule. The cyst was excised completely. Histologic examination revealed a dermoid cyst. The patient currently has no evidence of recurrence at 1?year postoperatively. Conclusion? This unique case is a rare report of a dermoid cyst incidentally diagnosed. An endoscopic transnasal transpterygoid approach may be performed to treat successfully this kind of lesion. Although rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of expansive lesions in the pterygopalatine fossa, including schwannoma, angiofibroma, esthesioneuroblastoma, osteochondroma, cholesterol granuloma, hemangioma, lymphoma, and osteoma.

Alexandre Beraldo, Ordones; Marco Aurélio, Fornazieri; Fábio de Rezende, Pinna; Thiago Freire Pinto, Bezerra; Richard Louis, Voegels; Luiz Ubirajara, Sennes.

2014-01-01

87

Unusual tumors of the posterior fossa skull base.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five unusual cases of posterior skull base tumors were treated through different skull base approaches. Two or more staged operations were required to achieve total or near-total excision and decompression of two extensive tumors. Total excision of an extensive en plaque meningioma of the foramen magnum that encircled the brain stem and cervical spinal cord could not be achieved through the extreme lateral and suboccipital craniectomy approach. However, the vital structures were decompressed and the patient's postoperative morbidity was acceptable. An extended middle fossa approach was required to excise a hemangiopericytoma of the middle and posterior fossae in a 12-year-old. Extension of the tumor into the posterior fossa precluded a retromastoid approach because the mass draped the lower cranial nerves posteriorly. Two men had undifferentiated adenocarcinomas involving the jugular foramen and middle to posterior fossa, respectively. The origin of one was renal in a 37-year-old man. A 63-year-old man survived 1.5 years after a good decompression of his extensive tumor and irradiation. The histological diagnosis of paraganglioma of the occipital bone was a surprise in a 25-year-old man with pure bony involvement. These cases indicate that the appropriate selection of skull base approaches and their combination can provide the needed access to achieve adequate excision or decompression of masses located in challenging anatomical regions of the skull base. Furthermore, good surgical excision improves palliation in radioresistant metastatic tumors of the skull base. PMID:17077871

Kumar, Raj; Wani, Abrar Ahad

2006-05-01

88

Azithromycin-Induced Rash in a Patient of Infectious Mononucleosis – A Case Report with Review of Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

Antibiotic induced skin rash in setting of infectious mononucleosis is often encountered in clinical practice. However, macrolides like azithromycin are considered relatively safe and till date only two cases of azithromycin induced rash in setting of infectious mononucleosis have been reported. The following report illustrates the case of a 23-year-old man suffering from infectious mononucleosis who exhibited a generalized cutaneous rash following treatment with azithromycin. Using the Naranjo ADR probability scale, this case of acute onset rash following azithromycin administration was found to be in ‘probable’ category. The mechanism of antibiotic-induced rash in patients suffering from infectious mononucleosis is incompletely understood. It has been suggested that the rash could result from virus mediated immunomodulation or due to altered drug metabolism. The report calls for cautious use of antibiotics in the setting of suspected viral infections like infectious mononucleosis as injudicious use might increase the risk of deleterious skin reactions and increase the cost of healthcare. PMID:25302218

Mondal, Somnath; Sen, Sukanta; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar; Banerjee, Gautam

2014-01-01

89

Getting to the bottom of nappy rash. ALSPAC Survey Team. Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Nappy rash accounts for 20% of dermatology consultations in childhood, but its causes are poorly understood. AIM: To determine the incidence of nappy rash during the first four weeks of life in a geographically defined United Kingdom (UK) population, and to study the factors associated with developing the rash. METHOD: The data are derived from self-completed questionnaires of parents in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ALSPAC). The response rate to a questi...

Philipp, R.; Hughes, A.; Golding, J.

1997-01-01

90

MRI diagnosis of muscle denervation from herpes zoster with discordant distribution of the skin rash.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herpes zoster is a common disorder characterized by a painful rash along a dermatome caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Muscle denervation injury from motor involvement is an uncommon phenomenon. Discordant distribution of the skin rash and motor nerve involvement, presenting as a skin rash in one body part and muscle weakness or pain from nerve involvement in another body part is an even more uncommonly reported finding. We present an unusual case of muscle denervation injury resulting from motor involvement of a peripheral nerve by VZV diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging with cutaneous manifestations in a different dermatomal distribution. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no similar case reported in the English radiology literature. We suggest that whenever a radiologist notices MRI findings suggesting denervation injury and a cause not readily identified, VZV-related denervation injury should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in an older immunocompromised patient. PMID:24880713

Gupta, Amit; Sundaram, Murali; Winalski, Carl S

2014-10-01

91

MRI diagnosis of muscle denervation from herpes zoster with discordant distribution of the skin rash  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herpes zoster is a common disorder characterized by a painful rash along a dermatome caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Muscle denervation injury from motor involvement is an uncommon phenomenon. Discordant distribution of the skin rash and motor nerve involvement, presenting as a skin rash in one body part and muscle weakness or pain from nerve involvement in another body part is an even more uncommonly reported finding. We present an unusual case of muscle denervation injury resulting from motor involvement of a peripheral nerve by VZV diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging with cutaneous manifestations in a different dermatomal distribution. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no similar case reported in the English radiology literature. We suggest that whenever a radiologist notices MRI findings suggesting denervation injury and a cause not readily identified, VZV-related denervation injury should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in an older immunocompromised patient. (orig.)

92

MRI diagnosis of muscle denervation from herpes zoster with discordant distribution of the skin rash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herpes zoster is a common disorder characterized by a painful rash along a dermatome caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV). Muscle denervation injury from motor involvement is an uncommon phenomenon. Discordant distribution of the skin rash and motor nerve involvement, presenting as a skin rash in one body part and muscle weakness or pain from nerve involvement in another body part is an even more uncommonly reported finding. We present an unusual case of muscle denervation injury resulting from motor involvement of a peripheral nerve by VZV diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging with cutaneous manifestations in a different dermatomal distribution. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no similar case reported in the English radiology literature. We suggest that whenever a radiologist notices MRI findings suggesting denervation injury and a cause not readily identified, VZV-related denervation injury should be included in the differential diagnosis, especially in an older immunocompromised patient. (orig.)

Gupta, Amit; Sundaram, Murali [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Winalski, Carl S. [Cleveland Clinic, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Imaging Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States); Cleveland Clinic, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, OH (United States)

2014-10-15

93

/ Hematoma extradural da fossa posterior: relato de sete casos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Hematomas da fossa posterior são complicação incomum de traumatismo cra-nioencefálico. Quase invariavelmente eles ocorrem após traumatismo da região occipital e estão associados com fraturas de crânio. O diagnóstico e tratamento dessa patologia tem sido grandemente favorecido pela tomografia computa [...] dorizada. Na presente série, a maioria dos pacientes teve evolução aguda, indicando o risco potencial de um tratamento conservador. Nossos resultados (29% de mortalidade) são similares àqueles previamente relatados para outras séries dessas lesões. Abstract in english Hematomas of the posterior fossa are an uncommon complication of head injury. Almost invariably they occur after trauma of the occiput, and are associated with skull fracture. Their diagnosis and management have been greatly improved by CT scanning. In the present series ,the majority of patients ha [...] d acute evolution indicating the potential hazard of conservative treatment. Our results (29% mortality) are similar to those previously reported in other series.

Mauro A., Oliveira; João F.M., Araujo; Roque J., Balbo.

94

Hematoma extradural da fossa posterior: relato de sete casos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hematomas da fossa posterior são complicação incomum de traumatismo cra-nioencefálico. Quase invariavelmente eles ocorrem após traumatismo da região occipital e estão associados com fraturas de crânio. O diagnóstico e tratamento dessa patologia tem sido grandemente favorecido pela tomografia computadorizada. Na presente série, a maioria dos pacientes teve evolução aguda, indicando o risco potencial de um tratamento conservador. Nossos resultados (29% de mortalidade são similares àqueles previamente relatados para outras séries dessas lesões.Hematomas of the posterior fossa are an uncommon complication of head injury. Almost invariably they occur after trauma of the occiput, and are associated with skull fracture. Their diagnosis and management have been greatly improved by CT scanning. In the present series ,the majority of patients had acute evolution indicating the potential hazard of conservative treatment. Our results (29% mortality are similar to those previously reported in other series.

Mauro A. Oliveira

1993-06-01

95

A rare and potentially fatal cause of popliteal fossa swelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Popliteal vein aneurysms (PVAs) represent a rare form of venous aneurysm and necessitate prompt diagnosis and management due to their well-established role as a source of pulmonary emboli. Surgical repair is usually curative; we present the case of a 47-year-old woman with a recurrent PVA presenting as a soft popliteal fossa mass with associated sensory deficit affecting the right foot, 4 years after initial operative repair. Venous duplex imaging demonstrated a saccular aneurysm originating from the posterior wall of the right popliteal vein. In light of the long-term risk of potentially life-threatening pulmonary embolism, surgical repair was undertaken by tangential aneurysmectomy and long saphenous vein patch venoplasty. This case emphasises the importance of including PVA in the differential diagnosis of popliteal fossa swellings as well as the need for long-term follow-up to detect late recurrence with subsequent avoidance of the otherwise significant potential morbidity and mortality. PMID:25006051

Kelay, Arun; Constantinou, Jason; Hamilton, Hamish

2014-01-01

96

Children's vomiting following posterior fossa surgery: A retrospective study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting is a problem for children after neurosurgery and those requiring posterior fossa procedures appear to have a high incidence. This clinical observation has not been quantified nor have risk factors unique to this group of children been elucidated. Methods A six year retrospective chart audit at two Canadian children's hospitals was conducted. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was extracted. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify risk and protective factors at 120 hours after surgery and early vs. late vomiting. Results The incidence of vomiting over a ten day postoperative period was 76.7%. Documented vomiting ranged from single events to greater than 20 over the same period. In the final multivariable model: adolescents (age 12 to Conclusion The incidence of vomiting in children after posterior fossa surgery is sufficient to consider all children requiring these procedures to be at high risk for POV. Nausea requires better assessment and documentation.

Dundon Belinda

2009-07-01

97

Extrapineal mature teratoma of the posterior fossa in a child  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: teratomas are non-malignantgerm cell tumors commonly composed of cell types derived from all of the three germ layers. Intracerebral teratomas typically are midline or paraxial lesions located in the pituitary stalk or the pineal region. We report our experience with mature teratomas of the posterior fossa. Case report: we present the case of an 11-year-old caucasian female with progressive headache that caused interrupted sleep. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed a midl...

Mónica Rivero-Garvía; Javier Márquez-Rivas; Eloy Rivas; Ana Belén Rueda-Torres

2012-01-01

98

Resection in the popliteal fossa for metastatic melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Traditionally metastatic melanoma of the distal leg and the foot metastasize to the lymph nodes of the groin. Sometimes the first site of nodal disease can be the popliteal fossa. This is an infrequent event, with rare reports in literature and when it occurs, radical popliteal node dissection must be performed. Case presentation We report a case of a 36-year old man presented with diagnosis of 2 mm thick, Clark's level II-III, non ulcerated ...

Botti Gerardo; Chiofalo Maria; Caracò Corrado; Marone Ugo; Mozzillo Nicola

2007-01-01

99

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts and cerebellar tonsillar descent: short review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to analyze the association of cerebellar tonsillar descent and syringomyelia in patients with posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. We reviewed the medical records of ten patients (mean, age 33; range, 24-49 years) diagnosed with posterior fossa arachnoid cyst and tonsillar descent. Symptoms evolved over a mean of 12 months (range, 6 months to 3 years). Syringomyelia was present in six cases. Six patients underwent a suboccipital craniectomy, three cases underwent an additional C1 laminectomy, and a further case had a limited craniectomy and tonsillar reduction. Three patients were also treated for hydrocephalus: one with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and two with endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Two patients had conservative treatment. The posterior fossa arachnoid cysts were located at the vermis-cisterna magna (n = 4), the cerebellar hemispheres (n = 2), the cerebellopontine angle (n = 3), and the quadrigeminal cistern (n = 1). A patient with achondroplasia showed features of platybasia. Associated malformations included craniofacial dysmorphism in a patient diagnosed of trichorhinophalangeal syndrome and a case with a primary temporal arachnoid cyst. After a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 3 months to 5 years), four patients showed resolution of their neurological symptoms, and two exhibited persisting ocular findings. Headaches and nuchalgia improved in four cases and persisted in four. Syringomyelia was resolved in four patients and improved in two. Patients harboring a posterior fossa arachnoid cyst may evolve with acquired Chiari malformation and syringomyelia. Initial management should be directed to decompressing the foramen magnum and should include the resection of the arachnoid cyst's walls. A wait-and-see attitude can be implemented in selected cases. In our experience, hydrocephalus should be properly addressed before treating the arachnoid cyst. PMID:20480382

Galarza, Marcelo; López-Guerrero, Antonio López; Martínez-Lage, Juan F

2010-07-01

100

Children's vomiting following posterior fossa surgery: A retrospective study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Nausea and vomiting is a problem for children after neurosurgery and those requiring posterior fossa procedures appear to have a high incidence. This clinical observation has not been quantified nor have risk factors unique to this group of children been elucidated. Methods A six year retrospective chart audit at two Canadian children's hospitals was conducted. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was extracted. Hierarchical multivariable log...

Dundon Belinda; Schopflocher Donald; Newburn-Cook Christine V; Neufeld Susan M; Yu Herta; Drummond Jane E

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

A 50-year-old man presenting with rash after exposure to sunlight  

Science.gov (United States)

Photodermatoses is a condition characterized by development of a skin rash following exposure to sunlight. Here we present the case of a patient who presented with pigmented, pruritic, blistering rash that developed shortly after exposure to sunlight. Careful history revealed that the patient was on suppressive therapy with doxycycline for osteomyelitis. Following stopping of doxycycline, and symptomatic treatment, the patient had significant improvement in symptoms. The case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of drug induced photodermatoses particularly in individuals exposed to high doses of ultraviolet radiation.

2014-01-01

102

Diffusion tensor imaging of midline posterior fossa malformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography have been used to evaluate a variety of brain malformations. However, these studies have focused mainly on malformations involving the supratentorial compartments. There is a paucity of data on diffusion tensor imaging of posterior fossa malformations. To describe the color vector maps and modified or abnormal tracts of midline posterior fossa malformations. Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in one patient with rhombencephalosynapsis and two with Joubert syndrome. Color vector maps of fractional anisotropy were used to place a region of interest for seed point of fiber tracking. The vermis was severely hypoplastic or absent in rhombencephalosynapsis and Joubert syndrome. In rhombencephalosynapsis, vertically oriented fibers were visualized in the midportion of the cerebellum. The location of the deep cerebellar nuclei could be inferred from the amiculum and were medially located in rhombencephalosynapsis. In the two patients with Joubert syndrome, the horizontally arranged superior cerebellar peduncles were well demonstrated on the color vector maps. Failure of the superior cerebellar peduncles to decussate in the mesencephalon was also well demonstrated on both color vector maps and tractography. The deep cerebellar nuclei were more laterally located in Joubert syndrome. The use of tractography in midline posterior fossa malformations expands our understanding of these malformations. (orig.)ons. (orig.)

103

MANAGEMENT OF HYDROCEPHALUS IN POSTERIOR CRANIAL FOSSA TUMORS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Treatment of hydrocephalus in posterior fossa tumors in children is still a matter of controversy and different centers have their own routines. In this regard, hospital records of all children with posterior fossa tumors treated in our center during the interval of 1985-1995 were reviewed. Patients’ demographic and diagnostic data were analyzed and the frequencies of shunting procedures were determined. Fisher exact test was employed to compare the frequency of postoperative complications in different groups. A total of 108 patients with age ranging from 3 months to 18 years and a male to female ratio of 1.5 comprised the study population. Ninety-nine cases had hydrocephalus at the time of diagnosis and 81 patients underwent preoperative shunting. Of the remaining 18 patients, 13 underwent external ventricular drainage at tumor operation session plus preoperative corticosteroid therapy. The rest of the patients got no primary treatment for hydrocephalus. Three of these 5 patients had postoperative shunting after tumor removal, but the other 2 remained shunt free. The rate of postoperative complications including cerebrospinal fluid leakage and septic meningitis were significantly lower in patients with preoperative shunting. The results of this study are in favor of those that approve the effect of preoperative shunting in decreasing postoperative complications. This is well established when the tumor size is big or when the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumor is made in later stages or when hydrocephalus is severe. It could be concluded that preoperative shunting can decrease the rate of postoperative complications.

S. M. Abdollahzadeh-Hosseini

2006-06-01

104

Petechial rash associated with Parvovirus B19 in children: case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection usually causes erythema infectiosum (EI). In recent decades, several uncommon exanthems have been described in association with B19V. Recently, haemorrhagic manifestations such as purpuric-petechial rash have been reported. We describe an unusual paediatric case of B19V associated with generalized petechial eruption, and a review of the recent literature. PMID:25269970

Tuccio, Alessandra; Zanelli, Giacomo; Rodriguez, Dhyana Chiara; Tataranno, Maria Luisa; Vascotto, Marina; Balestri, Paolo

2014-09-01

105

Bilateral suborbital rash: a dermatologic manifestation of neuropsychiatric disease in a pediatric patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 10-year-old girl presented with a new onset bilateral suborbital rash. Dermatologic examination revealed violaceous, non-tender, well-demarcated patches with an atypical distribution and pigmentation. After further investigation, a diagnosis of Munchausen syndrome was made and the patient was referred to her primary care provider for further management. PMID:24852783

Tong, Lana X; Wang, Yen Tun; Beynet, David

2014-05-01

106

Histologic findings in skin biopsy in a JMML rash: a case report and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), belonging to the category of myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndromes, is a rare pediatric hematologic malignancy with frequent skin manifestations commonly in the form of rashes. However, these rashes are not always biopsied and their immunophenotype studied in details. We report one such case in a 2-year-old boy who presented with a 1-month history of nonresolving fever, fatigue, and pallor along with a generalized maculopapular skin rash. The child also had mild hepatomegaly. A complete blood count with differential revealed a hemoglobin value of 8.6 g/L, leukocytosis (white blood cell count of 55.3 × 109/L), absolute monocytosis (27 × 109/L), immature granulocytes, and a platelet count of 126 × 109/L. The bone marrow aspirate showed a hypercellular marrow with trilineage hematopoiesis, 10% blasts (including promonocytes), increased monocytes (46%), and dysplastic changes in the erythroid and myeloid cell lines. These findings along with absence of a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene and a hemoglobin F level of 3.4% were consistent with the diagnosis of JMML, which was confirmed by subsequent positive granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor hypersensitivity and NRAS mutation studies. A skin biopsy of the rash revealed a dermal infiltrate composed predominantly of atypical monocytic cells that were positive for CD68, myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme and negative for CD117, CD1a, and S100, consistent with JMML. PMID:24555839

Gupta, Rajib K; Qureshi, Amna; Choi, John K

2014-01-01

107

Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy for Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To compare intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) to noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the treatment of pediatric posterior fossa tumors. Methods and Materials: Nine pediatric patients with posterior fossa tumors, mean age 9 years (range, 6-15 years), treated using IMRT were chosen for this comparative planning study because of their tumor location. Each patient's treatment was replanned to receive 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) using five different methods: eight-field noncoplanar IMRT, single coplanar IMAT, double coplanar IMAT, single noncoplanar IMAT, and double noncoplanar IMAT. For each method, the dose to 95% of the PTV was held constant, and the doses to surrounding critical structures were minimized. The different plans were compared based on conformity, total linear accelerator dose monitor units, and dose to surrounding normal tissues, including the entire body, whole brain, temporal lobes, brainstem, and cochleae. Results: The doses to the target and critical structures for the various IMAT methods were not statistically different in comparison with the noncoplanar IMRT plan, with the following exceptions: the cochlear doses were higher and whole brain dose was lower for coplanar IMAT plans; the cochleae and temporal lobe doses were lower and conformity increased for noncoplanar IMAT plans. The advantage of the noncoplanar IMAT plan was enhanced by doubling the treatment arc. Conclusion: Noncoplanar IMAT results in superior treatment plans when compared to noncoplanar IMRT for the treatment of posterior fossa tumors. IMAT should be considered alongside IMRT when treatment of this site is indicated.

Beltran, Chris, E-mail: chris.beltran@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Gray, Jonathan; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

2012-02-01

108

Lacrimal fossa lesions: a review of 146 cases in Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mohammed A Eldesouky,1 Molham A Elbakary,1 Saly Sabik,1 Mohamed M Shareef2 1Oculoplastic Unit, Ophthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, 2Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Purpose: The incidence and clinical and imaging criteria of different pathological forms of lacrimal fossa lesions in the Delta region of Egypt were studied.Methods: A retrospective study of patients with lacrimal fossa lesions for the past 10 years was conducted. A total of 146 cases were identified. Their medical records were reviewed for clinical and imaging data (computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging scan, or both. A definitive diagnosis based on pathological examination of biopsies was also reviewed.Results: Among the patients reviewed, 43.15% had inflammatory lacrimal gland lesions, 26.71% had lymphoproliferative lesions, and 21.92% had epithelial lesions; 8.22% had rare lesions (5.48% were dacryops and 2.74% had hemangioma. The study included 71.92% benign lesions and 28.08% malignant lesions, which were distributed between 19.18% malignant lymphoma and 8.9% malignant epithelial tumors. According to the pathological origin of the lesions, they may be classified into 78.08% nonepithelial lesions and 21.92% epithelial lesions (16.44% epithelial tumors, and 5.48% dermoid cysts.Conclusion: Lacrimal fossa lesions show a wide pathological range. Inflammatory lesions are most frequent, followed by lymphoproliferative and epithelial lesions. Analysis of clinical and radiological criteria is helpful in the differential diagnosis of lacrimal gland lesions. Keywords: lacrimal gland, tumor, clinical and imaging criteria

Eldesouky MA

2014-08-01

109

Practical approach to prenatal posterior fossa abnormalities using MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review focuses on the optimum use of fetal MRI as an additional imaging tool to sonographic data in posterior fossa (PF) abnormalities in the second and third trimesters of gestation. We have chosen three particular situations to demonstrate the value of MRI as a complementary investigation to US: (1) the pattern of increased fluid-filled space of the PF, (2) decreased cerebellar sonographic biometry and (3) the diagnosis of focal echogenic lesions of the cerebellum. For increased fluid-filled space of the PF and decreased cerebellar sonographic biometry, a practical approach is proposed, largely based on prenatal imaging, especially MRI. (orig.)

Guibaud, Laurent [Department of Paediatric and Fetal Imaging, Hopital Debrousse, 29 Soeur Bouvier, 69322, Lyon, Cedex 05 (France)

2004-09-01

110

Hesperian age for western Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) on Mars is an intensely eroded deposit north of the cratered highlands. It is widely thought that MFF materials were emplaced through ignimbrite eruptions. Recent geologic mapping of western MFF identified outliers of MFF materials well beyond the previously mapped western extent for the deposit, including outliers close to Gale crater. We report counts of impact craters on the MFF units that have implications for our understanding of the general history of MFF and the uppermost layered materials on the Gale crater mound. PMID:22628559

Zimbelman, James R; Scheidt, Stephen P

2012-06-29

111

Large intradiploic growing skull fracture of the posterior fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Growing skull fractures (GSFs) are rare complications of head injury and mostly occur in infancy and early childhood. Location in the posterior fossa and intradiploic development of a GSF is very uncommon. We report a 7-year-old boy with a large, 9 x 7 x 4-cm, occipital intradiploic GSF. The lesion developed progressively over a period of 5 years following a documented occipital linear fracture. This case of a GSF developing from a known occipital linear fracture demonstrates that a GSF may reach a considerable size and, although uncommon, intradiploic development and occipital localization of a GSF is possible. (orig.)

112

Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

113

Posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula with presenting as caroticocavernous fistula  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report cases of posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with presenting with exophthalmos, chemosis and tinnitus in 26- and 66-year-old men. The final diagnoses was vertebral artery AVF and AVF of the marginal sinus, respectively. The dominant venous drainage was the cause of the unusual presentation: both drained from the jugular bulb or marginal sinus, via the inferior petrosal and cavernous sinuses and superior ophthalmic vein. We used endovascular techniques, with coils and liquid adhesives to occlude the fistulae, with resolution of the symptoms and signs. (orig.)

Liu, H.M.; Shih, H.C.; Huang, Y.C.; Wang, Y.H. [Dept. of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

2001-05-01

114

Skin rash by gefitinib is a sign of favorable outcomes for patients of advanced lung adenocarcinoma in Japanese patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin rash is one of the notorious adverse events of gefitinib as well as other epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The differences of response rate and frequency of adverse events between ethnic groups are well known. Some reports demonstrated the correlation between development of rash and efficacy in Caucasian patients treated with erlotinib, gefitinib or cetuximab. We analyzed clinical course of Japanese patients of lung adenocarcinoma in order to assess the relation between adverse events and efficacy of gefitinib. Between January 2008 and June 2012, 24 Japanese patients administered gefitinib 250 mg daily. The adverse events were evaluated in accordance with Common Terminology Criteria For Adverse Events v4.0 (CTCAE). Objective response to gefitinib was evaluated with using computed tomography every 1-2 months. The relationship between each adverse event and objective response was examined by chi-square test. The Log-rank Test was used to assess the relationship between the presence of skin rash and overall survival. Twenty four patients with a median age of 67 years (range 55-89) entered were 16 female and 8 male patients; the pathological diagnosis of all patients was adenocarcinoma. Skin rash in CTCAE occurred in 10. The objective response and overall survival among the patients with skin rash was significantly superior to the patients without skin rash. Skin rash by gefitinib correlates with improved clinical outcomes among advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. PMID:23420789

Sugiura, Yasoo; Nemoto, Etsuo; Kawai, Osamu; Ohkubo, Yasuyuki; Fusegawa, Hisae; Kaseda, Shizuka

2013-12-01

115

Infarto agudo do cerebelo simulando tumor da fossa posterior / Acute cerebellar infarction presenting as a posterior fossa tumor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Um homem de 58 anos foi acometido subitamente de cefaléia, vômitos, vertigens e incoordenação das extremidades esquerdas. A tomografia computadorizada do crânio evidenciou área hipodensa no hemisfério cerebelar esquerdo, cujo exame anátomo-patológica mostrou tratar-se de infarto cerebelar. [...] Abstract in english We report a case of space-occupying infarction of the left cerebellar hemisphere with occlusive hydrocephalus and left to right shift of the fourth ventricle. The patient, a 58 years old man, underwent shunting and decompressive craniectomy of the posterior fossa and survived without neurological de [...] ficits.

José Alberto Gonçalves da, Silva; Erasmo Barros da, Silva; Carlos Agripino, Branco.

116

Infarto agudo do cerebelo simulando tumor da fossa posterior Acute cerebellar infarction presenting as a posterior fossa tumor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Um homem de 58 anos foi acometido subitamente de cefaléia, vômitos, vertigens e incoordenação das extremidades esquerdas. A tomografia computadorizada do crânio evidenciou área hipodensa no hemisfério cerebelar esquerdo, cujo exame anátomo-patológica mostrou tratar-se de infarto cerebelar.We report a case of space-occupying infarction of the left cerebellar hemisphere with occlusive hydrocephalus and left to right shift of the fourth ventricle. The patient, a 58 years old man, underwent shunting and decompressive craniectomy of the posterior fossa and survived without neurological deficits.

José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

1992-03-01

117

Traumatic Posterior Fossa Epidural Hematomas and Their Complications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Traumatic posterior fossa epidural hematomas (TPFEDH occur infrequently however their mortality and morbidity are higher than supratentorial epidural hematomas. Signs and symptoms may be silent or nonspecific, even though they may show rapid progression and deterioration from consciousness to coma, thus they would cause fatal results. Recently, practice of computerized tomography (CT has grown up and replaced the use of direct X-ray to detect calvarial fractures and other traumatic pathologies, therefore patients with posterior fossa trauma were diagnosed earlier.Material and Methods: We presented eight cases who suffered from TPFEDHs treated in our clinics between the years 2002 and 2006. Five cases were operated immediately however 3 cases were treated conservatively. One of the operated cases died immediately after surgery. Postoperative complications of cerebral sinus thrombosis and pseudomeningocele were observed in two cases. Alive cases were discharged a few days after surgery.Conclusion: Mortality decreases in TPFEDHs since they could be diagnosed earlier with widespread use of CT and treated successfully. In addition, it is easier to decide whether conservative or surgical therapy is efficient because CT findings should correlate with clinical findings. However, few complications such as cerebral sinus thrombosis and pseudomeningocele occur infrequently. Furthermore these cases must be monitored carefully during postoperative period for a new neurological finding.

Ali DALGIÇ

2007-12-01

118

A different approach to cysts of the posterior fossa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Posterior fossa cysts are frequently identified on MR studies. This paper takes a different approach to analyzing these cysts based on the pathology of the cyst wall and the embryology of the hindbrain, choroid plexus, and meninges. The type of cyst depends on the histologic components of the cyst wall. Frequent types of posterior fossa cysts are arachnoid, Blake's pouch, and cysts associated with Dandy Walker malformation. All of these cysts may mimic the others in terms of position of the torcula, vermian abnormalities, and mass effect on the cerebellum and occipital bone. A clue to the nature of the cyst may be the position of the choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle; normal in arachnoid cyst, absent in Dandy Walker malformation, and displaced into the superior cyst wall in Blake's pouch. When the cyst wall histology is not known, it is suggested to use a descriptive term such as ''retrocerebellar cyst''. (orig.)

Nelson, Marvin D. [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS 81, 90027, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maher, Karima [Radiodiagnosis Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Gilles, Floyd H. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, 90027, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2004-09-01

119

Patient age and treatment for middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved understanding of the natural history of primary middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts is a prerequisite for the rational treatment of this condition. For this purpose we measured the initial and terminal volumes (IV and TV) of such cysts in 50 CT scans of 25 patients. We used an image analyzer, and calculated the rates of interval cyst volume changes. A slightly negative correlation was found between IV and patient age. The rates of interval volume changes did not correlate with IV or Galassi grade, but there was a strong negative correlation with patient age. In the non-surgical group of patients, the volume of the cysts increased in most patients under the age of 15 years, but was stable in all those over the age of 31. By comparison, in the surgical group, the cyst volume of all patients younger than 15 years decreased. These findings suggest that the natural history of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst is strongly influenced by the age of the patient. Consequently, the patient`s age should be taken into consideration when determining the treatment for this condition. (author)

Okumura, Yoshinari; Hirabayashi, Hidehiro; Hiramatsu, Ken-ichiro; Sakaki, Toshisuke [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

1996-03-01

120

Resection in the popliteal fossa for metastatic melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally metastatic melanoma of the distal leg and the foot metastasize to the lymph nodes of the groin. Sometimes the first site of nodal disease can be the popliteal fossa. This is an infrequent event, with rare reports in literature and when it occurs, radical popliteal node dissection must be performed. Case presentation We report a case of a 36-year old man presented with diagnosis of 2 mm thick, Clark's level II-III, non ulcerated melanoma of the left heel, which developed during the course of the disease popliteal node metastases, after a superficial and deep groin dissection for inguinal node involvement. Five months after popliteal lymph node dissection he developed systemic disease, therefore he received nine cycles of dacarbazine plus fotemustine. To date (56 months after prior surgery and 11 months after chemotherapy he is alive with no evidence of disease. Conclusion In case of groin metastases from melanoma of distal lower extremities, clinical and ultrasound examination of ipsilateral popliteal fossa is essential. When metastatic disease is found, radical popliteal dissection is the standard of care. Therefore knowledge of anatomy and surgical technique about popliteal lymphadenectomy are required to make preservation of structures that if injured, can produce a permanent, considerable disability.

Botti Gerardo

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Apparent paradoxical vault changes with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts - Implication for aetiology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three cases of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst with paradoxical bone changes in the adjacent vault are described, namely, a small middle cranial fossa and pneumosinus dilatans. This association is unusual and unique. The existing literature is reviewed and the probable aetiological factors discussed. Redla, S., Husani, Y. and Colquhoun, I.R. (2001)

Redla, Sridhar; Husami, Yahya; Colquhoun, Iain R

2001-10-01

122

Apparent paradoxical vault changes with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts - Implication for aetiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three cases of middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst with paradoxical bone changes in the adjacent vault are described, namely, a small middle cranial fossa and pneumosinus dilatans. This association is unusual and unique. The existing literature is reviewed and the probable aetiological factors discussed. Redla, S., Husani, Y. and Colquhoun, I.R. (2001)

123

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Presenting as Acute Orbital Myositis Preceding a Skin Rash: A Case Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, in which orbital symptoms and signs appear before the onset of a skin rash, is very rare. We experienced such a case and therefore report on it via magnetic resonance imaging. A 48-year-old man with pain and swelling of left eye and headache presented 2 days before onset of a zoster skin rash. On orbit-al MRI, edematous thickening of the left lateral rectus muscle with high signal intensity was revealed. After contrast injection, the lateral rectus muscle demonstrated heterogenous enhancement. Also, diffuse contrast enhancement was noted at left preseptal space, lacrimal gland and periorbital soft tissue. The man was treated with antiviral agents and prednisolone. Two weeks later, he recovered from the skin manifestations and most of the orbital manifestations except for the diplopia and restricted lateral movement.

Oh, Ha Yeun; Cho, Seong Whi [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-03-15

124

Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Presenting as Acute Orbital Myositis Preceding a Skin Rash: A Case Report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, in which orbital symptoms and signs appear before the onset of a skin rash, is very rare. We experienced such a case and therefore report on it via magnetic resonance imaging. A 48-year-old man with pain and swelling of left eye and headache presented 2 days before onset of a zoster skin rash. On orbit-al MRI, edematous thickening of the left lateral rectus muscle with high signal intensity was revealed. After contrast injection, the lateral rectus muscle demonstrated heterogenous enhancement. Also, diffuse contrast enhancement was noted at left preseptal space, lacrimal gland and periorbital soft tissue. The man was treated with antiviral agents and prednisolone. Two weeks later, he recovered from the skin manifestations and most of the orbital manifestations except for the diplopia and restricted lateral movement.

125

Cushingoid Syndrome Following of Local Steroid Administration for Diaper Rash; A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Prolonged exogenous administration of ACTH or hydrocortisone or its analogs results in a clinical pattern identical to the spontaneous disorder and is frequently referred to as Cushingoid syndrome. This syndrome is generally reported as a result of oral or parenteral steroids administration. Case Report: Our report presents a five-month old baby with typical Cushingoid changes following local steroid application due to diaper rash. Clobetasol was used for diaper rash, but had not used systemic corticosteroid. Serum Cortical and ACTH was very low and no detectable. After discontinuation of local steroid, Skin complication recovered gradually and after 5 months, completely. Conclusion: Local corticosteroids may be high absorption and cause systemic complication such as Adrenal insufficiency and cushingoid syndrome.

Z Haghshenas

2006-06-01

126

Facial heliotrope rash as the initial manifestation of acute myelomonocytic leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association of leukocytoclastic vasculitis or dermatomyositis with malignancies has been reported. We describe a patient who developed a skin rash, histologically compatible with dermatomyositis, which during the course of the disease switched to leukocytoclastic vasculitis, which was accompanied with peripheral blood pancytopenia in the absence of any specific pathological manifestation from the bone marrow three years prior to the diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML). PMID:9168450

Tzavara, V; Stamoulis, K; Aroni, K G; Kordossis, T; Boki, K A

1997-04-01

127

Epidermoid cyst of the posterior fossa: a case report / Cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os cistos epidermoides do sistema nervoso central (SNC) são condições incomuns, estando localizados mais frequentemente no ângulo pontocerebelar e ao redor da ponte. Eles são revestidos por epitélio escamoso queratinizado e lamelas de queratina, tornando seu conteúdo branco-perolado e pastoso. Os ci [...] stos epidermoides são, na maioria das vezes, originados de malformações, possivelmente associados ao entremeio de elementos superficiais do ectoderma do SNC durante o fechamento da placa neural, ou formação das vesículas cerebrais secundárias. Os autores descrevem um caso de cisto epidermoide da fossa posterior determinando hidrocefalia e revisam critérios morfológicos e diagnósticos dessa lesão. Abstract in english Epidermoid cysts of the central nervous system are uncommon conditions, which are frequently located in the cerebellopontine angle and around the pons. They are covered with keratinized squamous epithelium and keratin lamella, which give its contents a soft, white-pearly appearance. Epidermoid cysts [...] are mostly originated from malformations, presumably associated with surface elements of the nervous system ectoderm during the closure of the neural groove or formation of secondary cerebral vesicles. The authors describe a case of epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa causing hydrocephalus and review morphologic and diagnostic criteria of this lesion.

Eduardo, Cambruzzi; Karinelli, Presa; Luciano Carvalho, Silveira; Gerson Evandro, Perondi.

2011-02-01

128

Rash impulsiveness and reward sensitivity as predictors of treatment outcome in male substance dependent patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent theories hypothesize that the impulsivity observed in addictive behaviors is a two-factor construct, consisting of Rash Impulsiveness and Reward Sensitivity. There is some evidence for this distinction, but it is unknown what the clinical relevance of this distinction is. The present study examines the predictive value of the two-factor model regarding drop-out from treatment and relapse into substance use in a clinical population of male substance dependent patients. Both behavioral and self-report measures of Rash Impulsiveness and Reward Sensitivity were measured during treatment while substance use relapse was measured after 90days. Results indicate that treatment drop-out could be predicted by a behavioral index of Reward Sensitivity (Card Playing Task); self-reported Rash Impulsiveness only approached significance as predictor drop-out. In contrast, relapse could not be predicted in the present study. These findings might have implications for the early identification and treatment of patients at risk of treatment drop-out. PMID:24837083

Boog, Michiel; Goudriaan, Anna E; Wetering, Ben J M v d; Polak, Marike; Deuss, Hilda; Franken, Ingmar H A

2014-11-01

129

Posterior fossa malformations: main features and limits in prenatal diagnosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posterior fossa (PF) malformations are commonly observed during prenatal screening. Their understanding requires knowledge of the main steps of PF development and knowledge of normal patterns in US and MR imaging. The vast majority of PF malformations can be strongly suspected by acquiring a midline sagittal slice and a transverse slice and by systematically scrutinizing the elements of the PF: cerebellar vermis, hemispheres, brainstem, fourth ventricle, PF fluid spaces and tentorium. Analysis of cerebellar echogenicity and biometry is also useful. This review explains how to approach the diagnosis of the main PF malformations by performing these two slices and answering six key questions about the elements of the PF. The main imaging characteristics of PF malformations are also reviewed. (orig.)

130

Posterior fossa malformations: main features and limits in prenatal diagnosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Posterior fossa (PF) malformations are commonly observed during prenatal screening. Their understanding requires knowledge of the main steps of PF development and knowledge of normal patterns in US and MR imaging. The vast majority of PF malformations can be strongly suspected by acquiring a midline sagittal slice and a transverse slice and by systematically scrutinizing the elements of the PF: cerebellar vermis, hemispheres, brainstem, fourth ventricle, PF fluid spaces and tentorium. Analysis of cerebellar echogenicity and biometry is also useful. This review explains how to approach the diagnosis of the main PF malformations by performing these two slices and answering six key questions about the elements of the PF. The main imaging characteristics of PF malformations are also reviewed. (orig.)

Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

2010-06-15

131

Association between EGFR gene polymorphisms, skin rash and response to anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cetuximab and panitumumab are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors used in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Most patients develop a papulopustular rash that may predict tumor response to treatment. EGFR gene polymorphisms may also determine tumor response and appearance of skin rash. We hypothesized an association between EGFR gene polymorphisms, papulopustular rash and response to anticancer treatment. Four EGFR polymorphisms (-216, -191, CA-SSR, R521K) were analysed in 51 patients with mCRC receiving anti-EGFR. Severity of cutaneous rash and tumor response was measured following standard scales. We report an association between SNP-216 and tumor response (P = 0.003): no tumor progression occurred in TT genotype. Moreover, 92.3% of the responder patients developed skin rash, 62.9% of them presenting a grade ?2 (P = 0.015). Thus, although underpowered, our preliminary data suggest that SNP-216 polymorphism of the EGFR gene could be useful in predicting tumor response and the appearance of severe skin rash might also be associated. PMID:25039761

Jaka, Ane; Gutiérrez-Rivera, Araika; Ormaechea, Nerea; Blanco, Jesus; La Casta, Adelaida; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Izeta, Ander; Tuneu, Anna

2014-10-01

132

Neuralgies of the lower cranial nerves: Microsurgical posterior fossa exploration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neuralgias of the lower cranial nerves are trigeminal neuralgia (TN, glossopharingeal neuralgia (GphN, and geniculate neuralgia (GN. Microsurgical posterior fossa exploration with its variations microvascular decompression (MVD, partial sensory rhisotomy (PSR, and total sensory rhisotomy (TSR is one of the most efficient ways of treating these neuralgias. It was performed 130 operations in 125 patients with TN, 3 in GphN patients, 1 in GN patient, 1 in GN/TN patients, 1 in GphN/GN patient, and 2 in GN/hemifacial spasm patients. Of total of 125 patients with TN, MVD was performed in 63, PSR in 18, and MVD+PSR in 44 cases. In 5 patients with recidivate TN PSR was performed. Of total 3 patients with GphN MVD was performed in 2 cases, and extirpation of a small meningeoma in 1 case (it was not seen on CT. In the patients with GN TSR of intermediate nerve was performed, in GN/TN patients TSR of intermediate nerve and PSR of trigeminal nerve was performed, in the GN/GphN patients MVD of glossopharingeal and TSR of intermediate nerve were performed, and in the GN/hemifacial spasm patients TSR of intermediate and MVD of facial nerve were performed. The results of TN patients are: excellent in 82,4%, good in 12%, and poor in 5,6% of patients. There is no difference in complete pain relief, rate of recurrence, and complications between MVD, MVD+PSR and PSR operative groups (p>0,05. Among patients with other neuralgias the following results are noted: excellent in 4, good in 3, and poor in 1 patient. Microsurgical posterior fossa exploration is the method of choice in the treatment of the neuralgias of the lower cranial nerves.

Ivanovi? S.

