Aboozar Soltani; Hassan Vatandoost; MohammadAli Oshaghi; Naseh Maleki-Ravasan; AhmadAli Enayati; Fatemeh Asgarian
Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and mol...
Full Text Available Background: Anopheles stephensi is a sub-tropical species and has been considered as one of the most important vector of human malaria throughout the Middle East and South Asian region including the malarious areas of southern Iran. Current reports confirmed An. stephensi resistance to temephos in Oman and India. However, there is no comprehensive research on mechanisms of temephos resistance in An. stephensi in the literature. This study was designed in order to clarify the enzymatic and molecular mechanisms of temephos resistance in this species.Methods: Profile activities of α- and ß-esterases, mixed function oxidase (MFO, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, insensitive acetylcholinesterase, and para-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA-esterase enzymes were tested for An. stephensi strain with resistance ratio of 15.82 to temephos in comparison with susceptible strain.Results: Results showed that the mean activity of α-EST, GST and AChE enzymes were classified as altered indicating metabolic mechanisms have considerable role in resistance of An. stephensi to temephos. Molecular study using PCR-RFLP method to trace the G119S mutation in ACE-1 gene showed lack of the mutation responsible for organophosphate insecticide resistance in the temephos-selected strain of An. stephensi.Conclusion: This study showed that the altered enzymes but not targets site insensitivity of ACE-1 are responsible for temephos resistance in An. stephensi in south of Iran.
Maria Goreti Rosa-Freitas
Full Text Available Anopheles albitarsis neotype is described from specimens collected in Baradero, Argentina, in Shannon's trap, in horse and pig stables and on the progeny of engorded females. The description includes illustrations of adult female, male and female genitalias, scanning electron miscroscopy of the eggs and complete chaetotaxy of pupa and larva. The importance for electing a neotype is based on the realization that An. albitarsis is a complex of cryptic species. It is an attempt to provide typt-locality specimens with which other memebers of the group can be compared.O neótipo de Anopheles albitarsis é descrito a partir de espécimens coletados em armadilha tipo Shannon, em estábulos de cavalos e porcos e progênies de fêmeas ingurgitadas em Baradero, Argentina, localidade-tipo da espécie. A descrição inclui ilustrações da fêmea adulda, genitálias masculina e feminina, ovos em microscopia eletrônica de varredura e da quetotaxia completa das larvas de 4º estádio e pupas. A eleição de um neótipo para albitarsis baseia-se em dados recentes que apontam a espécie como um complexo de espécies crípticas, o que evidencia a importância de uma descrição detalhada de espécimens da localidade-tipo com o qual outros membros do grupo possam ser comparados.
Hua, Ya-Qiong; Ding, Yi-Ran; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Si, Feng-Ling; Luo, Qian-Chun; Chen, Bin
Anopheles minimus is an important vector of human malaria in southern China and Southeast Asia. The phylogenetics of mosquitoes has not been well resolved, and the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) has proven to be an important marker in the study of evolutionary biology. In this study, the complete mtgenome of An. minimus was sequenced for the first time. It is 15 395 bp long and encodes 37 genes, including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and a non-coding region. The gene organization is consistent with those of known Anopheles mtgenomes. The mtgenome performs a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew and a negative GC-skew. All 13 PCGs prefer to use the codon UUA (Leu), ATN as initiation codon but cytochrome-oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and ND5, with TCG and GTG, and TAA as termination codon, but COI, COII, COIII and ND4, all with the incomplete T. tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, but tRNA(Ser(AGN)) is consistent with known Anopheles mtgenomes. The control region includes a conserved T-stretch and a (TA)n stretch, and has the highest A+T content at 93.1%. The phylogenetics of An. minimus with 18 other Anopheles species was constructed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, based on concatenated PCG sequences. The subgenera, Cellia and Anopheles, and Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia have mutually close relationships, respectively. The Punctulatus group and Leucosphyrus group of Neomyzomyia Series, and the Albitarsis group of Albitarsis Series were suggested to be monophyletic. The monophyletic status of the subgenera, Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia need to be further elucidated. PMID:26852698
Estrada, Dora Amparo; Quiñoes, Martha L; Sierra, Diana Maria; Calle, David A; Ruiz, Fredy; Erazo, Holmes F; Linton, Yvonne-Marie
In the Department of Putumayo in southern Colombia, malaria transmission has continued in the absence of the 4 traditional Latin American vector species--Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles albimanus or Anopheles trinkae. Human bait collections yielded Anopheles mosquitoes and a morphological variant of Anopheles benarrochi, the adult females of which can easily be misidentified as Anopheles oswaldoi. Species identification of females of Anopheles in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus is generally difficult due to overlapping morphological characters; therefore, progeny of field collected females were link-reared to assess species identity. Herein a robust method is presented to identify the species Anopheles benarrochi, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles rangeli from southern Colombia, using the morphology of the eggs induced from wild-caught females. Eggs of A. rangeli and A. benarrochi were differentiated on the basis of the anterior crown. In A. rangeli, this feature is positioned apically with high walls. In A. benarrochi, anterior crown is positioned more ventrally with comparatively shorter walls. No crown is present in A. oswaldoi. These differences are clear with the aid of a dissecting microscope and make accurate species determination possible even in field conditions. Egg morphology is shown to be an accurate, albeit indirect, method for the taxonomic determination for the three southern Colombian species and may also be useful in other regions of Latin America where the morphological variant of A. benarrochi is sympatric with A. oswaldoi. PMID:14968916
Full Text Available Background: Ecological data are important in the vector control management of mosquitoes. There is scattered published information about the larval habitat characteristics and ecology of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran and most of available data is in relation to malaria vectors in southern Iran.Methods: This cross sectional investigation was carried out to study the mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Province, northern Iran, during April–December 2000. Larvae were collected using the standard dipping technique. Larval habitat characteristics were recorded according to water situation (clear or turbid, vegetation, substrate type, sunlight situation, habitat situation (transient or permanent, running or stagnant, habitat type (natural or artificial, and water temperature. Results: In total, 1547 third- and fourth-instar larvae of Anopheles from 90 habitats were collected and morphologically identified. Five species; Anopheles claviger, An.’hyrcanus’, An. maculipennis s.l., An. plumbeus, and An. superpictus were identified and respectively comprised 6.3%, 22.4%, 54.4%, 13.0%, and 3.9% of the samples. The mean and range temperatures of the larval habitat water were 19.6oC (n=14 (16–25oC, 22.6oC (n=53 (12–33oC, 23.8oC (n=52 (10–33oC, 11.5oC (n=12 (9–21oC, and 20.4oC (n=7 (12–26oC, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mean water temperatures (11.5–23.5oC of the larval habitats of different species (P=0.000. Most of the genus larvae were collected from natural habitats (86.9% such as river bed pools (46.4% and rain pools (33.1% with transient (98.3%, stagnant (99.5% and clear (95.3% water, with vegetation (69.9%, mud (42.0% or gravel (39.7% substrate in full sunlight (69.6% or shaded (22.7% area. A checklist of the province mosquitoes including 30 species and seven genera has been provided.Conclusion: The main larval habitats of the most abundant species, An.’hyrcanus’ and An
Lounibos, L P; Duzak, D; Linley, J R
Scanning electron micrographs were used to describe and compare structures of eggs obtained from wild-caught females of 6 species of the Albimanus section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) from South America, which includes important regional vectors of human malaria. Among species from the Oswaldoi Complex, eggs of Anopheles oswaldoi (Peryassu) were not differentiated from those of its sibling Anopheles konderi Galvão & Damasceno, and eggs of the former species from Brazil, Ecuador, and Suriname showed no regionally distinguishing characteristics. Eggs of Anopheles dunhami Causey were recognized by the reticulate beadwork of outer chorion on the dorsal plastron, 1 of several egg characters separating this species from the related Anopheles trinkae Faran and Anophels nuneztovari Gabaldón. In both species examined from the Strodei Complex, Anopheles strodei Root and Anopheles benarrochi Gabaldón, Cova Garcia & Lopez, the anterior frill forms a distinctive ventral crown separated from the floats. Anopheles triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto), collected from 4 geographic sites, differed in the occurrence of perforated mounds on the dorsal plastron, but these chorionic structures and the extent of overlap of floats varied among eggs from single females. Changes among related species in the structure of the anterior frill and dorsal plastron are described for phylogenetic and developmental inferences. PMID:9103756
Ruiz, Freddy; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Ponsonby, David J; Conn, Jan E; Herrera, Manuela; Quiñones, Martha L; Vélez, Iván D; Wilkerson, Richard C
The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas) is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America. PMID:21120360
Full Text Available The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys for Colombian mosquitoes. That An. dunhami occurs in Colombia and also possibly throughout the Amazon Basin, is of importance to vector control programs, as this non-vector species is morphologically similar to known malaria vectors including An. nuneztovari, Anopheles oswaldoi and Anopheles trinkae. Species identification of An. dunhami and differentiation from these closely related species are highly robust using either DNA ITS2 sequences or COI DNA barcode. DNA methods are advocated for future differentiation of these often sympatric taxa in South America.
Freddy Ruiz; Yvonne-Marie Linton; Ponsonby, David J; Conn, Jan E.; Manuela Herrera; Martha L Quiñones; Iván D. Vélez; Wilkerson, Richard C
The presence of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dunhami Causey in Colombia (Department of Amazonas) is confirmed for the first time through direct comparison of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcodes and nuclear rDNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences with topotypic specimens of An. dunhami from Tefé, Brazil. An. dunhami was identified through retrospective correlation of DNA sequences following misidentification as Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. using available morphological keys...
Oswaldo Paulo Forattini
Full Text Available New research concerning Anopheles bellator in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Adult females of this mosquito showed remarkable endophily and endophagy which was even greater than An. cruzii. The epidemiological role of this anopheline as a malaria vector is discussed.
Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan
Objective: To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cm × 30 cm × 25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of P. ...
Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
Full Text Available Anopheles galvaoi, a member of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus, is redescribed based on morphological characters of the adults male and female, fourth-instar larva and pupa. Female, male genitalia, larval and pupal stages are illustrated. Data about medical importance, bionomics, and distribution are given based on literature records. Adult female of An. galvaoi can be easily misidentified as An. benarrochi Gabaldón and An. aquasalis Curry. A few characters are indicated for identifying female and immatures of An. galvaoi. Phylogenetic relationships among An. galvaoi and six other species of the Oswaldoi Subgroup are estimated using COII mtDNA and ITS2 rDNA gene sequences. Lectotype of An. galvaoi, an adult female from Rio Branco, State of Acre, is invalidated.
Wilkerson, R C; Parsons, T J; Albright, D G; Klein, T A; Braun, M J
The usefulness of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was examined as a potential tool to differentiate cryptic mosquito species. It proved to be a quick, effective means of finding genetic markers to separate two laboratory populations of morphologically indistinguishable African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis. In an initial screening of fifty-seven RAPD primers, 377 bands were produced, 295 of which differed between the two species. Based on criteria of interpretability, simplicity and reproducibility, thirteen primers were chosen for further screening using DNA from thirty individuals of each species. Seven primers produced diagnostic bands, five of which are described here. Some problematic characteristics of RAPD banding patterns are discussed and approaches to overcome these are suggested. PMID:8269099
Fernández, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Calderón, Guillermo
Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi has been reported since 1931 in border areas of the department of Loreto, mainly along the borders with Brazil and Colombia. In 1994, during an outbreak of malaria, An. darlingi was found in neighboring towns to Iquitos. At present, its distribution has expanded considerably in Loreto. This paper reviews literature available for all possible information on the distribution of mosquitoes, particularly anopheline in the Amazon region of the country, with special emphasis on An darlingi. Entomological collections were also conducted in the departments of Madre de Dios and Ucayali in order to know and verify the distribution of An. darlingi. At present, the distribution of the species is confined to localities in southeastern Peru with Bolivia border towns, in a town near the Abujao River in the department of Ucayali, and widely in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin of Loreto in Peru. PMID:25123872
Carmen Elisa Posso
Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8 but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8. According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phiST 0.1131, P < 0.001. The variation among individuals within populations (phiST 0.8869, P < 0.001was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract of Pithecellobium dulce (P. dulce leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi. Methods: Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cm × 30 cm × 25 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to the WHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts of P. dulce were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the concentration of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 leaf and seed methanol extract of P. dulce provided over 180 min and 150 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts of P. dulce exhibit the potential for controlling malaria vector mosquito An. stephensi.
Seidel, Bernhard; Silbermayr, Katja; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Indra, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Allerberger, Franz
On July 15, 2012, adult Anopheles hyrcanus (Pallas 1771) mosquitoes were caught next to a farm barn near Rust, Burgenland, close to Lake Neusiedl National Park in eastern Austria. Six weeks later, adults of this invasive species were also found in a sheep shelter outside the village of Oggau and another 2 weeks later, in a horse barn in Mörbisch. The morphological typing was confirmed genetically by amplification and sequencing of a 1,404-bp-long fragment within the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer 2, and the 28S ribosomal RNA gene. Out of two A. hyrcanus pools analyzed, one was found positive for Plasmodium sp. A 460-bp-long sequence within the mitochondrial cytochrome b region revealed 100 % identity to a sequence of a Plasmodium parasite identified in a New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura). The Austrian finding sites are close to the Hungarian border. In Hungary, the occurrence of A. hyrcanus was already reported in 1963. A. hyrcanus is considered the most important potential vector of malaria in southern France today. In Austria, sporadic autochthonous malaria cases could emerge, caused by immigration from malaria-endemic countries and heavy tourism. However, the broad population coverage of the Austrian health care system makes the reestablishment of endemic areas for malaria unlikely. PMID:23440524
Gordeev, M I; Zvantsov, A B; Goriacheva, I I; Shaĭkevich, E V; Ezhov, M N; Usenbaev, N T; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Zhakhongirov, Sh M
Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies of the Anopheles fauna in the valley and foothills of the Tien Shan identified 5 species of malaria mosquitoes: An. artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Fall, An. claviger Meigen, An. hyrcanus Pallas, An. pulcherrimus Theobald, and superpictus Grassi. An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. messeae were prevalent in the Northern Tien-Shan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. messeae, and An. superpictus were detected in the Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi was first recorded in Kazakhstan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were noted in the Inferior Tien Shan. An. messeae was first observed in the Issyk Kul hollow. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were habitants of the foothills of the South-Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi, An. hyrcanus, An. superpictus, and An. pulcherrimus were in the plain. An. pulcherrimus and An. superpicts mosquitoes are regarded as important vectors in the new malaria foci of the Fergana regions. The role of An. artemievi in the transmission of malaria is to be specified. PMID:18822504
Koekemoer, Lizette L; Spillings, Belinda L; Christian, Riann N; Lo, Te-Chang M; Kaiser, Maria L; Norton, Ryan A I; Oliver, Shune V; Choi, Kwang S; Brooke, Basil D; Hunt, Richard H; Coetzee, Maureen
Successful implementation of an integrated vector control program will rely on availability of accurate vector information in the specific location. However, such information can be limited in some countries. The aim of this study was to obtain baseline vector information from Pointe Noire on the Congo coast (Republic of the Congo). Field sampling was conducted during April 2009 in the village of Boutoto and its surrounds, close to the city of Pointe Noire. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected resting indoors. Samples were analyzed for insecticide susceptibility, species identification, and Plasmodium sporozoite infection. Molecular and biochemical assays were conducted to characterize insecticide resistance mechanisms. The malaria vector A. gambiae S-form was the only mosquito species identified, and it had a high Plasmodium falciparum infection rate (9.6%). Multiple insecticide resistance was detected in this population with full susceptibility to only one insecticide class, the organophosphates. Dieldrin and DDT resistance was mainly attributed to target-site resistance (the Rdl and L1014F/L1014S kdr mutations respectively), whereas pyrethroid resistance was mainly attributed to P450 metabolic enzyme-mediated detoxification in addition to kdr. The role of various insecticide resistance mechanisms revealed a complex association between metabolic detoxification and reduced target-site sensitivity. PMID:21417925
Full Text Available Introduction In vitro bioassays were performed to access the larvicidal activity of crude extracts from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis virgulata (Melanconiales, Amphisphaeriaceae and the saprophytic fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus (Basidiomycetes, Polyporaceae against the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Anopheles nuneztovari. Methods The extracts were tested at concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500ppm. Ethyl acetate mycelia (EAM extracts and liquid culture media (LCM from Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus were tested against third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti and An. nuneztovari. Results The larvicidal activity of the EAM extracts from Pe. virgulata against Ae. aegypti had an LC50=101.8ppm, and the extract from the basidiomycete fungus Py. sanguineus had an LC50=156.8ppm against the Ae. aegypti larvae. The Pe. virgulata extract had an LC50=16.3ppm against the An. nuneztovari larvae, and the Py. sanguineus extract had an LC50=87.2ppm against these larvae. Conclusions These results highlight the larvicidal effect of EAM extracts from the endophyte Pe. virgulata against the two larval mosquitoes tested. Thus, Pe. virgulata and Py. sanguineus have the potential for the production of bioactive substances against larvae of these two tropical disease vectors, with An. nuneztovari being more susceptible to these extracts.
Hua, Ya-Qiong; Yan, Zhen-Tian; Fu, Wen-Bo; He, Qi-Yi; Zhou, Yong; Chen, Bin
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Anopheles culicifacial species B was sequenced in this study. The length of the mitochondrial genome is 15 330 bp, which contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding control region. The gene order and the gene composition are consistent with those previously reported for other mosquito species. The initiation codon of the PCGs complies with the ATN rule except for COI using TCG and ND5 using GTG as a start codon, and the termination codon is TAA or imcomplete, an only T. The total base composition is 40.4% A, 38.1% T, 12.4% C, and 9.1% G. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 13 protein-coding genes showed that these species were classified into two clades, corresponding to the subgenus Cellia and subgenus Nyssorhynchus. An. culicifacies species B of Myzomyia Series was clustered with An. gambiae of Pyretophorus Series with a high bootstrap value of 100%. The complete mitogenome data can provide a basis for molecular identification and phylogenetic studies of mosquito species. PMID:26114319
Full Text Available Variations in the biology and ecology and the high level of genetic polymorphism of malaria vectors in Africa highlight the value of mapping their spatial distribution to enhance successful implementation of integrated vector management. The objective of this study was to collate data on the relative frequencies of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes in Mali, to assess their association with climate and environmental covariates, and to produce maps of their spatial distribution. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were fitted to identify environmental determinants of the relative frequencies of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis species and to produce smooth maps of their geographical distribution. The frequency of An. arabiensis was positively associated with the normalized difference vegetation index, the soil water storage index, the maximum temperature and the distance to water bodies. It was negatively associated with the minimum temperature and rainfall. The predicted map suggests that, in West Africa, An. arabiensis is concentrated in the drier savannah areas, while An. gambiae s.s. prefers the southern savannah and land along the rivers, particularly the inner delta of Niger. Because the insecticide knockdown resistance (kdr gene is reported only in An. gambiae s.s. in Mali, the maps provide valuable information for vector control. They may also be useful for planning future implementation of malaria control by genetically manipulated mosquitoes.
Full Text Available Vector control is one of the most important components in combating vector-borne diseases throughout the world. Application of insecticides is a widely known and popular vector control strategy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of the hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts of Abutilon indicum, Hyptis suaveolens and Leucas aspera against third-stage larvae of Anopheles culicifiacies. The results clearly suggest that all three selected plant extracts exhibited moderate larvicidal activity after 24, 48 and 72 h at 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm; the lethal concentrations (LC at 50% and 90% of A. indicum, H. suaveolens against third instar larvae at 24, 48 and 72 h (hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and acetone were as follows: A. indicum, LC50=1031.65, 949.18, 833.58 and 673.68 ppm; LC90=2215.87, 2234.39, 2152.97 and 2455.10 ppm; H. suaveolens, LC50=423.00, 347.50, 236.58 and 217.24 ppm; LC90=1431.91, 1292.15, 1138.49 and 1049.27 ppm and L. aspera, LC50=559.77, 401.56, 299.71 and 263.01 ppm; LC90=1400.80, 1549.31, 1157.96 and 1108.72 ppm at 24 h, respectively. Overall, the highest larvicidal activity was observed with H. suaveolens extract followed by L. aspera and A. indicum at various concentrations at 48 and 72 h, respectively. The objective of this investigation was an attempt to search for a user- and eco-friendly vector control agent. The study proved that the selected plant leaf extracts could serve as potent larvicidal agents against A. culicifacies in vector control programs.
Fritz, G N; Bermudez, H; Seawright, J A
Samples of Anopheles rangeli Gabaldon, Cova Garcia & Lopez, An. trinkae Causey, and An. nuneztovari Gabaldon from Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil, and Bolivia were analyzed for genetic variability at 24 enzyme loci. Estimates of genetic variability for An. rangeli and An. trinkae from Ecuador and for An. nuneztovari in Venezuela had the following ranges: 46-58% polymorphic loci, 1.7-2.0 (SEM = 0.1-0.3) mean number of alleles per locus, and 0.069-0.113 (SEM = 0.03-0.04) expected mean heterozygosity. Genetic variability estimates of An. rangeli from Bolivia were 20.8-29.2% polymorphic loci, 1.2-1.6 (SEM = 0.1-0.2) mean number of alleles per locus, and 0.037-0.054 (SEM = 0.02-0.03) expected mean heterozygosity. The estimated genetic distance between An. rangeli and An. trinkae ranged from 0.149 to 0.197. The genetic distance between these 2 species and An. nuneztovari ranged from 0.319 to 0.440. Although there were allele frequency differences at some loci between samples of An. nuneztovari sampled from either side of the Andes Mountains in Venezuela, there were no diagnostic loci and the estimated genetic distance was only 0.023. Seven enzyme loci were diagnostic between An. nuneztovari and one or both of its sister species: Acon-2, Ao, Hk-1, Idh-2, Me, Pgi, and Pgm. The diagnostic loci Hk-1 and Acon-2 were not polymorphic in any species. An. rangeli and An. trinkae can be distinguished by the diagnostic loci Ao, Idh-2, and Me-1, and with a 97% probability by Pgm. Distance Wagner and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averaging analyses support a close phylogenetic relationship between An. trinkae and An. rangeli. PMID:7473622
Full Text Available A preliminary study on larvicidal activity against laboratory-colonized Anopheles cracens mosquitos revealed that five of ten plant oils at concentration of 100 ppm showed 95–100% larval mortality. The essential oils of five plants, including Piper sarmentosum, Foeniculum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Myristica fragrans, and Zanthoxylum piperitum, were then selected for chemical analysis, dose-response larvicidal experiments, and combination-based bioassays. Chemical compositions analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry demonstrated that the main component in the oil derived from P. sarmentosum, F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum was croweacin (71.01%, anethole (63.00%, ar-turmerone (30.19%, safrole (46.60%, and 1,8-cineole (21.27%, respectively. For larvicidal bioassay, all five essential oils exerted promising efficacy in a dose-dependent manner and different performances on A. cracens after 24 hours of exposure. The strongest larvicidal potential was established from P. sarmentosum, followed by F. vulgare, C. longa, M. fragrans, and Z. piperitum, with LC50 values of 16.03, 32.77, 33.61, 40.00, and 63.17 ppm, respectively. Binary mixtures between P. sarmentosum, the most effective oil, and the others at the highest ratio were proved to be highly efficacious with a cotoxicity coefficient value greater than 100, indicating synergistic activity. Results of mixed formulations of different essential oils generating synergistic effects may prove helpful in developing effective, economical, and ecofriendly larvicides, as favorable alternatives for mosquito management.
Povoa Marinete M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptic species complexes are common among anophelines. Previous phylogenetic analysis based on the complete mtDNA COI gene sequences detected paraphyly in the Neotropical malaria vector Anopheles marajoara. The "Folmer region" detects a single taxon using a 3% divergence threshold. Methods To test the paraphyletic hypothesis and examine the utility of the Folmer region, genealogical trees based on a concatenated (white + 3' COI sequences dataset and pairwise differentiation of COI fragments were examined. The population structure and demographic history were based on partial COI sequences for 294 individuals from 14 localities in Amazonian Brazil. 109 individuals from 12 localities were sequenced for the nDNA white gene, and 57 individuals from 11 localities were sequenced for the ribosomal DNA (rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2. Results Distinct A. marajoara lineages were detected by combined genealogical analysis and were also supported among COI haplotypes using a median joining network and AMOVA, with time since divergence during the Pleistocene (COI sequences at the 3' end were more variable, demonstrating significant pairwise differentiation (3.82% compared to the more moderate 2.92% detected by the Folmer region. Lineage 1 was present in all localities, whereas lineage 2 was restricted mainly to the west. Mismatch distributions for both lineages were bimodal, likely due to multiple colonization events and spatial expansion (~798 - 81,045 ya. There appears to be gene flow within, not between lineages, and a partial barrier was detected near Rio Jari in Amapá state, separating western and eastern populations. In contrast, both nDNA data sets (white gene sequences with or without the retention of the 4th intron, and ITS2 sequences and length detected a single A. marajoara lineage. Conclusions Strong support for combined data with significant differentiation detected in the COI and absent in the nDNA suggest that
Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude methanol, benzene and acetone solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pemphis acidula (Pe. acidula) against the medically important mosquito vectors, Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus) were exposed to various concentrations and (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Twenty five late third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of treatment. Hundred eggs of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of Su and Mulla 1998. The ovicidal activity was observed 48 h of treatment. Results: The LC50 and LC90 values being 10.81and 20.64 and 22.10 and 43.71 ppm and hundred percent of egg mortality was observed at 350 and 400 ppm methanol extract of Pe. acidula against Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and An. subpictus, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that the leaf extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.
Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors. PMID:26850541
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although malaria disappeared from southern France more than 60 years ago, suspicions of recent autochthonous transmission in the French Mediterranean coast support the idea that the area could still be subject to malaria transmission. The main potential vector of malaria in the Camargue area, the largest river delta in southern France, is the mosquito Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera: Culicidae. In the context of recent climatic and landscape changes, the evaluation of the risk of emergence or re-emergence of such a major disease is of great importance in Europe. When assessing the risk of emergence of vector-borne diseases, it is crucial to be able to characterize the arthropod vector's spatial distribution. Given that remote sensing techniques can describe some of the environmental parameters which drive this distribution, satellite imagery or aerial photographs could be used for vector mapping. Results In this study, we propose a method to map larval and adult populations of An. hyrcanus based on environmental indices derived from high spatial resolution imagery. The analysis of the link between entomological field data on An. hyrcanus larvae and environmental indices (biotopes, distance to the nearest main productive breeding sites of this species i.e., rice fields led to the definition of a larval index, defined as the probability of observing An. hyrcanus larvae in a given site at least once over a year. Independent accuracy assessments showed a good agreement between observed and predicted values (sensitivity and specificity of the logistic regression model being 0.76 and 0.78, respectively. An adult index was derived from the larval index by averaging the larval index within a buffer around the trap location. This index was highly correlated with observed adult abundance values (Pearson r = 0.97, p An. hyrcanus larval and adult populations from the landscape indices. Conclusion This work shows that it is possible to use
Full Text Available Establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. Mating behavior of stenogamous Anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (Anopheles argyropus, Anopheles crawfordi, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles nitidus, Anopheles paraliae (=An. lesteri, Anopheles pursati and Anopheles sinensis, were investigated and compared in this study. The self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (DRS values, 3.6 and 7.2, was statistically significant between stenogamous and eurygamous species. The results obtained from comparative measurements of specific characters in adult females (maxillary palpomere and antennal sensilla characters and males (wing and genitalia indicate those characters might influence the mating success of An. peditaeniatus in a small cage. The gonostylus of An. peditaeniatus was shorter than the eurygamous species. Additionally, the lower frequency of clasper movement and shorter mating time could be important mechanisms that control the stenogamous behavior of An. peditaeniatus. Interestingly, for the first time, a cluster of large sensilla coeloconica was recorded on the antenna of An. argyropus and An. peditaeniatus females. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean number per female of those large antennal sensilla coeloconica among six of the eurygamous species.
Fajardo Ramos, Mayury; González Obando, Ranulfo; Fidel Suárez, Marco; López, David; Wilkerson, Richard; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb
Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovarifrom three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, respectively. Using the diagnostic characters ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hind tarsomere II/length of hind tarsomere II, ratio of the length of the humeral pale spot/length of the pre-humeral dark spot, and the ratio of the length of the subcostal pale spot/length of the distal sector dark spot (DS-III2/Ta-III2, HP/PHD, SCP/DSD) approximately 5% of the adult females were misidentified as a species of Nyssorhynchus, different from An. nuneztovari. Approximately 5% of the specimens showed DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratio less than 0.25 (range 0.21 - 0.24), and among them 3.34% shared a HP/PHD ratio less than 1.50. Consequently, 1.52% of An. nuneztovari individuals can be misidentified as Anopheles oswaldoi. In those specimens with the DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratios higher than 0.25, 34.45% displayed SCP/DSD values greater than 0.50 and of these, 3.65% displayed HP/PHD values greater than 1.8. This combination of characters could lead one to misidentify samples of An. nuneztovari as Anopheles rangeli. Similarly, 2.43% of the females could be identified erroneously as either Anopheles aquasalis or Anopheles benarrochi. Individuals with a HP/PHD ratio greater than 2.0, could be misidentified as Anopheles trinkae, Anopheles strodei or Anopheles evansae. A distinct combination of diagnostic characters for An. nuneztovari from Colombia is proposed. PMID:18368239
Mayury Fajardo Ramos
Full Text Available Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovarifrom three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, respectively. Using the diagnostic characters ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hind tarsomere II/length of hind tarsomere II, ratio of the length of the humeral pale spot/length of the pre-humeral dark spot, and the ratio of the length of the subcostal pale spot/length of the distal sector dark spot (DS-III2/Ta-III2, HP/PHD, SCP/DSD approximately 5% of the adult females were misidentified as a species of Nyssorhynchus, different from An. nuneztovari. Approximately 5% of the specimens showed DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratio less than 0.25 (range 0.21 - 0.24, and among them 3.34% shared a HP/PHD ratio less than 1.50. Consequently, 1.52% of An. nuneztovari individuals can be misidentified as Anopheles oswaldoi. In those specimens with the DS-III2/Ta-III2 ratios higher than 0.25, 34.45% displayed SCP/DSD values greater than 0.50 and of these, 3.65% displayed HP/PHD values greater than 1.8. This combination of characters could lead one to misidentify samples of An. nuneztovari as Anopheles rangeli. Similarly, 2.43% of the females could be identified erroneously as either Anopheles aquasalis or Anopheles benarrochi. Individuals with a HP/PHD ratio greater than 2.0, could be misidentified as Anopheles trinkae, Anopheles strodei or Anopheles evansae. A distinct combination of diagnostic characters for An. nuneztovari from Colombia is proposed.
Morphological Analysis of Anopheles vagus Donitz, 1902 (Diptera : Culicidae in fresh water and brackish water habitats = Variasi Morfologi Anopheles vagus Donitz, 1902 (Diptera : Culicidae dari Habitat Air Tawar dan Air Payau
Full Text Available ENGLISHAbstractAnopheles subpictus had habitat variation and showed genetic difference. So, the variation of habitat of An. vagus may support the hypothesa that An. vagus had genetic and morphology variation, same as An. subpictus.The aimed of this research was analyze morphology and chaetotaxy difference between An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water. The subject of the study was An. vagus collected from Kesongo Village, Tuntang Subdistrict, Semarang (fresh water and Jatimalang Village, Purwodadi Subdistrict, Purworejo (brackish water. Anopheles vagus were collected and individually reared. One sample in every batch was used to make larvae skin, pupae skin and adult specimen of An. vagus. The result showed that there were intra and inter population variation between An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water. The variations were on the size and number of hair branches and filaments. The conclution of this research were the morphology and chaetotaxy of female An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water showed no different. Intra and interpopulation An. vagus in fresh water and brackish water were caused by the difference of geography location (allopatric speciation.INDONESIANVariasi habitat terjadi pada An. subpictus, variasi habitat yang berbeda menunjukkan variasi genetik yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu variasi habitat An. vagus diduga akan bepengaruh terhadap variasi genetik dan morfologi. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis perbedaan morfologi dan kaetotaksi Anopheles vagus habitat air tawar dan air payau. Subyek penelitian adalah An. vagus habitat air tawar di Desa Kesongo, Kecamatan Tuntang, Kabupaten Semarang dan An. vagus habitat air payau di Desa Jatimalang, Kecamatan Purwodadi, Kabupaten Purworejo. Anopheles vagus yang diperoleh, di rearing secara individual. Tiap indukan diambil satu sampel keturunannya dan dibuat preparat skin larva, skin pupa dan nyamuk dewasa betina. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Anopheles vagus betina habitat air
Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira
Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed.
We recorded electrical responses from sensory cells associated with gustatory sensilla on the labella of female Anopheles quadrimaculatus to salt, sucrose, quinine (a feeding deterrent) and the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). A salt-sensitive cell responded to increasing con...
Full Text Available The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus albimanus and An. (Kerteszia neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.
Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.; Lyimo, I.N.; Lwetoijera, D.W.; Kirby, M.J.; Luz, C.
The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the
Full Text Available To determine the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent activities of benzene and methanol extract of Polygala arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus Twenty five 3rd instar larvae of selected mosquitoes species were exposed to various concentrations (60-300 ppm and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005; the 24 h LC50 values of the P. Arvensis leaf extract was determined following Probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was determined against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus exposed to variousconcentrations were tested under laboratory conditions and the hatch rates were assessed 120hrs post treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against selected mosquitoes at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions. The LC50 and LC90 values of benzene and methanol extract of P. arvensis against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae in 24 h were 75.32, 88.26, 82.46, 58.21, 46.37, 42.68 and 260.48, 275.26, 251.39, 208.45, 189.82 and 130.44 ppm, respectively. It has been noticed that the higher concentrations of P. arvensis extractspossesses strong ovicidal activity at 200 ppm concentration against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and C. quinquefasciatus, no egg hatchability was recorded. In the same way, methanol extracts showed maximum ovicidal activity followed by benzene extract against selected vector mosquitoes. In repellent activity, among two extracts tested P. arvensis methanol extract had strong repellent action against selected mosquitoes as it provided 100% protection against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus for 280min. From the results it can be concluded the P. arvensis extract was an excellent potential for controlling Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.
Kajla, Mithilesh; Kakani, Parik; Choudhury, Tania Pal; Gupta, Kuldeep; Gupta, Lalita; Kumar, Sanjeev
The interaction of mosquito immune system with Plasmodium is critical in determining the vector competence. Thus, blocking the crucial mosquito molecules that regulate parasite development might be effective in controlling the disease transmission. In this study, we characterized a full-length AsHPX15 gene from the major Indian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. This gene is true ortholog of Anopheles gambiae heme peroxidase AgHPX15 (AGAP013327), which modulates midgut immunity and regulates Plasmodium falciparum development. We found that AsHPX15 is highly induced in mosquito developmental stages and blood fed midguts. In addition, this is a lineage-specific gene that has identical features and 65-99% amino acids identity with other HPX15 genes present in eighteen worldwide-distributed anophelines. We discuss that the conserved HPX15 gene might serve as a common target to manipulate mosquito immunity and arresting Plasmodium development inside the vector host. PMID:26943999
K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan
Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concen...
Aboozar Soltani; Hassan Vatandoost; Mohammad Ali Oshaghi; Ahmad Ali Enayati; Ahmad Raeisi; Mohammad Reza Eshraghian; Mohammad Mehdi Soltan-Dallal; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Mohammad Reza Abai; Fatemeh Rafi
Background: Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance Methods: Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mosquitoes were collected from the field and reared i...
Jannat, Khandaker Noore
The effects of larval density, nutrition and cannibalism risk on some life history parameters of Anopheles gambiae larvae were evaluated in the laboratory. Adult body size was inversely correlated with larval density whereas larval mortality and mean age at pupation varied across experiments. When density increased, the secondary sex ratio shifted toward female bias. Effects of different types of nutrition on larval life were compared by providing larvae with algae Chaetophora sp., fish food ...
Ivanescu, Maria-Larisa; Acatrinei, Dumitru; Pavel, Ionuţ; Sulesco, Tatiana; Miron, Liviu
The members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex have been incriminated for the transmission of the malaria in Europe, which was endemic until the middle of the century. The global warming and the intensification of the intercontinental travel constitute a risk of the re-emergence of the malaria in Europe, given the presence of the Anopheles vectors. The study has attempted the identification by using the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) of the members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex from the North-eastern area of Romania from the city of Iaşi. In total there have been identified by using the PCR amplifying the ITS2 sequence of the ribosomal DNA, 217 specimens belonging to the complex of A. maculipennis among which: 58 A. atroparvus, 18 A. melanoon, 2 A. labranchiae, 52 A. maculipennis and 87 A. messeae. The ITS2 sequences of the ribosomal DNA have been compared to those of the species belonging to the A. maculipennis available in GenBank. The Species A. labranchiae is reported for the first time in Romania, being identified in the larval stage IV. The adaptation of a new species to the climatic conditions present in the North-eastern Romania, confirms the phenomenon of global warming and also the intensification of the travelling. As a result of the analysis of the A. labranchiae sequence, this one corresponds to the extent of 96% to the species from Italy, registered in GenBank, given the fact that a high number of the inhabitants of the municipality of Iaşi are working in this country. PMID:26203997
Barasa, Stephen S; Ndiege, Isaiah O; Lwande, Wilber; Hassanali, Ahmed
Four stereoisomers of p-menthane-3,8-diol, which make up the natural product obtained from Eucalyptus citriodora, were synthesized through stereoselective procedures. Repellency assays showed that all the four were equally active against Anopheles gambiae s.s. Racemic blends and the diastereoisomeric mixture of all the four isomers were also equally repellent. 1-alpha-terpeneol, with a single hydroxyl function at C-8 and unsaturation at C-8, and menthol, with a single hydroxyl function at C-3, were not repellent. The practical implication of these results is discussed. PMID:12349856
Mayury Fajardo Ramos; Ranulfo González Obando; Marco Fidel Suárez; David López; Richard Wilkerson; Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
Based on the results of comparative analyses of 1,039 specimens of several progenies of Anopheles nuneztovarifrom three localities in Colombia, eight costal wing spot patterns were observed. Patterns I and III were the most frequent: 77.96% and 11.36%, respectively. Using the diagnostic characters ratio of the length of the basal dark area of hind tarsomere II/length of hind tarsomere II, ratio of the length of the humeral pale spot/length of the pre-humeral dark spot, and the ratio of the le...
Ohba, Shin-ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; SONYE, GORGE; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro
Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%)....
Ohba, Shin-ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; SONYE, GORGE; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro
Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%)....
Full Text Available The morphologically similar taxa Anopheles calderoni, Anopheles punctimacula, Anopheles malefactor and Anopheles guarao are commonly misidentified. Isofamilies collected in Valle de Cauca, Colombia, showed morphological characters most similar to An. calderoni, a species which has never previously been reported in Colombia. Although discontinuity of the postsubcostal pale spots on the costa (C and first radial (R1 wing veins is purportedly diagnostic for An. calderoni, the degree of overlap of the distal postsubcostal spot on C and R1 were variable in Colombian specimens (0.003-0.024. In addition, in 98.2% of larvae, seta 1-X was located off the saddle and seta 3-C had 4-7 branches in 86.7% of specimens examined. Correlation of DNA sequences of the second internal transcribed spacer and mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI barcodes (658 bp of the COI gene generated from Colombian progeny material and wild-caught mosquitoes from Ecuador with those from the Peruvian type series of An. calderoni confirmed new country records. DNA barcodes generated for the closely related taxa, An. malefactor and An. punctimacula are also presented for the first time. Examination of museum specimens at the University of the Valle, Colombia, revealed the presence of An. calderoni in inland localities across Colombia and at elevations up to 1113 m.
Lyimo Issa N
Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.
Ohba, Shin-Ya; Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O; Juma, Duncan; Sonye, Gorge; Minakawa, Noboru; Takagi, Masahiro
Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine whether mosquito predators in wetland habitats feed on Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) larvae. Aquatic mosquito predators were collected from six wetlands near Lake Victoria in Mbita, Western Kenya. This study revealed that the whole positive rate of An. gambiae s.l. from 330 predators was 54.2%. The order of positive rate was the highest in Odonata (70.2%), followed by Hemiptera (62.8%), Amphibia (41.7%), and Coleoptera (18%). This study demonstrates that the polymerase chain reaction method can determine whether aquatic mosquito predators feed on An. gambiae s.l. larvae if the predators have undigested An. gambiae s.l. in their midgut or stomach. PMID:20939371
Marimuthu Govindarajan; Rajamohan Sivakumar
Objective:To determine the adulticidal and repellent activities of different solvent leaf extracts ofEclipta alba (E. alba) andAndrographis paniculata (A. paniculata)against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:Adulticidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts ofE. alba andA. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the five to six day old adult female mosquitoes of An. stephensi. The adult mortality was observed after24 h under the laboratory conditions. The repellent efficacy was determined againstAn. stephensimosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions.Results: Among the tested solvents the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. TheLC50 andLC90 values ofE. alba andA. paniculata against adults ofAn. stephensiwere150.36, 130.19 ppm and285.22, 244.16ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. Thechi-square values were significant at P<0.05 level. Methanol extract of E. alba andA. paniculata was produce maximum repellency againstAn. stephensi.Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract ofE. alba andA. paniculatawas an excellent potential for controllingAn. stephensimosquitoes.
Bayoh, M N; Lindsay, S W
Global warming may affect the future pattern of many arthropod-borne diseases, yet the relationship between temperature and development has been poorly described for many key vectors. Here the development of the aquatic stages of Africa's principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, is described at different temperatures. Development time from egg to adult was measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures between 10 and 40 degrees C. Rate of development from one immature stage to the next increased at higher temperatures to a peak around 28 degrees C and then declined. Adult development rate was greatest between 28 and 32 degrees C, although adult emergence was highest between 22 and 26 degrees C. No adults emerged below 18 degrees C or above 34 degrees C. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between developmental rate and temperature, which could be used for developing process-based models of malaria transmission. The utility of these findings is demonstrated by showing that a map where the climate is suitable for the development of aquatic stages of A. gambiae s.s. corresponded closely with the best map of malaria risk currently available for Africa. PMID:14641976
Barros, Fábio S M; Honório, Nildimar A
We performed bimonthly mosquito larval collections during 1 year, in an agricultural settlement in the Brazilian Amazon, as well as an analysis of malaria incidence in neighboring houses. Water collections located at forest fringes were more commonly positive for Anopheles darlingi larvae and Kulldorff spatial analysis pinpointed significant larval clusters at sites directly beneath forest fringes, which were called larval "hotspots." Remote sensing identified 43 "potential" hotspots. Sampling of these areas revealed an 85.7% positivity rate for A. darlingi larvae. Malaria was correlated with shorter distances to potential hotpots and settlers living within 400 m of potential hotspots had a 2.60 higher risk of malaria. Recently arrived settlers, usually located closer to the tip of the triangularly shaped deforestation imprints of side roads, may be more exposed to malaria due to their proximity to the forest fringe. As deforestation progresses, transmission decreases. However, forest remnants inside deforested areas conferred an increased risk of malaria. We propose a model for explaining frontier malaria in the Amazon: because of adaptation of A. darlingi to the forest fringe ecotone, humans are exposed to an increased transmission risk when in proximity to these areas, especially when small dams are created on naturally running water collections. PMID:26416110
Foley, D H; Wilkerson, R C; Cooper, R D; Volovsek, M E; Bryan, J H
The Australasian Annulipes Complex is the most species-rich among Anopheles mosquitoes, with at least 15 sibling species suspected. Members of this complex are the most likely vectors of malaria in the past in southern Australia and are involved in the spread of myxomatosis among rabbits. In this, the first comprehensive molecular study of the Annulipes Complex, 23 ITS2 rDNA variants were detected from collections throughout Australia and Papua New Guinea, including diagnostic variants for the previously identified An. annulipes species A-G. Specimens of each ITS2 variant were sequenced for portions of the mitochondrial COI, COII and nuclear EF-1alpha genes. Partitioned Bayesian and Maximum Parsimony analyses confirmed the monophyly of the Annulipes Complex and revealed at least 17 clades that we designate species A-Q. These species belong to two major clades, one in the north and one mainly in the south, suggesting that climate was a driver of species radiation. We found that 65% (11) of the 17 sibling species recorded here had unique COI sequences, suggesting that DNA barcoding will be useful for diagnosing species within the Annulipes Complex. A comparison of the taxa revealed morphological characters that may be diagnostic for some species. Our results substantially increase the size of the subgenus Cellia in Australasia, and will assist species-level studies of the Annulipes Complex. PMID:17126567
Otienoburu, Philip E; Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R; Foster, Woodbridge A
A novel diffusion-cage olfactometer tested the responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles to plant volatiles. Green-leaf volatiles are often released from cut or injured plant tissue and may alter the headspace of plants used in olfactometer assays. The diffusion-cage olfactometer is designed for use with whole, intact plants, hence giving a more realistic behavioral assay. Its simple plastic construction, ease of assembly, and accommodation to whole plants makes it a useful tool for measuring mosquito orientation to plant volatiles within large enclosures. We compared its performance to that of the more commonly used T-tube wind-tunnel olfactometer, by testing the orientation of mosquitoes to volatiles of a few prevalent plants of eastern Africa reportedly utilized by An. gambiae for sugar: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), and Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae). Results indicate that the diffusion-cage olfactometer is an effective alternative to conventional wind-tunnel olfactometers, to test mosquito orientation to plant volatiles under seminatural conditions. PMID:26502752
Ondari Nyakundi, Erick; Padmanabhan, M Nalini
There is an exigent necessity for development of environmental friendly bio-control agent(s) for elimination of mosquito due to increased resistance resurgence against synthetic control agents. Mosquito control strategy will lay a strong foundation to malaria exclusion or it can be curbed to certain level especially in the developing nations. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Tridax procumbens leaf extract as a reducing agent. The reaction medium involved in the synthesis process was optimized by statistical experimental design using response surface methodology to obtain better yield, uniform size, shape and stability. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed through UV-Visible, FT-IR spectroscopy, PSA and SEM Subsequently, the bioefficacy of these particles were investigated on Anopheles stephensi for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Interestingly, time period of 90 min, temperature of 76±2 °C, pH 7.2±2, 2 mM silver nitrate (AgNO3), 3mM PEG and 2mM PVP showed excellent parameters for bioprocess design for large scale production of stabilized nanoparticles. A concentration of 5 ppm of PVP stabilized nanoparticles exhibited 100% mortality. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles stabilized by PEG and PVP may have important function as stabilizers, dispersants as well as larvicides for mosquito control. PMID:26010566
Manoj Chugh; B R Gulati; S K Gakhar
A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated against the midgut proteins of Anopheles culicifacies mosquitoes. The mAbs AC-43 and AC-29 significantly inhibited Plasmodium vivax development inside the mosquito midgut. The number of oocysts that developed was reduced by 78.6% when mosquitoes ingested a combination of these two mAbs along with the blood meal. AC-43 mAb binds to the epitope common in 97, 80 and 43 kDa polypeptides from the midgut protein extract, as indicated by western blot analysis. Similarly, the mAb AC-29 recognized 52, 44, 40 and 29 kDa polypeptides. These female midgut-specific polypeptides are shared between An. culicifacies and An. stephensi, two major vectors of malaria in India. Deglycosylation assays revealed that -linked carbohydrates are the major components in epitopes corresponding to AC-43 and AC-29. Gold particle labelling revealed that both these mAbs preferentially bind to glycoproteins at the apical microvilli and the microvillus-associated network present inside transverse sections of the gut epithelium. These regions are particularly known to have receptors for ookinetes, which enable them to cross this epithelial barrier and provide them with certain necessary chemicals or components for further development into oocysts. Therefore, these glycoproteins appear to be potential candidates for a vectordirected transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV).
Govindarajan; M; Mathivanan; T; Elumalai; K; Krishnappa; K; Anandan; A
Objective:To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract of Ervatamia coronaria(E.coronaria) and Caeslpinia pulckerrima(C.pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus),Aedes aegypti(Ae.aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi).Methods:The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions.The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment.The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The crude extract of E.coronaria exerted zero hatchability(100%mortality) at 250.200 and 150 ppm for Cx.quinqitefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.stephensi,respectively.The crude extract of C.pulchenima exerted zero hatchability(100%mortality) at 375.300 and 225 ppm for Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.Stephensi,respectively.The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C.pukherrima extract.A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm~2 provided 100%protection up to 150.180 and 210 min against Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae. aegypti and An.stephensi,respectively.The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent.Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E.coronaria and C.pukherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx.quinquefasciatus,Ae.aegypti and An.stephensi mosquitoes.
K. Krishnappa , K. Elumalai , S. Dhanasekaran & J. Gokulakrishnan
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Development of plant-based alternative compounds for mosquito control has gainedimportance now-a-days, in view of increasing resistance in mosquito vectors to existing insecticides. The larvicidaland repellent activities of benzene, chloroform, hexane and methanol leaf extracts of Indian medicinal plant,Adansonia digitata were investigated against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi.Methods: In all, 25 III instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concentrations (30–180 mg/l in thelaboratory by using the standard protocol described by WHO (2005. The larvae were exposed for 24 h andmortalities were subjected to log-probit analysis. Repellent activity of crude leaf extract at the dosages of 2, 4and 6 mg/cm2 was evaluated in a net cage (45 × 30 × 45 cm containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi using the protocol of WHO (1996.Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis of A. digitata showed the presence of triterpenoids and saponins.The LC50 and LC90 values of hexane, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of A. digitata against An.stephensi larvae in 24 h were 111.32, 97.13, 88.55, 78.18 and 178.63, 176.19, 168.14, 155.42 mg/l, respectively.The repellent activity of methanol extract was found to be most effective and at higher concentration of 6mg/cm2 benzene, chloroform hexane and methanol extracts provided 100% protection up to 150, 180, 120 and210 min against An. stephensi, respectively.Conclusion: The preliminary study indicated that A. digitata showed larvicidal and repellent activities againstAn. stephensi and could be used for controlling mosquitoes. Further studies are indicated to purify the activecompounds from these plants for developing larvicide and repellents.
Pradeep Kumar, N; Krishnamoorthy, N; Sahu, S S; Rajavel, A R; Sabesan, S; Jambulingam, P
Anopheles fluviatilis, a major vector of malaria in India has been described as a complex of three sibling species members, named as S, T and U, based on variations in chromosomal inversions. Also, ribosomal DNA markers (repetitive Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) and 28S D3 region) were described to differentiate these three sibling species members. However, controversies prevail on the genetic isolation status of these cryptic species. Hence, we evaluated this taxonomic incongruence employing DNA barcoding, the well established methodology for species identification, using 60 An. fluviatilis sensu lato specimens, collected from two malaria endemic eastern states of India. These specimens were also subjected to sibling species characterization by ITS2 and D3 DNA markers. The former marker identified 31 specimens among these as An. fluviatilis S and 21 as An. fluviatilis T. Eight specimens amplified DNA fragments specific for both S and T. The D3 marker characterized 39 specimens belonging to species S and 21 to species T. Neither marker identified species U. Neighbor Joining analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase gene 1 sequences (the DNA barcode) categorized all the 60 specimens into a single operational taxonomic unit, their Kimura 2 parameter (K2P) genetic variability being only 0.8%. The genetic differentiation (FST ) and gene flow (Nm ) estimates were 0.00799 and 62.07, respectively, indicating these two 'species' (S & T) as genetically con-specific intermixing populations with negligible genetic differentiation. Earlier investigations have refuted the existence of species U. Also, this study demonstrated that An. fluviatilis and the closely related An. minimus could be taxonomically differentiated by the DNA Barcode approach (K2P = 5.0%). PMID:23398631
Full Text Available To determine the degree of susceptibility of An. Sacharovi to malathion 5%, fenitrothion 1% and DDT 4% extended studies were carried out on sucked blood engorged mosquitoes collected from Dasht Argen (Fars province in 1997. Testing method was according to standard WHO method in lots of 25 adults' mosquitoes in 4 replicates. An. Sacharovi were touched by malathion 5% and DDT 4% insecticides in 15, 30 and 60 minutes exposure time. Based on the results, mortality level was found to be 53.1%, 84.3% and 100% for malathion and 48.5%, 85.4% and 100% for D.D.T. LD50 and LD90 for DDT was found to be 15.70 and 32.55 min, respectively. According to the results, An. Sacharovi was susceptible to malathion and D.D.T. However, this Anophel had strong resistance background to D.D.T. in other areas in Iran. Another insecticide tested was fenitrothion with 1% in 60, 75, 90 and 120 min exposure time mortality was 35.4%, 60.6%, 64.3% and 84.5%, with LD50 and LD90 of about 69.83 and 138.9 min, respectively. Due to absence of fenitrothion application in malaria vectors control program in southern Iran and also susceptibility to malathion, it seems that the fenitrothion dosage of 1% in 120 min time might not be effective, therefore, it is recommended to change that concentration of insecticide or the amount of exposure time.
