Sample records for anonymous hiv workplace

  1. HIV disclosure in the workplace

    Degroote, S.; Vogelaers, D.; Koeck, R.; Borms, R.; De Meulemeester, L.; Vandijck, Dominique


    Objectives: As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recru...

  2. Workplace discrimination. Helping the spread of HIV.

    Achmat, Z; Cameron, E


    South Africa's new Labor Relations Act represents a major advance in protecting persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) from workplace discrimination. In this document, HIV and AIDS are included as conditions protected from unfair labor practices. There remains, however, a gap between a theoretical rejection of HIV-based discrimination and actual labor practices. South African experts are in general agreement that pre-employment screening for HIV is unacceptable; moreover, there is no evidence of any potential for workplace transmission. Nonetheless, such testing remains widespread, as does dismissal or demotion of employees found to be HIV-infected. Also prevalent is discrimination in terms of employment benefits such as disability, group life insurance, medical insurance, and pension and provident funds. After 13 years of the AIDS epidemic, over 90% of South African employers have failed to develop HIV/AIDS policies or workplace educational programs. There is also a need for labor unions to launch a campaign to inform job applicants and employees of their rights to non-discrimination and confidentiality. Provision of condoms at every workplace is essential to AIDS prevention. Several major South African employers have taken the lead in this area and offer mandatory AIDS training courses, free condoms, educational materials, and peer education. PMID:12320240

  3. Improving health promotional workplace programs : A study of HIV/AIDS workplace programs in Kenya

    Hirbod, Sam; Lindqvist, Cecilia


    Background: HIV/AIDS is believed to be one of the largest threats to the general business climates in Sub-Saharan Africa. The private sector has, in response, taken initiatives to reduce the impact of the epidemic by developing so called HIV/AIDS workplace programmes. The programs aim to create awareness regarding HIV/AIDS through the education and treatment of the disease. We want to examine the programs and discover the factors that may inhibit their implementation and progress, this, in or...

  4. HIV/AIDS issues in the workplace of nurses

    A Minnaar


    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is a global problem with an estimated 40 million infected people. In less than two years, this figure will leap to 100 million according to the World Health Organisation (WHO. By 2005,65 million people will be infected. Half of the number of people in this group will be under 25 years old, and will die before they reach the age of 35. In a South African study done by the Human Science Research Council and published in 2003, regarding the impact of HIV/AIDS on the health sector, the findings were that 15% of health workers in public and private hospitals tested positive for HIV antibodies. Together with these facts above it was found that 46.2 percent of patients served in medical and paediatric wards tested positive for HIV. These factors have major implication for staffing in the future and the role of the nurse manager in South Africa. The aim of the study: to explore the management of HIV/AIDS in the workplace of nurses in selected health services in KwaZulu-Natal. This research was part of a greater study on the exploration of the presence of caring as part of nursing management. . The methodology: the qualitative research approach was used with a phenomenological design, which ensured that the richness and the complexities are reflected in the study. The data was collected by means of an open-ended question to nurse managers during an interview. The first question posed was; How do you or your s e n ’ices care fo r nurses in this hospital? Secondly nurse managers were asked, To explain their role in caring for HIV/AIDS positive nurses on their staff establishment. . The results: a qualitative analysis of the interviews with nurse managers indicated that they rate HIV/AIDS issues as an important part of their management task. Four main themes were identified, namely HIV/AIDS, counselling, dying of AIDS and funerals. Rich descriptions of these themes are given in this paper. Nurse managers in the health services are managing HIV

  5. Barriers to workplace HIV testing in South Africa: a systematic review of the literature.

    Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna


    Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa. Barriers were defined as any factor on economic, social, personal, environmental or organisational level preventing employees from participating in workplace HIV testing. Four peer-reviewed studies were included, two with quantitative and two with qualitative study designs. The overarching barriers across the studies were fear of compromised confidentiality, being stigmatised or discriminated in the event of testing HIV positive or being observed participating in HIV testing, and a low personal risk perception. Furthermore, it appeared that an awareness of an HIV-positive status hindered HIV testing at the workplace. Further research evidence of South African workplace barriers to HIV testing will enhance related interventions. This systematic review only found very little and contextualised evidence about workplace HCT barriers in South Africa, making it difficult to generalise, and not really sufficient to inform new interventions aimed at increasing workplace HCT uptake. PMID:26560013

  6. Should HIV and AIDS workplace programmes still be advocated in the automotive industry?

    Liana Steenkamp; Jill von der Marwitz; Friederike Baasner-Weihs; Jacques Pietersen


    Orientation: In light of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, and in order to improve competitiveness in the South African private sector, many structures have implemented subsidised workplace programmes.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to collect baseline data regarding the knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief (KAPB) of employees in the automotive industry in relation to HIV and AIDS, in order to assess the need for HIV and AIDS workplace programmes.Motivation fo...

  7. Do employees participate in workplace HIV testing just to win a lottery prize? A quantitative study

    Martin Weihs


    Full Text Available Orientation: To encourage workers to participate in workplace HIV testing, some SouthAfrican automotive companies use lotteries. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how lottery incentives may influence employees’ workplace HIV counselling and testing behaviour.Research purpose: Determine whether workers intend to test for HIV only to win a lottery prize.Motivation for the study: The positive and also negative influences of lotteries on workers’ HIV testing behaviour need to be understood to avoid undue coercion in workplace HIV testing participation.Research design, approach and method: Post-test only quasi-experimental studies were conducted the day HIV testing and lotteries were announced to staff in four companies using a cross-sectional, self-administered survey that measured workers’ workplace HIV testing behaviour intentions. Intention to participate in workplace HIV counselling and testing was used as the main outcome of respondents’ behaviour and investigated via the statement: ‘If the company would organise its on-site Wellness Day tomorrow, I would go testing for HIV tomorrow’. In a first setting, two companies’ workers had to test for HIV to be entered in the lottery (n = 198. In the second setting, two other companies’ workers did not have to test to be entered in the lottery (n = 316. Chi-square tests were conducted to measure significant differences between the two conditions distinguishing between permanent and non-permanent staff.Main findings: No significant association was found between behaviour intention in the two settings for permanent workers’ workplace HIV testing intention ( χ2 = 1.145, p = 0.285, phi = -0.097. However, a significant association with a small effect size was found for non-permanent workers ( χ2 = 8.04, p = 0.005, phi = -0.279.Practical/managerial implications: Results show that lotteries to encourage workplace HIV testing are very likely to help workers ‘do the right

  8. Should HIV and AIDS workplace programmes still be advocated in the automotive industry?

    Liana Steenkamp


    Full Text Available Orientation: In light of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pandemic, and in order to improve competitiveness in the South African private sector, many structures have implemented subsidised workplace programmes.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to collect baseline data regarding the knowledge, attitudes, practices and belief (KAPB of employees in the automotive industry in relation to HIV and AIDS, in order to assess the need for HIV and AIDS workplace programmes.Motivation for the study: Given the abundance of HIV and AIDS information, the question is whether these workplace programmes’ efforts are still relevant.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative descriptive study design was used using a self-administered questionnaire covering questions about KAPB with regard to HIV and AIDS. The data collection took place in seven automotive supplier companies in South Africa (n = 733 who were going to implement HIV and AIDS workplace programmes with the support of the Automotive Industry Development Centre in the Eastern Cape.Main findings: High-risk behaviour, as indicated by sexual relations with more than one partner in the last 12 months, occurred in between 12% (management and 42% (cleaners of employees. All risk behaviour indicators showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between management and administrative staff on the one hand and technicians, operators and cleaners on the other. Despite being aware of an HIV policy, more than 50% of employees indicated that they would not be willing to disclose their status.Practical/managerial implications: As HIV and AIDS risk behaviour and stigma remain a problem, HIV infection with associated health problems may threaten productivity in the automotive industry if no measures are taken to address the impact on employees and the company.Contribution: This study strongly supports the conclusion that KAPB studies can still provide important information to tailor HIV workplace

  9. Voluntary anonymous linked study of the prevalence of HIV infection and hepatitis C among inmates in a Canadian federal penitentiary for women.

    Ford, P M; White, C; KAUFMANN, H.; MacTavish, J; Pearson, M.; Ford, S.; Sankar-Mistry, P; Connop, P


    OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV infection and hepatitis C among inmates of a federal penitentiary for women. DESIGN: Voluntary, anonymous, linked, point-prevalence study involving testing of blood samples for antibodies to HIV and hepatitis C virus. PARTICIPANTS: All inmates of the multilevel security federal Prison for Women, Kingston, Ont., who volunteered to participate in the study. Inmates at this long-stay facility are from across Canada. OUTCOME MEASURE: Seroprevalenc...

  10. Anonymous HIV surveillance with risk-factor elicitation: at Perth (for men) and Cornton Vale (for women) prisons in Scotland.

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Burns, S; Ross, A J; Goldberg, D


    434 male and 145 female prisoners were available to participate in cross-sectional, voluntary anonymous HIV surveillance (using saliva samples) with linked self-completion questionnaire at HMP (Her Majesty's Prison) Perth on 17 May and at HMP Cornton Vale on 18 May 1995. Three hundred and four men (70%) and 136 women (94%) completed a risk-factor questionnaire and 304 and 135 samples were received for HIV antibody testing. Two hundred and eighty-two and 132 questionnaires passed logical checks. Six saliva samples from Perth (all injectors) out of 304 and none from Cornton Vale out of 134 tested were HIV antibody positive. Four were presumptively from known HIV-infected male inmates; the other 2 were local men, under 26 years, who began injecting in 1989-91, and both reported having had a recent HIV test. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 2% compared to a known prevalence of 1.4% (6/434), giving a 1.5 ratio of overall: disclosed HIV prevalence at HMP Perth. HIV prevalence was estimated at 7% (6/82) for injector-participants and 14% (5/35) for local injector participants. At Cornton Vale, where both known HIV-infected inmates abstained, overall and disclosed HIV prevalence, were equal at 1.4%. At Perth Prison, 29% of prisoners had injected drugs (82/278); 85% of injector-inmates reported having injected inside (some prison and 31% (25/80) had started to inject while inside, 7 during their present sentence. Of all 21 injector-inmates who first injected after 1991, 10 had started to inject inside, including one of 69 male inmates who had never been inside before. The corresponding figures for Cornton Vale, where 46% of inmates were injectors (58/132), were that 57% of injector-inmates had injected inside (32/56) but only one woman, for whom this was not her first sentence, had started to inject inside. Twenty-eight per cent of male prisoners (78/277) and 57% of male injector-inmates (47/82) had had a personal HIV test since January 1993, as had 35% of female

  11. South African HIV/AIDS programming overlooks migration, urban livelihoods, and informal workplaces.

    Vearey, Jo; Richter, Marlise; Núñez, Lorena; Moyo, Khangelani


    South Africa has the largest population of people living with HIV globally and is associated with high population mobility. The majority of migrants move in search of improved livelihood opportunities, and many who migrate (both internally and across borders) move into urban areas, often through peripheral informal settlements where HIV prevalence is shown to be double that of urban formal areas. While the relationship between migration and the spread of HIV is acknowledged as complex, the context of migration may place individuals at increased risk for acquiring HIV. Studies have demonstrated the long-wave impact of HIV and AIDS on livelihood activities and, more recently, on patterns of migration. Many migrants engage in livelihood strategies situated within the urban 'informal economy'; these informal workplaces are often overlooked in global and national legislation governing workplace responses to health and HIV and AIDS. This study draws on existing research and limited primary data to explore the implications of HIV/AIDS programming for diverse migrant groups labouring in informal workplaces in Johannesburg, South Africa. We describe three case studies: waste-pickers at a dumpsite in a peripheral urban informal settlement; barmen and cleaners working in inner-city hotels where sex is also sold; and, migrants engaged in informal livelihood activities who are also members of burial societies. Given the importance of varied informal livelihood activities for diverse migrant groups, particularly in urban areas of South Africa, we propose that the national HIV/AIDS response can and should engage with internal and cross-border migrants in informal workplaces - which is in line with the principle of universal access and will strengthen the national response. Especially, we point out the potential for burial societies to provide an entry point for HIV/AIDS programming that targets migrant groups involved in the informal economy of South African cities. PMID:25865514

  12. Alcoholics Anonymous

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  13. Mathematical Analysis of the Effects of HIV-Malaria Co-infection on Workplace Productivity.

    Seidu, Baba; Makinde, Oluwole D; Seini, Ibrahim Y


    In this paper, a nonlinear dynamical system is proposed and qualitatively analyzed to study the dynamics and effects of HIV-malaria co-infection in the workplace. Basic reproduction numbers of sub-models are derived and are shown to have LAS disease-free equilibria when their respective basic reproduction numbers are less than unity. Conditions for existence of endemic equilibria of sub-models are also derived. Unlike the HIV-only model, the malaria-only model is shown to exhibit a backward bifurcation under certain conditions. Conditions for optimal control of the co-infection are derived using the Pontryagin's maximum principle. Numerical experimentation on the resulting optimality system is performed. Using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, it is observed that combining preventative measures for both diseases is the best strategy for optimal control of HIV-malaria co-infection at the workplace. PMID:25980477

  14. The role of HIV/AIDS committees in effective workplace governance of HIV/AIDS in South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Vaas, Jocelyn R


    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the role, status and scope of workplace HIV/AIDS committees as a means of effective workplace governance of the HIV/AIDS impact, and their role in extending social protective HIV/AIDS-related rights to employees. In-depth qualitative case studies were conducted in five South African small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that were actively implementing HIV/AIDS policies and programmes. Companies commonly implemented HIV/AIDS policies and programmes through a workplace committee dedicated to HIV/AIDS or a generic committee dealing with issues other than HIV/ AIDS. Management, through the human resources department and the occupational health practitioner often drove initial policy formulation, and had virtually sole control of the HIV/AIDS budget. Employee members of committees were mostly volunteers, and were often production or blue collar employees, while there was a notable lack of participation by white-collar employees, line management and trade unions. While the powers of workplace committees were largely consultative, employee committee members often managed in an indirect manner to secure and extend social protective rights on HIV/AIDS to employees, and monitor their effective implementation in practice. In the interim, workplace committees represented one of the best means to facilitate more effective workplace HIV/AIDS governance. However, the increased demands on collective bargaining as a result of an anticipated rises in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality might prove to be beyond the scope of such voluntary committees in the longer term. PMID:18496614

  15. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B.; Fang, X.; Lin, D.; Mao, R; H. Liu; Chen, X; SEVERSON, R.


    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment esta...

  16. HIV Risk Behaviours Differ by Workplace Stability Among Mexican Female Sex Workers With Truck Driver Clientele

    Chen, Nadine E.; Steffanie A Strathdee; Gudelia Rangel; Patterson, Thomas L.; Uribe-Salas, Felipe J.; Perth Rosen; Jorge Villalobos; Kimberly C Brouwer


    Background. In a study of female sex workers (FSWs) servicing truck driver clients in Mexican border cities, we evaluated differences in HIV/STI risk behaviours determined by workplace. Design and Methods. Our study was cross-sectional and its population comprised 100 FSWs from Nuevo Laredo (US border) and 100 FSWs from Ciudad Hidalgo (Guatemalan border). The main outcome was that the primary place of sex work was unstable in a public place (street, vehicle, gas station, etc.) intead of stab...