2004-01-01

133

Magnetic resonance properties of hydrogen: imaging the posterior fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posterior fossa scans were performed on five healthy volunteers using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) machine constructed by Thorn-EMI Ltd. Three different NMR scanning sequences were used. In the first, a type of saturation-recovery technique was used to produce images strongly dependent on the density of hydrogen nuclei, but with some dependence on the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1). In the second, an inversion-recovery technique was used to produce images with a stronger dependence on the spin-lattice relaxation time. In the third, a spin-echo technique was used to obtain images with a dependence on the spin-spin relaxation time (T2). All three types of NMR image were unaffected by bone artifact. Visualization of brain adjacent to the skull base was obtained without loss of detail due to partial-volume effect from bone. The saturation-recovery images highlighted arteries and veins that were clearly visible without the use of contrast agents. The inversion-recovery images showed remarkable gray-white matter differentiation enabling internal structure to be seen within the brainstem and cerebellum. The trigeminal nerve and ganglion were also seen outside the brain. Experience with the spin-echo technique is limited, but the images at the base of the brain show considerable soft-tissue detail. The NMR images of the posterior fossa in this study were comparable in quality to those obtained from a new rotate-rotate x-ray computed tomography machine and were superior in several respects

134

Effects of a high jugular fossa and jugular bulb diverticulum on the inner ear  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From a series of patients undergoing routine radiographic examination, 112 temporal bones with a high jugular fossa were selected. Among these, 43 jugular bulb diverticula were found. The structures affected by a high fossa or diverticulum were recorded and correlated to the clinical symptoms of the patient. The vestibule was suspected to be affected in five patients. Two of these patients had tinnitus and vertigo, and three had hearing loss. In one of the latter the hearing loss was most marked in the supine position. The cochlea was close to the fossa in three patients, all of whom had tinnitus. Four patients had a defect of the posterior semicircular canal. One of them lost his hearing after a severe fit of coughing, became unsteady and showed signs of a fistula. The internal acoustic meatus and the mastoid portion of the facial canal were affected in two and four patients, respectively, who had no recorded symptoms. Twelve of 34 patients with Meniere's disease and a high jugular fossa on the side of the diseased ear had a dehiscence of the vestibular aqueduct caused by the fossa or diverticulum, compared with nine of 58 patients in the unselected material. For comparison and demonstration of topographic relationships, 58 casts of unselected radiograhed temporal bone specimens with high jugular fossae or diverticula were investigated. In patients with a high jugular fossa or jugular bulb diverticulum, tomographic assessment

135

Facial herpes zoster infection precipitated by surgical manipulation of the trigeminal nerve during exploration of the posterior fossa: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a case of herpes zoster infection (shingles precipitated by surgical manipulation of the trigeminal nerve root during an attempted microvascular decompression procedure. The pathogenesis of this phenomenon, as well as the importance and role of prophylactic acyclovir in its management, are discussed. Case presentation A 54-year-old Caucasian man with a classical long-standing left-sided V2 and V3 division primary trigeminal neuralgia refractory to medical management, underwent posterior fossa exploration for microvascular decompression via a standard retromastoid craniectomy. The patient had immediate and complete relief from pain. Three days after the operation, he developed severely painful vesicles with V2 and V3 dermatomal distribution. Rather than the classical paroxysmal, lancinating type of trigeminal neuralgia, the pain experienced by the patient was of a constant burning nature. A clinical diagnosis of herpes zoster (shingles was made after smear confirmation from microbiological testing. The patient was commenced on antiviral treatment with acyclovir. His vesicular rash and pain gradually subsided over the next two weeks. He remains asymptomatic one year later. Conclusions Postoperative shingles precipitated by trigeminal nerve manipulation during surgery for trigeminal neuralgia can be a distressing and demoralizing experience for the patient. A careful preoperative history, early recognition, and prompt antiviral therapy is necessary.

Mansour Nassir

2009-09-01

136

Arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa presenting with pulsatile exophthalmos: case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year-old woman suffered gradual progression of right pulsatile exophthalmos and slight headache. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated outward and downward displacement of the right globe and an arachnoid cyst in the right middle cranial fossa associated with thinned and anterior protrusion of a bony orbit. Microscopic cystocisternotomy was performed and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside of the cyst communicated into the carotid cistern and cistern in the posterior cranial fossa. Pulsatile exophthalmos improved immediately after surgery. Arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa presenting with exophthalmos is rare. Microscopic cystocisternotomy might successfully improve CSF flow and relieve exophthalmos. PMID:24305013

Saito, Atsushi; Kon, Hiroyuki; Haryu, Shinya; Mino, Masaki; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

2014-01-01

137

A rare muscular variation in the superficial region of the popliteal fossa.  

Science.gov (United States)

We found a rare muscular variation in the superficial region of the popliteal fossa in a 61-year-old Korean male cadaver whose cause of death was laryngeal carcinoma during routine dissection course for medical students. The muscle ran transversely between the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle and the tendon of the long head of biceps femoris muscle, covering the neurovascular structures in the popliteal fossa. The muscle received its nerve supply from the tibial nerve. Based on its innervation, we speculated that the anomalous muscle might be a very specific type of variation related to the gastrocnemius tertius rather than another superficial muscle in the popliteal fossa. PMID:24158352

Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Seong Hye; Cho, Sa Sun; Yoon, Sang Pil

2014-09-01

138

"Blueberry muffin" rash and large right thigh mass: a unique presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of bone marrow derived antigen-presenting cells that can involve a spectrum of cutaneous findings, with or without internal organ involvement. Neonatal LCH almost always presents with skin findings, usually petechial papules and/or erosions in a seborrheic distribution, with or without extracutaneous involvement. Previously described as varying entities, LCH is now considered a single disease process demonstrating a spectrum of clinical findings. We report a unique case of neonatal LCH presenting with a "blueberry muffin" rash in conjunction with a large soft tissue tumor. PMID:24011317

Lau, Erica G; Stepenaskie, Shelly; Moran, Rebecca; Quinn, Robert; Matthew, Prasad; Smidt, Aimee C

2013-06-01

139

Malar rash in a painting by Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin (1699-1779)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present report we describe a typical malar rash, as painted by Jean-Baptiste Siméon Chardin (1699-1779), French painter, one of the greatest of the 18th century, on the face of a child in “Le Bénédicité” (Hermitage, St. Petersburg). Three versions of this theme were more completed by Chardin, in various times of his life, but the malar eruption can be seen solely on the painting at the Hermitage. In the attempt to clarify, on a diagnostic ground, such a cutaneous abnormality, t...

Vicarioto, M.; Rondinone, R.; Marson, P.

2011-01-01

140

Focal encephalitis following varicella-zoster virus reactivation without rash in a healthy immunized young adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein we describe an episode of focal varicella-zoster virus (VZV) encephalitis in a healthy young man with neither rash nor radicular pain. The symptoms began with headaches and seizures, after which magnetic resonance imaging detected a single hyperintense lesion in the left temporal lobe. Because of the provisional diagnosis of a brain tumor, the lesion was excised and submitted for pathological examination. No tumor was found. But the tissue immunostained positively for VZV antigens, and wild-type VZV sequences were detected. In short, this case represents VZV reactivation, most likely in the trigeminal ganglion, in the absence of clinical herpes zoster. PMID:24604820

Halling, Geoffrey; Giannini, Caterina; Britton, Jeffrey W; Lee, Ricky W; Watson, Robert E; Terrell, Christine L; Parney, Ian F; Buckingham, Erin M; Carpenter, John E; Grose, Charles

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Evaluation of patch test in identification of causative agent in drug rashes due to antiepileptics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patch test was evaluated for the identification of causative agent in cutaneous eruptions due to antiepileptics. Patch tests were carried out in twenty patients and ten controls with carbamazepine, phenytoin sodium, phenobarbitone and sodium valproate. Sodium valproate was found tobe irritant in 1 and 5% concentration and further dilution is recommended for patch testing. Patch test was positive in 14 (70% patients and in 7 with suspected drug alone, and remaining 7 were positive with more than one antiepileptic drug. We recommended patch test for identification of causative drug in rashes due to antiepileptics.

Vatve Maneesha

2000-01-01

142

Nili Fossae in Natural Color and Across the Spectrum  

Science.gov (United States)

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) took this image of the Nili Fossae region at 0643 UTC (2:43 a.m. EDT) on June 21, 2007, near 21.15 degrees north latitude, 74.24 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 20 meters (66 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point, and is one of several dozen that CRISM has taken to map the minerals at candidate landing sites for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2010. The Nili Fossae region is critical to understanding the history of water on Mars and whether water ever formed environments suitable for life, because the region is underlain by a layer of phyllosilicate (clay) minerals. This type of mineralogy formed where water was in contact with Mars' crustal rocks for very long periods, altering the silicates in volcanic rocks. In addition, phyllosilicates can encapsulate and preserve organic chemicals associated with life (if life was present). Its rocky record of an ancient wet environment makes Nili Fossae a top contender among the 30-plus landing sites being considered for MSL, whose objectives include measuring the chemistry preserved in an ancient wet environment. This series of four different versions of the same 544-color image illustrates the mineral-mapping capability that comes from moving beyond the wavelength range of the human eye, and into infrared wavelengths where minerals leave distinct 'fingerprints' in reflected sunlight. At upper left, more than three dozen of the distinct wavelengths measured by CRISM were combined to mimic how the human eye would see the image. The subtle shading comes from the Sun's position high in Mars' sky when the image was taken, creating few shadows. The bland, butterscotch color comes from the dust coating nearly all of the Martian surface to some degree. At upper right, three infrared wavelengths (2.53, 1.50 and 1.08 micrometers) replace the red, green and blue image planes. These wavelengths are less sensitive to dust, and begin to show the spectral variations in the underlying rocks. The two bottom versions combine different wavelengths to show strength of absorption due to the different minerals that are present, providing indications of the minerals' presence and distribution. The lower left version combines measurements of the strength of iron mineral absorptions at 0.53, 0.86 and 1.0 microns in the red, green and blue image planes. Bluer areas have more pyroxene, a mineral found in volcanic basaltic rock, whereas reddish and especially orange areas have more oxidized iron minerals. The lower right version combines measurements of mineral absorptions at 1.0, 1.9 and 2.3 microns in the red, green and blue image planes. Redder areas are richer in pyroxene, and green and blue areas contain more phyllosilicate minerals. The combination of basaltic rocks and highly altered phyllosilicates in close proximity would allow MSL to make detailed measurements of rocks formed in two distinct environments. The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) is one of six science instruments on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the CRISM team includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad.

2007-01-01

143

Phyllosilicates, Carbonates, Methane and the Habitability of Nili Fossae on Early Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

Mineral transformations with temperature and CO2 fugacity show that serpentinization affected the primitive crust in the Nili Fossae region, and was accompanied by carbonation and early methane release, making this active environment ideal for life.

Chevrier, V. F.

2010-04-01

144

Posterior cranial fossa dimensions in the Chiari I malformation: relation to pathogenesis and clinical presentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Skull dimensions were measured on lateral skull radiographs in 33 adult patients with MRI-verified Chiari I malformations and in 40 controls. The posterior cranial fossa was significantly smaller and shallower in patients than in controls. In the patients, there was a positive correlation between posterior fossa size and the degree of the cerebellar ectopia, which might indicate that a posterior cranial fossa which was originally too small had been expanded by the herniation of hindbrain structures at an early stage. No special clinical presentation was associated with a very small posterior cranial fossa, which may indicate that a small posterior cranial per se has little or no clinical significance, although it may be the primary developmental anomaly. (orig./GD)

Stovner, L.J. (Dept. of Neurology, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway)); Bergan, U. (Dept. of Radiology, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway)); Nilsen, G. (MR-Centre, Trondheim Univ. (Norway)); Sjaastad, O. (Dept. of Neurology, Trondheim Univ. Hospital (Norway))

1993-02-01

145

Posterior cranial fossa dimensions in the Chiari I malformation: relation to pathogenesis and clinical presentation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Skull dimensions were measured on lateral skull radiographs in 33 adult patients with MRI-verified Chiari I malformations and in 40 controls. The posterior cranial fossa was significantly smaller and shallower in patients than in controls. In the patients, there was a positive correlation between posterior fossa size and the degree of the cerebellar ectopia, which might indicate that a posterior cranial fossa which was originally too small had been expanded by the herniation of hindbrain structures at an early stage. No special clinical presentation was associated with a very small posterior cranial fossa, which may indicate that a small posterior cranial per se has little or no clinical significance, although it may be the primary developmental anomaly. (orig./GD)

146

Supratentorial Neurometabolic Alterations in Pediatric Survivors of Posterior Fossa Tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Therapy and tumor-related effects such as hypoperfusion, internal hydrocephalus, chemotherapy, and irradiation lead to significant motor and cognitive sequelae in pediatric posterior fossa tumor survivors. A distinct proportion of those factors related to the resulting late effects is hitherto poorly understood. This study aimed at separating the effects of neurotoxic factors on central nervous system metabolism by using H-1 MR spectroscopy to quantify cerebral metabolite concentrations in these patients in comparison to those in age-matched healthy peers. Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with World Health Organization (WHO) I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) treated by resection only, 24 patients with WHO IV medulloblastoma (MB), who additionally received chemotherapy and craniospinal irradiation, and 43 healthy peers were investigated using single-volume H-1 MR spectroscopy of parietal white matter and gray matter. Results: Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly decreased in white matter (p < 0.0001) and gray matter (p < 0.0001) of MB patients and in gray matter (p = 0.005) of PA patients, compared to healthy peers. Decreased creatine concentrations in parietal gray matter correlated significantly with older age at diagnosis in both patient groups (MB patients, p = 0.009, r = 0.52; PA patients, p = 0.006, r = 0.7). Longer time periods since diagnosis were associated with lower NAA levels in white matter of PA patients (p = 0.008, r = 0.66). Conclusions: Differently decreased NAA concentrations were observed in both PA and MB groups of posterior fossa tumor patients. We conclude that this reflects a disturbance of the neurometabolic steady state of normal-appearing brain tissue due to the tumor itself and to the impact of surgery in both patient groups. Further incremental decreases of metabolite concentrations in MB patients may point to additional harm caused by irradiation and chemotherapy. The stronger decrease of NAA in MB patients may correspond to the additional damage of combined irradiation and chemotherapy on neuroaxonal cell viability and number.

Rueckriegel, Stefan M., E-mail: rueckriegel.s@nch.uni-wuerzburg.de [Pediatric Neurooncology Program, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Driever, Pablo Hernaiz [Pediatric Neurooncology Program, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Bruhn, Harald [Department of Radiology, Charite-Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiology, Klinikum der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Erlanger (Germany)

2012-03-01

147

Transcondylar Fossa (Supracondylar Transjugular Tubercle) Approach: Anatomic Basis for the Approach, Surgical Procedures, and Surgical Experience  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The authors clarify the anatomic basis and the usefulness of the transcondylar fossa approach (T-C-F A), in which the posterior portion of the jugular tubercle is removed extradurally through the condylar fossa with the atlanto-occipital joint intact. The authors first performed an anatomic study to identify the area to be removed using cadaveric specimens and then applied the T-C-F A to foramen magnum surgeries. The surgeries included clipping a vertebral artery–posterior inferior cerebell...

Matsushima, Toshio; Kawashima, Masatou; Masuoka, Jun; Mineta, Toshihiro; Inoue, Tooru

2010-01-01

148

[Acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa in the child. Case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) of the posterior fossa is very rare in childhood. It represent 0.52% of all subdural hematomas. We report a case of post-traumatic acute subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa in a 4-year-old child who was drowsy, without a neurologic defect. The CT scan revealed a simple ASDH, with a good recovery after surgical treatment. The literature is reviewed, clinical and therapeutic aspects are discussed. PMID:12736580

Hilmani, S; Bertal, A; El Malki, M; Sami, A; Achouri, M; Ouboukhlik, A; El Kamar, A; El Azhari, A

2003-03-01

149

Tissue interaction is required for glenoid fossa development during temporomandibular joint formation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mammalian temporomandibular joint (TMJ) develops from two distinct mesenchymal condensations that grow towards each other and ossify through different mechanisms, with the glenoid fossa undergoing intramembranous ossification while the condyle being endochondral in origin. In this study, we used various genetically modified mouse models to investigate tissue interaction between the condyle and glenoid fossa during TMJ formation in mice. We report that either absence or dislocation of the ...

Wang, Ying; Liu, Chao; Rohr, Joseph; Liu, Hongbing; He, Fenglei; Yu, Jian; Sun, Cheng; Li, Lu; Gu, Shuping; Chen, Yiping

2011-01-01

150

Facial nerve neurinoma presenting as middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle mass : a case report.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Facial nerve neurinomas are rare. The tumours arising from the geniculate ganglion may grow anteriorly and superiorly and present as a mass in the middle cranial fossa. Only a few cases of facial nerve neurinomas presenting as middle cranial fossa mass have so far been reported. These tumours present with either long standing or intermittent facial palsy along with cerebellopontine angle syndrome.

Devi B

2000-10-01

151

Locating the Internal Auditory Canal during the Middle Fossa Approach: An Alternative Technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Options for the surgical exposure of the internal auditory canal (IAC) include the translabyrinthine, retrosigmoid, and middle fossa approaches. Of the three, the anatomical reference points to the IAC are most subtle when it is exposed from above. The classically described methods for localizing the canal during the middle fossa approach direct the surgeon's attention initially towards the lateral extremity of the canal, a location where the margin for error is at its minimum. The cochlea, s...

Jackler, Robert K.; Gladstone, Hayes B.

1995-01-01

152

Results of radiotherapy with cobalt-60 of malignant tumors of the tonsillar fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1963 to 1978 119 patients with a carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa received cobalt-60-therapy from 60 to 70 Gy to the primary lesion and the lymph nodes. The 5-year-survival-rate was 34%, with a combined therapy of surgery and irradiation it was 43.6%. For 44 patients with a sarcoma of the tonsillar fossa the 5-year-survival was 32%. For the patients with a carcinoma chemotherapy was only given for palliation. (orig.)

153

Traumatic Acute Subdural Hematoma Extending from the Posterior Cranial Fossa to the Cerebellopontine Angle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Posterior cranial fossa subdural hematomas and extension of the subdural hematoma to the cerebellopontine angle is rarely seen and the concurrent development of acute peripheral facial palsy and the management strategy have not previously been reported in this pathology because of its rarity. We present this case to emphasize that minor head trauma may lead to a posterior cranial fossa hematoma extending to the cerebellopontine angle and cause peripheral facial palsy in patients using aspirin...

Gulsen, Salih; Sonmez, Erkin; Yilmaz, Cem; Altinors, Nur

2009-01-01

154

MRI tight posterior fossa sign for prenatal diagnosis of Chiari type II malformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chiari type II malformation (CMII) is one of three hindbrain malformations that display hydrocephalus. We have observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal in the posterior fossa, which is always apparent on normal fetal MR images, is not visible in a fetus with CMII. We use the term 'tight posterior fossa' for this MR imaging finding, and evaluate the diagnostic value of this finding on fetal MR images. Included in the study were 21 fetuses which underwent brain MR imaging at 1.5 T using two-dimensional balanced turbo-field-echo (2-D balanced-TFE) in the axial and sagittal planes. Postnatal diagnoses were CMII (n=5), CNS abnormalities other than CMII (n=8), and no abnormality (n=8). A tight posterior fossa was defined as an absent or slit-like water signal space around the hindbrain in the posterior fossa on both sagittal and axial MR images. All CMII fetuses displayed a tight posterior fossa on MR images. Hydrocephalus was visualized in all CMII fetuses and myelomeningocele in four fetuses, but hindbrain herniation was visualized only in two of five fetuses. The CSF signal surrounding the hindbrain was clearly visible in all the other 16 fetuses, including five with hydrocephalus not associated with CMII, although it was slightly narrower in a fetus with a cloverleaf skull than in the normal fetuses. Tight posterior fossa in the presence of hydrocephalus is a useful and characteristic finding of CMII on fetal MRI. (orig.)

Ando, Kumiko; Ishikura, Reiichi; Ogawa, Masayo; Takada, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Fujiwara, Masayuki; Hirota, Shozo [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Shakudo, Miyuki [Osaka City General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Gynecology, Nishinomiya (Japan); Minagawa, Kyoko [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nishinomiya (Japan)

2007-12-15

155

MRI tight posterior fossa sign for prenatal diagnosis of Chiari type II malformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chiari type II malformation (CMII) is one of three hindbrain malformations that display hydrocephalus. We have observed that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal in the posterior fossa, which is always apparent on normal fetal MR images, is not visible in a fetus with CMII. We use the term 'tight posterior fossa' for this MR imaging finding, and evaluate the diagnostic value of this finding on fetal MR images. Included in the study were 21 fetuses which underwent brain MR imaging at 1.5 T using two-dimensional balanced turbo-field-echo (2-D balanced-TFE) in the axial and sagittal planes. Postnatal diagnoses were CMII (n=5), CNS abnormalities other than CMII (n=8), and no abnormality (n=8). A tight posterior fossa was defined as an absent or slit-like water signal space around the hindbrain in the posterior fossa on both sagittal and axial MR images. All CMII fetuses displayed a tight posterior fossa on MR images. Hydrocephalus was visualized in all CMII fetuses and myelomeningocele in four fetuses, but hindbrain herniation was visualized only in two of five fetuses. The CSF signal surrounding the hindbrain was clearly visible in all the other 16 fetuses, including five with hydrocephalus not associated with CMII, although it was slightly narrower in a fetus with a cloverleaf skull than in the normal fetuses. Tight posterior fossa in the presence of hydrocephalus is a useful and characteristic finding of CMII on fetal MRI. (orig.)

156

Case of tick-associated rash illness caused by Amblyomma testudinarium.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of tick-associated rash illness (TARI), a new clinical entity of erythema migrans associated with a tick bite without infection of Lyme borreliosis agent. The patient, a 53-year-old man, went hiking in a mountainous area of Minoh City, Osaka Prefecture in October 2012. An erythematous macule with itching and a biting tick was found on his left thigh 2 days later, which gradually expanded. On the first visit to our department at the fifth day after hiking, an erythematous macule of 10 cm was recognized around the bite site. He had no systemic symptoms, and laboratory data were within normal limits. The tick was identified as a nymph of Amblyomma testudinarium. Histopathologically, perivascular infiltrates, mainly consisting of T lymphocytes, were seen in the dermis. The skin rash disappeared within 2 weeks with no treatment. Serum antibody titers against Lyme disease borrelial and rickettsial agents on the first visit and 2 weeks later were negative. These results indicate that the skin lesion of TARI was not associated with borrelial or rickettsial infection but a T-cell-mediated allergic reaction to salivary gland substances of the tick. PMID:25156744

Natsuaki, Masaru; Takada, Nobuhiro; Kawabata, Hiroki; Ando, Shuji; Yamanishi, Kiyofumi

2014-09-01

157

Middle cranial fossa anatomy and the origin of modern humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anatomically, modern humans differ from archaic forms in possessing a globular neurocranium and a retracted face and in cognitive functions, many of which are associated with the temporal lobes. The middle cranial fossa (MCF) interacts during growth and development with the temporal lobes, the midface, and the mandible. It has been proposed that evolutionary transformations of the MCF (perhaps from modification of the temporal lobes) can have substantial influences on craniofacial morphology. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics and computer reconstructions of computed tomography-scanned fossil hominids, fossil and recent modern humans and chimpanzees to address this issue further. Mean comparisons and permutation analyses of scaled 3D basicranial landmarks confirm that the MCF of Homo sapiens is highly significantly different (P heidelbergensis, and Pan troglodytes. Modern humans have a unique configuration with relatively more anterolateral projection of the MCF pole relative to the optic chiasm and the foramen rotundum. These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary changes in craniofacial morphology and the origins of modern human autapomorphies. In particular, the findings of this study point to variations in the temporal lobe, which, through effects on the MCF and face, are central to the evolution of modern human facial form. PMID:18213701

Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio; Lieberman, Daniel E; O'Higgins, Paul

2008-02-01

158

The management of right iliac fossa pain - is timing everything?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Right iliac fossa (RIF) pain remains the commonest clinical dilemma encountered by general surgeons. We prospectively audited the management of acute RIF pain, examining the relationship between symptom duration, use of pre-operative radiological imaging and patient outcome. METHODS: Over a six-month period, 302 patients, median age 18 years, 59% female, were admitted with RIF pain. Symptoms, clinical findings and laboratory results were documented. Patient management, timing of radiological investigations and operations, and outcome were recorded prospectively. RESULTS: Non-specific abdominal pain (26%), gynaecological (22%) and miscellaneous causes (14%) accounted for most admissions. Ultimately, 119 patients (39%) had appendicitis. Anorexia, tachycardia or rebound tenderness in the RIF significantly predicted a final diagnosis of appendicitis. Patients with perforated appendicitis (n = 29) had a longer duration of pre-hospital symptoms (median 50h) compared to those with simple appendicitis (median 17 h) (p<0.001). The use of pre-operative imaging resulted in an increased time to surgery but was not associated with increased post-operative morbidity or perforated appendicitis. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients presenting to hospital with RIF pain did not have appendicitis. Increased duration of pre-hospital symptoms was the main factor associated with perforated appendicitis. However, increased in-hospital time to theatre was not associated with perforated appendicitis or post-operative morbidity.

McCartan, D P

2012-01-31

159

A case of recurrent rash and leg numbness mimicking systemic rheumatic disease: the occurrence of leprosy in a nonendemic area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leprosy, a rare chronic granulomatous communicable disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is classically known to have cutaneous and neurologic sequelae. As a result of immigration, the disease, endemic in Brazil, India, Nepal, Madagascar, Myanmar, and Indonesia, has been recognized to be present in North America and the Caribbean. We describe a case of a woman presenting with a long history of a recurrent rash and leg numbness, initially diagnosed with systemic lupus, who was later proven to have lepromatous leprosy. It is a reminder that this underappreciated disease should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of skin rash and neuropathy, even in nonendemic regions. PMID:17551381

Flower, Cindy; Gaskin, David; Marquez, Sean

2007-06-01

160

Microsurgical Anatomy for Lateral Approaches to the Foramen Magnum with Special Reference to Transcondylar Fossa (Supracondylar Transjugular Tubercle) Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microsurgical anatomy for lateral approaches to the foramen magnum, especially for transcondylar fossa (supracondylar transjugular tubercle) approach, was studied using cadavers. The transcondylar fossa approach is an approach in which extradural removal of the posterior portion of the jugular tubercle through the condylar fossa is added to the far lateral approach. Some differences between this approach and the transcondylar approach are demonstrated. The atlanto-occipital joint and the jugu...

Matsushima, Toshio; Natori, Yoshihiro; Katsuta, Toshiro; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Fukui, Masashi; Rhoton, Albert L.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa associated with cerebellar hemorrhage: report of rare disease with MRI findings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chronic subdural hematoma of the posterior fossa is an uncommon entity, and spontaneous lesions are very rarely described, occurring mostly during anticoagulation therapy. The association of the posterior fossa chronic subdural hematoma with spontaneous parenchymal hemorrhage without anticoagulation therapy was never related in the literature, to our knowledge. We describe a case of a 64 year-old woman who suffered a spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage, treated conservatively, and presented 1 month later with a chronic subdural posterior fossa hematoma.

Costa Jr Leodante B.

2004-01-01

162

Malignant melanoma of nasal fossae, a propos of a case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The melanoma of the nasal fossae represents a 4% of all sinonasal malignant tumors. The symptoms are unspecific, thus delaying diagnosis. We present a case of a woman of 80 years of age. She has hypertension and a degenerative heart disease, and presents nasal respiratory insufficiency, left otalgia and epistaxis of 8 months of evolution. Examination revealed a dark, polypoidal, fleshy mass. The CT revealed a mass that occupied that space, without bone erosion. A biopsy of the mass revealed that it was an amelanotic melanoma. Due to the age of the patient and her general pathology, endoscopic sinonasal surgery was applied. The pathological anatomic analysis confirmed that it was a malignant round cell melanoma with the following phenotype: positive for Vimentin, positive for nuclear S-100, focal positive for HMB-45, negative, melan A+ negative for HMB-45 with heterogeneous intensity, and negative for ENE and ALC. The patient did not present symptoms until a year later, when she discovered a small laterocervical adenopathy. A FNAP confirmed that the melanoma had metastatized. The patient underwent a radical neck dissection and remained 15 months without symptoms. She is currently going through monthly revisions. Discussion: The treatment of choice is surgery. Selective neck dissection is not justified. This tumor is radioresistant. Active immunotherapy (a combination of Interferon and Cimetidine and targeted chemotherapy have also been used, mainly in inoperable cases. Five-year survival ranges between 6.5% and 34%.Conclusion: We propose endoscopic surgery for non-infiltrating tumors or for patients who cannot undergo very aggressive surgery due to their general condition.

Gómez-González JL

2012-07-01

163

Characterization of a potential animal model of an idiosyncratic drug reaction: nevirapine-induced skin rash in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiosyncratic drug reactions are difficult to study in humans due to their unpredictability. Unfortunately, this characteristic also hinders the development of animal models needed for mechanistic studies. Nevirapine, used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, results in a severe idiosyncratic skin rash in some patients. We found that nevirapine can also cause a significant rash in some strains of rats. At a dose of 150 mg/kg/day, the incidence in female Sprague-Dawley rats was 6/28 (21%), in female Brown Norway rats 32/32 (100%), and in female Lewis rats 0/6 (0%) while no male Sprague-Dawley or Brown Norway rats developed a rash. Female SJL mice 0/7 also did not develop nevirapine-induced skin lesions. The first sign of a reaction in Brown Norway rats was red ears at days 7-10 followed by a rash with scabbing mainly on the back; this was a shorter time to onset than in Sprague-Dawley rats. Light microscopy of the skin revealed a primarily mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate and lesions typical of self-trauma. Immunohistochemistry results suggest that the infiltrate was composed of CD4 and CD8 T cells as well as macrophages. A lower dose of either 40 or 75 mg/kg/day did not lead to a rash and, in fact, 2 weeks of the lower doses induced tolerance to the 150 mg/kg/day dose in female Brown Norway rats. A dose of 100 mg/kg/day resulted in rash in 2/4 (50%) of female Brown Norway rats. Rechallenge of Brown Norway rats that had been allowed to recuperate after a nevirapine-induced rash led to red ears in less than 24 h followed by hair loss and occasional skin lesions. Although the skin rash was less evident on rechallenge, microscopically, the cellular infiltrate was more prominent, especially surrounding the hair follicles. Moreover, there were lesions of interface dermatitis with apoptosis and satellitosis, indicative of a cell-mediated immune attack on the epidermis. While systemic signs of illness did not accompany the rash on primary exposure, on rechallenge, the animals appeared generally unwell and this forced sacrifice after 2 weeks or less of treatment. Importantly, splenocytes isolated from rechallenged animals were able to transfer susceptibility to nevirapine-induced skin rash to naïve female Brown Norway recipients, which was illustrated by a faster time to onset of rash in the recipients. The characteristics of this adverse reaction are similar to that seen in humans; that is, it is idiosyncratic in that it only occurs in some strains of animals, is delayed in onset, is more common in females, is dose-dependent, and appears to be immune-mediated. Therefore, it may represent a good animal model for the study of idiosyncratic drug reactions. PMID:12971795

Shenton, Jacintha M; Teranishi, Munehiro; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Yager, Julie A; Uetrecht, Jack P

2003-09-01

164

The enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal: a new CT finding of facial nerve canal fracture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To discuss the value of enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in the diagnosis of facial nerve canal fracture. Methods: Thirty patients with facial nerve canal fracture underwent axial and coronal CT scan. The correlation between the fracture and the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was analyzed. The ability of showing the fracture and enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal in axial and coronal imaging were compared. Results: Fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was found in the operation in 30 patients, while the fracture was detected in CT in 18 patients. Enlargement of geniculate ganglion of facial nerve was detected in 30 patients in the operation, while the enlargement of fossa was found in CT in 28 cases. Enlargement and fracture of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal were both detected in CT images in 18 patients. Only the enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was shown in 12 patients in CT. Conclusion: Enlargement of geniculate fossa of facial nerve canal was a useful finding in the diagnosis of fracture of geniculate fossa in patients with facial paralysis, even no fracture line was shown on CT images. (authors)

165

A 62-year-old women with persistent severe asthma, skin rash, and eosinophilia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 62-year-old white woman was admitted with shortness of breath, wheezing, and cough. While in the hospital a generalized pruritic skin rash developed on her trunk and upper and lower extremities. She did not have any fevers, chills, or night sweats. The patient was known to have chronic, difficult-to-control asthma despite being compliant with a treatment regimen consisting of inhaled albuterol, high-dose inhaled steroids, salmeterol, and montelukast. Her medical history was significant for hypertension and gout. She had no family history of asthma. The patient was a life-long nonsmoker and did not drink alcohol. During this hospitalization, she was started on prednisone 40 mg/d po in addition to her home medications. PMID:25091763

Lataifeh, Abdel Rahman; Deas, Steven; Shalin, Sara C; Khasawneh, Khaled R

2014-08-01

166

Use of bioassays in assessing health hazards from complex mixtures: a rash analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Finney harmonic mean model for joint toxicity of ingredients in mixtures can be used to estimate the toxicity of the neat compound if each component can be substituted in potency-adjusted-doses for any of the other components. Chemical analysis of constituent substances and their associated concentrations and relative toxicological potency values (computed according to the RApid Screening of Hazard (RASH) method) were used to compare the toxicities as predicted from ingredients of cigarette smoke, PAHs in diesel exhaust, asphalt, coal tar, pitch, and creosote with the measured toxicities of the corresponding neat mixtures. Accuracy for cigarette smoke condensate, coal tar, pitch, and creosote were within a factor of three based on the PAH fraction; asphalt was within a factor of 18; but the PAH fraction of diesel particulate was again found to be inadequate to describe the composite toxicity of diesel emissions. PMID:7545524

Jones, T D

1995-07-01

167

Arachnoid cyst of the middle cranial fossa. Report of an atypical extension  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The middle cranial fossa is the most common site for intracranial arachnoid cysts. Galassi and his associates have provided a useful classification of middle fossa arachnoid cysts based on their computed tomographic appearances. The Type I cyst is a small lenticular lesion. The Type II cyst is quadrangular in shape, reflecting a completely open insula. The Type III cyst appears as a large area of smoothly rounded lucency, with a significant compression of the brain. We report a 2-year-old boy with a middle fossa arachnoid cyst. This cyst differed from the type of Galassi's classification in its extension. Computerized tomograms showed low-density lesions of the bilateral middle cranial fossa and suprasellar area, which was not enhanced with contrast medium. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed a CSF-like pattern (Kjos) and revealed delicate anatomical structures in the surrounding brain. Arachnoid cysts are usually single lesions. However, not infrequently these cystic cavities may be divided by membranous septa into two or more compartments. Bilateral, more or less symmetrical arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa as seen in this patient, however, seem to be very rare. Only a few such cases have been reported previously. MRI was superior to X-ray CT in characterizing intracranial cystic lesions because of its ability to categorize cysts into Kjos's three groups on the basis of the intensity pattern of the cyst contents, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management.

Tsukiyama, T.; Nishimoto, H.; Kasahara, E.; Iwasaki, M.; Tsubokawa, T.; Tanaka, O.

1987-02-01

168

The advantage and value of MRI in the diagnosis of tumors located in posterior cranial fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the advantage and value of MRI in the diagnosis of tumors located in posterior cranial fossa. Methods: In total 53 cases with tumors located in posterior cranial fossa were enrolled, 45 cases were proven by operation, and pathology, 8 cases were proven by clinical follow up. Different sections and sequence, based on the characteristic of lesions, were applied in the examination. The MRI findings were analyzed. Results: Among the 53 cases with tumors located in posterior cranial fossa, the location of the lesions included 15 cases in cerebellopontine angle cisterns, 9 cases in brain stem, 21 cases in cerebellum, and 8 cases within the 4th ventricle. The sensitivity and accurate location rate of MRI was 100%. And the general diagnostic accuracy was 93.3%. Conclusion: MRI imaging of the tumors located in posterior cranial fossa avoids the artifacts of skull. Integrated multiple sections and sequences provides fairly high rate of the sensitivity and accurate location. There are distinct advantage and value of MRI in the diagnosis of tumors located in posterior cranial fossa. (authors)

169

Acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma in a newborn infant with Menkes disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidural hematoma (EDH) in newborn infants is rare compared with other types of intracranial hemorrhages. Furthermore, posterior fossa EDH is extremely rare. We present a case of posterior fossa EDH in an infant with Menkes disease with accessory bones in the occiput. A male infant with a condition diagnosed with Menkes disease by prenatal testing was born at 39 weeks via vacuum extraction. The patient presented with a mild tremor at 2 days after delivery. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed an acute EDH in the posterior fossa, extending into the occipitoparietal area. Three-dimensional CT and bone window CT scan revealed several accessory bones, diastasis of 1 accessory suture, a communicated fracture, and a linear fracture in the occipital bone. Furthermore, a bone fragment from a communicated fracture displaced toward the inside. The patient was treated conservatively for EDH because of his good general condition. The hematoma gradually resolved, and his tremor did not recur. We suggest the following mechanism of posterior fossa EDH development in our patient: (1) external force was applied to the occiput inside the birth canal during delivery, resulting in diastasis; (2) a communicated fracture occurred, and a bone fragment displaced toward the inside (linear fracture was caused indirectly by the force); (3) a transverse sinus was injured by the fragment; and (4) EDH developed in both the posterior fossa and supratentorial region. Copper deficiency can also cause fragility of connective tissues, vessels, and bones. PMID:24488163

Takeuchi, Satoru; Horikawa, Masahiro; Wakamatsu, Hajime; Hashimoto, Jyunya; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

2014-02-01

170

Radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of the canine intercondylar fossa in normal stifles and after notchplasty in stable and unstable stifles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of the intercondylar fossa in cranial cruciate ligament injury has gained notable attention in humans and it's role is now being questioned in animals. Controversy exists regarding the accuracy of radiographs and computed tomography (CT) in evaluating the intercondylar fossa. This study compared radiographic and CT evaluation with gross evaluation of the intercondylar fossa. Six greyhounds were evaluated before notchplasty, immediately after notchplasty and 6 months after notchplasty in stable and unstable stifles. A fossa width index was used for comparison because it negates the effects of patient size and radiographic magnification. The fossa width index is calculated by dividing the width of the intercondylar fossa by the total condylar width. The fossa width indices of dogs determined from radiographs and CT were not significantly different before notchplasty except for the cranial fossa width indices which were more inconsistent and tended to underestimate the size when compared to gross measurements. At six months, both stable and unstable stifles had refilling of the notchplasty, but the unstable stifles had significantly greater refilling resulting in no significant enlargement in intercondylar fossa size as compared to the prenotchplasty size. Osteophytes that occurred within the intercondylar fossa were less radiopaque and more easily visualized by computed tomography. Computed tomography provided several advantages, including clearer visualization of the intercondylar fossa, avoiding superimposition of the intercondylar fossa by caudal thigh muscles or tuber ischii and the ability to analyze the cranial and caudal components of the intercondylar fossa separately

171

Clival osteomyelitis resulting from spread of infection through the fossa navicularis magna in a child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fossa navicularis is a notch-like bone defect in the basiocciput that has been hitherto considered as an anatomical variant of the clivus and not previously described as a potential source of clival or skull base pathology. We report the imaging findings in a 5-year-old child who presented acutely with a retropharyngeal abscess and osteomyelitis of the clivus. Imaging after treatment revealed a ''notch-like'' defect in the anterior clivus consistent with a fossa navicularis. Based on these appearances, we postulate that the lymphoid tissue of the pharyngeal tonsil residing in the fossa navicularis served as a route through which infection spread and subsequently developed into clival osteomyelitis, which is a rare diagnosis. This case is unique, and we believe that the presence of this variant in young children may be important and is not merely an anatomical curiosity. (orig.)

172

Hydrothermal formation of Clay-Carbonate alteration assemblages in the Nili Fossae region of Mars  

CERN Document Server

The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) has returned observations of the Nili Fossae region indicating the presence of Mg- carbonate in small (<10km sq2), relatively bright rock units that are commonly fractured (Ehlmann et al., 2008b). We have analyzed spectra from CRISM images and used co-located HiRISE images in order to further characterize these carbonate-bearing units. We applied absorption band mapping techniques to investigate a range of possible phyllosilicate and carbonate minerals that could be present in the Nili Fossae region. We also describe a clay-carbonate hydrothermal alteration mineral assemblage in the Archean Warrawoona Group of Western Australia that is a potential Earth analog to the Nili Fossae carbonate-bearing rock units. We discuss the geological and biological implications for hydrothermal processes on Noachian Mars.

Brown, Adrian J; Baldridge, Alice M; Crowley, James K; Bridges, Nathan T; Thomson, Bradley J; Marion, Giles M; Filho, Carlos R de Souza; Bishop, Janice L

2014-01-01

173

A Case Report of Infratemporal Fossa Hydatid Cyst, an Unusual Location  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nIntroduction: Hydatid disease has a high incidence in the countries of the temperate zone such as Iran. Only few cases in the head and neck region have been reported in literature. We described a rare case of infratemporal fossa echinococcus granulosus in a thirteen-year-old girl from an endemic area (Dashte Moghan in Iran. "nClinical findings: A thirteen-year-old girl with a right sided frozen eye and facial swelling was admitted in our hospital. In the obtained CT scan there was a cyst in the right infratemporal area. She had a past history of brain hydatid cyst. The cyst was resected and the histological diagnosis was hydatid cyst. The liver was not affected in this patient. "nConclusion: Infratemporal fossa is a rare location for hydatid disease and we should consider the diagnosis for any cystic lesion of the infratemporal fossa in an endemic area.  

Shervin Sharifkashany

2009-01-01

174

Fetal cystic malformations of the posterior fossa in the first trimester of pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of abnormalities of the posterior fossa, such as Dandy-Walker malformation, can be assessed during the first trimester of pregnancy by ultrasonography. We report on 5 cases of posterior fossa abnormalities, 4 Dandy-Walker malformations and 1 Dandy-Walker variant, diagnosed during the first trimester of pregnancy by ultrasound examination. All cases were confirmed later during the pregnancy by further ultrasound examinations or by postmortem examination when parents elected for termination of pregnancy. Two of our Dandy-Walker malformation cases were siblings from consanguineous parents and had a Meckel syndrome variant associated with the posterior fossa malformation, multicystic kidneys and hepatic fibrosis. We believe first trimester diagnosis of Dandy-Walker complex is possible, but needs to be confirmed later during the pregnancy and should prompt a detailed survey for other abnormalities. PMID:15692211

Nizard, Jacky; Bernard, Jean-Pierre; Ville, Yves

2005-01-01

175

The Radiological Spectrum of Orbital Pathologies that Involve the Lacrimal Gland and the Lacrimal Fossa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CT and MRI are utilized to differentiate between different types of masses and to determine the extent of lesions involving the lacrimal gland and the fossa. In lacrimal gland epithelial tumors, benign pleomorphic adenomas are seen most commonly with a well defined benign appearance, and a malignant adenoid cystic carcinoma is seen with a typical invasive malignant appearance. However, a malignant myoepithelial carcinoma is seen with a benign looking appearance. Lymphomatous lesions of the lacrimal gland include a broad spectrum ranging from reactive hyperplasia to malignant lymphoma. These lesions can be very difficult to differentiate both radiologically and pathologically. Generally, lymphomas tend to occur in older patients. The developmental cystic lesions found in the lacrimal fossa such as dermoid and epidermoid cysts can be diagnosed when the cyst involves the superior temporal quadrant of the orbit and manifests as a nonenhancing cystic mass and, in case of a lipoma, it is diagnosed as a total fatty mass. However, masses of granulocytic sarcoma and xanthogranuloma, as well as vascular masses, such as a hemangiopericytoma, are difficult to diagnose correctly on the basis of preoperative imaging findings alone. Clinically, the lesions of the lacrimal gland and fossa are found as palpable masses in the superior lateral aspect of the orbit, and these lesions constitute about 5-13% of all of the orbital masses confirmed by biopsy. Many different pathological entities arise from the lacrimal gland and fossa, and as each of them requires a different therapeutic approach, the radiological characterization of each lesion is important. Approximately, half of the lacrimal gland masses are tumors of epithelial origin and the rest are lesions that arise from lymphoid or inflammatory diseases. Pseudotumors, metastatic masses and developmental cysts may also occur in the lacrimal fossa. This paper aims to discuss the radiologic findings of the lesions that are found in the lacrimal gland and fossa, and to aid physicians in the differential diagnoses of these various diseases.