Full Text Available Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistance.Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mosquitoes were collected from the field and reared in an insectray. Susceptibility assays were carried out according to the WHO method. The laboratory reared susceptible Beech-Lab strain was used for comparison. Data were analyzed using Probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90 values.Susceptibility of An. stephensi to temephos indicated that the LC50 ranged from 0.0022 mg/l to 0.0141 mg/l. Although all field strains were susceptible to temephos, considerable variations in temephos resistance ratios of field strains were noticed from all the localities studied in comparison with the susceptible strain. A low level of resistance ratio was noticed in An. stephensi populations except for the Chabahar strain (RR= 4.27 fold. All field-collected An. stephensi populations exhibited homogeneity to the larvicide except for Bandar Abbas and Hormoodar village strains (P> 0.05%.Due to intensive use of temephos in the neighboring countries and occurrence of resistant to this insecticide in the main malaria vector in the region, insecticide resistance gene may evolve in the populations of An. stephensi. If temephos be applied as a larvicide it should be used judiciously for resistance management, as rotation strategy.
Full Text Available Background: Malaria still remains a public health problem in Iran. There are different vector control interventions such as insecticide spraying. The present study was carried out to determine the susceptibility status of Anopheles stephensi larvae to temephos as a national plan for monitoring and mapping of insecticide resistanceMethods: Eight different localities in two main malarious provinces were determined as field collecting sites. Mosquitoes were collected from the field and reared in an insectray. Susceptibility assays were carried out according to the WHO method. The laboratory reared susceptible Beech-Lab strain was used for comparison. Data were analyzed using Probit analysis to determine LC50 and LC90 values.Results: Susceptibility of An. stephensi to temephos indicated that the LC50 ranged from 0.0022 mg/l to 0.0141 mg/l. Although all field strains were susceptible to temephos, considerable variations in temephos resistance ratios of field strains were noticed from all the localities studied in comparison with the susceptible strain. A low level of resistance ratio was noticed in An. stephensi populations except for the Chabahar strain (RR= 4.27 fold. All field-collected An. stephensi populations exhibited homogeneity to the larvicide except for Bandar Abbas and Hormoodar village strains (P> 0.05%.Conclusion: Due to intensive use of temephos in the neighboring countries and occurrence of resistant to this insecticide in the main malaria vector in the region, insecticide resistance gene may evolve in the populations of An. stephensi. If temephos be applied as a larvicide it should be used judiciously for resistance management, as rotation strategy
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. Methods: Resistant and sensitive larvae (III and IV instar of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to crude ethanol extracts (90% of 45 plants and viability observed after 30 min, 6, 12 and 24 h postincubation. After partition of active extracts, each fraction (hexane and chloroform washed with NaCl 1%, tannins and aqueous was tested using the same protocol at various concentrations (1000– 31.2 ppm. Results: Of 49 extracts tested, 7 exhibited high potential (LC50 = 80 to 370 ppm against resistant and sensitive III and IV instar larvae of An. gambiae and Cx. quinquefasciatus. These extracts were from Cissus populnea, Cochlospermum planchonii, Heliotropium indicum, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitex grandifolia and Alchornea cordifolia. However, three most active plant species (LC50 = 80– 180 ppm were Cs. populnea, Cm. planchonii and P. amarus Their hexane and chloroform fractions showed high larvicidal activity. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that plants from Cτte d'Ivoire have a real potential for malaria, yellow fever, filarial and dengue vector control. Those could be used as sources or provide lead compounds for the development of safe plant-based biocides.
Kolade Tahiru Ibrahim
Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the resistance/susceptibility level of An.gambiae s.l, a major malaria vector in Ibadan metropolis, south west Nigeria, to two classes of insecticides approved by World Health Organization (WHO for vector control. Anopheles larvae were collected from two communities (Ojoo and Bodija within the metropolis and reared to adults. Two to three-day old, non-engorged female mosquitoes were exposed to discriminating dosages of 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin and 0.1% bendiocarb using WHO protocols and susceptibility test kits. Knockdown effect was recorded every 10 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Species identification was by morphological characteristics only. The study revealed that the major malaria vector in Nigeria, An.gambiae s.l,An.gambiae s.l, were susceptible (mortality rate of 98.8% to deltamethrin in Ojoo community, while Bodija recorded marginal susceptibility (87.5%. Both sites showed reduced susceptibility to permethrin and resistance to bendiocarb with 24 h post exposure mortalities ranging from 83.5% to 87.7% and 70.0% and 52.5%, respectively. The median knockdown time (KDT50 from 22-44.2 min for the pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin, while that of carbamates (bendiocarb range from 35.2 to 49.5 min. Resistance recorded in the field populations of An.gambiae s.l in Ibadan to bendiocarb was not observed in same population exposed to the pyrethroids (deltamethrin and permethrin but with differential susceptibility. Therefore Bendiocarb may not be suitable as alternatives to mitigate pyrethroid resistance. A rationalised use of these insecticides coupled with regular monitoring of resistance status is essential to improve and evaluate the efficacy of the current vector control tools (ITN and IRS.
Norris, Edmund J; Gross, Aaron D; Dunphy, Brendan M; Bessette, Steven; Bartholomay, Lyric; Coats, Joel R
Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are two mosquito species that represent significant threats to global public health as vectors of Dengue virus and malaria parasites, respectively. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide-resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries. For these studies, Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae were treated with commercially available plant essential oils via topical application. The relative toxicity of each essential oil was determined, as measured by the 24-h LD(50) and percentage knockdown at 1 h, as compared with a variety of synthetic pyrethroids. For Ae. aegypti, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼1,700-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid, bifenthrin. For An. gambiae, the most toxic essential oil (patchouli oil) was ∼685-times less toxic than the least toxic synthetic pyrethroid. A wide variety of toxicities were observed among the essential oils screened. Also, plant essential oils were analyzed via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the major components in each of the samples screened in this study. While the toxicities of these plant essential oils were demonstrated to be lower than those of the synthetic pyrethroids tested, the large amount of GC/MS data and bioactivity data for each essential oil presented in this study will serve as a valuable resource for future studies exploring the insecticidal quality of plant essential oils. PMID:26336230
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in China. An understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. However, there is no adequate data of A. sinensis population genetics available yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used 5 microsatellite loci to estimate population genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and demographic history of A. sinensis from 14 representative localities in China. All 5 microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic across populations, with high allelic richness and heterozygosity. Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium was found in 12 populations associated with heterozygote deficits, which was likely caused by the presence of null allele and the Wahlund effect. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed two gene pools, grouping samples into two population clusters; one includes six and the other includes eight populations. Out of 14 samples, six samples were mixed with individuals from both gene pools, indicating the coexistence of two genetic units in the areas sampled. The overall differentiation between two genetic pools was moderate (F(ST = 0.156. Pairwise differentiation between populations were lower within clusters (F(ST = 0.008-0.028 in cluster I and F(ST = 0.004-0.048 in cluster II than between clusters (F(ST = 0.120-0.201. A reduced gene flow (Nm = 1-1.7 was detected between clusters. No evidence of isolation by distance was detected among populations neither within nor between the two clusters. There are differences in effective population size (Ne = 14.3-infinite across sampled populations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Two genetic pools with moderate genetic differentiation were identified in the A. sinensis populations in China. The population divergence was not correlated with geographic distance or barrier in the range. Variable effective population size and other demographic effects of historical population
Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930
Hubálek, Zdeněk; Šebesta, Oldřich; Peško, Juraj; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo
Roč. 51, č. 6 (2014), s. 1264-1267. ISSN 0022-2585 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Tahyna virus * Orthobunyavirus * mosquito * Anopheles hyrcanus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2014
Smallegange, R.C.; Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.
Host odours play a major role in the orientation and host location of blood-feeding mosquitoes. Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto, which is the most important malaria vector in Africa, is a highly anthropophilic mosquito species, and the host-seeking behaviour of the females of this mosquito is
Hiwat-van Laar, H.; Rijk, de M.; Andriessen, R.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.
The effectiveness of CO2-baited and human-baited mosquito traps for the sampling of Anopheles darlingi Root was evaluated and compared with human landing collections in Suriname. Biting preferences of this mosquito on a human host were studied and related to trapping data. Traps used were the Center
Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)
The efficacy of whole plant ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and of Bacillus sphaericus was determined for larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. When larvae were exposed to one of five concentrations of plant extract (6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) for 24 h, mortality in 4th instars ranged from 1...
Hougard, Jean-Marc; Martin, Thibaud; Guillet, Pierre; Coosemans, M.; ITOH, T.; Akogbéto, M.; Chandre, Fabrice
The efficacy of an experimental long-lasting insecticide-treated ham mock (LLIH) with a long-lasting treated net used as a blanket and made of the same fabric (polyethylene) was tested in a concrete block experimental hut, against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.l. and the arbovirus vectors and nuisance mosquitoes Mansonia africana (Theobald) and Alansonia uniformis (Theobald). The LLIH was treated with the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin. It was evaluated concurrently with ignited m...
Brugman, VA; Hernández-Triana, LM; Prosser, SW; Weland, C; Westcott, DG; Fooks, AR; Johnson, N
Background Determining the host feeding patterns of mosquitoes by identifying the origin of their blood-meals is an important part of understanding the role of vector species in current and future disease transmission cycles. Collecting large numbers of blood-fed mosquitoes from the field is difficult, therefore it is important to maximise the information obtained from each specimen. This study aimed to use mosquito genome sequence to identify the species within Anopheles maculipennis sensu l...
K Gunasekaran; S S Sahu; Jambulingam, P.
Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C) was calculated using the...
Tchuinkam, T.; Mpoame, M.; Make-Mveinhya, B.; Simard, Frédéric; Lélé-Defo, E.; Zebazé-Togouet, S.; Tateng-Ngouateu, A.; Awono-Ambéné, H. P.; Antonio-Nkondjio, C.; Njiné, T.; Fontenille, Didier
Domesticating anopheline species from wild isolates provides an important laboratory tool but requires detailed knowledge of their natural biology and ecology, especially the natural breeding habitats of immature stages. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal values of some parameters of Anopheles gambiae larval development, so as to design a standard rearing protocol of highland isolates, which would ensure: the biggest fourth instars, the highest pupae productivity, the shortest...
Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus (Diptera: Culicidae), not the malaria vector we thought it was: Revised male and female morphology; larva, pupa, and male genitalia characters; and molecular verification
Bruce A. Harrison; RUIZ-LOPEZ, FREDDY; FALERO, GUILLERMO CALDERON; SAVAGE, HARRY M.; James E Pecor; Wilkerson, Richard C.
The name Anopheles (Kerteszia) lepidotus Zavortink, commonly used for an important malaria vector in the eastern cordillera of the Andes, is here corrected to An. pholidotus Zavortink. We discovered that An. (Ker.) specimens from Peru, and reared-associated specimens from Ecuador, had unambiguous habitus characters that matched those on the male holotype of An. lepidotus. However, the specimens do not exhibit characters of the female allotype and female paratypes of An. lepidotus, which are a...
MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; Vatandoost, H; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; Abolhassani, M.; M Hashemzadeh"
Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference...
Giovan F Gómez; Márquez, Edna J.; Gutiérrez, Lina A.; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.
Anopheles albimanus is a major malaria mosquito vector in Colombia. In the present study, wing variability (size and shape) in An. albimanus populations from Colombian Maracaibo and Chocó bio-geographical eco-regions and the relationship of these phenotypic traits with environmental factors were evaluated. Microsatellite and morphometric data facilitated a comparison of the genetic and phenetic structure of this species. Wing size was influenced by elevation and relative humidity, whereas win...
Niurka Lien Torres-Rodríguez; Mariluz Escalona-Rodríguez; Liliana Leyva-Ruiz
Se presenta el estudio de la incidencia y comportamiento del anopheles albimanus, (transmisor del paludismo o malaria) en los 282 criaderos potenciales y habituales de culícidos de la provincia holguín durante el año 2009.a partir de la información semanal enviada a la unidad provincial de vigilancia y lucha antivectorial (upvla), se caracterizó el comportamiento de esta especie la que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la provincia. Se observó mayor incidencia en los municipios FranK Pa...
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, Southeast Asian countries have been very successful in reducing the burden of malaria. However, malaria remains endemic in these countries, especially in remote and forested areas. The Leucosphyrus group of the genus Anopheles harbors the most important malaria vectors in forested areas of Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, previous molecular studies have resulted in the identification of only Anopheles dirus sensu stricto (previously known as An. dirus species A among the Leucosphyrus group members. However, Vietnamese entomologists have recognized that mosquitoes belonging to the Leucosphyrus group in northern Vietnam exhibit morphological characteristics similar to those of Anopheles takasagoensis, which has been reported only from Taiwan. Here, we aimed to confirm the genetic and morphological identities of the members of the Leucosphyrus group in Vietnam. Results In the molecular phylogenetic trees reconstructed using partial COI and ND6 mitochondrial gene sequences, samples collected from southern and central Vietnam clustered together with GenBank sequences of An. dirus that were obtained from Thailand. However, samples from northern Vietnam formed a distinct clade separated from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis by other valid species. Conclusions The results suggest the existence of a cryptic species in northern Vietnam that is morphologically similar to, but phylogenetically distant from both An. dirus and An. takasagoensis. We have tentatively designated this possible cryptic species as Anopheles aff. takasagoensis for convenience, until a valid name is assigned. However, it is difficult to distinguish the species solely on the basis of morphological characteristics. Further studies on such as karyotypes and polytene chromosome banding patterns are necessary to confirm whether An. aff. takasagoensis is a valid species. Moreover, studies on (1 the geographic distribution, which is potentially
Mário Luís Pessôa Guedes
Full Text Available Mosquito community composition in dynamic landscapes from the Atlantic Forest biome (Diptera, Culicidae. Considering that some species of Culicidae are vectors of pathogens, both the knowledge of the diversity of the mosquito fauna and how some environment factors influence in it, are important subjects. In order to address the composition of Culicidae species in a forest reserve in southern Atlantic Forest, we compared biotic and abiotic environmental determinants and how they were associated with the occurrence of species between sunset and sunrise. The level of conservation of the area was also considered. The investigation was carried out at Reserva Natural do Morro da Mina, in Antonina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We performed sixteen mosquito collections employing Shannon traps at three-hour intervals, from July 2008 to June 2009. The characterization of the area was determined using ecological indices of diversity, evenness, dominance and similarity. We compared the frequency of specimens with abiotic variables, i.e., temperature, relative humidity and pluviosity. Seven thousand four hundred ten mosquito females were captured. They belong to 48 species of 12 genera. The most abundant genera were Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Aedes and Runchomyia. Among the species, the most abundant was Anopheles cruzii, the primary vector of Plasmodium spp. in the Atlantic Forest. Results of the analyses showed that the abiotic variables we tested did not influence the occurrence of species, although certain values suggested that there was an optimum range for the occurrence of culicid species. It was possible to detect the presence of species of Culicidae with different epidemiologic profiles and habitat preference.
Full Text Available Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L. Burm.F., (lemon and Melissa officinalis, (balm were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,Ndiethyl- 3-methylbenzamide (Deet as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05 against the tested species, thus oils were more effective than extracts. There was no significant difference between Deet and lemon oil, whereas the difference between lemon and melissa oils was significant. Relative efficacy of lemon oil to Deet was 0.88 whereas it was 0.71 for melissa oil. The results were found marginally superior in repellency for animals than human. Due to advantages of botanic compounds to synthetic compounds we recommend lemon essential oil as an effective alternative to Deet with potential as a means of personal protection against mosquito vectors of disease.
Frances R Osborn
Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis larvae are salt water tolerant, preferring concentrations between 10 and 20 parts per thousand (ppt. The larvicidal efficacy of two formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Vectobac-12AS® and Bactivec®, was investigated against An. aquasalis at salinities of 0, 10, and 20 ppt. A probit analysis was used to calculate the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC95 for each product at each salinity. The LC50 and LC95 were higher for Bactivec® than Vectobac-12AS®, and for Bactivec®, the LC50 and LC95 increased with salinity. Vectobac-12AS® should thus be preferred to Bactivec® for An. aquasalis control, especially in saline breeding habitats.
Tchuinkam, T; Mpoame, M; Make-Mveinhya, B; Simard, F; Lélé-Defo, E; Zébazé-Togouet, S; Tateng-Ngouateu, A; Awono-Ambéné, H-P; Antonio-Nkondjio, C; Njiné, T; Fontenille, D
Domesticating anopheline species from wild isolates provides an important laboratory tool but requires detailed knowledge of their natural biology and ecology, especially the natural breeding habitats of immature stages. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal values of some parameters of Anopheles gambiae larval development, so as to design a standard rearing protocol of highland isolates, which would ensure: the biggest fourth instars, the highest pupae productivity, the shortest duration of the larval stage and the best synchronization of pupation. The density of larvae, the size of breeding water and the quantity of food supplied were tested for their effect on larval growth. Moreover, three cheap foodstuffs were selected and tested for their capability to improve the breeding yield versus TetraMin® as the standard control. The larval density was a very sensitive parameter. Its optimal value, which was found to be ≈1 cm-2 surface area, yielded a daily pupation peak of 38.7% on day 8 post-oviposition, and a global pupae productivity of 78.7% over a duration range of three days. Anopheles gambiae's larval growth, survival and developmental synchronization were density-dependent, and this species responded to overcrowding by producing smaller fourth instars and fewer pupae, over elongated immature lifetime and duration range of pupae occurrence, as a consequence of intraspecific competition. While shallow breeding waters (water pollution level (which was assessed by the biological oxygen demand (BOD) and the chemical oxygen demand (COD)) up to a limit depending on the food quality, above which a rapid increase in larval mortality was recorded. The food quality that could substitute the manufactured baby fish food was obtained with weighed mixture of 1 wheat+1 shrimp+2 fish. On establishing an anopheline mosquito colony in the laboratory, special care should be taken to design and maintain the appropriate optimal values of larval density, water
He, Xiu; He, Zheng-Bo; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Zhou, Yong; Xian, Peng-Jie; Qiao, Liang; Chen, Bin
Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) may function in the reception of odorants in the olfactory system. The classification and characterization of the An. sinensis OBP genes have not been systematically studied. In this study, 64 putative OBP genes were identified at the whole-genome level of An. sinensis based on the comparison between OBP conserved motifs, PBP_GOBP, and phylogenetic analysis with An. gambiae OBPs. The characterization of An. sinensis OBPs, including the motif's conservation, gene structure, genomic organization and classification, were investigated. A new gene, AsOBP73, belonging to the Plus-C subfamily, was identified with the support of transcript and conservative motifs. These An. sinensis OBP genes were classified into three subfamilies with 37, 15 and 12 genes in the subfamily Classic, Atypical and Plus-C, respectively. The genomic organization of An. sinensis OBPs suggests a clustered distribution across nine different scaffolds. Eight genes (OBP23-28, OBP63-64) might originate from a single gene through a series of historic duplication events at least before divergence of Anopheles, Culex and Aedes. The microsynteny analyses indicate a very high synteny between An. sinensis and An. gambiae OBPs. OBP70 and OBP71 earlier classified under Plus-C in An. gambiae are recognized as belonging to the group Obp59a of the Classic subfamily, and OBP69 earlier classified under Plus-C has been moved to the Atypical subfamily in this study. The study established a basic information frame for further study of the OBP genes in insects as well as in An. sinensis. PMID:26970073
Mwangangi, Joseph; Shililu, Josephat; Muturi, Ephantus; Gu, Weidong; Mbogo, Charles; Kabiru, Ephantus; Jacob, Benjamin; Githure, John; Novak, Robert
We determined changes in species composition and densities of immature stages of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in relation to rice growth cycle in order to generate data for developing larval control strategies in rice ecosystems. Experimental rice paddies (6.3m x 3.15m) exposed to natural colonization of mosquitoes were sampled weekly for two rice growing cycles between February 2004 and March 2005. Overall, 21,325 Anopheles larvae were collected, of which 91.9% were 1st and 2nd instars and 8.1% were 3rd and 4th instars. An. arabiensis was the predominant species (84.1%) with other species, An. pharoensis (13.5%), An. funestus (2.1%), An. coustani (0.3%), and An. maculipalpis (0.1%) accounting for only a small proportion of the anophelines collected. Culex quinquefasciatus (65.7%) was the predominant species among the non-anopheline species. Others species collected included: C. annulioris (9.9%), C. poicilipes (7.3%), C. tigripes (7.2%), C. duttoni (0.6%), Aedes aegypti (5.3%), Ae. cumminsii (3.5%), and Ae. vittatus (0.7%). The densities of the major anopheline species were closely related to rice stage and condition of the rice field. An. arabiensis, the predominant species, was most abundant over a three-week period after transplanting. Low densities of larvae were collected during the late vegetative, reproductive, and ripening phases of rice. An increase in larval density ten days post-transplanting was found to correlate with the application of fertilizer (sulphate of ammonia). Culicine and aedine species densities were significantly higher during the post-harvesting period. Our results suggest that the transplanting stage is favorable for the growth of immature stages of An. arabiensis and provides a narrow window for targeted larval intervention in rice. PMID:17249341
The sterile insect technique involves mass rearing of male insects for sterility purpose. This heavily relies on male fitness and genetic compatibility of laboratory-adapted male insects and the wild to ensure successful competition with their male counterpart in the wild. Uniform environment in the laboratory as compared to the wild conditions might lead to genetic drift which might lead to reduced sexual competitiveness, fitness, morphological changes or changes in the sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. This work investigated the sexual compatibility, morphometry and sexual behaviour of laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions. These measurements were done by observing swarm formation, genitalia rotation, percentage insemination, fecundity, fertility, wing length, wing width, thoracic width, body length, body size index and wing size index. Morphometric studies of laboratory-adapted and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae were carried out by observing the wing length, body length and thoracic length under Lecia 4D stereoscope in order to find out variations in the body size between the two strains. The results showed significant difference between thoracic width and wing length between the laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain. Indices such as body size index and wing length index also showed significant difference between the two strains; laboratory-adapted REDCO strain (BSI 4.45 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.92 ± 0.07, p = 0.026) and wild REDCO strain ( 4.08 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.73 ± 0.04, p = 0.026 ). Body length of laboratory-adapted male mosquitoes (4.24 ± 0.05, p = 0.462) was not significantly different from its thoracic width, wing length, and wing width. The wild strain on the other hand had significant difference between its body length (4.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.462), thoracic width (0.096 ± 0.02, p = 0.002 ) and wing length (2.99 ± 0.03, p = 0.050 ). In the mating experiment, egg production in each of
Dugassa, Sisay; Medhin, Girmay; Balkew, Meshesha; Seyoum, Aklilu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome
A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of traditional application methods of mosquito repellent plants in the reduction of the human-vector contact of malaria vectors in central Ethiopia. The plants (Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ocimum suave and Ocimum basilicum) were tested by thermal expulsion and direct burning on traditional stoves in the field against two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia (Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis). A Latin-square design was applied for randomly assigning the treatment plants and control to experimental houses over different nights. The percentage repellency of each candidate plant by both application methods was estimated from the catches of mosquitoes in the treatment and control houses. On direct burning of the plants, O. basilicum showed the highest percentage repellency (73.11%, Pcitriodora on the other hand gave the highest repellency (72.87%, Pcitriodora exhibited the highest repellency (78.69%, Pcitriodora gave the highest repellency (72.9%, P65%) against the house-entry and biting of two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia, and thus have a potential to be used at least as supplements to other control methods. However, feasibility and actual impact on disease transmission need to be known on these and other potentially useful plants. PMID:19539591
Lyons, C L; Oliver, S V; Hunt, R H; Coetzee, M
Resistance to insecticides is a global phenomenon and is increasing at an unprecedented rate. How resistant and susceptible strains of malaria vectors might differ in terms of life history and basic biology is often overlooked, despite the potential importance of such information in light of changing climates. Here, we investigated the upper thermal limits (ULT50) of wild and laboratory strains of Anopheles funestus Giles mosquitoes, including resistance status, sex, age, and blood feeding status as potential factors influencing ULT50. No significant differences in ULT50 were observed between strains displaying different resistance patterns, nor was there a significant difference between wild and laboratory strains. In some instances, strains showed a senescence response, displaying decreased ULT50 with an increase in age, and differences between males and females (females displaying higher ULT50 than males). Blood feeding did not seem to influence ULT50 in any way. For An. funestus, it seems evident that there is no cost to resistance despite what is displayed in other anopheline species. This could have significant impacts for vector control, with resistant populations of An. funestus performing just as well, if not better, than susceptible strains, especially under changing environmental conditions such as those expected to occur with climate change. PMID:26718714
Full Text Available We are producing a transgenic mosquito, a flying syringe, to deliver a vaccine protein to human beings via the saliva the mosquito deposits in the skin while biting. The mosquito produces a vaccine protein in the salivary gland (SG and deposits the protein into the host's skin when it takes the host's blood. We chose circumsporozoite protein (CSP, currently the most promising malaria vaccine candidate, to be expressed in the SG of Anopheles stephensi. To transform the mosquitoes, plasmid containing the CSP gene under the promoter of female SG-specific gene, as well as the green fluorescent protein (GFP gene under the promoter of 3xP3 as a selection marker in the eyes, was injected into more than 400 eggs. As a result, five strains of GFP-expressing mosquitoes were established, and successful CSP expression in the SG was confirmed in one strain. The estimated amount of CSP in the SG of the strain was 40ng per mosquito. We allowed the CSP-expressing mosquitoes to feed on mice to induce the production of anti-CSP antibody. However, the mice did not develop anti-CSP antibody even after transgenic mosquitoes had bitten them several times. We consider that CSP in the SG was not secreted properly into the saliva. Further techniques and trials are required in order to realize vaccine-delivering mosquitoes.
Mosquitocidal activity of indigenenous plants of Western Ghats, Achras sapota Linn. (Sapotaceae) and Cassia auriculata L. (Fabaceae) against a common malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Culicidae:Diptera)
Kaliyamoorthy Krishnappa; Kuppusamy Elumalai
Objective: To evaluate the mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, pupicidal and repellent activities of hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plants, Achras sapota (A. sapota) and Cassia auriculata (C. auriculata) at different concentrations against Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), a malarial vector. Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae of An. stephensi were exposed to various concentrations (30-210 mg/L) of plants extracts and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol of WHO 2005;then after 24 h LC50 values of the A. sapota and C. auriculata leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. The ovicidal activity was tested with the extracts ranging from 50-350 mg/L. The pupicidal activity was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the extract. The repellent efficacy was determined against mosquito species at two different concentrations 1.5 and 3.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions. Results:Among the five different extracts tested against the An. stephensi, methanol extract of A. sapota proved to be an more effective solvent extract in almost all the parameters studied than C. auriculata. Conclusions:It is inferred that the leaf extract of A. sapota and C. auriculata could be used in vector control programme.