  17. Anonymous Gossiping

    Datta, Anwitaman


    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping mechanisms for peer sampling & information aggregation and onion routing technique for establishing anonymous communication. This is more an `ideas' paper, rather than providing concrete and quantified results.

  18. HIV/AIDS stigma at the workplace: exploratory findings from Pakistan.

    Bashir, Sajid


    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are stigmatised socially. They are devalued and considered like outcasts by having lesser opportunities for education, treatment and housing, and in an organisational context they get reduced opportunities of selection, promotion and income. The phenomena have been extensively researched in developed countries but limited literature addresses the situation in underdeveloped countries like Pakistan, which is also facing spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. There are a number of groups who are carrying the disease but the problems being faced by PLHA employed in different organisations have rarely been analysed. Stigma at the workplace can generate a number of negative outcomes. The present study considers two such outcomes among stigmatised PLHA. These outcomes are organisational cynicism and breach of psychological contract. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of 174 PLHA, having a work experience after identification of the epidemic, working in different organisations across Pakistan. These PLHA were identified and recruited through a scattered record available with some government/non-government organisations operating in Pakistan to control HIV/AIDS. Findings of the study extend the knowledge about HIV/AIDS stigma indicating that PLHA are subjected to stigma, which is significantly associated with a breach of psychological contract and organisational cynicism. There is a need at governmental and organisational level as well to increase awareness about the disease and formulate policies to reduce stigma against PLHA working in different organisations. PMID:23237730

  19. Workplace and HIV-related sexual behaviours and perceptions among female migrant workers.

    Yang, H; Li, X; Stanton, B; Fang, X; Lin, D; Mao, R; Liu, H; Chen, X; Severson, R


    Data from 1,543 female migrants working in eight occupational clusters in Beijing and Nanjing, China were analysed to examine the association of workplace with HIV-related behaviours and perceptions. For sexually experienced women (n = 666, 43.2%), those working in entertainment establishments or personal service (e.g., nightclubs, dancing halls, barbershops, beauty salons, massage parlours, etc.) engaged in risky sexual practices twice as frequently as those working in non-entertainment establishments (e.g. restaurants, stalls, domestic service, factories, etc.). About 10% of women in the entertainment establishments reported having sold sex, 30% having multiple sexual partners and 40% having sex with men with multiple sexual partners. The rate of consistent condom use was less than 15%. They also tended to have a higher level of perceptions of both peer risk involvement and positive expectancy of risk behaviours, and lower perceptions of severity of STDs and HIV. For women who were not sexually experienced, those working in 'stalls' or 'domestic service' tended to perceive higher peer risk involvement, less severity of HIV infection, and less effectiveness of protective behaviour. The occupational pattern of sexual risk behaviours and perceptions observed in the current study indicates employment conditions are associated with HIV risk. Intervention strategies should be tailored to address occupational-related factors. PMID:16120499

  20. Against anonymity.

    Baker, Robert


    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile. PMID:24724540

  1. Group Anonymity

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61


    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  2. Ethical standards for the occupational health-nursing practitioner regarding the HIV positive person in the workplace

    A C Botes


    Full Text Available The occupational health-nursing practitioner often becomes involved in ethical dilemmas with regard to the handling of HIV-positive people in the workplace in that the interests of the HIV-positive people conflict with the interests of the employer.

    Die beroepsgesondheidsverpleegkundige raak dikwels in etiese dilemmas betrokke ten opsigte van die hantering van die MIV-positiewe persoon by die werkplek deurdat die belange van die MIV-positiewe persoon botsend is met die belange van die werkgewer. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  3. Contrasting Reasons for Discontinuation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Workplace and Public-Sector HIV Programs in South Africa

    Dahab, Maysoon; Kielmann, Karina; Charalambous, Salome; Karstaedt, Alan S; Hamilton, Robin; La Grange, Lettie; Katherine L Fielding; Churchyard, Gavin J.; GRANT, Alison D


    We investigated reasons for clinical follow-up and treatment discontinuation among HIV-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a public-sector clinic and in a workplace clinic in South Africa. Participants in a larger cohort study who had discontinued clinical care by the seventh month of treatment were traced using previously provided locator information. Those located were administered a semistructured questionnaire regarding reasons for discontinuing clinical follow-...

  4. Harm reduction measures and injecting inside prison versus mandatory drugs testing: results of a cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey. The European Commission Network on HIV Infection and Hepatitis in Prison.

    Bird, A G; Gore, S M; Hutchinson, S J; Lewis, S. C.; Cameron, S; Burns, S


    OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine both the frequency of injecting inside prison and use of sterilising tablets to clean needles in the previous four weeks; (b) to assess the efficiency of random mandatory drugs testing at detecting prisoners who inject heroin inside prison; (c) to determine the percentage of prisoners who had been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. DESIGN: Cross sectional willing anonymous salivary HIV surveillance linked to a self completion risk factor questionnaire. SETTI...

  5. Keeping health staff healthy: evaluation of a workplace initiative to reduce morbidity and mortality from HIV/AIDS in Malawi

    Bemelmans Marielle


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Malawi, the dramatic shortage of human resources for health is negatively impacted by HIV-related morbidity and mortality among health workers and their relatives. Many staff find it difficult to access HIV care through regular channels due to fear of stigma and discrimination. In 2006, two workplace initiatives were implemented in Thyolo District: a clinic at the district hospital dedicated to all district health staff and their first-degree relatives, providing medical services, including HIV care; and a support group for HIV-positive staff. Methods Using routine programme data, we evaluated the following outcomes up to the end of 2009: uptake and outcome of HIV testing and counselling among health staff and their dependents; uptake and outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART among health staff; and membership and activities of the support group. In addition, we included information from staff interviews and a job satisfaction survey to describe health workers' opinions of the initiatives. Results Almost two-thirds (91 of 144, 63% of health workers and their dependents undergoing HIV testing and counselling at the staff clinic tested HIV positive. Sixty-four health workers had accessed ART through the staff clinic, approximately the number of health workers estimated to be in need of ART. Of these, 60 had joined the support group. Cumulative ART outcomes were satisfactory, with more than 90% alive on treatment as of June 2009 (the end of the study observation period. The availability, confidentiality and quality of care in the staff clinic were considered adequate by beneficiaries. Conclusions Staff clinic and support group services successfully provided care and support to HIV-positive health workers. Similar initiatives should be considered in other settings with a high HIV prevalence.

  6. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  7. A decade of an HIV workplace programme in armed conflict zones; a social responsibility response of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    Du Mortier, Stéphane; Mukangu, Silas; Sagna, Charles; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya


    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in fragile States and in armed conflict zones. Some of them are affected by the HIV pandemic. Within the framework of its social responsibility programme concerning HIV affecting its staff members, the organization has implemented an HIV workplace programme since 2004. We carried out a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Data collected were initially essentially qualitative and process-oriented, but were complemented over the years by data on annual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake and on direct annual costs covering awareness, testing and antiretroviral therapy. The number of people covered by the programme grew from none in 2003 to 4,438 in 2015, with an increase in annual VCT uptake over the years increasing from 376 persons (14 %) in 2007 to 2,663 in 2015 (60 %). Over the years, the services were expanded from awareness raising to bringing VCT to the workplace, as well as offering testing and health coverage of other conditions and innovative approaches to facing challenges linked to situations of violence. Within its social responsibility framework, the ICRC has shown the importance and feasibility of a workplace HIV programme in conflict zones. A sustainable workplace programme in these conflict settings requires constant adaptation, with regular follow-up given the relatively high turnover of staff, and ensuring sustainable stocks of condoms and antiretroviral drugs. PMID:27247611

  8. Anonymizing Unstructured Data

    Motwani, Rajeev


    In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide a constant factor approximation algorithm for the same. We evaluate our algorithms on the America Online query log dataset.

  9. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  10. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  11. Get Tested for HIV

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  12. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.


    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  13. Economical quantum anonymous transmissions

    We present a new information-theoretically secure protocol for the anonymous transmission of quantum information. Different from the pioneering works, we use single photons to construct anonymous entanglement instead of multi-partite entangled states in this protocol, and therefore we reduce the complexity of physical implementation in practice.

  14. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  15. Anonymity in science.



    The history of science is replete with important works that were originally published without the author's legal name being revealed. Most modern scientists will have worked anonymously in their capacity as peer reviewers. But why is anonymity so popular? And is it a valid approach? I argue that pseudonymity and anonymity, although not appropriate for all forms of scientific communication, have a vital role to play in academic discourse. They can facilitate the free expression of interpretations and ideas, and can help to ensure that suggestions and criticisms are evaluated dispassionately, regardless of their source. PMID:23570959

  16. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  17. Anonymity in the Internet

    Federrath, Hannes


    Research in Privacy Enhancing Technology has meanwhile a tradition of at least 20 years. One application (if not the most significant at the present) of Privacy Enhancing Technology is anonymous Web surfing. While weak protection can be achieved by simple proxy solutions, strong anonymity needs more effort: Systems like JAP and TOR are based on the idea of the "mix network" introduced by David Chaum in 1981. The talk presents selected basic privacy enhancing techniques, available practical so...

  18. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

    Alhaj Ali Jalila


    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  19. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Shuiming Ye


    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  20. HIV/AIDS in the workplace and the impact on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness: The South African manufacturing industry as a case study

    Gerhardus van Zyl


    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to determine the extent of the negative impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness. The South African manufacturing sector was used as a case study. The above-mentioned research was deemed necessary, as very limited research has been published specifically on the technical measuring of the extent of the impact of HIV/AIDS on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness in South Africa. A survey questionnaire was designed for use in the research in order to capture the extent of the impact of HIV/AIDS on all levels of firm efficiency and firm competitiveness. A detailed statistical analysis of the results of the survey questionnaire and the parameter estimates of impact log-linear econometric power functions indicated that the negative impact of HIV/AIDS on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness was becoming more prevalent and serious, as it is underpinned by the statistical significance of the results and the high elasticity coefficients of the estimated log-linear power functions. It is recommended that human resource managers implement and manage HIV/AIDS programmes more effectively in order to counter the extent of the negative impact on firm efficiency and firm competitiveness.

  1. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    J. Hajny


    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  2. Privacy and Anonymity

    Wacks, R


    Since the beginning of the digital area, privacy and anonymity have been impacted drastically (both, positively and negatively), by the different technologies developed for communications purposes. The broad possibilities that the Internet offers since its conception, makes it a mandatory target for those entities that are aiming to know and control the different channels of communication and the information that flows through. In this paper, we address the current threats against privacy and...

  3. Mediated Traceable Anonymous Encryption

    Izabachène, Malika; Pointcheval, David; Vergnaud, Damien


    The notion of key privacy for asymmetric encryption schemes was formally defined by Bellare, Boldyreva, Desai and Pointcheval in 2001: it states that an eavesdropper in possession of a ciphertext is not able to tell which specifi key, out of a set of known public keys, is the one under which the ciphertext was created. Since anonymity can be misused by dishonest users, some situations could require a tracing authority capable of revoking key privacy when illegal behavior is detected. Prior wo...

  4. HIV/AIDS Basics

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  5. Anonymity in Large Societies

    Andrei Gomberg; Cesar Martinelli; Ricard Torres


    In a social choice model with an infinite number of agents, there may occur "equal size" coalitions that a preference aggregation rule should treat in the same manner. We introduce an axiom of equal treatment with respect to a measure of coalition size and explore its interaction with common axioms of social choice. We show that, provided the measure space is sufficiently rich in coalitions of the same measure, the new axiom is the natural extension of the concept of anonymity, and in particu...

  6. The psychological well-being of persons living with HIV/AIDS in the workplace / Joalane Mokhethi

    Mokhethi, Thelma Joalane


    The history of HIV/AIDS dates back to 1985, when it was thought to be a disease affecting animals. Later, HIV/AIDS was regarded as an illness which affected gay individuals. However, research world-wide has shown that HIV/AIDS is a disease that affects everyone irrespective of race, gender, social status and sexual orientation. Research regarding the psychological well-being (coping, sense of coherence, locus of control and general health) of HIV infected persons in the workpla...

  7. HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Small Enterprises: Employers’ and Employees’ Knowledge and Attitudes about HIV workplace Policy in Kabale, Uganda.

    Twinomugisha, Benedict


    Background: In its third decade, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to affect many people’s lives in affected nations. In the world of work, the epidemic has brought about loss of productivity, increased labour costs, and loss of employment due to stigma and discrimination. Many people in the affected countries have lost their jobs due to their HIV positive status. HIV-related effects like stigma and discrimination lead to its denial. HIV-related stigma and discrimination present ...

  8. Anonymous Publish-Subscribe Overlays

    Daubert, Jörg


    Freedom of speech is a core value of our society. While it can be exercised anonymously towards undesired observers in the physical world, the Internet is based on unique and nonanonymous identifiers (IDs) for every participant. Anonymity, however, is a crucial requirement to exercise freedom of speech using the Internet without having to face political persecution. To achieve anonymity, messages must be unlinkable to senders an receivers. That means that messages cannot be linked to IDs and ...

  9. Unintended Effects of Anonymous Resumes

    Behaghel, Luc; Crépon, Bruno; Le Barbanchon, Thomas


    We evaluate an experimental program in which the French public employment service anonymized resumes for firms that were hiring. Firms were free to participate or not; participating firms were then randomly assigned to receive either anonymous resumes or name-bearing ones. We find that participating firms become less likely to interview and hire minority candidates when receiving anonymous resumes. We show how these unexpected results can be explained by the self-selection of firms into the p...

  10. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    Kielmann Karina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existence of HIV or of one's own positive status, use of traditional medicines, speaking a different language from the HSP, alcohol use, being away from home, perceived severity of side-effects, feeling better on treatment and long waiting times at the clinic. The key facilitators were social support, belief in the value of treatment, belief in the importance of one's own life to the survival of one's family, and the ability to fit ART into daily life schedules. Conclusion Given the reported uncertainty about the existence of HIV disease and the use of traditional medicines while on ART, despite a programme emphasising ART counselling, there is a need to find effective ways to support adherence to ART even if the individual does not accept biomedical concepts of HIV disease or decides to use traditional medicines. Additionally, providers should identify ways to minimize barriers in communication with patients with whom they have no common language. Finally, dissatisfaction with clinical services, due to long waiting times, should be addressed.

  11. The use of HIV testing in the workplace as the basis for possible unfair discrimination / Lerato Hycenth Thejane

    Thejane, Lerato Hycenth


    Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (hereafter HIV/AIDS) in South Africa are epidemic virus and disease respectively, item 1.1 of the EEA Code of Good Practice on Key Aspects of HIV/AIDS and Employment, 2000 states that HIV/AIDS are serious public health problems, which have socio-economic, employment and human rights implications on the society, employees inclusive. The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998, Labo...