Jung, Won Sang; Ahn, Kook Jin; Park, Mi Ra; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Jae Jeong; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2007-08-15

176

Anatomical relation between anterior ethmoidal sinus and lacrimal sac fossa on high resolution CT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To evaluate the anatomical relation between anterior ethmoidal sinus and the lacrimal sac fossa, and thus help prevent complications during dacryocystorhinostomy. Fifty three people without previous history of trauma, surgery, or paranasal sinus disease were randomly selected, and the 106 lacrimal sac fossas of these subjects were evaluated by high resolution CT. A series of three 2-mm thick axial sections at least 2mm from the inferior orbital wall were obtained. The bony landmarks of the lacrimal sac fossa were established and the location of the most anterior ethmoid sinus was classified as one of three types. In type 1, no sinuses were anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest. While in type 2, sinuses extended anterior to this crest but remained behind the suture at the anterior edge of the lacrimal bone. In type 3, sinuses extended into the frontal process of the maxilla, anterior to the lacrimal bone suture. In addition, the category of both orbits of the same patient was compared. Among the 106 orbits examined, only seven (6.6%) were classified as type 1, with no ethmoid air cells postioned under the lacrimal sac fossa. Seventy six (71.7%) qualified as type 2, while the remaining 23 (21.7%) were type 3, demonstration anterior ethmoid air cells within the nasal process of the maxilla. The position of the air cells was symmetric in 41 of the 53 subjects (77.4%) and asymmetric in 12 (22.6%). In cases involving surgery of the lacrimal sac fossa, such as dacryocystorhinostomy, a knowledge of the consistent anatomic relationship between the anterior ethmoidal sinus and the lacrimal sac fossa is invaluable

177

Arachnoid cyst of the middle fossa and subdural hygroma: an uncommon association  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The middle fossa is the most common site for arachnoid cysts and the presence of subdural hematomas has been well-established. Occasionally, as a consequence of mild cranial trauma, or even spontaneously, the capsule of the cyst can be damaged, allowing part of the contents to empty into the extra cerebral compartment. We present two cases of congenital arachnoid cysts of middle fossa media complicated by subdural hygroma and intracranial hypertension, and we discuss the possible mechanisms involved in this uncommon association. 9 refs

178

Klippel-Feil syndrome in association with posterior fossa suboccipital dermoid cyst  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the second case of Klippel-Feil syndrome in association with a posterior fossa dermoid cyst extending through the occipital bone and presenting as a suboccipital subcutaneous mass. We describe its radiographic, CT, and MRI appearances as well as on MRI diffusion-weighted images. Posterior cranial fossa dermoid cysts and sinuses should be added to the list of congenital abnormalities which must be sought in patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Diffusion-weighted images of brain may differentiate these masses from cerebral spinal fluid collections. (orig.)

179

Visualization of extra-axial mass in posterior fossa with metrizamide (Amipaque) CT cisternography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metrizamide (Amipaque) CT cisternography were performed to 20 adult cases. Discussed is CT image visualization of 15 cases of posterior fossa lesions. 170 mgl/ml of Metrizamide concentration is sufficient for visualization. Posterior fossa cisterns were well visualized and helpful to analyse relationships between brain parenchym, extra-axial lesion, and bony structure. In C-P angle mass cases, cases larger than 3 cm in diameter gave poor visualization of surrounding subarachnoidal space. High density mass case showed disappearance of mass in high density cisternal image. No severe side effect of contrast media was observed. (author)

180

Mudez após cirurgia para tumor da fossa posterior relato de dois casos / Mutism after posterior fossa tumor surgery: report of two cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores descrevem episódios de mutismo após cirurgia para tumores da fossa posterior em pacientes jovens. São apresentados dois casos e é feita análise da ausência de expressão verbal que estabeleceu após a cirurgia. Também é feita análise do mutismo do ponto de vista de suas conotações neurológi [...] cas e psicológicas, ao mesmo tempo em que é revista a literatura sobre o assunto. Abstract in english The authors present two cases of mutism after posterior fossa surgery. Two patients aged 16 and 5 years old respectively with astrocytoma and medulloblastoma, developed mutism after the operation. Topographic aspects of the condition are discussed and its neurological expression. [...

Roberto da Cunha, Wagner; Pasquale, Gallo; Paulo P., Oppitz.

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Does Sunscreen Prevent Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Inhibitor–Induced Rash? Results of a Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N05C4)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assessed whether sunscreen prevents or mitigates rashes in patients prescribed epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, and found that sunscreen as prescribed in the study did not prevent or attenuate these rashes.

Jatoi, Aminah; Thrower, Abby; Sloan, Jeff A.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Wentworth-hartung, Nicole Lea; Dakhil, Shaker R.; Mattar, Bassam I.; Nikcevich, Daniel A.; Novotny, Paul; Sekulic, Aleksandar; Loprinzi, Charles L.

2010-01-01

182

Edema agudo de pulmão secundário a tumor de fossa posterior: registro de um caso / Pulmonary edema secondary to posterior fossa tumor: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É relatada a observação de uma paciente de 44 anos de idade com quadro clínico de edema de pulmão secundário a meningioma situado na fossa posterior. São feitos comentários sobre a importância da gasometria arterial realizada no período pré e pós-operatório e especialmente sobre o gradiente alvéolo- [...] arterial de oxigênio que serve de guia na avaliação clínica do paciente neurocirúrgico, particularmente nos casos de edema pulmonar não cardiogênico. Abstract in english A case of a 44-year-old woman presenting pulmonary edema secondary to posterior fossa meningioma is reported. The authors have tried to demonstrate the relationship between a lesion occupying space in the posterior fossa and important pulmonary abnormality such as interstitial edema based on increas [...] ing A-aD02 (oxygen alveolar arterial gradient) in this peculiar case. A-aD02 is easily measured and represents a good guide for evaluating the efficiency of medical and neurosurgical management when it is done in the serial way, particularly in those cases of non cardiogenic pulmonary edema.

Antonio Cesar G., Borges; Gastão, Duval-Neto; Rodinei R., Festugato; Alfredo D., Zauk; Mauro, Aquini.

1982-06-01

183

Estenose da fossa intercondilar após estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata em cães / Intercondylar fossa stenosis after joint stabilization using a fascial strip in dogs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Determinaram-se os índices de largura da fossa intercondilar (FI), após transecção do ligamento cruzado cranial em nove cães adultos submetidos à estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata. Os joelhos foram alocados em dois grupos, sendo o joelho direito (GI) submetido à incisuroplastia troc [...] lear (ITR) e posterior estabilização articular, e o joelho esquerdo submetido somente à substituição ligamentar (GC). Cada grupo foi dividido em três subgrupos correspondentes aos momentos de eutanásia aos 30, 90 e 180 dias de pós-operatório. Os índices de largura da FI foram determinados, macroscópica e radiograficamente, pela mensuração da abertura cranial da FI nos terços cranial, médio e caudal, e indexados em relação à largura epicondilar. Observou-se aumento significativo dos índices macroscópicos e radiográficos nas articulações do GI, sendo estes estatisticamente diferentes daqueles das articulações de GC. Não foi observada estenose intercondilar nos joelhos de GC após a estabilização articular. Conclui-se que a estabilização articular com retalho de fáscia lata preveniu a estenose da fossa intercondilar, e que a ITR promoveu o alargamento permanente dessa estrutura. Abstract in english Intercondylar fossa width indexes (IFWI) were determined in nine adult dogs submitted to intercondylar notchplasty (IN) after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) followed by a fascial strip stabilization. The right stifle was submitted to IN followed by fascial strip reconstruction of [...] the CCL (GI) while in the left stifle IN was not performed (GC). Each group was then divided into three subgroups which corresponded to time of euthanasia at 30, 90 and 180 days after surgery. IFWI were determined, both macroscopically and radiographically, by measuring the cranial outlet of the intercondylar fossa in relation to the epicondylar width. A significant increase was observed in indexes of GI following IN, and these differed from indexes of GC throughout the evaluation period. It was concluded that articular repair using a fascia strip prevented stenosis of the intercondylar fossa, and that IN caused a permanent widening of it.

André Luis, Selmi; João Guilherme, Padilha Filho; Bruno Testoni, Lins; Andrigo Barboza, De Nardi; Bianca Mota, Penteado.

184

Genetic linkage of familial granulomatous inflammatory arthritis, skin rash, and uveitis to chromosome 16  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Blau syndrome (MIM 186580), first described in a large, three-generation kindred, is an autosomal, dominantly inherited disease characterized by multiorgan, tissue-specific inflammation. Its clinical phenotype includes granulomatous arthritis, skin rash, and uveitis and probably represents a subtype of a group of clinical entities referred to as {open_quotes}familial granulomatosis.{close_quotes} It is the sole human model with recognizably Mendelian inheritance for a variety of multisystem inflammatory diseases affecting a significant percentage of the population. A genomewide search for the Blau susceptibility locus was undertaken after karyotypic analysis revealed no abnormalities. Sixty-two of the 74-member pedigree were genotyped with dinucleotide-repeat markers. Linkage analysis was performed under dominant model of inheritance with reduced penetrance. The marker D16S298 gave a maximum LOD score of 3.75 at {theta} = .04, with two-point analysis. LOD scores for flanking markers were consistent and placed the Blau susceptibility locus within the 16p12-q21 interval. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Ala-Kokko, L. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01

185

Identifying predictive and surrogate markers of erlotinib antitumor activity other than rash.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of predictive or surrogate markers of response to HER1/epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor treatment would permit selection of patients most likely to respond to such treatment. Markers could consist of tumor characteristics (e.g., characteristics of the receptor or downstream signaling molecules and determinants of resistance) or host characteristics (e.g., pharmacokinetic parameters and toxicities). The occurrence of rash may constitute a surrogate marker of response to erlotinib (Tarceva) treatment in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and other cancers. The erlotinib marker identification program has been designed to identify and investigate other candidate markers by analysis of a large number of clinical samples from patients enrolled in erlotinib trials in non-small-cell lung cancer, including the phase III TALENT and TRIBUTE trials of erlotinib combined with chemotherapy and the phase III BR.21 trial of erlotinib monotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. This program should both contribute to understanding of the molecular biology of HER1/EGFR inhibition and result in identification of potential markers that can be evaluated in the clinical setting. PMID:14682121

Soulières, Denis

2003-11-01

186

Diagnóstico virológico de un brote de fiebre y rash producido por Parvovirus B19, Cuba, 1995  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reportan los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de un brote de fiebre y rash ocurrido en Ciudad de La Habana en marzo de 1995. En las muestras de 35 pacientes se descartaron dengue, sarampión, rubéola, herpes simple y Epstein Barr como agentes causales del brote. Mediante la detección de anticuerpos IgM y la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RCP se identificó al Parvovirus B19 como agente causal del brote. En 14/18 muestras (77,7 % se comprobó la infección por este agente por alguna de las técnicas empleadas. Este estudio se refiere al primer brote confirmado de Parvovirus B19 en Cuba.The results obtained in the study of an aoutbreak of fever and reash ocurred in Havana City in March, 1995, are reported. Dengue, measles, rubella, herpes simplex, and Epstein Barr were discarded as causal agents of the outbreak in the samples of 35 patients. Parvovirus B19 was identified as the causing agent of the outbreak by the detection of IgM antibodies and the polymerase chain reaction technique (PCR. The infection produced by this agent was confirmed in 14/18 samples (77,7 % by some of the techniques used. This study makes reference to the first outbreak of Parvovirus B19 that was proved in Cuba.

MARÍA G GUZMÁN

1997-04-01

187

Clinical and Laboratory evaluation of measleslike rash in children and young adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A clinical and laboratory evaluation of 11 children and young adults with measleslike rash was done during the measles outbreak in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan area at the end of 1996 and spread over the country during 1997. Measles was laboratory confirmed in 07 patients by specific IgM detection in acute serum specimens using an IgM-capture EIA, by specific IgG seroconversion in serum pairs, and by reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Clinical presentations were not always classic; one of the 07 cases had received measles vaccine and corresponded to modified clinical case of measles. The 4 remaining cases were negative for measles and were diagnosed as exanthem subitum (2 cases, scarlet fever and Kawasaki disease. The present study reinforces the view that clinical features alone are not sufficient for establishing an accurate diagnosis in the post-vaccine era, and a surveillance system based on sensitive laboratory results is needed so that it can confirm IgM-negative measles cases.

Stewien Klaus Eberhard

2000-01-01

188

Small-Scale Features of the Medusae Fossae Formation: Do They Support a Volcanic Origin?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Medusae Fossae Formation is a widespread and voluminous fine-grained deposit that lies just north of the Martian equator along the dichotomy boundary. It is thought to consist of pyroclastic deposits, either in the form of pyroclastic flows or ashfall, though numerous other possibilities have been suggested, including wind-blown loess and icy dust. For this work a survey was conducted of 427 High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images spread across the Medusae Fossae Formation. From these images maps were created of small-scale features which can aid in distinguishing between formation hypotheses for the deposit, including rootless cones, jointing, layering, and exposed dikes. Relationships between the Medusae Fossae Formation and adjacent lava plains and volcanoes were also carefully examined using HiRISE, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Imager (CTX), Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), and Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbital Camera (MOC) images. The interactions between the Medusae Fossae Formation and nearby lava flows can inform us about the chronology of the deposit as well as how it has eroded over time. Certain diagnostic volcanic features were found, but mostly close to deposit boundaries where there are lava flows. The morphologies of the formation are compared with those of terrestrial pyroclastic deposits, terrestrial loess deposits, and other icy dust deposits on Mars. It is found that while the deposit is morphologically unlike icy layered deposits in most places, distinguishing between pyroclastic flow morphologies and reworked aeolian morphologies is more ambiguous.

Kerber, L.

2013-12-01

189

Traumatic acute subdural haematomas of the posterior fossa: clinicoradiological analysis of 24 patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report 24 patients with a traumatic acute subdural haematoma of the posterior fossa managed between 1997 and 1999 at 8 Italian neurosurgical centres. Each centre provided data about patients clinico-radiological findings, management, and outcomes, which were retrospectively reviewed. A poor result occurred in 14 patients (58.3 %). Ten patients (41.7 %) had favourable results. Patients were divided into two groups according to their admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores. In Group 1 (12/24 cases; GCS score, 8), the outcome was favourable in 75 % of cases. In Group 2 (12/12 cases; GCS score, <8), the outcome was poor in 91.6 % of cases. Nineteen patients underwent posterior fossa surgery. Factors correlating to outcome were GCS score, status of the basal cisterns and the fourth ventricle, and the presence of supratentorial hydrocephalus. Multivariate analysis showed significant independent prognostic effect only for GCS score (P < 0.05). Acute posterior fossa subdural haematomas can be divided into two distinct groups: those patients admitted in a comatose state and those with a moderate/mild head injury on admission. Comatose patients present usually with signs of posterior fossa mass effect and have a high percentage of bad outcomes. On the contrary, patients admitted with a GCS of 8 or higher are expected to recover. In these patients the thickness of the haematoma (< 1 cm) seems to be a guide to indicate surgical evacuation of the haematoma. (author)ation of the haematoma. (author)

190

Cisternography and CT scanning with 111In-DTPA in evaluation of posterior fossa arachnoid cysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A patient with a large, long-standing posterior fossa arachnoid cyst was evaluated. Computed tomography was used to demonstrate the cyst. 111In-DTPA cisternography demonstrated the communication of the cyst with the subarachnoid space, stasis of the 111In in the cystic space, and incomplete ascent of cerebrospinal fluid over the cerebral hemispheres

191

Temporal fossa arachnoid cyst presenting with bilateral subdural hematoma following trauma: two case reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intracranial arachnoid cysts are considered to be congenital malformations with a predilection for the temporal fossa. They are often asymptomatic but can sometimes be symptomatic due to enlargement or hemorrhage. There are multiple case reports of arachnoid cysts becoming symptomatic with hemorrhagic complications following head trauma. In such cases, the bleeding is often confined to the side ipsilateral to the arachnoid cyst. Occurrence of contralateral subdural hematomas in patients with temporal fossa arachnoid cysts has rarely been observed and is reported less frequently in the medical literature. Case presentation We report two cases of people (a 23-year-old man and a 41-year-old man with temporal fossa arachnoid cysts complicated by a subdural hematoma following head injury. Both patients developed a subdural hematoma contralateral to the side of a temporal fossa arachnoid cyst. It is likely that lack of adequate intracranial cushioning in the presence of an intracranial arachnoid cyst may result in injury not only to ipsilateral but also to contralateral bridging veins, following head trauma. Conclusion It is important to identify and report such rare complications with intracranial arachnoid cysts, so that asymptomatic patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst can be counseled about such possibilities following head trauma.

Pillai Promod

2009-02-01

192

The intercondylar fossa of the normal canine stifle: an anatomic and radiographic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intercondylar fossa (ICF) in dogs consists of a cranial outlet, intercondylar shelf, caudal arch, caudal outlet, a medial wall, and a lateral wall. The normal cranial outlet is bell-shape and, in mixed-breed dogs (mean body weight 19.2 kg, N = 21), measured 5.8 mm cranially, 8.1 mm centrally, and 10.3 mm caudally. The ICF is oriented 12 degree from the dorsal plane of the femoral diaphysis and obliqued 7 degree , proximolateral to distomedial, in the sagittal plane. To adjust for dog size, a fossa width index (FWI) was calculated by dividing the cranial outlet width by the distance between epicondyles. The normal FWI as determined in this study was 0.18 cranially, 0.25 centrally, and 0.32 caudally. The fossa height index was 0.31. Contact between the ICF and the cranial cruciate ligament began at about 115 degree of extension. The contact area moved cranially in the intercondylar fossa as the stifle was extended. Evaluation of the ICF can be performed radiographically but positioning is critical

193

Liver transplantation in a child with acute liver failure resulting from drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome is characterized by a severe idiosyncratic reaction including rash and fever, often with associated hepatitis, arthralgias, lymph-node enlargement, or hematologic abnormalities. The mortality rate is approximately 10%, primarily owing to liver failure with massive or multiple disseminated focal necrosis. Here, we report a case of a 14-year-old girl treated with vancomycin because of a wound infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , who presented with non-specific symptoms, which progressed to acute liver failure, displaying the hallmarks of DRESS syndrome. With the presence of aggravated hepatic encephalopathy and azotemia, the patient was refractory to medical treatments, she received a living-donor liver transplantation, and a cure was achieved without any sign of recurrence. Vancomycin can be a cause of DRESS syndrome. A high index of suspicion and rapid diagnosis are necessary not to miss this potentially lethal disease.

Seung Min Song

2013-05-01

194

The significance of the pterygopalatine fossa angiography before endoscopic sinus surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective?To investigate the value of pterygopalatine fossa angiography in fresh cadaveric heads, so as to provide a useful guidance and an individualized operative procedure for endoscopic sinus surgery. Methods?Three fresh cadaveric heads were used in the present study. After injection with 10%, 5% iodine fluorine into carotid artery, 3D vascular structure of the pterygopalatine fossa was constructed. The posterior wall of the maxillary sinus was dissected by gently removing the fat tissue with sinus forceps. All anatomical structures, such as vascular, nerve and muscle structures were then exposed. The anatomical characteristics of vasculature in the pterygopalatine fossa and the imaging data were compared. Results?The pterygopalatine segment at the third portion of the MA was well shown in the imaging system. According to Morton and Khan morphologic classification of the third portion of the internal maxillary artery, the proportion of Y type, M type, and intermediate type was 33.3%, 16.7% and 50.0%, respectively. Using an endoscopic endonasal approach, the PPF was exposed through its anteromedial surface. The first visible structures would be the branches of the MA. It appeared that the anatomical land-markers of the pterygopalatine fossa area was well shown by both intranasal endoscopic view and imaging data. Conclusion?CTA is a useful technique for pterygopalatine fossa imaging before surgical dissection. The terminal segment of MA provides direct anatomical topography features of the PPF. This technique provides useful information for the individual surgery in this area. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.013

Hong-yu XING

2013-11-01

195

Extremely weak tumor-promoting effect of troglitazone on splenic hemangiosarcomas in rasH2 mice induced by urethane  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To examine the tumor-promoting effect of troglitazone (TRG), a novel thiazolidinedione insulin-sensitizing agent, on splenic hemangiosarcomas in rasH2 mice, histopathological and molecular analyses were performed in the spleen of female rasH2 mice fed a diet containing 6,000 or 0 ppm TRG for 16 weeks after 1,000 or 0 mg/kg urethane (UR) initiation. Histopathologically, splenic hemangiosarcomas were observed in the UR-alone and UR+TRG groups, but there was no significant difference in the incidence of splenic hemangiosarcomas between the UR-alone and UR+TRG groups. There were increasing tendencies in the number of positive cells for anti-PCNA antibody and gene expression in the UR+TRG group, but such a change was not statistically significant as compared to that in the UR-alone group. The gene expressions of VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFC, VEGFR2 and Tie2 related to angiogenesis; c-fos related to MAPK cascade activation; and cyclin D1 related to cell cycle in the UR-alone and UR+TRG groups were significantly higher than those in the untreated control group. However, only the Tie2 gene in the UR+TRG group was significantly increased as compared to that in the UR-alone group. These results suggest that the vascular tumor-promoting activity of TRG in rasH2 mice is extremely low in the present experimental condition and a part of the gene related to angiogenesis probably contributes to the promotion of splenic hemangiosarcomas in rasH2 mice given TRG. (orig.)

Jin, Meilan [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Biological Science, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Sayaka; Saekusa, Yukie; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Dewa, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Jihei [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo (Japan); Gifu University, Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu (Japan); Hasumi, Keiji [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Applied Biological Science, United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

2008-10-15

196

Etiology of Maculopapular Rash in Measles and Rubella Suspected Patients from Belarus  

Science.gov (United States)

As a result of successful implementation of the measles/rubella elimination program, the etiology of more and more double negative cases remains elusive. The present study determined the role of different viruses as causative agents in measles or rubella suspected cases in Belarus. A total of 856 sera sent to the WHO National Laboratory between 2009 and 2011 were tested for specific IgM antibodies to measles virus (MV), rubella virus (RV) and human parvovirus B19 (B19V). The negatives were further investigated for antibodies to enterovirus (EV) and adenovirus (AdV). Children of up to 3 years were tested for IgM antibodies to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6). A viral etiology was identified in 451 (52.7%) cases, with 6.1% of the samples being positive for MV; 2.6% for RV; 26.2% for B19V; 9.7% for EV; 4.6% for AdV; and 3.6% for HHV6. Almost all measles and rubella cases occurred during limited outbreaks in 2011 and nearly all patients were at least 15 years old. B19V, EV and AdV infections were prevalent both in children and adults and were found throughout the 3 years. B19V occurred mainly in 3–10 years old children and 20–29 years old adults. EV infection was most common in children up to 6 years of age and AdV was confirmed mainly in 3–6 years old children. HHV6 infection was mostly detected in 6–11 months old infants. Laboratory investigation of measles/rubella suspected cases also for B19V, EV, AdV and HHV6 allows diagnosing more than half of all cases, thus strengthening rash/fever disease surveillance in Belarus. PMID:25356680

Yermalovich, Marina A.; Semeiko, Galina V.; Samoilovich, Elena O.; Svirchevskaya, Ekaterina Y.; Muller, Claude P.; Hubschen, Judith M.

2014-01-01

197

Itch and skin rash from chocolate during fluoxetine and sertraline treatment: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin contains a system for producing serotonin as well as serotonin receptors. Serotonin can also cause pruritus when injected into the skin. SSRI-drugs increase serotonin concentrations and are known to have pruritus and other dermal side effects. Case presentation A 46-year-old man consulted his doctor due to symptoms of depression. He did not suffer from any allergy but drinking red wine caused vasomotor rhinitis. Antidepressive treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg daily was initiated which was successful. After three weeks of treatment an itching rash appeared. An adverse drug reaction (ADR induced by fluoxetine was suspected and fluoxetine treatment was discontinued. The symptoms disappeared with clemastine and betametasone treatment. Since the depressive symptoms returned sertraline medication was initiated. After approximately two weeks of sertraline treatment he noted an intense itching sensation in his scalp after eating a piece of chocolate cake. The itch spread to the arms, abdomen and legs and the patient treated himself with clemastine and the itch disappeared. He now realised that he had eaten a chocolate cake before this episode and remembered that before the first episode he had had a chocolate mousse dessert. He had never had any reaction from eating chocolate before and therefore reported this observation to his doctor. Conclusions This case report suggests that there may be individuals that are very sensitive to increases in serotonin concentrations. Dermal side reactions to SSRI-drugs in these patients may be due to high activity in the serotonergic system at the dermal and epidermo-dermal junctional area rather than a hypersensitivity to the drug molecule itself.

Svenson Svante

2004-11-01

198

Supra-orbital keyhole removal of anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas / Minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar no tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A evolução técnica e a introdução de instrumentais cirúrgicos mais delicados proporcionaram o uso de craniotomias menores no tratamento de patologias intracranianas. Avaliamos os aspectos técnicos da minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar, considerando as indicações, limitações e complicações n [...] o tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares. Vinte e quarto pacientes (21 mulheres; idade média, 53±8,6 anos) operados entre 2002 e 2006 foram estudados. O diâmetro tumoral máximo variou de 1,6 a 6 cm. Ressecção total foi obtida em 20 (83,3%). Todos os tumores eram histologicamente benignos. Dois pacientes (8%) apresentaram fistula liquórica pós-operatória e outros dois diabetes insipido transitórioa (8%). Um paciente evoluiu com hemiparesia transitória. Houve um caso de meningite e um de evolução fatal. O seguimento variou de 6 a 66 meses (média 31,5±20,1 meses), não houve recidiva. A minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar é uma via de abordagem eficaz para o tratamento de meningiomas da fossa craniana anterior e para-selares selecionados. Abstract in english The improvement of surgical techniques as well as the introduction of new surgical instruments promoted the use of keyhole craniotomies in neurosurgery. We evaluated the technical aspects of the supra-orbital keyhole approach considering the indications, limitations, and complications of this approa [...] ch to treat anterior cranial fossa and parasellar meningiomas. Twenty-four patients (21 females; mean age, 53±8.6 years) operated on between 2002 and 2006 through a supra-orbital eyebrow approach were studied. Maximal tumor diameter ranged from 1.6 to 6 cm. Gross total resection was done in 20 (83.3%). All tumors were histologically benign. Two patients (8%) experienced CSF rinorhea and another two patients suffered transitory diabetes insipidus (8%). One patient experienced transitory hemiparesis. There was one case of meningitis and one mortality. Follow-up ranged between 6 to 66 months (mean 31.5±20.1 months), with no recurrence. The supra-orbital keyhole craniotomy is a useful minimally invasive approach to treat selected anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas.

Manoel Antonio de, Paiva-Neto; Oswaldo Inácio de, Tella-Jr.

2010-06-01

199

Supra-orbital keyhole removal of anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas / Minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar no tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A evolução técnica e a introdução de instrumentais cirúrgicos mais delicados proporcionaram o uso de craniotomias menores no tratamento de patologias intracranianas. Avaliamos os aspectos técnicos da minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar, considerando as indicações, limitações e complicações n [...] o tratamento de meningiomas na fossa craniana anterior e para-selares. Vinte e quarto pacientes (21 mulheres; idade média, 53±8,6 anos) operados entre 2002 e 2006 foram estudados. O diâmetro tumoral máximo variou de 1,6 a 6 cm. Ressecção total foi obtida em 20 (83,3%). Todos os tumores eram histologicamente benignos. Dois pacientes (8%) apresentaram fistula liquórica pós-operatória e outros dois diabetes insipido transitórioa (8%). Um paciente evoluiu com hemiparesia transitória. Houve um caso de meningite e um de evolução fatal. O seguimento variou de 6 a 66 meses (média 31,5±20,1 meses), não houve recidiva. A minicraniotomia supra-orbitária superciliar é uma via de abordagem eficaz para o tratamento de meningiomas da fossa craniana anterior e para-selares selecionados. Abstract in english The improvement of surgical techniques as well as the introduction of new surgical instruments promoted the use of keyhole craniotomies in neurosurgery. We evaluated the technical aspects of the supra-orbital keyhole approach considering the indications, limitations, and complications of this approa [...] ch to treat anterior cranial fossa and parasellar meningiomas. Twenty-four patients (21 females; mean age, 53±8.6 years) operated on between 2002 and 2006 through a supra-orbital eyebrow approach were studied. Maximal tumor diameter ranged from 1.6 to 6 cm. Gross total resection was done in 20 (83.3%). All tumors were histologically benign. Two patients (8%) experienced CSF rinorhea and another two patients suffered transitory diabetes insipidus (8%). One patient experienced transitory hemiparesis. There was one case of meningitis and one mortality. Follow-up ranged between 6 to 66 months (mean 31.5±20.1 months), with no recurrence. The supra-orbital keyhole craniotomy is a useful minimally invasive approach to treat selected anterior fossa and parasellar meningiomas.

Manoel Antonio de, Paiva-Neto; Oswaldo Inácio de, Tella-Jr.

200

[Extended subtemporal approach to the subtemporal fossa and related structures - analysis of the surgical technique based on cadaver simulation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to present consecutive stages of the extended subtemporal approach (ESA). Seven simulations of ESA were performed on non-fixed human cadavers without any known pathologies in the head and neck. The consecutive stages of the procedure were documented with photographs and schemes. The starting point for ESA is osteotomy of the zygomatic arch and craniectomy including the greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Dislocation or removal of subtemporal fossa contents allows one to penetrate its inside and related structures. Additional widening of inspection allows osteotomy of the condyloid process of the mandible. ESA is a reproducible technique which provides surgical penetration of the subtemporal fossa and related structures. This approach is particularly useful in the surgical treatment of tumours expanding in the orbit, maxillary sinus, pterygopalatine fossa, nasopharynx, sphenoid sinus, cavernous sinus, parapharyngeal space, retromandibular fossa and surroundings of the petrosal part of the internal carotid artery. PMID:20496286

Ladzi?ski, Piotr; Maliszewski, Mariusz; Kaspera, Wojciech; Majchrzak, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Meningoencefalitis aséptica como manifestación de un síndrome de rash con eosinofilia y síntomas sistémicos asociados a drogas por lamotrigina / Aseptic meningoencephalitis as infectation of a sindrome of rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms associated with drugs caused by lamotrigine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La meningitis aséptica (MA) se define por la presencia de hallazgos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo compatibles con una meningitis, sin que se logre aislar una bacteria que la produzca. Las causas de MA son diversas, entre las que se encuentran las drogas. Entre los fármacos que más frecuentemente se [...] han asociado a MA, se encuentran los antiinflamatorios no esteroidales, antibióticos, inmunoglobulinas y anticonvulsivantes aromáticos. Cuando la MA forma parte de una respuesta sistémica que acompaña a una manifestación cutánea, puede tratarse de un rash con eosinofilia y síntomas sistémicos asociado a drogas (DRESS, acrónimo derivado del inglés DrugRash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms), considerada una reacción adversa grave a medicamentos. La lamotrigina es un anticonvulsivante no aromático ampliamente utilizado para el tratamiento de la epilepsia y el trastorno bipolar que ha sido asociada con MA. Comunicamos un caso de meningoencefalitis aséptica como manifestación de DRESS asociado al uso de lamotrigina. Abstract in english Aseptic meningitis (AM) is defined by the presence of cerebrospinal fluid findings consistent with meningitis, without achieving the isolation of a bacterium that produces it. Drugs are one of the diverse causes of AM. Drugs frequently associated with AM include immunoglobulin's, nonsteroidal anti-i [...] nflammatory, antibiotics, and aromatic anticonvulsants. When AM is part of a systemic response accompanying a cutaneous manifestation it may be a DRESS (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms), considered a serious adverse reaction to drugs. Lamotrigine is a non-aromatic anticonvulsant widely used for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder, which has been associated with AM. We report a case of aseptic meningoencephalitis as a manifestation of DRESS associated to lamotrigine.

Pablo, Reyes S; Paulina, Silva P.

2014-03-01

202

Meningoencefalitis aséptica como manifestación de un síndrome de rash con eosinofilia y síntomas sistémicos asociados a drogas por lamotrigina / Aseptic meningoencephalitis as infectation of a sindrome of rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms associated with drugs caused by lamotrigine  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La meningitis aséptica (MA) se define por la presencia de hallazgos en el líquido cefalorraquídeo compatibles con una meningitis, sin que se logre aislar una bacteria que la produzca. Las causas de MA son diversas, entre las que se encuentran las drogas. Entre los fármacos que más frecuentemente se [...] han asociado a MA, se encuentran los antiinflamatorios no esteroidales, antibióticos, inmunoglobulinas y anticonvulsivantes aromáticos. Cuando la MA forma parte de una respuesta sistémica que acompaña a una manifestación cutánea, puede tratarse de un rash con eosinofilia y síntomas sistémicos asociado a drogas (DRESS, acrónimo derivado del inglés DrugRash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms), considerada una reacción adversa grave a medicamentos. La lamotrigina es un anticonvulsivante no aromático ampliamente utilizado para el tratamiento de la epilepsia y el trastorno bipolar que ha sido asociada con MA. Comunicamos un caso de meningoencefalitis aséptica como manifestación de DRESS asociado al uso de lamotrigina. Abstract in english Aseptic meningitis (AM) is defined by the presence of cerebrospinal fluid findings consistent with meningitis, without achieving the isolation of a bacterium that produces it. Drugs are one of the diverse causes of AM. Drugs frequently associated with AM include immunoglobulin's, nonsteroidal anti-i [...] nflammatory, antibiotics, and aromatic anticonvulsants. When AM is part of a systemic response accompanying a cutaneous manifestation it may be a DRESS (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms), considered a serious adverse reaction to drugs. Lamotrigine is a non-aromatic anticonvulsant widely used for the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder, which has been associated with AM. We report a case of aseptic meningoencephalitis as a manifestation of DRESS associated to lamotrigine.

Pablo, Reyes S; Paulina, Silva P.

203

Oncogenic osteomalacia associated with mesenchymal tumor in the middle cranial fossa: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a paraneoplastic syndrome of hypophosphatemia. Osteomalacia causes multiple bone fractures and severe pain. Case presentation We report the case of a 57-year-old Japanese man with tumor-induced osteomalacia associated with a middle cranial fossa bone tumor. The tumor was successfully resected by using a middle fossa epidural approach. His phosphate level recovered to a normal range immediately after the surgery. Conclusions It is rare that tumor-induced osteomalacia originates from the middle skull base. This report suggests that, if patients have a clinical and biochemical picture suggestive of tumor-induced osteomalacia, it is crucial to perform a meticulous examination to detect the tumor or the lesion responsible for the tumor. The serum level of fibroblast growth factor 23 is the most reliable marker for evaluating the treatment outcome of tumor-induced osteomalacia.

Chokyu Isao

2012-07-01

204

Unique variation in the course of maxillary artery in infratemporal fossa: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maxillary artery is one of the key contents of the infratemporal fossa. Mandibular nerve and its branches form a clinically important relation of maxillary artery in this region. A comprehensive knowledge of variations of maxillary artery in the fossa is of special relevance in oral maxillofacial surgeries, management of epistaxis, intractable neuralgias or headaches. We found a unique variation of maxillary artery, presenting bilaterally, in relation to branches of mandibular nerve. During routine dissection in a 55-year-old male cadaver, maxillary artery was seen passing deep to lateral pterygoid muscle and crossed through the nerve loop formed between two roots of auriculotemporal nerve and posterior division of mandibular nerve. Further course of maxillary artery was medial to the posterior division of mandibular nerve. Maxillary artery gave its middle meningeal artery branch as it traversed through the nerve loop. A tortuous course taken by maxillary artery can lead to its entrapment causing headaches or nerve irritation presenting with neuralgia. PMID:23900508

Verma, Suman; Fasil, Mohamed; Murugan, Magi; Sakkarai, Jayagandhi

2014-07-01

205

Cirurgia endoscópica assistida por computador de um schwannoma de trigêmeo em fossa pterigopalatina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relato do Caso: Uma paciente de 33 anos de idade apresentou histórico de muitos anos de um tumor na fossa pterigopalatina. O tumor (5x 4,5 cm se estendia para os seios esfenóide e maxilar, para a fossa nasal, base do crânio com uma erosão do seio cavernoso e da órbita com contato próximo ao nervo oftálmico. A paciente tinha inicialmente se recusado à cirurgia, pois somente uma abordagem externa através de incisão paranasal e de Caldwell-Luc tinha sido proposta a ela. Propusemos uma cirurgia estritamente endoscópica após embolização que permitia o diagnóstico e a completa remoção desse shwannoma de trigêmeo expandido. A cirurgia endoscópica assistida por computador permitiu a preservação das estruturas intracranianas, da artéria carótida interna e do nervo oftálmico; a morbidade era mínima e a paciente estava totalmente sem dor após a cirurgia. Não houve recidiva do tumor após acompanhamento de 2 anos.

Ghanooni, Rose

2009-12-01

206

O papel do acesso via fossa média no tratamento da paralisia facial traumática / The role of the middle fossa approach in the management of traumatic facial paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Há vários aspectos controversos no tratamento da paralisia facial traumática. Um destes é a natureza precisa da intervenção cirúrgica a ser usada, uma vez que a decisão de ser realizada tenha sido feita. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. OBJETIVOS E MÉTODOS: Entre o período de junho de 1984 e [...] junho de 1993, 220 casos de paralisia facial traumática com boa função coclear foram tratados na Universidade de São Paulo pela seguinte técnica cirúrgica: descompressão dos segmentos mastóideo e timpânico através do acesso transmastoídeo e descompressão do gânglio geniculado e dos 50% distais do segmento labiríntico, usando-se o acesso pela fossa média. Apresentamos uma revisão de literatura e a discussão e resultados de nosso trabalho. Abstract in english Management of traumatic facial paralysis has several controversial aspects. One of these is the precise nature of surgical intervention to be used once the decision to operate has been made. STUDY DESIGN: chart review. AIMS AND METHODS: Between June 1984 and June 1993, 220 cases of traumatic facial [...] paralysis with good cochlear reserve were treated at the University of São Paulo by the following surgical approach: decompression of the tympanic and mastoid segments by the transmastoid approach and decompression of the geniculate ganglion and the distal 50% of the labyrinthine segment by the middle fossa approach. We present a review of the literature and a discussion and results of our management.

Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Sulene, Pirana; Rubens Vuonno de, Brito Neto; Tanit Ganz, Sanchez; Arthur Menino, Castilho; Robert Carl, Sweet.

2004-08-01

207

O papel do acesso via fossa média no tratamento da paralisia facial traumática The role of the middle fossa approach in the management of traumatic facial paralysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Há vários aspectos controversos no tratamento da paralisia facial traumática. Um destes é a natureza precisa da intervenção cirúrgica a ser usada, uma vez que a decisão de ser realizada tenha sido feita. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. OBJETIVOS E MÉTODOS: Entre o período de junho de 1984 e junho de 1993, 220 casos de paralisia facial traumática com boa função coclear foram tratados na Universidade de São Paulo pela seguinte técnica cirúrgica: descompressão dos segmentos mastóideo e timpânico através do acesso transmastoídeo e descompressão do gânglio geniculado e dos 50% distais do segmento labiríntico, usando-se o acesso pela fossa média. Apresentamos uma revisão de literatura e a discussão e resultados de nosso trabalho.Management of traumatic facial paralysis has several controversial aspects. One of these is the precise nature of surgical intervention to be used once the decision to operate has been made. STUDY DESIGN: chart review. AIMS AND METHODS: Between June 1984 and June 1993, 220 cases of traumatic facial paralysis with good cochlear reserve were treated at the University of São Paulo by the following surgical approach: decompression of the tympanic and mastoid segments by the transmastoid approach and decompression of the geniculate ganglion and the distal 50% of the labyrinthine segment by the middle fossa approach. We present a review of the literature and a discussion and results of our management.

Ricardo Ferreira Bento

2004-08-01

208

O papel do acesso via fossa média no tratamento da paralisia facial traumática / The role of the middle fossa approach in the management of traumatic facial paralysis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Há vários aspectos controversos no tratamento da paralisia facial traumática. Um destes é a natureza precisa da intervenção cirúrgica a ser usada, uma vez que a decisão de ser realizada tenha sido feita. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. OBJETIVOS E MÉTODOS: Entre o período de junho de 1984 e [...] junho de 1993, 220 casos de paralisia facial traumática com boa função coclear foram tratados na Universidade de São Paulo pela seguinte técnica cirúrgica: descompressão dos segmentos mastóideo e timpânico através do acesso transmastoídeo e descompressão do gânglio geniculado e dos 50% distais do segmento labiríntico, usando-se o acesso pela fossa média. Apresentamos uma revisão de literatura e a discussão e resultados de nosso trabalho. Abstract in english Management of traumatic facial paralysis has several controversial aspects. One of these is the precise nature of surgical intervention to be used once the decision to operate has been made. STUDY DESIGN: chart review. AIMS AND METHODS: Between June 1984 and June 1993, 220 cases of traumatic facial [...] paralysis with good cochlear reserve were treated at the University of São Paulo by the following surgical approach: decompression of the tympanic and mastoid segments by the transmastoid approach and decompression of the geniculate ganglion and the distal 50% of the labyrinthine segment by the middle fossa approach. We present a review of the literature and a discussion and results of our management.

Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Sulene, Pirana; Rubens Vuonno de, Brito Neto; Tanit Ganz, Sanchez; Arthur Menino, Castilho; Robert Carl, Sweet.

209

Slit-like jugular foramen due to abnormal bone growth at jugular fossa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An abnormal unilateral blockage of the jugular foramen by a bone growth converting it into a slit was noted in a skull during osteology demonstration classes for medical undergraduates. The left jugular foramen was narrowed by a thick bony projection filling the jugular fossa. This kind of narrowing of the foramen might results in neurovascular symptoms as it transmits important cranial nerves and internal jugular vein. Injury of ninth, tenth and eleventh cranial nerves can occur due to narro...

Budhiraja V; Rastogi R

2010-01-01

210

Unusual presentation of a dermoid cyst in the ischiorectal fossa. Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound appearances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ischiorectal fossa may give rise to a wide variety of pathological entities, although it is composed of relatively few structures. Developmental cysts are included among the list. Large epidermoid cysts in the ischiorectal fossa have been previously described (Fujimoto et al., Clin Imaging 17:146-148, 1993; Ng et al., Can J Surg 49:435-436, 2006). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no published case in the English literature of a dermoid cyst within the ischiorectal fossa. Using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and a subsequent ultrasound-guided biopsy, we were able to offer a focused differential that included a dermoid cyst within the ischiorectal fossa in a 55-year-old man presenting with a painful mass on the buttocks. Hair and fatty components were obtained by targeted ultrasound-guided biopsy. On MR imaging, the mass was seen to be well circumscribed and registered a heterogeneous T1-weighted signal that corresponded to layers of fat and debris on short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) imaging. A well-defined ball of fat was noted centrally within the lesion, with a speckled low T1 and low T2 signal within it. Hair admixed with fat was obtained from it by targeted ultrasound-guided biopsy. There was no enhancement of the lesion after administration of gadolinium. On ultrasound, the lesion was well circumscribed and heterogeneous; the echogenic area corresponded to the fat signal seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lower level echoes within the lesion corresponded to the debris seen on MRI. The central rounded area of speckling, registering fine posterior shadowing corresponded to the hairy contents obtained by the targeted ultrasound-guided biopsy. A differential diagnosis of all lipomatous lesions was included in the pre-biopsy report: fat necrosis within a lipoma; well-differentiated liposarcoma; myxoid liposarcoma and dermoid cyst. Histopathological diagnosis following complete surgical resection was that of a dermoid cyst. (orig.)

Choudur, H.N. [Hamilton General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Hamilton General Hospital, McMaster University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Hunjan, J.S.; Howey, J.M. [Hamilton General Hospital, McMaster University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); DeNardi, F. [Henderson General Hospital, McMaster University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

2009-09-15

211

Primary intraosseous meningioma of orbit and anterior cranial fossa: a case report and literature review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary intraosseous meningiomas of the skull base are rare. Extensive involvement of the skull base by the tumour may result rarely in loss of vision. Surgical management requires extensive decompression and reconstruction. A case of primary intraosseous meningioma of orbits and anterior cranial fossa presenting with painless proptosis and loss of vision is presented here and the literature reviewed. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

212

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy restricted to the posterior fossa in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a neurological infectious disease caused by the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), an opportunistic agent with worldwide distribution. This disease is frequently seen in immunosuppresed patients and rarely associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. I [...] n the central nervous system PML demyelinating lesions occur in the supratentorial compartment. The authors describe a rare case of PML secondary to SLE treatment with atypical presentation restricted to the posterior fossa.

Fabrício Guimarães, Gonçalves; Leslie, Lamb; Raquel, Del Carpio-O' Donovan.