Niurka Lien Torres-Rodríguez
Full Text Available Se presenta el estudio de la incidencia y comportamiento del anopheles albimanus, (transmisor del paludismo o malaria en los 282 criaderos potenciales y habituales de culícidos de la provincia holguín durante el año 2009.a partir de la información semanal enviada a la unidad provincial de vigilancia y lucha antivectorial (upvla, se caracterizó el comportamiento de esta especie la que se encuentra ampliamente distribuida en la provincia. Se observó mayor incidencia en los municipios FranK País, Rafael Freyre y Mayarí, con predominio en zanjas, lagunas y arroyos. Se aprecia una mayor asociación con el culex quinquefasciatus y el mayor número de muestras larvarias fueron colectadas en octubre. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados obtenidos y el riesgo de introducción de esta enfermedad en el país se recomienda continuar los estudios de esta especie en la provincia.
Resumo. Três espécimes de Anopheles darlingi Root foram encontrados na reserva ambiental Volta Grande, na área de influência da barragem do Rio Grande construída pela usina hidrelétrica de Volta Grande, em Conceição das Alagoas, Minas Gerais, Brasil. O mosquito An. darlingi é um dos principais vetores da malária humana no Brasil, devido à sua preferência alimentar por sangue humano, um fator que é acentuado pelo comportamento endofílico da espécie. O presente relato poderá ser útil à vigilância entomológica local para monitoramento dos impactos gerados pela formação do reservatório hidrelétrico, uma vez que a presença deste vetor neste tipo de ambiente indica um risco potencial de transmissão da malária.
Lindh, J M; Borg-Karlson, A-K; Faye, I
In a paratransgenic approach, genetically modified bacteria are utilized to kill the parasite in the vector gut. A critical component for paratransgenics against malaria is how transgenic bacteria can be introduced and then kept in a mosquito population. Here, we investigated transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within an Anopheles gambiae mosquito colony with the focus on spiked breeding sites as a possible means of introducing bacteria to mosquitoes. A Pantoea stewartii strain, previously isolated from An. gambiae, marked with a green fluorescent protein (GFP), was introduced to mosquitoes in different life stages. The following life stages or older mosquitoes in the case of adults were screened for bacteria in their guts. In addition to P. stewartii other bacteria were isolated from the guts: these were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE). Bacteria were transferred from larvae to pupae but not from pupae to adults. The mosquitoes were able to take up bacteria from the water they emerged from and transfer the same bacteria to the water they laid eggs in. Elizabethkingia meningoseptica was more often isolated from adult mosquitoes than P. stewartii. A bioassay was used to examine An. gambiae oviposition responses towards bacteria-containing solutions. The volatiles emitted from the solutions were sampled by headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. P. stewartii but not E. meningoseptica mediated a positive oviposition response. The volatiles emitted by P. stewartii include indole and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which previously have been shown to affect An. gambiae mosquito behaviour. E. meningoseptica emitted indole but not 3-methyl-1-butanol, when suspended in saline. Taken together, this indicates that it may be possible to create attractive breeding sites for distribution of genetically modified bacteria in the
Appadurai; Daniel; Reegan; Arokia; Valan; Kinsalin; Michael; Gabriel; Paulraj; Savarimuthu; Ignacimuthu
Obective:To evaluate the larvieidal.ovieidal and repellent properties of solvent extracts of marine sponge Cliona celala（C.celata）（Grant） against the malarial vector Anopheles stephensi（An.stephensi） Listen.Methods:Marine sponge C.celala was thoroughly washed with distilled water and shade dried for 48 h.Then the sponges were homogenized and extracted sequentially with hexane,ethyl acetate and methanol,Lanvicidal and ovicidal activities were tested at four different concentrations viz.,126.96.36.199.250.0 and 500.0 ppm.for repellent study extracts were taken in three different concentrations viz..188.8.131.52.1.0 mg/cm at.Results:Among the three solvent extracts of C.celata,methanol extract showed thc highest lanvieidal activity at 500 ppm against the fourth inslar larvae of An.stephensi.The LC50and LC90 values of C.celata methanol extract were recorded as 80.61 and 220.81 ppm against An.stephensi larvae respectively.High ovieidal activity of 91.2%was recorded al 500 ppm concentration of methanol extract.The haxane extract was found to be the most effective protectant against the adult female mosquitoes of An.stephensi.The mean protection time recorded in hexane extract was up to 245 min at 5 mg/cm2 dosage against An.Stephensi adults.Conclusions:The screening results suggest that the hexane and methanol extracts of C.celata arc promising in mosquito control.Considering these bioaclivitics.C.celata could the probed further to obtain some novel pesticidal molecules.
Selladurai Subarani; Selvi Sabhanayakam; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj; Gandhi Elango; Mohamed Abdul Kadir
Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and pupicidal activities of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) against malaria and filariasis vectors. Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activities of C. roseus leaf extracts were tested against the fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). The mortality was observed after 24 and 48 h post the treatment. The data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) at which 50%and 90%of the treated larvae or pupae of the tested species were killed. Results:The larval and pupal mortality were observed after 24 and 48 h of exposure of aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of C. roseus; no mortality was observed in the control group. The LC50 values against the fourth-instar larvae of An. stephensi were 68.62 and 72.04 mg/mL for the aqueous extract, 82.47 mg/mL for the ethyl acetate extract, and 78.80 and 86.64 mg/mL for the methanol extract, while the aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 85.21, 76.84 and 94.20 mg/mL against the fourth-instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The aqueous, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts had LC50 values of 118.08, 182.47 and 143.80 mg/mL against the pupae of An. stephensi and 146.20, 226.84 and 156.62 mg/mL against the pupae of Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Conclusions: The aqueous and methanol extracts of C. roseus leaves had an excellent potential to control the malarial vector An. stephensi and filariasis vector Cx. quinquefasciatus.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus and An. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in Keonjhar district of Odisha State recently. This study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated. Methods: Three hilly and forested villages of Keonjhar district were randomly selected. Vectorial capacity (C was calculated using the Macdonald′s formula as modified by Garret-Jones. The human landing density of the vector species was obtained from all night human landing collections (bait protected by bed-net. Man feeding habit was estimated by multiplying the human blood index with feeding frequency, which was obtained on daily basis from the duration of gonotrophic cycle. The probability of survival through the extrinsic incubation cycle was calculated from the probability of survival through one day and duration of sporogonic cycle. Results: The estimated vectorial capacity of An. minimus varied between 0.014 and 1.09 for Plasmodium falciparum (Pf and between 0.1 and 1.46 for P. vivax (Pv. The C of An. minimus for both Pf and Pv was higher during rainy season than the other two seasons. The estimated C of An. fluviatilis varied between 0.04 and 1.28 for Pf and between 0.20 and 1.54 for Pv. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on the estimated values of vectorial capacity of the two vector species, the area could be stratified and such stratification would reflect the difference in the intensity of transmission between different strata and accordingly the appropriate control strategy could be adopted for each stratum.
Background The knowledge of mosquito species diversity and the level of anthropophily exhibited by each species in a region are of great importance to the integrated vector control. Culicine species are the primary vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus and filariasis in China. Anopheles sinensis plays a major role in the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in China. The goal of this study was to compare the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species and An. sinensis in Yongcheng city, a representative region of P. vivax malaria. Specifically, we wished to determine the relative attractiveness of different animal baits versus human bait to culicine species and An. sinensis. Results Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most prevalent mosquito species and An. sinensis was the sole potential vector of P. vivax malaria in Yongcheng city. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the abundance of both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected in distinct baited traps. The relative attractiveness of animal versus human bait was similar towards both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The ranking derived from the mean number of mosquitoes per bait indicated that pigs, goats and calves frequently attracted more mosquitoes than the other hosts tested (dogs, humans, and chickens). These trends were similar across all capture nights at three distinct villages. The human blood index (HBI) of female An. sinensis was 2.94% when computed with mixed meals while 3.70% computed with only the single meal. 19:00~21:00 was the primary peak of host-seeking female An. sinensis while 4:00~5:00 was the smaller peak at night. There was significant correlation between the density of female An. sinensis and the average relative humidity (P < 0.05) in Wangshanzhuang village. Conclusions Pigs, goats and calves were more attractive to An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus than dogs, humans, and chickens. Female An. sinensis host-seeking activity
Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge of mosquito species diversity and the level of anthropophily exhibited by each species in a region are of great importance to the integrated vector control. Culicine species are the primary vectors of Japanese encephalitis (JE virus and filariasis in China. Anopheles sinensis plays a major role in the maintenance of Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in China. The goal of this study was to compare the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species and An. sinensis in Yongcheng city, a representative region of P. vivax malaria. Specifically, we wished to determine the relative attractiveness of different animal baits versus human bait to culicine species and An. sinensis. Results Culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most prevalent mosquito species and An. sinensis was the sole potential vector of P. vivax malaria in Yongcheng city. There were significant differences (P An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus collected in distinct baited traps. The relative attractiveness of animal versus human bait was similar towards both An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The ranking derived from the mean number of mosquitoes per bait indicated that pigs, goats and calves frequently attracted more mosquitoes than the other hosts tested (dogs, humans, and chickens. These trends were similar across all capture nights at three distinct villages. The human blood index (HBI of female An. sinensis was 2.94% when computed with mixed meals while 3.70% computed with only the single meal. 19:00~21:00 was the primary peak of host-seeking female An. sinensis while 4:00~5:00 was the smaller peak at night. There was significant correlation between the density of female An. sinensis and the average relative humidity (P Conclusions Pigs, goats and calves were more attractive to An. sinensis and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus than dogs, humans, and chickens. Female An. sinensis host-seeking activity mainly occurred from 19:00 to 21:00. Thus
Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of synthesized natural products for vector control have been a priority in this area. In the present study, the larvicidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against late third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (25, 50, 75, 100, and 125 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 11.56 and 20.56 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 13.13 and 23.12 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 14.19 and 24.30 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using F. elephantum has the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C
Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan
Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90
Monitoring of the impact of the Gabcikovo hydroelectric power structures on mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in 8 areas and 16 stationary stands during 1990-1994 is presented. The following 9 species of mosquitoes were ascertained: Anopheles maculipennis, s.1, Culiseta annulata, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Aedes dorsalis, Aedes cinereus, Culex pipiens, Culex territans a Culex modestus. Important changes in the quantity as well as the quality of mosquitoes, were observed in connection with the changes in the ground water level. In 1994 we recorded only 4 species of mosquitoes: Anopheles maculipennis s.1, Aedes vexans, Aedes sticticus, Culex territans. The quantity of mosquitoes decreased significantly at all monitored stands near the river Danube upstream of the confluence with the tail race canal. Cunovo reservoir acted positively on the adjacent monitoring localities Kopac Island and Cunovo-Ostrovne lucky. The recorded communities of mosquitoes Anopheles maculipennis s.1 a Culex territans, are, according to our observations, typical for stabilised water levels. (author). 1 tab., 2 refs
Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J
The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979
José M. Macário Rebêlo
Full Text Available Estudou-se a distribuição e diversidade de espécies de Anopheles em 123 municípios do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil. O método básico foi a captura de fêmeas dentro e nos arredores das habitações humanas, em intervalos compreendidos entre 18h e 6h, no período de janeiro de 1992 a dezembro de 2001. Foram capturados 84.467 exemplares distribuídos em 24 espécies, com o predomínio de A. triannulatus sensu lato (20.788, A. darlingi (19.083, A. nuneztovari (16.884, A. albitarsis s.l. (14.352, A. aquasalis (8.202 e A. evansae (2.885. As outras 18 espécies juntas representaram apenas 2,7%. As espécies encontradas no maior número de municípios foram: A. albitarsis s.l. (109 municípios, A. triannulatus s.l. (106, A. nuneztovari (93, A. darlingi (87 e A. evansae (64. A riqueza e a ampla distribuição das espécies de anofelinos no Maranhão concordam com a posição geográfica do estado, entre as macrorregiões que caracterizam o Brasil, resultando em uma fauna mista, com elementos representativos dessas regiões.We studied the distribution and diversity of Anopheles species in 123 counties (municipalities in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. The basic method consisted of capturing female specimens inside and around human dwellings between 6 PM and 6 AM from January 1992 to December 2001. A total of 84,467 specimens belonging to 24 species were captured, with a predominance of A. triannulatus sensu lato (20,788, A. darlingi (19,083, A. nuneztovari (16,884, A. albitarsis s.l. (14,352, A. aquasalis (8.202, and A. evansae (2,885. The other 18 species together accounted for only 2.7% of the total. The species found in the most counties were A. albitarsis s.l. (109 counties, A. triannulatus s.l. (106, A. nuneztovari (93, A. darlingi (87, and A. evansae (64. The richness and wide distribution of anopheline species in Maranhão agree with the State's geographic position among Brazil's macro-regions, resulting in a mixed fauna with representative
Determinação das fontes alimentares de Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, pelo teste de precipitina Blood-meal sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae in a South-eastern State of Brazil
Full Text Available Anopheles aquasalis é um mosquito ora encarado como antropofílico, ora como zoofílico ou eclético. Realizou-se estudo em Guapimirim, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de maio a novembro de 1992, com o intuito de se verificar a fonte alimentar preferida desse anofelino através de teste imunológico de precipitina. De 1.366 fêmeas capturadas em abrigos naturais, 725 estavam ingurgitadas. O conteúdo digestivo de apenas 473 delas reagiu no teste de precipitina, sendo que em 75,3% dos casos foi identificada apenas uma fonte alimentar. Mais da metade dessas fêmeas havia se alimentado em boi (52,2%, enquanto poucas tinham sugado homem (1,1%. Por outro lado, 24,7% dos espécimes haviam se alimentado em mais de uma fonte sangüínea, principalmente boi e cavalo. Conclui-se que An. aquasalis é zoófilo nessa região do País, utilizando grande variedade de hospedeiros, porém preferindo se alimentar em animais de grande porte, especialmente o boi e cavalo.Anopheles aquasalis has shown local variations in blood-host preference in Brazil: it seems to be anthropophilic in the northeast and zoophilic or opportunistic in the Amazon and other regions. A study was carried out in Guapimirim county, State of Rio de Janeiro, from May to November 1992, for the purpose of identifying the blood meal source of this anopheline by capillary tube precipitin test. A total of 1,366 females were captured at natural resting-places, 725 of which were blood-fed. The gut content of 473 blood fed females reacted to the antisera used (human, cow, horse, pig, dog and chicken. The majority of the females ¾ 356 (75.3% ¾ had blood from only one source. A substantial bovine preference was observed ¾ 52.2% had fed on cows, 29.8% on horses, 10.7% on pigs, 4.5% on chickens and 1.7% on dogs, but only few had fed on man (1.1% and none on rats. On the other hand, 24.7% of the females had fed on more than one host, mainly on cows and horses. It was assumed that An. aquasalis is zoophilic
Pates, H.V.; Takken, W.; Curtis, C.F.
The host preference of Anopheles quadriannulatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae), the zoophilic member of the malaria mosquito complex Anopheles gambiae Giles, was investigated in a dual-choice olfactometer. Naïve female mosquitoes were exposed to CO2, acetone, 1-octen-3-ol, and skin emanations from c
α-Humulene and β-elemene from Syzygium zeylanicum (Myrtaceae) essential oil: highly effective and eco-friendly larvicides against Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).
Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni
Mosquitoes transmit serious pathogens and parasites to humans and animals, including malaria, dengue, Japanese encephalitis and filariasis. The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to the development of resistance in mosquito vector populations and serious non-target effects on human health and the environment. Myrtaceae plants can be a useful reservoir of natural products effective against Culicidae young instars. In this research, we evaluated the mosquitocidal potential of the essential oil (EO) from Syzygium zeylanicum leaves against larvae of three mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance, the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus, the dengue vector Aedes albopictus, and the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the S. zeylanicum EO contained at least 18 compounds. The major chemical components were α-humulene (37.8.5 %) and β-elemene (10.7 %). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 83.11, 90.45, and 97.96 μg/ml, respectively. The two major constituents extracted from the S. zeylanicum EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. α-Humulene and β-elemene appeared highly effective against An. subpictus (LC50 = 6.19 and 10.26 μg/ml, respectively), followed by Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 6.86 and 11.15 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 = 7.39 and 12.05 μg/ml). Furthermore, the EO and its major components was safe towards the non-target fish Gambusia affinis; LC50 values were 20374.26, 1024.95, and 2073.18 μg/ml, respectively for EO, α-humulene and β-elemene. Overall, this study highlighted that the acute toxicity of S. zeylanicum EO towards mosquito larvae was mainly due to the presence of α-humulene and β-elemene. Furthermore, we pointed
Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la Costa Pacífica de Colombia: III. Medidas de luminosidad y el comportamiento de picadura Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: III - Medições da luminosidade e estudo do comportamento durante o repasto Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: III. Light intensity measurements and biting behavior
César Murillo B.
Full Text Available El estudio del comportamiento de picadura de mosquitos capturados picando humanos en un área despejada del poblado de Charambirá, Chocó, en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, indico que cambios en la intensidad de la luz, influenciaban el início y el fin de la actividad de vuelo de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, especie con marcados hábitos crepusculares. Esta especie está considerada como vectora de esa enfermedad, malaria, en la costa pacífica colombiana.O estudo do comportamento de mosquitos capturados picando humanos numa zona desmatada do povoado de Charambirá, Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, indicaram que mudanças na intensidade da luz influenciam o início e o fim da atividade de vôo do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, verificando-se que o repasto ocorre durante as horas crepusculares. Esta espécie é considerada como vetora da malária na costa do país.The study of mosquitoes captured while biting man in a forest cleared zone of Charambirá, Chocó, on the Pacific Coast of Colombia, indicated that changes in light intensity stimulated the beginning and end of the flight activity of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, a species with crepuscular biting behavior incriminated as malaria vector in this region of the county.
Krüger, A; Börstler, J; Badusche, M; Lühken, R; Garms, R; Tannich, E
In Europe, mosquito-related public health concerns are growing due to the increasing spread of invasive mosquito species and the recent emergence of mosquito-borne arboviruses. A vital backbone in the assessment of these issues is detailed knowledge of the mosquito fauna, i.e. regional mosquito inventories. It was therefore decided to intensify nationwide investigations on the occurrence and distribution of mosquitoes in Germany in order to update old records and to detect possible faunal changes. This paper is focussing on a densely populated metropolitan region, the federal state of Hamburg and its adjacent environs, taking two historical baseline inventories into consideration, spanning almost 100 years of mosquito research in Hamburg. In the period between 2010 and 2014, more than 10,000 juvenile, neonate and adult mosquito specimens were sampled and trapped at 105 sites in Hamburg and its environs, of which about 60% have been identified to species level, resulting in a total of 33 recorded species. Of these, Anopheles algeriensis, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Ochlerotatus nigrinus and Ochlerotatus sticticus are new to the area. The most common species in Hamburg are Culex pipiens/torrentium and Ochlerotatus annulipes/cantans. In contrast, two previously common species, Anopheles atroparvus and Ochlerotatus excrucians, were not detected. Despite substantial environmental changes due to reconstruction, urbanisation and renaturation in the Hamburg metropolitan region in recent decades, there has been remarkably little change within the mosquito fauna during the last century. PMID:24870250
Araujo, Roderlei de
Resumo: A malária no Estado do Paraná deve-se principalmente ao fluxo de pessoas advindas de áreas endêmicas de outras regiões do país, e a manutenção do vetor transmissor em algumas regiões do estado onde, o risco para ocorrência de casos autóctones da doença inspira cuidado. O presente estudo teve por objetivo descrever a composição da fauna de Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) da Reserva Indígena do Ocoy, foco ativo de malária no município de São Miguel do Iguaçu. As análises foram feitas atr...
Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae) en la Costa Pacífica de Colombia: III. Medidas de luminosidad y el comportamiento de picadura Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae) na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: III - Medições da luminosidade e estudo do comportamento durante o repasto Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae) on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: III. Light intensity measurements and biting behavior
César Murillo B.; Rodrigo Astaiza V.; Paulina Fajardo O.
El estudio del comportamiento de picadura de mosquitos capturados picando humanos en un área despejada del poblado de Charambirá, Chocó, en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, indico que cambios en la intensidad de la luz, influenciaban el início y el fin de la actividad de vuelo de Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai, especie con marcados hábitos crepusculares. Esta especie está considerada como vectora de esa enfermedad, malaria, en la costa pacífica colombiana.O estudo do comportamento de mosquitos ca...
Biología de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la Costa Pacifica de Colombia: IV - Estructura etárea y transmisión de malaria Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na Costa do Pacífico Colombiano: IV - Estrutura etária e transmissão da malária Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: IV - Age structure and malaria transmission
César Murillo B.
Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar la dinamica de transmisión de malaria en el poblado de Charambirá (Chocó, Colombia, se estudió la estructura etárea de Anopheles neivai (reconocido vector en la Costa Pacífica con base en su estado gonadotrófico. Se recolectaron mosquitos intradomiciliarmente durante el crepúsculo vespertino con cebos humanos y aspiradores bucales. Los mosquitos recolectados se mantuvieron en cajas cilíndricas de cartón con papel humedecido y dispensadores alimenticios hasta su disección al día siguiente. De los 200 mosquitos disecados entre septiembre y octubre de 1986,68 (34% presentaban huellas de menos de tres oviposturas y los restantes (66% habían efectuado al menos tres oviposturas. La diferencia entre el primer grupo considerado como mosquitos "no infectivos" y el segundo considerado como los "potencialmente infectivos" fue altamente significativa (X² = 10,68; P = 0,001. El 1,5% de A. neivai estudiados presentaban huellas correspondientes a 10 oviposturas mostrando una marcada longevidad y múltiples alimentaciones sanguíneas. Los resultados sugieren que existe un alto riesgo de contraer malaria en Charambirá durante el crepúsculo vespertino.Com o intuito de determinar a dinâmica de transmissão da malária no povoado de Charambirá (Chocó, Colômbia, foi estudada a estrutura etária do mosquito Anopheles neivai (reconhecido vetor da Costa Pacífica com base em seu estado gonadotrófico. As coletas foram realizadas intradomiciliarmente no crepúsculo vespertino com isca humana e auxílio de tubos de sucção manual. Os mosquitos coletados foram mantidos em caixas cilíndricas de papelão, contendo papel umidecido e alimento. Dos 200 mosquitos dissecados entre setembro e outubro de 1986, 68 (34% apresentaram vestígios de menos de três oviposturas (oviposições e os demais (66% apresentavam, pelo menos, três ovipoturas. A diferença entre o primeiro grupo considerado como mosquitos "não infectantes" e o
Okorie, Patricia N.; Ademowo, George O.; Irving, Helen; Kelly-Hope, Louise A; Wondji, Charles S
The emergence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes has great implications for malaria control in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the dynamics of insecticide susceptibility levels and frequency of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations (L1014F) in wild Anopheles coluzzii Coetzee & Wilkerson sp. n. and An. gambiae Giles ( (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ojoo and Bodija areas of Ibadan, South-West, Nigeria. Insecticide susceptibility to pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and o...
Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la costa Pacífica de Colombia: I. Fluctuación de la población larval y características de sus criaderos Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K,, 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: I. Flutuação da população larval e características dos seus berçários (criadouros Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific coast of Colombia: I. Fluctuation of larval population and characteristics of the breeding places
César Murillo B.
Full Text Available En Charambirá, localidad del município de Istmina (Chocó en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, donde existe un problema de malaria endémica, se estudió la fluctuación de la población larval y las características de los criaderos de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, especie considerada como posible vectora de malaria en esa región del país. La vegetación circundante fue dividida en tres estratos de acuerdo al grado de cobertura foliar. Se demarcaron cuadrantes de 100 m² en cada estrato para el muestreo de plantas epífitas de la família Bromeliaceae, en las cuales se acumula agua que sirve como criadero para esta especie de anofelino. Se tomaron datos de temperatura, pH y volumen del agua contenida en cada bromelia. El mayor número de larvas se detectó en el estrato 1 (manglar a una altitud inferior a 4 m, pero no se encontró evidencia significativa de estratificación vertical de la población larval de A. neivai hasta los 8 m. Se evidenció una correlación lineal positiva entre el número de larvas y el volumen de agua contenida en cada bromelia; por otra parte se observó también una correlación directa entre la precipitación mensual acumulada y la fluctuación poblacional de esta especie. Los índices larvales mas altos se observaron entre los meses de marzo a abril y de julio a agosto. La mortalidad larval fue alta en el primer estadío (43,5% y solo un 23,7% sobrevivió hasta el cuarto.Em Charambirá, localidade do Município de Istmina (Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, localidade endêmica de malária, estudou-se a flutuação da população larval e as características dos locais de criação do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai, espécie considerada como possível vector da malária naquela região do país. A vegetação circundante foi dividida em três estratos segundo seu grau de cobertura foliar. Demarcaram-se quadrantes de 100 m² para a amostragem de plantas epífitas da família Bromeliaceae, nas quais se
Biologia de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la costa Pacífica de Colombia: II. Fluctuación de la población adulta Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na costa do Pacífico Colombiano: II. Flutuação da população adulta Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: II. Adult population fluctuation
Rodrigo Astaiza V.
Full Text Available En la localidad de Charambirá, situada en el município de Istmina (Chocó en la costa Pacífica de Colombia, se presenta un problema de malaria endémica asociada con grandes poblaciones de mosquitos Anopheles del subgénero Kerteszia (A. neivai. Estos se crían en las colecciones de agua formadas por plantas epífitas de la família Bromeliaceae, que son muy abundantes en los árboles de mangle. En esa localidad se estudiaron: fluctuación poblacional y algunos aspectos ecológicos y etológicos de los adultos de esa especie de mosquito, con el objetivo de determinar su papel en la transmisión de malaria. Todos los mosquitos fueron colectados por cebos humanos. Los picos máximos de actividad ocurrieron en las horas crepusculares de la mañana y de la tarde (5:30 a 6:30 y 18:00 a 19:00 horas. En el período nocturno la actividad intradomiciliar fue baja y no hubo ninguna durante el día. El estado gonadotrófico de las hembras colectadas durante nos picos de actividad, mostró la existencia de dos poblaciones de mosquitos: una, en su mayoría individuos jóvenes que buscan su alimento en las horas de la tarde y la otra compuesta por individuos mas longevos, que buscan su alimento en la mañana. El estudio de la variación estacional mostró que las poblaciones son bajas en los meses de poca precipitación, pero a medida que aumenta el índice pluviométrico, aumenta el número de mosquitos. Se discute la relación que existe entre la presencia de los mosquitos y la prevalencia de malaria humana; se sugiere que A. neivai puede ser el responsable de la transmisión de malaria en la zona estudiada.Na localidade de Charambirá, situada no Municipio de Istmina (Chocó, na costa do Pacífico Colombiano, ocorre um tipo de malária endêmica associada com grandes populações de Anopheles do subgênero Kerteszia (A. neivai. Estes criam-se em coleções de água formadas por plantas epífitas pertencentes à família Bromeliaceae, as quais são muito
Zhang, Hengduan; Xing, Dan; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan
The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is presented using traditional Sanger sequencing. Its mitogenome are 16,660 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding A + T rich region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition on heavy strand was as follows - A: 40.1%, G: 8.2%, C: 11.9%, T: 39.8% and the A + T content 79.9%. The results of phylogenetic analyzes showed that the Ae. albopictus has closed relationship with the family Culicidae and order Diptera. PMID:26114325
NELMS, BRITTANY M.; Macedo, Paula A.; KOTHERA, LINDA; Savage, Harry M.; REISEN, WILLIAM K.