  12. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  13. Efficient Anonymizations with Enhanced Utility

    Jacob Goldberger


    Full Text Available One of the most well studied models of privacy preservation is k-anonymity. Previous studies of k-anonymization used various utility measures that aim at enhancing the correlation between the original public data and the generalized public data. We, bearing in mind that a primary goal in releasing the anonymized database for datamining is to deducemethods of predicting the private data from the public data, propose a new information-theoretic measure that aims at enhancing the correlation between the generalized public data and the private data. Such a measure significantly enhances the utility of the released anonymized database for data mining. We then proceed to describe a new algorithm that is designed to achieve k-anonymity with high utility, independently of the underlying utility measure. That algorithm is based on a modified version of sequential clustering which is the method of choice in clustering. Experimental comparison with four well known algorithms of k-anonymity show that the sequential clustering algorithm is an efficient algorithm that achieves the best utility results. We also describe a modification of the algorithm that outputs k-anonymizations which respect the additional security measure of l-diversity.

  14. Association of knowledge of HIV and other factors with individuals' attitudes toward HIV infection: a national cross-sectional survey among the Japanese non-medical working population.

    Guoqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stigma of and discrimination because of HIV has been described as the most important obstacle to prevention and treatment efforts. The purpose of this study was to investigate negative attitudes and prejudice toward HIV among the Japanese non-medical working population and to explore contributing factors. METHODS: An online anonymous nationwide survey involving approximately 3,000 individuals was conducted in Japan. Questions ranged from background information and HIV knowledge to individuals' attitudes towards HIV infection in the workplace. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied for analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of participants feared transmission of HIV from infected colleagues, 34% tended to avoid contact with them and 40% had prejudiced opinions about HIV infection. Despite a relatively high level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS overall (11.9 ± 3.3 from 15 points, only 50% of individuals were aware of some issues. Greater knowledge was associated with less negative attitudes towards HIV infection (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.31-0.48 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low level of knowledge, whereas greater health consciousness was inversely related to attitude (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.58 for prejudiced opinion, high compared with low health consciousness. CONCLUSION: Knowledge neutralizes peoples' negative attitudes towards HIV infection, whereas greater health consciousness may worsen them. Educational programs should balance knowledge with health consciousness to improve the efficacy of HIV interventions.

  15. Workplace Violence

    ... Possible Solutions It is recommended that management and employees work together to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ...

  16. Narcotics Anonymous: Anonymity, admiration, and prestige in an egalitarian community

    Snyder, Jeffrey K.; Fessler, Daniel M.T.


    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) supports long-term recovery for those addicted to drugs. Paralleling social dynamics in many small-scale societies, NA exhibits tension between egalitarianism and prestige-based hierarchy, a problem exacerbated by the addict’s personality as characterized by NA’s ethnopsychology.  We explore how NA’s central principle of anonymity normatively translates into egalitarianism among group members.  Turning to the lived reality of membership, building on Carr’s (2011) conc...

  17. Anonymous Transactions in Computer Networks

    Dolev, Shlomi; Kopeetsky, Marina

    We present schemes for providing anonymous transactions while privacy and anonymity are preserved, providing user anonymous authentication in distributed networks such as the Internet. We first present a practical scheme for anonymous transactions while the transaction resolution is assisted by a Trusted Authority. This practical scheme is extended to a theoretical scheme where a Trusted Authority is not involved in the transaction resolution. Given an authority that generates for each player hard to produce evidence EVID (e. g., problem instance with or without a solution) to each player, the identity of a user U is defined by the ability to prove possession of said evidence. We use Zero-Knowledge proof techniques to repeatedly identify U by providing a proof that U has evidence EVID, without revealing EVID, therefore avoiding identity theft.

  18. Anonymity-Proof Voting Rules

    Conitzer, Vincent


    A (randomized, anonymous) voting rule maps any multiset of total orders of (aka. votes over) a fixed set of alternatives to a probability distribution over these alternatives. A voting rule f is neutral if it treats all alternatives symmetrically. It satisfies participation if no voter ever benefits from not casting her vote. It is falsename-proof if no voter ever benefits from casting additional (potentially different) votes. It is anonymity-proof if it satisfies participation and it i...

  19. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    Wayner, Peter


    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  20. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  1. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  2. Workplace violence

    Bossche, S. van den


    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the so

  3. Anonymous Client Authentication for Transport Layer Security

    Dietrich, Kurt


    Nowadays, anonymity and privacy protecting mechanisms are becoming more and more important. The anonymity of platforms and the privacy of users operating in the Internet are major concerns of current research activities. Although different techniques for protecting anonymity exist, standard protocols like Transport Layer Security are still missing adequate support for these technologies. In this paper, we analyze how Trusted Computing technologies and anonymous credential systems can be used ...

  4. [Name Withheld]: Anonymity and Its Implications

    Weicher, Maureen


    Anonymity allows the individual to have a voice without having a name. Since the word “anonymous” entered the English language with the advent of the printing press, the implications of being anonymous - and its lexical offspring “anonymity” - have shifted with time, place, and circumstance. What are the perceived effects of being anonymous/anonymity on the individual and on society? In this paper, I will explore some of the shifting meanings and implications of this concept, first as i...

  5. Revocable Anonymous Access to the Internet?

    Claessens, Joris; Diaz, Claudia; Goemans, Caroline; Preneel, Bart; Vandewalle, Joos; Dumortier, Jos


    Users of telecommunications networks are concerned about privacy, and desire anonymous access, while some organizations are concerned about how this anonymous access might be abused. Proposes a solution for revocable anonymous access to the Internet. Presents some legal background and motivation for such a solution. Indicates some difficulties and…

  6. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-


    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  7. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    Jesus Eduardo Elizondo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services.METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014. They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis.RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%; the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%; and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%.CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment.

  8. Dentistry and HIV/AIDS related stigma

    Elizondo, Jesus Eduardo; Treviño, Ana Cecilia; Violant, Deborah


    OBJECTIVE To analyze HIV/AIDS positive individual’s perception and attitudes regarding dental services. METHODS One hundred and thirty-four subjects (30.0% of women and 70.0% of men) from Nuevo León, Mexico, took part in the study (2014). They filled out structured, analytical, self-administered, anonymous questionnaires. Besides the sociodemographic variables, the perception regarding public and private dental services and related professionals was evaluated, as well as the perceived stigma associated with HIV/AIDS, through a Likert-type scale. The statistical evaluation included a factorial and a non-hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS Social inequalities were found regarding the search for public and private dental professionals and services. Most subjects reported omitting their HIV serodiagnosis and agreed that dentists must be trained and qualified to treat patients with HIV/AIDS. The factorial analysis revealed two elements: experiences of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments and feelings of concern regarding the attitudes of professionals or their teams concerning patients’ HIV serodiagnosis. The cluster analysis identified three groups: users who have not experienced stigma or discrimination (85.0%); the ones who have not had those experiences, but feel somewhat concerned (12.7%); and the ones who underwent stigma and discrimination and feel concerned (2.3%). CONCLUSIONS We observed a low percentage of stigma and discrimination in dental appointments; however, most HIV/AIDS patients do not reveal their serodiagnosis to dentists out of fear of being rejected. Such fact implies a workplace hazard to dental professionals, but especially to the very own health of HIV/AIDS patients, as dentists will not be able to provide them a proper clinical and pharmaceutical treatment. PMID:26538100

  9. Workplace learning

    Warring, Niels


    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore and...... discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  10. Different ways of providing anonymity

    Glavač, Vesna


    The aim of this thesis is to show the importance of security and anonymity on the internet by demonstrating the use of a SOCKS proxy. In theoretical part, properties of various security mechanisms are explored with focus on SOCKS protocol as one of the most widely used systems. Presented are the inner workings and different versions as well as advantages and drawbacks of the protocol. The paper tries to identify the simplest way of encrypting data traffic by using SOCKS protocol with SSH tunn...

  11. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  12. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymity in Dissent

    Syta, Ewa; Johnson, Aaron; Corrigan-Gibbs, Henry; Weng, Shu-Chun; Wolinsky, David; Ford, Bryan


    Users often wish to communicate anonymously on the Internet, for example in group discussion or instant messaging forums. Existing solutions are vulnerable to misbehaving users, however, who may abuse their anonymity to disrupt communication. Dining Cryptographers Networks (DC-nets) leave groups vulnerable to denial-of-service and Sybil attacks, mix networks are difficult to protect against traffic analysis, and accountable voting schemes are unsuited to general anonymous messaging. DISSENT ...

  13. Internet and the right of anonymity

    Voorhoof, Dirk


    This articles explores the ratio and characteristics of the right of anonymity on the Internet. A right of anonymity is considered as a shield against oppression, harassment, retaliation, censorship or discrimination and therefore it is considered as a vital component of freedom of speech or freedom of expression. Reference is made to several existing types of rights of anonymity in relation to freedom of expression, such as the right to protect (confidential) journalistic sources, free elec...

  14. Privacy-Preserving Updates to Anonymous Databases

    Sivasubramanian, R.; K.P. KALIYAMURTHIE


    Suppose a medical facility connected with a research institution and the researchers can use themedical details of a patient without knowing the personal details. Thus the research data base used by theresearchers must be anonymized (Sanitized). We can consider another problem in the area of census.Individuals give the private information to a trusted party (Census Bureau) and the census bureau mustpublish anonymized or sanitized version of data. So anonymization is done for privacy. Our work...

  15. Comparison of the Personality Profiles of Inmate Anonymous and Non-Anonymous Male Addicts

    Nasrolah Erfani


    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the personality profiles of inmate anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts. Method: The participants of study were anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts of the prisons of the Hamadan province in 1391. The population was 3130 addicts, including 627 anonymous and 2503 non-anonymous addicts. The 310 addicts were selected by stratified random sampling the sample size was determined by Cochran formula.The short-form NEO Five Factor personality questionnaire administered among selected sample. Data analyzed by descriptive statistic as frequency and percentage, also, inferential statistic as multivariate analysis of variance was run. Results: The results showed that personality profiles of anonymous and non-anonymous addicts were significantly different. That is, mean score of neuroticism in anonymous addicts was less than non anonymous. Also, mean score of extraversion was higher in anonymous addicts. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the anonymous male addicts are differ with non-anonymous male addicts in personality traits.

  16. Workplace violence: a study of Turkish workers.

    Aytac, Serpil; Bozkurt, Veysel; Bayram, Nuran; Yildiz, Selver; Aytac, Mustafa; Akinci, Fusun Sokullu; Bilgel, Nazan


    This research was conducted to address the experience of workplace violence of Turkish workers from different sectors and to investigate the impact of the exposed violence on their psychological well-being. Data were collected anonymously with printed questionnaires from the volunteer participants and depended on self-reporting. The response rate was 79.0% (1708/2161). The prevalence of workplace violence was found to be 44.8%. The most common type was verbal violence together with mobbing (bullying). Victims of physical violence were mostly males, whereas females were found to be victims of verbal, psychological and sexual violence. Most cases did not result in legal action and the victims remained silent. Psychological well-being of exposed workers in terms of depression, anxiety and stress seemed to deteriorate. Workplace violence remains a silent epidemic in Turkey. Preventive measures against workplace violence and social support for violated workers do not exist. PMID:22152504

  17. Practical anonymity hiding in plain sight online

    Loshin, Peter


    For those with legitimate reason to use the Internet anonymously--diplomats, military and other government agencies, journalists, political activists, IT professionals, law enforcement personnel, political refugees and others--anonymous networking provides an invaluable tool, and many good reasons that anonymity can serve a very important purpose. Anonymous use of the Internet is made difficult by the many websites that know everything about us, by the cookies and ad networks, IP-logging ISPs, even nosy officials may get involved. It is no longer possible to turn off browser cookies to be l

  18. Anonymous Web Browsing and Hosting



    Full Text Available In today’s high tech environment every organization, individual computer users use internet for accessing web data. To maintain high confidentiality and security of the data secure web solutions are required. In this paper we described dedicated anonymous web browsing solutions which makes our browsing faster and secure. Web application which play important role for transferring our secret information including like email need more and more security concerns. This paper also describes that how we can choose safe web hosting solutions and what the main functions are which provides more security over server data. With the browser security network security is also important which can be implemented using cryptography solutions, VPN and by implementing firewalls on the network. Hackers always try to steal our identity and data, they track our activities using the network application software’s and do harmful activities. So in this paper we described that how we can monitor them from security purposes.

  19. Evaluation of Anonymized ONS Queries

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos


    Electronic Product Code (EPC) is the basis of a pervasive infrastructure for the automatic identification of objects on supply chain applications (e.g., pharmaceutical or military applications). This infrastructure relies on the use of the (1) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag objects in motion and (2) distributed services providing information about objects via the Internet. A lookup service, called the Object Name Service (ONS) and based on the use of the Domain Name System (DNS), can be publicly accessed by EPC applications looking for information associated with tagged objects. Privacy issues may affect corporate infrastructures based on EPC technologies if their lookup service is not properly protected. A possible solution to mitigate these issues is the use of online anonymity. We present an evaluation experiment that compares the of use of Tor (The second generation Onion Router) on a global ONS/DNS setup, with respect to benefits, limitations, and latency.

  20. Distributed anonymous discrete function computation

    Hendrickx, Julien M; Tsitsiklis, John N


    We propose a model for deterministic distributed function computation by a network of identical and anonymous nodes. In this model, each node has bounded computation and storage capabilities that do not grow with the network size. Furthermore, each node only knows its neighbors, not the entire graph. Our goal is to characterize the class of functions that can be computed within this model. In our main result, we provide a necessary condition for computability which we show to be nearly sufficient, in the sense that every function that violates this condition can at least be approximated. The problem of computing suitably rounded averages in a distributed manner plays a central role in our development; we provide an algorithm that solves it in time that grows quadratically with the size of the network.

  1. [Encryption technique for linkable anonymizing].

    Okamoto, Etsuji


    Linkage of different records such as health insurance claims or medical records for the purpose of cohort studies or cancer registration usually requires matching with personal names and other personally identifiable data. The present study was conducted to examine the possibility of performing such privacy-sensitive procedures in a "linkable anonymizing" manner using encryption. While bidirectional communication entails encryption and deciphering, necessitating both senders and receivers sharing a common secret "key", record linkage entails only encryption and not deciphering because researchers do not need to know the identity of the linked person. This unidirectional nature relieves researchers from the historical problem of "key sharing" and enables data holders such as municipal governments and insurers to encrypt personal names in a relatively easy manner. The author demonstrates an encryption technique using readily available spread-sheet software, Microsoft Excel in a step-by-step fashion. Encoding Chinese characters into the numeric JIS codes and replacing the codes with a randomly assigned case-sensitive alphabet, all names of Japanese nationals will be encrypted into gibberish strings of alphabet, which can not be deciphered without the secret key. Data holders are able to release personal data without sacrificing privacy, even when accidental leakage occurs and researchers are still able to link records of the same name because encrypted texts, although gibberish, are unique to each name. Such a technical assurance of privacy protection is expected to satisfy the Privacy Protection Act or the Ethical Guidelines for Epidemiological Research and enhance public health research. Traditional encryption techniques, however, cannot be applied to cancer or stroke registration, because the registrar receives reports from numerous unspecified senders. The new public key encryption technique will enable disease registry in a linkable anonymizing manner. However

  2. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    Froomkin, A. Michael


    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  3. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie


    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  4. Is it OK to be an Anonymous?