213

Giant intrathoracic lipoma presenting as a lump in the supraclavicular fossa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 25-year-old man presented with a lump in the supraclavicular fossa. Subsequent investigations showed that the patient had a giant intrathoracic lipoma that has caused the deviation of his trachea to the left and had encased his great vessels. Multidisciplinary discussions concluded that tracheal stenting was most suitable for the patient. We describe details of his presentation, clinical findings and discuss the management options of a giant intrathoracic lipoma. PMID:20529482

Khatib, Manaf; Soldin, Mark G

2010-07-01

214

Imaging techniques in evaluation of juvenile angiofibroma with lateral extension in the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Juvenile angiofibroma is a benign tumour arising in the nasopharynx and penetrating laterally into the pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and orbit. Precise preoperative evaluation of the presence and extension of its lateral spread is crucial for choosing the best surgical approach and performing radical operation. The aim of the study was to assess usefulness of imaging methods in diagnosis and evaluation of lateral extension of juvenile angiofibroma. In a group of 39 patients operated on from 1973 to 2002 due to juvenile angiofibroma in 21 (54%) cases a lateral extension of the tumor was diagnosed. All patients underwent carotid angiography (CA) and lateral plain skull X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18,and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 4 patients. In all cases the extension of the tumor and its lateral spread was verified during surgery. A widening of the pterygopalatine fossa on lateral plain X-ray was present in 13 (62%) patients. CT and MRI demonstrated the presence of lateral extension in all patients diagnosed with these methods. In 9 cases, lateral CA revealed dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery by the tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa. The presence of big lateral extension of the juvenile angiofibroma is demonstrated on lateral plain X-ray as anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus (Holman-Miller sign). MRI shows better than CT the extent and margins of the tumor in soft tissues. Lateral CA shows dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery and its course in relation to the lateral extension of the tumor, which is important for surgical planning. (author)

215

BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ITALIAN FORMAGGIO DI FOSSA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Formaggio di Fossa is an Italian traditional cheese of the Montefeltro area (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions) characterized by a particular step of ripening that is carried out into pits (infossamento) borne in the sandstone. Since the XIV century, the inhabitants were used to set food, especially cereals and cheese, into pits to preserve them during winter and to protect them from invaders. The aim of the present work is to study physical and chemical features of this product with particul...

Rea, S.; Loschi, A. R.; Cecchini, S.; Renzi, F.; Cammertoni, N.; Mascaro, N.; Ricciutelli, M.; Stocchi, R.

2013-01-01

216

BIOGENIC AMINE CONTENT AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES OF ITALIAN FORMAGGIO DI FOSSA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Formaggio di Fossa is an Italian traditional cheese of the Montefeltro area (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions) characterized by a particular step of ripening that is carried out into pits (infossamento) borne in the sandstone. Since the XIV century, the inhabitants were used to set food, especially cereals and cheese, into pits to preserve them during winter and to protect them from invaders. The aim of the present work is to study physical and chemical features of this product with particul...

Rea, S.; Loschi, A. R.; Cecchini, S.; Renzi, F.; Cammertoni, N.; Ricciutelli, M.; Stocchi, R.; Mascaro, N.

2010-01-01

217

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy restricted to the posterior fossa in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a neurological infectious disease caused by the John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCV), an opportunistic agent with worldwide distribution. This disease is frequently seen in immunosuppresed patients and rarely associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. I [...] n the central nervous system PML demyelinating lesions occur in the supratentorial compartment. The authors describe a rare case of PML secondary to SLE treatment with atypical presentation restricted to the posterior fossa.

Fabrício Guimarães, Gonçalves; Leslie, Lamb; Raquel, Del Carpio-O' Donovan.

2011-12-01

218

Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment. (orig.)

219

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy restricted to the posterior fossa in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a neurological infectious disease caused by the John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCV), an opportunistic agent with worldwide distribution. This disease is frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients and rarely associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. In the central nervous system PML demyelinating lesions occur in the supratentorial compartment. The authors describe a rare case of PML secondary to SLE treatment with atypical presentation restricted to the posterior fossa (author)

220

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy restricted to the posterior fossa in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a neurological infectious disease caused by the John Cunningham polyoma virus (JCV), an opportunistic agent with worldwide distribution. This disease is frequently seen in immunosuppressed patients and rarely associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. In the central nervous system PML demyelinating lesions occur in the supratentorial compartment. The authors describe a rare case of PML secondary to SLE treatment with atypical presentation restricted to the posterior fossa (author)

Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes; Lamb, Leslie; Del Carpio-O' Donovan, Raquel, E-mail: goncalves.neuroradio@gmail.com [McGill University Health Center Montreal General Hospital (Canada)

2011-11-15

 
 
 
 
221

Clinical studies of photodynamic therapy for malignant brain tumors: facial nerve palsy after temporal fossa photoillumination  

Science.gov (United States)

In two randomized prospective studies of brain tumor PDT more than 180 patients have been accrued. At the Toronto site we recognized two patients who developed a lower motor neuron (LMN) facial paralysis in the week following the PDT treatment. In both cases a temporal lobectomy was undertaken and the residual tumor cavity was photo-illuminated. The surface illuminated included the temporal fossa floor, thus potentially exposing the facial nerve to the effect of PDT. The number of frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital tumors in this cohort was 39, 24, 12 and 4, respectively. Of the 24 temporal tumors 18 were randomized to Photofrin-PDT. Of these 18 a temporal lobectomy was carried out exposing the middle fossa floor as part of the tumor resection. In two of the 10 patients where the lobectomy was carried out and the fossa floor was exposed to light there occurred a postoperative facial palsy. Both patients recovered facial nerve function in 6 and 12 weeks, respectively. 46 J/cm2 were used in the former and 130 J/cm2 in the latter. We did not encounter a single post-operative LMN facial plasy in the 101 phase 2 patients treated with Photofrin-PDT. Among 688 supratentorial brain tumor operations in the last decade involving all pathologies and all locations no case of early post-operative LMN facial palsy was identified in the absence of PDT. One further patient who had a with post-PDT facial palsy was identified at the Denver site. Although it is possible that these patients had incidental Bell's palsy, we now recommend shielding the temporal fossa floor during PDT.

Muller, Paul J.; Wilson, Brian C.; Lilge, Lothar D.; Varma, Abhay; Bogaards, Arjen; Fullagar, Tim; Fenstermaker, Robert; Selker, Robert; Abrams, Judith

2003-06-01

222

Total spine and posterior fossa MRI screening in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (177 cases)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: MRI screening for idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Considering our clinical experiences, the results of MRI in all patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. Methods: In a prospective clinical study, all neurologically normal patients with idiopathic scoliosis screened by posterior fossa and total spine MRI. Results: After excluding 9 patients for mild neurological findings, in other 177 patients (132 female, 45 male), the average age and curve angle was 15...

MR Etemadifar; Mobini, B.; Behtash, H.; Ameri, E.

2005-01-01

223

Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment. (orig.)

Pollo, C.; Porchet, F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R. [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2003-08-01

224

Relative pupil-sparing oculomotor nerve palsy as the presenting sign of posterior fossa meningioma.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of relative pupil-sparing oculomotor paresis initially attributed to ischemia because weakness of other cranial nerves was minimal and dismissed as insignificant. Neuroimaging eventually revealed a posterior fossa meningioma. The neurologic symptoms and signs disappeared immediately after resection of the tumor. The third nerve palsy was attributed to deformation of the brainstem. This case reinforces the importance of neuroimaging even in patients who have apparently isolated oculomotor palsy with features not classic for an ischemic etiology. PMID:11725187

Winterkorn, J M; Bruno, M

2001-09-01

225

[Linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiation treatment of patients with medial middle fossa meningiomas].  

Science.gov (United States)

Medial middle fossa meningiomas are challenging for neurosurgical treatment. Invasion of cranial nerves and vessels leads to high risk of complications after removal of such meningiomas. Currently methods of conformal stereotactic radiation treatment are applied wider and wider for the discussed lesions. During a 3.5-year period 80 patients with medial middle fossa meningiomas were treated in Burdenko Moscow Neurosurgical Institute using linear accelerator "Novalis". In 31 case radiation treatment was preceded by surgical resection. In majority of patients symptoms included cranial nerve dysfunction: oculomotor disturbances in 62.5%, trigeminal impairment--in 37.5%, visual deficit--in 43.8%, facial nerve palsy--in 1.25%. 74 patients underwent radiotherapy with classical fractioning, 2--in hypofractionated mode and 4 received radiosurgery. In cases of classical fractioning mean marginal dose reached 46.3 Gy during 28-33 fractions, in hypofractioning (7 fractions)--31.5 Gy, in radiosurgery--16.25 Gy. Mean follow-up period was 18.4 months (6-42 months). Control of tumor growth was achieved in 97.5% of cases (78 patients): in 42 (52.5%) lesion shrinked, in 36 (45%) stabilization was observed. Clinical examination revealed improvement of visual function in 15 patients (18%) and deterioration in 2 (2.5%). No new neuropathies were found. Stereotactic radiation treatment is the method of choice for medial anterior and middle fossa meningiomas due to effective control of tumor progression and minimal rate of complications. PMID:20429360

Golanov, A V; Cherekaev, V A; Serova, N K; Pronin, I N; Gorlachev, G E; Kotel'nikova, T M; Podoprigora, A E; Kudriavtseva, P A; Galkin, M V

2010-01-01

226

Delayed effect of radiation therapy on extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This is a report of a case with extracerebral cavernous angioma in the middle fossa which had received radiation therapy. Follow-up study with serial computed tomography during and after irradiation were presented. A 62-year-old housewife complained of vertigo. CT scan revealed a slightly high density area in the left middle cranial fossa which was markedly enhanced with contrast media. Left carotid angiography demonstrated a large avascular mass in the left middle fossa and no feeding artery or draining vein was visualized except a faint irregular stain in the venous phase. Irradiation with a total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. At the end of radiation, CT scan revealed a slight decrease in size and CT number of the tumor. Follow-up CT scans 5 months later showed 50 % regression of the tumor and 19 months later were negative for tumor. It is concluded that in case of an extracerebral cavernous angioma with massive hemorrhage, radiation of up to 30 - 50 Gy was a method of choice. The treatment results in the possibility of eliminating surgery and the benefit of irradiation may not become evident until the first year.

Shibata, Shobu; Mori, Kazuo

1988-07-01

227

Neurinomas of the facial nerve extending to the middle cranial fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three cases with neurinomas of the facial nerve are reported, especially with regard to the computerized tomographic (CT) findings. All of them had a long history of facial-nerve dysfunction, associated with hearing loss over periods from several to twenty-five years. Intraoperative findings demonstrated that these tumors arose from the intrapetrous portion, the horizontal portion, or the geniculate portion of the facial nerve and that they were located in the middle cranial fossa. The histological diagnoses were neurinomas. CT scans of three cases demonstrated round and low-density masses with marginal high-density areas in the middle cranial fossa, in one associated with diffuse low-density areas in the left temporal and parietal lobes. The low-density areas on CT were thought to be cysts; this was confirmed by surgery. Enhanced CT scans showed irregular enhancement in one case and ring-like enhancement in two cases. High-resolution CT scans of the temporal bone in two cases revealed a soft tissue mass in the middle ear, a well-circumscribed irregular destruction of the anterior aspect of the petrous bone, and calcifications. These findings seemed to be significant features of the neurinomas of the facial nerve extending to the middle cranial fossa. We emphasize that bone-window CT of the temporal bone is most useful in detecting a neurinoma of the facial nerve in its early stage in order to preserve the facial- and acoustic-nerve functions. (author)-nerve functions. (author)

228

Pattern of recurrence in children with midline posterior fossa malignant neoplasms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Surveillance imaging of the brain and spinal neuraxis in patients with posterior fossa malignant tumors is commonly performed, with the assumption that early detection of tumor recurrence will improve outcome. However, the benefit of this imaging has not been proven. To evaluate the usefulness of spinal surveillance imaging in children with nonmetastatic (at diagnosis, M0) posterior fossa ependymoma and medulloblastoma. Materials and methods. This retrospective study included 65 children (3 months to 16 years, mean 5.7 years) treated between 1985 and 1997 for ependymoma (22) and medulloblastoma (43). Medical records were reviewed for pathology and treatment data. Serial imaging of the head and spine was reviewed for evidence of tumor recurrence. Results. Twenty-four patients (37 %) had tumor recurrence, including 13 with ependymoma and 11 with medulloblastoma. Of the 17/24 recurrent patients initially diagnosed as M0 (6 medulloblastoma and 11 ependymoma), 13 (76 %) had a cranial recurrence only, and 4 (24 %) presented with concomitant cranial and spinal recurrence. No M0 patient presented solely with spinal metastases at recurrence. Conclusion. This study suggests that spinal surveillance imaging in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma or medulloblastoma initially staged as M0 may not be useful, as these patients initially recur intracranially. Thus, until an intracranial recurrence is detected, these patients may be spared the time, expense and sedation risk necessary for spinal imaging. (orig.)

Wootton-Gorges, S.L.; Foreman, N.K.; Albano, E.A.; Dertina, D.M.; Nein, P.K.; Shukert, B.; Cesario, K.B.; Gage, S.; Rumack, C.M.; Strain, J.D. [Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Denver, CO (United States)

2000-02-01

229

Analysis of mandibular condylar and glenoid fossa fractures with computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of glenoid fossa and condylar fractures in patients with mandibular fractures using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A prospective study was performed in 227 patients with mandibular fractures who underwent 64-MDCT. Mandibular fractures were classified into four types: median, paramedian, angle and condylar. Statistical analysis of the relationship between prevalence of condylar fractures and mandibular fracture locations was performed using ?2 test with Fisher's exact test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of condylar fracture was 64.8 % of all patients with mandibular fractures, 66.7 % of median type (P = 0.667), 45.5 % of paramedian type (P = 0.001) and 12.3 % of angle type (P = 0.000), respectively. Furthermore, glenoid fossa fracture was seen in 1.4 % of patients with condylar fractures. The results of the presented study suggest focusing also on incidental findings such as glenoid fossa fractures. (orig.)

230

Arthroscopically assisted percutaneous fixation and bone grafting of a glenoid fossa fracture nonunion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arthroscopy is commonly used for evaluating intra-articular fracture patterns and assessing postfixation reduction; however, the use of arthroscopy for the definitive treatment of articular fracture nonunion has not been reported. This article describes a case of symptomatic glenoid fossa fracture nonunion that was successfully treated with arthroscopically assisted percutaneous screw fixation and bone grafting. A 48-year-old laborer sustained a glenoid fossa fracture following a fall from a height. An initial period of nonoperative management was attempted; however, the patient reported continued shoulder pain during his rehabilitation course. Imaging 5 months after injury showed no osseous union at the fracture. Using an arthroscopically assisted technique, percutaneous fixation and bone grafting of the nonunion with cancellous allograft was performed. Postoperatively, the patient progressed through a structured therapy program, and his pain improved. A computed tomography scan 4 months postoperatively showed osseous union at the fracture site. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of definitive arthroscopically assisted bone grafting and percutaneous fixation of a diarthrodial joint nonunion. Advantages of arthroscopic fixation of glenoid fossa fracture nonunion include avoiding potential axillary nerve injury and preserving the native subscapularis insertion, which may be important if subsequent procedures require access to the anterior access to the joint. PMID:22868621

Sears, Benjamin W; Lazarus, Mark D

2012-08-01

231

Pressure Sore at an Unusual Site- the Bilateral Popliteal Fossa: A Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pressure sore is tissue ulceration due to unrelieved pressure, altered sensory perception, and exposure to moisture. Geriatric patients with organic problems and patients with spinal cord injuries are the high-risk groups. Soft tissues over bony prominences are the common sites for ulcer development. About 95% of pressure ulcers occur in the lower part of the body. Ischial tuberosity, greater trochanter, sacrum and heel are common sites. In addition to these, pressure sores at unusual sites like nasal alae, malar eminences, cervical region and medial side of knee have also been described. Only 1.6% of the patients present with sores in areas outside the pelvis and lower extremity. In a paraplegic patient, pressure sores are usually over extensor surface of knee and heel but pressure ulcer over popliteal fossa are extremely rare. We herein report a case of a 36-years-old diabetic and paraplegic male, who presented with multiple bed sores involving the sacral area, heels and bilateral popliteal fossa. Popliteal fossa is an unusual site for pressure sores. Only one similar case has been previously reported in the literature.

Kamal Kataria

2012-05-01

232

Analysis of mandibular condylar and glenoid fossa fractures with computed tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of glenoid fossa and condylar fractures in patients with mandibular fractures using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). A prospective study was performed in 227 patients with mandibular fractures who underwent 64-MDCT. Mandibular fractures were classified into four types: median, paramedian, angle and condylar. Statistical analysis of the relationship between prevalence of condylar fractures and mandibular fracture locations was performed using ?{sup 2} test with Fisher's exact test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of condylar fracture was 64.8 % of all patients with mandibular fractures, 66.7 % of median type (P = 0.667), 45.5 % of paramedian type (P = 0.001) and 12.3 % of angle type (P = 0.000), respectively. Furthermore, glenoid fossa fracture was seen in 1.4 % of patients with condylar fractures. The results of the presented study suggest focusing also on incidental findings such as glenoid fossa fractures. (orig.)

Ogura, Ichiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Kaneda, Takashi [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Department of Radiology, Matsudo, Chiba (Japan)

2014-04-15

233

Development of prediction tools for diarrhea and rash in breast cancer patients receiving lapatinib in combination with capecitabine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lapatinib and capecitabine (L-CAP) is effective in HER-2 positive patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, moderate to severe diarrhea and rash (? grade 2) are problematic dose limiting toxicities. Since risk may vary over the course of therapy, we developed repeated measures models to predict the risk of ? grade 2 diarrhea and rash prior to each cycle of L-CAP. Data from 197 patients who received the L-CAP as part of a clinical trial were reviewed (Cameron, Breast Cancer Res Treat 112:533-543, 2008). Generalized estimating equations were used to develop the risk models using a backward elimination process. Risk scoring algorithms were then derived from the final model coefficients. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was undertaken to measure the predictive accuracy of the scoring algorithms. Patient age, presence of skin metastases at baseline, treatment being initiated in the spring, earlier cycles, and grade I diarrhea in the prior cycle were identified as being significant predictors for ? grade 2 diarrhea. The ROC analysis indicated good predictive accuracy for the diarrhea algorithm with an area under the curve of 0.78 (95 %CI: 0.72-0.82). Prior to each cycle of therapy, patients with risk scores > 125 units would be considered at high risk for developing ? grade 2 diarrhea. A similar prediction index was also derived in the case of ? grade 2 rash. Our models provide patient-specific risk information that could be helpful in assessing the risks and benefits of L-CAP in the MBC patients. PMID:25216762

Dranitsaris, George; Lacouture, Mario E

2014-10-01

234

Cisticercose do quarto ventrículo simulando neoplasia da fossa posterior a cintilografia cerebral: relato de um caso / Cysticercosis of the fourth ventricle simulating posterior fossa tumor on brain scan: a case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese É relatado o caso de uma criança de 12 anos de idade apresentando quadro de hipertensão endocraniana e síndrome cerebelar, cujos exames neurológico e neuroradiológicos foram sugestivos de neoplasia de fossa posterior. A cintilografia cerebral mostrou um quadro compatível com a existência de tumor da [...] fossa posterior, da linha mediana, mais provavelmente meduloblastoma ou astrocitoma. Pela intervenção cirúrgica foi verificado tratar-se de cisticercose, sendo removido um cisto do 4ºventrícuio. Os autores sugerem que em áreas geográficas com alta prevalência de neurocisticercose na população infantil a hipótese da forma pseudotumoral seja lembrada, quando da tentativa de caracterização do tipo de lesão da fossa posterior, detectada pela cintilografia cerebral. Abstract in english The case of a twelve year old child with intracerebral hypertension and cerebellar syndrome in whom the neuroradiological and neurological examinations were sugestive of posterior cranial fossa tumor is reported. The brain scan depicted the scintigraphic pattern of midline neoplasms, most likely med [...] ullo-blastoma or astrocytoma. At surgery a Cysticercus cellulosae was removed from the fourth the fourth ventricle. The authors suggest that in geographical areas with high prevalence of neurocysticercosis in the infantile population the hypothesis of the pseudotumoral form of the disease be remembered when one attempts to characterize the type of neoplasms of the posterior fossa as detected by brain scan.

Sydney F. de, Morais-Rego; Nilton L., Latue.

1978-12-01

235

Biceps Femoris Musculocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of Refractory Ulceration at the Popliteal Fossa  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: There is a lack of information about the possibility of transfer of the long head of the biceps femoris (LHBF) musculocutaneous flap to the knee area. We discuss the use of the LHBF musculocutaneous flap to treat refractory ulceration at the popliteal fossa and the results of a preliminary study investigating the anatomical possibility of transferring this flap to the popliteal region. Methods: Five lower extremities of 5 fresh cadaveric specimens were dissected following injection of a silicone compound into the deep femoral artery. We investigated the number, location, and diameter of nutrient branches to the LHBF originating from the deep femoral artery. Based on these results, we treated a 76-year-old woman with a refractory postradiation ulcer at the popliteal fossa associated with popliteal artery obstruction using a 25 × 7 cm LHBF musculocutaneous flap. Results: The mean number of nutrient branches to the LHBF muscle was 3.6, with a mean diameter of 1.9 mm. One to two branches consistently arose from the distal aspect of the posterior thigh. Most branches followed an intramuscular route, giving rise to fine cutaneous branches. The distal border reached by the musculocutaneous flap was located 6.7 cm distal to the bicondylar line. The flap survived completely without complications, and the patient was able to walk with a walking frame postoperatively. Conclusions: The LHBF musculocutaneous flap may offer a reliable treatment option for soft-tissue defects of the popliteal fossa, especially in patients with significant damage to the popliteal artery from trauma or radiation therapy.

Onishi, Tadanobu; Shimizu, Takamasa; Sananpanich, Kanit; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Kira, Tsutomu; Murata, Keiichi; Honoki, Kanya

2014-01-01

236

Posterior fossa arterio-venous malformations: current multimodal treatment strategies and results.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to determine the clinical presentation, the multimodal interdisciplinary treatment strategies and outcome of posterior fossa arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) in our neurovascular centre. Fifty-three patients with a posterior fossa AVM were seen between 1998 and 2012 and analysed retrospectively. Patients were either managed conservatively or treated with endovascular, microsurgical or radiosurgical procedures or in combination. Thirty-nine patients (74 %) presented with intracranial haemorrhage and 14 patients (26 %) with unspecific symptoms. In 22 cases with haemorrhage (56 %), an intracerebellar haematoma was found, whereas 17 patients (44 %) suffered from subarachnoid haemorrhage. AVMs were located in the cerebellum in 44 patients (83 %), in the brainstem in four patients (7.5 %) and the cerebello-pontine angle in another four individuals (7.5 %). Forty-two patients (79 %) were treated either by emboliziation (n?=?12, 29 %), surgical resection (n?=?16, 38 %), surgical resection with preoperative embolization (n?=?12, 29 %) or radiotherapy alone (n?=?2, 4 %). A total of eleven patients did not receive any treatment (21 %). Both, morbidity and mortality related to treatment were 12 %, whereas overall morbidity and mortality was 26 and 15 %, respectively. Complete AVM elimination was achieved in 81 % of the treated lesions. A multimodal treatment sequence nowadays represents the gold standard for posterior fossa AVMs. Patients are at high risk for morbidity and mortality, due to the impact of haemorrhage and treatment. Therefore, treatment has to be thoroughly indicated, especially for those patients without bleeding. The initial neurological condition seems to be crucial in terms of clinical outcome. PMID:24811220

Stein, Klaus-Peter; Wanke, Isabel; Schlamann, Marc; Dammann, Philipp; Moldovan, Alexia-Sabine; Zhu, Yuan; Sure, Ulrich; Sandalcioglu, I Erol

2014-10-01

237

Normalization of systemic arterial hypertension following removal of posterior fossa hemangioblastoma: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla as a cause for hypertension is gaining more and more interest. This report is about a 36-year-old male with a three years history of hypertension who presented with a posterior fossa mass suggestive of a hemangioblastoma. Laboratory and imaging studies ruled out the presence of von Hippel-Lindau disease and/or concomitant pheochromocytoma. Post-surgical blood pressure monitoring revealed a 40 mmHg decline in blood pressure. It could be hypothesized that alleviation the compressive effect of the tumour on the rostral ventrolateral medulla as proposed by previous studies could be a contributing factor. PMID:20181189

Saberi, Hooshang; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Zeinalizadeh, Mehdi

2009-01-01

238

Normalization of systemic arterial hypertension following removal of posterior fossa hemangioblastoma: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concept of compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla as a cause for hypertension is gaining more and more interest. This report is about a 36-year-old male with a three years history of hypertension who presented with a posterior fossa mass suggestive of a hemangioblastoma. Laboratory and imaging studies ruled out the presence of von Hippel-Lindau disease and/or concomitant pheochromocytoma. Post-surgical blood pressure monitoring revealed a 40 mmHg decline in blood pressure. It co...

Saberi, Hooshang; Meybodi, Ali Tayebi; Zeinalizadeh, Mehdi

2009-01-01

239

Hemangiopericytoma of popliteal fossa as a multichambered cystic mass : a case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hemangiopericytoma is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that may occur anywhere in the body but is most common in the lower extremities and retroperitoneum. Radiologically, the tumor is mainly a solid hypervascular mass, and when large, has some cystic and necrotic portions. It can compress or displace adjacent tissue and organs, and may cause related symptoms. The authors encountered a case of hemangiopericytoma of the popliteal fossa as a multichambered cystic mass containing various-staged hemorrhagic fluid, and report this case together with its MR imaging findings. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig.

Kim, Ki Jun; Lee, Jae Hee; Lee, Sung Yong; Sohn, Kyung Myung; Sohn, Jong Min [Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Our Lady of Mercy Hospital

1998-06-01

240

Slit-like jugular foramen due to abnormal bone growth at jugular fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An abnormal unilateral blockage of the jugular foramen by a bone growth converting it into a slit was noted in a skull during osteology demonstration classes for medical undergraduates. The left jugular foramen was narrowed by a thick bony projection filling the jugular fossa. This kind of narrowing of the foramen might results in neurovascular symptoms as it transmits important cranial nerves and internal jugular vein. Injury of ninth, tenth and eleventh cranial nerves can occur due to narrowing of jugular foramen know as Vernet’s syndrome is discussed along with case.

Budhiraja V

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

The prognostic analysis of whole nervous system and posterior fossa irradiation for patients with cerebellar medulloblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To analyze the results of whole nervous system and posterior fossa irradiation for 29 post-oprative patients with cerebellar medulloblastoma. Methods: Long term follow-up is exerted for the pathology-confirmation cerebellar medulloblastoma patients between 1996 and 2005. The results is analyzed. Results: 3 year and 5 year survival rate is 66.2% and 62.1% repectively. Conclusions: The treatment results for the patients is satisfactory with little side-effect. The result of surgery and the dose for the spiral could be prognostic factors. (authors)

242

The Microscopic Surgical Treatment for Tumor of Posterior Cranial Fossa in Children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze and discuss about the clinical characteristics, pathological types, surgical modalities and techniques, and postoperative complications in children with tumor of posterior cranial fossa .METHODS Retrospective study was conducted on 102 cases of pediatric tumor of posterior cranial fossa, admi? ed and treated in our hospital during the period of January 1996 to January 2007. All patients underwent microscopic surgical treatment. Fifty-eight were male and 44 cases were female. The age ranged from 9 months to 14 years old, with an average of 6.1 ± 0.5 of age. Cranial CT or MRI examination was conducted before and after the surgery on all patients.RESULTS The primary manifestations for this group of patients were increased intracranial pressure and/or ataxia. Postoperative pathological diagnoses showed: 46 cases of medulloblastoma, 43 cases of astrocytoma, 11 cases of ependymoma (including 1 case of degenerative ependymoma, 1 case of dermoid cyst, and 1 case of teratoma. In this group of the patients, radical surgery was used in 68 cases and subtotal surgical removal used in 31 cases, while surgical removal of large section was performed on 3 cases. There were no deaths from surgery reported. Ninety-one cases showed significant symptomatic improvement when compared with preoperative conditions, while 11 cases showed either no improvement or more severely affected afterward. For 6 cases, postoperative ventriculoperitoneal shunt was performed within 7 days to 2 months after the surgery. Sixty-three patients gained follow-up for 3 to 60 months in duration. Thirty-nine patients regained normal life and were able to learn well, while there were 7 patients who could not live normally on their own. During the follow-up period, there were 17 cases of recurrence and 7 cases of death. In 23 cases of medulloblastoma in children with age of 3 years old or above, 2 cases who underwent surgical removal of intracranial ependymoma received small dosage of postoperative X-ray radiotherapy on the the brain and spinal cord. Nine cases of medulloblastoma in children under age of 3 and 17 cases of astrocytoma diagnosed after the surgery received chemotherapy of Carmustine.CONCLUSION Medulloblastomas and astrocytomas were the most common types of pediatric tumor of posterior cranial fossa, right followed by ependymoma, and dermoid cysts and teratomas were rare. Early correct diagnosis, proper selection of appropriate surgical modality and the surgical margin, proper treatment of postoperative complications, and the selecting right radiotherapy or chemotherapy were the key factors in infl uencing the prognostic outcome of children with tumor of posterior cranial fossa.

Duo CHEN

2009-04-01

243

Parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of five fish species (Characiformes from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Paraná, Brazil = Copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de cinco espécies de peixes (Characiformes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work had the objective to study parasitic copepods in thenasal fossae of fish from the upper Paraná river floodplain. Fish were captured in different locations of the floodplain in March, June and September, 2004. A total of 73 specimens (Characiformes were collected, belonging to 4 distinct families and 5 species: Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Acestrorhynchidae, Schizodon borellii (Anostomidae, Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae, Serrasalmus marginatus and Serrasalmus maculatus (Serrasalmidae. Among 73 fishes examined, 53 were parasitized by nasal fossae copepods, varying from 1 to 146 parasites per host. Parasites found belonged to 3 known species: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; and Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher, 1988. There were differences in parasite corporal measurements and in the quantity of parasites per host in relation to copepod parasites from the Amazon region. The present study constitutes one of the few studies of identification of copepod parasites in the nasal fossae of fish from the Southern region of Brazil.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas em diversos pontos da planície nos meses de março, junho e setembro de 2004. Foram coletados 73 exemplares de peixes da ordem Characiformes, de quatrofamílias distintas, pertencentes a cinco espécies: Acestrorhynchus lacustris, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon borellii, Serrasalmus maculatus e Serrasalmus marginatus. Dentre os 73 peixes examinados, 53 encontravam-se parasitados por copépodes de fossas nasais,variando de 1 a 146 parasitos por peixe. Os parasitos encontrados pertenciam a três espécies conhecidas: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984 e Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher, 1988. Diferenças foram observadas nas medidas corporais dos parasitos e na quantidade de espécies de parasitos por espécie de peixe em relação aos copépodes encontrados em estudos anteriores na região amazônica. O presente estudo constitui um dos poucos trabalhos de identificação de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da região Sul do Brazil.

Ana Carolina Figueiredo Lacerda

2007-10-01

244

Uncommon clinical presentations of melioidosis in children: 2 cases with sore throat and 1 case with urticarial rash.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common clinical presentations of melioidosis in children include suppurative parotitis, lymphadenitis, skin infection and septicemia with pneumonia. Here we describe three cases with uncommon presentations of melioidosis seen among children attending a university hospital in northeastern Thailand. Two patients presented with pharyngitis and subsequently developed cervical lymphadenitis. Another patient presented with high fever and generalized urticarial rash. A pharyngeal culture in each of the first 2 patients and a blood culture and culture of the discharge from the wound of the third patient grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. All patients recovered with treatment. Their clinical presentations, initial diagnosis, treatment, clinical course and outcomes are described. Physicians caring for children living in, or returning from, melioidosis endemic areas should be aware of these uncommon presentations. PMID:24437321

Lumbiganon, Pagakrong; Kosalaraksa, Pope

2013-09-01

245

MORPHOLOGICAL AND MORPHOMETRICAL ANALYSIS OF THE VERMIAN FOSSA IN DRY ADULT SKULLS OF WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH POPULATION: AN OSTEOLOGICAL STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: The internal occipital crest (IOC occasionally diverges at the lower end around the foramen magnum, giving rise to roughly triangular shaped vermian fossa. Variations occur in the vermian fossa in the form of shape and size. There is paucity of such study in the available literature, hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence, morphology and morphometry of the VF in the adult population of Western Uttar Pradesh. Material and method: Adult human 30 cranial bases (vault removed and 25 occipital bones of both the sexes, which were obtained from the osteology section of department of anatomy in LLRM Medical College, Meerut (UP, formed the basis for this study. The fossa were macroscopically examined and classified into Type1 (triangular shape, Type 2 (quadrangular shape, and Type 3or atypical type (fossa shape was other than the above said. Result: Out of the 55 specimens the VF was observed in 40(72.7% specimens, and was found absent in the remaining 15(27.2% specimens. The VF was triangular shaped in 29(72.5% specimens and quadrangular in 4(10.0% specimens. In 7(17.5% specimens it was having unusual morphology and considered as atypical. Among the atypical types, two specimens were having deep fossa, one was having partitioned VF, and four of them had widened VF. The average length and width of the fossa were 14.2 mm and 12.1 mm respectively. Conclusion: The incidence is higher in our study as compared to the previous studies and it might be because of racial variations. Accurate knowledge of the variability of the human morphology and morphometry improves the diagnosis and therapeutic performance and also helpful in the study of the diseases that cause alterations of size and morphology of inferior vermis of cerebellum and clinician who operates intracranially or interprets radiological imaging. Hence this study is enlightening for the neuroanatomists and morphologists.

Arvind Yadav

2014-09-01

246

Extramedullary Plasmacytoma Presenting as a Solitary Mass in the Intracranial Posterior Fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A patient with a 3-month history of headache refractory to pain medication was admitted. The CT scan and MRI showed evidence of a posterior fossa mass. This was pathologically confirmed as an extra medullary plasmacytoma (EMP. He had a pathologic fracture of the left humerus 7 years ago while the radiologist was unaware at the time of diagnosis. A solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP was the cause of the pathologic fracture. This report includes the first description of MRI findings in a patient with a rare-incidence intracranial solitary extra medullary plasmacytoma (SEP in Iran. There is a striking similarity between the features of intracranial SEP and meningiomas. Intracranial SEP, although rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of brain tumors in areas where meningiomas commonly arise. The MRI findings and differential diagnosis of plasmacytoma are reviewed. Before this case report, only few cases have been reported in the literature. Nonetheless, this is the first report of posterior fossa EMP from Iran.

Mohammad Hossein Daghighi

2012-01-01

247

Differential diagnosis of posterior fossa multiple sclerosis lesions--neuroradiological aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various infratentorial pathological conditions can mimic multiple sclerosis (MS) both clinically and radiologically. We review the inflammatory, vascular, neoplastic and metabolic conditions which show features similar to those of MS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behcet's disease, Lyme disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, neurosarcoidosis, Whipple's disease, listeria rhombencephalitis, Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis, vasculitis due to systemic lupus erythematosus, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis produce inflammatory lesions similar to those of MS in the brainstem and cerebellum. Neoplastic diseases, in particular pontine gliomas and lymphomas, can mimic MS. Vascular ischaemic lesions, either due to infarction produced by occlusion of a major posterior circulation artery or due to small vessel vasculopathy, can lead to posterior fossa lesions. The MRI changes of central pontine myelinolysis can also mimic MS. Diffuse axonal injury, radiation and chemotherapy induce lesions that resemble MS, however the clinical history will exclude these possibilities. Finally, we discuss a few conditions which are similar to MS in clinical presentation but have different MRI appearances, such as brainstem cavernomas, posterior fossa tumoural lesions, aneurysms and vascular loops producing neurovascular conflicts. Analysis of the MRI findings with clinical history and laboratory data helps to narrow down the diagnosis of the infratentorial pathology. PMID:11794484

Falini, A; Kesavadas, C; Pontesilli, S; Rovaris, M; Scotti, G

2001-11-01

248

Schwanoma de la fosa pterigopalatina: Abordaje endoscópico / Pterygopalatine fossa schwannoma: Endoscopic approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Exponemos las características anatómicas de la fosa pterigopalatina (FPP) y la patología que se puede originar en ella. A continuación se muestra la experiencia quirúrgica en un caso de schwanoma de FPP de cinco centímetros de diámetro que pudo ser extirpada por cirugía endoscópica transnasal, evita [...] ndo así un abordaje externo. Los schwanomas constituyen del 8 al 10% de los tumores intracraneales. Su asiento principal es la rama vestibular del VIII nervio craneal, siendo los trigeminales a nivel de FPP de escasa frecuencia. Abstract in english We expose the anatomical characteristics of the pterygopalatine fossa (FPP) and the pathology that can cause it. Below is the surgical experience in a case of schwannoma of FPP five centimeters in diameter that could be removed by transnasal endoscopic surgery, being unnecessary an external surgery. [...] Schwannomas constitute the 8-10% of intracranial tumors, normally localized in the vestibular branch of the VIII cranial nerve. A schwannoma of a branche of the trigeminal lnerve in the pterigopalatine fossa is exceptional.

L., Rosique-López; M., Rosique-Arias; F.J., Sánchez-Celemin.

2010-10-01

249

Primary meningeal melanocytoma of the anterior cranial fossa: a case report and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary meningeal melanocytoma is a rare neurological disorder. Although it may occur at the base of the brain, it is extremely rare at the anterior cranial fossa. Case presentation A 27-year-old man presented with headache and diplopia at our department. Fundoscopy showed left optic nerve atrophy and right papilledema consistent with Foster-Kennedy syndrome. Neurological exams were otherwise normal. A left frontal irregular space-occupying lesion was seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and enhancement was shown on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scan. CT angiography (CTA revealed vascular compression around the lesion. Prior to surgery, meningioma was diagnosed and gross tumor removal was performed. On postoperative pathohistological exam, the tumor proved to be a meningeal melanocytoma, WHO grade I. No skin melanoma was found. After surgery, the patient received radiation therapy. No tumor was seen on follow-up MR images six months after surgery. The patient was well after two and a half years, and there was no tumor recurrence on the follow-up CT. Conclusions This case of primary meningeal melanocytoma located at the anterior cranial fossa is very rare. Although primary meningeal melanocytoma is benign, it may behave aggressively. Complete surgical resection is curative for most cases. Radiation therapy is important to prevent relapse of the tumor, especially in cases of incomplete surgical resection.

Lin Bowen

2012-07-01

250

Fractura de cavidad glenoidea: reporte de un caso / Glenoid fossa fracture: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las fracturas del componente craneofacial aumentan su frecuencia y severidad día con día en las salas de urgencias. Las disrupciones de la mandíbula pueden clasificarse de acuerdo a su localización anatómica, siendo más frecuentes las del ángulo (36.3%) y el cuerpo (21.2%) y poco comunes las de apóf [...] isis coronoides (0.25%).¹ Las fracturas de coronoides, condilares y de arco cigomático, pueden enmascarar un fractura de cavidad glenoidea, ya que clínicamente existe restricción de la motricidad mandibular. Presentamos el caso de un paciente de 38 años, con fracturas de complejo cigomaticomaxilar, apófisis coronoides y cavidad glenoidea derecho. Abstract in english Emergency rooms have seen a gradual increase of patients afflicted by craniofacial fractures. Mandible fractures can be classified according to their anatomical location. The most frequent fractures are angle fractures (36.3%) and body of the mandible fractures (21.2%). Coronoid process fractures ar [...] e uncommon (0.25%)¹ Zygomatic arch, condylar or coronoid process fractures can mask a fracture of the glenoid fossa, since, clinically, there is restriction of mandibular movements. The case here presented is that of a 38 year patient afflicted with fractures of the maxillary-zygomatic complex, coronoid process as well as right glenoid fossa.

Carlos Alain, Rodríguez Piña; José Ernesto, Miranda Villasana.

2013-09-01

251

A morphometric CT study of Down's syndrome showing small posterior fossa and calcification of basal ganglia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report characteristic and morphometric changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) with increasing age in 56 patients with Down's syndrome aged from 0 month to 37 years. Patients were compared with 142 normal controls aged 0 to 59 years. Width of ventricles, Sylvian fissures, posterior fossa, pons and cisterna magna were measured on CT. The incidences of the cavum septi pellucidi, cavum vergae and cavum veli interpositi and high density in the basal ganglia were examined. There was high incidence (10.7%) of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia in Down's syndrome, although that of pineal body and choroid plexus calcification was similar in Down's syndrome and controls. Basal ganglia calcification is more frequently seen in young Down's syndrome and may be related to the premature aging characteristic of Down's syndrome. The CT in Down's syndrome showed relatively small posterior fossa, small cerebellum, small brain stem and relatively large Sylvian fissures in those under one year of age. There was a high frequency of midline cava and large cisterna magna. There were no significant atrophic changes on CT except after the fifth decade comparing with controls. (orig.)

252

High precision locations of long-period events at La Fossa Crater (Vulcano Island, Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since the last eruption in 1888-90, the volcanic activity on Vulcano Island (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy has been limited to fumarolic degassing. Fumaroles are mainly concentred at the active cone of La Fossa in the northern sector of the island and are periodically characterized by increases in temperature as well as in the amount of both CO2 and He. Seismic background activity at Vulcano is dominated by micro-seismicity originating at shallow depth (<1-1.5 km under La Fossa cone. This seismicity is related to geothermal system processes and comprises long period (LP events. LPs are generally considered as the resonance of a fluid-filled volume in response to a trigger. We analyzed LP events recorded during an anomalous degassing period (August-October 2006 applying a high precision technique to define the shape of the trigger source. Absolute and high precision locations suggest that LP events recorded at Vulcano during 2006 were produced by a shallow focal zone ca. 200 m long, 40 m wide and N30-40E oriented. Their occurrence is linked to magmatic fluid inputs that by modifying the hydrothermal system cause excitation of a fluid-filled cavity.

Salvatore Rapisarda

2009-06-01

253

Extensive middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts and different clinical presentation in two patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arachnoid cysts (ACs), particularly suprasellar cysts, cause a wide spectrum of endocrine disorders. Herein, we report two patients diagnosed with an extensive AC in the middle cranial fossa while being investigated for etiologies of precocious puberty and short stature. One of them required surgery due to his pubertal disorders associated with compression effects of cyst. After surgery, his puberty progression was regressed within one year. On the other hand, surgery was not planned for the second patient considering of his cranial imaging findings and the extremely low incidence of growth hormone (GH) deficiency caused by middle fossa AC (MFAC). We started treatment with recombinant human GH and no complication was found during treatment follow-up. Endocrine disorders associated with MFACs are extremely rare. By presenting with these two cases, we aimed to remain our fellow physcians that ACs can be possibly cause of endocrine disorders. Clinicians should be careful evaluating endocrine disorders because real cause may not be cyst itself but masked by it. PMID:25241612

Yüce, Ozge; Dö?er, Esra; Celik, Nurullah; Emeksiz, Hamdi Cihan; Bulduk, Erkut Baha; Camurdan, Mahmut Orhun

2014-09-01

254

Late effects of treatment on the intelligence of children with posterior fossa tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This retrospective pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the late effects of treatment on intelligence in a population of children with posterior fossa tumors. Ten children with posterior fossa tumors treated with radiation and chemotherapy received intellectual evaluations at least one year following diagnosis. Six children had medulloblastomas, one child had a fourth ventricular ependymoma, two children had brainstem gliomas, and one child had a recurrent cerebellar astrocytoma. Children with supratentorial tumors were specifically excluded from the study in order to eliminate the possible influence of the tumor on intellectual functioning. Four children had had intelligence testing in school prior to treatment of their tumor. In each case results following treatment revealed a deterioration of full scale IQ of at least 25 points. Six children did not have prior testing; of these, two had IQ's less than 20. Overall, 50% of the patients had IQ's of less than 80 and 20% had IQ's of greater than 100. Furthermore, four children with normal intelligence (IQ greater than 80) have learning problems requiring special classes. Thus, of the ten children evaluated, all have either dementia, learning disabilities, or evidence of intellectual retardation. This study suggests that aggressive treatment of children with brain tumors may improve survivals but may be associated with significant long-term disabilities

255

Late Pleistocene Holocene landscape evolution in Fossa Bradanica, Basilicata (southern Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies in the middle Basento river basin supported by reliable chronological data (tephra layers and a number of absolute datings) have allowed the reconstruction of Late Pleistocene-Holocene geomorphological evolution of the middle to low Fossa Bradanica area (Basilicata, southern Italy). The original Upper Pleistocene hillslope has been dissected by deep gullies leaving relict slope pediments. Holocene filling of the Basento river valley and gullies occurred as a succession of downcut and fill episodes. A first phase of accumulation occurred in the Late Neolithic, which was followed by a downcutting between 4500 and 3700 cal. yr BP. A second deposition phase took place in the Greek-Roman period between 2800 and 1620 cal. yr BP, which was interrupted at around 2500 cal. yr BP. Another downcutting phase took place between 1620 and 1500 cal. yr BP, followed by a deposition phase between 1440 and 1000 cal. yr BP. After 1000 cal. yr BP a deep downcutting took place. Evidence collected with this study, coupled with climate data recorded in other Italian and European locations, suggests that filling and downcutting episodes in Fossa Bradanica were predominantly climate-driven. Anthropogenic impact only intensified or weakened these processes.