At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar un...
Gilbert Le Goff
Full Text Available A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species
Le Goff, Gilbert; Goodman, Steven M; Elguero, Eric; Robert, Vincent
A transversal survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted on Mayotte Island (France) in the Comoros Archipelago, western Indian Ocean, with the aim to inventory the Culicidae and to document inter-species relationships in different habitats. In total 420 habitats were sampled for larvae and/or pupae mosquitoes, resulting in more than 6,000 specimens. Forty species belonging to 15 genera were collected, with eight taxa integrated for the first time to the Mayotte mosquito list. The most frequently recorded species were Stegomyia aegypti, St. albopicta, Anopheles gambiae and Eretmapodites subsimplicipes, the first three species being known vectors of viruses and parasites transmitted to humans. Mean species richness in habitats ranged from 1.00 to 3.29, with notable differences between habitats. For example, water-filled axils of banana leaves, tree-holes and crab-holes had low species richness, while cut bamboo, water pools, abandoned tires and marsh and swamp water had notably higher species richness. Twenty-seven mosquito species belonging to 12 genera were routinely collected (in ≥20% of at least one type of larval habitat) suggesting that multiple species play a role in the biocenosis of these aquatic habitats. Multispecies association was observed in 52% of the habitats. The co-occurrence of up to six species belonging to five genera was recorded in a single habitat. The mosquitoes of Mayotte show notable biogeographical affinities to those of Madagascar, as compared to the African continent. These two potential source areas are nearly equidistant from Mayotte, which in turn indicates biased dispersal from east to west. Our findings suggest that with relatively short-term intensive sampling in different habitats, it is possible to approach exhaustive species inventories based on collection of larvae. Mayotte, with its modest elevation range and land surface, has a notable species richness of mosquitoes with 45 well-documented species belonging to 15 genera
Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, a Região Amazônica é endêmica em malária. Em Santa Catarina, a malária foi eliminada na década de 80. A partir daí, ocorreram poucos casos autóctones isolados, e esporádicos. No entanto, em função da existência do vetor em seu território, da existência de extensa área endêmica no Brasil e da grande mobilidade de pessoas em áreas turísticas no estado, existe a probabilidade de reintrodução da doença. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os seguintes dados: Banco de Dados do Núcleo de Entomologia da Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Santa Catarina (ACCES,1997-2000; Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (Malária/SC e Sistema de Informação de Notificação e Agravo(SINAN/SC. Os mesmos foram transportados e analisados, no programa Microsoft Office Excel 2007. RESULTADOS: As coletas foram realizadas em 48 municípios, 159 localidades, sendo identificados 12.310 Culicídeos, 11.546 (93,7% Anopheles e 764 (6,2% como outros. Foram identificados três subgêneros e 13 espécies de anofelinos. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que nos municípios pesquisados, foi identificada a presença de importantes vetores como Anopheles cruzii e Anopheles albitasis e há circulação de pessoas infectadas provenientes de áreas endêmicas, pode-se considerar que os mesmos são áreas receptivas e vulneráveis à malária. Essas espécies são suspeitas de serem responsáveis pela transmissão de malária na região, principalmente nos municípios de Gaspar, Indaial e Rodeio.INTRODUCTION: The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the
"Use of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR and ITS2 PCR assays for differentiation of populations and putative sibling species of Anopheles fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae in Iran"
SR Naddaf Dezfouli
Full Text Available Anopheles fluviatilis complex is known to be a vector of malaria in Iran. Since mosquitoes of this species cover a wide geographical range in Iran, they might have evolved into different separated populations. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR assay was used to differentiate geographic populations of this species. DNA was extracted from individual mosquitoes from 8 localities in 4 south and southeast provinces and amplified in PCR reactions using 18 single primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequence. Results of RAPD-PCR showed that Kazeroun populations could simply be differentiated from other populations using a diagnostic fragment amplified with primer UBC-306. But other populations could not be differentiated either visually or by means of statistical analysis. Moreover ITS2 fragments of some selected specimens were amplified using a pair of universal primer and sequenced as a key standard for detection of putative sibling species. Sequence analysis of the ITS2 fragments revealed a very high (100% homology among the populations. These findings are crucial in epidemiological studies concerning relatedness of geographic populations and vector movement in the region. Results of RAPD-PCR and ITS2 analysis suggest that this taxon in Iran comprises of only one species with a low genetic variation among geographic populations.
Beier, J C
Natural blood-feeding and sugar-feeding behaviors were investigated for populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus Giles at 2 sites in western Kenya. During peak levels of malaria parasite transmission, > 85% of 1,569 indoor-resting females contained fresh blood meals. Findings that up to 55.4% of blood-fed resting females and 72.0% of host-seeking females had either stage IV or V oocytes provided strong evidence that females were refeeding before oviposition. Such gonotrophic discordance was common throughout the year for both An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus. Determinations of gonotrophic cycles for freshly blood-fed mosquitoes collected inside houses indicated that only 60.0% of 1,287 An. gambiae s.l. and 60.0% of 974 An. funestus oviposited eggs after a single blood meal. The timing of oviposition was irregular as indicated by relatively high coefficients of variation for An. gambiae s.l. (44.0%) and An. funestus (35.9%). Associated with frequent blood feeding was a surprisingly low rate of sugar feeding; only 6.3% of 1,183 indoor-resting and only 14.4% of 236 host-seeking anophelines were positive for fructose. Natural patterns of frequent blood feeding, year-round gonotrophic discordance, irregular oviposition cycles, and limited sugar feeding illustrate that anopheline mosquitoes have complex behavioral and physiologic means for adapting to their environment. In western Kenya, for example, adaptations for frequent blood feeding by An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus potentiates their ability to transmit malaria parasites, well beyond that predicted by standard measures of vectorial capacity. PMID:8699456
Helinski, M.E.H.; Parker, A.G.; Knols, B.G.J.
Background - In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods - Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22-26 hrs of age), and adults
Knols Bart GJ; Parker Andrew G; Helinski Michelle EH
Abstract Background In the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), radiation-induced sterility in the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was studied. Male mosquitoes were exposed to gamma rays in the pupal or adult stage and dose-sterility curves were determined. Methods Pupae were irradiated shortly before emergence (at 22–26 hrs of age), and adults
Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J; Webb, C E
The complete mitochondrial genomes for two deeply divergent lineages of the urban adapted mosquito Aedes notoscriptus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia were sequenced using a combination of next generation Illumina and traditional Sanger sequencing. The 15,846 and 15,851 bp circular genomes share 95.0% nucleotide identity. They both have the full complement of 37 metazoan genes and identical gene arrangements to previously published Culicidae species with the one non-coding A + T rich control region present between rns and tRNA-Ile. All protein initiation codons are ATN apart from COX1 (TCG). Eight protein coding genes encode full TAA stop codons, one uses an incomplete TA and four use T. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:25350735
Chordá Olmos, Francisco Alberto
Los mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) es uno de los grupos de insectos de mayor notoriedad en Salud Pública no sólo por su molesta picadura sino, sobre todo, por la gran variedad y cantidad de enfermedades que transmiten al ser humano y a los animales. Entre ellas hay que destacar la Malaria, el Dengue, la Fiebre amarilla, el Virus del Oeste del Nilo, el Chikungunya, las Filariasis y diversas Encefalitis que anualmente afectan a millones de personas en todo el mundo. Para el control de las po...
Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.
Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a
The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was dete...
Lekweiry, K.M.; Ould Ahmedou Salem, M. S.; Ould Brahim, K.; Lemrabott, M. A. O.; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, O.; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, A.
Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital c...
Full Text Available Haemagogus equinus Theobald 1903 (Diptera: Culicidae in the campus of the Universidad de Carabobo. Valencia. Venezuela.Species of Haemagogus are the main vector of sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF. The immature phases breed in water-filled tree holes and bambu internodes; however, some species are found in artificialcontainers. We assessed the presence of medically important mosquitoes in an urban area. Traps were used in a riberine forest near the Sports Area of the University of Carabobo. A month later they were removed, and mosquito composition was determined. We reported the presence of Haemagogus (Haemagogus equinus Theobald and other three species. This finding represents a potenciality forenzootic YF transmission, and the adaptation of such species to artificial breeding sites, which, in addition to the increment of aedine indexes, constitute a risk for the emergence of such arbovirus.
Full Text Available First record of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894 ( Diptera: Culicidae in Carabobo State, Venezuela. Aedes albopictus or “Asian tiger mosquito” is an invasive species consider the second most important dengue vector. Due to public health relevance and the recent findings in several areas from Venezuela, we sampled in seven localities in the Carabobo State from june to august, 2013. This is the first report of Aedes albopictus in four localities of Carabobo State associated to larvitraps and flower vases. This increases to 15 the number of occurrences in the country. This finding in urban areas of Carabobo represents a potentiality risk for arboviruses emergence and transmission, because that we recommended vector monitoring, entomological and epidemiological surveillance and the vectorial control in the country. This finding shows the importance of further studies of mosquito’s geographical distribution, arboviruses detection, vector ecological aspects, and their possible medical and epidemiological link with emerging and reemerging diseases.
Anthony Érico Guimarães
Full Text Available The mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology was studied in areas of Serra do Mar State Park, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Systematized biweekly human bait collections were made three times a day, for periods of 2 or 3 h each, in sylvatic and rural areas for 24 consecutive months (January 1991 to December 1992. A total of 24,943 adult mosquitoes belonging to 57 species were collected during 622 collective periods. Aedes scapularis, Coquillettidia chrysonotum, Cq. venezuelensis, Wyeomyia dyari, Wy. longirostris, Wy. theobaldi and Wy. palmata were more frequently collected at swampy and at flooded areas. Anopheles mediopunctatus, Culex nigripalpus, Ae. serratus, Ae. fulvus, Psorophora ferox, Ps. albipes and the Sabethini in general, were captured almost exclusively in forested areas. An. cruzii, An. oswaldoi and An. fluminensis were captured more frequently in a residence area. However, Cx. quinquefasciatus was the only one truly eusynanthropic. An. cruzii and Ae. scapularis were captured feeding on blood inside and around the residence, indicating that both species, malaria and arbovirus vectors respectively, may be involved in the transmission of these such diseases in rural areas.
Tikar, S. N.; M J Mendki; Sharma, A K; D. Sukumaran; Veer, Vijay; Prakash, Shri; Parashar, B. D.
Susceptibility studies of malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) and An. subpictus Grassi collected during 2004–2007 from various locations of Arid and Semi-Arid Zone of India were conducted by adulticide bioassay of DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and larvicide bioassay of fenthion, temephos, chlorpyriphos and malathion using diagnostic doses. Both species from all locations exhibited variable resistance to DDT and malathion from majority of location. Adults of both the...
Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...
Singh, S.P.; MITTAL, P.K.
Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct rel...
Zappia, Simon Pierre William
Understanding how blood-seeking behavior changes with different energy levels in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae), when confronted with an unobtainable blood-host, is of interest for vector control strategies. I used a straight-tube olfactometer to mimic a domicile containing (i) a simulated blood-host (human foot smell) protected by either a plain bednet or a DEET impregnated net and (ii) a sugar source (honey scent) some distance away. I manipulated the mosquito’s...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although they are important disease vectors mosquito biodiversity in Pakistan is poorly known. Recent epidemics of dengue fever have revealed the need for more detailed understanding of the diversity and distributions of mosquito species in this region. DNA barcoding improves the accuracy of mosquito inventories because morphological differences between many species are subtle, leading to misidentifications. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequence variation in the barcode region of the mitochondrial COI gene was used to identify mosquito species, reveal genetic diversity, and map the distribution of the dengue-vector species in Pakistan. Analysis of 1684 mosquitoes from 491 sites in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during 2010-2013 revealed 32 species with the assemblage dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus (61% of the collection. The genus Aedes (Stegomyia comprised 15% of the specimens, and was represented by six taxa with the two dengue vector species, Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti, dominant and broadly distributed. Anopheles made up another 6% of the catch with An. subpictus dominating. Barcode sequence divergence in conspecific specimens ranged from 0-2.4%, while congeneric species showed from 2.3-17.8% divergence. A global haplotype analysis of disease-vectors showed the presence of multiple haplotypes, although a single haplotype of each dengue-vector species was dominant in most countries. Geographic distribution of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus showed the later species was dominant and found in both rural and urban environments. CONCLUSIONS: As the first DNA-based analysis of mosquitoes in Pakistan, this study has begun the construction of a barcode reference library for the mosquitoes of this region. Levels of genetic diversity varied among species. Because of its capacity to differentiate species, even those with subtle morphological differences, DNA barcoding aids accurate tracking of vector populations.
Cleandson Ferreira Santos; Magno Borges
AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CO...
Sulesco, Tatiana M; Toderas, Lidia G; Uspenskaia, Inga G; Toderas, I K
A countrywide field survey of immature mosquitoes was conducted in Moldova with the aim to evaluate the Culicidae species composition in different larval habitats and their distribution in the country. In total, 259 potential larval habitats were sampled in the 53 localities, resulting in 9,456 specimens. Twenty species belonging to the genera Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Culiseta, and Uranotaenia were collected. Mean species richness in aquatic habitats ranged from 1.00 to 4.00, and, for example, was higher in swamps, flood plains, ditches, and large ground pools and lower in rivers, streams, tree-holes, and containers. Six mosquito species were identified only in a single type of aquatic habitat. Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex pipiens pipiens L., and Culex modestus Ficalbi were the most abundant and distributed species representing over 80% of the identified specimens. Three, four, and five associated species were recorded from 23.5% of mosquito-positive aquatic habitats. Our findings demonstrate the co-occurrence of Cx. p. pipiens and Culex torrentium Martini in natural and rural environments. It is concluded that the study area has undergone a dramatic ecological change since the previous studies in the 1950s, causing the near extinction of Culex theileri Theobald from Moldova. An. maculipennis s.l. larval abundance, reduced by the DDT control of the adults in the 1950s, had returned to those of the 1940s. Restoration of An. maculipennis s.l. abundance in combination with imported malaria cases constitute a risk of the reintroduction of malaria transmission in Moldova. PMID:26364191
Leaf extracts of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae act as larvicide against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae Extratos de folhas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae atuam como larvicida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae
Josiane Somariva Prophiro
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the larvicidal effect of hydroethanolic extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae on Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. All the extracts evaluated induced mortality among the third and fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti after 24 and 48 hours of exposure to the products. Although previous studies had demonstrated the action of seeds and fruits of Melia azedarach against the larvae of different Aedes aegypti populations, the present report is the first to show the larvicidal effect of the fresh and dry leaves of this plant.O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o efeito larvicida de extratos hidro-etanólicos de folhas verdes e secas de Melia azedarach Linnaeus (Sapindales: Meliaceae em Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera: Culicidae. Todos os extratos avaliados induziram mortalidade em larvas de 3º e 4º estágios de Aedes aegypti, após 24 e 48 horas de exposição aos produtos. Embora estudos prévios tenham demonstrado a ação de sementes e frutos de Melia azedarach em larvas de diferentes populações de Aedes aegypti, o presente estudo é o primeiro a reportar o efeito larvicida de folhas verdes e secas desta planta.
Full Text Available Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively.
Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058
João Antonio C. Zequi
Full Text Available Development of the immature stages of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar (Diptera, Culicidae under laboratory conditions. Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 is becoming frequent and abundant in natural and artificial breeding sites in urban and rural areas of Brazil. This study contributes to the knowledge of the biology of a Brazilian strain of C. saltanensis. The development of specimens reared individually or grouped was observed. The study was conducted at a constant temperature of 27 ± 2°C, 14L:10D photoperiod and 80 ± 5% relative humidity. The immature stages were observed every 6 hours until adult emergence, which occurred in 12.29 days among individually reared specimens and in 13.12 days among group-reared specimens. Egg rafts for the experiment were obtained from the laboratory and field. Eggs hatched at a rate of 97.48 ± 2.32%. More eggs per egg raft were obtained from the field than from the laboratory. Males from individually reared specimens emerged in 12.29 ± 1.11 days and females in 13.12 ± 1.58 days. The male-female ratio was 1:1. Larval survival rate was higher than 85% for larvae reared isolated and higher than 95% for group-reared larvae. The Culex saltanensis life cycle was completed within 12 to 14 days, where larval instars I and IV took the most time to develop and the pupae, the shortest.
Maria E Macêdo
Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.
Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo
In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses. PMID:20661525
Mouline, Karine; Mamai, W.; Agnew, P.; Tchonfienet, M.; Brengues, Cécile; Dabiré, R.; Robert, Vincent; Simard, Frédéric
In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field pop...
Kent, R.J.; Coetzee, M.; Mharakurwa, S.; Norris, D. E.
Anopheles longipalpis (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a predominantly zoophilic mosquito that has not been implicated in malaria transmission. However, this species was collected indoors with An. funestus s.l. in southern Zambia, where transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is hyperendemic, and we initially misidentified it morphologically and molecularly as An. funestus s.l. The indoor resting density and blood-feeding behaviour of An. longipalpis were investigated during the 2004 – 05 and...
Bueno Marí, Rubén
Desde la erradicación del paludismo en España, los estudios acerca de los mosquitos culícidos (Diptera: Culicidae) han disminuido drásticamente en nuestro país. Con el objetivo de actualizar los datos faunísticos de la familia en la Comunidad Valenciana, se llevaron a cabo intensivos muestreos larvarios en los años comprendidos entre 2005 y 2008. Durante estos cuatro años se consiguió recolectar 11.279 ejemplares pertenecientes a 29 especies de Culicidae, repartidos en 548 puntos de captura d...
Cleandson Ferreira Santos
Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the effects of cattle removal on the Culicidae mosquito community structure in a tropical dry forest in Brazil.METHODS: Culicidae were collected during dry and wet seasons in cattle presence and absence between August 2008 and October 2010 and assessed using multivariate statistical models.RESULTS: Cattle removal did not significantly alter Culicidae species richness and abundance. However, alterations were noted in Culicidae community composition.CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to evaluate the impact of cattle removal on Culicidae community structure in Brazil and demonstrates the importance of assessing ecological parameters such as community species composition.
Lapointe, D A
Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies. PMID:18714858
Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. PMID:26352935
Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich
An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed. PMID:24605456
Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O
Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124
Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Hurtado, Daymi; Severson, David W; Bisset, Juan A
The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25×), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females × resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae. PMID:26309309
Abella-Medrano, Carlos Antonio; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego
Background Land-use change has led to a dramatic decrease in total forest cover, contributing to biodiversity loss and changes of ecosystems’ functions. Insect communities of medical importance can be favored by anthropogenic alterations, increasing the risk of novel zoonotic diseases. The response of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) abundance and richness to five land-use types (shade coffee plantation, cattle field, urban forest, peri-urban forest, well-preserved montane cloud forest) and thre...
Campbell, Cory James
Some plant essential and edible oils repel mosquitoes but often quantitatively minor repellent constituents therein remain unknown. In gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of catnip, cinnamon, citronella, cumin, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, melissa, peppermint, rosemary, and thyme essential oils, 43 constituents elicited responses from antennae of female yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). GC-EAD analyses of soybean oil (active ing...
Ana Cristina Tissot
Full Text Available A Coleção de Entomologia do Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP abriga cerca de 5.000.000 de exemplares de insetos. A coleção de Diptera está representada por aproximadamente 2.000.000 de exemplares, sendo Muscidae; Culicidae e Syrphidae as famílias mais representativas. A ordem Diptera possui cerca de 150.000 espécies descritas e a coleção conta com cerca de 103.000 exemplares representantes de 78 famílias. A lista das espécies pertencentes à família Culicidae conta com 9.579 exemplares, distribuídos em 2 subfamílias, 7 tribos, 17 gêneros, 26 subgêneros e 85 espécies. A maioria dos exemplares foi coletado em remanescentes de mata localizados em áreas urbanas e rurais, ambientes silvestres e urbanos de regiões litorâneas ou áreas urbanas pertencentes a diferentes cidades do Estado do Paraná, e algumas espécies incluídas foram capturadas nos Estados de São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina e no Distrito Federal. As informações específicas de cada exemplar, como local de coleta, latitude, longitude, coletor, data de coleta, método de coleta e nome do pesquisador que identificou, e também informações taxonômicas como ordem, tribo, gênero, subgênero e espécie, foram informatizados em um banco de dados.The Entomological Collection of Departamento de Zoologia of Universidade Federal do Paraná (DZUP accommodates about 5,000,000 insect specimens. The collection of Diptera is represented by approximately 2,000,000 specimens, being Muscidae, Culicidae and Syrphidae the most representative families. The Diptera order consists of approximately 150,000 described species and in the Collection about 103,000 specimens within 78 families are registered. The list of species of the family Culicidae presents 9,579 specimens within 2 subfamilies, 7 tribes, 17 genera, 26 subgenera and 85 species. Most specimens were captured in forest remnants in urban and rural areas, wild and urban environments in
Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes from Atlantic forest in Santa Catarina Island, southern Brazil (Diptera, Culicidae, with new records for the State of Santa Catarina Mosquitos associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil (Diptera, Culicidae, com novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina
Gerson Azulim Müller
Full Text Available Bromeliad-associated mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Atlantic Forest in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, were studied, examining plants of Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra and Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii at secondary Atlantic rain forest, and A. lindenii and Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith at "restinga" per month, during 12 months. No immature forms of mosquitoes were collected from A. lindenii in the secondary forest. Collections obtained 368 immature mosquitoes, none of them from A. lindenii from rain forest. Culex (Microculex spp. constituted 79.8% of the total, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia spp. 17.93%, and Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (Dyar & Knab, 1908 only 1.36%. The study shows the great predominance of species of medical importance not yet proved, and the small number of immature stages of anopheline mosquitoes. The rainfall, but not the mean temperatures, significantly influenced the quantity of mosquitoes from V. philippocoburgi. Significant differences between the quantities of immature forms of all the bromeliad species were found, and the shape of the plants could be important to the abundance of mosquitoes. All six species of Cx. (Microculex found are recorded for the first time in the State of Santa Catarina, and all six species of Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia are recorded for the first time in bromeliads in this state.Mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae associados a bromélias em Mata Atlântica na Ilha de Santa Catarina, no Estado de Santa Catarina, foram estudados. Foram examinadas mensalmente plantas de Vriesea philippocoburgi Wawra e Aechmea lindenii (E. Morren Baker var. lindenii de floresta atlântica pluvial ombrófila e A. lindenii e Vriesea friburgensis Mez var. paludosa (L. B. Smith de restinga, durante 12 meses. As coletas resultaram em 368 formas imaturas de mosquitos, sendo que nenhuma foi coletada em A. lindenii de mata ombrófila. Culex (Microculex spp. constituíram 79,8% do total
张亚萍; 胡淑芳; 张文香; 曹延霞; 李莉莉; 张希
目的 调查掌握汉中市的蚊虫种类.方法 采用人帐法、畜诱法、诱蚊灯诱捕法和网捕法.结果 调查获得汉中市蚊科(Culicidae)2亚科5属33种,即按蚊亚科Anophelinae 1属4种:按蚊属Anopheles4种.库蚊亚科Culicinae 4属29种:伊蚊属Aedes 11种、库蚊属Culex 16种、脉毛蚊属(赛蚊属)Culiseta1种和直脚蚊属Orthopodomyia1种.结论 明确汉中市蚊虫2亚科5属33种,为蚊虫防治提供科学依据.
Nelms, Brittany M; Macedo, Paula A; Kothera, Linda; Savage, Harry M; Reisen, William K
At temperate latitudes, Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes typically overwinter as adult females in reproductive arrest and also may serve as reservoir hosts for arboviruses when cold temperatures arrest viral replication. To evaluate their role in the persistence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Sacramento Valley of California, the induction and termination of diapause were investigated for members of the Culex pipiens (L.) complex, Culex tarsalis Coquillett, and Culex stigmatosoma Dyar under field, seminatural, and experimental conditions. All Culex spp. remained vagile throughout winter, enabling the collection of 3,174 females and 1,706 males from diverse habitats during the winters of 2010-2012. Overwintering strategies included both quiescence and diapause. In addition, Cx. pipiens form molestus Forskäl females remained reproductively active in both underground and aboveground habitats. Some blood-fed, gravid, and parous Cx. tarsalis and Cx. pipiens complex females were collected throughout the winter period. Under both field and experimental conditions, Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females exposed to autumnal conditions arrested primary follicular maturation at previtellogenic stage I, with primary to secondary follicular ratios or=stage I-II (host-seeking arrest) or were found in various stages of degeneration. Diapause was initiated in the majority of Cx. tarsalis and Cx. stigmatosoma females by mid-late October and was terminated after the winter solstice, but host-seeking seemed limited by temperature. An accrual of 97.52 +/- 30.7 and 162.85 +/- 79.3 degree-days after the winter solstice was estimated to be necessary for diapause termination in Cx. tarsalis under field and seminatural conditions, respectively. An increase in the proportion of blood-fed Culex females in resting collections occurred concurrently with diapause termination in field populations based on ovarian morphometrics. WNV RNA was detected in one pool of 18 males and in a
Full Text Available Studies were conducted to determine the selection of humans, chickens and rabbits by Culicidae in three different environments in the province of Chaco, Argentina. Mosquitoes were collected fortnightly using cylindrical metal traps containing animal bait (chickens and rabbits. The mosquitoes were collected between June 2001-May 2002. During the same period and with the same frequency, mosquitoes biting the human operators of the traps were collected during the first 15 min of exposure within different time intervals: from 09:00 am-11:00 am, 01:00 pm-03:00 pm, 05:00 pm-07:00 pm and 09:00 pm-10:00 pm. A total of 19,430 mosquitoes of 49 species belonging to 10 genera were collected. Culex species mainly selected chicken bait and Wyeomyia species selected rabbit bait. Ochlerotatus and Psorophora species were more abundant in rabbit-baited traps. Anopheles triannulatus, Coquillettidia nigricans, Ochlerotatus scapularis, Mansonia titillans and Psorophora albigenu showed a strong attraction for human bait. The Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Culex and Mansonia species were more active between 05:00 pm-09:00 pm, while Ochlerotatus, Psorophora, Haemagogus and Wyeomyia were most active from 09:00 am-07:00 pm. This study provides additional information about the biology and ecology of arbovirus vectors in Chaco.