    Serracino Inglott, P.


    Do the deviant acts carried out by the collective known as Anonymous qualify as vigilante activity, and if so, can they be justified? Addressing this question helps expose the difficulties of morally evaluating technologically enabled deviance. Anonymous is a complex, fluid actor but not as mysterio

  5. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A


    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets. PMID:24333850

  6. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Alina Campan


    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  7. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  8. Workplace suitability

    The adaptation of workplaces can be defined as an integral service aimed at adapting all work areas to current legislation. At present, these activities involve the restoration of the areas and equipment in all the disciplines, achieving substantial improvements in terms of quality, safety, radiation protection and maintenance. The integral workplace adaptation service has been implemented in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power plant for more than five years and has succeeded in adapting a third of all the cubicles to current legislation. The goal is to continue with these activities until adaption of 100% of the plant cubicles is completed. (Author)

  9. Providing Group Anonymity Using Wavelet Transform

    Chertov, Oleg


    Providing public access to unprotected digital data can pose a threat of unwanted disclosing the restricted information. The problem of protecting such information can be divided into two main subclasses, namely, individual and group data anonymity. By group anonymity we define protecting important data patterns, distributions, and collective features which cannot be determined through analyzing individual records only. An effective and comparatively simple way of solving group anonymity problem is doubtlessly applying wavelet transform. It's easy-to-implement, powerful enough, and might produce acceptable results if used properly. In the paper, we present a novel method of using wavelet transform for providing group anonymity; it is gained through redistributing wavelet approximation values, along with simultaneous fixing data mean value and leaving wavelet details unchanged (or proportionally altering them). Moreover, we provide a comprehensive example to illustrate the method.

  10. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina;


    A receiver-anonymous channel allows a sender to send a message to a receiver without an adversary learning for whom the message is intended. Wireless broadcast channels naturally provide receiver anonymity, as does multi-casting one message to a receiver population containing the intended receiver...... resource (e.g. a confidential anonymous channel) from given real resources (e.g. a broadcast channel). We define appropriate anonymous communication resources and show that a very natural resource can be constructed by using a PKE scheme which fulfills three properties that appear in cryptographic...... applying a cryptographic scheme explicit in the constructed (ideal) resource; this specifies the exact requirements for the applicability of a cryptographic scheme in a given context. It also allows to decide which of the existing security properties of such a cryptographic scheme are adequate for the...

  11. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    H.Jayasree; .Damodaram


    Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and we...

  12. Seeking Anonymity in an Internet Panopticon

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Ford, Bryan


    Obtaining and maintaining anonymity on the Internet is challenging. The state of the art in deployed tools, such as Tor, uses onion routing (OR) to relay encrypted connections on a detour passing through randomly chosen relays scattered around the Internet. Unfortunately, OR is known to be vulnerable at least in principle to several classes of attacks for which no solution is known or believed to be forthcoming soon. Current approaches to anonymity also appear unable to offer accurate, princi...

  13. Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Schoeneborn, Dennis


    Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381......Book review of: Anonymous Agencies, Backstreet Businesses and Covert Collectives: rethinking Organizations in the 21st Century, C. R. Scott. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013. 272 pp. £45.90. ISBN 9780804781381...

  14. Security and Anonymity of Bitcoin Payments

    Korošec, Peter


    This thesis presents the digital payment system Bitcoin. It describes the cryptography on which the system is based. Presented are the short history of the system and the principles of how it works. Highlighted are the state of anonymity that the system provides while making payments and the safety it guarantees while executing transactions. Within the context of anonymity, the state of masking the users identity within the payment system is described, together with warnings and mechanisms to...

  15. Recipient screening in IVF: First data from women undergoing anonymous oocyte donation in Dublin

    Walsh, Anthony PH


    Abstract Background Guidelines for safe gamete donation have emphasised donor screening, although none exist specifically for testing oocyte recipients. Pre-treatment assessment of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment in Ireland must comply with the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive (Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC). To determine the effectiveness of this Directive when applied to anonymous oocyte recipients in IVF, we reviewed data derived from selected screening tests performed in this clinical setting. Methods Data from tests conducted at baseline for all women enrolling as recipients (n = 225) in the anonymous oocyte donor IVF programme at an urban IVF referral centre during a 24-month period were analysed. Patient age at programme entry and clinical pregnancy rate were also tabulated. All recipients had at least one prior negative test for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis performed by her GP or other primary care provider before reproductive endocrinology consultation. Results Mean (±SD) age for donor egg IVF recipients was 40.7 ± 4.2 yrs. No baseline positive chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis screening results were identified among recipients for anonymous oocyte donation IVF during the assessment interval. Mean pregnancy rate (per embryo transfer) in this group was 50.5%. Conclusion When tests for HIV, Hepatitis B\\/C, chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis already have been confirmed to be negative before starting the anonymous donor oocyte IVF sequence, additional (repeat) testing on the recipient contributes no new clinical information that would influence treatment in this setting. Patient safety does not appear to be enhanced by application of Directive 2004\\/23\\/EC to recipients of anonymous donor oocyte IVF treatment. Given the absence of evidence to quantify risk, this practice is difficult to justify when applied to this low-risk population.

  16. Workplace Violence

    ... and log all incidents and threats of workplace violence. s Provide prompt medical evaluation and treatment after the incident. s Report violent incidents to the local police promptly. s Inform victims of their legal right to prosecute perpetrators. s Discuss the circumstances of the ...

  17. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett


    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  18. On-Line Anonymity: A New Privacy Battle in Cyberspace.

    Lee, Laurie Thomas


    States that lawsuits are being filed that challenge anonymity and freedom of speech in cyberspace--is there a right to online anonymity? Examines the debate and issues associated with anonymous communications in cyberspace. Explores the "right of informational privacy" as it pertains to anonymity. Suggests some regulatory approaches for addressing…

  19. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives

    Krentzman, Amy R.; Robinson, Elizabeth A. R.; Moore, Barbara C.; Kelly, John F.; Laudet, Alexandre B.; White, William L.; Zemore, Sarah E.; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen


    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context.

  20. How Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) Work: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives.

    Krentzman, Amy R; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Moore, Barbara C; Kelly, John F; Laudet, Alexandre B; White, William L; Zemore, Sarah E; Kurtz, Ernest; Strobbe, Stephen


    Evidence from multiple lines of research supports the effectiveness and practical importance of Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. Conference presenters discussed the relationship between 12-Step participation and abstinence among various populations, including adolescents, women, and urban drug users. Insight from the arts and humanities placed empirical findings in a holistic context. PMID:21785524

  1. "That is why I stopped the ART": Patients' & providers' perspectives on barriers to and enablers of HIV treatment adherence in a South African workplace programme

    Kielmann Karina; Fielding Katherine; Hamilton Robin; Charalambous Salome; Dahab Mison; Churchyard Gavin J; Grant Alison D


    Abstract Background As ART programmes in African settings expand beyond the pilot stages, adherence to treatment may become an increasing challenge. This qualitative study examines potential barriers to, and facilitators of, adherence to ART in a workplace programme in South Africa. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with 12 participants: six ART patients, five health service providers (HSPs) and one human resources manager. Results The main reported barriers were denial of existen...

  2. A Fast Survey on Methods for Classification Anonymity Requirements

    Kharaji, Morteza Yousefi; Rizi, Fatemeh Salehi


    Anonymity has become a significant issue in security field by recent advances in information technology and internet. The main objective of anonymity is hiding and concealing entities privacy inside a system. Many methods and protocols have been proposed with different anonymity services to provide anonymity requirements in various fields until now. Each anonymity method or protocol is developed using particular approach. In this paper, first, accurate and perfect definitions of privacy and a...

  3. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    Peng, Kun


    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  4. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Wei Yang; Liusheng Huang; Fang Song


    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of...

  5. Performance evaluation of various K- anonymity techniques

    Maheshwarkar, Nidhi; Pathak, Kshitij; Chourey, Vivekanand


    Today's advanced scenario where each information is available in one click, data security is the main aspect. Individual information which sometimes needs to be hiding is easily available using some tricks. Medical information, income details are needed to be kept away from adversaries and so, are stored in private tables. Some publicly released information contains zip code, sex, birth date. When this released information is linked with the private table, adversary can detect the whole confidential information of individuals or respondents, i.e. name, medical status. So to protect respondents identity, a new concept k-anonymity is used which means each released record has at least (k-1) other records in the release whose values are distinct over those fields that appear in the external data. K-anonymity can be achieved easily in case of single sensitive attributes i.e. name, salary, medical status, but it is quiet difficult when multiple sensitive attributes are present. Generalization and Suppression are used to achieve k-anonymity. This paper provides a formal introduction of k-anonymity and some techniques used with it l-diversity, t-closeness. This paper covers k-anonymity model and the comparative study of these concepts along with a new proposed concept for multiple sensitive attributes.

  6. Anonymous Fingerprinting with Robust QIM Watermarking Techniques

    R. L. Lagendijk


    Full Text Available Fingerprinting is an essential tool to shun legal buyers of digital content from illegal redistribution. In fingerprinting schemes, the merchant embeds the buyer's identity as a watermark into the content so that the merchant can retrieve the buyer's identity when he encounters a redistributed copy. To prevent the merchant from dishonestly embedding the buyer's identity multiple times, it is essential for the fingerprinting scheme to be anonymous. Kuribayashi and Tanaka, 2005, proposed an anonymous fingerprinting scheme based on a homomorphic additive encryption scheme, which uses basic quantization index modulation (QIM for embedding. In order, for this scheme, to provide sufficient security to the merchant, the buyer must be unable to remove the fingerprint without significantly degrading the purchased digital content. Unfortunately, QIM watermarks can be removed by simple attacks like amplitude scaling. Furthermore, the embedding positions can be retrieved by a single buyer, allowing for a locally targeted attack. In this paper, we use robust watermarking techniques within the anonymous fingerprinting approach proposed by Kuribayashi and Tanaka. We show that the properties of an additive homomorphic cryptosystem allow for creating anonymous fingerprinting schemes based on distortion compensated QIM (DC-QIM and rational dither modulation (RDM, improving the robustness of the embedded fingerprints. We evaluate the performance of the proposed anonymous fingerprinting schemes under additive-noise and amplitude-scaling attacks.

  7. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Baoyuan Kang


    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  8. Blocking Misbehaving Users in Anonymizing Networks

    Banoth, Rajkumar


    Internet services can be accessed privately through anonymizing networks like Tor. A set of routers are used to achieve this in order to hide the identity of client from server. The users of such networks often indulge into malicious activities and cause damage to popular web applications. The...... administrators of those web sites do block the IP address from which the request comes. This is not the practical solution as the hackers operate through anonymous networks. Blocking a node based on IP address will cau se misbehaving and genuine users to lost access to the web sites. This is the problem in the...... existing systems and motivation to take up this research work. The proposed system develops a security mechanism that ensures that only the misbehaving users are blackl isted while genuine users and their anonymity are preserved. Even though the misbehaving users are blacklisted, their privacy is still...

  9. MRSA and the Workplace

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH MRSA and the Workplace Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Source: CDC ... livestock settings, and veterinary clinics. FAQs for the Workplace NOTE: This information is provided for general workplaces, ...

  10. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions

    Lee, Michael Z.; Dunn, Alan M.; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett


    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sen...

  11. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin


    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  12. Automatic Control of Configuration of Web Anonymization

    Tomas Sochor


    Full Text Available Anonymization of the Internet traffic usually hides details about the request originator from the target server. Such a disguise might be required in some situations, especially in the case of web browsing. Although the web traffic anonymization is not a part of the http specification, it could be achieved using a certain extra tool. Significant deceleration of anonymized traffic compared to normal traffic is inevitable but it can be controlled in some cases as this article suggests. The results presented here focus on measuring the parameters of such deceleration in terms of response time, transmission speed and latency and proposing the way how to control it. This study focuses on TOR primarily because recent studies have concluded that other tools (like I2P and JAP provide worse service. Sets of 14 file locations and 30 web pages have been formed and the latency, response time and transmission speed during the page or file download were measured repeatedly both with TOR active in various configurations and without TOR. The main result presented here comprises several ways how to improve the TOR anonymization efficiency and the proposal for its automatic control. In spite of the fact that efficiency still remains too low compared to normal web traffic for ordinary use, its automatic control could make TOR a useful tool in special cases.

  13. Anonymous publication of sensitive transactional data

    Ghinita, Gabriel


    Existing research on privacy-preserving data publishing focuses on relational data: in this context, the objective is to enforce privacy-preserving paradigms, such as k-anonymity and ℓ-diversity, while minimizing the information loss incurred in the anonymizing process (i.e., maximize data utility). Existing techniques work well for fixed-schema data, with low dimensionality. Nevertheless, certain applications require privacy-preserving publishing of transactional data (or basket data), which involve hundreds or even thousands of dimensions, rendering existing methods unusable. We propose two categories of novel anonymization methods for sparse high-dimensional data. The first category is based on approximate nearest-neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional spaces, which is efficiently performed through locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In the second category, we propose two data transformations that capture the correlation in the underlying data: 1) reduction to a band matrix and 2) Gray encoding-based sorting. These representations facilitate the formation of anonymized groups with low information loss, through an efficient linear-time heuristic. We show experimentally, using real-life data sets, that all our methods clearly outperform existing state of the art. Among the proposed techniques, NN-search yields superior data utility compared to the band matrix transformation, but incurs higher computational overhead. The data transformation based on Gray code sorting performs best in terms of both data utility and execution time. © 2006 IEEE.

  14. "Dear Professor: I Hate You"--Anonymous

    Bartlett, Thomas


    Flip through a stack of anonymous student evaluations of professors and the mild comments, even the compliments, tend to blend together. But often, hidden among them, is a dagger. Then there are the out-and-out insults. Students' comments can be more than simply mean. Sometimes student comments aren't cruel, just weird. In this article, some…

  15. Probabilistic Adaptive Anonymous Authentication in Vehicular Networks

    Yong Xi; Ke-Wei Sha; Wei-Song Shi; Loren Schwiebert; Tao Zhang


    Vehicular networks have attracted extensive attention in recent years for their promises in improving safety and enabling other value-added services. Most previous work focuses on designing the media access and physical layer protocols.Privacy issues in vehicular systems have not been well addressed. We argue that privacy is a user-specific concept, and a good privacy protection mechanism should allow users to select the levels of privacy they wish to have. To address this requirement, we propose an adaptive anonymous authentication mechanism that can trade off the anonymity level with computational and communication overheads (resource usage). This mechanism, to our knowledge, is the first effort on adaptive anonymous authentication. The resources used by our protocol are few. A high traffic volume of 2000 vehicles per hour consumes about 60kbps bandwidth, which is less than one percent of the bandwidth of DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communications). By using adaptive anonymity, the protocol response time can further be improved 2~4 times with lessthan 20% bandwidth overheads.