Boenzi, F.; Caldara, M.; Capolongo, D.; Dellino, P.; Piccarreta, M.; Simone, O.

2008-12-01

256

Estudo da anatomia endoscópica da fossa lacrimal guiado por transiluminacão / Transillumination-guided study of the endoscopic anatomy of the lacrimal fossa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A dacriocistorrinostomia é o tratamento de escolha para a obstrução do aparelho lacrimal. No final do século passado, o desenvolvimento da instrumentação endoscópica em cirurgia nasossinusal tornou viável sua realização por via endonasal. Entretanto, variações anatômicas tornam difícil a reprodutibi [...] lidade de uma técnica de abordagem endonasal. OBJETIVO: Estudar a anatomia endoscópica da fossa lacrimal através da transiluminação do canalículo comum. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Experimental. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram dissecadas 40 vias lacrimais de 20 cadáveres humanos, constando três etapas: 1 - identificação e dilatação do canalículo lacrimal. 2 - introdução do feixe de fibra óptica; 3 - dissecção endoscópica do saco lacrimal, descrevendo sua posição. RESULTADOS: A posição mais frequente do saco lacrimal foi entre a borda livre do corneto médio e sua inserção e imediatamente abaixo desta. A linha maxilar foi visualizada em 95% dos casos. A septoplastia foi necessária em 12,5%, uncifectomia em 35% e turbinectomia média em 7,5%. CONCLUSÃO: embora o saco lacrimal tenha mostrado uma localização mais frequente, sua posição variou consideravelmente. A transiluminação do canalículo comum mostrou-se útil, resolvendo o problema da variabilidade anatômica. Abstract in english Dacryocystorhinostomy is the treatment of choice for the obstruction of the lachrymal apparatus. At the end of last century, the development of the endoscopic instruments for nasosinusal surgery has made it possible to do it through the endoscopic pathway. Nonetheless, anatomical variations make it [...] difficult to have reproducibility endonasaly. AIM: study the endoscopic anatomy of the lachrymal fossa through transillumination of the common canaliculus. STUDY DESIGN: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we dissected 40 lachrymal pathways from 20 human cadavers, in three stages: 1. identification and dilation of the lachrymal canaliculus. 2 - Optic fiber beam introduction; 3 - endoscopic dissection of the lachrymal sac, describing its position. RESULTS: the most frequent position of the lachrymal sac was between the free border of the middle turbinate and its insertion immediately underneath it. The maxillary line was seen in 95% of the cases. Septoplasty was needed in 12.5%, unicifectomy in 35% and middle turbinectomy in 7.5%. CONCLUSION: Although the lachrymal sac has a more frequent location, its position varied considerably. The transillumination of the common canaliculus proved useful, solving the problem of the anatomical variability.

Luiz Artur Costa, Ricardo; Marcio, Nakanishi; Antonio Sérgio, Fava.

2010-02-01

257

Localization of the Internal Maxillary Artery for Extracranial-to-Intracranial Bypass through the Middle Cranial Fossa: A Cadaveric Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The internal maxillary artery (IMAX) is a promising arterial pedicle to function as a donor vessel for extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass procedures. The access to the IMAX through the anterior portion of the middle cranial fossa floor allows a much shorter interposition graft to be used to create a bypass to the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery and prevents a second incision in the neck. One of the challenges of this technique, however, is the difficulty to find the IMAX through an intracranial approach. The purpose of this cadaveric study is to establish a reliable method to localize the IMAX through a middle fossa floor approach based on skull base bone landmarks. In this study 5 latex-injected fixated cadaveric specimens were dissected bilaterally (providing a total of 10 IMAX dissections) to determine the precise location of the IMAX in the pterygopalatine fossa in relationship to bone landmarks of the middle fossa floor as seen through an intracranial approach. Drilling of the middle fossa floor was undertaken through both the originally described "anteromedial" approach, and a new "anterolateral" approach. Measurements were taken correlating the position of the IMAX to ipsilateral foramen rotundum, ipsilateral foramen ovale, posterior wall of the maxillary sinus, and distal V2 branches. Median and standard deviation were calculated for each dataset. The IMAX was found, within the pterygopalatine fossa, by drilling the greater wing of the sphenoid bone on average 10 mm anteriorly and 5 mm laterally to foramen rotundum, at an average depth of 8 mm. The IMAX was also found inferiorly to the maxillary nerve and laterally to the pterygoid head of the lateral pterygoid muscle. A more laterally oriented approach, consisting of drilling the greater wing of the sphenoid bone from a point perpendicular to foramen rotundum posteriorly to the sphenotemporal suture anteriorly, allowed for a longer segment of the IMAX to be easily identified and exposed facilitating its use as a donor vessel in bypass procedures. This cadaveric study provides a reliable and reproducible set of measurements to localize the IMAX within the pterygopalatine fossa through an intracranial middle fossa approach. The ability to find the IMAX consistently is an important step in exploring the possibility of using the IMAX as a routine donor vessel for EC-IC bypass procedures. PMID:23372995

Eller, Jorge L; Sasaki-Adams, Deanna; Sweeney, Justin M; Abdulrauf, Saleem I

2012-02-01

258

A 27-year-old man with diplopia, fatiguable ptosis and rash: a rare presentation of angiocentric T cell lymphoma with lymphomatoid vasculitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 27-year-old man presented with a 36-h history of ptosis and diplopia and a 10-day history of a lower limb rash. Skin biopsy revealed an aggressive angiocentric ??-T cell lymphoma. The patient's symptoms and signs disappeared within 1 week of commencement of chemotherapy and there are plans for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Lefter, Stela; Forde, Patrick; Nashat, Hebah; Moylan, Eugene; Yacoob, Yaseen

2011-01-01

259

[Rash and fever illness caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 needs to be distinguished from hand, foot and mouth disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemic of rash and fever illnesses suspected of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred in Gansu Province of China in 2008, laboratory tests were performed in order to identify the pathogen that caused this epidemic. Eight clinical specimens collected from the 4 patients (each patient has throat swab and herpes fluid specimens) with rash and febrile illness, were inoculated onto RD and HEp-2 cells for virus isolation, and the viral nucleic acid was then extracted with the positive virus isolates, the dual-channel real-time reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the nucleic acid of human enterovirus (HEV) in the viral isolates at the same time. For the viral isolates with the negative results of HEV, a sequence independent single primer amplification technique (SISPA) was used for "unknown pathogen" identification. Totally, 6 viral isolates were identified as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Comprehensive analyses results of the clinical manifestations of the patients, epidemiological findings and laboratory test indicated that this epidemic of rash and febrile illness was caused by HSV-1. The differences among the gG region of 6 HSV-1 isolates at nucleotide level and amino acid level were all small, and the identities were up to 98. 8% and 97.9%, respectively, showing that this outbreak was caused by only one viral transmission chain of HSV-1. HSV-1 and other viruses that cause rash and febrile illnesses need differential diagnosis with HFMD. The etiology of rash and febrile illness is sometimes difficult to distinguish from the clinical symptoms and epidemiological data, the laboratory diagnosis is therefore critical. PMID:23895007

Zhu, Shuang-Li; Liu, Jian-Feng; Sun, Qiang; Li, Jing; Li, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Wen, Xiao-Yun; Yan, Dong-Mei; Huang, Guo-Hong; Zhang, Bao-Min; Zhang, Bo; An, Hong-Qiu; Li, Hui; Xu, Wen-Bo

2013-06-01

260

Topographic Constraints on the Mode of Formation of an Enigmatic Flow in Cerberus Fossae, Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

We use a digital elevation model (DEM), derived from stereo Context Camera (CTX) images referenced to Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data, and shadow length measurements made from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images, to investigate the geometry of a young enigmatic flow in S.W. Cerberus Fossae, Mars. The flow originates from an almost circular (1.2 x 1.5 km) pit within a remnant of a yardang at 0o 35'N, 155o 17'E, within the lower unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. The flow is ~42 km long and 0.5 to 2.0 km wide, and MOLA data indicate that the flow falls ~50 m along its length. The flow has a broad distal fan of material ~8 x 14 km in size that has a platey surface texture. The source area of the flow displays several sets of semi-concentric ridges with different centers of curvature, and the CTX DEM shows this depression is ~20 m deep, implying a volume of ~0.03 km3 for the removed material. Measurements made from the DEM of the height of the bounding walls of several 160 - 200 m wide constrictions, where 'over-spill' from the flow forms a clear disrupted margin to the flow on the adjacent hills, indicate that the flow was never more than ~8 - 10 m thicker than it currently appears. The total surface area of the flow is ~153 km2 and 25 shadow length measurements made from HiRISE images of the flow margins at 16 different places along the flow give a typical thickness of ~4 m. These measurements imply a volume for the flow of ~0.6 km3, which is 20 times larger than the volume of the flow's source area, thereby demonstrating that a significant amount of new material was erupted to form the flow. The available morphologic and topographic data raise the intriguing probability that the flow is most likely not a lava flow, but is instead a mud flow produced by water reaching the surface within the yardang materials and the subsequent mobilization of the unconsolidated material that comprised the yardang. This proposed mud flow origin consequently raises the possibility that other similar young platey-textured flows in Cerberus Fossae are also non-volcanic.

Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Wilson, L.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Anatomical aspects of posterior fossa affecting lateral suboccipital approach. Evaluation by bone-window CT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high-resolution 1.5 mm-slice bone-window CT images of the posterior fossa in 40 patients with the cerebello-pontine angle tumor were reviewed regarding three anatomical aspects: the internal occipital crest (IOC), the posterior surface of the petrous bone, and the `petrous angle`. The IOC was sometimes prominent and protruded profoundly into the posterior fossa. The height of IOC from the inner table of the occipital bone was 9.6{+-}3.3 mm. The posterior surface of the petrous bone was convex to the posterior fossa in the most cases; the zenith of the prominence was the porus acusticus. The convexity of the posterior surface in the CT image was objectively evaluated by the `porus angle` made by two lines of A and B; the line A was the posterior half of the posterior surface of the petrous bone, and the line B was the anterior half of it. The `porus angle` in 40 cases was 28{+-}14deg in the left side, and 28{+-}12deg in the right side. The `petrous angle`, made by the cranial sagittal line and (the posterior half of ) the posterior surface of the petrous bone, was 61.8{+-}5.8deg and 62.7{+-}7.0deg, respectively. In the patient with a prominent IOC, the lateral suboccipital approach (LSA) with a unilateral suboccipital craniotomy may induce the compression of the cerebellar hemisphere by the brain retractor and the prominent IOC, and develop cerebellar contusion. Such a postoperative cerebellar complication can be avoided by a large suboccipital craniotomy with the resection of the prominent IOC extending contralaterally. The severe convexity of the posterior surface of the petrous bone, i.e. the large `porus angle`, makes it difficult to get the view of the petroclival region in the LSA. The larger is the `petrous angle`, the less cerebellar compression is necessary for the approach to the cerebello-pontine angle by the LSA; the large `petrous angle` is advantageous to the approach. (H.O.).

Yamakami, Iwao; Yamaura, Akira; Ono, Junichi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Nakamura, Takao

1996-02-01

262

Microsurgical localization of the cochlea in the extended middle fossa approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective?In the extended middle fossa approach, a portion of the petrous bone known as Kawase's rhomboid can be drilled to expose the posterior fossa through a middle fossa corridor. During this bony resection, the cochlea is placed at risk. The objective of this study was to objectively detail the position of the cochlea in relation to reliable surgical landmarks. Methods?Eleven cadaveric specimens were dissected-including six cadaveric heads and five dry temporal bones by means of an anterior petrosectomy with skeletonization of the cochlea. Three anatomic measurements describing the location of the cochlea in relation to the extrapolated intersection of the greater superficial petrosal nerve (GSPN) and facial nerve were recorded. These measurements were then correlated with thin-cut temporal bone computed tomography scans from 25 patients with morphologically normal inner ears. Results?In the cadaveric specimens, the anterior border of the membranous basal turn of the cochlea was located an average of 7.56?mm (6.4 to 8.9 mm) anterior to the extrapolated junction of the GSPN and facial nerve, as measured along the course of the GSPN. The medial border of the membranous cochlea (medial margin of basal turn) was located an average of 8.2?mm (6.9 to 8.9 mm) medial to the extrapolated junction of the GSPN and facial nerve, as measured along the course of the facial nerve. The average maximum distance from the extrapolated junction of the GSPN and facial nerve to the membranous cochlea was 9.3?mm (8.2 to 10.3 mm). These anatomic measurements correlated well with radiologic measurements of the same parameters. Conclusion?When drilling Kawase's rhomboid, it is useful to locate the extrapolated junction of the GSPN and the facial nerve. Drilling of the anteromedial petrous bone outside of a radius of 12.5?mm from the extrapolated junction of GSPN and facial nerve appears to be associated with a low degree of risk to the cochlear apparatus. PMID:24294559

Forbes, Jonathan A; Rivas, Alejandro; Tsai, Betty; Ehtesham, Moneeb; Zuckerman, Scott; Wanna, George; Weaver, Kyle

2012-12-01

263

Contribution of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tumours of posterior fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work concerns 38 posterior cranial fossa tumour cases subjected to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy between May 1974 and June 1976. 33 of these patients have undergone an anatomical check while for the remaining 5, the existence of a posterior fossa tumour is established from the conjunction of clinical signs and other paraclinical examinations. The procedure was the same for all these 38 patients: after a 300 ?C/kg injection of tracer, an immediate angioscintigraphic period, an early set of pictures (half an hour after the tracer injection) then delayed set (4 to 5 hours later) taken from 4 angles: front, back and two profiles. The examination was performed with an OHIO NUCLEAR SIEMENS gamma camera and sometimes a conventional scanner as well (the latter giving no better a diagnosis than the former). In 75% of the cases a hyperfixation of the injected tracer was observed and its site located quite accurately in the posterior fossa tumour. The etiology of the lesion could be diagnosed in 'most probable' or 'least probable' terms. Examination of work by other authors, who obtained similar results, leads to the conclusion that this method is very helpful in the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumours when used as a means of early detection, before the undertaking of more complex neuroradiological explorations

264

Facial nerve palsy secondary to a dural cavernous angioma of the middle cranial fossa eroding the tegmen tympani.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient with a dural cavernous angioma of the middle cranial fossa eroding the tegmen tympani and causing an isolated palsy of the facial nerve is presented. The rarity of this lesion is stressed, as are the peculiar clinical findings and the magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:3185887

Pozzati, E; Giuliani, G; Ferracini, R; Gaist, G

1988-08-01

265

Cisternography and CT scanning with /sup 111/In-DTPA in evaluation of posterior fossa arachnoid cysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A patient with a large, long-standing posterior fossa arachnoid cyst was evaluated. Computed tomography was used to demonstrate the cyst. /sup 111/In-DTPA cisternography demonstrated the communication of the cyst with the subarachnoid space, stasis of the /sup 111/In in the cystic space, and incomplete ascent of cerebrospinal fluid over the cerebral hemispheres.

Lusins, J.; Nakagawa, H.; Sorek, M.; Goldsmith, S.

1979-04-01

266

Technical review of target volume delineation on the posterior fossa tumor: an optimal head and neck position  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To explore a 3D conformal radiotherapy technique for a posterior fossa boost, and the potential advantages of a prone position for such radiotherapy, A CT simulator and 3D conformal radiotherapy planning system was used for the posterior fossa boost treatment of a 13-year-old medulloblastoma patient. He was placed in the prone position and immobilized with an aquaplast mask and immobilization mold. CT scans were obtained of the brain from the top of the skull to the lower neck, with IV contrast enhancement. The target volume and normal structures were delineated on each slice, with treatment planning performed using non-coplanar conformal beams. The CT scans, and treatment in the prone position, were performed successfully. In the prone position, the definition of the target volume was made easier due to the well enhanced tentorium. In addition, the posterior fossa was located anteriorly, and with the greater choice of beam arrangements, more accurate treatment planning was possible as the primary beams were not obstructed by the treatment table. A posterior fossa boost, in the prone position, is feasible in cooperating patients, but further evaluation is needed to define the optimal and most comfortable treatment positions

267

Technical review of target volume delineation on the posterior fossa tumor: an optimal head and neck position  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To explore a 3D conformal radiotherapy technique for a posterior fossa boost, and the potential advantages of a prone position for such radiotherapy, A CT simulator and 3D conformal radiotherapy planning system was used for the posterior fossa boost treatment of a 13-year-old medulloblastoma patient. He was placed in the prone position and immobilized with an aquaplast mask and immobilization mold. CT scans were obtained of the brain from the top of the skull to the lower neck, with IV contrast enhancement. The target volume and normal structures were delineated on each slice, with treatment planning performed using non-coplanar conformal beams. The CT scans, and treatment in the prone position, were performed successfully. In the prone position, the definition of the target volume was made easier due to the well enhanced tentorium. In addition, the posterior fossa was located anteriorly, and with the greater choice of beam arrangements, more accurate treatment planning was possible as the primary beams were not obstructed by the treatment table. A posterior fossa boost, in the prone position, is feasible in cooperating patients, but further evaluation is needed to define the optimal and most comfortable treatment positions.

Yoon, Sang Min; Lee, Sang Wook; Ahn, Seung Do; Kim, Jong Hoon; Yi, Byong Yong; Ra, Young Shin; Ghim, Thad; Choi, Eun Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2003-03-01

268

Role of Cerebellum in Fine Speech Control in Childhood: Persistent Dysarthria after Surgical Treatment for Posterior Fossa Tumour  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysarthria following surgical resection of childhood posterior fossa tumour (PFT) is most commonly documented in a select group of participants with mutism in the acute recovery phase, thus limiting knowledge of post-operative prognosis for this population of children as a whole. Here we report on the speech characteristics of 13 cases seen…

Morgan, A. T.; Liegeois, F.; Liederkerke, C.; Vogel, A. P.; Hayward, R.; Harkness, W.; Chong, K.; Vargha-Khadem, F.

2011-01-01

269

Bone changes in the condylar head and mandibular fossa in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Helical CT observation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present study, we investigated whether bone changes are present in sites impossible to observe by panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination, namely the medial of the condylar head and mandibular fossa, in patients with type IV temporomandibular joint disorders. We observed the articular fossa using computed tomography, which is able to obtain detailed 3-dimensional information, in patients with type IV temporomandibular disorders. We examined 120 joints of 60 patiens who visited the Department of Oral Surgery, Osaka Medical College Hospital. Each condylar head was clearly visualized in panoramic X-ray and Schuller's X-ray examination findings, and shown to have possible changes unilaterally. Each joint was diagnosed as type IV, according to the diagnostic guidelines set by Japanese Society for Temporomandibular Joint, and further examined using helical CT. Changes in condylar head; We concluded that bone changes were present with considerable probability in the medial of condylar head in a manner similar to those found in the lateral and center of joints with type IV temporomandibular disorders. Changes in mandibular fossa; The bone changes occurred in various locations of the mandibular fossa, while they appeared significantly more frequently in the condylar head. We think that our finding will contribute to development of treatment strategies for temporomandibular disorders, as they clarify bone changes in sites previously unreported. (author)

270

Computer-assisted-endoscopic Surgery of a Large Trigeminal Schwannoma in the Pterygopalatine Fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Case Report: A 33 year-old woman presented with a history of many years of a tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa. The tumor (5x 4.5 cm extended to the sphenoid and maxillary sinuses, the nasal cavity, the skull base with an erosion of the cavernous sinus and the orbit with a close contact with the ophthalmic nerve. The patient had first refused to undergo the surgery because only an external approach through a paranasal and Caldwell-Luc incision had been proposed to her. We proposed a strictly endoscopic surgery after embolisation that allowed the diagnosis and the complete removal of this extended trigeminal schwannoma. The computer-assisted endoscopic surgery allowed the preservation of the intracranial structures, the internal carotid artery and the ophthalmic nerve; the morbidity was minimal and the patient was totally free of pain after surgery. There was no recurrence of the tumor after a follow-up of 2 years.

Ghanooni, Rose

2009-12-01

271

Effect of Texture, Shape, and Intensity Feature Fusion for Posterior-Fossa Tumor Segmentation in MRI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, we systematically investigate efficacy of using several different image features such as intensity, fractal texture, and level-set shape in segmentation of posterior-fossa (PF tumor for pediatric patients. We explore effectiveness of using four different feature selection and three different segmentation techniques, respectively, to discriminate tumor regions from normal tissue in multimodal brain MRI. We further study the selective fusion of these features for improved PF tumor segmentation. We further study the selective fusion of these features for improved PF tumor segmentation. Our result suggests that Kullback–Leibler divergence measure for feature ranking and selection and the expectation maximization algorithm for feature fusion and tumor segmentation offer the best results for the patient data in this study.

Channu Kokila, K. Ramesh

2013-04-01

272

Acoustic neurinoma and posterior fossa meningioma - clinical and CT radiologic findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Clinical and computed tomography (CT) findings of twenty-three patients with acoustig neurinoma (AN) and eleven patients with posterior fossa meningioma (PFM) are described. AN frequently (94%) presents with the complaint of hearing loss, while PFM often (60%) presents with non-specific pains in the head or neck. The CT characteristics of AN and PFM in this series were similar to those found in most previous publications. The maximal measured mean diamter of PFM (40.2 mm) was significantly larger than that of AN (26.4 mm). Hydrocephalus was apparently influenced by tumor location rather than by its size. It is concluded that diagnostic ability has been improved in cases of CPA tumors, but not in those of non-CPA PFM, probably because of the earlier clinical presentation of the former. Clinical efforts are still necessary to detect the smaller tumors. (orig.)

273

Middle cranial fossa epidermoid cyst: a case report of unusual CT and MR findings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intracranial epidermoid cysts usually show homogeneous hypodensity on CT scans, hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. Most of them arise in the cerebellopontine angle and parasellar areas. We report a case of middle cranial fossa epidermoid tumor with unusual image findings. The entire tumor mass showed inhomogeneous low density, without any enhancing solid portion on the CT scans. The lateral portion of the tumor showed homogeneous T1 low signal intensity and T2 high signal intensity. The medial portion of the tumor showed heterogeneous T1 and T2 intermediate to high signal intensity. On the gadolinium enhanced MR images, enhancement of the thickened dura was observed behind the tumor. Surgery and pathologic examination revealed the presence of an extradural epidermoid cyst.

Na, Hyoung Il; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Jeong Tek; Kang, Seok Hyung; Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup; Kim, Yang Soo [College of Medicine, Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Hyoen [Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2004-11-01

274

Middle cranial fossa epidermoid cyst: a case report of unusual CT and MR findings  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracranial epidermoid cysts usually show homogeneous hypodensity on CT scans, hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. Most of them arise in the cerebellopontine angle and parasellar areas. We report a case of middle cranial fossa epidermoid tumor with unusual image findings. The entire tumor mass showed inhomogeneous low density, without any enhancing solid portion on the CT scans. The lateral portion of the tumor showed homogeneous T1 low signal intensity and T2 high signal intensity. The medial portion of the tumor showed heterogeneous T1 and T2 intermediate to high signal intensity. On the gadolinium enhanced MR images, enhancement of the thickened dura was observed behind the tumor. Surgery and pathologic examination revealed the presence of an extradural epidermoid cyst

275

Cine-magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of communication between middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts and cisterns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cine-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations were performed in 10 patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts to evaluate communication between the cysts and the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Eight of 10 patients were evaluated by time of flight cine-MR imaging, and two by phase contrast cine-MR imaging. Two patients underwent membranectomy of the cysts, and were evaluated both pre-and postoperatively. Computed tomography cisternography was used to confirm communication between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns. Pulsatile fluid motion within the cysts was present in all patients. However, marked fluid motion and jet flow between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns were only observed in communicating cysts. In the two patients who underwent membranectomy, postoperative examination found greater fluid motion and jet flow not previously present. Cine-MR imaging demonstration of marked pulsatile fluid motion accompanied by jet flow suggests that a cyst communicates with the normal CSF space. (author)

Eguchi, Takahiko; Nikaido, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuaki; Fujimoto, Takatoshi; Otsuka, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Osaka-Minami National Hospital, Kawachinagano (Japan); Taoka, Toshiaki

1996-06-01

276

Cine-magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of communication between middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts and cisterns  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cine-magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examinations were performed in 10 patients with middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts to evaluate communication between the cysts and the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space. Eight of 10 patients were evaluated by time of flight cine-MR imaging, and two by phase contrast cine-MR imaging. Two patients underwent membranectomy of the cysts, and were evaluated both pre-and postoperatively. Computed tomography cisternography was used to confirm communication between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns. Pulsatile fluid motion within the cysts was present in all patients. However, marked fluid motion and jet flow between the cysts and the surrounding cisterns were only observed in communicating cysts. In the two patients who underwent membranectomy, postoperative examination found greater fluid motion and jet flow not previously present. Cine-MR imaging demonstration of marked pulsatile fluid motion accompanied by jet flow suggests that a cyst communicates with the normal CSF space. (author)

277

Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day

278

Herniography: A prospective, randomized study between midline and left iliac fossa puncture techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AIM: To determine whether an optimal site of injection exists for herniography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized study of 93 consecutive patients who were referred for herniography over a period of 9 months. Patients underwent either a left iliac fossa (LIF) or midline puncture. Parameters assessed included initial adequate needle placement, complications, pain scores and body mass index (BMI). The groups were compared using Chi-squared test for categorical data, Student's t-test for continuous data and the Mann-WhitneyU-test for skewed data, withP 6 ml resulted in significantly more pain. More frequent initial adequate needle placement was observed in thin patients (BMI 2) with experienced operators. Conversely, increased body mass index resulted in more difficult needle placement. CONCLUSION: Herniography is a safe procedure with few complications. There was no significant difference comparing the midline and LIF approaches. Nadkarni, S. et al. (2001)

279

Infraorbital nerve block within the Pterygopalatine fossa of the horse: anatomical landmarks defined by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to provide anaesthesia of the equine maxillary cheek teeth, a local nerve block of the infraorbital nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa had been proposed, which is referred to as the 'Palatine Bone Insertion' (PBI). As several complications with this method were reported, our study was designed to recommend a modified injection technique which avoids the risk of puncturing of relevant anatomical structures. Five cadaver heads and two living horses were examined by contrast medium injections and subsequent computed tomography (CT). Spinal needles were inserted using two different insertion techniques: The above mentioned (PBI), and a modification called 'Extraperiorbital Fat Body Insertion' (EFBI). Both techniques (PBI and EFBI) provide a consistent distribution of contrast medium around the infraorbital nerve. However, only the EFBI technique is appropriate to minimize the risk of complications. This study is an example for the permanent challenge of anatomists to supply a basis for clinical and surgical procedures

280

Tumors in posterior cranial fossa: diagnostic by CT and MR, 103 cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with the incidence and epidemiology, as well as the CT and MR findings, in 103 tumors located in posterior cranial fossa. The series included primary neoplasms and metastases, whether axial or extra-axial, providing they were solitary in the intracranial region. Ninety-one confirmed histologically. Their statistical incidence among intracranial neoplasms is high; moreover, they present considerable histological and epidemiological difference with respect to their supratentorial homonyms. The sample discloses the behavior of a random population, 20% of which were children. In the latter group, the most common lesions were glioma and medulloblastoma. Among adult patients, the most prevalent lesion was solitary axil metastasis. The analysis of the data demonstrates the importance of the anatomic site in the differential diagnosis. (Author)

 
 
 
 
281

Middle cranial fossa facial nerve decompression before two years of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case report of a 17-month old patient who underwent serial bilateral total facial nerve decompression procedures for complete bilateral facial paralysis in the setting of craniometaphyseal dysplasia via combined middle cranial fossa and transmastoid approaches. The surgical decision-making process and procedures were reviewed. The patient recovered without complications from the staged surgical procedures, and developed partial return of function of both facial nerves postoperatively, with symmetric House-Brackmann grades of II-III. Despite its technical difficulty in the setting of this particular disorder, facial nerve decompression may be appropriate in the setting of acute facial palsy in craniometaphyseal dysplasia, with the potential for return of function. Given the extremely rare nature of the disease process, variable surgical experience and the clinical condition of the patient remain our best guides for management. PMID:23299043

Kang, Robert S; Rubinstein, Jay T

2013-04-01

282

Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home the next day.

Tewari, Sanjit O., E-mail: tewaris@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Department of Radiology (United States); Petre, Elena N., E-mail: petree@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States); Osborne, Joseph, E-mail: osbornej@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service, Department of Radiology (United States); Sofocleous, Constantinos T., E-mail: sofoclec@mskcc.org [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (United States)

2013-12-15

283

Alvarado score as an admission criterion in children with pain in right iliac fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is an important differential diagnosis in children with pain in the right iliac fossa. Some patients have equivocal signs that make the diagnosis difficult. Many patients with suspected acute appendicitis are admitted for observation and finally discharged because they did not have appendicitis. We decided to design this study to investigate whether the Alvarado score could be used by emergency room doctors as a criterion for admission to hospital. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study comprising 350 patients who attended the emergency department with suspected acute appendicitis in the period from May 2007 to April 2009. All patients were scored by Alvarado score in the emergency department before admission. The Alvarado score is based on three symptoms, three signs and two laboratory findings. The decision for admission and surgery was made independent of the score. The diagnosis of patients who underwent appendicectomy was confirmed by both operative findings and postoperative histopathology. Results: We studied the Alvarado scores of 350 patients who presented to the emergency department with pain in the right iliac fossa; their age ranged from 8 to 14 years; 182 patients (52% operated with the aim to treat acute appendicitis, 168 patients (48% were discharged without surgical intervention and advised to attend the out-patient clinic after 24 hours for re-evaluation. we have found that patients with a low Alvarado score (less than 6 did not have acute appendicitis. Conclusion: Patients with equivocal signs can present a diagnostic challenge and are very often admitted to the surgical department for observation. The Alvarado score can be used as a scoring system that help in taking the decision for admission of cases with suspected acute appendicitis especially by primary healthcare providers.

Shreef Khalid

2010-01-01

284

Treatment and diagnosis of middle fossa arachnoid cyst. Ventriculofiberscopy and cine-MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts is controversial regarding its surgical indication and operative procedures. Conventional surgical approaches such as fenestration, membranectomy, and shunting operation are invasive. Also CT cisternography and/or RI cisternography are invasive, when it has been performed to evaluate the possible CSF communications between the arachnoid cyst and subarachnoid space. Between July 1994 and February 1997, 10 patients with intracranial middle fossa arachnoid cysts were treated with a newly developed ventriculofiberscope which is characterized by splendid mechanical flexibility and high resolution. The cine-MRI, which is a non-invasive diagnostic tool, is used to evaluate the CSF circulation around the cyst fenestration. The patients' ages ranged from 4 months to 10 years, with a mean of 4.46 years. The cyst locations were left middle fossa (9), and right (1). Eight patients presented with macrocrania, 4 with developmental delay, three with seizure, two with headache, and one with subdural hematoma. The patients were preoperatively evaluated by means of MRI and cine-MR images. In all patients ventriculofiberscopic procedures including cyst fenestration, membranous dissection, cyst puncture and shriveling were successfully performed. Postoperative MR and cine-MR studies have shown reduction of the cyst size and appropriate CSF circulation. Neuroendoscopic procedures seem to be the first choice for children with arachnoid cysts and the ventriculofiberscope proved to be very useful not only for cyst fenestration but also for cyst dissection. In addition, the non-invasive cine-MR studies are useful for long follow-up at OPD. (author)

285

Treatment and diagnosis of middle fossa arachnoid cyst. Ventriculofiberscopy and cine-MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The treatment of intracranial arachnoid cysts is controversial regarding its surgical indication and operative procedures. Conventional surgical approaches such as fenestration, membranectomy, and shunting operation are invasive. Also CT cisternography and/or RI cisternography are invasive, when it has been performed to evaluate the possible CSF communications between the arachnoid cyst and subarachnoid space. Between July 1994 and February 1997, 10 patients with intracranial middle fossa arachnoid cysts were treated with a newly developed ventriculofiberscope which is characterized by splendid mechanical flexibility and high resolution. The cine-MRI, which is a non-invasive diagnostic tool, is used to evaluate the CSF circulation around the cyst fenestration. The patients` ages ranged from 4 months to 10 years, with a mean of 4.46 years. The cyst locations were left middle fossa (9), and right (1). Eight patients presented with macrocrania, 4 with developmental delay, three with seizure, two with headache, and one with subdural hematoma. The patients were preoperatively evaluated by means of MRI and cine-MR images. In all patients ventriculofiberscopic procedures including cyst fenestration, membranous dissection, cyst puncture and shriveling were successfully performed. Postoperative MR and cine-MR studies have shown reduction of the cyst size and appropriate CSF circulation. Neuroendoscopic procedures seem to be the first choice for children with arachnoid cysts and the ventriculofiberscope proved to be very useful not only for cyst fenestration but also for cyst dissection. In addition, the non-invasive cine-MR studies are useful for long follow-up at OPD. (author)

Kamikawa, Shuji; Kuwamura, Keiichi [Hyogo Prefectural Awaji Hospital, Sumoto (Japan); Tamaki, Norihiko

1998-07-01

286

Incidence, Risks, and Sequelae of Posterior Fossa Syndrome in Pediatric Medulloblastoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the incidence, risks, severity, and sequelae of posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) in children with medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1990 and 2007, 63 children with medulloblastoma at Emory University and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta were treated with craniectomy followed by radiation. Fifty-one patients were assigned to a standard-risk group, and 12 patients were assigned to a high-risk group. Five patients had 2 residual tumor, 4 had ?1.5-cm2 residual tumor, and the remainder had no residual tumor. Eleven patients had disseminated disease. Patients received craniospinal irradiation at a typical dose of 23.4 Gy or 36 Gy for standard- or high-risk disease, respectively. The posterior fossa was given a total dose of 54 or 55.8 Gy. Nearly all patients received chemotherapy following cooperative group protocols. Results: Median follow-up was 7 years. PFS developed in 18 patients (29%). On univariate analysis, brainstem invasion, midline tumor location, younger age, and the absence of radiographic residual tumor were found to be predictors of PFS; the last two variables remained significant on multivariate analysis. From 1990 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2007, the proportions of patients with no radiographic residual tumor were 77% and 94%, respectively. During the same eras, the proportions of patients with PFS were 17% and 39%. Only 4 patients had complete recovery at last follow-up. Conclusions: The incidence of PFS increased in the latter study period and is proportional to more aggressive surgery. Children with midline tumors exhibiting brainstem invasion are at increased risk. With the increased incidence of PFS and the permanent morbidity in many patients, the risks and benefits of complete tumor removal in all patients need to be reexamined.

287

Therapeutic strategy and long-term outcome of meningiomas located in the posterior cranial fossa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical and surgical findings of 41 consecutive cases of posterior cranial fossa meningiomas operated on between January 1987 and December 2011 at Saitama Medical Center/Saitama Medical University were reviewed. The 31 female and 10 male patients were aged from 19 to 74 years (mean 54 years). The tumors were located in the petroclival (N=15), craniovertebral junction (N=6), lateral tentorial (N=12), and cerebellopontine angle (N=8) regions. Mean tumor equivalent diameter was 4.3 cm (range 2-9 cm). Head pain (46.3%) and gait disturbance (26.8%) were the most common presenting symptoms, and cranial neuropathies were the most common neurological signs on admission. Mean preoperative performance status (Karnofsky scale) was 83% (range 40-100%). Surgical approaches to these tumors included presigmoidal transpetrosal, retrosigmoidal, transcondylar, and combined approaches. In 4 cases, a staged procedure was performed. Gross total resection was achieved in 85.4% of patients, and subtotal/partial resection in 12.2%. Surgical mortality was 2.4% and complications were encountered in 11 patients (26.8%) including temporary neurological deficits in 4 patients. The mean follow-up period was 8.2 years, ranging from 1 to 24 years, and the mean performance status of patients at 12 months after the last surgery was 92% (range 0-100%). Recurrence or progression of disease was found in 9.8% of cases. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in 6 cases. My experience suggests that although posterior cranial fossa meningiomas represent a continuing challenge for contemporary neurosurgeons, such tumors may be completely or subtotally removed with low rate of mortality and acceptable morbidity, allowing most of these patients to achieve good outcome in long-term follow up. PMID:23095262

Matsui, Toru

2012-01-01

288

Estimates of seismic activity in the Cerberus Fossae region of Mars  

Science.gov (United States)

The 2016 NASA InSight lander is the first planetary mission designed to study the deep interior of Mars. InSight's Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) package will quantify global and regional seismic activity and determine parameters like core properties, mantle composition, and Martian lithospheric thickness. An improved understanding of the location, magnitude, and frequency of potential seismic sources is essential for optimization of instrument design, sampling strategy, and interpretation of mission data. We focus on forecasting seismic activity for the Cerberus Fossae of the Elysium Planitia, chosen for their proximity to the proposed landing site and their recent formation and assuming these are active tectonic grabens. The minimum age we determine for the units around the Fossae, using Context Camera and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment imagery for crater density surveying, is 10 Ma, placing them in the Late Amazonian. We are able to determine the rate of motion from measurements of observed throw, assuming that the faults remain active. Digital terrain models, made from stereo-image pairs from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), are used to determine the maximum throw on four graben systems. Using these measured throws to estimate a length-averaged slip and assuming an inferred slip rate from surface age, we estimate an annual moment release of 1.58-1.03+2.35×1017Nm. From this we calculate an annual size-frequency distribution of events using the Gütenberg-Richter relationship. We estimate that between 1.5×100and 1.9×105events per year will have an amplitude greater than the peak band noise and so will be detectable at the InSight landing site.

Taylor, J.; Teanby, N. A.; Wookey, J.

2013-12-01

289

Cranial CT with 64-, 16-, 4- and single-slice CT systems-comparison of image quality and posterior fossa artifacts in routine brain imaging with standard protocols  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Posterior fossa artifacts constitute a characteristic limitation of cranial CT. To identify practical benefits and drawbacks of newer CT systems with reduced collimation in routine cranial imaging, we aimed to investigate image quality, posterior fossa artifacts and parenchymal delineation in non-enhanced CT (NECT) with 1-, 4-, 16- and 64-slice scanners using standard scan protocols. We prospectively enrolled 25 consecutive patients undergoing NECT on a 64-slice CT. Three groups with 25 patients having undergone NECT on 1-, 4- and 16-slice CT machines were matched regarding age and sex. Standard routine CT parameters were used on each CT system with helical acquisition in the posterior fossa; the parameters varied regarding collimation and radiation dose. Three blinded readers independently assessed the cases regarding image quality, infra- and supratentorial artifacts and delineation of brain parenchymal structures on a five-point ordinal scale. Reading orders were randomized. A proportional odds model that accounted for the correlated nature of the data was fit using generalized estimating equations. Posterior fossa artifacts were significantly reduced, and the delineation of infratentorial brain structures was significantly improved with the thinner collimation used for the newer CT systems (p0.5). The thinner collimation available on modern CT systems leads to reduced posterior fossa artitems leads to reduced posterior fossa artifacts and to a better delineation of brain parenchyma in the posterior fossa. (orig.)

290

Dermatitis, atopic on the arms (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

This person has inherited allergic skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis) on the arms. Red (erythematous), scaly plaques can be seen on the inside of the elbows (antecubital fossa). In adults, atopic dermatitis usually ...

291

Implante coclear via fossa craniana média: uma nova técnica para acesso ao giro basal da cóclea / Cochlear implantation through the middle cranial fossa: a novel approach to access the basal turn of the cochlea  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A técnica clássica para o implante coclear é realizada através de mastoidectomia e timpanotomia posterior. A abordagem pela fossa craniana média provou ser uma alternativa valiosa, embora venha sendo usada para o implante coclear apenas esporadicamente e sem normatização. OBJETIVO: Descrever uma nov [...] a abordagem para expor o giro basal da cóclea para o implante coclear através da fossa craniana média. MÉTODO: Cinquenta ossos temporais foram dissecados. A cocleostomia foi realizada através de uma abordagem via fossa craniana média, na parte mais superficial do giro basal da cóclea, usando o plano meatal e seio petroso superior como pontos de reparo. A parede lateral do meato acústico interno foi dissecada após o broqueamento e esqueletização do ápice petroso. A parede dissecada do meato acústico interno foi acompanhada longitudinalmente até a cocleostomia. Design: Estudo anatômico de osso temporal. RESULTADOS: Em todos os ossos temporais, apenas a parte superficial do giro basal da cóclea foi aberta. A exposição do giro basal da cóclea permitiu que as escalas timpânica e vestibular fossem visualizadas. Assim, não houve dificuldade na inserção do feixe de eletrodos através da escala timpânica. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica proposta é simples e permite exposição suficiente do giro basal da cóclea. Abstract in english The classic approach for cochlear implant surgery includes mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy. The middle cranial fossa approach is a proven alternative, but it has been used only sporadically and inconsistently in cochlear implantation. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new approach to expose the basal [...] turn of the cochlea in cochlear implant surgery through the middle cranial fossa. METHOD: Fifty temporal bones were dissected in this anatomic study of the temporal bone. Cochleostomies were performed through the middle cranial fossa approach in the most superficial portion of the basal turn of the cochlea, using the meatal plane and the superior petrous sinus as landmarks. The lateral wall of the internal acoustic canal was dissected after the petrous apex had been drilled and stripped. The dissected wall of the inner acoustic canal was followed longitudinally to the cochleostomy. RESULTS: Only the superficial portion of the basal turn of the cochlea was opened in the fifty temporal bones included in this study. The exposure of the basal turn of the cochlea allowed the visualization of the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli, which enabled the array to be easily inserted through the scala tympani. CONCLUSION: The proposed approach is simple to use and provides sufficient exposure of the basal turn of the cochlea.

Aline Gomes, Bittencourt; Robinson Koji, Tsuji; João Paulo Ratto, Tempestini; Alfredo Luiz, Jacomo; Ricardo Ferreira, Bento; Rubens de, Brito.