Full Text Available The Igapó lake dam is located in an urban area in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. A one year study of the Culicidae immature forms was conducted in this ecosystem. From a total of 962 collected larvae following genera were identified: Anopheles (59.36%, Culex (19.65% Aedeomyia (19.23% Aedes (1.50%, and Uranotaenia (0.10%. The 10 most abundant species were Anopheles strodei, Aedeomyia squamipennis, Culex (Melanoconium spp., Culex mollis, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles evansae, Culex coronator, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles argyritarsis and Aedes terrens respectively. An. strodei prevailed with greater averages during July and September, showing a significant negative lineal correlation in relation to the rainfall. Ad. squamipennis showed a positive lineal correlation with the temperature with smaller population averages during June, August and September of 1997. Cx. (Melanoconium spp. populations were constant throughout the year. High Culicidae population density could bring problems to quality of human life, thus strong measures to avoid and control of mosquito population growth in the lake are recommended.O lago Igapó é um conjunto de quatro represas localizadas na área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil, com condições propícias para procriação de culicídeos. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a culicideofauna de imaturos neste lago, monitorando possíveis vetores de agentes patogênicos. Durante um ano coletou-se 962 imaturos que se distribuíram nos seguintes gêneros: Anopheles (59,36%, Culex (19,65% Aedeomyia (19,23% Aedes (1,50%, and Uranotaenia (0,10%. As espécies mais abundantes foram Anopheles strodei, Aedeomya squamipennis, Culex. (Melanoconium spp., Culex mollis, Anopheles oswaldoi, Anopheles evansae, Culex coronator, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles argyritarsis e Aedes terrens respectivamente. An. strodei, prevaleceu com grandes médias populacionais de Julho a Setembro, mostrando uma correlação linear
Santos, Cleandson Ferreira; Silva, Alex Chavier; Rodrigues, Raquel Andrade; de Jesus, Jamilli Sanndy Ramos; Borges, Magno Augusto Zazá
In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF) fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state. PMID:26200963
Cleandson Ferreira SANTOS
Full Text Available In Brazil, most studies of the Culicidae family are concentrated in rainforest regions. As such, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the diversity of Culicidae in regions with different climatic and vegetational characteristics. The aim of this study was to compile an inventory of Culicidae in protected areas of the semi-arid region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in order to better understand the diversity of the family within this region. The study was conducted across four protected areas in the northern region of the state, in tropical dry forest (TDF fragments. Sampling methods included Shannon trap and CDC light trap, as well as active collection. A total of 11,219 mosquito specimens were collected between August 2008 and July 2012, belonging to 11 genera and 45 species; 15 new records for the state of Minas Gerais were registered, as well as 26 new records for semi-arid regions within the state. The high number of new Culicidae records in this region demonstrates the importance of inventory studies for increasing the knowledge of culicid biodiversity in Minas Gerais, and in particular within semi-arid regions of the state.
Influência de diversos derivados de vegetais na sobrevida das larvas de Aedes fluviatilis(Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidade) em laboratorio Larvicidal properties of plant extracts against Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory
Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli; Nelymar M. Mendes; José P. Pereira; Bernadete S. Santos; Marlúcia A. Lamounier
As propriedades larvicidas de 34 extratos, provenientes de 29 vegetais, foram testados em larvas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz) (Diptera: Culicidae) nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. 26,5% dos exames utilizados, reduziram significamente a sobrevida larvária (alfa = 0,05), quando empregados na concentração de 100 ppm (Anacardium occidentale, Agave americana, Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Nerium oleander, Spatodea campanulata, Tibouchina scrobiculata e Vernonia salzmanni). O ácido anacár...
The relative toxicities of eight repellents (DMP, Rutgers 612, DEET, IR3535, Picardin, PMD, AI3-35765, and AI3-37220) were evaluated by topical application against females of Aedes aegypti (L.) Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, and Anopheles albimanus Weidemann. Based on 24h...
Sivakumar R; Jebanesan A; Govindarajan M; Rajasekar P
Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent efficacy of tetradecanoic acid against Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) L. andCulex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say (Diptera: Culicidae).Methods: Larvicidal efficacy of tetradecanoic acid was tested at various concentrations against the early third instar larvae of Ae. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The repellent activity was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz.,1.0,2.5 and5.0 ppm under the laboratory conditions.Results: The tetradecanoic acid was found to be more effective againstCx. quinquefasciatus thanAe. aegypti larvae. TheLC50values were14.08 ppm and25.10 ppm, respectively. Tetradecanoic acid showed lesser repellency againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatus. The highest repellency was observed in higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2provided100% protection up to60 and 90 min againstAe. aegypti andCx. quinquefasciatusrespectively.Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the tetradecanoic acid is a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegypti mosquitoes.
Bawin, Thomas; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina; Ndiaye, Mady; Compere, Philippe; Delvigne, Frank; Francis, Frédéric
Aspergillus clavatus (Ascomycota: Trichocomaceae) was previously found to be an opportunistic pathogen of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In the present study, the mechanism leading to its insecticidal activity was investigated regarding histological damages on Culex quinquefasciatus larvae exposed to A. clavatus spores. Multiple concentration assays using spore suspensions (0.5-2.5 × 10(8) spores ml(-1)) revealed 17.0-74.3 % corrected mortalities after 48 h exposure. Heat-deactivated spores induced a lower mortality compared to nonheated spores suggesting that insecticidal effects are actively exerted. Spore-treated and untreated larvae were prepared for light microscopy as well as for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Spores failed to adhere to the external body surface (except the mouth parts) of these aquatic immature stages but progressively filled the digestive tract where their metabolism seemed to activate. In parallel, the internal tissues of the larvae, i.e. the midgut wall, the skeletal muscles, and the cuticle-secreting epidermis, were progressively destroyed between 8 and 24 h of exposure. These observations suggest that toxins secreted by active germinating spores of A. clavatus in the digestive tract altered the larval tissues, leading to their necrosis and causing larval death. Fungal proliferation and sporulation then occurred during a saprophytic phase. A. clavatus enzymes or toxins responsible for these pathogenic effects need to be identified in further studies before any use of this fungus in mosquito control. PMID:27020151
Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cetin, Huseyin
The repellent activities of the essential oils of two Thymus (Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus and Thymus revolutus Celak) and two Mentha (Mentha spicata L. subsp. spicata and Mentha longifolia L.) species against Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas, 1771) (Diptera: Culicidae) are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants in flowering period and repellency tests were done with a Y-tube olfactometer. All essential oils showed repellency in varying degrees and exhibited no significant time-dependent repellent activities. When all test oils compared for repellent activities there was no significant activity detected within 15 min exposure period. Mentha essential oils had better activity than Thymus essential oils, producing high repellency (73.8-84.2%) at 30th min on Oc. caspius. Mentha longifolia has the best mosquito repellent activity among the plants tested at the 25th min. Th. sipyleus subsp. sipyleus essential oil produced >85% repellent activity at the 15th min, but the effect decreased noticeably to 63.1% and 68% at 25th and 30th min, respectively. PMID:22179264
Full Text Available Background: Dengue is amongst the most serious mosquito-borne infectious disease with hot spots in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. Unfortunately, no licensed vaccine for the disease is currently available in medicine markets. The only option available is the management of dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae.Method: Predatory potential of five odonate nymphs namely Anax parthenope, Bradinopyga geminate, Ischnura forcipata, Rhinocypha quadrimaculata, and Orthetrum sabina were evaluated against the 4th instar larvae of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, under laboratory conditions. The consumption of the mosquito larvae was evaluated at three water volume levels viz., 1 liter, 2 liter and 3 liter.Results: The number of Ae. aegypti larvae consumed varied significantly among the five species, and at different levels of water volume (P< 0.01. However, the interaction between odonate nymphs and the water volumes was statistically non-significant (P> 0.05. Ischnura forcipata consumed the highest number of Ae. aegypti larvae (n=56 followed by A. parthenope (n=47 and B. geminate (n=46. The number of larvae consumed was decreased with increasing search area or water volume, and the highest predation was observed at 1-liter water volume.Conclusion: The odonate nymphs could be a good source of biological agents for the management of the mosquitoes at larval stages.
Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264
Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho
The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264
Clarice Noleto Dias
Full Text Available The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul. A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50 ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.
Jiménez Peydró, R.
Full Text Available Several larval samplings of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae in different mountainous regions of the peninsular Spain were carried out. A total of 2796 specimens belonging to 18 species were collected, nevertheless the 72.5 % of these finds includes only three of them (Cx. hortensis hortensis, Cx. pipiens and Cs. longiareolata. The adaptation capacity to a varied typology of water bodies together with the marked multivoltinism that characterizes their biotic cycles are postulated as two of the principal reasons that explain their abundances. The altitudinal distribution as well as some information about the bioecology of all the species captured are also exposed.Se realizaron diversos muestreos larvarios de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae en varias regiones montañosas de la España peninsular. Pese a que se recolectaron un total de 2796 ejemplares pertenecientes a 18 especies, el 72.5 % de estos hallazgos engloba únicamente a tres de ellas (Cx. hortensis hortensis, Cx. pipiens y Cs. longiareolata. La capacidad de adaptación a un variado elenco de cuerpos de agua de diferente tipología, unida al marcado multivoltinismo que caracteriza sus ciclos bióticos, se postulan como dos de las principales razones que explican sus abundancias. La distribución altitudinal así como diversa información acerca de la bioecología de todas las especies capturadas también se exponen en el presente trabajo.
Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the...
Bernués Bañeres, Alberto
La familia Culicidae incluye algunas de las especies de dípteros más relevantes en el ámbito de la Salud Pública, no solo por las molestias que son capaces de causar debido a su tipo de alimentación hematófaga, sino por su capacidad para actuar como vectores de enfermedades de afección humana. Por este motivo, los mosquitos han sido, desde siempre, una de las dianas predilectas en los programas de control establecidos para la regulación de sus poblaciones y, por tanto, como medida profiláctic...
Conteúdo dos criadouros larvais e comportamento de adultos de Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae numa floresta de terra-firme da Amazônia central Larval breeding site contents and adult behavior of toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius (Diptera, Culicidae in an upland forest of the central amazon
Rosa Sá Gomes Hutchings
Full Text Available The natural breeding sites of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella haemorrhoidalis haemorihoidalis (Fabricius, 1794, in two study areas, were sampled monthly, during a period of one year, in an upland "terra-firme" forest of the Central Amazon. These natural breeding sites, consisting of water filled palm bracts on the ground, contained invertobrates and vertebrates along with palm inflorescences, leaves and twigs. The inhabitants of the non-submersed area of the bracts include Diplopoda, Acarina, Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Isopoda, Blattodea, Coleoptera (Carabidae, Curculionidae, Scolytidae, Staphilinidae. Collembola, Dermaptera, Diptera (Cecidomyidae, Drosophilidae, Mycetophilidae, Tipulidae, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera and Trichoptera. The submersed areas of the bracts were inhabited by Oligochaeta, Coleoptera (Dysticidae, Helodidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Limnebiidae, Diptera (Ceratopogonidae, Chirononiidae, Culicidae, Psychodidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae. Odonata, along with immature Dendrobatidae e Hylidae. The ovipositing, resting and feeding behaviors of T. h. haemorrhoidalis adults are described.
Akbar Idhayadhulla; Joseph Selvin; Nooruddin Thajuddin; Radhakrishnan Surendra Kumar; Aseer Manilal; Sugathan Sujith
A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been t...
Navarro, J C; Bastidas, R J; Zavala, Y
A total of 16 new species records of Culicidae from Falcon State was collected at the "Juan Crisostomo Falcon National Park" (Sierra de San Luis), Natural Monument "Cerro Santa Ana", Coro, and La Vela. Species of Sabethini, Culicini and Toxorhynchitini Tribes were found in natural breeding sites (Phytotelmata), with special occurrence in plants belonging to Tillandsia, Vriesea, Guzmania, Aechmea (Bromelianceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), Calathea (Marantaceae) and Colocasia (Araceae). Aedini and Mansonini were collected only as adults. A specie of Culex (Carrollia) was collected from an artificial container. The Culicidae species belong to 6 genera out of the 23 genera reported from Venezuela (Culex, Wyeomyia, Johnbelkinia, Aedes, Psorophora, Mansonia and Coquillettidia) and to 5 Tribes out of the 9 present in the country. The Aedini, Sabethini and Culicini Tribes were richer in species with 5, 4 and 4 species, respectively, than the Mansonini (2 species) and Toxorhynchitini (1 species) Tribes. We discuss some bioecological aspects regarding the 16 new-species records in Falcon State and give a checklist of the mosquito species previously reported in the literature. PMID:9239851
Fouad El-Akhal; Abdelhakim El Ouali Lalami; Yassine Ez Zoubi; Hassane Greche; Raja Guemmouh
Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods: The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification. Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes. The majority compounds are 4-terpinene (28.96%), γ-terpinene (18.57%), α-terpinene (12.72%) and sabinene (8.02%). The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana, were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.
Abstract. Anthropophilic mosquitoes were collected in two areas of the Atlantic Forest wich will constitute a Conservation Unit in the municipality of Itapema-SC. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of preservation of two areas of Atlantic Forest trough the composition of the Culicidae fauna. Species diversity was similar in both sampling sites (Dm = 4.02 in Praia Grossa and Dm = 4.04 in São Paulinho. Indices of similarity between the two areas were: CCs = 0.57 and CMH = 0.07. The Simpson’s dominance index was 0.63 in Praia Grossa and 0.31 in São Paulinho. The higher abundance of Anopheles cruzii Dyar & Knaband Culex (Microculex (taxa related to preserved area in São Paulinho and Ochlerotatus scapularis (Rondani and Psorophora ferox (Humboldt (taxa related to degraded area in Praia Grossa suggests that the first area is more preserved than the last.
Full Text Available Introduction To determine the faunal composition of immature culicids inhabiting a percolation tank in the landfill of Sapucaia, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, immature mosquitoes were collected over a two-day period during the third weeks of April, August and October 2011. Results The species found were Culex usquatus, Lutzia bigoti, Anopheles argyritarsis and Limatus durhamii. This study is the first to report the colonization of eutrophic breeding sites by these species. Conclusions The oviposition behavior observed in this study suggests a secondary adaptation or change in habit to select eutrophic environments during the developmental stages of the observed species.
Arivoli S; Samuel T
Objective:To determine the larvicidal activity of Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) leaf extracts against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods:The larvicidal activity was determined against three vector mosquito species at concentrations of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. Larval mortality was assessed after 24 hours. Results:The leaf extracts of C. collinus was found to exhibit a larvicidal activity against the larvae of An. stephensi with a LC50 value of 399.72 ppm. Conclusions:The results indicate moderate level of larvicidal activity against vector mosquitoes.
Spatial evaluation of larvae of Culicidae (Diptera from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores
Full Text Available Spatial evaluation of Culicidae (Diptera larvae from different breeding sites: application of a geospatial method and implications for vector control. This study investigates the spatial distribution of urban Culicidae and informs entomological monitoring of species that use artificial containers as larval habitats. Collections of mosquito larvae were conducted in the São Paulo State municipality of Santa Bárbara d' Oeste between 2004 and 2006 during house-to-house visits. A total of 1,891 samples and nine different species were sampled. Species distribution was assessed using the kriging statistical method by extrapolating municipal administrative divisions. The sampling method followed the norms of the municipal health services of the Ministry of Health and can thus be adopted by public health authorities in disease control and delimitation of risk areas. Moreover, this type of survey and analysis can be employed for entomological surveillance of urban vectors that use artificial containers as larval habitat.Avaliação espacial de formas larvais de Culicidae (Diptera em diferentes criadouros: aplicação de um método geoespacial e implicações para o controle de vetores. Este estudo investiga a distribuição espacial da fauna urbana e de Culicidae e informa o monitoramento entomológico de espécies que usam recipientes artificiais como habitat larval. Coletas de larvas de mosquitos foram realizadas no município paulista de Santa Bárbara d' Oeste entre os anos de 2004 e 2006, durante visitas casa-a-casa. Um total de 1.891 amostras foi considerado, com nove espécies diferentes coletadas. A distribuição das espécies foi avaliada através do método de krigagem estatística extrapolando as divisões administrativas do município. O método de coleta adotado no presente estudo está de acordo com os métodos sugeridos aos serviços de saúde municipais pelo Ministério da Saúde e pode, portanto, ser adotado pelas autoridades p
A list of mosquito species of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, including the first report of Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae, yellow fever vector and 14 other species (Diptera: Culicidae Lista de espécies de mosquitos do Estado de Pernambuco e primeiro relato de Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae vetor de febre amarela silvestre e outras 14 espécies (Diptera: Culicidae
Nádia Consuelo Aragão
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Besides mosquito species adapted to urban environments (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, only 15 species of Anopheles had been recorded in the State of Pernambuco. METHODS: Human-landing mosquitoes were collected in Dois Irmãos Park, in Recife. RESULTS: The first report for the state of Haemagogus janthinomys, an important vector of yellow fever virus, and 14 other species, including Trichoprosopon lampropus, a first reported for Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: The mosquito fauna in the area is diversified and has potential medical and veterinary importance.INTRODUÇÃO: Além de mosquitos adaptados ao ambiente urbano (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti e Ae. albopictus, apenas 15 espécies de Anopheles haviam sido relatadas no Estado de Pernambuco. MÉTODOS: Mosquitos que pousavam em humanos no Parque Dois Irmãos, em Recife foram coletados. RESULTADOS: Haemagogus janthinomys, importante vetor de vírus de febre amarela, e outras 14 espécies são relatadas pela primeira vez no estado, incluindo Trichoprosopon lampropus, relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil. CONCLUSÕES: A fauna de mosquitos na área é muito diversificada e tem potencial importância médica e veterinária.
Jagbir Singh Kirti
Full Text Available Anopheles (Cellia stephensi Liston is a major vector species of malaria in Indian subcontinent. Taxonomists have worked on its various morphological aspects and immature stages to explore additional and new taxonomic attributes. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM studies have been conducted on the fourth instar larva and pupa of An. stephensi to find additional taxonomic features for the first time from Punjab state.
Weijie Wang; Xiaobang Hu; Donghui Zhang; Jianhua Jiao; Yan Sun; Lei Ma; Changliang Zhu
Objective: To obtain the complete β-actin gene from Aedes albopictus. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from C6/36 cells. Degenerate primers were designed based on the β-actin sequences of An. gambiae, Ae. aegypti, Cx. pipiens pallens and D.melanogaster. By RT-PCR, the product was amplified, purified, cloned into the pGT vector and sequenced. The β-actin sequence was aligned and phylogenetically analyzed by the BLAST program and the CLUSTAL W program. Results: A sequence of 1132 bp including an open reading frame of 1131 bp was obtained (GenBank DQ657949). The deduced protein had 376 amino acids.Aligned to SWISS-PROT, it exhibited a high level of identity with β-actins from Anopheles, Drosophila and Culex at the amino acid sequence level. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Ae. albopictus β-actin was much more homologous with invertebrate β-actin than with vertebrate β-actin. Conclusion: The gene may be used as the internal control in the experiments of Ae. albopictus.
Conn, J E; Mitchell, S E; Cockburn, A F
We analyzed variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of two neotropical mosquitoes, Anopheles rangeli (n = 181) and A. trinkae (n = 45), with very different distribution patterns in Latin America, to assess species boundaries for these putative sister taxa and to examine population genetic structure. Phylogenetic analyses revealed (1) support for the monophyletic origin of each species; (2) diagnostic restriction site differences between the species; (3) geographic partitioning of haplotypes by country in A. rangeli from Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela compared with considerable overlap in haplotypes of A. trinkae from Bolivia and Ecuador; and (4) similar levels of mean haplotype and nucleotide diversity in both species, but lower levels of mean nucleotide divergence in A. trinkae compared with A. rangeli. We hypothesize that higher maternal gene flow and lower divergence in A. trinkae are most likely due either to a distinctive matrilineal history or to a smaller effective population size, which may have been influenced by a smaller, essentially linear geographic range along the eastern flank of the Andes. In the cladistic analysis of A. rangell, the Bolivian haplotypes appear to be more derived than those from Ecuador or Venezuela, yet there is no evidence to support the hypothesis of a recent range expansion from Ecuador into Bolivia. PMID:9099005
Full Text Available Several important diseases are transmitted by mosquitoes. Despite of the potential of the occurrence of some mosquito-borne diseases such as West Nile, dirofilariasis and malaria in the region, there is no recent study of mosquitoes in West Azerbaijan Province. The aim of this investigation was to study the fauna, composition and distribution of mosquitoes and the characteristics of their larval habitats in this province.Larvae and adult collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard methods in twenty five localities of seven counties across West Azerbaijan Province.Overall, 1569 mosquitoes including 1336 larvae and 233 adults were collected from 25 localities. The details of geographical properties were recorded. Five genera along with 12 species were collected and identified including: Anopheles claviger, An. maculipennis s.l., An. superpictus, Culex pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. modestus, Cx. hortensis, Cx. mimeticus, Culiseta Longiareolata, Ochlerotatus caspius s.l., Oc. geniculatus and Uranotaenia unguiculata. This is the first record of Oc. geniculatus in the province.Due to the geographical location of the West Azerbaijan Province, it comprises different climatic condition which provides suitable environment for the establishment of various species of mosquitoes. The solidarity geographical, cultural and territorial exchanges complicate the situation of the province and its vectors as a threat for future and probable epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases.
Ruth LM Ferreira
Full Text Available The community structure of insects, especially mosquito larvae, in water held in the fungus Aquascypha hydrophora (Berk. Reid (Stereaceae is reported. The study was done in the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, 26 km east of Manaus, AM, Brazil, from September 1998 through November 1999. The most abundant entomofauna were immature Culicidae (n = 121 91.7%, followed by adult Dytiscidae (n = 3 2.3%, immature Chironomidae (n = 5 3.8% and immature Tipulidae (n = 3 2.3%. Culicidae associated with A. hydrophora comprised species of the subfamilies Anophelinae and Culicinae.
Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical
Raúl E. Campos
Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.
Marcia Bicudo de Paula
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a fauna Culicidae em área sob impacto da modificação ambiental causada pela construção de represa. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada a área onde estava sendo construída a Represa Porto Primavera no município de Presidente Epitácio, SP. As capturas dos culicídeos foram realizadas mensalmente, em seis pontos exploratórios antes do seu enchimento e em um ponto fixo, um ano antes (1997-1998 e outro depois do primeiro enchimento (1999-2000. Mosquitos adultos foram capturados com aspirador, no período matutino, e com armadilhas de Shannon e CDC, no período crepuscular vespertino. Os imaturos foram coletados por meio de conchadas nos criadouros maiores e com pipeta, nos menores. RESULTADOS: No período anterior ao enchimento da represa foram coletados 944 exemplares de culicídeos imaturos, distribuídos em dez gêneros. O total de adultos foi de 14.932, dos quais 7.031 mosquitos (em dez gêneros foram capturados nos pontos exploratórios e 7.901 espécimes, distribuídos em oito gêneros, no ponto fixo. Após a primeira etapa de enchimento da represa, o total de imaturos foi de 1.201 exemplares, distribuídos em quatro gêneros, e o total de mosquitos capturados foi de 5.912, distribuídos em nove gêneros. Houve redução populacional de espécies dos gêneros Aedes e Psorophora e aumento no número de espécimes dos gêneros Aedeomyia, Anopheles, Culex (Melanoconion, Mansonia e Uranotaenia. CONCLUSÕES: As mudanças ambientais decorrentes da construção da Represa Porto Primavera favoreceram o aumento da densidade de algumas populações de culicídeos vetores e que geram incômodo, com riscos potenciais de transmissão de patógenos para humanos.OBJECTIVE: To describe the culicidae fauna in an area impacted by environmental changes caused by the construction of a dam. METHODS: The studied area was the Porto Primavera dam construction site in Southeastern Brazil. Monthly culicidae samples were taken in six exploratory sites in
Gerson A. Müller
Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.
Benelli, Giovanni; Flamini, Guido; Fiore, Giulia; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Conti, Barbara
The essential oils of many Apiaceae species have been already studied for their insecticidal and repellent properties against insect pests. In this research, the essential oil (EO) extracted from the fruits of Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) was evaluated for the first time for its larvicidal and repellent activities against the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The chemical composition of C. sativum EO was investigated by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry analysis. Coriander EO was mainly composed by monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes, with linalool (83.6 %) as the major constituent. C. sativum EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae: LC(50) was 421 ppm, while LC(90) was 531.7 ppm. Repellence trials highlighted that C. sativum EO was a good repellent against A. albopictus, also at lower dosages: RD(50) was 0.0001565 μL/cm(2) of skin, while RD(90) was 0.002004 μL/cm(2). At the highest dosage (0.2 μL/cm(2) of skin), the protection time achieved with C. sativum essential oil was higher than 60 min. This study adds knowledge about the chemical composition of C. sativum EO as well as to the larvicidal and repellent activity exerted by this EO against A. albopictus. On this basis, we believe that our findings could be useful for the development of new and safer products against the Asian tiger mosquito. PMID:23263388
Gloria Elsa Antonio-Arreola
Full Text Available In this paper, we assessed the suitability of using the neonicotinoid imidacloprid with standard ovitraps by evaluating the ovicidal properties of imidacloprid and its influence on the oviposition response of gravid females of Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti Linnaeus (Diptera: Culicidae. First, we calculated the imidacloprid lethal dose 99 (LD99 by exposing third instar larvae of the target species to different concentrations of the insecticide. Next, Ae. aegypti eggs were exposed to the imidacloprid LD99 for 24 h and hatching inhibition was recorded. Finally, we investigated any potential repellent effect of the imidacloprid solution on the oviposition response of gravid Aedes females in field and laboratory conditions. The LD99 obtained from larvae tests proved to be sufficient to keep any exposed eggs from hatching. No repellent effect was observed; females laid as many eggs in imidacloprid-treated ovitraps as in traps containing either clean water or temephos-treated water in both field and laboratory conditions. Our results indicate that imidacloprid is a suitable insecticide for treating ovitraps against Ae. aegypti.