  16. Anonymity control in electronic check systems

    Ma Chunguang; Yang Yixian; Hu Zhengming


    Electronic check systems, as one of electronic payment systems, are more desirable than other electronic cash systems. In the system, only a single check is used to pay any price that is not more than the face value. The main problem in check systems is to design an efficient refund mechanism that makes refund checks undistinguished from initial checks during payment and deposit. The problem of anonymity control also called fairness is also an important issue in check systems. All check systems yet are unconditional anonymity that opens the door to misuse for crime such as laundering and blackmailing. In this paper, the notion of anonymity revocation is introduced to electronic check system for the first time, and a model of fair electronic check system is proposed. An efficient fair online electronic check system with reusable refund is presented. In the system, a passive trustee is employed to revoke the anonymity of un-honest users. Moreover, the system solves the reusability problem of refunds thanks to the RSA-based partially signature. The system is efficient and meets all basic security requirements.

  17. Disease severity, self-reported experience of workplace discrimination and employment loss during the course of chronic HIV disease: differences according to gender and education.

    Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France; Study Group, Vespa


    International audience OBJECTIVES: Evidence for the existence of a harmful effect of chronic disease on employment status has been provided. Although this effect of chronic illness on employment has been reported to be higher among the groups with the lowest position on the labour market, the mechanisms of such inequalities are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating social inequalities in the chances of maintaining employment during the course of HIV infection and at e...

  18. Research on Anonymization and De-anonymization in the Bitcoin System

    ShenTu, QingChun; Yu, JianPing


    The Bitcoin system is an anonymous, decentralized crypto-currency. There are some deanonymizating techniques to cluster Bitcoin addresses and to map them to users' identifications in the two research directions of Analysis of Transaction Chain (ATC) and Analysis of Bitcoin Protocol and Network (ABPN). Nowadays, there are also some anonymization methods such as coin-mixing and transaction remote release (TRR) to cover the relationship between Bitcoin address and the user. This paper studies an...

  19. Anonymous quantum communications using the quantum one-time pad

    We present the first quantum secure communication protocol for an anonymous receiver without the assistance of anonymous entanglement. In previous works, if a public sender wants to send quantum messages to a chosen receiver while protecting the identity of the receiver from others, all participants should cooperate first to construct the entanglement between the sender and the anonymous receiver. This is the most important process in anonymous quantum communications. With anonymous entanglement, the sender can communicate quantum messages to the anonymous receiver by applying teleportation protocols. In contrast, our protocol is novel and achieves communication of quantum messages directly from the public sender to the anonymous receiver based on the quantum one-time pad and current achievements. Notably, the anonymity of the receiver, as well as the privacy of the quantum messages, is perfectly protected with the exception of an exponentially small probability in our protocol. (paper)

  20. AIDS and HIV Testing: Implications for Health Education.

    Quinn, Sandra Crouse


    The article makes health educators aware of issues raised by a move from anonymous to confidential HIV testing. It examines implications of contact tracing and notification and of reporting requirements that identify HIV-positive persons to public health departments. Implications for health education professionals responsible for HIV test…

  1. Lack of HIV Testing and Awareness of HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Beijing, China

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lui, Hui; Guo, Yaqi; Han, Lei; Mandel, Jeffrey S.


    In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. However, little is known about their HIV testing behavior. From September 2001 to January 2002, we recruited 482 men through social networks and MSM venues. We conducted HIV testing and counseling, and anonymous, standardized face-to-face interviews. Eighty-two percent of…

  2. Anonymity and Openness in Donor Conception: the New Danish Model

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar


    bank is based in Denmark and consequently anonymous sperm is also exported abroad, even into jurisdictions where anonymity is banned illegal. This commentary traces the raison d’être of anonymity in Danish law, accounts for the legal framework for the internet sale of sperm and examines the new Danish...

  3. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Israt Jahan


    Full Text Available There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending. An observer is a tamper-resistant device, issued by the Internet bank, which is incorporated with the Internet user’s computer that prevents double-spending physically, i.e., the user has no access to her e-cash and therefore he cannot copy them. In this paper, we shall present an anonymous electronic cash scheme on the internet which incorporates tamper-resistant device with user-module.

  4. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions



    Full Text Available Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and web services. There is a tremendous improvement in the automation of the way we pay for goods and services by the variety and growth of electronic banking services available to the consumers. Hence there is a need for the ultimate structure of the new electronic transaction system that has a substantial impact on the personal privacy as well as on the nature and extent of criminal use of E- transactions. This paper presents an approach for such structure.

  5. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    Jones, Jason J; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H


    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources in order to conduct their research. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects evermore important. However, strict privacy procedures can make joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors difficult. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as expected theoretically when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  6. Privacy, anonymity and subjectivity in genomic research.

    McGonigle, Ian; Shomron, Noam


    The use of non-anonymized human genome data is becoming increasingly popular in research. Here we review the proceedings of a special meeting on this topic that took place at European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) in December 2014. The main points discussed centered on how to achieve 'anonymity,' 'trust,' and 'protection of data' in relation to new genomic technologies and research. Following our report of this meeting, we also raise three further issues for future consideration: the harmonization of international law in relation to genetic data protection; the complex issues around the 'dividual' nature of genetic data; and the growing commercial value of personal data. In conclusion, we stress the importance of scientists working in the area of genomic research engaging in interdisciplinary collaborations with humanities and social science scholars and addressing these complicated issues. PMID:26763729

  7. SSA-Caterpillar in Group Anonymity

    Tavrov, Dan


    Nowadays, it is a common practice to protect various types of statistical data before publishing them for different researches. For instance, when conducting extensive demographic surveys such as national census, the collected data should be at least depersonalized to guarantee proper level of privacy preservation. In practice, even more complicated methods of data protection need to be used. All these methods can be generally divided into two classes. The first ones aim at providing individual data anonymity, whereas the other ones are focused on protecting information about a group of respondents. In this paper, we propose a novel technique of providing group anonymity in statistical data using singular spectrum analysis (SSA).Also, we apply SSA to defining hidden patterns in demographic data distribution.

  8. Graph Based Local Recoding for Data Anonymization

    K. Venkata Ramana


    Full Text Available Releasing person specific data could potentially reveal the sensitive information of an individual. kanonymityis an approach for protecting the individual privacy where the data is formed into set ofequivalence classes in which each class share the same values. Among several methods, local recodingbased generalization is an effective method to accomplish k-anonymization. In this paper, we proposed aminimum spanning tree partitioning based approach to achieve local recoding. We achieve it in twophases. During the first phase, MST is constructed using concept hierarchical and the distances amongdata points are considered as the weights of MST and in the next phase we generate the equivalence classesadhering to the anonymity requirement. Experiments show that our proposed local recoding frameworkproduces better quality in published tables than existing Mondrian global recoding and k-memberclustering approaches.

  9. An Internet Based Anonymous Electronic Cash System

    Israt Jahan; Mohammad Zahidur Rahman; K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jerin


    There is an increase activity in research to improve the current electronic payment system which is parallel with the progress of internet. Electronic cash system is a cryptographic payment system which offers anonymity during withdrawal and purchase. Electronic cash displays serial numbers which can be recorded to allow further tracing. Contrary to their physical counterparts, e-cash have an inherent limitation; they are easy to copy and reuse (double-spending). An observer is a tamper-resis...

  10. Assurances of past donor anonymity are meaningless

    Blyth, Eric


    The New Scientist recently recounted the story of an American teenager conceived through ostensibly anonymous donor insemination who had been able to identify his donor through DNA testing and an internet genetic database service (also see BioNews issue 333, at In fact, we have known since Barry Stevens' remarkable documentary, Offspring, released in 2001, that with some genetic background information, access to DNA testing and the intern...

  11. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter


    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  12. Anonymity, Efficiency Wages and Technological Progress

    Broadberry, Stephen; Ghosal, Sayantan; Proto, Eugenio


    Although the Industrial Revolution is often characterized as the culmination of a process of commercialisation, the precise nature of such a link remains unclear. This paper models and analyzes such link: the role of commercialisation in raising efficiency wages as impersonal and anonymous labour market transactions replace personalized customary relations. In the presence of an aggregate capital externality, we show that the resulting shift in relative factor prices leads to higher capital-i...

  13. Infrared observations of anonymous IRC sources

    Strecker, D. W.; Ney, E. P.


    Infrared (0.9 to 18 microns) observations of 232 anonymous 2-micron Sky survey (IRC) sources are reported. Most of the objects appear to be late-type stars with little or no long-wave excess. About ten percent exhibit large excesses. Thirty-one of the brightest 11-micron sources have been remeasured to determine variability. These brighter objects appear to fall into two groups; one group resembles NML Tauri, while the other is like NML Cygni.

  14. An Anonymous Secure Routing Using OLSR Protocol

    Osiers Gyamfuah Grace; Dr. John Rajan


    Security and privacy concerns are major issues to be considered in Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET). Several routing protocols have been proposed to achieve both routing and data packets security. In order to achieve privacy, the anonymous routing concept has been introduced and few protocols have been proposed for use in this area. In this paper, global position system (GPS) device is used to obtain the current location of nodes and with the help of a cryptographic algorithm incorporated int...

  15. Universally composable anonymous Hash certification model

    ZHANG Fan; MA JianFeng; SangJae MOON


    Ideal function is the fundamental component in the universally composable security model. However, the certification ideal function defined in the universally composable security model realizes the identity authentication by binding identity to messages and the signature, which fails to characterize the special security requirements of anonymous authentication with other kind of certificate. Therefore,inspired by the work of Marten, an anonymous hash certification ideal function and a more universal certificate CA model are proposed in this paper. We define the security requirements and security notions for this model in the framework of universal composable security and prove in the plain model (not in the random-oracle model) that these security notions can be achieved using combinations of a secure digital signature scheme, a symmetrical encryption mechanism, a family of pseudorandom functions, and a family of one-way collision-free hash functions. Considering the limitation of wireless environment and computation ability of wireless devices, this anonymous Hash certification ideal function is realized by using symmetry primitives.

  16. The BitTorrent Anonymity Marketplace

    Nielson, Seth James


    The very nature of operations in peer-to-peer systems such as BitTorrent exposes information about participants to their peers. Nodes desiring anonymity, therefore, often chose to route their peer-to-peer traffic through anonymity relays, such as Tor. Unfortunately, these relays have little incentive for contribution and struggle to scale with the high loads that P2P traffic foists upon them. We propose a novel modification for BitTorrent that we call the BitTorrent Anonymity Marketplace. Peers in our system trade in k swarms obscuring the actual intent of the participants. But because peers can cross-trade torrents, the k-1 cover traffic can actually serve a useful purpose. This creates a system wherein a neighbor cannot determine if a node actually wants a given torrent, or if it is only using it as leverage to get the one it really wants. In this paper, we present our design, explore its operation in simulation, and analyze its effectiveness. We demonstrate that the upload and download characteristics of c...

  17. Sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and hepatitis B/C status in a working-age population: results from a national, cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Hisashi Eguchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.

  18. Digital anonymity on the internet : new rules for anonymous electronic transactions? an exploration of the private law implications of digital anonymity

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Prins, C.


    This article sets out the most important conclusions of the first stage of a study into the dimensions of digital anonymity. It is intended to set out the problem, make people aware of the intricacies of the problem and thus stimulate the debate on useful legal structures for anonymity. The article focuses on Holland’s private law dimensions, addressing situations where consumers want to purchase anonymously on the Internet.

  19. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang


    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  20. [Workplace mobbing].

    Soljan, Ivana; Josipović-Jelić, Zeljka; Jelić Kis, I Anita


    Workplace mobbing is a hostile and unethical communication, systematically aimed from one or more individuals towards mostly one individual, who are forced into a helpless position and are held in it by constant bullying. This article describes some of the most important characteristics of mobbing: offensive behaviour, organizational and non-organizational causes of this behaviour, the victim and the consequences. Modern business environment is complex, dynamic, volatile, and requires better ability to adjust. Constant changes are a part of organizational reality, but they also produce an ideal environment for all kinds of conflicts. Conflicts are inevitable in every organization, but the task of its management is to identify them and resolve before they affect the workforce, productivity and costs. The idea is to avert psychological abuse and aberrant behaviour such as mobbing which that may cause physical and mental disorders. Mobbing is a problem of the modern society; as a violation of human rights it is relatively new and unrecognised in Croatia. Abuse is mostly psychological: it affects the victim's health and life, quality of work, productivity, profitability, and may lead to significant economic losses in the community. Mobbing can be averted by joint forces that would involve employee and management, medical and legal professionals, and even community as a whole. The more an organization pursues excellence based on trust and business ethics, the higher the probability that mobbing will be averted or stopped. PMID:18411493

  1. Promoting contraceptive use among unmarried female migrants in one factory in Shanghai: a pilot workplace intervention

    Qian Xu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In urban China, more single women are becoming pregnant and resorting to induced abortion, despite the wide availability of temporary methods of contraception. We developed and piloted a workplace-based intervention to promote contraceptive use in unmarried female migrants working in privately owned factories. Methods Quasi-experimental design. In consultation with clients, we developed a workplace based intervention to promote contraception use in unmarried female migrants in a privately owned factory. We then implemented this in one factory, using a controlled before-and-after design. The intervention included lectures, bespoke information leaflets, and support to the factory doctors in providing a contraceptive service. Results 598 women participated: most were under 25, migrants to the city, with high school education. Twenty percent were lost when staff were made redundant, and implementation was logistically complicated. All women attended the initial lecture, and just over half the second lecture. Most reported reading the educational material provided (73%, but very few women reported using the free family planning services offered at the factory clinic (5% or the Family Planning Institute (3%. At baseline, 90% (N = 539 stated that contraceptives were required if having sex before marriage; of those reporting sex in the last three months, the majority reporting using contraceptives (78%, 62/79 but condom use was low (44%, 35/79. Qualitative data showed that the reading material seemed to be popular and young women expressed a need for more specific reproductive health information, particularly on HIV/AIDS. Women wanted services with some privacy and anonymity, and views on the factory service were mixed. Conclusion Implementing a complex intervention with a hard to reach population through a factory in China, using a quasi-experimental design, is not easy. Further research should focus on the specific needs and

  2. Depression in the Workplace

    ... Balance 5 Myths About Mental Illness Support an Employee Workplace Bullying & Violence Signs of a Healthy Workplace Complementary Medicine ... depression can be successfully treated. With early recognition, intervention, and support, most employees can overcome clinical depression and pick up where ...