292

Implante coclear via fossa craniana média: uma nova técnica para acesso ao giro basal da cóclea Cochlear implantation through the middle cranial fossa: a novel approach to access the basal turn of the cochlea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A técnica clássica para o implante coclear é realizada através de mastoidectomia e timpanotomia posterior. A abordagem pela fossa craniana média provou ser uma alternativa valiosa, embora venha sendo usada para o implante coclear apenas esporadicamente e sem normatização. OBJETIVO: Descrever uma nova abordagem para expor o giro basal da cóclea para o implante coclear através da fossa craniana média. MÉTODO: Cinquenta ossos temporais foram dissecados. A cocleostomia foi realizada através de uma abordagem via fossa craniana média, na parte mais superficial do giro basal da cóclea, usando o plano meatal e seio petroso superior como pontos de reparo. A parede lateral do meato acústico interno foi dissecada após o broqueamento e esqueletização do ápice petroso. A parede dissecada do meato acústico interno foi acompanhada longitudinalmente até a cocleostomia. Design: Estudo anatômico de osso temporal. RESULTADOS: Em todos os ossos temporais, apenas a parte superficial do giro basal da cóclea foi aberta. A exposição do giro basal da cóclea permitiu que as escalas timpânica e vestibular fossem visualizadas. Assim, não houve dificuldade na inserção do feixe de eletrodos através da escala timpânica. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica proposta é simples e permite exposição suficiente do giro basal da cóclea.The classic approach for cochlear implant surgery includes mastoidectomy and posterior tympanotomy. The middle cranial fossa approach is a proven alternative, but it has been used only sporadically and inconsistently in cochlear implantation. OBJECTIVE: To describe a new approach to expose the basal turn of the cochlea in cochlear implant surgery through the middle cranial fossa. METHOD: Fifty temporal bones were dissected in this anatomic study of the temporal bone. Cochleostomies were performed through the middle cranial fossa approach in the most superficial portion of the basal turn of the cochlea, using the meatal plane and the superior petrous sinus as landmarks. The lateral wall of the internal acoustic canal was dissected after the petrous apex had been drilled and stripped. The dissected wall of the inner acoustic canal was followed longitudinally to the cochleostomy. RESULTS: Only the superficial portion of the basal turn of the cochlea was opened in the fifty temporal bones included in this study. The exposure of the basal turn of the cochlea allowed the visualization of the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli, which enabled the array to be easily inserted through the scala tympani. CONCLUSION: The proposed approach is simple to use and provides sufficient exposure of the basal turn of the cochlea.

Aline Gomes Bittencourt

2013-04-01

293

Severe toxicity of skin rash, fever and diarrhea associated with imatinib: case report and review of skin toxicities associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Xuan Huang1, Samir Patel2, Nasir Ahmed2, Karen Seiter2, Delong Liu21Department of Medicine, Richmond University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Division of Oncology and Hematology, New York Medical College and Westchester Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML is characterized by a Philadelphia chromosome which contains an oncogene, bcr-abl. This oncogene encodes a tyrosine kinase which is constitutively activated. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI, has been widely used in the treatment of CML. Dasatinib and nilotinib were recently approved for the treatment of CML. Other TKIs, such as bosutinib, erlotinib, and sunitinib, are under study for the treatment of CML as well as other hematologic and solid malignancies. Skin rash has been reported as one of the most common side effects of the TKIs. Here we present a case of severe skin rash together with unusual symptoms of high fever and diarrhea induced by imatinib in a CML patient. The dermatologic toxicities from a variety of tyrosine kinase inhibitors are reviewed and general principles of management are also discussed.Keywords: chronic myeloid leukemia, skin rash, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib

Delong Liu

2008-10-01

294

Carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa: prognostic factors and long-term therapy outcome  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To identify prognostic parameters and evaluate the therapeutic outcomes for patients with carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa treated with three treatment modalities. Methods and Materials: The results of therapy are reported in 384 patients with histologically proven epidermoid carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa; 154 were treated with irradiation alone (55-70 Gy), 144 with preoperative radiation therapy (20-40 Gy), and 86 with postoperative irradiation (50-60 Gy). The operation in all but four patients in the last two groups consisted of an en bloc radical tonsillectomy with ipsilateral lymph node dissection. Results: Treatment modality and total irradiation doses had no impact on survival. Actuarial 10-year disease-free survival rates were 65% for patients with T1 tumors, 60% for T2, 60% for T3, and 30% for T4 disease. Patients with no cervical lymphadenopathy or with a small metastatic lymph node (N1) had better disease-free survival (60% and 70%, respectively) at 5 years than those with large or fixed lymph nodes (30%). Primary tumor recurrence (local, marginal) rates in the T1, T2, and T3 groups were 20-25% in patients treated with irradiation and surgery and 31% for those treated with irradiation alone (difference not statistically significant). In patients with T4 disease treated with surgery and postoperative irradiation, the local failure rate was 32% compared with 86% with low-dose preoperative irradiation and 47% with irradiation alone (p 0.03). The ove% with irradiation alone (p 0.03). The overall recurrence rates in the neck were 10% for N0 patients, 25% for N1 and N2, and 35-40% for patients with N3 cervical lymph nodes, without significant differences among the various treatment groups. The incidence of contralateral neck recurrences was 8% with the various treatment modalities. On multivariate analysis the only significant factors for local tumor control and disease-free survival were T and N stage (p = 0.04-0.001). Fatal complications were noted in 7 of 144 (5%) patients treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery, 2 of 86 (2%) of those receiving postoperative irradiation, and 2 of 154 (1.3%) patients treated with radiation therapy alone. Other moderate or severe nonfatal sequelae were noted in 30% of the patients treated with preoperative irradiation and surgery, in 53% treated with postoperative irradiation, and in 19% receiving radiation therapy alone. Conclusion: Primary tumor and neck node stage are the only significant prognostic factors influencing locoregional tumor control and disease-free survival. Treatment modality had no significant impact on outcome. Radiation therapy remains the treatment of choice for patients with stage T1-T2 carcinoma of the tonsillar fossa. In patients with T3-T4 tumors and good general condition, combination surgery and postoperative irradiation offers better tumor control than single-modality and preoperative irradiation procedures, but with greater morbidity

295

Signs of potential renewal of eruptive activity at La Fossa (Vulcano, Aeolian Islands)  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the end of the last magmatic eruption (1890), activity of La Fossa (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) has consisted of fumarolic emissions of fluctuating intensity. Fluids are discharged principally at two fumarolic fields located in the northern rim of the active crater and at the beach sited at its northern foot. Increased thermal, seismic and geochemical activity has been recorded since 1978, when an earthquake of M=5.5 occurred in the region. This paper combines available geophysical and geochemical information in order to develop a tentative interpretation of two episodes of apparent unrest which occurred in 1985 and 1987 1988, enhancing the risk of renewal of the eruptive activity. The 1985 unrest consisted essentially of a sharp build up of the internal pressure in the shallow hydrothermal system, which was induced by the injection of hot gases of magmatic origin. The crater fumaroles displayed significant increases in CO2 and other acid species, but their outlet temperature did not change. Conversely, the 1987 1988 episode was characterized by appreciable modifications at the crater fumaroles, with only secondary effects at the fumarole system of the beach. The sliding of part of the eastern flank of the La Fossa cone into the sea occurred on 20 April 1988, when the region was affected by crustal dilatation producing a seismic sequence of relatively high intensity. Both episodes of unrest were accompanied by increases of local microseismic activity, which affected the nothern sector of the island in 1985, and the southern one in 1988. Finally, a phase of appreciable areal contraction was detected in 1990, probably due to the effect of the cooling and crystallization of magma at relatively shallow depths, accompanying the increased thermal activity at the crater fumaroles. Regional tectonic stress seems to play an important role in the transition of the volcanic system from a phase of relative stability to a phase of apparent unrest, inducing the heating and the expansion of shallow hydrothermal fluids. Available information is insufficient to indicate whether or not the volcano is building towards the renewal of a magmatic eruption, and there is no evidence to hypothesize episodes of significant magma migration. The frequency of measurements of many parameters needs to be increased in order to learn more about the temporal relationships between geochemical and geophysical variations preceding and accompanying periods of increased thermal activity. This will probably be a valid tool for recognizing short-term precursors of a future eruption, reducing the risk of false alarms.

Montalto, A.

1996-04-01

296

Ultrasound Imaging of the Sciatic Nerve Division in the Popliteal Fossa: A Volunteer Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Background and Objectives: A sciatic nerve block at the level of the popliteal fossa is frequently administered for post-operative analgesia for surgery below the knee. While ultrasound continues to gain popularity as the technique of choice for guiding needle positioning during peripheral nerve blocks, practitioners can begin to utilize ultrasound to look for patterns of anatomical significance. Recognizing anatomical variations among different demographic populations can help practitioners improve in performing nerve blocks. We aim to determine if predictable variability exists in sciatic nerve bifurcation location and depth at the level of the popliteal fossa. Methods: After IRB approval, eligible subjects were screened for ASA I or II status and demographic data was collected. Fifty subjects were enrolled. The SonoSite MicroMaxx® with 38-mm broadband linear array, 13-6 MHz probe with color Doppler and image capturing capabilities was used for ultrasound measurements. With subject lying prone, the location of the sciatic nerve in relation to the popliteal crease and skin-to-nerve distance were assessed via ultrasound. Two independent investigators confirmed nerve location for measurements. Analyses were performed with SAS version 9.1 using Pearson Correlation Coefficients and regression analysis. Results: Gender stratification revealed that, while males were both taller and heavier, skin-nerve measurements for depth were consistently deeper in females (p-value 0.02. Independent of the right or left leg, male gender and increased height decreases the skin-nerve distance, while increased weight increases the distance. There was no correlation between patient characteristics and crease-nerve distance. In some subjects, variability of crease-nerve distance even existed between their right and left leg. Conclusion: We show that significant variability exists for actual sciatic nerve bifurcation location, or target injection site, with consistently deeper skin depth values for female patients when compared to male patients, accounting for height and weight. These findings suggest visualization techniques such as ultrasound may lead to better localization of ideal injection sites.

Eric P. Chiang

2013-07-01

297

La Verbena azul en el tratamiento del niño con salpullido / The blue Verbena to treat the child with rash  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la miliaria es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la piel, usualmente conocida como salpullido, es muy frecuente en niños pequeños sobre todo en los meses de verano. Objetivo: valorar la eficacia de la infusión de Verbena azul en el control de la miliaria común. Métodos: se realizó un ensa [...] yo clínico fase II, a partir de la preparación de una infusión de hojas frescas o secas molidas, que se vertieron en 12 litros de agua hirviente, se tapó y se separó del fuego después de añadirle la planta, se dejó reposar y se coló. Fue aplicada tibia en todo el cuerpo durante 21 días, en dos secciones, al levantarse, y en la tarde luego del baño diario. El estudio se realizó en 30 lactantes de raza blanca, que acudieron con esta patología a la consulta de Medicina Natural y Tradicional, en el consultorio 6 del poblado de Altagracia, en el periodo entre junio del 2004 y junio del 2005, los cuales pertenecían al Policlínico Comunitario Docente "Carlos J. Finlay" de la Ciudad de Camagüey. Los datos se recogieron mediante una encuesta, confeccionada de acuerdo con los objetivos planteados en la investigación. Resultados: el grupo más afectado fue el de 3 a 6 meses, todos los pacientes fueron blancos, no se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al sexo. La variedad clínica más frecuente fue la cristalina, y los meses en que más se presentó fueron entre junio y agosto. Conclusiones: este tratamiento presentó una alta eficacia en el control de la sintomatología de la miliaria común; se curaron 9 de cada 10 pacientes. Abstract in english Introduction: miliaria is an skin inflammatory disease known as rash and is very frequent in small children mainly during summer months. Objective: assessing the efficacy of the infusion of blue Verbena in controlling common heat rash. Methods: a phase II clinical trial was conducted from the prepar [...] ation of an infusion of fresh leaves or dry grinded poured out in 12 liters of boiling water, was covered and removed from fire after adding the plant, it was doughed and strained. It was applied warm in whole body for 21 days in t wo sessions, to stand up and at evening after daily bath. A study was conducted in 30 white infants presenting with this pathology who came to the Natural and Traditional Medicine Service in the No.6 consulting room of the Altagracia settlement from June, 2004 to June, 2005 of "Carlos J. Finlay" Teaching Community polyclinic of the Camagüey city. Data were collected by survey, designed according to the objectives proposed in research. Results: the more involved group was that aged 3-6 months, all patients were white; there were not significant differences as regards sex. The more frequent clinical variety was the crystalline one and more prevalent months were June and August. Conclusions: present treatment was highly effective in the control of symptomatology of the common miliaria; nine of ten patients were cured.

Roberto, Galiano Piquet; Bárbaro, Usatorres Rodríguez.

2012-03-01

298

Simulation of local anaesthetic nerve block of the infraorbital nerve within the pterygopalatine fossa: anatomical landmarks defined by computed tomography.  

Science.gov (United States)

To provide anaesthesia of the maxillary cheek teeth, a local block of the infraorbital nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa has been suggested. The aim of this study was to re-examine the anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa, giving special attention to relevant arteries, veins and nerves; simulate the infiltration of an anaesthetic by injecting a contrast medium; improve the injection technique to avoid puncturing of relevant anatomical structures. Five heads and two living horses were investigated using contrast medium injections and computed tomography (CT). Needles were inserted using two insertion techniques: "Palatine Bone Insertion" (PBI) and "Extraperiorbital Fat Body Insertion" (EFBI). Both techniques are suitable for achieving a consistent distribution of contrast medium around the infraorbital nerve. The periorbita prevents the contrast medium from penetrating into the intraperiorbital compartment. The EFBI-technique is most appropriate for providing a sufficient infraorbital nerve block with a minimised risk of complications. PMID:18371997

Staszyk, Carsten; Bienert, Astrid; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Feige, Karsten; Gasse, Hagen

2008-12-01

299

Cortical dysplasias, and corpus callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities: correlation of clinical findings with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined clinical findings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics in 114 patients with cortical dysplasia and corpus callosum and posterior fossa abnormalities to determine the clinical findings with the extent of the lesions on MRI. The age of patients was between 1 day and 15 years. Group 1 included 74 patients with corpus callosum abnormalities and/or cortical dysplasias and group 2 included 40 patients with posterior fossa abnormalities, which were isolated and/or associated with cortical dysplasia and/or corpus callosum abnormalities. Although associated congenital abnormality apart from central nervous system abnormalities, syndrome, or systemic disorder were more common in group 2 than group 1 patients (P epilepsy (P > .05). PMID:23589375

Caksen, Hüseyin; K?z?ly?ld?z, Baran Serdar; Avcu, Serhat

2014-04-01

300

Clinical validity of MR based program for analysis of fluid/brain index of posterior cranial fossa structures in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and type 2 (SCA2) belong to the group of neurodegenerative disorders of autosomal dominant inheritance, genetically and clinically heterogeneous, caused by CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion, which leads to productions of protein carrying the abnormal polyglutamine chain (polyQ). Molecular abnormalities cause degenerative changes - atrophy of posterior cranial fossa structures. The clinical symptoms typical of this disorder include progressive gait and limb ataxia, dysarthria, occulomotor disturbances, pyramidal tract and peripheral nerves involvement. The aim of the study is to evaluate the usefulness of a computer program prepared in our department for volumetric measurements of posterior cranial fossa structures (the pons, vermis and cerebellar hemispheres) in a group of SCA patients. MR examinations of 22 patients suffering from SCA were used to calculate the value of fluid/brain index of posterior cranial fossa structures and compared with the results of group of 10 healthy volunteers. The degree of atrophy of posterior cranial fossa structures can be objectively evaluated by special volumetric measurements. We found fluid/brain index (FBI) of posterior cranial fossa structures in group of SCA patients to vary from 0.1411 to 0.3929 (mean 0.2456 SD±0.601). 1. MR-based calculation of fluid/brain index of posterior fossa structures is a valuable tool for morphological assessment of SCA-related changes in brain structures. 2. The presented software enables objective evaluation of the course and stage of posterior fossa structures atrophy. 3. Our self-made computer program to calculate the fluid/brain index of posterior cranial fossa structures is easy to use on a personal computer- it is a good tool in everyday radiological practice. (author)

 
 
 
 
301

Reduced CYP2D6 function is associated with gefitinib-induced rash in patients with non-small cell lung cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Rash, liver dysfunction, and diarrhea are known major adverse events associated with erlotinib and gefitinib. However, clinical trials with gefitinib have reported different proportions of adverse events compared to trials with erlotinib. In an in vitro study, cytochrome P450 (CYP 2D6 was shown to be involved in the metabolism of gefitinib but not erlotinib. It has been hypothesized that CYP2D6 phenotypes may be implicated in different adverse events associated with gefitinib and erlotinib therapies. Methods The frequency of each adverse event was evaluated during the period in which the patients received gefitinib or erlotinib therapy. CYP2D6 phenotypes were determined by analysis of CYP2D6 genotypes using real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques, which can detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The CYP2D6 phenotypes were categorized into 2 groups according to functional or reduced metabolic levels. In addition, we evaluated the odds ratio (OR of the adverse events associated with each factor, including CYP2D6 activities and treatment types. Results A total of 232 patients received gefitinib therapy, and 86 received erlotinib therapy. Reduced function of CYP2D6 was associated with an increased risk of rash of grade 2 or more (OR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21–0.94; *p = 0.03, but not diarrhea ? grade 2 (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.17–1.51; *p = 0.20 or liver dysfunction ? grade 2 (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.52–2.34; *p = 0.84 in the gefitinib cohort. No associations were observed between any adverse events in the erlotinib cohort and CYP2D6 phenotypes (rash: OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 0.54–6.41; *p = 0.35/diarrhea: OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.21–7.43; *p = 0.93/liver dysfunction: OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.20–5.07; *p = 0.93. Conclusions The frequency of rash was significantly higher in patients with reduced CYP2D6 activity who treated with gefitinib compared to patients with functional CYP2D6. CYP2D6 phenotypes are a risk factor for the development of rash in response to gefitinib therapy.

Suzumura Tomohiro

2012-12-01

302

Entrapped Catheter across the Fossa Ovalis in an Adult with Pulmonary Stenosis - A Case Report of Surgical Relief.  

Science.gov (United States)

Percutaneous pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty as a procedure of choice in adults has been established since the last three decades. Even though the complications are rare, they are scarcely reported in the literature. We report such a case in an adult female patient of severe pulmonary valular stenosis in whom, entrapped catheter across the fossa ovalis was noted in chest x-ray and echocardiogram following unsuccessful percutaneous pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty. Our case emphasizes this rare complication and its successful surgical outcome. PMID:24757650

Betigeri, Vithalkumar Malleshi; Gopinathan, Girish; Malik, Indira; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Datt, Vishnu; Satsangi, Deepak Kumar

2014-01-01

303

Dimensions of the posterior fossa in patients symptomatic for Chiari I malformation but without cerebellar tonsillar descent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Chiari I malformation (CMI) is diagnosed by rigid radiographic criteria along with appropriate clinical symptomatology. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensions of the posterior cranial fossa in patients without significant tonsillar descent but with symptoms comparable to CMI. Methods Twenty-two patients with signs and symptoms comparable to CMI but without accepted radiographic criteria of tonsillar descent > 3–5 mm were re...

Kathleen, Sekula L.; Marchan Edward M; Casey Kenneth F; Jannetta Peter J; Sekula Raymond F; McCrady Christine S

2005-01-01

304

MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of recurrent contrast-enhancing lesions in the posterior fossa after tumor treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recurrent contrast-enhancing lesions arising within foci of prior brain neoplasms treated with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy pose a significant diagnostic dilemma, as they may represent recurrent or residual tumor, treatment-related changes, or a combination of both. Those lesions specifically in the posterior fossa are even more difficult to assess, given the technical limitations of 2D CSI in the infratentorial compartment. We explored the feasibility of 2D-CSI MR spectroscopy in the evaluation of recurrent contrast-enhancing lesions in eight consecutive patients who had undergone treatment for posterior fossa or brainstem tumors. Mean Cho/Cr (choline/creatine) ratios obtained by 2D-CSI in recurrent tumor, treatment-related changes, and normal white matter were 2.93, 1.62, and 0.97, respectively, mean Cho/NAA (choline/N-Acetyl aspartate) ratios were 4.34, 1.74, and 0.93, and mean NAA/Cr (N-acetyl aspartate/creatine) ratios were 0.74, 0.92, and 1.26, respectively. In conclusion, also in the posterior fossa, MR spectroscopy is likely to be useful as an adjunct to conventional imaging characteristics in distinguishing recurrent tumor from treatment-related changes, irrespectively of the MRS technique used. In most cases spectra of diagnostic quality can be obtained using 2D-CSI to include coverage of both the lesion and its vicinity. (orig.)

Weybright, P.; Maly, P.; Gomez-Hassan, D.; Blaesing, C.; Sundgren, P.C. [Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, University of Michigan Hospitals, 1500 E. Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0030 (United States)

2004-07-01

305

Impacted cisterna magna without syringomyelia associated with lancinating headache, throbbed nuchal pain and paraparesis treated byposterior fossa decompression Cisterna magna impactada sem siringomielia associada a cefaléia lancinante, dor na nuca terebrante e paraparesia tratadas com descompressão da fossa posterior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman with acute lancinating headache, throbbed nuchal pain and subacute paraparesis underwent brain MRI in supine position that depicted: the absence of the cisterna magna, filled by non herniated cerebellar tonsils and compression of the brain stem and cisternae of the posterior fossa, which are aspects of the impacted cisterna magna without syringomyelia and without hydrocephalus. During eight days, pain was constant and resistant to drug treatment. Osteodural-neural decompression of the posterior fossa, performed with the patient in sitting position, revealed: compression of the brainstem, fourth ventricle and foramen of Magendie by herniated cerebellar tonsils, which were aspirated. Immediately after surgery, the headache and nuchal pain remmited. MRI depicted the large created cisterna magna and also that the cerebellar tonsils did not compress the fourth ventricle, the foramen of Magendie and the brainstem, besides the enlargement of posterior fossa cisternae. Four months after surgery, headache, nuchal pain and paraparesis had disappeared but hyperactive patellar and Achilles reflexes remained.Uma paciente de 29 anos de idade com quadro agudo de cefaléia lancinante, dor terebrante na nuca e paraparesia subaguda foi submetida a RM do encéfalo, em posição supina, que revelou: ausência da cisterna magna, preenchida por tonsilas cerebelares não herniadas e compressão do tronco encefálico e das cisternas da fossa posterior, compatíveis com o diagnóstico de cisterna magna impactada sem siringomielia e sem hidrocefalia. Por oito dias a dor foi constante e resistente aos analgésicos. Com a paciente em posição sentada, foi realizada descompressão osteodural-neural da fossa posterior associada a aspiração das tonsilas cerebelares. Os achados perioperatórios foram caracterizados por herniação das tonsilas cerebelares que comprimiam o tronco cerebral, o quarto ventrículo e o forame de Magendie. No pós-operatório imediato houve remissão da cefaléia e da dor na nuca. A RM evidenciou a cisterna magna recém-criada, alargamento do quarto ventrículo e das cisternas do tronco encefálico. Quatro meses depois, a paciente continuava sem cefaléia, sem dor na nuca e sem paraparesia. Entretanto, permaneceu a hiperatividade dos reflexos patelares e aquileus.

José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

2007-12-01

306

Improved Treatment of the Breast and Supraclavicular Fossa Based on a Simple Geometrical Principle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In breast cancer, nodal irradiation has become routine, but adds time and creates concerns for field overlap if the “match” is not accurate. We developed a technique to address these issues by using only one isocenter for both areas. Tangents are designed at simulation. The isocenter is then shifted to the upper border of the breast using a straightforward geometrical calculation. After determining the new isocenter, fields are recreated wherein the tangents are treated with a quarter beam and the supraclavicular field fashioned with a half-beam block. The gantry, collimator, and couch angles of the supraclavicular field are adjusted to achieve an accurate match. Ten patients were evaluated. Doses to the spinal cord and brachial plexus were lowered relative to conventional techniques. The hot spots were not augmented. In comparison with standard arrangements, setup time decreased. Accurate matching was consistently achieved and verified by portal imaging. A new approach for treating the supraclavicular fossa is easily executed. Advantages include negligible doses to the critical neural structures (i.e., spinal cord and brachial plexus), optimized matchline, and reduced setup time.

307

Posterior Cranial Fossa Crowdedness Is Related to Age and Sex: an Magnetic Resonance Volumetric Study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To measure 3-dimensional (3D) posterior cranial fossa (PCF) crowdedness and to evaluate the effect of age, sex, and body height on PCF. Material and Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (24 M and 28 F; mean age 55.4±17.2 years; range 24-82 years) were recruited. Using a semi-automated magnetic resonance technique, we calculated a PCF crowdedness index (CI) as the ratio of hindbrain (HB) volume to PCF volume x100% and correlated this index with age, sex, body height, and other crowdedness parameters. Results: The mean PCF CI was 93.7±2.7%. Women had a more crowded PCF than men (95.0±1.7% versus 92.1±2.7%; P <0.001). PCF CI declined with age for both men ( r = -0.61; P = 0.002) and women ( r = -0.68; P <0.001). The association with age - but not HB volume - was maintained after we controlled for sex and body height. On multiple regression, both age and sex accounted for 57.5% of the PCF CI variance. Conclusion: Our study shows that PCF CI is associated with age and sex, and can therefore be used as a surrogate to assess hindbrain atrophy in a cross-sectional sample. Moreover, sex- and age-specific normal ranges may be needed to evaluate the PCF CI in clinical practice

308

Total spine and posterior fossa MRI screening in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (177 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: MRI screening for idiopathic scoliosis is controversial. Considering our clinical experiences, the results of MRI in all patients with idiopathic scoliosis were evaluated. Methods: In a prospective clinical study, all neurologically normal patients with idiopathic scoliosis screened by posterior fossa and total spine MRI. Results: After excluding 9 patients for mild neurological findings, in other 177 patients (132 female, 45 male, the average age and curve angle was 15±2 years and 59±17º (30 to 135º, respectively. Convexity was to right in 146 and to left in 31 cases. MRI was positive in 12 cases (6.8%. In 5 cases (2.8%, neurosurgical intervention was necessary prior to scoliosis surgery. There was no relation between age, sex, presence of pain or curve angle and positive MRI findings (P>0.05. Left convexity was significantly related to positive MRI findings (P=0.013. In males with left convex curves, the probability of positive MRI findings was 8.8 folds other patients. Conclusion: Considering our results and other reported articles, it seems that routine MRI screening of all patients presenting as idiopathic scoliosis is necessary for detection of underlying pathologies. Key words: Idiopathic Scoliosis, MRI, Spine Syrinx, Chiari

MR Etemadifar

2005-05-01

309

Malignant giant cell tumor in the posterior fossa of a neonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Giant cell tumors (GCTs) of the bone are rare, usually benign but locally aggressive neoplasms that primarily occur in the epiphyses of long bones. They seldom develop in the cranium; when they do, they involve principally the sphenoid and temporal bones. These tumors usually affect young adults, and few reports in children have been published. Primary malignant GCTs of the skull are even more uncommon. The 3 published cases all involved adults over 40 years of age. Herein, the authors present a case of a highly aggressive primary malignant GCT of the posterior fossa in a 5-week old preterm infant. One month after the gross-total resection of the tumor found in the bone, the infant's condition rapidly deteriorated and she died. Magnetic resonance imaging and postmortem examination revealed a tumor larger than it had been before the operation, with expansion toward the brain. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported with a primary malignant GCT of the skull, and actually the first case in a pediatric patient. In addition, the extremely high growth rate of the tumor in the postoperative period renders this case the most aggressive primary malignant GCT of the cranium described so far. PMID:20192645

Karamanakos, Petros N; Jaaskelainen, Juha E; Alafuzoff, Irina; Pirinen, Elina; Vanninen, Ritva; Silvennoinen, Sanna; Sankilampi, Ulla; Immonen, Arto

2010-03-01

310

[Ethmoid sinus mucocele penetrating to the orbit and anterior cranial fossa - case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

Paranasal sinus mucocele is the cystic formation lined by inflammatory changed mucoperiosteum. This is slow-growing pathology with a tendency to bone erosion. The symptoms are dependent on the direction of the penetration, and are as follows: increasing headaches, deformations of frontal or orbital region, ophthalmic manifestations such as lacrimation, decreased visual acuity, exophthalmos, ocular movement limitation, diplopia. The most common location of the mucocele is fronto-ethmoid region. The most useful diagnostic tests are a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a computed tomography (CT) which show the progress of the disease and bone destructions. Surgery is the only method of treatment (external approach or FESS). This paper reports the case of a 74-year-old woman with ethmoid mucocele penetrating into the orbit, frontal sinus and anterior cranial fossa with compression of frontal lobe of the brain. The patient underwent CT and MRI and was treated with endoscopic intranasal marsupialization of the cyst. There are no clinical signs of disease recurrence 7 months after surgery. The endoscopic surgical management in treatment of sinus mucocele is a good alternative to the operation from external approach because of its low invasiveness, low complication risk, rapid healing and good therapeutic effects. PMID:24021830

Paradowska-Opa?ka, Beata; Kawczy?ski, Maciej; Jaworowska, Ewa

2013-01-01

311

Declarative and procedural learning in children and adolescents with posterior fossa tumours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This quasi-experimental study was designed to assess two important learning types – procedural and declarative – in children and adolescents affected by posterior fossa tumours (astrocytoma vs. medulloblastoma, given that memory has an important impact on the child's academic achievement and personal development. Methods We had three groups: two clinical (eighteen subjects and one control (twelve subjects. The learning types in these groups were assessed by two experimental tasks evaluating procedural-implicit and declarative memory. A Serial Reaction-Time Task was used to measure procedural sequence learning, and the Spanish version 1 of the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version- CVLT- 2 to measure declarative-explicit learning. The learning capacity was assessed considering only the blocks that represent learning, and were compared with MANOVA in clinical and normal subjects. The Raven, simple reaction-time, finger-tapping test, and grooved pegboard tests were used to assess the overall functioning of subjects. The results were compared with those from a control group of the same age, and with Spanish norm-referenced tools where available Results The results indicate the absence of procedural-implicit learning in both clinical groups, whereas declarative-explicit learning is maintained in both groups. Conclusion The clinical groups showed a conservation of declarative learning and a clear impairment of procedural learning. The results support the role of the cerebellum in the early phase of procedural learning.

Casares Encarnación

2006-03-01

312

Endoscopic endonasal transturbinate approach to the pterygopalatine fossa in the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is a difficult-to-access anatomic area located behind the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) often affects this area, and the management of feeding artery to the tumor is important in the surgery. Endoscopic endonasal approach to the PPF without endangering all other nasal structures is useful in the management of JNA. We describe a new approach to the PPF, endoscopic transturbinate approach, which is effective in the management of JNA. Submucous inferior turbinoplasty was performed, and sphenopalatine artery, the feeder to the tumor, was identified at the sphenopalatine foramen. The posterior wall of maxillary sinus was removed. Internal maxillary artery was identified in the PPF and was ligated with a hemoclip. The tumor in the PPF was pushed into the nasal cavity. These procedures were all performed via submucous turbinate tunnel. Then, the tumor was successfully removed in en bloc from the nasal cavity by transnasal approach without ethmoidectomy. This approach improves accessibility and visualization in the PPF and potential to reduce intraoperative bleeding due to ligation of the feeder safely without touching the tumor. Endoscopic transturbinate approach is effective in the management of early stage of JNA. PMID:22953122

Kodama, Satoru; Mabuchi, Hideaki; Suzuki, Masashi

2012-01-01

313

An aneurysm rupturing into a middle cranial fossa arachnoid cyst presenting as an intracystic hemorrhage.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of an aneurysm rupturing into an arachnoid cyst presenting as a confined intracystic hemorrhage. A 37-year-old man with a history of sporadic headaches for several years complained of a headache of several days' duration. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic lesion in the left side of the middle cranial fossa that included a 3-cm-diameter hematoma in the Sylvian fissure without extracystic hemorrhage. Left carotid artery angiography showed an internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm and an anterior choroidal artery aneurysm. The cyst wall was excised, and the aneurysms were clipped. The bleeding point was the spot at which the IC-PC aneurysm entered the arachnoid cyst. Right oculomotor nerve palsy developed after surgery, but resolved after 3 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only fourth report to date in the literature of a confined aneurysm rupturing into an arachnoid cyst. PMID:20851623

Shimizu, Jun; Matsumoto, Masayoshi; Yamazaki, Etsuo; Yasue, Masaharu

2012-04-01

314

Posterior Fossa Arachnoid Cyst Masking a Delayed Diagnosis of Hyperparathyroidism in a Child  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Primary hyperparathyroidism in childhood is a very rare entity, often being diagnosed late after the onset of its presenting symptoms. It most commonly affects patients in their fourth decade of life and beyond. The inclusion of primary hyperparathyroidism in the differential diagnosis is necessary when evaluating patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms such as polyuria, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Methods. We report the case of an eleven-year-old girl presenting with three years history of headaches, visual disturbance, along with episodes of emotional lability. Neuroimaging confirmed a large posterior fossa arachnoid cyst. It was decided to manage this lesion conservatively with surveillance. Only after further hospital admissions with recurrent loss of consciousness, dizziness, and nausea to add to her already existing symptoms, a full biochemical and endocrine assessment was performed to look for more specific causes for her presentation. These pointed to a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism. Conclusions. The inclusion of primary hyperparathyroidism in the differential diagnosis should be considered when evaluating paediatric patients presenting with nonspecific (neurological, gastrointestinal, and renal) symptoms in order to establish a prompt diagnosis of the disorder and to avoid severe complications of prolonged hypercalcaemia and end-organ damage. PMID:23227372

Dhamija, B.; Kombogiorgas, D.; Hussain, I.; Solanki, G. A.

2012-01-01

315

Volcanic emissions from soils at the base of La Fossa volcano, Vulcano island, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

A top-sealed plastic tube with a diameter of ca. 15 cm had been buried vertically at the base of La Fossa volcano, Volcano island, Italy, next to the front of the obsidian flow. The tube had been filled with quartz wool to condense vapors emanating from the soil. At ca. 75 cm below the surface the sample had been exposed to vapors from Sept. 2005 to April 2006. The leached sample had not been in touch with the ground. Another glass wool cushion (ca. 3 cm thick) had been underneath to minimize capillary effects. Leaching of the quartz wool and ICP-MS analysis documented positive values for: Mg, Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb. Leaching with nitric acid documented also V and Fe. Acid leaching produced higher values for all elements, except K and Sn, than leaching with deionized water. Negative values had been obtained for As, Se, Mo. Influence from soil breathing can be excluded as the active fumaroles contain As and Se. This experiment documents for the first time an unknown element transport by vapors/gases through a volcanic edifice interacting with hydrothermal and magmatic gases. It remains unknown if elements detected are entering the atmosphere or are getting adsorbed onto the volcanic ash soil particles derived from reworked surge beds. This question is very important as soils might be an unknown filter medium to filter volcanically polluted air in case of major volcanic crises. Data can be obtained from the authors.

Obenholzner, J. H.; Parks, J. L.

2006-12-01

316

UV camera measurements of fumarole field degassing (La Fossa crater, Vulcano Island)  

Science.gov (United States)

The UV camera is becoming an important new tool in the armory of volcano geochemists to derive high time resolution SO 2 flux measurements. Furthermore, the high camera spatial resolution is particularly useful for exploring multiple-source SO 2 gas emissions, for instance the composite fumarolic systems topping most quiescent volcanoes. Here, we report on the first SO 2 flux measurements from individual fumaroles of the fumarolic field of La Fossa crater (Vulcano Island, Aeolian Island), which we performed using a UV camera in two field campaigns: in November 12, 2009 and February 4, 2010. We derived ~ 0.5 Hz SO 2 flux time-series finding fluxes from individual fumaroles, ranging from 2 to 8.7 t d -1, with a total emission from the entire system of ~ 20 t d -1 and ~ 13 t d -1, in November 2009 and February 2010 respectively. These data were augmented with molar H 2S/SO 2, CO 2/SO 2 and H 2O/SO 2 ratios, measured using a portable MultiGAS analyzer, for the individual fumaroles. Using the SO 2 flux data in tandem with the molar ratios, we calculated the flux of volcanic species from individual fumaroles, and the crater as a whole: CO 2 (684 t d -1 and 293 t d -1), H 2S (8 t d -1 and 7.5 t d -1) and H 2O (580 t d -1 and 225 t d -1).

Tamburello, G.; Kantzas, E. P.; McGonigle, A. J. S.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.

2011-01-01

317

A report of the anesthesia in posterior fossa operations in the sitting position in 55 patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this survey, 55 patients were studied in a period of six years for having the anesthesia in the sitting position. In this position, the surgeon will had a better access to the location, whose damages have been sustained, so less damages would be given to the healthy tissues. For the patients, due to their critical general conditions, one week prior to giving anesthesia to the posterior fossa, operation in the sitting position the right ventriculoatiral shunt was placed. For preventing the fall of blood pressure, a bandage was placed in the lower limbs after inducing anesthesia and changing supine position to sitting position. Before the induction, central venous pressure was measured for treating the air embolism. The head of catheter was placed inside the right atrial. Premedications such as atropine, pethidine, and inductive agents like thiopenton, and muscle relaxants, maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide. All of the patients endured this condition without the fall of blood pressure and air embolism

Jahanguiri B

1994-04-01

318

Anterior fossa schwannoma mimicking an olfactory groove meningioma: case report and literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intracranial schwannomas not associated with cranial nerves account for less than 1% of surgically treated schwannomas of the central and peripheral nervous system. With only 45 cases reported to date, subfrontal schwannomas are very rare tumors, leaving the issue of their origin controversial. A 66-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of progressive headaches. Clinical examination revealed hypoesthesia of the nasal tip. CT-scan and MRI studies revealed a large subfrontal tumor thought preoperatively to be a meningioma. Intraoperatively, a large extra-axial tumor arising from the floor of the right frontal fossa was encountered. Histopathology identified the tumor as a schwannoma. This current case gives strong clinical presumption of an origin from the anterior ethmoidal nerve. We reviewed the literature in order to establish the epidemiology of these tumors, from which there appear to be divergent profiles depending on tumor origin and histology. Despite close similarities with olfactory groove meningiomas, patient history and radiological findings provide substantial evidence for differential diagnosis. PMID:23587626

Sauvaget, F; François, P; Ben Ismail, M; Thomas, C; Velut, S

2013-04-01

319

Imaging of lesions in the posterior cranial fossa using single photon emission computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lesions in the posterior cranial fossa were visualized by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123I-IMP (N-isopropyl-p-123I-iodoamphetamine) and 99mTc-HM-PAO (99mTc-hexametylpropyleneamine oxime). It is generally held that these radiopharmaceuticals penetrate the walls of cerebral blood vessels and that their accumulations in the brain tissue may reflect the cerebral blood flow. Six patients with lesions in the central nervous system all showed wider areas of abnormality in SPECT than in X-ray CT, indicating a larger lesion of blood flow disturbance. In the next series of 11 patients with vertigo or dizziness of unknown etiology, eight had abnormal findings in the scan with 123I-IMP as did four of the nine in the scan with 99mTc-HM-PAO. Thus, most patients with dizziness of unknown etiology may have some vertebral blood flow disorder, which in some cases is not clearly diagnosed by conventional vestibular examinations or even by X-ray CT scan. The accuracy of the diagnostic measures for otoneurological problems awaits further studies of their sensitivity and specificity. (author)

320

Evaluation of axillary fossa lymph nodes metastasis with mammography in patients with breast cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate X-ray characteristics of axillary fossa lymph nodes (ALNs)metastases in patients with breast cancer. Methods: 11 cases of breast cancer confirmed by operation were performed with mammography. The breast, the samples of the breast and the ALNs were all detected. The X-ray characteristics of ALNs were compared with pathologic findings. Results: There were 46 metastatic lymph nodes and 52 non-metastatic nodes. There were 10 metastaic and 8 non-metastic lymph nodes among 18 lymph nodes with maximum diameter larger than 10mm. There were 42 metastatic and 5 non-metastatic lymph nodes among 42 high density solid ymph nodes. Only 4 out of 46 metastatic lymph nodes showed normal density. Conclusion: The metastases of ALNs had poor correlation with the size. The high density, irregular cortex and adjacent fat tissue change of the ALNs in patients with breast cancer are probably indicative of metastases. Molybdenum target mammography is amodality of choice for the assessment of ALNs in patients with breast cancer. (authors)

 
 
 
 
321

Revision muduloblastoma and treatment of posterior fossa ependinoma analysis of new therapeutic strategies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fulltext: In general the primary tumors of S.n.c. required at some stage in their treatment, use of radiotherapy, usually as postoperative treatment or exclusively in the case that the surgery is not possible, in turn for treatment of some of these tumors association with chemotherapy has shown to be beneficial. In the case of medulloblastomas, ependymomas of the posterior fossa tumors of the choroid plexus and the pineal gland, irradiation technique that used for their particular spread is the total craniospinal irradiation. In this paper a review of the treatment techniques are performed, the overall survival and disease-free survival and complications treatments, in patients with medulloblastoma and ependymomas treated in the Department. Oncology Hospital and Clinics in INDO period of approximately 30 years. Results were compared with the international literature and analysis was performed new perspectives on the therapeutic radiation treatment (radiotherapy 3D shaped for example) and its association with chemotherapy. The results will be analyzed in Congress

322

Reconstrução tridimensional da face nos tumores avançados com invasão da fossa craniana anterior / Tridimensional facial reconstruction following major resection of tumors involving the anterior cranial fossa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar as indicações cirúrgicas e o seguimento pós operatório, ressaltando as complicações e efetividade da abordagem multidisciplinar, para os tumores avançados da base do crânio. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva de 46 prontuários de pacientes submetidos à ressecção de tumores invadindo a [...] fossa craniana anterior e reconstruídos com retalhos microcirúrgicos, operados entre março de 1990 e julho de 2002. Todos os pacientes foram operados pelo núcleo de cirurgia de base do crânio do INCA. RESULTADOS: As estruturas mais envolvidas na ressecção foram por ordem: a órbita (76,5%), seio maxilar (76,5%), seio esfenoidal (63,8%), paredes da cavidade nasal (59,5%) e palato (42,5%). A dura-máter estava acometida em 32,6% dos casos. A reconstrução microcirúrgica utilizando os retalhos do músculo reto abdominal foi empregada em 93,5 % dos casos. A taxa de sucesso dos transplantes livres foi de 97,8%. As complicações ocorreram em 58,6% dos pacientes e as mais freqüentes foram: infecções locais (21,7%), fístulas liquóricas (15,2%), meningite (6,5%) e hematoma (6,5%). CONCLUSÕES: A reconstrução com técnica microcirúrgica permite que se realizem ressecções alargadas destes tumores com limites seguros e índices de complicações aceitáveis, permitindo a estes pacientes uma melhoria da qualidade de vida e da sobrevida, com baixo índice de recidiva. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The analysis of the surgical indications and the follow-up, stressing the surgical complications and efficiency of a team approach for the advanced tumors involving the anterior skull base are the purpose of the present study. METHODS: The authors present a retrospective evaluation of 46 [...] patients who underwent resections of advanced tumors involving the anterior skull base, which were reconstructed with free flaps from May, 1990 to July, 2002. Those patients have been treated by the skull base surgical team of INCA. RESULTS: The commonest resected structures were: the orbit (76.5%), maxilar sinus (76.5%), sphenoidal sinus (63.8%), nasal cavity walls (59.5%) and palate (42.5%). The dura-mater was involved in 32,6% of the patients. Free-flap reconstructions employing the rectus abdominis muscle flaps were the leading procedure in 93.5% of patients. The successful rate of the free-tissue transfer was 97.8%. Complications occurred in 58,6% of patients, the most frequent were: local infection (21.7%), cerebrospinal fluid leakage (15.3%), meningitis(6.5%) and hematoma (6.5%). CONCLUSIONS: The microvascular free-tissue transfer reconstruction allows more extensive resections of those tumors with safety borders, presenting acceptable complication rates, offering the patients a better quality of life, longer life expectance with low incidence of recurrent disease.

Mario Sergio Lomba, Galvão; Geraldo Mattos de, Sá; Terence, Farias; Rafael, Anlicoara; Fernando Luiz, Dias; Juliano Carlos, Sbalchiero.

2004-04-01

323

Posterior cranial fossa single-hole arteriovenous fistulae in children: 14 consecutive cases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report 14 consecutive children with 23 posterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula (AVF); six had multifocal lesions, involving the supratentorial brain in three and the spinal cord in one. There were two boys and four girls with a family history compatible with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. The diagnosis was made in infancy in eight cases and in a further six before the age of 12 years; mean age at diagnosis was 3.5 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1. Presenting features were macrocrania in four cases, haemorrhage or headache in three and nonhaemorrhagic neurological deficits or and cardiac overload in two. Dominant supply to the symptomatic fistula arose from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery in five cases, anterior inferior cerebellar artery in two and the upper basilar artery system in seven. All children were primarily treated by transarterial embolisation. We treated thirteen children (93%) by transarterial embolisation alone; one older child with a history of haemorrhage also underwent radiosurgery. We obtained 100% exclusion of the fistula(e) in six children, 95-80% in five, 80-50% in one and <50% in one. Of the incompletely treated cases, three had conservative management, and two with 80% and one with 60% reduction of their lesion are scheduled for elective treatment; two partially treated case died. There was no morbidity due to the endovascular procedures. Follow-up since referral is 6 months-10 years (mean 4.5 years). Ten children are neurologically normal, two have persistent (pre-existing) neurological deficits and two are dead. (orig.)