Full Text Available A total of twenty marine algae were collected from the rocky intertidal and subtidal regions of the southwest coast of India and extracted in methanol. The extracts were evaluated for larvicidal activity against the second and third instar larvae of the human vector mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae. Analysis on the activity profile of the above marine algae indicated that the early stage larvae were very sensitive to seven seaweed extracts that had been tested. Among the seven marine algae, Lobophora variegata was highly potential, showing LD50 value of 70.38 and 79.43 g mL-1 on the 2nd instar larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus respectively. The rank of larvicidal potency in highly active algae in the descending order is as follows: Lobophora variegata (Dictyotaceae>Spatoglossum asperum (Dictyotaceae>Stoechospermum marginatum (Dictyotaceae>Sargassum wightii (Sargassaceae >Acrosiphonia orientalis (Acrosiphoniaceae>Centroceras clavulatum (Ceramiacea>Padina tetrastromatica (Dictyotaceae. This is the first report that envisaged the mosquito larvicidal efficacy of L. variegata from the Indian coast. Therefore, this marine alga could be recognized as a potential resource of natural insecticide and can be developed to replace synthetic insecticides in future.
Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and ovicidal efficacy of different extracts of Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) Say and Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti ) L. (Diptera:Culicidae). Methods:Larvicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. paniculata with five different solvents like benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform was tested against the early third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti. The ovicidal activity was determined against two mosquito species to various concentrations ranging from 50-300 ppm under the laboratory conditions. Results:The benzene, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and chloroform leaf extract of A. paniculata was found to be more effective against Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The LC50 values were 112.19, 137.48, 118.67, 102.05, 91.20 ppm and 119.58, 146.34, 124.24, 110.12, 99.54 ppm respectively. Among five tested solvent, methanol and ethyl acetate crude extract was found to be most effective for ovicidal activity against two mosquito species. The extract of methanol and ethyl acetate exerted 100%mortality at 200 ppm against Cx. quinquefasciatus and at 250 ppm against Ae. aegypti. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of A. paniculata was a potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes.
Culicidae (Diptera del arco sur de la Laguna de Mar Chiquita (Córdoba, Argentina y su importancia sanitaria Culicidae (Diptera from the southern coast of Mar Chiquita Lake (Cordoba, Argentina and their sanitary importance
Francisco Ludueña Almeida
Full Text Available Se amplía la lista de veintidos especies de Culicidae citadas para el arco sur de la Laguna de Mar Chiquita a veintiocho. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga , Culex acharistus Root, Culex chidesteri Dyar, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes, Mansonia titillans (Walker y Psorophora holmbergi Lynch Arribalzaga se citan por primera vez para la región. Se sintetizan los antecedentes relacionados con la importancia sanitaria de los culícidos de la zona.The list of twenty-two species of Culicidae from the southern coast of Mar Chiquita Lake is extended to twenty-eight. Aedeomyia squamipennis (Lynch Arribalzaga , Culex acharistus Root, Culex chidesteri Dyar, Haemagogus spegazzinii Brèthes , Mansonia titillans (Walker and Psorophora holmbergi Lynch Arribalzaga are listed for the first time for the region. The available information on sanitary importance of the culicids of the area is summarized.
HVatandoos; FRafi; AKhazani; JRafinejad; MKhoobdel; AKebriai-Zadeh; MRAbai; AAHanafi Bojd; AAAkhavan; SMAbtahi
Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world which is transmitted by the Anopheles mos-quitoes.There are several methods for malaria control.One of them is application of repellents on skin in ma-larious area as an intergrated vectro management measures.This study evaluated two repellents of DMP as a synthtic and locally product of neem oil as a botanical repellent against Anopheles stephensi.The modified method of K &D was used for the tests.Probing/biting rates on the shaved belly of white rabbits were coun-ted.ED50 and ED95 values were calculated by probit statistic software.Calculation of effective dose (ED50, ED90)on human volunteer and white rabbit was performed using regression line.Protection and failure time of DMP and neem oil was also determined.ED50 value of DMP and neem oil was determined as 0.0076 and 0. 159 mg/cm2 respectively on white rabit.The figures of ED90 value of DMP and neem oil was determined as 0. 046 and 1.388 mg/cm2 .DMP and neem oil showed repellency effects against An.stephensi on human volun-teers with ED50 value of 0.0037 and 0.127 mg/cm2 respectively.ED90 value of DMP was determined as 0. 032 mg/cm2 .neem oil exhibited a ED90 value of 1.066 mg/cm2 on human volunteer.The protection time of 6-7 hours for DMP and 31 minute for neem oil was determined.The failure times for DMP and Neem was 9 hours and 65 minutes rspectively on human bait.Our results exhibited that plant-based repellent is generally less effective than synthetic repellents.However,use of locally made botanical materials would be of great ad-vantages for personal protection against mosquito biting.
Mohan Rajeswary; Marimuthu Govindarajan
Objective:To determine the repellent properties of hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol extract ofPithecellobium dulce (P. dulce) leaf and seed against Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi). Methods:Repellent activity assay was carried out in a net cage (45 cmí30 cmí25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi. This assay was carried out in the laboratory conditions according to theWHO 2009 protocol. Plant crude extracts ofP. dulce were applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed fore arm of study subjects. Ethanol was used as the sole control. Results: In this study, the applied plant crude extracts were observed to protect against mosquito bites. There were no allergic reactions experienced by the study subjects. The repellent activity of the extract was dependent on the concentration of the extract. Among the tested solvents, the leaf and seed methanol extract showed the maximum efficacy. The highest concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 leaf and seed methanol extract ofP. dulceprovided over 180 min and 150 min protection, respectively. Conclusions: Crude extracts ofP. dulceexhibit the potential for controlling malaria vector mosquitoAn. stephensi.
Govindarajan M; Mathivanan T; Elumalai K; Krishnappa K; Anandan A
Objective: To determine the ovicidal and repellent activities of methanol leaf extract ofErvatamia coronaria (E. coronaria) and Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrima) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods: The ovicidal activity was determined against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from 50-450 ppm under the laboratory conditions. The hatch rates were assessed 48 h after treatment. The repellent efficacy was determined against three mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/cm2 under the laboratory conditions.Results:The crude extract of E. coronaria exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 250, 200 and 150 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The crude extract of C. pulcherrima exerted zero hatchability (100% mortality) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm for Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. Stephensi, respectively. The methanol extract of E. coronaria found to be more repellenct than C. pulcherrima extract. A higher concentration of 5.0 mg/cm2 provided 100% protection up to 150, 180 and 210 min against Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae.aegypti and An. stephensi, respectively. The results clearly showed that repellent activity was dose dependent. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extracts of E. coronaria and C. pulcherrima are an excellent potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes.
Marimuthu Govindarajan; Mohan Rajeswary
Objective: To assess the larvicidal potential of the crude benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts of the medicinal plant Impatiens balsamina against Anopheles stephensi(An. stephensi), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). Methods: Twenty five third instar larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol recommended by WHO. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of treatment. Results: Among extracts tested, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in leaf methanol extract of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with the LC50 and LC90 values 98.04, 119.68, 125.06 and 172.93, 210.14, 220.60 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions:From the results it can be concluded that the larvicidal effect of Impatiens balsamina against An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus make this plant product promising as an alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control programs.
Prabhu K; Murugan K; Nareshkumar A; Ramasubramanian N; Bragadeeswaran S
Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal and pupicidal potential of the methanolic extracts from Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) plant seeds against malarial vectorAnopheles stephensi(A. stephensi) mosquitoes at different concentrations (20,40,60,80 and100 ppm).Methods:M. oleifera was collected from the area of around Bharathiar University, Coimbatore. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample,100 g of the plant material were extracted with300 mL of methanol for8 h in a Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator to yield122 mg and110 mg of dark greenish material (residue) fromArcang amara andOcimum basilicum, respectively. One gram of the each plant residue was dissolved separately in100 mL of acetone (stock solution) from which different concentrations, i.e.,20,40,60,80 and100 ppm were prepared.Results: Larvicidal activity ofM.oleifera exhibited in the first to fourth instar larvae of theA. stephensi, and the LC50 and LC90 values were57.79 ppm and125.93 ppm for the first instar,63.90 ppm and133.07 ppm for the second instar,72.45 ppm and139.82 ppm for the third instar,78.93 ppm and143.20 ppm for the fourth instar, respectively. During the pupal stage the methanolic extract ofM.oleifera showed that the LC50 and LC90 values were67.77 ppm and141.00 ppm, respectively.Conclusions:The present study indicates that the phytochemicals derived fromM. oleifera seeds extracts are effective mosquito vector control agents and the plant extracts may be used for further integrated pest management programs.
Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Askual Girmay; Samuel Fekadu
Objective: To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia.Methods:the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure.Results:The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control.Conclusions:This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future.
Full Text Available Petroleum ether extract of Blumea lacera was screened under laboratory conditions for repellent activity against mosquito vector Anopheles stephensi Liston and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. The repellent activity of Blumea lacera extract was tested against mosquitoes in comparison with the DEET, which was used as a positive control. Results obtained from the laboratory experiment showed that the extract was effective against mosquito vectors even at a low dose. A direct relationship was observed with concentrations of Blumea lacera extract and the repellent activity. Percent repellency obtained at 6% concentration of theextract against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 97and 98% at 0 hour and 78.8 and 76.2% after 6 hrs. DEET-2% however showed 100% repellency against An. stephensi and against Cx. quinquefasciatus up to 4 hours and 1 hour, respectively. These results show that Blumea lacera extract has the potential as an effective mosquito repellent.
Sougoufara, S; Harry, M; Doucouré, S; Sembène, P M; Sokhna, C
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of malaria vector control. However, the effectiveness of these control tools depends on vector ecology and behaviour, which also largely determine the efficacy of certain Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as vectors. Malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa are primarily species of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which present intraspecific differences in behaviour that affect how they respond to vector control tools. The focus of this study is the change in species composition in the An. gambiae complex after the implementation of LLINs in Dielmo, Senegal. The main findings referred to dramatic decreases in the proportions of Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae after the introduction of LLINs, and an increase in the proportion of Anopheles arabiensis. Two years after LLINs were first introduced, An. arabiensis remained the most prevalent species and An. gambiae had begun to rebound. This indicated a need to develop additional vector control tools that can target the full range of malaria vectors. PMID:27058993
Full Text Available Two organochlorine, one organophosphate, two carbamate and two pyrethroid insecticides have been studied for their comparative study against fieldcollected An.pulcherrimus. The trail was conducted in Ghasreghand district, Sistan and Baluchistan province, Southeastern Iran using WHO impregnated papers at the diagnostic dose. Results revealed that this species exhibit resistant to 0.4% dieldrin (mortality 86 ± 2.07. Dose response regression line from interval exposure times to 0.4% dieldrin showed that LT50 and LT90 was 14 and 76 minutes, respectively. The efficacles of other insecticides such as 4% DDT, 5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.1% propoxur, 0.25% permethrin and 0.1% lambdacyhalothrin were maximum when mosquitoes exposed 1 hour at diagnostic dose followed by 24 hour recovery period.
Gerson A. Müller
Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0
Stein, Marina; Santana, Mirta; Galindo, Liliana María; Etchepare, Eduardo; Willener, Juana Alicia; Almirón, Walter Ricardo
The aim of this work was to study the composition of the Culicidae community in three environments with different degrees of anthropic disturbance in the province of Chaco. The nonparametric richness estimator ACE was calculated to measure the completeness of the sampling in each environment, and the diversity of each environment (α-diversity) were estimated. The composition, abundance and uniformity of species from the different environments were compared by means of range-species curves. β-diversity was measured as species complementarity, which allowed us to know the degree of dissimilarity among the environments. The synanthropic index was estimated, identifying urban environment (synanthropic) species, eusynanthropic species, and wild species. The influence of climatic factors (mean temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on the monthly and annual variations of the identified mosquito species was analysed using multilevel Poisson models with over-dispersion. The wild environment showed higher diversity and the semi-urban environment higher species richness. Despite having lower S and abundance, the urban environment showed greater diversity than semi-urban environment, although it also showed lower completeness, which means S could increase. Anthropogenic disturbance can lead to the elimination and/or modification or substitution of habitats, with the subsequent loss of richness in the more sensitive species of Culicidae fauna, although the conditions are also favourable for the settling of opportunistic and exotic species well-adjusted to disturbed environments. Most of the species abundances were positively influenced by the analysed climatic variables. The study area showed a rich Culicidae fauna of public health significance, with a risk of pathogen transmission, suggesting the need of further studies and the febrile and entomological surveillance. PMID:26796860
Ximena Collao; Lorena Prado; Christian González; Ana Vásquez; Romina Araki; Tuki Henríquez; Cindy Peña M
Los flavivirus son virus transmitidos por artrópodos, principalmente por especies de mosquitos de los géneros Aedes y Culex (Culicidae) que se detectan principalmente en zonas tropicales y subtropicales. Los principales flavivirus de importancia en salud pública son el virus del dengue, del Nilo Occidental y fiebre amarilla, entre otros. En Chile continental no hay registro de flavivirus; sin embargo, se han detectado casos autóctonos de dengue en la Isla de Pascua desde el año 2002, al igual...
Predation and control efficacies of Misgurnus mizolepis (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae) toward Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae) and fish toxicity of temephos in laboratory and septic tank conditions.
Chae, Seong Chun; Kwon, Young Hyun; Min, Kyung Il; Kim, Hyung Soo; Kim, Nam-Jin; Kim, Jun-Ran; Son, Bong Gi; Ahn, Young-Joon
Culex pipiens molestus Forskal (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant mosquito species in septic tanks in South Korea. An assessment was made of the biological control potential of mud loaches, Misgurnus mizolepis Günther (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae), toward Cx. p. molestus larvae in laboratory and septic tanks. Results were compared with those of temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate. In laboratory tests, all mud loaches survived on sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of aerobic septic tanks (ASTs), whereas all mud loaches died within 3-12 h after introduction into sedimentation chamber- and effluent chamber-collected water of anaerobic septic tanks, Gill hyperplasia and hemorrhages at the bases of pectoral fins were detected in all dead mud loaches. These appeared to have been caused by bacterial disease, rather than the physical and chemical characteristics of the septic tank water. A mud loach consumed an average range of 1,072-1,058 larvae of Cx. p. molestus in the AST water at 24 h. At the manufacturer's recommended rate (10 ml/ton) in the AST water, the temephos formulation did not cause fish mortality. In the AST experiment, predation of mosquito larvae by mud loaches at a release rate of one fish per 900 mosquito larvae resulted in complete mosquito control from the third day after treatment throughout the 18-wk survey period, compared with temephos 20% emulsifiable concentrate-treated AST water (reduction rate, 40% at 28 days after treatment). Reasonable mosquito control in aerobic septic tanks can be achieved by mosquito breeding season stocking of a rate of one mud loach per 900 mosquito larvae. PMID:25118414
Reiter, M.E.; Lapointe, D.A.
Mosquito-borne avian diseases, principally avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus sp.) have been implicated as the key limiting factor associated with recent declines of endemic avifauna in the Hawaiian Island archipelago. We present data on the relative abundance, infection status, and spatial distribution of the primary mosquito vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) across a mixed, residential-agricultural community adjacent to Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park on Hawai'i Island. We modeled the effect of agriculture and forest fragmentation in determining relative abundance of adult Cx. quinquefasciatus in Volcano Village, and we implement our statistical model in a geographic information system to generate a probability of mosquito capture prediction surface for the study area. Our model was based on biweekly captures of adult mosquitoes from 20 locations within Volcano Village from October 2001 to April 2003. We used mixed effects logistic regression to model the probability of capturing a mosquito, and we developed a set of 17 competing models a priori to specifically evaluate the effect of agriculture and fragmentation (i.e., residential landscapes) at two spatial scales. In total, 2,126 mosquitoes were captured in CO 2-baited traps with an average probability of 0.27 (SE = 0.10) of capturing one or more mosquitoes per trap night. Twelve percent of mosquitoes captured were infected with P. relictum. Our data indicate that agricultural lands and forest fragmentation significantly increase the probability of mosquito capture. The prediction surface identified areas along the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park boundary that may have high relative abundance of the vector. Our data document the potential of avian malaria transmission in residential-agricultural landscapes and support the need for vector management that extends beyond reserve boundaries and considers a reserve's spatial position in a highly
Cirio, Silvana Maris
Abstract: Coastal areas located in the tropics are considered enzootic for Dirofilaria immitis, which has cosmopolitan distribution. The climate may be presented as a favorable condition, owing to the high temperatures and high pluviometric precipitation. These have direct and positive relation with the development of species of Diptera, considered potential vectors, as for instance Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae). This research aims at evaluating the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis in t...
Nikookar, Seyed Hassan; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad; Fazeli-Dinan, Mahmoud; Nasab, Seyed Nouraddin Mousavi; Aarabi, Mohsen; Ziapour, Seyyed Payman; Enayati, Ahmadali
Although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and West Nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. Therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. This investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran. In a large scale field study, mosquito larvae were collected from 120 sentinel sites in 16 counties in Mazandaran Province, using standard 350ml dipper. Sampling took place monthly from May to December 2014. Collected larvae were mounted on glass slides using de Faure's medium and were diagnosed using morphological characters. Totally, 19,840 larvae were collected including three genera and 16 species from 120 larval habitats, as follows: Anopheles claviger, Anopheles hyrcanus, Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Anopheles marteri, Anopheles plumbeus, Anopheles pseudopictus, Culex pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex torrentium, Culex perexiguus, Culex territans, Culex mimeticus, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata, Culiseta longiareolata, and Culiseta morsitans. Predominant species were Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. which show the highest co-occurrence. The pair of species An. hyrcanus/An. pseudopictus showed significant affinity and association. High co-occurrence of the predominant species Cx. pipiens and An. maculipennis s.l. in the study area is of considerable importance in terms of vector ecology. It was also revealed that An. pseudopictus/An. hyrcanus often occur sympatrically indicating their common habitat requirements. The information may be equally important when vector control measures are considered. PMID:26805471
Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Leonardi, Michele; Afifi, Fatma U; Cervelli, Claudio; Profeti, Raffaele; Pistelli, Luisa; Canale, Angelo
Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito. PMID:22350673
Full Text Available Los flavivirus son virus transmitidos por artrópodos, principalmente por especies de mosquitos de los géneros Aedes y Culex (Culicidae que se detectan principalmente en zonas tropicales y subtropicales. Los principales flavivirus de importancia en salud pública son el virus del dengue, del Nilo Occidental y fiebre amarilla, entre otros. En Chile continental no hay registro de flavivirus; sin embargo, se han detectado casos autóctonos de dengue en la Isla de Pascua desde el año 2002, al igual que la presencia de su vector Aedes aegypti. El objetivo de este estudio fue conocer la diversidad de los flavivirus presentes en mosquitos de la Isla de Pascua. Se analizaron 30 lotes de larvas de mosquitos de Hanga Roa, se realizó una RT-RPC anidada específica y genérica para flavivirus. Se detectaron 13 muestras positivas, identificándose dos flavivirus específicos de insectos, el virus cell fusing agent y otro relacionado con Kamiti river virus. Este es el primer estudio en Chile que evidencia la presencia de flavivirus en los vectores de la Isla de Pascua.
Nichols, Zachary; Vogt, Richard G
Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are membrane bound proteins initially identified in olfactory receptor neurons of Lepidoptera and are thought to play a role in odor detection; SNMPs belong to a larger gene family characterized by the human protein CD36. We have identified 12-14 candidate SNMP/CD36 homologs from each of the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura, Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (Diptera), eight candidate homologs from Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and 15 from Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera). Analysis (sequence similarity and intron locations) suggests that the insect SNMP/CD36 genes fall into three major groups. Group 1 includes the previously characterized D. melanogaster emp (epithelial membrane protein). Group 2 includes the previously characterized D. melanogaster croquemort, ninaD, santa maria, and peste. Group 3 genes include the SNMPs, which fall into two subgroups referred to as SNMP1 and SNMP2. D. melanogaster SNMP1 (CG7000) shares both significant sequence similarity and five of its six intron insertion sites with the lepidopteran Bombyx mori SNMP1. The topological conservation of this gene family within the three major holometabolous lineages indicates that it predates the coleopteran and hymenoptera/dipera/lepidoptera split 300+ million years ago. The current state of knowledge of the characterized insect members of this gene family is discussed. PMID:18342246
Chordas, Stephen W., III; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chapman, Eric G.
The dipteran fauna of Arkansas is generally poorly known. A previous study of the Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the White River National Wildlife Refuge, the largest refuge in Arkansas, reported only 12 diptera taxa out of 219 taxa collected (Chordas et al., 1996). Most of the dipterans from this study were identified only to the family level. The family Chironomidae is a large, diverse group and was predicted to be much more diverse in the refuge than indicated by previous studies. In this study, Chironomidae were targeted, with other aquatic or semiaquatic dipterans also retained, in collections designed to better define the dipteran fauna of the White River National Wildlife Refuge. Adult dipterans were collected from 22 sites within the refuge using sweep-nets, two types of blacklight traps, and lighted fan traps in June of 2001. Specimens from previous studies were retrieved and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 4,917 specimens representing 122 taxa was collected. The 122 taxa were comprised of the following: two chaoborids, 83 chironomids, 15 culicids, nine tabanids, and 13 tipulids. Of these, 46 species are new state records for Arkansas. Nine undescribed species of chironomids were collected, and eight species records represent significant range extensions.
Jean Jose Nepomichene, Thiery Nirina; Elissa, Nohal; Cardinale, Eric; Boyer, Sebastien
Mosquito diversity and abundance were examined in six Madagascan villages in either arid (Toliary II district) or humid (Mampikony district) ecotypes, each with a history of Rift Valley fever virus transmission. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps without CO2 (LT) placed near ruminant parks and animal-baited net trap (NT) baited with either zebu or sheep/goat were used to sample mosquitoes, on two occasions between March 2011 and October 2011. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Giles) was the most abundant species, followed by Culex antennatus (Becker) and Anopheles squamosus/cydippis (Theobald/de Meillon). These three species comprised more than half of all mosquitoes collected. The NT captured more mosquitoes in diversity and in abundance than the LT, and also caught more individuals of each species, except for An. squamosus/cydippis. Highest diversity and abundance were observed in the humid and warm district of Mampikony. No host preference was highlighted, except for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presenting a blood preference for zebu baits. The description of species diversity, abundance, and host preference described herein can inform the development of control measures to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne diseases in Madagascar. PMID:26336259
Muller, Gerson Azulim
Criadouros fitotélmicos são aqueles formados por qualquer estrutura vegetal que acumule água e que possibilite o desenvolvimento da fauna. Um exemplo de fitotelmata são os internódios de bambu, que através de aberturas em suas paredes possibilitam, entre outros, o desenvolvimento de uma fauna de Culicidae muito específica. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram conhecer a diversidade e aspectos ecológicos de Culicidae associados a bambus (Bambusa tuldoides, Munro, 1868) presentes em um fragmento d...
Kaufmann, Christian; Betschart, Bruno
En utilisant la bioinformatique et la biologie moléculaire, nous avons pu identifier chez le principal vecteur africain de la malaria, le moustique, Anopheles gambiae deux hormones adipokinétiques (AKHs): l'octapeptide, Anoga-AKH-I (pQLTFTPAWa) et le décapeptide, Anoga-AKH-II, (pQVTFSRDWNAa). La fonction principale des AKHs est d’induire une hyperlipémie (effet d’adipokinétique), ainsi qu’une hypertrehalosémie et une hyperprolinémie. En tant que membres de la famille des AKH, les deux neurope...
Full Text Available Of the 19,400 native species and 125 families forming the European diptera fauna, 98 species (less than 0.5% in 22 families are alien to Europe. These aliens constitute 66 species (18 families of the suborder Brachycera and 32 species (4 families of the suborder Nematocera. By family in this category, there are 23 Cecidomyiidae species, 18 Drosophilidae, nine Phoridae, eight Tachinidae and seven Culicidae. Another 32 fly species belonging to five families are considered to be alien in Europe. These invasives native to other European countries are composed of 14 species of Cecidomyiidae, seven Syrphidae, five Culicidae and three species each of Anthomyiidae and Tephritidae. The date of the first record in Europe is known for 84 alien species. Arrivals of alien species of Diptera have accelerated rapidly since the second half of the 20th century. North America appears to be the dominant contributor of the alien flies. The majority of alien Diptera were introduced into or within Europe unintentionally, with only three predators released intentionally for biological control. Alien Diptera are predominantly phytophagous (35.6%, while a lesser portion are zoophagous (28.6% or detrivorous/mycetophagous (29.6%. Ecological impacts on native fauna and flora have not been documented for any of the alien species established in Europe. However, 14 alien species have economic impacts on crops.
M Govindarajan; R Sivakumar; A Amsath; S Niraimathi
Objective:To determine the larvicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extract ofFicus benghalensis (F. benghalensis) against Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus)and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus).Methods: Twenty five early third instar larvae ofCx. tritaeniorhynchusandAn. subpictus were exposed to various concentrations and were assayed in the laboratory by using the protocol ofWHO 2005. The larval mortality was observed after24 h of treatment.Results: Among three solvent extracts tested the maximum efficacy was observed in the methanol extract. TheLC50 andLC90 values ofF. benghalensis against early third instar of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus were100.88, 159.76 ppm and56.66, 85.84 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in controls. Thechi-square values were significant atP<0.05 level. Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded the crude extract ofF. benghalensis was an excellent potential for controllingCx. tritaeniorhynchusandAn. subpictus mosquito larvae.
Objective:To investigate the larvicidal and repellent properties of essential oils from various parts of four plant speciesCymbopogan citrates, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis andZingiber officinale againstCulex tritaeniorhynchus (Cx. tritaeniorhynchus)and Anopheles subpictus (An. subpictus).Methods: Essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation method. The mosquitoes were reared in the vector control laboratory and twenty five late third instar larvae ofCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus were exposed to based on the wide range and narrow range test, essential oil tested at various concentrations ranging from25 to 250 ppm. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h under the laboratory conditions. The repellent efficacy was determined against two mosquito species at three concentrations viz., 1.0,2.5 and5.0 mg/cm2 under laboratory conditions.Results:Results showed all the four plant essential oil produced significant larval mortality against two mosquito species. However, the highest larvicidal activity was observed in the essential oil fromZingiber officinale againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus with theLC50 andLC90 values as98.83, 57.98 ppm and186.55, 104.23 ppm, respectively. All the four essential oil shows significant repellency againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus thanAn. subpictus. Among four essential oil tested the highest repellency was observed inZingiber officinale, a higher concentration of5.0 mg/cm2 provided100% protection up to150 and180 min againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus, respectively.Conclusions:In this work, it can be concluded that four essential oils which were distilled fromCymbopogan citrates, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Rosmarinus officinalis andZingiber officinale showed promising larvicidal and repellent agent againstCx. tritaeniorhynchus andAn. subpictus.