  3. Anonymity: an impediment to performance in healthcare.

    Karlsberg, Daniel W; Pierce, Read G


    Many teaching hospitals employ a care team structure composed of a broad range of healthcare providers with different skill sets. Each member of this team has a distinct role and a different level of training ranging from attending physician to resident, intern, and medical student. Often times, these different roles lead to greater complexity and confusion for both patients and nursing staff. It has been demonstrated that patients have a great degree of difficulty in identifying members of their care team. This anonymity also exists between nursing staff and other care providers. In order to better understand the magnitude of anonymity within the teaching hospital, a ten-question survey was sent to nurses across three different departments. Results from this survey demonstrated that 71% of nurses are "Always" or "Often" able to identify which care team is responsible for their patients, while 79% of nurses reported that they either "Often" or "Sometimes" page a provider who is not currently caring for a given patient. Furthermore, 33% of nurses felt that they were either "Rarely" or "Never" able to recognize, by face and name, attending level providers. Residents were "Rarely" or "Never" recognized by face and name 37% of the time, and interns 42% of the time. Contacting the wrong provider repeatedly leads to de facto delays in medication, therapy, and diagnosis. Additionally, these unnecessary interruptions slow workflow for both nurses and members of the care team, making hospital care less efficient and safe overall. Technological systems should focus on reducing anonymity within the hospital in order to enhance healthcare delivery. PMID:25114570

  4. Anonymizing Binary Tables is APX-hard

    Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo


    The problem of publishing personal data without giving up privacy is increasingly important. An interesting formalization is the $k$-anonymization, where all rows in a table are clustered in sets of at least $k$ records, and all the entries for which records in the same cluster have different values are suppressed. The problem has been shown to be NP-hard when the records values are over a ternary alphabet and $k=3$. In this paper we show that the problem is not only NP-hard, but also APX-hard, when the records values are over a binary alphabet and $k=3$.

  5. Our Anonymous Online Research Participants Are Not Always Anonymous: Is This a Problem?

    Dawson, Phillip


    When educational research is conducted online, we sometimes promise our participants that they will be anonymous--but do we deliver on this promise? We have been warned since 1996 to be careful when using direct quotes in Internet research, as full-text web search engines make it easy to find chunks of text online. This paper details an empirical…

  6. Purpose-restricted Anonymous Mobile Communications Using Anonymous Signatures in Online Credential Systems

    Fathi, Hanane; Shin, SeongHan; Kobara, Kazukuni;


    To avoid the risk of long-term storage of secrets on a portable device, an online credential system supports the roaming user in retrieving securely at various locations his private key and other material to generate anonymous signatures. The protocol proposed here allows a roaming mobile user to...

  7. Complete Bipartite Anonymity for Location Privacy

    董恺; 顾涛; 陶先平; 吕建


    Users are vulnerable to privacy risks when providing their location information to location-based services (LBS). Existing work sacrifices the quality of LBS by degrading spatial and temporal accuracy for ensuring user privacy. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, Complete Bipartite Anonymity (CBA), aiming to achieve both user privacy and quality of service. The theoretical basis of CBA is that: if the bipartite graph of k nearby users’ paths can be transformed into a complete bipartite graph, then these users achieve k-anonymity since the set of “end points connecting to a specific start point in a graph”is an equivalence class. To achieve CBA, we design a Collaborative Path Confusion (CPC) protocol which enables nearby users to discover and authenticate each other without knowing their real identities or accurate locations, predict the encounter location using users’ moving pattern information, and generate fake traces obfuscating the real ones. We evaluate CBA using a real-world dataset, and compare its privacy performance with existing path confusion approach. The results show that CBA enhances location privacy by increasing the chance for a user confusing his/her path with others by 4 to 16 times in low user density areas. We also demonstrate that CBA is secure under the trace identification attack.

  8. Browsing the Internet: good-bye anonymity!

    Computer Security Team


    Do you consider browsing the Internet to be your private business? When visiting random web-sites, how far do you assume you are anonymous? Would it matter to you that Google or Facebook can profile your browsing behaviour in order to better target you with advertisements? Did you notice that you already get targeted ads when you are logged on to Google or Facebook even if you are visiting completely different websites? If matters to you, note that browsing anonymously on the Internet is far from easy.   When you are connected to the Internet, you give away a variety of information: your PC’s IP address, some browser settings like language or screen size, and, probably, your login information. So how private is private? You might argue that your current IP address has been picked from a pool of addresses and therefore regularly changes, so it does not necessarily always pinpoint you. On the other hand, with the dawn of IPv6 there is no need any more for shared IP addresses as the...

  9. Nymble: Blocking Misbehaving Users inAnonymizing Networks

    Dipali V. Yelane


    Full Text Available Anonymizing networks such as Tor allow users to access Internet services privately by using a series of routers to hide the client’sIP address from the server. The success of such networks, however, has been limited by users employing this anonymity for abusive purposes such as defacing popular websites. Website administrators routinely rely on IP-address blocking for disabling access to misbehaving users, but blocking IP addresses is not practical if the abuser routes through an anonymizing network. As a result, administrators block a l known exit nodes of anonymizing networks, denying anonymous access to misbehaving and behaving users alike. To address this problem, we present Nymble, a system in which servers can “blacklist” misbehaving users, thereby blocking users without compromising their anonymity.Our system is thus agnostic to different servers’ definitions of misbehavior — servers can blacklist users for whatever reason, and the privacy of blacklisted users is maintained.

  10. Drug injection and HIV prevalence in inmates of Glenochil prison.

    Gore, S M; Bird, A G; Burns, S M; Goldberg, D J; Ross, A.J.; MacGregor, J


    OBJECTIVE--To determine prevalence of HIV infection and drug injecting behaviour among inmates of Glenochil Prison on a specified date a year after an outbreak of hepatitis B and HIV infection. DESIGN--Cross sectional: voluntary, anonymous HIV salivary antibody surveillance and linked self completion questionnaire on risk factors. SETTING--Glenochil prison, Scotland, a year after an outbreak of hepatitis B and HIV transmission related to drug injection. SUBJECTS--352 prisoners, of whom 295 (8...

  11. HIV-Related Discrimination in European Health Care Settings

    Nöstlinger, Christiana; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Platteau, Tom; Dias, Sonia; Le Gall, Jean


    This cross-sectional European study assessed self-reported HIV-related discrimination and its associated factors in health care settings. Socio-demographics, health status, support needs relating to sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and self-reported HIV-related discrimination were measured using an anonymous survey in a sample of 1549 people living with HIV from 14 countries. Thirty-two per cent of the participants had experienced HIV-related discrimination during the previous 3 years; a...

  12. Challenges of Anonymous Communication: Bridging Gaps between Theory and Practice

    Westermann, Benedikt


    Anonymous communication is an important building block for privacy enhancing technologies and in addition to this, the deployed anonymity networks have become important tools to protect the users’ privacy in the Internet where hundreds of thousands of users rely on them. During the last decades, researchers have investigated the security aspects of anonymous communication networks. One important research methodology is the investigation of attacks which helps to understand the security proper...

  13. Online Piracy, Anonymity and Social Change – Deviance Through Innovation

    Larsson, Stefan; Svensson, Måns; Kaminski, Marcin


    This article analyses current trends in the use of anonymity services among younger Swedes (15-25) and focuses on individuals engaging in illegal file sharing in order to better understand the rationale behind both file sharing as well as online anonymity, especially in relation to enforcement of copyright. By comparing the findings of a survey conducted on three different occasions (early 2009, late 2009 and early 2012), we measure the fluctuations in the use of anonymity services among appr...

  14. Alternative HIV testing methods among populations at high risk for HIV infection.

    Greensides, Dawn R.; Berkelman, Ruth; Lansky, Amy; Sullivan, Patrick S.


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests (home collection kit, oral mucosal transudate collection kit, and rapid tests) among people at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an anonymous, cross-sectional interview study--the HIV Testing Survey (HITS)--conducted in seven states from September 2000 to February 2001. Three high-risk populations were recruited: men who have sex with men, injection...

  15. An Anonymous Secure Routing Using OLSR Protocol

    Osiers Gyamfuah Grace


    Full Text Available Security and privacy concerns are major issues to be considered in Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET. Several routing protocols have been proposed to achieve both routing and data packets security. In order to achieve privacy, the anonymous routing concept has been introduced and few protocols have been proposed for use in this area. In this paper, global position system (GPS device is used to obtain the current location of nodes and with the help of a cryptographic algorithm incorporated into the existing Optimized Link State Routing protocol (OLSR, it is expected that security services such as authentication, data integrity, privacy and confidentiality will be provided. This work proposes to protect the network against active attacks such as impersonation and modification.

  16. Classification via Clustering for Anonymization Data

    Sridhar Mandapati


    Full Text Available Due to the exponential growth of hardware technology particularly in the field of electronic data storage media and processing such data, has raised serious issues related in order to protect the individual privacy like ethical, philosophical and legal. Data mining techniques are employed to ensure the privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM techniques aim at protecting the sensitive data and mining results. In this study, the different Clustering techniques via classification with and without anonymization data using mining tool WEKA is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of different clustering methods for the diabetic data set and to compare the efficiency of privacy preserving mining. The accuracy of classification via clustering is evaluated using K-means, Expectation-Maximization (EM and Density based clustering methods.

  17. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin


    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  18. Comments on “Anonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  19. Group Aggression: The Effects of Friendship Ties and Anonymity.

    Zabrack, Merle; Miller, Norman

    The degree of acquaintance among group members (friends or strangers) and the opportunity for group members to observe each other's actions (anonymous or non-anonymous) were manipulated in a 2 x 2 factorial design, to determine the amount of aversive stimulation that would be administered to a target person. When group members could not observe…

  20. An Anonymous Authenticated Protocol Based on Zero Knowledge Proof

    Chao Jing


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, anonymity and privacy protection in many applications of the scene is critical. The anonymous authentication means that the server cant know the users identity when they are communicating with each other. In this paper, based on the Wangs zero knowledge proof scheme of possessing a digital signature, we propose a new anonymous authentication scheme. Compared with the Cui-Caos anonymous authentication protocol based on the ring signature, our scheme has two advantages. First, we dont need to know all users public keys. And then our scheme reduces the communication traffic largely. We also discuss the security attributes of our new scheme which are authentication, anonymity and unlinkablity. And then we introduce a concrete application of our scheme. Finally, we make a conclusion of this paper.

  1. Improving Security Architecture of Anonymous Wireless Mesh Networks

    Banoth, Rajkumar


    As users of networks increasingly aware of their privacy needs, the importance of anonymity is gaining popularity. The reason behind it is that anonymity can hide the actual identity of end users while allowing their to access services of network or web site. More over they are allowed to do so...... without being traced. This usage is prevailing in P2P systems and also payment based networks like e-cash. Achieving anonymity and being able to trace misbehaving users are the two conflicting requirements. This paper proposes a security architecture that is aimed at providing complete anonymity to honest...... users while tracing misbehaving users thus resolving the conflict between anonymity and traceability requirements. In addition to these, this paper also focuses on basic security requirements such as nonrepudiation, data integrity, confidentiality, and authentication. The empirical results revealed that...

  2. On the Utility of Anonymized Flow Traces for Anomaly Detection

    Burkhart, Martin; May, Martin


    The sharing of network traces is an important prerequisite for the development and evaluation of efficient anomaly detection mechanisms. Unfortunately, privacy concerns and data protection laws prevent network operators from sharing these data. Anonymization is a promising solution in this context; however, it is unclear if the sanitization of data preserves the traffic characteristics or introduces artifacts that may falsify traffic analysis results. In this paper, we examine the utility of anonymized flow traces for anomaly detection. We quantitatively evaluate the impact of IP address anonymization, namely variations of permutation and truncation, on the detectability of large-scale anomalies. Specifically, we analyze three weeks of un-sampled and non-anonymized network traces from a medium-sized backbone network. We find that all anonymization techniques, except prefix-preserving permutation, degrade the utility of data for anomaly detection. We show that the degree of degradation depends to a large exten...

  3. Workplace Discrimination, A Picture of Hope and Concern. Global Report.

    World of Work, 2003


    An International Labour Organisation report finds that workplace discrimination is a persistent global problem. Although sex discrimination is most prevalent, discrimination in racial, HIV/AIDS, disability, religious, and age categories is rising. Progress is uneven, and inequalities within groups are widening. (SK)

  4. Researching workplace learning

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels


    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both in a...

  5. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  6. Radon in workplaces

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.)

  7. Employment discrimination and HIV stigma: survey results from civil society organisations and people living with HIV in Africa.

    Sprague, Laurel; Simon, Sara; Sprague, Courtenay


    The article presents findings from three surveys of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and civil society organisations about the experience of employment discrimination and stigma in the workplace. The work seeks to contribute to efforts by businesses and other organisations to effectively respond to the HIV epidemic within the world of work, and to deepen our understanding of the ways in which HIV stigma and employment discrimination persist in the workplace. The findings of global and regional surveys indicate the existence of high levels of employment discrimination based on HIV status worldwide, including forced disclosure of HIV status, exclusion in the workplace, refusals to hire or promote, and terminations of people known to be living with HIV. The survey findings show that employment discrimination based on HIV status is experienced in all African subregions. Country-level surveys conducted in Kenya and Zambia indicated that PLHIV face marked barriers to employment, including discrimination in hiring, loss of promotions, and termination because of HIV status. Additionally, large variances were found in the degree of support versus discrimination that employees living with HIV in those two countries received following their disclosure. The discussion emphasises the importance of the workplace as a site for intervention and behaviour change. To address this, we introduce a conceptual framework - the employment continuum - that maps multiple points of entry within the workplace to address HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Additional recommendations include: actions to ensure equal opportunity in hiring for PLHIV; ensuring that HIV testing is voluntary, never mandatory, and that disclosure is not necessary for employment; ensuring confidentiality of HIV status; communicating and enforcing HIV-related antidiscrimination policies; establishing support groups in the workplace; providing safe and confidential processes for resolving complaints of employment

  8. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University


    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  9. Anonymity and verifiability in multi-attribute reverse auction

    Srinath, T R; Pais, Alwyn Roshan; 10.5121/ijitcs.2011.1401


    The use of e-Auction services has been increasing in recent years. Security requirements in conducting e-Auctions are mainly bid privacy, anonymity and public verifiability. Most of the secure protocols concentrate on privacy and anonymity, which are achieved through bidder-resolved multi-party computation, assuming two or more trusted third parties, either through numerous auctioneers or with asymmetric models in which the commercial entity of an auction issuer or registration manager is assumed in addition to the auctioneer. Multi-attribute reverse auctions promise higher market efficiency and effective information exchange. This work extends and uses the existing schemes. This scheme uses scoring function, winner determination in multi-attribute auctions to implement public verifiability. Anonymity is achieved through bidder side pseudonym generation. By results and analysis we say this is very simple and effective scheme. This scheme ensures public verifiability and anonymity in multi-attribute auctions w...

  10. Employee Involvement in Australia: Workplace Transformation or the Disposable Workplace?

    Robert Drago


    Theory suggests Employee Involvement (EI) programs will appear either where 'workplace transformation' occurs or where worker bargaining power is low and firms create a 'disposable workplace.' This study explores a sample of Australian workplaces and finds disposable workplace settings have a low probability of EI, but are so common that they account for most EI programs. Workplace transformation settings, while rare, are more likely to exhibit EI. Tentative data suggest EI is more successful...