Yoshida, Y.; Weon, Y.C.; Sachet, M.; Mahadevan, J.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P. [Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, CHU de Bicetre, 78 rue du General Leclerc, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France)

2004-06-01

324

The value of metrizamide CT cisternography in the diagnosis of suprasellar and posterior fossa tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have studied the diagnostic value of metrizamide CT cisternography (MCTC) in 22 patients. Six patients received metrizamide for the delineation of suprasellar tumors, 8 for posterior fossa tumors, and 8 for miscellaneous lesions, such as congenital cystic lesions and subdural fluid collections. Metrizamide with a concentration of 170 mgI/ml was used; 10 ml of it was introduced through the lumbar intrathecal route in every case. The patients were kept in a 15-degree Trendelenburg position, and Computed Tomography with an ACTA scanner (ACTA 200FS) was performed in principle one hour after the intrathecal injection and, if necessary, serially thereafter. The morphology of the subarachnoid space was well visualized in detail by CSF enhancement with metrizamide in all cases. The contours of the tumors in and around the basal cisterns were clearly shown; their relationship to the adjacent structures became more evident upon direct coronal section or upon coronal and sagittal reconstruction. It is suggested that the differential diagnosis in the suprasellar tumors and the C-P angle tumors can be made by means of the exact representation of the contours and extension of these tumors. MCTC can delineate the brain-stem glioma more accurately than the conventional CT scan: thus, it offers a definite advantage for the diagnosis and evaluation of those tumors which show isodensity on precontrast and no enhancement on postcontrast conventional CT scan. An arachnoid cyst or a portional CT scan. An arachnoid cyst or a porencephalic cyst can be diagnosed by the evaluation of the CSF-flow pattern. (author)

325

Clock face model applied to tibial intraneural ganglia in the popliteal fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tibial intraneural ganglia occurring in the popliteal fossa are often misdiagnosed because of their relative rarity. Their joint connection is typically not recognized and therefore not treated, leading to recurrence. This is a retrospective clinical study. Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of six patients with confirmed tibial intraneural ganglia arising from the superior tibiofibular joint were analyzed and were compared to ten individuals with normal tibial nerves who were imaged with MRI. All studies were interpreted as left-sided. A previously designed clock face model introduced for peroneal intraneural ganglia was used to describe the superior tibiofibular joint connection (tail sign). A single axial image was sought to determine the normal anatomic and pathologic relationships of the tibial nerve and tibial articular branch to the superior tibiofibular joint. In all patients with intraneural ganglia, a single conventional axial image at the mid-fibular head level could reliably demonstrate: (1) intraneural cyst within the articular branch at the superior tibiofibular joint connection (tail sign) between 8 and 9 o'clock and intraneural cyst within the tibial nerve, (2) the central location of the tibial nerve posterior to the tibia, and (3) popliteus muscle denervation changes and atrophy (popliteus sign). This technique can provide radiologists and surgeons with rapid and reproducible information for diagnosis and treatment planning of tibial intraneural gangliment planning of tibial intraneural ganglia. Similar to its use with the clock face model in peroneal intraneural ganglia, a standard axial image at the mid-fibular head level can be used to interpret key features of tibial intraneural ganglia and identify the joint connection. Improved identification of the presence of a joint connection will change the therapeutic approach of this pathology and reduce cyst recurrences. (orig.)

326

Dosimetry and field matching for radiotherapy to the breast and superclavicular fossa  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiotherapy for early breast cancer aims to achieve local disease control and decrease loco-regional recurrence rates. Treatment may be directed to breast or chest wall alone or, include regional lymph nodes. When using tangential fields to treat the breast a separate anterior field directed to the axilla and supraclavicular fossa (SCF) is needed to treat nodal areas. The complex geometry of this region necessitates matching of adjacent radiation fields in three dimensions. The potential exists for zones of overdosage or underdosage along the match line. Cosmetic results may be compromised if treatment fields are not accurately aligned. Techniques for field matching vary between centres in the UK. A study of dosimetry across the match line region using different techniques, as reported in the multi-centre START Trial Quality Assurance (QA) programme, was undertaken. A custom-made anthropomorphic phantom was designed to assess dose distribution in three dimensions using film dosimetry. Methods with varying degrees of complexity were employed to match tangential and SCF beams. Various techniques combined half beam blocking and machine rotations to achieve geometric alignment. Matching of asymmetric beams allowed a single isocentre technique to be used. Where field matching was not undertaken a gap between tangential and SCF fields was employed. Results demonstrated differences between techniques in addition to variations within the same technique between different centres. Geometric alignment techniques produced more homogenous dose distributions in the match region than gap techniques or those techniques not correcting for field divergence. For this multi-centre assessment of match plane techniques film dosimetry used in conjunction with a breast shaped phantom provided relative dose information. This study has highlighted the difficulties of matching treatment fields to achieve homogenous dose distribution through the region of the match plane and the degree of inhomogeneity as a consequence of a gap between treatment fields.

Winfield, Elizabeth

327

Characteristic findings of metrizamide CT cisternography in an epidermoid in the posterior fossa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A case of epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa showing a characteristic finding upon metrizamide CT cisternography is reported. A 42-year-old man was admitted with gait disturbance. The abnormal signs were trunucal ataxia, gait ataxia, left cerebellar sign and nystagmus. A CT scan revealed a large, low-density area and the fourth ventricle could not be seen clearly. Absorption values were in the range of 5 - 18 Hounsfield units. There was no change in the absorption values of the lesion following intravenous injection of contrast medium. Metrizamide CT cisternography was performed No remarkable change was seen 1 hour after intrathecal injection of metrizamide. However, metrizamide irregularly surrounded the left margin of the low-density area 3 hours after intrathecal injection. Moreover, metrizamide stained the area heterogeneously like a honeycomb or sponge at 6 hours. Finally, only a small amount of metrizamide remained in this area after 24 hours. Suboccipital craniectomy revealed a pearly tumor in the cisterna magna, wrapped in a thin white capsule and partially adherent to the cerebellomedullary junction. The tumor was totally removed. Histopathological investigation showed stratified squamous epithelium with keratinous material. A honeycomb- or sponge-like image seems to be a characteristic finding in metrizamide CT cisternography of the epidermoid cyst. This finding has not been previously reported. However, pneumoencephalographical findings in some cases of epidermoid were reported as crumb- or sponge-like images. These images were thought to be caused by air covering the surface of the pearly tumor. These images should be similar to the one found in the present study using CT cisternography.

Murayama, K.; Chen, M.N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Shimura, T.; Yajima, K.; Nakazawa, S. (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

1982-05-01

328

Characteristic findings of metrizamide CT cisternography in an epidermoid in the posterior fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A case of epidermoid cyst in the posterior fossa showing a characteristic finding upon metrizamide CT cisternography is reported. A 42-year-old man was admitted with gait disturbance. The abnormal signs were trunucal ataxia, gait ataxia, left cerebellar sign and nystagmus. A CT scan revealed a large, low-density area and the fourth ventricle could not be seen clearly. Absorption values were in the range of 5 - 18 Hounsfield units. There was no change in the absorption values of the lesion following intravenous injection of contrast medium. Metrizamide CT cisternography was performed No remarkable change was seen 1 hour after intrathecal injection of metrizamide. However, metrizamide irregularly surrounded the left margin of the low-density area 3 hours after intrathecal injection. Moreover, metrizamide stained the area heterogeneously like a honeycomb or sponge at 6 hours. Finally, only a small amount of metrizamide remained in this area after 24 hours. Suboccipital craniectomy revealed a pearly tumor in the cisterna magna, wrapped in a thin white capsule and partially adherent to the cerebellomedullary junction. The tumor was totally removed. Histopathological investigation showed stratified squamous epithelium with keratinous material. A honeycomb- or sponge-like image seems to be a characteristic finding in metrizamide CT cisternography of the epidermoid cyst. This finding has not been previously reported. However, pneumoencephalographical findings in some cases ofcephalographical findings in some cases of epidermoid were reported as crumb- or sponge-like images. These images were thought to be caused by air covering the surface of the pearly tumor. These images should be similar to the one found in the present study using CT cisternography. (author)

329

Hydralazine-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive renal vasculitis presenting with a vasculitic syndrome, acute nephritis and a puzzling skin rash: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis has been associated with many drugs and it is a relatively rare side effect of the antihypertensive drug hydralazine. The diagnosis and management of patients who have anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis may be challenging because of its relative infrequency, variability of clinical expression and changing nomenclature. The spectrum of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is wide and can be fatal. This case documents a 62-year-old woman who presented with hydralazine-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive renal vasculitis with a puzzling cutaneous rash. Case presentation We report a rare case of hydralazine-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis in a 62-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with a vasculitic syndrome with a sore throat, mouth ulcers and otalgia after several months of constitutional symptoms. She then proceeded to develop a rash over her right lower limb. Clinically, the rash had features to suggest Sweet’s syndrome, but also had some appearances consistent with embolic phenomena and did not have the appearance of palpable purpure usually associated with cutaneous vasculitis. Differential diagnoses were hydralazine-associated Sweet’s syndrome, streptococcal-induced cutaneous eruption or an unrelated contact dermatitis. A midstream urine sample detected glomerular blood cells in the setting of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive renal vasculitis and Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia. A renal biopsy revealed a pauci-immune, focally necrotizing glomerulonephritis with small crescents. Her skin biopsy revealed a heavy neutrophil infiltrate involving the full thickness of the dermis with no evidence of a leucocytoclastic vasculitis, but was non-specific. She was initially commenced on intravenous lincomycin for her bloodstream infection and subsequently commenced on immunosuppression after cessation of hydralazine. The patient was subsequently discharged from hospital after a rapid clinical improvement. Conclusion Hydralazine-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive renal vasculitis is a rare adverse effect and can present with a severe vasculitic syndrome with multiple organ involvement. Features of this association include the presence of high titres of anti-myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody with multi-antigenicity, positive anti-histone antibodies and the lack of immunoglobulin and complement deposition histopathogically. A rash that is characteristic of Sweet’s syndrome has also been described as an association. Prompt cessation of hydralazine may be sufficient to reverse disease activity but immunosuppression may be needed for definite treatment.

Keasberry Justin

2013-01-01

330

Survival of very young children with medulloblastoma (primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the posterior fossa) treated with craniospinal irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Very young children with medulloblastoma are considered to have a worse prognosis than older children. As radiotherapy remains an important part of the treatment, the adverse prognosis could be due to inadequate radiation treatment rather than biological factors. We analyzed the published literature to examine the impact of radiotherapy on survival in this group. Methods and Materials: A Medline search was performed and we reviewed studies of treatment of medulloblastoma where radiotherapy was delivered using megavoltage equipment and the minimum follow-up allowed the calculation of 5-year survival rates. Results: Thirty-nine studies were published between 1979 and 1996 with a treatment including craniospinal irradiation and boost to the posterior fossa. Eleven studies comprising 1366 patients analyzed survival by age at diagnosis. Eight of 11 studies showed a worse 5-year survival for the younger patient group which reached statistical significance in two. There is also a suggestion of a higher proportion of children with metastatic disease at presentation in the very young age group. The usual policy in younger children was to give a lower dose of radiotherapy to the craniospinal axis (CSA) and posterior fossa (PF) with reduction of dose in the range of 15 to 25% compared to standard treatment. As dose reduction to the posterior fossa is associated with worse survival and local recurrence is the predominant site of failure, the major determinant of worse sufailure, the major determinant of worse survival in very young children with medulloblastoma may be suboptimal radiotherapy. Protocols including postoperative chemotherapy with delayed, omitted, or only local tumor irradiation do not reach survival rates of protocols with standard radiotherapy, also suggesting a continued importance for irradiation. Conclusion: Very young children with medulloblastoma have a worse prognosis than older children. Inadequate radiation dose and technique to the primary tumor region may be a major contributing factor. Current chemotherapeutic regimes alone are not sufficient to compensate for reduced radiation doses and volumes

331

Ameloblastoma de fossa nasal: revisão bibliográfica e relato de dois casos Nasal ameloblastoma: literature review and report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O ameloblastoma é um tumor bastante incomum na cavidade nasal. Surge a partir do epitélio odontogênico, podendo estender-se ao seio maxilar, órbitas e base de crânio. Apresentamos dois casos de ameloblastoma em fossa nasal direita, associados a sintomas nasossinusais e seus principais achados, clínicos e cirúrgicos.Ameloblastoma is a very unusual tumor in the nasal cavity. It arises from the odontogenic epithelium and extends up to the maxillary sinus, orbits and skull base. We have presented two cases of ameloblastoma, both in the right nasal cavity, associated with nasal and sinusal symptoms, and reported the main surgical and clinical findings.

Washington L. C. Almeida

2001-09-01

332

The anatomy of the Fossa of Rosenmuller--its possible influence on the detection of occult nasopharyngeal carcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fossa of Rosenmuller (FOR) is a well established site of origin of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Detection of early NPC requires a sound knowledge of the anatomy of the FOR. The authors study the anatomy of the FOR with the aid of CT Scan and discuss the possible influence of the anatomy of the FOR on the detection of occult NPC. This paper reveals that there are cases of postnasal space which cannot be fully inspected clinically due to the peculiar anatomy of the FOR. PMID:1876886

Loh, L E; Chee, T S; John, A B

1991-06-01

333

Torsion of an abdominal-wall pedunculated lipoma: a rare differential diagnosis for right iliac fossa pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pedunculated lipomas arising from the peritoneal wall are a rare finding during abdominal surgery. These benign tumours of mesenchymal origin can arise anywhere in the body and are usually asymptomatic. We present a case of a torted, pedunculated parietal wall lipoma in the right iliac fossa that gave rise to a clinical diagnosis of appendicitis. To our knowledge, such a case has never been reported in the literature previously. We suggest that torsion of a pedunculated parietal lipoma is a rare differential of acute abdominal pain. PMID:23781377

Bunker, Daniel Lee John; Ilie, Victor George; Halder, Tushar K

2013-01-01

334

Dark-toned dunes in the western Medusae Fossae Formation: Characteristics, distribution, and source  

Science.gov (United States)

Aeolian bedforms are nearly ubiquitous on Mars but the origin of the sediments remains unidentified. Dark-toned Martian sand may originate as volcaniclastic sediment (Edgett and Lancaster 1993). The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) has been hypothesized to be a volcaniclastic deposit. The two lobes of the western-most MFF (westMFF) host dark -toned sediments (Fig. 1) categorized here as aeolian based on morphologies, surface textures, and locations within lows. These sediments are bright in both day and night infrared (IR) images, indicating a large grain size and low albedo, and are concentrated along the westMFF southern margin, below the highland-lowland boundary (HLB) scarp. Indications of an MFF origin for this dark-toned dune sediment include: 1) gradation of tone: the dark sediments frequently grade into lighter toned MFF slope materials. 2) morphology and location: The dark dune morphologies indicate emplacement by a northerly (toward the south) wind regime (Fig. 1), for which the westMFF immediately to the north provides a sediment origin. 3) composition: Limited spectral data of the dark dunes indicate an olivine-poor composition, in contrast to the olivine-rich spectra of dunes in southern highland (SH) and Cerberus plains (Cp) craters, indicating a different source for those SH or Cp dunes than for the westMFF dunes. Thus, while minor amounts of sediment have likely been contributed from elsewhwere, we hypothesize that the dark-toned dunes in the westMFF originate(d) from the breakdown of MFF sediments, winnowing of bright fines, and concentration of dark, coarse sand into dunes. Given the putative origin of the MFF as volcaniclastic, this identification of the origin of the westMFF dark-toned dunes supports the paradigm of dark aeolian sediments on Mars originating as volcaniclastic material. Portion of P07_003769_1742_XN_05S209W, showing gradation between lighter- and dark-toned sediments (upper portion of image), and echo dune morphology (white oval) indicative of transport from the north (top).

Burr, D. M.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Brown, A. J.; Qualls, F. B.; Michaels, T. I.; Chojnacki, M.

2010-12-01

335

Schwannoma trigeminal intracraneal con extensión a la fosa infratemporal, espacio parafaríngeo, órbita, seno maxilar y fosa nasal: A propósito de un caso / Intracraneal trigeminal schwannoma with extension to infratemporal fossa, parapharingeal space, orbit, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los schwannomas constituyen del 8 al 10% de los tumores intracraneales. Su asiento principal es la rama vestibular del VIII nervio craneal, siendo los trigeminales de escasa frecuencia. Presentamos el caso de una paciente admitida en el Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía "Manuel Velasco [...] Suárez" de la ciudad de México con una masa en la fosa infratemporal con extensión importante a estructuras vecinas. Los schwannomas con extensión a la fosa infratemporal son raros. Revisamos la anatomía de la fosa infratemporal, los accesos quirúrgicos hacia dicha región, analizamos la serie de casos junto al nuestro y proponemos una modalidad quirúrgica distinta. Abstract in english Schwannomas reach 8 to 10% of all intracranial tumors. Most originate at the vestibular root of VIII cranial nerve, but trigeminal tumors are infrequent. We present the case of a patient admitted at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery "Manuel Velasco Suárez" (Mexico City) with a mas [...] s occupying the infratemporal fossa with involvement of nearby structures. Schwannomas with extension to the infratemporal fossa are rare. We review the anatomy of this region, the surgical approaches, which have been used and propose a different approach.

J.A., Santos-Franco; A., Barragán; R., Mercado-Pimentel; I., Ortiz-Velásquez; C., García-Pastor; E.I., Barquet-Platón; C., Pane-Pianesse; S., Gómez-Llata.

336

Rash after measles vaccination: laboratory analysis of cases reported in São Paulo, Brazil Exantema após vacinação do sarampo: análise laboratorial de casos notificados em São Paulo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The clinical differential diagnosis of rash due to viral infections is often difficult, and misdiagnosis is not rare, especially after the introduction of measles and rubella vaccination. A study to determine the etiological diagnosis of exanthema was carried out in a group of children after measles vaccination. METHODS: Sera collected from children with rash who received measles vaccine were reported in 1999. They were analyzed for IgM antibodies against measles virus, rubella virus, human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19 using ELISA commercial techniques, and human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6 using immunofluorescence commercial technique. Viremia for each of those viruses was tested using a polimerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: A total of 17 cases of children with exanthema after measles immunization were reported in 1999. The children, aged 9 to 12 months (median 10 months, had a blood sample taken for laboratory analysis. The time between vaccination and the first rash signs varied from 1 to 60 days. The serological results of those 17 children suspected of measles or rubella infection showed the following etiological diagnosis: 17.6% (3 in 17 HPV B19 infection; 76.5% (13 in 17 HHV 6 infection; 5.9% (1 in 17 rash due to measles vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The study data indicate that infection due to HPV B19 or HHV 6 can be misdiagnosed as exanthema due to measles vaccination. Therefore, it is important to better characterize the etiology of rash in order to avoid attributing it incorrectly to measles vaccine.OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico diferencial de doenças exantemáticas causadas por vírus é geralmente difícil, e equívocos não são raros, especialmente depois da introdução da vacina contra o sarampo e a rubéola. Um estudo laboratorial foi conduzido com o objetivo de estabelecer o diagnóstico etiológico de casos de exantema em crianças que receberam a vacina contra o sarampo. MÉTODOS: Soros de casos de exantema em crianças que receberam vacina contra o sarampo, em 1999, foram analisados para anticorpos IgM contra os vírus do sarampo, da rubéola e do parvovírus humano B19 (HPV B19, por técnicas comerciais de Elisa, e o herpes vírus humano tipo 6 (HHV 6, por técnica comercial de imunofluorecência. A viremia para cada um desses vírus foi testada pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. RESULTADOS: Foram notificados, em 1999, 17 casos de crianças com exantema pós-vacinal. A idade das crianças era de nove a 12 meses (mediana, dez meses. Uma amostra de sangue colhida para investigação laboratorial foi obtida para cada criança. O tempo decorrido entre a aplicação da vacina e o aparecimento do exantema variou de um a 60 dias. Os resultados da sorologia das 17 crianças sugeriram o seguinte diagnóstico etiológico para o exantema: 17,6% (três em 17 infecção pelo HPV B19; 76,5% (13 em 17 infecção pelo HHV 6; 5,9% (um em 17 exantema originado pela vacina do sarampo. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados indicaram que a infecção pelo HPV B19 ou pelo HHV 6 pode ser diagnosticada como sarampo de origem vacinal. Portanto, é fundamental incluir esses vírus no diagnóstico laboratorial para corretamente apontar a etiologia das doenças exantemáticas, evitando, assim, atribuir à vacina do sarampo efeito colateral.

Maria I Oliveira

2002-04-01

337

Relationship Between Pterygopalatine Fossa Volume and Cephalic and Upper Facial Indexes / Relación Entre el Volumen de la Fosa Pterigopalatina y los índices Cefálico y Facial Superior  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El nervio maxilar puede ser bloqueado en la fosa pterigopalatina, ingresando desde la cavidad oral vía canal palatino mayor. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el volumen de la fosa y su relación con los índices cefálico y facial superior. Se utilizaron 71 cráneos humanos adultos, sin distinci [...] ón de sexo. Se determinó el volumen de la fosa pterigopalatina y los índices cefálico y facial superior. Mediante una prueba t (p Abstract in english The maxilary nerve can be block in the pterygopalatine fossa, entering from oral cavity via greater palatine canal. The aim of this study was to analyse the volume of the pterygopalatine fossa and its relationship with upper facial height and cephalic indexes. In 71 human adults skulls, without sex [...] distinction, was determined the volume of the pterygopalatine fossa and cephalic and upper facial height indexes. Through a t test (p

César Andrés, Coronado Gallardo; Iván Claudio, Suazo Galdames; Mario Gonzalo, Cantín López; Daniela Alejandra, Zavando Matamala.

2008-06-01

338

Pleistocene volcanic activities in the Fossa Magna region, central Japan - K-Ar age studies of the Yatsugatake volcanic chain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pleistocene volcanic rocks of the Yatsugatake volcanic chain were dated by the K-Ar method in order to study the geochronological significance of the Quaternary volcanic activities along the Fossa Magna, the most remarkable tectonic structure in central Japan. One of the prophyrites of Mt. Nakadake, which are regarded to have formed the root of the Yatsugatake volcanoes shows a K-Ar age of about 1.3Ma. An andesite of Kasuga volcanic rocks from the northern area of the Yatsugatake volcanic chain indicates a K-Ar age of about 1.0Ma. K-Ar ages for seven andesites from four different lava units of the southern area range from 0.23 to 0.38Ma. These results are concordant with those estimated stratigraphically. Present results suggest that the volcanic activities to form the present Yatsugatake volcanic chain probably started about 1 - 1.5Ma ago. This might have been related to some tectonic effects which triggered volcanic activities around the area like Kirigamine Volcano in central Japan. Furthermore, available radiometric age data together with present results suggest that some volcanic activities already occurred about 1.5 - 2Ma ago along the present volcanic front, at least in the Fossa Magna region. (author)

339

Dimensions of the posterior fossa in patients symptomatic for Chiari I malformation but without cerebellar tonsillar descent  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Chiari I malformation (CMI is diagnosed by rigid radiographic criteria along with appropriate clinical symptomatology. The aim of this study was to investigate the dimensions of the posterior cranial fossa in patients without significant tonsillar descent but with symptoms comparable to CMI. Methods Twenty-two patients with signs and symptoms comparable to CMI but without accepted radiographic criteria of tonsillar descent > 3–5 mm were referred to our clinic for evaluation. A history and physical examination were performed on all patients. In reviewing their MRI scans, nine morphometric measurements were recorded. The measurements were compared to measurements from a cohort of twenty-five individuals with cranial neuralgias from our practice. Results For patients with Chiari-like symptomatology, the following statistically significant abnormalities were identified: reduced length of the clivus, reduced length of basisphenoid, reduced length of basiocciput, and increased angle of the tentorium. Multiple morphometric studies have demonstrated similar findings in CMI. Conclusion The current classification of CMI is likely too restrictive. Preliminary morphologic data suggests that a subgroup of patients exists with tonsillar descent less than 3 mm below the foramen magnum but with congenitally hypoplastic posterior fossa causing symptomatology consistent with CMI.

Sekula L Kathleen

2005-12-01

340

A case of symptomatic mass in the right iliac fossa a Bermuda Triangle which often lies the right diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disease of the iliac fossa can often be accompanied by non-specific symptoms and some of these are exclusively caused by the compression of bulky masses of other neighboring structures. In young women a differential diagnosis is a non trivial task as several possible causes have to be taken into account. Thus, intraligamentary tumors, which are extremely rare finding, are frequently confused with uterus, ovary or intestinal tumors. Even if myomas are the most benign tumors of the female genital tract, broad ligament leiomyomas are an unusual finding in women of reproductive age. These tumors are often asymptomatic until they reach a volume likely to cause symptoms related to the mass pressure. An accurate patient's anamnesis and examination serve as a guide to further examinations. Ultrasound is the first line imaging as it can show ovarian or other pelvic mass and doesn't involve exposure to radiations in young patients, who can be pregnant. We describe the clinical presentation and imaging features of a broad ligament leiomyoma, which presented as an inguinal mass in a patient with a right iliac fossa pain. We also report our diagnostic process performing the differential diagnosis with other potential pathologies of RIF. In these cases, a preoperative disease classification discriminating the benign or malignant tumor nature is closely linked to the proper patient management. PMID:24566476

Panarese, Alessandra; Pironi, Daniele; Pontone, Stefano; Vendettuoli, Maurizio; De Cristofaro, Flaminia; Antonelli, Manila; Romani, Annamaria; Filippini, Angelo

2014-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Body mass index and patient CT measurements as a predictor of benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy to the supraclavicular fossa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vicky Koh,1 Johann I Tang,1 Bok Ai Choo,1 Chek Wee Tan,1 Boon Keat Lim,2 Liang Shen,3 Jiade Jay Lu1 1Department of Radiation Oncology, National University Cancer Institute, Singapore; 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, Singapore; 3Department of Biostatistics, National University of Singapore, Singapore Background: Irradiation of the supraclavicular fossa is commonly used as part of adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT may be used to target this region accurately, and there are subgroups of patients that may benefit more from IMRT than others. We identify the benefit of IMRT over fixed-depth dose prescription to the supraclavicular fossa in patients of different builds in a clinical setting. Methods: Fifteen patients who received radiotherapy to the left breast and supraclavicular fossa were selected. Computed tomographic planning was used to generate plans for supraclavicular fossa coverage. Dose prescription to 1.5 cm and 3.0 cm depths was compared with IMRT plans. Coverage of the planning target volume and dose to the organs at risk were compared and correlated with patient body mass index (BMI and computed tomography measurements. Results: Within the IMRT group, increasing depth of the supraclavicular fossa produced significantly better coverage of the planning target volume with IMRT. IMRT resulted in lower mean doses to the brachial plexus (P = 0.00 when compared with 1.5 cm and 3 cm depth dose prescriptions, but higher maximum brachial plexus doses. IMRT was more beneficial in patients with lower BMI because this resulted in a decreased maximum brachial plexus dose (P-values of 0.03 and 0.001 when compared with 1.5 cm and 3.0 cm depth dose prescriptions, respectively. Higher patient BMI resulted in a lower dose contribution of IMRT to the cord (P-values 0.066 and 0.034 when compared with 1.5 cm and 3.0 cm depth dose prescriptions respectively. Conclusion: IMRT of the supraclavicular fossa results in lower brachial plexus doses for patients with low BMI while patients with higher BMI benefit from lower mean cord doses. IMRT provides superior coverage of the planning target volume, especially in patients with a deeper supraclavicular fossa. Keywords: intensity-modulated radiotherapy, radiotherapy, breast cancer, supraclavicular fossa

Koh V

2013-11-01

342

Anatomical Examination of the Foramens of the Middle Cranial Fossa / Examinación Anatómica de los Forámenes de la Fosa Craneal Media  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Tres forámenes pueden ser identificados en el ala mayor del esfenoides: El foramen redondo (FR), foramen oval (FO) y el foramen espinoso (FS). Puede además existir otro foramen llamado foramen oval accesorio o foramen de Vesalio (FV), que conecta la fosa craneal media a la fosa pterigoidea. Se descr [...] ibe como una abertura con paredes lisas por anterior y medial al foramen oval, que conduce a un canal oblicuo dirigido hacia la fosa pterigoidea. FV estuvo presente entre FO y FR en 14 (31,8%) de 44 cráneos secos y 6 (33,3%), en 18 lados en la base de cráneos de cadáveres (total 20 (32,3%) de 62). El diámetro de los forámenes en los lados derecho e izquierdo se observó casi simétricos. Las distancias de FR desde la línea mediana en el lado izquierdo fue mayor que en el lado derecho. Además, la distancia entre FO y el vértice de la porción petrosa y la distancia entre el FS y el vértice porción petrosa fueron mayores en el lado izquierdo. En el lado derecho la distancia entre A y FR, así como la distancia entre A y FS fueron mayores. Por otra parte, la distancia entre los FR y el vértice del porción petrosa fue mayor en el lado derecho. Las variaciones anatómicas en el tamaño de la apariencia y la distancia de FR, DE, FS y FV son de gran importancia quirúrgica. Podemos inferir que la información proporcionada en este estudio puede ayudar al neurocirujano y anatomista para aumentar el conocimiento sobre la anatomía de la fosa craneal media. Abstract in english Three foramina can be identified in the greater wing of the sphenoid bone: The foramen rotundum (FR), foramen ovale (FO) and foramen spinosum (FS). In addition, there may be another foramen called foramen ovale accessorium or foramen vesalius (FV) which connects the middle cranial fossa to the fossa [...] pterygoidea (pterygoid fossa). It is described as an opening with smooth walls in front and medial to foramen ovale which leads to an oblique channel directed towards the fossa pterygoidea. FV was present between FO and FR in 14 (31.8%) of 44 dry and 6 (33.3%) of 18 cadaver skullbase sides (total 20 (32.3%) of 62). The diameter values of foramens on both the right and the left side were observed to be almost symmetrical. FR's distance from the midline on the left side was greater than the right side. Also, the distance between FO and the petrous apex and the distance between FS and the petrous apex were greater on the left side. On the right side the distance between FO and FR, and the distance between FO and FS were greater. Also, the distance between FR and the petrous apex was greater on the right side. Anatomical variations in appearance size and distance of FR, FO, FS and FV are of great surgical importance. In conclusion, we can infer that the information provided with this study can help the neurosurgeon and anatomist to increase the knowledge about anatomy of middle cranial fossa.

Nadire, Unver Dogan; Zeliha, Fazliogullari; Ismihan Ilknur, Uysal; Muzaffer, Seker; Ahmet Kagan, Karabulut.

2014-03-01

343

Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings in Schistosomiasis mansoni: expanded gallbladder fossa and fatty hilum signs / Achados da ultrassonografia e da ressonância magnética na esquistossomose mansônica: sinais da expansão da fossa da vesícula e do hilo gorduroso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Não existem estudos que correlacionam os achados da ressonância magnética (RM) aos da ultrassonografia (US) em pacientes com esquistossomose mansônica. O objetivodeste estudo foi descrever os achados da imagem por RM em pacientes com doença hepática esquistossomótica identificada por US. [...] MÉTODOS: Selecionaram-se 54 pacientes com idade média de 41,6±13,5 anos, provenientes de área endêmica para a esquistossomose mansônica. Todos apresentavam US indicativa de fibrose hepática esquistossomótica, e foram avaliados com imagens por RM, realizadas com uma unidade magnética supercondutora de 1,5-T(Sigma). RESULTADOS: Quarenta e sete (87%) entre 54 pacientes com sinais ultrassonográficosde fibrose periportal esquistossomótica tiveram este diagnóstico confirmado pela RM. Nos sete(13%) casos discordantes, a RM revelou tecido adiposo preenchendo o espaço periportal hilaronde a US indicava espessamento isolado da parede da veia porta em seu ponto de entrada no fígado. Este achado foi nomeado sinal do hilo gorduroso. Um dos 47 pacientes com evidência de fibrose periportal RM era colecistectomizado. Trinta e quatro (76,1%) dos 46 pacientes restantes apresentavam expansão da fossa da vesícula, que se encontrava preenchida portecido adiposo. Nos outros sete, a RM revelou sinais de fibrose pericolecística. CONCLUSÕES: Os espessamentos ecogênicos central da parede da veia porta, e da parede da vesícula biliar, até o momento, atribuídos à fibrose, foram frequentemente identificados como tecido adiposopela RM. Entretanto, o espessamento da parede da vesícula identificado pela US (expansão da fossa da vesícula na RM) é provavelmente secundário a alterações morfológicas hepáticas na esquistossomose, e representa comprometimento grave do fígado. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: There is no study relating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to ultrasound (US) findings in patients with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Our aim was to describe MRI findings inpatients with schistosomal liver disease identified by US. METHODS: Fifty-four patients (mean age 41.6±13.5years) fro [...] m an area endemic for Schistosomiasis mansoni were selected for this study.All had US indicating liver schistosomal fibrosis and were evaluated with MRI performed witha 1.5-T superconducting magnet unit (Sigma). RESULTS: Forty-seven (87%) of the 54 patientsshowing signs of periportal fibrosis identified through US investigation had confirmed diagnosesby MRI. In the seven discordant cases (13%), MRI revealed fat tissue filling in the hilar periportalspace where US indicated isolated thickening around the main portal vein at its point of entryto the liver. We named this the fatty hilum sign. One of the 47 patients with MRI evidence ofperiportal fibrosis had had his gallbladder removed previously. Thirty-five (76.1%) of the other46 patients had an expanded gallbladder fossa filled with fat tissue, whereas MRI of the remainingeleven showed pericholecystic signs of fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Echogenic thickening of thegallbladder wall and of the main portal vein wall heretofore attributed to fibrosis were frequentlyidentified as fat tissue in MRI. However, the gallbladder wall thickening shown in US (expandedgallbladder fossa in MRI) is probably secondary to combined hepatic morphologic changes inschistosomiasis, representing severe liver involvement.

Luciana Cristina dos Santos, Silva; Luciene Mota, Andrade; Ivie Braga de, Paula; Leonardo Campos de, Queiroz; Carlos Maurício Figueiredo, Antunes; José Roberto, Lambertucci.

2012-08-01

344

The overcrowding of osteal posterior cranial fossa in adults: multi-slice CT measurements and clinical significance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the clinical value of MSCT in diagnosing the overcrowding of osteal posterior cranial fossa (PCF) in adults. Methods: MSCT images of a cohort of 52 adult patients with foramen magnum osteal malformation confirmed by surgery (diseased group), and 100 healthy adults (control group) were retrospectively reviewed. Images post-processing techniques included multi-planer reformation (MPR) and volume rendering (VR). The posterior cranial fossa volume (PCFV), posterior cranial fossa height (PCFH), clivus length (CL), clivus gradient (CG), supraocciput length (SL), and 100 normal adults. Independent-sample student's t test was used to compare the differences between patients and normal adults. Results: The results of PCFV, PCFH, CL, SL, FMD and CG, male of control group were (168.2 ± 12.3) cm3, (38.2 ± 1.2), (47.1 ± 2.8), (41.1 ± 1.8), (36.6 ± 4.9)mm, (51.5 ± 3.6)degree, female of control group were (157.5 ± 10.2) cm3, (36.5 ± 1.4), (46.2 ± 2.2), (39.7 ± 1.3), (35.2 ± 3.8), (49.6 ± 3.1)degree; diseased group were (128.7 ± 11.7) cm3, (30.6 ± 1.9), (36.2 ± 1.4), (37.3 ± 0.9), (33.9 ± 3.5)mm, (44.5 ± 2.8)degree. There was significant sex difference in PCFV, PCFH, CL, SL and CG in control group (t=4.70, 6.44, 4.84, 4.43 and 2.81 respectively, P<0.01), but FMD was not significant (t=1.97, P<0.05); the results of PCFV, PCFH, CL, CG and SL were significant different between diseased group and male of control group (t=16.62, 24.04, 25.01, 14.17 and 10.99 respectively, P<0.01); the results of PCFV, PCFH, CL, CG and SL were significant different between diseased group and female of control group (t=13.23, 17.80, 27.50, 11.67 and 8.73 respectively, P<0.01); but there were no significant differences of FMD between diseased group and control group, both male and female (t=2.96, 2.07, P<0.05). Conclusions: The overcrowding of PCF can be accurately measured by MCST. As a routine preoperative examination, MSCT is helpful in the therapeutic selection and the anatomic and pathologic study of PCF. (authors)

345

Posterior fossa decompression with tonsillectomy in 104 cases of basilar impression, Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia / Descompressão da fossa posterior com tonsilectomia em 104 casos de impressão basilar, malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O principal objetivo no tratamento cirúrgico da impressão basilar, malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia fundamenta-se na restauração dinâmica do líquido cefalorraqueano ao nível da transição craniovertebral e criação de ampla cisterna magna. Uma craniectomia suboccipital de pequenas dimensões fo [...] i proposta para evitar a migração caudal de estruturas rombencefálicas no canal vertebral. Entretanto, os resultados evidenciaram migração caudal do rombencéfalo. Os autores apresentam, por outro lado, os resultados de 104 casos de malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia, nos quais o tratamento cirúrgico se baseou em ampla craniectomia com o paciente em posição sentada, tonsilectomia, abertura ampla do quarto ventrículo e enxerto dural com consequente criação de ampla cisterna magna. Uma significante migração cranial das estruturas da fossa posterior foi detectada pelo emprego pós-operatório da ressonância magnética. Abstract in english The prime objective in the surgical treatment of basilar impression (BI), Chiari malformation (CM) and/or syringomyelia (SM) is based on the restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics at the craniovertebral junction through the creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A small [...] suboccipital craniectomy has been emphasized to avoid caudal migration of the hindbrain structures into the vertebral canal. Nevertheless, the results showed downward migration of the hindbrain related to that type of craniectomy. The authors present, otherwise, the results of 104 cases of BI, CM and/or SM, whose surgical treatment was characterized by a large craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position, tonsillectomy, large opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty with creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A significant upward migration of the posterior fossa structures was detected by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

José Alberto Gonçalves da, Silva; Adailton Arcanjo dos, Santos Jr; Luiz Ricardo Santiago, Melo; Antônio Fernandes de, Araújo; Giseuda Pessoa, Regueira.

2011-10-01

346

Posterior fossa decompression with tonsillectomy in 104 cases of basilar impression, Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia Descompressão da fossa posterior com tonsilectomia em 104 casos de impressão basilar, malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prime objective in the surgical treatment of basilar impression (BI, Chiari malformation (CM and/or syringomyelia (SM is based on the restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF dynamics at the craniovertebral junction through the creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A small suboccipital craniectomy has been emphasized to avoid caudal migration of the hindbrain structures into the vertebral canal. Nevertheless, the results showed downward migration of the hindbrain related to that type of craniectomy. The authors present, otherwise, the results of 104 cases of BI, CM and/or SM, whose surgical treatment was characterized by a large craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position, tonsillectomy, large opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty with creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A significant upward migration of the posterior fossa structures was detected by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.O principal objetivo no tratamento cirúrgico da impressão basilar, malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia fundamenta-se na restauração dinâmica do líquido cefalorraqueano ao nível da transição craniovertebral e criação de ampla cisterna magna. Uma craniectomia suboccipital de pequenas dimensões foi proposta para evitar a migração caudal de estruturas rombencefálicas no canal vertebral. Entretanto, os resultados evidenciaram migração caudal do rombencéfalo. Os autores apresentam, por outro lado, os resultados de 104 casos de malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia, nos quais o tratamento cirúrgico se baseou em ampla craniectomia com o paciente em posição sentada, tonsilectomia, abertura ampla do quarto ventrículo e enxerto dural com consequente criação de ampla cisterna magna. Uma significante migração cranial das estruturas da fossa posterior foi detectada pelo emprego pós-operatório da ressonância magnética.

José Alberto Gonçalves da Silva

2011-10-01

347

Posterior fossa decompression with tonsillectomy in 104 cases of basilar impression, Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia / Descompressão da fossa posterior com tonsilectomia em 104 casos de impressão basilar, malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O principal objetivo no tratamento cirúrgico da impressão basilar, malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia fundamenta-se na restauração dinâmica do líquido cefalorraqueano ao nível da transição craniovertebral e criação de ampla cisterna magna. Uma craniectomia suboccipital de pequenas dimensões fo [...] i proposta para evitar a migração caudal de estruturas rombencefálicas no canal vertebral. Entretanto, os resultados evidenciaram migração caudal do rombencéfalo. Os autores apresentam, por outro lado, os resultados de 104 casos de malformação de Chiari e/ou siringomielia, nos quais o tratamento cirúrgico se baseou em ampla craniectomia com o paciente em posição sentada, tonsilectomia, abertura ampla do quarto ventrículo e enxerto dural com consequente criação de ampla cisterna magna. Uma significante migração cranial das estruturas da fossa posterior foi detectada pelo emprego pós-operatório da ressonância magnética. Abstract in english The prime objective in the surgical treatment of basilar impression (BI), Chiari malformation (CM) and/or syringomyelia (SM) is based on the restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics at the craniovertebral junction through the creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A small [...] suboccipital craniectomy has been emphasized to avoid caudal migration of the hindbrain structures into the vertebral canal. Nevertheless, the results showed downward migration of the hindbrain related to that type of craniectomy. The authors present, otherwise, the results of 104 cases of BI, CM and/or SM, whose surgical treatment was characterized by a large craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position, tonsillectomy, large opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty with creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A significant upward migration of the posterior fossa structures was detected by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

José Alberto Gonçalves da, Silva; Adailton Arcanjo dos, Santos Jr; Luiz Ricardo Santiago, Melo; Antônio Fernandes de, Araújo; Giseuda Pessoa, Regueira.

348

Hematoma within the Outer Membrane of the Arachnoid Cyst Located in the Middle Fossa: A Mechanism of Development of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Associated with Arachnoid Cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is well known that chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH occasionally arises in patients harboring an arachnoid cyst (AC located in the middle fossa. Although the pathogenesis of CSDH associated with ACs remains unknown, several possible mechanisms have been proposed. In many reported cases, the patients with ACs in the middle fossa would be symptomatic according to development of CSDH. A 9-year-old girl presenting with a headache, nausea, and diplopia was referred to our department. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an AC in the left-side middle fossa and ipsilateral CSDH with a remarkable mass effect. Irrigation of the CSDH, partial removal of the outer membrane of the AC and CSDH, and endoscopic cystocisternostomy were performed to relieve her symptoms. Postoperative clinical course was excellent. Histopathological examination of the outer membrane of the CSDH demonstrated an arachnoid cell layer and hemorrhage from the granulation inside the membrane, and collagen fibers outside the membrane. These findings strongly suggested that the membrane and the content of the CSDH were derived from the outer membrane of the AC, and the CSF including the hemorrhage within the membrane, respectively. Laceration and hemorrhage from granulation tissue within the outer membrane of the AC are considered as one of the developmental mechanisms of the CSDH associated with AC in the middle fossa.

Yasuhiko Hayashi

2014-04-01

349

RADIATION THERAPY QUALITY IN CCG/POG INTERGROUP 9961: IMPLICATIONS FOR CRANIOSPINAL IRRADIATION AND THE POSTERIOR FOSSA BOOST IN FUTURE MEDULLOBLASTOMA TRIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Results: Of the 308 patients who were evaluable for volume deviations, 101 patients (33% did not have any. Of the remaining 207 patients, 50% had only minor deviations, 29% had only major deviations, and 21% had both minor and major deviations. Of the patients with major deviations, 73% had a single major deviation. The most common major deviation was in the cribriform plate region, followed by the posterior fossa; posterior fossa deviations resulted from treating less than whole posterior fossa. There were no significant differences in PFS or OS between patients with deviations and those without. There was no evidence of associations of deviations with patient age. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients had major volume deviations. There was no evidence of a significant association between these and outcome. This lack of correlation likely reflects the current high quality of radiation therapy delivered in COG institutions, our strict definition of volume deviations, and the relatively few instances of multiple major deviations in individual patients. In is noteworthy that the types of posterior fossa volume deviations observed in this study were not adversely associated with outcome. As we move forward, quality assurance will continue to play an important role to ensure that deviations on study do not influence study outcome.