Appadurai Daniel Reegan; Arokia Valan Kinsalin; Michael Gabriel Paulraj; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu
Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal, ovicidal and repellent properties of solvent extracts of marine spongeCliona celata(C. celata)(Grant) against the malarial vectorAnopheles stephensi(An. stephensi)Liston.Methods:Marine spongeC. celata was thoroughly washed with distilled water and shade dried for48 h.Then the sponges were homogenized and extracted sequentially with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol.Larvicidal and ovicidal activities were tested at four different concentrationsviz.,62.5,125.0,250.0 and500.0 ppm.For repellent study extracts were taken in three different concentrationsviz.,5.0,2.5,1.0 mg/cm2 at.Results:Among the three solvent extracts ofC. celata, methanol extract showed the highest larvicidal activity at500 ppm against the fourth instar larvae ofAn. stephensi.TheLC50andLC90 values ofC. celata methanol extract were recorded as80.61 and220.81 ppm againstAn. stephensi larvae respectively.High ovicidal activity of91.2% was recorded at500 ppm concentration of methanol extract.The haxane extract was found to be the most effective protectant against the adult female mosquitoes ofAn. stephensi. The mean protection time recorded in hexane extract was up to245 min at5 mg/cm2 dosage againstAn. stephensi adults.Conclusions:The screening results suggest that the hexane and methanol extracts ofC. celata are promising in mosquito control.Considering these bioactivities,C. celata could be probed further to obtain some novel pesticidal molecules.
K Kovendan; K Murugan; S Vincent; Donald R Barnard
ABSTRACT Objective:To determine the mosquito larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol leaf extract ofOrthosiphon thymiflorus (O. thymiflorus) againstAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) andAedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti).Methods: The larvicidal activity was assayed against three mosquito species at various concentrations ranging from (50-450 ppm) under the laboratory conditions. TheLC50and LC90value of theO. thymiflorus leaf extract was determined by Probit analysis.Results: The LC50values of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extract ofO. thymiflorus third instar larvae ofAn. stephensiwereLC50= 201.39, 178.76, 158.06, 139.22 and118.74 ppm;Cx. quinquefasciatus were LC50=228.13, 209.72, 183.35, 163.55 and149.96 ppm andAe. aegyptiwere LC50=215.65, 197.91, 175.05, 154.80 and137.26 ppm, respectively. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by acetone, ethyl acetate chloroform and hexane extract. The larval mortality was observed after24h exposure. No mortality was observed in control.Conclusions:The present results suggest that the effective plant crude extracts have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquito vectors. This study provides the first report on the larvicidal activity of this plant crude solvent extract of againstAn. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus andAe. aegyptimosquitoes.
C Panneerselvam; K Murugan; K Kovendan; P Mahesh Kumar; J Subramaniam
Objective:To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity ofEuphorbia hirta (E. hirta)leaf extract andBacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed againstAn. stephensiat various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. TheLC50 andLC90value of theE. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis.Results:The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract ofE. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=137.40,172.65,217.81,269.37 and332.39 ppm;B. sphaericusagainst the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=44.29,55.83,68.51,82.19 and95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values ofLC50=79.13,80.42,86.01,93.00 and98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control.Conclusions:These results suggest methanol leaf extracts ofE. hirta andB. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector,An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin againstAn. stephensimosquitoes.
Silva Heloisa Helena Garcia da
Full Text Available Estudou-se a influência do período de quiescência dos ovos no ciclo de vida de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 (Diptera, Culicidae em condições de laboratório, na busca de informações que possam melhorar o direcionamento das ações de controle, pois sabe-se que o ovo é a forma mais resistente do ciclo biológico, possibilitando ao mosquito ampla sobrevida, devido à resistência às adversidades climáticas. Os experimentos foram realizados numa câmara biológica, mantida à temperatura de 28 ± 1oC, com umidade relativa de 80 ± 5% e fotofase de 12 horas. Apresentam-se os dados da influência de diferentes períodos de quiescência sobre a eclosão das larvas, desenvolvimento larval e pupal, ciclo evolutivo. Verificou-se o efeito altamente significativo do período de quiescência na eclosão das larvas. O período de quiescência não influenciou nas durações dos períodos de incubação, larval e pupal. Constatou-se que ovos de um mesmo período de quiescência apresentaram períodos de incubação estatisticamente diferentes entre si. As larvas eclodiam em grupos, definidos pela incubação, e este efeito de grupo foi significativo na duração do ciclo. Pode-se afirmar que, em 99,8% dos ciclos, a variação foi determinada pela incubação.
袁建忠; 李庆凤; 黄健波
植物精油及化合物对登革热的主要媒介埃及伊蚊幼虫具有杀幼虫活性。从269种植物中提取的361个植物精油中，超过60%具有较高的生物活性(LC50<100 mg/L)，这些植物主要为桃金娘科、唇形科和芸香科。精油中富含苯丙烷类、倍半萜烯类和单萜烯类物质具有最高的活性。着重介绍了植物精油对埃及伊蚊幼虫的活性、影响精油的活性因素、分子结构与活性相关性及精油及化合物的作用机理。%Essential oils and their compounds exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, which is the primary vector of dengue. More than 60%of 361 essential oils from 269 plant species were considered active(LC50﹤100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from plant species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae and Rutaceae. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. This article mainly reviews activities of essential oils against A. aegypti larvae, the factors affecting activities of essential oils, structure-activity relationships of essential oil compounds and their mode of action.
Achinko, D; Thailayil, J; Paton, D; Mireji, P O; Talesa, V; Masiga, D; Catteruccia, F
Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major Afro-tropical vector of malaria. Novel strategies proposed for the elimination and eradication of this mosquito vector are based on the use of genetic approaches, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). These approaches rely on the ability of released males to mate with wild females, and depend on the application of effective protocols to assess the swarming and mating behaviours of laboratory-reared insects prior to their release. The present study evaluated whether large semi-field enclosures can be utilized to study the ability of males from a laboratory colony to respond to natural environmental stimuli and initiate normal mating behaviour. Laboratory-reared males exhibited spatiotemporally consistent swarming behaviour within the study enclosures. Swarm initiation, peak and termination time closely tracked sunset. Comparable insemination rates were observed in females captured in copula in the semi-field cages relative to females in small laboratory cages. Oviposition rates after blood feeding were also similar to those observed in laboratory settings. The data suggest that outdoor enclosures are suitable for studying swarming and mating in laboratory-bred males in field-like settings, providing an important reference for future studies aimed at assessing the comparative mating ability of strains for SIT and other vector control strategies. PMID:26508420
Govere, J; Durrheim, D N; Baker, L; Hunt, R; Coetzee, M
Three commercial repellents marketed in South Africa: Bio-Skincare (BSC, oils of coconut, jojoba, rapeseed and vitamin E), Mosiguard towelletes with 0.574 g quwenling (p-menthane-3,8-diol, PMD) and the standard deet (15% diethyl-3-methylbenzamide, Tabard lotion), were compared against a laboratory colony of the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae), the predominant malaria vector in South Africa. Human forearms were treated with 1.2 g BSC, 0.8 g PMD towelette or 0.5 g deet and exposed to 200 hungry An. arabiensis females for 1 min, at intervals of 1-6 h post-treatment. Tests were conducted by three adult male volunteers (aged 30-45 years, crossover controlled test design for 3 consecutive days), using their left arm for treatment and right arm for untreated control. Biting rates averaged 39-52 bites/min on untreated arms. All three repellents provided complete protection against An. arabiensis for up to 3-4 h post-application; deet and PMD gave 90-100% protection up to 5-6h, but BSC declined to only 52% protection 6h post-treatment. These results are interpreted to show that all three repellent products give satisfactory levels of personal protection against An. arabiensis for 4-5 h, justifying further evaluation in the field. PMID:11129710
Culicidae (Insecta: Diptera em área de Floresta Atlântica, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1411 Culicidae (Insecta: Diptera in areas of Atlantic Forest, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1411
Mario Antonio Navarro-Silva
Full Text Available A alteração da paisagem natural pode gerar mudanças que favorecem o desenvolvimento e proliferação de determinadas espécies de Culicidae, em detrimento de outras que se deslocam para outros locais ou são extintas. Baseando-se nestas mudanças, algumas espécies podem ser utilizadas como bioindicadores do grau de degradação ambiental. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar a composição e riqueza de Culicidae, em dois ambientes em área de Floresta Atlântica, e avaliar se as espécies encontradas indicam o grau de preservação dos fragmentos estudados. As coletas foram realizadas em dois ambientes, denominados Carvalho e Trilha, em área de Floresta Atlântica (Mananciais da Serra, no Estado do Paraná - Brasil, nos meses de dezembro/2002 a maio/2003, utilizando-se um aspirador elétrico manual. Foram identificadas 48 espécies de 636 espécimes de Culicidae. A composição taxonômica e riqueza das espécies de Culicidae diferenciaram-se entre os ambientes estudados, provavelmente, influenciadas pelo estado de preservação dos fragmentos florestais. Os maiores valores de riqueza observados no Carvalho, assim como o predomínio das espécies da tribo Sabethini e Kerteszia sugerem reduzida ação antrópica neste fragmento florestal. De modo contrário, a composição das espécies e os menores valores de riqueza observadas na Trilha indicam grau alto de degradação ambientalModifications in the landscape can lead to the development and proliferation of some Culicidae species, in detriment of others. As a result, some species may be forced to move to other places or become locally extinct. Based on these changes, some species can be used as bioindicators of environmental degradation. The aim of this study was to assess Culicidae composition and richness in two Atlantic Forest sites (Carvalho and Trilha; State of Paraná, Brazil, and to evaluate whether they can be used as indicators of environmental degradation of these sites
Fritz, G N; Engman, S; Rodriguez, R; Wilkerson, R C
One of the major obstacles for studies of the biology, ecology, and behavior of Neotropical vectors of human Plasmodium has been the lack of reliable and efficient means of identifying many species. Although the subgenus Nyssorhynchus includes most species responsible for human transmission in South America, there are no polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques for identifying members of this taxon. We describe the first multiplex PCR for identifying four species in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus that are vectors of human Plasmodium spp. Four species specific primers, together with a universal primer that anneals to the 5.8S rDNA region, produce amplicons of the internal transcribed spacer two with base pair sizes of 131,308,371, and 441 for An. triannulatus, An. trinkae, An. strodei, and An. rangeli, respectively. PMID:15605651
Full Text Available Abstract Background Two lymphatic filariasis endemic communities Mampong and Hwida in Ghana have been regularly monitored for impact on transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA with albendazole and ivermectin. After six MDAs even though the ABR for Mampong was 55883/person/year and that of Hwida was 2494/person/year, they both had ATPs of 15.21 infective larvae/person/year. Interestingly the human microfilaraemia levels had reduced significantly from 14% to 0% at Mampong and 12% to 3% at Hwida. In an attempt to understand this anomaly, we collected mosquitoes over a 5-month period using human landing catches to determine the species composition, the number of cibarial teeth, the lengths and widths of the cibarium and the cibarial dome of the vector populations. Results Out of 2553 mosquitoes caught at Mampong, 42.6% were An. gambiae s.l. All 280 identified further by PCR were An. gambiae s.s (275 M and 5 S molecular forms. At Hwida, 112 mosquitoes were obtained; 67 (59.8% were An. gambiae s.l, comprised of 40 (59.7% An. melas, 24 (35.8% An. gambiae s.s (17 and 5 M and S molecular forms respectively and 3 (4.5% unidentified. The mean number of teeth for An. melas was 14.1 (median = 14, range = 12-15, An. gambiae s.s., 15.7 (median = 15, range = 13-19 M form 15.5 (median = 15 range = 13-19 and S form 16 (median = 16, range 15-17. The observed differences in teeth numbers were significantly different between An. melas and An. gambiae s.s (p = 0.004, and the M form (p = 0.032 and the S form (p = 0.002. Conclusions In this study, An. gambiae s.s was the main vector at Mampong and was found to possess significantly more cibarial teeth than An. melas, the principal vector at Hwida. We postulate that the different impact observed after 6 MDAs may be due to An. gambiae s.s exhibiting 'facilitation' at Mampong and at Hwida An. melas the main vector exhibits 'limitation'. Thus it may be necessary to compliment MDA with vector control to achieve interruption of transmission in areas where An. melas may exhibit limitation.
Alain Azokou; Mamidou W. Koné; Koudou, Benjamin G; Honora F. Tra Bi
Background & objectives: Mosquitoes increased resistance to insecticides, and environmental concerns about the use of insecticides, pose a major challenge in the search for new molecules to deplete and incapacitate mosquito populations. Plants are the valuable source as practices consisting in exploiting plant materials as repellents, and are still in wide use throughout developing countries. The aim of the present study was to screen plants from Cτte d'Ivoire for larvicidal activity aga...
Oswaldo Paulo Forattini
Full Text Available Resting adults Culicidae were collected from January 1992 through January 1993 in several habitats of the Ribeira Valley region. The diversity of species found among them suggested that the vegetation remaining within human settlements favored the survival and the population increase of some mosquitoes. Among there are: Ae. scapularis, Ae. serratus, Cx. (Culex, Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. (Melanoconion such as Cx. ribeirensis. That preservation role may be attributed to the rearing of livestock and the consequent increase in the number of blood sources. These species may be classified as hemisynanthropes and Cx. oedipus apparently evolving to the eusynanthropic status. On the other hand, An. cruzii showed an asynanthropic behaviour, with a low degree of survival in the modified human environment. Epidemiological implications of the data are mentioned.
Forattini Oswaldo Paulo
Full Text Available Resting adults Culicidae were collected from January 1992 through January 1993 in several habitats of the Ribeira Valley region. The diversity of species found among them suggested that the vegetation remaining within human settlements favored the survival and the population increase of some mosquitoes. Among there are: Ae. scapularis, Ae. serratus, Cx. (Culex, Cx. nigripalpus and Cx. (Melanoconion such as Cx. ribeirensis. That preservation role may be attributed to the rearing of livestock and the consequent increase in the number of blood sources. These species may be classified as hemisynanthropes and Cx. oedipus apparently evolving to the eusynanthropic status. On the other hand, An. cruzii showed an asynanthropic behaviour, with a low degree of survival in the modified human environment. Epidemiological implications of the data are mentioned.
Herrel, N; Amerasinghe, F P; Ensink, J;
As part of investigations on potential linkages between irrigation and malaria transmission, all surface water bodies in and around three villages along an irrigation distributary in South Punjab, Pakistan, were surveyed for anopheline mosquito larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) from April 1999 to March...
Mouline, K; Mamai, W; Agnew, P; Tchonfienet, M; Brengues, C; Dabire, R; Robert, V; Simard, F
In West Africa, M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) Giles, frequently occur together, although with different population bionomics. The S form typically breeds in rain-dependant water collections and is present during the rainy season only whereas the M form can thrive all year long in areas with permanent breeding opportunities. In the present study, we explored physiological and developmental trade-offs at play in laboratory colonies and field populations of the M and S forms that originated from an area of sympatry in Burkina Faso, where M and S larvae exhibit such habitat segregation. In the laboratory, larvae of the M form developed slower than the S form (mean values 9.51 and 8.85 days, respectively, Wilcoxon's test, P < 0.001). Although wing length and dry weight at emergence showed large variations, M females were on average 8% heavier than S females of similar wing length. Higher nutritional reserves (proteins and lipids) in teneral adults explained part of this weight difference, reflecting a better ability of the M form to garner resources at the larval stage. Furthermore, a higher rate of ovarian maturation was observed in the M form after a single bloodmeal. The relevance of these findings for parasite transmission is discussed. PMID:22681446
Fouad; El-Akhal; Abdelhakim; El; Ouali; Lalami; Yassine; Ez; Zoubi; Hassane; Greche; Raja; Guemmouh
Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil of Origanum mtijoruna（Lamiaceae）cultivated in Morocco against Culex pipiens（Diptera:Culicidae）.Methods:The analysis and the identification of the various constituents of essential oil were carried out by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.Biological test was performed according to a standard methodology inspired by the World Health Organization protocol with slight modification.Results:This oil mainly consisted of monoterpene and sesquiterpenes.The majority compounds are 4-terpinene（28.96%）,y-terpinene（18.57%）,α-terpinene（12.72%） and sabinene（8.02%）.The lethal concentrations(LC50 and LC90) measured for the essential oil Origanum majorana,were respectively of the order of 258.71 mg/L and 580.49 mg/L.Conclusions:The results could be useful in search for newer,safer,and more effective natural larvicidal agents.
Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do Norte do Estado do Paraná, Brasil. V. Coleta de larvas em recipientes artificiais instalados em mata ciliar Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae ecology of natural and artificial rural breeding places in horthern Parana, Brazil. V. Larvae captured in artificial reservoirs installed in ciliary forest
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A utilização pelos Culicidae de recipientes contendo água para a colocação de seus ovos, em área antropogênica, pode indicar plasticidade genética que os direcione evolutivamente no sentido da domiciliação. Nesse sentido, foram coletadas as diferentes espécies de Culicidae que colonizam recipientes alocados em mata ciliar, na área rural. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram instalados recipientes de pneu, plástico, lata e bambu, em mata ciliar, em área rural no Norte do Paraná, Brasil. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se larvas de Cx. grupo coronator, Cx. declarator, Cx. laticlasper, Cx. (Melanoconion secção Spissipes, Cx. tatoi, Tr. compressum, Tr. pallidiventer, Ae. terrens, Cx. mollis, Cx. bigoti, Hg. leucocelaenus, Cx. eduardoi, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Li. durhamii e Toxorhynchites sp. As cinco primeiras espécies foram específicas de pneus. As duas espécies de Trichoprosopon ficaram restritas a bambu. Ae. terrens e Cx. mollis foram caletadas em pneu e bambu, Cx. bigoti foi coletada em pneu, lata e bambu, enquanto que Hg. leucocelaenus só não foi encontrada em lata. As quatro últimas espécies foram coletadas em todos os tipos de recipientes. Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. eduardoi, Li. durhamii tiveram significante flutuação populacional. CONCLUSÕES: O pneu caracterizou-se como o recipiente mais aceito pelos culicídeos. As áreas onde a mata ciliar esteve mais densa e o locais onde o solo esteve mais úmido foram os pontos com maior número de capturas. A mata ciliar, mesmo muito reduzida e alterada, foi suficiente para abrigar várias espécies de culicídeos. As espécies caputradas podem ser portadoras de plasticidade gênica que as capacitem a colonizar ambientes antropogênicos.INTRODUCTION: The use of receptacles containing water for the laying of the Culicidae eggs in an anthropogenic area, may indicate a genetic plasticity thet leads them evolutionarily towards domiciliation. Thus, the varions species of Culicidae which
Benelli, Giovanni; Bedini, Stefano; Cosci, Francesca; Toniolo, Chiara; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello
Neem seed oil (NSO) of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) contains more than 100 determined biologically active compounds, and many formulations deriving from them showed toxicity, antifeedancy and repellence against a number of arthropod pests. However, it is widely known that botanical products can differ in their chemical composition and bioactivity, as function of the production site and production process. We used high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) to investigate differences in chemical constituents of NSOs from three production sites. HPTLC analyses showed several differences in chemical abundance and diversity among NSOs, with special reference to limonoids. Furthermore, the three NSOs and their fractions of increasing polarities [i.e. ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and butanol (BU) fraction] were evaluated for larvicidal toxicity and field oviposition deterrence against the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, currently the most invasive mosquito worldwide. Results from bioactivity experiments showed good toxicity of NSOs and EA fractions against A. albopictus fourth instar larvae (with LC50 values ranging from 142.28 to 209.73 ppm), while little toxicity was exerted by BU fractions. A significant effect of the production site and dosage was also found and is probably linked to differences in abundance of constituents among samples, as highlighted by HPTLC analyses. NSOs and EAs were also able to deter A. albopictus oviposition in the field (effective repellence values ranging from 98.55 to 70.10%), while little effectiveness of BU fractions was found. Concerning ovideterrent activity, no difference due to the production site was found. This is the first report concerning larvicidal toxicity of NSO against A. albopictus and ovideterrence against Culicidae in the field. The chance to use chemicals from the NSO EA fraction seems promising, since they are effective at lower doses, if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, and could be
Full Text Available Background: Bromeliads can be epiphytic, terrestrial or saxicolous and use strategies to allow water to be retained in their leaf axils, where various arthropods can be found. These include mosquitoes, whose larvae are the most abundant and commonly found organisms in the leaf axils. The objective of this study was to look for immature forms of mosquitoes (the larval and pupal stages in bromeliads in municipal parks in São Paulo and to discuss the ecological and epidemiological importance of these insects.Methods: From October 2010 to July 2013, immature mosquitoes were collected from bromeliads in 65 municipal parks in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, using suction samplers. The immature forms were maintained until adult forms emerged, and these were then identified morphologically.Results: Two thousand forty-two immature-stage specimens belonging to the genera Aedes, Culex, Trichoprosopon, Toxorhynchites, Limatus and Wyeomyia were found in bromeliads in 15 of the 65 parks visited. Aedes albopictus was the most abundant species (660 specimens collected, followed by Culex quinquefasciatus (548 specimens and Cx. (Microculex imitator (444. The taxa with the most widespread distribution were Ae. aegypti and Toxorhynchites spp, followed by Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus.Conclusion: Bromeliads in urban parks are refuges for populations of native species of Culicidae and breeding sites for exotic species that are generally of epidemiological interest. Hence, administrators and surveillance and mosquito-control agencies must constantly monitor these microenvironments as the presence of these species endangers the health of park users and employees as well as people living near the parks.
Avaliação do desenvolvimento larval de Anopheles darlingi criado em laboratório sob diferentes dietas Evaluation of the larval development of Anopheles darlingi (Diptera - Culicidae raised in the laboratory on different diets
Eduardo Sterlino Bergo
Full Text Available São testadas três dietas para larvas de A. darlingi, buscando-se os seguintes parâmetros indicativos de desenvolvimento nesta fase: tempo de evolução total e de cada estádio, sobrevivência ao estádio, diária e total. A metodologia utilizada na determinação desses parâmetros constitui-se da combinação de dois métodos de análise da estatística vital, adaptados ao estudo de populações mantidas em laboratório. Os tempos de evolução total e de cada estádio foram determinados gráficamente a partir das curvas de tendência dos estádios medianos da colônia, em inspeções sucessivas. Os valores de sobrevivência diária, ao estádio e total foram calculados a partir de tábuas de sobrevivência. Os resultados permitiram eleger a dieta composta de uma parte de farinha de peixe para duas partes de farinha de pão e duas partes de germe de trigo como a mais adequada ao desenvolvimento larval, com duração de 12,9 dias entre o primerio estádio e a emersão do adulto e sobrevivência total de 95%.Three diets for A. darlingi larvae were tested in order to arrive at the following parameters indicative of development in this phase: length of time, both for overall as for each stage of evolution and daily and total stage-survival. A methodology which combined two vital statistical methods of analysis, adjusted to the study of populations under laboratory conditions, was used for determining these parameters. The length of time for overall and for each stage of, evolution were graphically assessed on the basis of trend curves of colony median stages, in sequential surveys. Values for the total and the daily stage-survival were stimated from survival tables. Results permitted the selection of the most adequate diet for the larval development as that composed of one part of fish flour to two parts of bread flour and two parts of a heat germ, giving an average length of 12.9 days between the first larval stage and the emergent adult. Total survival rate was of 95%.
Imaturos de Culicidae (Diptera encontrados em recipientes instalados em mata residual no munícipio de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Immature specimens of Culicidae (Diptera found in installed recipients in forest fragments in the Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
João A. C. Zequi
Full Text Available Fragmentos de mata na área urbana ou periurbana podem ser locais favoráveis a procriação de Culicidae. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo levantar as espécies de culicídeos que utilizam criadouros artificiais, suas coexistência e as flutuações populacionais em uma reserva de mata localizada em Londrina - PR. Realizou-se coletas quinzenais de outubro de 1995 a setembro de 1996 em pneus e internódios de bambu armadilha que foram instalados ao nível do solo e outros internódios instalados a 2 m de altura. Coletou-se 12.656 espécimes, pertencentes a cinco gêneros e 11 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes nos criadouros foram Limatus durham Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Casal & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 e Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894. O maior número de indivíduos foi coletado em pneus, sendo que Limatus durham e Aedes terrens, apresentaram preferência nesse criadouro. A presença de Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762, Aedes albopictus e Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar & Shannon, 1924 em diferentes coletas indica que esse tipo de ambiente não deve ser ignorado nas ações de controle de vetores, merecendo constante monitoramento.Forest fragments in an urban area were found to be a situable site for Culicidae breeding. This research aims to inventory the Culicidae species that use artificial breeding sites, their coexistence, and the population variation in a fragment forest in the Londrina City, Paraná State. Biweekly collecting efforts were performed from October 1995 to September 1996 using tires and bamboo internodes traps installed at a ground level and bamboo internodes traps at two 2 m height. A total of 12,656 culicid specimens belonging to five genus and 11 species were collected. The most abundant species in those artificial breeding sites were Limatus durhami Theobald, 1901, Culex eduardoi Couple & Garcia, 1968, Aedes terrens (Walker, 1856, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 and
Ecologia de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae) em criadouros naturais e artificiais de área rural do norte do Parana, Brasil: II. Coletas com isca humana Ecology of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in natural and artificial breeding sites of the rural area in north Paraná, Brazil: II. Capture of human bait
José Lopes; Ana L. Lozovei
With then purpose of knowing the species of mosquitos that colonize an anthropogenic area in the North of Paraná, Brazil. 1496 specimens were captured by the humam bait method, accountig 23 species among them the following were predominam: Anopheles strodei Root, 1926; An. evansae Brethes, 1926; An. galvaoi Causey, Deane & Deane, 1943; An. albitarsis Lynch Arribalzaga, 1878; Coquillettidea juxtamansonia Chagas, 1907; Co. venezuelensis Theobaldi, 1912; Culex (Melanoconion) sp. e Aedes fluviati...
D Dominic Amalraj
Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.
Ruiz Lina María
Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin produces numerous proteins among which 94 kDa known as Cry11Bb, has mosquitocidal activity. The mode of action of the Cry11 proteins has been described as similar to those of the Cry1 toxins, nevertheless, the mechanism of action is still not clear. In this study we investigated the in vivo binding of the Cry11Bb toxin to the midgut of the insect species Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus by immunohistochemical analysis. Spodoptera frugiperda was included as negative control. The Cry11Bb protein was detected on the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells, mostly on the posterior midgut and gastric caeca of the three mosquito species. Additionally, the toxin was detected in the Malpighian tubules of An. albimanus, Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and in the basal membrane of the epithelial cells of Ae. aegypti midgut. No toxin accumulation was observed in the peritrophic membrane of any of the mosquito species studied. These results confirm that the primary site of action of the Cry11 toxins is the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of mosquito larvae.