  11. Theoretical Results on De-Anonymization via Linkage Attacks

    Martin M. Merener


    Full Text Available Consider a database D with records containing history of individuals' transactions, that has been de-identified, i.e., the variables that uniquely associate records with individuals have been removed from the data. An adversary de-anonymizes D via a linkage attack if using some auxiliary information about a certain individual in the database, it can determine which record of D corresponds to such individual. One example of this is given in the article Robust De-anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets, by Narayanan and Shmatikov [19], which shows that an anonymized database containing records with ratings of different movies rented by customers of Netflix, could in fact be de-anonymized using very little auxiliary information, even with errors. Besides the heuristic de-anonymization of the Netflix database, Narayanan and Shmatikov provide interesting theoretical results about database de-anonymization that an adversary can produce under general conditions. In this article we revisit these theoretical results, and work them further. Our first contribution is to exhibit different simple cases in which the algorithm Scoreboard, meant to produce the theoretical de-anonymization in [19], fails to do so. By requiring 1-sim to be a pseudo-metric, and that the algorithm producing the de-anonymization outputs a record with minimum support among the candidates, we obtain and prove deanonymization results similar to those described in [19]. We then consider a new hypothesis, motivated by the fact (observed in heuristic de-anonymizations that when the auxiliary information contains values corresponding to rare attributes, the de-anonymization achieved is stronger. We formalize this using the notion on long tail [4], and give new theorems expressing the level of de-anonymization in terms of the parameters of the tail of the database D. The improvement in the deanonymization is reflected in the fact that when at least one value in the auxiliary information

  12. Identity and anonymity: victims and perpetrators in human rights reports

    De Cock, Barbara; Michaud Maturana, Daniel; 4th Biennial Meeting of the International Association for the Study of Spanish in Society (SIS-EES) / 6th International Conference of Hispanic Linguistics


    Identity and anonymity: victims and perpetrators in human rights reports In this paper, we look into the construction of identity and anonymity in human rights reports, more concretely in the report by the Rettig Commission on human rights violations under the Pinochet regime. In the preliminaries to this report, the commission formulates its desire to give an account that is as complete as possible yet also its refraining from attributing individual responsibility (Oteíza 2010). We will anal...

  13. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    Bahi, Jacques; Couchot, Jean-François; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe


    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level...

  14. Redefining privacy and anonymity through social networking affordances

    Cirucci, Angela M.


    Social networking sites allow people to create, broadcast, and interpret the self in new and evolving ways. While early online social media studies praised the Internet for providing an anonymous space in which to experiment with identity, more recent research suggests that social networking sites have become not anonymous, as they compel users to perform identity in new ways. Through a novel application of affordance theory, this paper argues that instead of attempting to apply outdated defi...

  15. Internet anonymity with mobility - key challenges for the future.

    Doswell, Stephen


    Privacy, including the privacy of correspondence (communications), is a human right. Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs) provide a number of tools with the aim to protect this right. Anonymity networks, such as Tor, contribute to privacy by providing a degree of anonymity for an individual's Internet traffic. An increase in mobile devices connecting to the Internet is predicted to surpass static connections by 2014. The desire for privacy will provide additional challenges in the future, fo...

  16. Scalable Techniques for Security and Anonymity in Distributed Systems

    Akhoondi, Masoud


    Security and privacy in distributed systems are long-standing hard problems. On the one hand, solutions for anonymous communications over the Internet are either vulnerable to traffic analysis or offer poor performance. On the other hand, compromises within enterprises remain hard to track down due to complex dependencies between hosts, applications, and their data.In this thesis, I develop two solutions to improve the anonymity vs. performance trade-off for communications over the Internet. ...

  17. Social distance and anonymity modulate fairness consideration: An ERP study

    Rongjun Yu; Pan Hu; Ping Zhang


    Previous research indicated that fairness consideration can be influenced by social distance. However, it is not clear whether social distance and anonymity have an interactive impact on fairness evaluation during asset distribution and whether these processes can be documented in brain activity. Using a modified ultimatum game combined with measures of event related potential (ERP), we examined how social distance and anonymity modulate brain response to inequality. At the behavior level, we...

  18. An Anonymous Payment Protocol with Mobile Agents in Hostile Environments

    LIU Yi; XIANG Ming-sen; WANG Yu-min


    By using Pedersen' s verifiable secret sharing scheme and the theory of cross validation, we propose an anonymous payment protocol which have following features:protecting the confidentiality of sensitive payment information from spying by malicious hosts; using a trusted third party in a minimal way; verifying the validity of the share by the merchant; allowing agent to verify that the product which it is about to receive is the one it is paying for; keeping the customer anonymous.

  19. On the Feasibility of (Practical Commercial Anonymous Cloud Storage

    Tobias Pulls


    Full Text Available Current de facto standard payment and billing models for commercial cloud storage services provide a plethora of information to the cloud provider about its clients. This leads to a hostile environment when seen from a privacy perspective. Motivated by recently leaked facts about large scale governmental surveillance efforts as well as the lack of privacy-preserving measures in existing commercial cloud storage services, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of so called anonymous cloud storage services which require user payment (which we call commercial anonymous cloud storage. Anonymity in this context can be seen as the absence of information to uniquely identify a provider's client that is storing and manipulating data at the provider while at the same time still allowing fair billing, for both, the clients and the cloud provider. Although encrypting data prior to outsourcing helps to protect data privacy and can be achieved without the cloud provider's consent, the issues we are interested in, do not seem to be achievable that easily. However, while various measures for the latter issue, i.e., realizing access privacy, have been studied in the past, the role of privacy in context of billing and payment for cloud storage has, until now, remained unexplored. We therefore introduce an abstract model for commercial cloud storage services to define various types of anonymous cloud storage, study several payment and billing models for cloud storage services and their impact on the anonymity of the service's clients. Moreover, we discuss several solutions to provide anonymity within the different models. Our findings highlight the importance of anonymous payment for the practical deployment of commercial privacy-friendly cloud storage services. Furthermore, we provide directions for future work in some settings, i.e., when anonymous payment is not available, as interesting open challenges.

  20. Mobile Anonymous Trust Based Routing Using Ant Colony Optimization

    R. KALPANA; N. Rengarajan


    Problem statement: Ad hoc networks are susceptible to malicious attacks through denial of services, traffic analysis and spoofing. The security of the ad hoc routing protocol depends upon encryption, authentication, anonymity and trust factors. End-to-end security of data is provided by encryption and authentication, topology information of the nodes can be obtained by studying traffic and routing data. This security problem of ad hoc network is addressed by the use of anonymity mechanisms an...

  1. A peaceful pyramid? Hierarchy and anonymity in newspaper comment sections

    Gonçalves, João Fernando Ferreira


    Several studies have linked deindividuation to an increase in aggression and incivility. This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of anonymity and hierarchy in online aggression by comparing two different newspaper comment sections: one with a hierarchical system and the other with an equalitarian setting. This study distinguishes itself form previous works by analyzing systems where identification is optional and where identified and anonymous users coexist. The hierarchical solution m...

  2. Anonymization of DICOM Electronic Medical Records for Radiation Therapy

    Newhauser, Wayne; Jones, Timothy; Swerdloff, Stuart; Newhauser, Warren; Cilia, Mark; Carver, Robert (British painter, ca.1730-1791); Halloran, Andy; Zhang, Rui


    Electronic medical records (EMR) and treatment plans are used in research on patient outcomes and radiation effects. In many situations researchers must remove protected health information (PHI) from EMRs. The literature contains several studies describing the anonymization of generic Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) files and DICOM image sets but no publications were found that discuss the anonymization of DICOM radiation therapy plans, a key component of an EMR in a can...

  3. [Self-disclosure on the Internet: the effects of anonymity of the self and the other].

    Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio


    The effects of anonymity on self-disclosure were investigated in a CMC (computer-mediated communication) situation by separately manipulating the anonymity of the self and the other. It was hypothesized that anonymity of the self would enhance disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other would decrease it. Female undergraduate students (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a 2 (self: anonymous or non-anonymous) x 2 (other: anonymous or non-anonymous) experimental design. The anonymity of the self and the other was manipulated in the profile, such as the photo, name, and sex of the self or the other, on the computer screen. The results indicated that anonymity of the self decreased the feeling of anxiety, but had no effect on disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other decreased the feeling of closeness and decreased the intimacy of disclosure. PMID:18402057

  4. Towards a respondent-preferred ki-anonymity model

    Kok-Seng WONG; Myung Ho KIM


    Recently, privacy concerns about data collection have received an increasing amount of attention. In data collection process, a data collector (an agency) assumed that all respondents would be comfortable with submitting their data if the published data was anonymous. We believe that this assumption is not realistic because the increase in privacy concerns causes some re-spondents to refuse participation or to submit inaccurate data to such agencies. If respondents submit inaccurate data, then the usefulness of the results from analysis of the collected data cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, we note that the level of anonymity (i.e., k-anonymity) guaranteed by an agency cannot be verified by respondents since they generally do not have access to all of the data that is released. Therefore, we introduce the notion of ki-anonymity, where ki is the level of anonymity preferred by each respondent i. Instead of placing full trust in an agency, our solution increases respondent confidence by allowing each to decide the preferred level of protection. As such, our protocol ensures that respondents achieve their preferred ki-anonymity during data collection and guarantees that the collected records are genuine and useful for data analysis.

  5. Workplaces slow to start

    Regulations on radon in workplaces are based on the Radiation Act, which came into force in Finland at the beginning of 1992. An employer is required to have the working conditions investigated if it is suspected that the radon concentration exceeds the maximum. The annual average in regular work must not exceed 400 becquerels per cubic metre. Employers have shown so little interest in radon measurements that the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has had to send letters prompting employers in the worst radon areas to conduct measurements at workplaces. According to preliminary estimates, thousands of workplaces have concentrations exceeding the permissible maximum. (orig.)

  6. Sexual harassment in the workplace

    Hersch, Joni


    Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...

  7. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi; O. Surel Karabilgin


    Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisi...

  8. Workplace Concentration of Immigrants

    Monica I. Garcia-Perez; Fredrik Andersson; John Haltiwanger; Fredrik Kristin McCue; Seth Sanders


    To what extent do immigrants and the native-born work in separate workplaces? Do worker and firm characteristics explain the degree of workplace concentration? We explore these questions using a matched employer-employee database that extensively covers employers in selected MSAs. We find that immigrants are much more likely to have immigrant coworkers than are natives, and are particularly likely to work with their compatriots. We find much higher levels of concentration for small businesses...

  9. A Study Analyzing the Association between Post-Traumatic Embitterment Disorder and Workplace Bullying

    KARATUNA, Işıl; GÖK, Sibel


    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perceived victimization from workplace bullying and self-reported embitterment reactions. Data were obtained through anonymous questionnaires from 397 participants working in the public sector. Among the participants, 23.9% were labeled as victims of bullying. Significant differences were observed in the mean scores of posttraumatic embitterment disorder between victims and nonvictims and experiencing bullying was found to be...

  10. Radon in workplaces

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-fp-Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction fp and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have been

  11. Persona: Network Layer Anonymity and Accountability for Next Generation Internet

    Mallios, Yannis; Modi, Sudeep; Agarwala, Aditya; Johns, Christina

    Individual privacy has become a major concern, due to the intrusive nature of the services and websites that collect increasing amounts of private information. One of the notions that can lead towards privacy protection is that of anonymity. Unfortunately, anonymity can also be maliciously exploited by attackers to hide their actions and identity. Thus some sort of accountability is also required. The current Internet has failed to provide both properties, as anonymity techniques are difficult to fully deploy and thus are easily attacked, while the Internet provides limited level of accountability. The Next Generation Internet (NGI) provides us with the opportunity to examine how these conflicting properties could be efficiently applied and thus protect users’ privacy while holding malicious users accountable. In this paper we present the design of a scheme, called Persona that can provide anonymity and accountability in the network layer of NGI. More specifically, our design requirements are to combine these two conflicting desires in a stateless manner within routers. Persona allows users to choose different levels of anonymity, while it allows the discovery of malicious nodes.

  12. [Workplace-related anxiety, workplace phobia and disorders of participation].

    Muschalla, B; Linden, M


    Work is an important domain of life. It is therefore clear that problems at the workplace and mental disorders will have negative interactions. Job-related anxieties are of special importance as any workplace causes or intensifies anxiety by its very nature. A common final pathway of mental disorders in general and workplace-related anxieties in particular is workplace phobia. Similarly to agoraphobia, it is characterised by panic when approaching or even thinking of the stimulus, in this case the workplace. Workplace phobia has serious negative consequences for the further course of illness. It impairs the ability to work, and can lead to sick leave and early retirement. It requires special therapeutic interventions. This paper describes workplace-related anxieties and workplace phobia and gives a conceptual framework for their understanding. PMID:19544717

  13. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality.

    van Drie, A; Ganzevoort, R R; Spiering, M


    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria on the other. We analyzed helpseeking questions of two protestant Christian organizations in the Netherlands providing anonymous pastoral care: Refoweb and EO-Nazorg. Sexual themes were addressed in 19 and 2.3 % of the submitted questions, respectively. Of the helpseekers, 56 % is female, 15 % male, and 29 % unknown. Questions and problems for which people seek anonymous pastoral care focus primarily on premarital abstinence, gender roles, contraception, sexual orientation and masturbation. The authority of the Bible seems to be important for questioners, especially when dealing with ethical questions. Different relations between the normativity of the church tradition and sexual and spiritual health are discussed. PMID:23784431

  14. Application of Steganography for Anonymity through the Internet

    Bahi, Jacques M; Friot, Nicolas; Guyeux, Christophe


    In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme based on chaotic iterations is proposed. This research work takes place into the information hiding security framework. The applications for anonymity and privacy through the Internet are regarded too. To guarantee such an anonymity, it should be possible to set up a secret communication channel into a web page, being both secure and robust. To achieve this goal, we propose an information hiding scheme being stego-secure, which is the highest level of security in a well defined and studied category of attacks called "watermark-only attack". This category of attacks is the best context to study steganography-based anonymity through the Internet. The steganalysis of our steganographic process is also studied in order to show it security in a real test framework.

  15. Structure and Anonymity of the Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    Kay Hamacher


    Full Text Available The Bitcoin network of decentralized payment transactions has attracted a lot of attention from both Internet users and researchers in recent years. Bitcoin utilizes a peer-to-peer network to issue anonymous payment transactions between different users. In the currently used Bitcoin clients, the full transaction history is available at each node of the network to prevent double spending without the need for a central authority, forming a valuable source for empirical research on network structure, network dynamics, and the implied anonymity challenges, as well as guidance on the future evolution of complex payment systems. We found dynamical effects of which some increase anonymity while others decrease it. Most importantly, several parameters of the Bitcoin transaction graph seem to have become stationary over the last 12–18 months. We discuss the implications.