BernadineDonahue

2012-12-01

350

Ameloblastoma de fossa nasal: revisão bibliográfica e relato de dois casos / Nasal ameloblastoma: literature review and report of two cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O ameloblastoma é um tumor bastante incomum na cavidade nasal. Surge a partir do epitélio odontogênico, podendo estender-se ao seio maxilar, órbitas e base de crânio. Apresentamos dois casos de ameloblastoma em fossa nasal direita, associados a sintomas nasossinusais e seus principais achados, clíni [...] cos e cirúrgicos. Abstract in english Ameloblastoma is a very unusual tumor in the nasal cavity. It arises from the odontogenic epithelium and extends up to the maxillary sinus, orbits and skull base. We have presented two cases of ameloblastoma, both in the right nasal cavity, associated with nasal and sinusal symptoms, and reported th [...] e main surgical and clinical findings.

Washington L. C., Almeida; Alex C., Costa; Carlos R. T., Góis; Marcelo C. C., Almeida; Milton P. C., Moura; Achiléa A. L., Bittencourt.

351

Direct cochlear nerve action potentials as an aid to hearing preservation in middle fossa acoustic neuroma resection.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new application of auditory evoked potentials using direct cochlear nerve action potentials (CNAPs) for monitoring middle fossa acoustic neuroma resection with attempted hearing preservation is described. Twenty patients have been studied to date. With this technique, a monitoring electrode is secured between the floor of the internal auditory canal and the dura adjacent to the cochlear nerve in an extradural location. Standard auditory evoked potential techniques with click stimuli and microelectrical recording allow observation of nearfield waveforms in seconds versus several minutes required for farfield potentials recorded from the scalp. Advantages of this technique over auditory brainstem response monitoring may include nearly real time measurement of potentials, improved surgeon learning curve and possibly higher rates of hearing preservation, and applicability to all patients undergoing hearing-preservation surgery independent of presence or absence of ABR tracing. Immediate changes in amplitude and latency of waveforms appear to compare with reversible and irreversible intraoperative auditory system damage, thereby guiding surgical maneuvers. PMID:8841717

Roberson, J; Senne, A; Brackmann, D; Hitselberger, W E; Saunders, J

1996-07-01

352

Pedicled Gastrocnemius Flap: Clinical Application in Limb Sparing Surgical Resection of Sarcoma Around the Knee Region and Popliteal Fossa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To highlight on the versatility of superiorly based pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap in the limb-sparing surgery for bone or soft tissue sarcoma around the knee and popliteal fossa. Patients and Methods: A total of 30 patients with localized bone or soft tissue sarcoma around the knee and popliteal fossa were treated with limb-salvage procedure. The study included 5 cases with bone sarcoma of the distal femur, 15 cases having bone sarcoma of proximal tibia and 10 cases having soft tissue sarcoma around the knee region and popliteal fossa. Routine preoperative staging studies were done for every patient and included local plain radiography, local MRI, isotopic bone scan and CT chest. Local MRA or angiography was done in selected cases. According to the Enneking staging system, 19 patients had stage IIB and 11 had stage IIA. Patients having bone sarcoma of the proximal tibia were subjected to wide resection, endo prosthetic reconstruction and reconstruction of the extensor mechanism by the medial gastrocnemius muscle flap. Patients having bone sarcoma of the distal femur were subjected to wide resection, endo prosthetic reconstruction and coverage of the prosthesis and re balance of the patellar tendon by the medial gas-trocnemius flap. Patients having soft tissue sarcoma were subjected to wide resection and soft tissue coverage with either medial or lateral myocutaneous gastrocnemius flap or muscle flap with grafting. Limb function was evaluated according to MSTS functional scores. Adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy was given according to nationally agreed protocols. Results: There were 18 males and 12 females with a mean age of 29 years at the time of surgery (range 11-44 years). The mean follow-up period was 52 months (range 25-72 months). Resection with a negative bony and soft tissue margins could be achieved in all cases. A total of 30 flaps were used and included medial gastrocnemius muscle flaps in 21 cases (15 cases had proximal tibia endoprothesis, 5 cases had distal femur endoprothesis, 2 cases had soft tissue sarcoma infiltrating the chin of tibia myocutaneous gastrocnemius flaps in 8 cases having, tissue sarcoma (5 had medial head flap and 3 cases 1 head flap). Flap survival was 100%. The success rate of limb salvage was 96.6% with high score functional result according to MSTS functional scores. The area of the skin island harvested in cases of myocutaneous flaps ranged from 11 to 18 cm in length and from 5 to 8 cm in width and all these cases required grafting of the donor sit Complications included partial wound dehiscence in case, revision of the prosthesis in one case, amputatjf due to local recurrence in one case and significant extension lag in 2 cases. Conclusion: The unique vascularisation of the ga trocnemius muscle (one pedicle to each head), the size of the muscle belly, the fact that it is situated in the dissection field and that its transfer does not affect the function, the spared limb too adversely, makes it particularly suita for limb sparing procedures for sarcoma in the region of the knee and popliteal fossa. The medial head is workhorse muscle flap for soft tissue coverage of knee endoprothesis and reconstruction of extensor mechanism This decreases the rate of complications and improves I functional outcome. Reconstruction of the soft issue defect improves wound healing, protects exposed deep structures and subsequently prevents wound problems, delays adjauvant therapy and secondary amputation.

353

Posterior fossa decompression with tonsillectomy in 104 cases of basilar impression, Chiari malformation and/or syringomyelia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prime objective in the surgical treatment of basilar impression (BI), Chiari malformation (CM) and/or syringomyelia (SM) is based on the restoration of the normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics at the craniovertebral junction through the creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A small suboccipital craniectomy has been emphasized to avoid caudal migration of the hindbrain structures into the vertebral canal. Nevertheless, the results showed downward migration of the hindbrain related to that type of craniectomy. The authors present, otherwise, the results of 104 cases of BI, CM and/or SM, whose surgical treatment was characterized by a large craniectomy with the patient in the sitting position, tonsillectomy, large opening of the fourth ventricle and duraplasty with creation of a large artificial cisterna magna. A significant upward migration of the posterior fossa structures was detected by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:22042188

da Silva, José Alberto Gonçalves; dos Santos, Adailton Arcanjo; Melo, Luiz Ricardo Santiago; de Araújo, Antônio Fernandes; Regueira, Giseuda Pessoa

2011-10-01

354

Sagittal reconstruction computed tomography in metrizamide cisternography. Useful diagnostic procedure for malformations in craniovertebral junction and posterior fossa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We studied the sagittal reconstruction technique in computed tomography with metrizamide. Ten ml of metrizamide, 170 mg iodine/ml in concentration, were injected by lumbar puncture. After diffusion of the injected metrizamide, axial computed tomograms were taken by thin slice width (5 mm) with overlapped technique. Then electrical sagittal reconstruction was carried out by optioned software. Injection of metrizamide, non-ionic water soluble contrast media, made clear contrasts among bone, brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid with computed tomography. Sagittal reconstruction technique could reveal more precise details and accurate anatomical relations than ordinary axial computed tomography. This technique was applied on 3 cases (Arnold-Chiari malformation, large cisterna magna and partial agenesis cerebellar vermis), which demonstrated a useful diagnostic procedure for abnormalities of craniovertebral junction and posterior fossa. The adverse reactions of metrizamide were negligible in our series.

Mochizuki, H.; Okita, N.; Fujii, T.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, H. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine)

1982-08-01

355

Ameloblastoma de fossa nasal: revisão bibliográfica e relato de dois casos / Nasal ameloblastoma: literature review and report of two cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O ameloblastoma é um tumor bastante incomum na cavidade nasal. Surge a partir do epitélio odontogênico, podendo estender-se ao seio maxilar, órbitas e base de crânio. Apresentamos dois casos de ameloblastoma em fossa nasal direita, associados a sintomas nasossinusais e seus principais achados, clíni [...] cos e cirúrgicos. Abstract in english Ameloblastoma is a very unusual tumor in the nasal cavity. It arises from the odontogenic epithelium and extends up to the maxillary sinus, orbits and skull base. We have presented two cases of ameloblastoma, both in the right nasal cavity, associated with nasal and sinusal symptoms, and reported th [...] e main surgical and clinical findings.

Washington L. C., Almeida; Alex C., Costa; Carlos R. T., Góis; Marcelo C. C., Almeida; Milton P. C., Moura; Achiléa A. L., Bittencourt.

2001-09-01

356

Copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de cinco espécies de peixes (Characiformes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.887 Parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of five fish species (Characiformes from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.887  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas em diversos pontos da planície nos meses de março, junho e setembro de 2004. Foram coletados 73 exemplares de peixes da ordem Characiformes, de quatro famílias distintas, pertencentes a cinco espécies: Acestrorhynchus lacustris, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon borellii, Serrasalmus maculatus e Serrasalmus marginatus. Dentre os 73 peixes examinados, 53 encontravam-se parasitados por copépodes de fossas nasais, variando de 1 a 146 parasitos por peixe. Os parasitos encontrados pertenciam a três espécies conhecidas: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984 e Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher, 1988. Diferenças foram observadas nas medidas corporais dos parasitos e na quantidade de espécies de parasitos por espécie de peixe em relação aos copépodes encontrados em estudos anteriores na região amazônica. O presente estudo constitui um dos poucos trabalhos de identificação de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da região Sul do Brazil.The present work had the objective to study parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of fish from the upper Paraná river floodplain. Fish were captured in different locations of the floodplain in March, June and September, 2004. A total of 73 specimens (Characiformes were collected, belonging to 4 distinct families and 5 species: Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Acestrorhynchidae, Schizodon borellii (Anostomidae, Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae, Serrasalmus marginatus and Serrasalmus maculatus (Serrasalmidae. Among 73 fishes examined, 53 were parasitized by nasal fossae copepods, varying from 1 to 146 parasites per host. Parasites found belonged to 3 known species: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; and Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher, 1988. There were differences in parasite corporal measurements and in the quantity of parasites per host in relation to copepod parasites from the Amazon region. The present study constitutes one of the few studies of identification of copepod parasites in the nasal fossae of fish from the Southern region of Brazil.

Maria de los Angeles Perez Lizama

2008-02-01

357

The natural history of AVM hemorrhage in the posterior fossa: comparison of hematoma volumes and neurological outcomes in patients with ruptured infra- and supratentorial AVMs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Object Patients with posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are more likely to present with hemorrhage than those with supratentorial AVMs. Observed patients subject to the AVM natural history should be informed of the individualized effects of AVM characteristics on the clinical course following a new, first-time hemorrhage. The authors hypothesize that the debilitating effects of first-time bleeding from an AVM in a previously intact patient with an unruptured AVM are more pronounced when AVMs are located in the posterior fossa. Methods The University of California, San Francisco prospective registry of brain AVMs was searched for patients with a ruptured AVM who had a pre-hemorrhage modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 and a post-hemorrhage mRS score obtained within 2 days of the hemorrhagic event. A total of 154 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Immediate post-hemorrhage presentation mRS scores were dichotomized into nonsevere outcome (mRS ? 3) and severe outcome (mRS > 3). There were 77 patients in each group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses using severe outcome as the binary response were run. The authors also performed a logistic regression analysis to measure the effects of hematoma volume and AVM location on severe outcome. Results Posterior fossa location was a significant predictor of severe outcome (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.20-5.67, p = 0.016) and the results were strengthened in a multivariate model (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.73-14.17, p = 0.003). Eloquent location (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.37-8.80, p = 0.009) and associated arterial aneurysms (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.09, 6.10; p = 0.031) were also significant predictors of poor outcome. Hematoma volume for patients with a posterior fossa AVM was 10.1 ± 10.1 cm(3) compared with 25.6 ±28.0 cm(3) in supratentorial locations (p = 0.003). A logistic analysis (based on imputed hemorrhage volume values) found that posterior fossa location was a significant predictor of severe outcome (OR 8.03, 95% CI 1.20-53.77, p = 0.033) and logarithmic hematoma volume showed a positive, but not statistically significant, association in the model (p = 0.079). Conclusions Patients with posterior fossa AVMs are more likely to have severe outcomes than those with supratentorial AVMs based on this natural history study. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not associated with an increased risk of severe outcome after AVM rupture, but posterior fossa location, associated aneurysms, and eloquent location were associated with poor post-hemorrhage mRS scores. Posterior fossa hematomas are poorly tolerated, with severe outcomes observed even with smaller hematoma volumes. These findings support an aggressive surgical posture with respect to posterior fossa AVMs, both before and after rupture. PMID:25175444

Abla, Adib A; Nelson, Jeffrey; Rutledge, W Caleb; Young, William L; Kim, Helen; Lawton, Michael T

2014-09-01

358

Appendicular endometriosis as a cause of chronic abdominal pain alone in the right iliac fossa: case report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Endometriose é uma doença caracterizada pela presença de estroma e glândulas endometriais ectópicas. Apesar de sua etiologia não definida, sugere-se que seja decorrente de metaplasia celômica, menstruação retrógada, apresente componente genético, ou ocorra devido à disseminação linfática ou sanguíne [...] a. O acometimento do trato gastrointestinal é comum; no entanto, a endometriose apendicular é condição rara e se apresenta com maior frequência de forma assintomática. Dor recorrente em fossa ilíaca direita é uma manifestação clínica incomum. Não há exames complementares não invasivos que confirmem o diagnóstico. A laparoscopia é a principal opção durante a investigação, por sua característica diagnóstica e terapêutica. O diagnóstico pode ser feito apenas após um exame histopatológico. Embora as terapias medicamentosa e cirúrgica apresentem indicações particulares, a terapêutica combinada mostra menor recorrência dos sintomas. O objetivo do trabalho é relatar um caso de endometriose apendicular diagnosticado e tratado na Disciplina de Coloproctologia do Hospital de Base da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, além de revisar a literatura acerca dessa situação. Abstract in english Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma. Although its etiology is undefined, it is suggested to be a result of coelomic metaplasia, retrograde menstruation, to provide a genetic component, or to be one that occurs due to blood or lymphatic sp [...] read. The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is common. However, appendicular endometriosis is a rare condition. It is usually asymptomatic. Recurrent pain in the right iliac fossa is an unusual clinical manifestation. There are no non-invasive complementary tests to confirm the diagnosis. Laparoscopy is the main option for research, due to its diagnostic and therapeutic features. A histopathological examination is necessary for the diagnosis. Although surgical and drug therapies have special indications, the combination therapy showed lower symptom recurrence. This study reports a case of appendicular endometriosis that was diagnosed and treated in the service of Coloproctology of the Base Hospital at Faculdade de Medicina of São Jose do Rio Preto. There is also a literature review about this situation.

Marcelo Pandolfi, Basso; Adriana Borgonovi, Christiano; André Luís Cozetto de, Oliveira; Geni Satomi, Cunrath; João Gomes, Netinho.

359

Appendicular endometriosis as a cause of chronic abdominal pain alone in the right iliac fossa: case report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Endometriose é uma doença caracterizada pela presença de estroma e glândulas endometriais ectópicas. Apesar de sua etiologia não definida, sugere-se que seja decorrente de metaplasia celômica, menstruação retrógada, apresente componente genético, ou ocorra devido à disseminação linfática ou sanguíne [...] a. O acometimento do trato gastrointestinal é comum; no entanto, a endometriose apendicular é condição rara e se apresenta com maior frequência de forma assintomática. Dor recorrente em fossa ilíaca direita é uma manifestação clínica incomum. Não há exames complementares não invasivos que confirmem o diagnóstico. A laparoscopia é a principal opção durante a investigação, por sua característica diagnóstica e terapêutica. O diagnóstico pode ser feito apenas após um exame histopatológico. Embora as terapias medicamentosa e cirúrgica apresentem indicações particulares, a terapêutica combinada mostra menor recorrência dos sintomas. O objetivo do trabalho é relatar um caso de endometriose apendicular diagnosticado e tratado na Disciplina de Coloproctologia do Hospital de Base da Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto, além de revisar a literatura acerca dessa situação. Abstract in english Endometriosis is a disease characterized by the presence of ectopic endometrial glands and stroma. Although its etiology is undefined, it is suggested to be a result of coelomic metaplasia, retrograde menstruation, to provide a genetic component, or to be one that occurs due to blood or lymphatic sp [...] read. The involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is common. However, appendicular endometriosis is a rare condition. It is usually asymptomatic. Recurrent pain in the right iliac fossa is an unusual clinical manifestation. There are no non-invasive complementary tests to confirm the diagnosis. Laparoscopy is the main option for research, due to its diagnostic and therapeutic features. A histopathological examination is necessary for the diagnosis. Although surgical and drug therapies have special indications, the combination therapy showed lower symptom recurrence. This study reports a case of appendicular endometriosis that was diagnosed and treated in the service of Coloproctology of the Base Hospital at Faculdade de Medicina of São Jose do Rio Preto. There is also a literature review about this situation.

Marcelo Pandolfi, Basso; Adriana Borgonovi, Christiano; André Luís Cozetto de, Oliveira; Geni Satomi, Cunrath; João Gomes, Netinho.

2012-03-01

360

A branching, positive relief network in the middle member of the Medusae Fossae Formation, equatorial Mars—Evidence for sapping?  

Science.gov (United States)

The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a geological formation comprising three geological units (members) spread across five principal lobes. It dominates a quarter of the longitudinal extent of the equatorial region of Mars. Positive relief features referred to as ‘sinuous ridges’ (commonly interpreted as inverted paleoflow channel or valley fills) have been observed in the lowest member of the western MFF, but have not been identified within the central and eastern portions of the formation, in the middle and upper members. This paper presents the identification and analysis of a branching, positive relief system which occurs in the central lobe of the MFF in what appears to be an exposure of the middle member. A simple geomorphological map of the system is presented, from which we have adopted the working hypothesis that this is an inverted fill of a branching fluvial channel or valley system. A suite of morphological and topographic evidence supporting this hypothesis is presented, including analysis of the network using a ?15 m/pixel digital terrain model derived from a Context Imager (CTX) stereo image pair. The evidence supporting this hypothesis includes: (1) the local slope and topography of the upper surface of the network are consistent with a contributory network; (2) the braided, fan-like form at the termination of the branching network is consistent in morphology with it being a depositional fan at the end of a fluvial system; (3) the terminal fan and surrounding deposits show layering and polygonization; and (4) there is strong association between the lower order branches and amphitheater shaped scarps in the depression walls. We evaluate the possible origins of this fluvial system and suggest that seepage sapping is the most probable. Two possible models for the evolution of the network and related features are presented; both require melt of ice within the MFF to form liquid water. We conclude that at least some portions of the Medusae Fossae Formation, if not the entire formation, were once volatile-rich. Finally, we note that our observations do not rule out the case that this network formed before MFF emplacement, and has since been exhumed. However, this conclusion would suggest that much of the surrounding terrain, currently mapped as middle-member MFF, is not in fact MFF material at all.

Harrison, S. K.; Balme, M. R.; Hagermann, A.; Murray, J. B.; Muller, J.-P.; Wilson, A.

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
361

Trans-sylvian transtentorial approach for skull base lesions extending from the middle fossa to the upper petro-clival region.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various transpetrosal approaches have been described for excision of lesions extending into both the middle fossa and the upper petroclival region. These approaches may be associated with significant morbidity. Six patients with lesions along the medial part of the middle fossa and the upper petroclival region were operated by the trans-sylvian transtentorial approach. The surgical corridor was along the tentorial edge with excision of the tentorium providing adequate access to the tumour without the need for petrosectomy. Three patients had a trigeminal schwanomma, one each had a petroclival meningioma, clival chordoma and an epidermoid tumour. In 5 patients a total/near total excision was achieved while in one patient with petroclival meningioma, a subtotal excision was possible. All patients improved clinically after the surgery. There was no procedure related morbidity. The transsylvian transtentorial approach provides adequate access to upper petroclival lesions allowing the tumours in this region to be removed without the need for a petrosal resection. PMID:19533461

Gupta, Sunil K

2009-06-01

362

A Lateral Transzygomatic-Transtemporal Approach to the Infratemporal Fossa: Technical Note for Mobilization of the Second and Third Branches of the Trigeminal Nerve  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report describes an alternative approach to the infratemporal fossa lesions through a lateral zygomato-temporal craniotemy, which modifies the extradural temporopolar technique for cavernous sinus surgery. First, an L-shaped osteotomy of the zygoma from the frontozygomatic suture attaching the zygomatre arch and low positioned temporal cramotomy are made. Through this zygomato-temporal craniotomy and orbitotemporal drilling, leaving the lateral orbital rim and orbital roof intact, skelet...

Terasaka, Shunsuke; Sawamura, Yutaka; Goto, Shin; Fukushima, Takanori

1999-01-01

363

Identification of hydrated silicate minerals on Mars using MRO-CRISM: Geologic context near Nili Fossae and implications for aqueous alteration  

Science.gov (United States)

The Noachian terrain west of the Isidis basin hosts a diverse collection of alteration minerals in rocks comprising varied geomorphic units within a 100,000 km2 region in and near the Nili Fossae. Prior investigations in this region by the Observatoire pour l'Min??ralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activit?? (OMEGA) instrument on Mars Express revealed large exposures of both mafic minerals and iron magnesium phyllosilicates in stratigraphic context. Expanding on the discoveries of OMEGA, the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has found more spatially widespread and mineralogically diverse alteration minerals than previously realized, which represent multiple aqueous environments. Using CRISM near-infrared spectral data, we detail the basis for identification of iron and magnesium smectites (including both nontronite and more Mg-rich varieties), chlorite, prehnite, serpentine, kaolinite, potassium mica (illite or muscovite), hydrated (opaline) silica, the sodium zeolite analcime, and magnesium carbonate. The detection of serpentine and analcime on Mars is reported here for the first time. We detail the geomorphic context of these minerals using data from high-resolution imagers onboard MRO in conjunction with CRISM. We find that the distribution of alteration minerals is not homogeneous; rather, they occur in provinces with distinctive assemblages of alteration minerals. Key findings are (1) a distinctive stratigraphy, in and around the Nili Fossae, of kaolinite and magnesium carbonate in bedrock units always overlying Fe/Mg smectites and (2) evidence for mineral phases and assemblages indicative of low-grade metamorphic or hydrothermal aqueous alteration in cratered terrains. The alteration minerals around the Nili Fossae are more typical of those resulting from neutral to alkaline conditions rather than acidic conditions, which appear to have dominated much of Mars. Moreover, the mineralogic diversity and geologic context of alteration minerals found in the region around the Nili Fossae indicates several episodes of aqueous activity in multiple distinct environments. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

Ehlmann, B. L.; Mustard, J. F.; Swayze, G. A.; Clark, R. N.; Bishop, J. L.; Poulet, F.; Des, Marais, D. J.; Roach, L. H.; Milliken, R. E.; Wray, J. J.; Barnouin-Jha, O.; Murchie, S. L.

2009-01-01

364

Mandibular Fossa Depth Variations: Relation to Age and Dental State Variaciones en la Profundidad de la Fosa Mandibular: Relaciones con Edad y Estado Dental  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A mandibular fossa depth correlation with dental condition and age in humans. 120 fresh male mandibular fossas were measured from the deepest area of the fossa to a horizontal reference line. The samples were classified according to age and dental state (dentate, partially dentate and totally edentulous and a multivariate analysis was employed. Subjects average age was 41.1 (20-85. There were more partially dentate individuals (59.16% than dentate (30% or edentulous ones (10.83%. Average fossa depth was 6.9 mm (6.6-7.1 mm 95%CI which significantly decreased with increased age and dental health deterioration (pSe observó la correlación entre la profundidad de la fosa mandibular con la condición dental y la edad en los humanos. 120 fosas mandibulares frescas de hombres fueron medidas desde la zona más profunda de la fosa a una línea horizontal de referencia. Las muestras fueron clasificadas de acuerdo a la edad y el estado dental (dentados, parcialmente dentados y desdentados en total empleando un análisis multivariado. La edad media de los sujetos fue de 41,1 (20-85. Hubieron más personas parcialmente dentadas (59,16% que los dentadas (30% o desdentadas (10,83%. La profundidad media de la fosa media fue de 6,9mm (6.6 a 7.1 mm, IC 95% la cual disminuyó significativamente con el aumento de edad y el deterioro de la salud dental (p <0,01. Un periodo de cinco años de edentulismo aumentó de la probabilidad de aplanamiento de la fosa mandibular (<6,9 mm en un 20,6% y 7,2% en los dentados. Nuestros hallazgos encontraron una asociación entre el estado dental y la edad como factores determinantes en la reducción de profundidad en la fosa mandibular.

Luis Ernesto Ballesteros Acuña

2011-12-01

365

Mandibular Fossa Depth Variations: Relation to Age and Dental State / Variaciones en la Profundidad de la Fosa Mandibular: Relaciones con Edad y Estado Dental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se observó la correlación entre la profundidad de la fosa mandibular con la condición dental y la edad en los humanos. 120 fosas mandibulares frescas de hombres fueron medidas desde la zona más profunda de la fosa a una línea horizontal de referencia. Las muestras fueron clasificadas de acuerdo a la [...] edad y el estado dental (dentados, parcialmente dentados y desdentados en total) empleando un análisis multivariado. La edad media de los sujetos fue de 41,1 (20-85). Hubieron más personas parcialmente dentadas (59,16%) que los dentadas (30%) o desdentadas (10,83%). La profundidad media de la fosa media fue de 6,9mm (6.6 a 7.1 mm, IC 95%) la cual disminuyó significativamente con el aumento de edad y el deterioro de la salud dental (p Abstract in english A mandibular fossa depth correlation with dental condition and age in humans. 120 fresh male mandibular fossas were measured from the deepest area of the fossa to a horizontal reference line. The samples were classified according to age and dental state (dentate, partially dentate and totally edentu [...] lous) and a multivariate analysis was employed. Subjects average age was 41.1 (20-85). There were more partially dentate individuals (59.16%) than dentate (30%) or edentulous ones (10.83%). Average fossa depth was 6.9 mm (6.6-7.1 mm 95%CI) which significantly decreased with increased age and dental health deterioration (p

Luis Ernesto, Ballesteros Acuña; Luis Miguel, Ramirez Aristeguieta; Gerardo, Muñoz Mantilla.

366

Analysis of the Volumes of the Posterior Cranial Fossa, Cerebellum, and Herniated Tonsils Using the Stereological Methods in Patients with Chiari Type I Malformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the posterior cranial fossa volume, cerebellar volume, and herniated tonsillar volume in patients with chiari type I malformation and control subjects using stereological methods. Material and Methods. These volumes were estimated retrospectively using the Cavalieri principle as a point-counting technique. We used magnetic resonance images taken from 25 control subjects and 30 patients with chiari type I malformation. Results. The posterior cr...

Vurdem, U?mit Erkan; Acer, Niyazi; Ertekin, Tolga; Savranlar, Ahmet; I?nci, Mehmet Fatih

2012-01-01

367

Relationship Between Pterygopalatine Fossa Volume and Cephalic and Upper Facial Indexes Relación Entre el Volumen de la Fosa Pterigopalatina y los índices Cefálico y Facial Superior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The maxilary nerve can be block in the pterygopalatine fossa, entering from oral cavity via greater palatine canal. The aim of this study was to analyse the volume of the pterygopalatine fossa and its relationship with upper facial height and cephalic indexes. In 71 human adults skulls, without sex distinction, was determined the volume of the pterygopalatine fossa and cephalic and upper facial height indexes. Through a t test (p El nervio maxilar puede ser bloqueado en la fosa pterigopalatina, ingresando desde la cavidad oral vía canal palatino mayor. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el volumen de la fosa y su relación con los índices cefálico y facial superior. Se utilizaron 71 cráneos humanos adultos, sin distinción de sexo. Se determinó el volumen de la fosa pterigopalatina y los índices cefálico y facial superior. Mediante una prueba t (p < 0.05 se compararon las medias del volumen entre los tipos cefálicos y faciales. El volumen medio de lafosafue de 1.2 mi (DS 0.297, no se encontraron diferencias de acuerdo al tipo cefálico o facial.

César Andrés Coronado Gallardo

2008-06-01

368

Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy Isolated to Posterior Fossa in a Patient with AIDS: DWI and 1H-MRS Features  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report a case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) isolated to the posterior fossa in a 55-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Initial MR images revealed a few foci of patchy increased signal intensity (SI) on a T2-weighted image and a diffusion weighted image (DWI) at the pons, right middle cerebellar peduncle, and right cerebellar hemisphere, with no enhancement. After anti-retroviral therapy, follow-up MR images revealed the more prominent extent of previously-seen lesions and newly discovered newly developed focal increased SI on T2-weighted images located left of the inferior cerebellar hemisphere. Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) showed a slightly increased choline peak (3.2 ppm) and lactate peak (1.35 ppm), as well as a decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak (2.0 ppm), which suggests active demyelinating disease. DWI and 1H-MRS may support the diagnosis of PML in patients with AIDS

369

Topographical relationships between the brainstem auditory and somatosensory evoked potentials and the location of lesions in posterior fossa stroke  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The topographical relationships between the location of brainstem lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging and abnormality of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) and short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) were studied in 57 patients with stroke in the posterior fossa. Abnormal BAEPs or SSEPs were associated with lesions involving the pontine tegmentum, and abnormal BAEPs also with lesions at the cerebellar peduncle. Absence of the V wave in BAEPs and N20 in SSEPs was associated with a localized overlapping area in the pontine tegmentum contralateral to stimulation. The overlapping area associated with loss of N20 coincided with the location of the medial lemniscus. Lesions widely involving the pontine tegmentum caused the disappearance of multiple waves in the BAEPs and SSEPs. Patients who entered prolonged coma or died had total loss of the III, IV, and V waves, bilateral absence to the contralateral response in BAEPs, or loss of N18 in SSEPs. The loss of N18 in SSEPs had a statistically significant correlation with bad outcome, which suggests the superiority of SSEPs for predicting the outcome of stroke and indicates the involvement of some system excluding the medial lemniscus in the generation of N18. (author)

370

Dynamic studies of arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa by computed tomography (CT) and radioisotope (RI) cisternography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid in twelve cases of arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa was examined by using CT-cisternography. RI-cisternography was also performed in nine patients combined with CT-cisternography. According to the results of CT-cisternography obtained from twelve cases, the cysts were classified into four types. Type I showed early filling of Metrizamide into the cyst and early clearance from it. Type II showed early filling of Metrizamide and delayed clearance. Type III showed delayed filling of Metrizamide and delayed clearance. Type IV demonstrated no intracystic filling of Metrizamide. In Type I, II and III, there existed communication between the cyst and its adjacent subarachnoid space. Namely they were communicating cysts. Type IV were non-communicating cyst. Type I and II were all clinically asymptomatic. All cases with intracranial hypertension belonged to Type IV. Accordingly, there were close correlations between CT-cisternographic results and the clinical findings. On the other hand, RI-cisternography demonstrated communicating cysts in all nine cases. Thus there was no clear relationship between RI-cisternographic findings and clinical symptoms. Thus, it can be concluded that CT-cisternography is very useful in determining the surgical indication and is also of great value in detecting a possible recurrence of the cyst.

Kuzuhara, Masaaki (Nippon Medical School, Tokyo)

1982-12-01

371

Dynamic studies of arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa by computed tomography (CT) and radioisotope (RI) cisternography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid in twelve cases of arachnoid cysts in the middle cranial fossa was examined by using CT-cisternography. RI-cisternography was also performed in nine patients combined with CT-cisternography. According to the results of CT-cisternography obtained from twelve cases, the cysts were classified into four types. Type I showed early filling of Metrizamide into the cyst and early clearance from it. Type II showed early filling of Metrizamide and delayed clearance. Type III showed delayed filling of Metrizamide and delayed clearance. Type IV demonstrated no intracystic filling of Metrizamide. In Type I, II and III, there existed communication between the cyst and its adjacent subarachnoid space. Namely they were communicating cysts. Type IV were non-communicating cyst. Type I and II were all clinically asymptomatic. All cases with intracranial hypertension belonged to Type IV. Accordingly, there were close correlations between CT-cisternographic results and the clinical findings. On the other hand, RI-cisternography demonstrated communicating cysts in all nine cases. Thus there was no clear relationship between RI-cisternographic findings and clinical symptoms. Thus, it can be concluded that CT-cisternography is very useful in determining the surgical indication and is also of great value in detecting a possible recurrence of the cyst. (J.P.N.)

372

Microarray-based gene expression profiling and DNA copy number variation analysis of temporal fossa arachnoid cysts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Intracranial arachnoid cysts (AC are membranous sacs filled with CSF-like fluid that are commonly found in the temporal fossa. The majority of ACs are congenital. Typical symptoms are headache, dizziness, and dyscognition. Little is known about genes that contribute to the formation of the cyst membranes. Methods In order to identify differences in gene expression between normal arachnoid membrane (AM and cyst membrane, we have performed a high-resolution mRNA microarray analysis. In addition we have screened DNA from AC samples for chromosomal duplications or deletions using DNA microarray-based copy number variation analysis. Results The transcriptome consisting of 33096 gene probes showed a near-complete similarity in expression between AC and AM samples. Only nine genes differed in expression between the two tissues: ASGR1, DPEP2, SOX9, SHROOM3, A2BP1, ATP10D, TRIML1, NMU were down regulated, whereas BEND5 was up regulated in the AC samples. Three of the AC samples had unreported human DNA copy number variations, all DNA gains. Conclusions Extending results of previous anatomical studies, the present study has identified a small subset of differentially expressed genes and DNA alterations in arachnoid cysts compared to normal arachnoid membrane.

Helland Christian A

2010-02-01

373

Extra-abdominal fibromatosis (desmoid tumor): a rare tumor of the lower extremity arising from the popliteal fossa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aggressive fibromatosis is a rare soft tissue tumor. Although it lacks metastatic potential, it can grow aggressively in a locally infiltrating pattern. The tumors frequently recur after surgical excision, which remains the treatment of choice. Optional combinations of radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy have been used postoperatively for recurrent disease and/or inoperable cases. A palpable mass was detected in the popliteal fossa of the right lower extremity in a 48-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a contrast-enhancing noncalcified lesion initially felt to represent a vascular tumor. An invasive mass adherent to the surrounding tissue was visualized intraoperatively and extensively debulked. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Histologic examination of the surgical specimen was consistent with an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor. After appropriate recognition, wide local excision may be the most appropriate treatment for fibromatosis of the extremity. However, the rarity of this tumor and the difficulty inherent in distinguishing it from similar-appearing tumors are necessitating histologic confirmation of the diagnosis. PMID:22937461

Ali Kaygin, Mehmet; Dag, Ozgur; Erkut, Bilgehan; Ates, Azman; Kayaoglu, Refik Cetin; Kadioglu, Hakan

2011-01-01

374

Progressive Multifocal Leucoencephalopathy Isolated to Posterior Fossa in a Patient with AIDS: DWI and 1H-MRS Features  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report a case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) isolated to the posterior fossa in a 55-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Initial MR images revealed a few foci of patchy increased signal intensity (SI) on a T2-weighted image and a diffusion weighted image (DWI) at the pons, right middle cerebellar peduncle, and right cerebellar hemisphere, with no enhancement. After anti-retroviral therapy, follow-up MR images revealed the more prominent extent of previously-seen lesions and newly discovered newly developed focal increased SI on T2-weighted images located left of the inferior cerebellar hemisphere. Proton MR spectroscopy (1H-MRS) showed a slightly increased choline peak (3.2 ppm) and lactate peak (1.35 ppm), as well as a decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak (2.0 ppm), which suggests active demyelinating disease. DWI and 1H-MRS may support the diagnosis of PML in patients with AIDS

Park, Byung Sa; Yu, In Kyu; Lee, Byung Hee [Eulji University Hospital, College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-11-15

375

Detection of tumors lesions in posterior fossa in CT brain images for different conditions acquisition and dose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The posterior fossa brain area is likely to be the seat of tumors young of many types and origins. These lesions are sometimes beyond the level of detectability of routine CT of the skull, where conditions acquisition and processing are not the most appropriate. This paper provides a study of tomographic images acquired with a new anthropomorphic skull phantom showing minor tumor lesions in the above mentioned area. 13 axial CT were performed. The acquisition parameters were varied tube current, time exposure, slice thickness and collimation, looking for better conditions allowing good detectability of lesions under study by applying lower doses. We measured the air kerma at the entrance of the phantom. We studied the quality of imagery expert observer approach, investigating the detectability of lesions, as well as from 4 figures of merit: Value Contrast-Noise, Signal to Noise Ratio, Mean Square Error and Index Structural similarity with respect to the reference condition in each type of acquisition. It shows that it is possible to reduce doses from applying under MAS values without affecting the detectability of such injuries in the CT skull, with good in image quality. Are also proposed, optimized acquisition protocols for technology acquisition employed. (author)

376

Telencephalosynapsis (synencephaly) and rhombencephalosynapsis with posterior fossa ventriculocele ('Dandy-Walker cyst'): an unusual aberrant syngenetic complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agenesis of the cerebellar vermis (paleocerebellar agenesis) with fusion of the cerebellar hemispheres (rhombencephalosynapsis) is a rare malformation of the central nervous system (CNS). Its combination with synencephaly (telencephalosynapsis), telencephalic ventricular aplasia, aqueductal atresia and cystic fourth ventricle has not yet been described, as far as we know. Here, we report this combination in a 23-weeks' gestation male fetus who was aborted to a 24-year-old diabetic mother. In this fetus with cerebral and cerebellar hemispheric fusion, vermian agenesis was associated with a Dandy-Walker-like posterior fossa cyst, in spite of the fusion of the hypoplastic cerebellar hemispheres. The CNS malformations were further accompanied by dysmorphic facial stigmata such as unilateral atresia of the external ear, ocular hypertelorism and a broad nasal bridge. Preaxial polydactyly and contractures of the upper limbs were the only associated non-cranial abnormalities. Cytogenetic studies revealed a numerically and structurally normal male (46, XY). The malformation complex described in this fetus of a mother with antedating pregnancy diabetes appears to represent a previously undescribed aberrant syngenetic CNS phenotype, some basic teratogenetic aspects of which will be discussed in this paper. PMID:9339873

Sergi, C; Hentze, S; Sohn, C; Voigtländer, T; Jung, C; Schmitt, H P

1997-09-01

377

Incidence of rubella IgM antibodies in individuals with febrile rash illness attending clinics in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, 2006-2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Rubella is an infectious disease of public health importance because infection ac-quired during early pregnancy often results in foetal abnormalities that are classified as con-genital rubella syndrome (CRS. The burden of rubella infection in most developing countries is however not well documented because of lim-ited epidemiological data. Methods: Between 2006 and 2009, 781individuals with febrile rash illness seen in clinics in Akwa Ibom State were screened for rubella specific IgM antibodies using the ELISA technique. Statistical analysis was done using Graph prime version 5.3 statis-tical package at 95% confidence interval. The level of significance was established at P = 0.05 using Fisher’s exact two-tailed values. Results: Of 781 individuals screened for rubella specific IgM antibodies, 94 (12% were found to be posi-tive. Incidence of 8.7% recorded in 2006 gradu-ally rose to 9.3% in 2007, 11.6% in 2008 and 14.3% in 2009. Those in the reproductive age group (> 16 years were most affected (51.7%. However, this was not statistically significant (P = 0.228. Females (17.4% were more suscepti-ble than males (6.2% (P < 0.0001 an rural dwellers (12.8% more susceptible than urban dwellers (10.5% (P = 0.416. Conclusion: The study shows that the incidence of rubella in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria is high. The lowest incidence was however found among individu-als below the reproductive age. Thus, the find-ings of this study can be used by policy makers to model the introduction of routine rubella vaccination into the country’ Expanded Program on Immunization Schedule (EPI.

Bassey Enya

2011-06-01

378

MR-Based Morphometry of the Posterior Fossa in Fetuses with Neural Tube Defects of the Spine  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives In cases of “spina bifida,” a detailed prenatal imaging assessment of the exact morphology of neural tube defects (NTD) is often limited. Due to the diverse clinical prognosis and prenatal treatment options, imaging parameters that support the prenatal differentiation between open and closed neural tube defects (ONTDs and CNTDs) are required. This fetal MR study aims to evaluate the clivus-supraocciput angle (CSA) and the maximum transverse diameter of the posterior fossa (TDPF) as morphometric parameters to aid in the reliable diagnosis of either ONTDs or CNTDs. Methods The TDPF and the CSA of 238 fetuses (20–37 GW, mean: 28.36 GW) with a normal central nervous system, 44 with ONTDS, and 13 with CNTDs (18–37 GW, mean: 24.3 GW) were retrospectively measured using T2-weighted 1.5 Tesla MR -sequences. Results Normal fetuses showed a significant increase in the TDPF (r?=?.956; p<.001) and CSA (r?=?.714; p<.001) with gestational age. In ONTDs the CSA was significantly smaller (p<.001) than in normal controls and CNTDs, whereas in CNTDs the CSA was not significantly smaller than in controls (p?=?.160). In both ONTDs and in CNTDs the TDPF was significantly different from controls (p<.001). Conclusions The skull base morphology in fetuses with ONTDs differs significantly from cases with CNTDs and normal controls. This is the first study to show that the CSA changes during gestation and that it is a reliable imaging biomarker to distinguish between ONTDs and CNTDs, independent of the morphology of the spinal defect. PMID:25393279

Woitek, Ramona; Dvorak, Anton; Weber, Michael; Seidl, Rainer; Bettelheim, Dieter; Schöpf, Veronika; Amann, Gabriele; Brugger, Peter C.; Furtner, Julia; Asenbaum, Ulrika; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

2014-01-01

379

White matter tract alterations assessed with diffusion tensor imaging and tractography in patients with solid posterior fossa tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: This study assesses the tract alterations observed before and after resection of solid posterior fossa tumors (PFTs using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and white matter tractography (WMT. Materials and Methods: Pre- and post-surgical DTI and WMT data were acquired in eight patients undergoing surgical resections of PFT. A tensor deflection algorithm was used to reconstruct the tracts adjacent to the lesions. The tracts were evaluated regarding their spatial orientation and integrity. A software additionally assessed the luminosity and pixel values from specific regions of interest (ROIs quantifying the magnitude of tract alterations. The individual neurological condition was additionally evaluated. Results: In eight tumors (metastases (4, neurinomas (2 and meningiomas (2, the preoperative WMT revealed different tract alterations, including deviation (all cases, deformation (7 cases, thinning (8 cases and apparent tract interruption (4 cases. The ROI histograms from noncompromised tracts showed a tendency for value concentration and peak formation, while affected tracts showed different dispersion patterns. After tumor resection, the compromised white matter tracts showed a resolution (3 cases or reduction (5 cases of the deviation. Postoperatively, 7 cases of tract thinning and 3 cases with tract interruptions showed an improvement. The comparison between ROI histograms from preoperative and postoperative compromised tracts mostly revealed a postoperative accentuated reduction of the luminosity with a simultaneous increase of pixels and improved histogram definition (homogeneous values distribution. At this time (5 weeks post-surgery, several neurological functions had improved to different levels. Conclusions: Preoperative and postoperative tract alterations in patients with solid PFT can be accurately assessed with WMT. The magnitude of tract changes can be quantitatively analyzed by assessing color, signal brightness in compromised bundles.

Carvi y Nievas Mario

2010-01-01

380

Skin Rashes and Other Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

... sebaceous glands overproduce. Try using hydrocortisone cream or selenium sulfide shampoo on the sore areas. See your ... bumps? Yes This may be MILIA, or baby acne. This condition usually clears up after the first ...