  16. Anonymous Authorship Control for User-Generated Content

    Suk-Bong LEE


    Full Text Available User-Generated Content (UGC is opening up new large market in content services, and more and more people are visiting web sites to share and enjoy UGCs. These trends make many authors to move into online. Authors want to conserve their authorship and expect to publish their UGC anonymously in cases. To meet the requirements, we propose a new authorship control model based on watermarking and metadata. Authors can embed their authorship into their UGC with identities or with anonym. Even though an author publishes his UGC anonymously, he can prove his authorship without unveiling his identity via 5 methods utilizing the proposed authorship model. The proposed model and methods need no TTP and are robust even based on fragile underlying watermarking scheme.

  17. Secure and Efficient Anonymous Authentication Scheme in Global Mobility Networks

    Jun-Sub Kim


    Full Text Available In 2012, Mun et al. pointed out that Wu et al.’s scheme failed to achieve user anonymity and perfect forward secrecy and disclosed the passwords of legitimate users. And they proposed a new enhancement for anonymous authentication scheme. However, their proposed scheme has vulnerabilities that are susceptible to replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. It also incurs a high overhead in the database. In this paper, we examine the vulnerabilities in the existing schemes and the computational overhead incurred in the database. We then propose a secure and efficient anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility network. Our proposed scheme is secure against various attacks, provides mutual authentication and session key establishment, and incurs less computational overhead in the database than Mun et al.'s scheme.

  18. On the Definitions of Anonymity for Ring Signatures

    Ohkubo, Miyako; Abe, Masayuki

    This paper studies the relations among several definitions of anonymity for ring signature schemes in the same attack environment. It is shown that one intuitive and two technical definitions we consider are asymptotically equivalent, and the indistinguishability-based technical definition is the strongest, i. e., the most secure when achieved, when the exact reduction cost is taken into account. We then extend our result to the threshold case where a subset of members cooperate to create a signature. The threshold setting makes the notion of anonymity more complex and yields a greater variety of definitions. We explore several notions and observe certain relation does not seem hold unlike the simple single-signer case. Nevertheless, we see that an indistinguishability-based definition is the most favorable in the threshold case. We also study the notion of linkability and present a simple scheme that achieves both anonymity and linkability.

  19. HIV Transmission

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  20. Authority and Hierarchy within Anonymous Internet Relay Chat Networks

    Stewart Kenton Bertram


    Full Text Available 'The protest group Anonymous has emerged as one of the most significant social movements of recent years, announcing their arrival as a globally recognized brand with regular disruptive cyber attacks and the leak of large volumes of sensitive data. Despite the obvious significance of Anonymous, to date, little academic research has been focused on what role hierarchy and internal authority play (if any within the group. Bespoke software was used to structure over 5000 examples of IRC log files, so that a base line descriptive statistical picture could be drawn, as well as a more granular enumeration of the privileges associated with individual users.'

  1. Anonymous authentication protocol for multi-services in wireless environments


    To provide mutual authentication among users, wireless networks, and service providers in roaming wireless environments, this article presents an anonymous authentication and access control protocol. Bases on this protocol, entities of different trusted domains can mutually authenticate each other and preserve the anonymity of users. Hybrid cryptosystem, secret splitting, and hash chains are used in the protocol, which decrease computational loads and establish trusted relations for both entities. The proposed protocol has the least computation complexity compared with other protocols, whereas, the security has been significantly improved.

  2. Workplace Safety: Indoor Environmental Quality

    ... message, please visit this page: About . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Indoor Environmental Quality Health Hazard ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact ...

  3. Cyclical Fluctuations in Workplace Accidents

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.


    This Paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation on cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident dents the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that he is fired. Therefore a country with a high or an increasing unemployment rate has a low (reported) workplace accident rate. The empirical investigation concerns workplace accidents in OECD countries. The analysis confirms that workplace accident rates are invers...

  4. Employee Trust and Workplace Performance

    Brown, S.; McHardy, J; Taylor, K


    We explore the relationship between employee trust and workplace performance. We present a theoretical framework which serves to establish a link between employee trust and firm performance as well as to identify possible mechanisms through which the relationship may operate. We then analyse matched workplace and employee data in order to ascertain whether the average level of employee trust within the workplace influences workplace performance. We exploit the 2004 and 2011 Work Place and Emp...

  5. Employee trust and workplace performance

    Brown, Sarah; Gray, Daniel; McHardy, Jolian; Taylor, Karl


    We explore the relationship between employee trust of managers and workplace performance. We present a theoretical framework which serves to establish a link between employee trust and firm performance as well as to identify possible mechanisms through which the relationship may operate. We then analyse matched workplace and employee data in order to ascertain whether the average level of employee trust within the workplace influences workplace performance. We exploit the 2004 and 2011 Workpl...

  6. Workplace photon radiation fields

    The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)

  7. Teacher learning as workplace learning

    Imants, J.; Van Veen, K.


    Against the background of increasing attention in teacher professional development programs for situating teacher learning in the workplace, an overview is given of what is known in general and in educational workplace learning literature on the characteristics and conditions of the workplace. Altho

  8. Education and Nutritional Status of Orphans and Children of HIV-Infected Parents in Kenya

    Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth


    We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…

  9. Anonymously Productive and Socially Engaged While Learning at Work

    Magni, Luca


    Many concurrent variables appear to influence people when they interact anonymously, either face-to-face (F2F) or in computer-mediated communications (CMC).This paper presents the results of a small exploratory research, conducted in a medical company in Italy, to investigate how the use of pseudonyms influences CMC behaviours. The study involved…

  10. Knowledge Sharing Systems: Advantages of Public Anonymity and Private Accountability

    Davis, Sarah


    This paper explores the benefits of the design elements of public anonymity and private accountability in classroom Knowledge Sharing Systems (KSS). The major findings of this study indicate that classroom KSS have the potential to allow for greater equity of input, reduce academic anxiety, increase teachers knowledge of student understanding …

  11. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    Descy, Don E.


    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  12. Provider Aware Anonymization Algorithm for Preserving M - Privacy

    A. Usha Rani


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the collaborative data publishing problem for anonymizing horizontally partitioned data at multiple data providers. We consider a new type of “insider attack” by colluding data providers who may use their own data records (a subset of the overall data in addition to the external background knowledge to infer the data records contributed by other data providers. The paper addresses this new threat and makes several contributions. First, we introduce the notion of m-privacy, which guarantees that the anonymized data satisfies a given privacy constraint against any group of up to m colluding data providers. Second, we present heuristic algorithms exploiting the equivalence group monotonicity of privacy constraints and adaptive ordering techniques for efficiently checking m-privacy given a set of records. Finally, we present a data provider-aware anonymization algorithm with adaptive m- privacy checking strategies to ensure high utility and m-privacy of anonymized data with efficiency. Experiments on real-life datasets suggest that our approach achieves better or comparable utility and efficiency than existing and baseline algorithms while providing m-privacy guarantee.

  13. The Impact of Anonymization for Automated Essay Scoring

    Shermis, Mark D.; Lottridge, Sue; Mayfield, Elijah


    This study investigated the impact of anonymizing text on predicted scores made by two kinds of automated scoring engines: one that incorporates elements of natural language processing (NLP) and one that does not. Eight data sets (N = 22,029) were used to form both training and test sets in which the scoring engines had access to both text and…

  14. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.


    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  15. Online Role-Play: Anonymity, Engagement and Risk.

    Bell, Maureen


    Discussion of role-play focuses on a case study of an asynchronous, anonymous online role-play at an Australian university within a WebCT bulletin board that was designed as an alternative to an existing face-to-face workshop to offer more flexible access for participants. Suggests further research needs. (Author/LRW)

  16. Role Engagement and Anonymity in Synchronous Online Role Play

    Sarah Cornelius


    Full Text Available Role play activities provide opportunities for learners to adopt unfamiliar roles, engage in interactions with others, and get involved in realistic tasks. They are often recommended to foster the development of soft skills and a wider perspective of the world. Such activities are widely used as an online teaching approach, with examples ranging from the simple use of email to the employment of virtual worlds and Web 2.0 technologies.This paper provides a case study of a role play activity which employs real-time anonymous discussion forums and aims to improve our understanding of effective role play and the impact of anonymity. This role play has been effective in educating learners about different perspectives on the issue of Quality in Further Education. The context and implementation of the role play are outlined, and the learners’ interactions and experiences are explored using an investigative analysis of discussion transcripts and semi-structured interviews with participants. The findings suggest that role engagement and anonymity are important components for success in synchronous online role play. Evidence is presented that provides an insight into the factors which encourage role engagement, including prior experiences and contributions from peers. The impact of anonymity is also explored since many participants did not regard the study environment as real and attempted to identify their peers.

  17. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    A. van Drie; R.R. Ganzevoort; M. Spiering


    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria o

  18. Attitudes toward Spirituality and the Core Principles of Alcoholics Anonymous

    Davis, S. J.; Benshoff, John J.; Koch, D. Shane


    One-hundred and fifty-one students enrolled in substance abuse counselor training classes were surveyed on their attitudes about spirituality in substance abuse treatment and their beliefs about the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Significant correlations were found between the subjects' spirituality and their attitudes toward…

  19. Anonymity versus Perceived Patron Identity in Virtual Reference Transcripts

    Roper, Kristin Grabarek; Sobel, Karen


    Librarians who provide virtual reference services often perceive that their patrons self-identify to some degree, even when transactions are anonymous. They also develop a sense of patrons' greatest research-related needs over time. In this article, two librarians analyze two years' worth of virtual reference transcripts to determine what patrons…

  20. "Un-Googling” publications: The ethics and problems of anonymization

    Shklovski, Irina; Vertesi, Janet


    to the ethics of exposure of our research participants. We present one approach to anonymization of research results with search engines in mind, which we call un-Googling, that we have developed to minimize risk to our participants. We discuss the considerations that this approach raises and pose a challenge...

  1. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    Ghinita, Gabriel


    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Generic Framework for Anonymous Authentication in Mobile Networks

    Jing Xu; Wen-Tao Zhu


    Designing an anonymous user authentication scheme in global mobility networks is a non-trivial task because wireless networks are susceptible to attacks and mobile devices powered by batteries have limited communication,processing and storage capabilities.In this paper,we present a generic construction that converts any existing secure password authentication scheme based on a smart card into an anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services.The security proof of our construction can be derived from the underlying password authentication scheme employing the same assumptions.Compared with the original password authentication scheme,the transformed scheme does not sacrifice the authentication efficiency,and additionally,an agreed session key can be securely established between an anonymous mobile user and the foreign agent in charge of the network being visited.Furthermore,we present an instantiation of the proposed generic construction.The performance analysis shows that compared with other related anonymous authentication schemes,our instantiation is more efficient.

  3. Policy-Aware Sender Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    Vyas, Avinash


    Sender anonymity in Location-based services (LBS) refers to hiding the identity of a mobile device user who sends requests to the LBS provider for services in her proximity (e.g. "find the nearest gas station etc."). The goal is to keep the requester's interest private even from attackers who (via hacking or subpoenas) gain access to the LBS…


    Liang Jian; Ao Qingyun; Chen Ying


    This letter presents an anonymous off-line electronic payment model with multiple issuing-banks and gives an implementation scheme based on the discrete logarithm problem and the random oracle model. Comparing with previous works, the proposed scheme benefits from no involvement of customer group authority and its security depends on the known difficulty of resolving general discrete logarithm problem.

  5. Improving Content Availability in the I2P Anonymous File-Sharing Environment

    Timpanaro, Juan Pablo; Chrisment, Isabelle; Festor, Olivier


    Anonymous communication has gained more and more interest from Internet users as privacy and anonymity problems have emerged. Dedicated anonymous networks such as Freenet and I2P allow anonymous file-sharing among users. However, one major problem with anonymous file-sharing networks is that the available content is highly reduced, mostly with outdated files, and non-anonymous networks, such as the BitTorrent network, are still the major source of content: we show that in a 30-days period, 21...

  6. The Changing American Workplace.

    Ranard, Donald A.


    An examination is made of the increasing educational demands of the modern workplace during a time when the makeup of an already shrinking workforce is becoming more composed of minorities, women, and immigrants. Articles in this newsletter issue discuss which jobs will grow and which will decline; the new educational demands and skills required…

  7. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Zappalà Salvatore


    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  8. Workplace Safety and Women


    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  9. Workplace Diversity Issues.


    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  10. Multilingualism in European Workplaces

    Gunnarsson, Britt-Louise


    This state-of-the-art article includes a review of past and recent studies on multilingualism at work in European environments. One aim is to provide the reader with a cross-cultural picture of workplace studies on various languages in Europe, another to discuss both positive and problem-based accounts of multilingualism at work. The overview…

  11. Making the Workplace Work


    This podcast demonstrates the importance of workplace support in managing diabetes in a corporate diabetes program.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/8/2007.

  12. COPEWORK - COPESTRESS Workplace Study

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Netterstrøm, Bo; Langer, Roy


    "COPEWORK – COPESTRESS Workplace Study" er en undersøgelse af hvad der sker på arbejdspladser, når en medarbejder sygemeldes med stress. I undersøgelsen indgik 64 ledere og arbejdsmiljørepræsentanter fra fra 38 danske arbejdspladser. Alle arbejdspladser havde haft minimum én stresssygemeldt...

  13. The workplace window view

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik;


    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance and neighbourh......Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance and...... neighbourhood satisfaction. This study investigates whether relationships between window view, and work ability and job satisfaction also exist in the context of the workplace by focusing on office workers’ view satisfaction. The results showed that a view of natural elements was related to high view...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can be an...

  14. Radon in workplaces

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  15. Predictors of anonymous cyber aggression: the role of adolescents' beliefs about anonymity, aggression, and the permanency of digital content.

    Wright, Michelle F


    Little attention has been given to whether adolescents' beliefs about anonymity and their normative beliefs about cyber aggression jointly increase their perpetration of cyber aggression. To this end, the present longitudinal study examined the moderating influence of these variables on the relationships among adolescents' attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, and anonymous cyber aggression (ACA) assessed 1 year later (Time 2). These associations were examined among 274 7th and 8th graders and through five technologies, including social networking sites (SNS), e-mail, instant messenger (IM), mobile phones, and chatrooms. Findings indicated that increases in Time 2 ACA and attitudes toward the permanency of digital content were more strongly related when adolescents reported greater confidence with not getting caught and higher normative beliefs concerning cyber aggression through SNS and mobile phones. In addition, higher levels of attitudes toward the permanency of digital content, confidence with not getting caught, beliefs about anonymity, and normative beliefs regarding cyber aggression were related to greater Time 2 ACA through e-mail, IM, and chatrooms. All findings are discussed in the context of adolescents' positive attitudes toward ACA, and an appeal for additional research is made to understand more about anonymity in cyberspace. PMID:24724731

  16. "I'd Be So Much More Comfortable Posting Anonymously": Identified versus Anonymous Participation in Student Discussion Boards

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.


    Academic staff members encourage university students to use online student discussion boards within learning management systems to ask and answer questions, share information and engage in discussion. We explore the impact of anonymity on student posting behaviour. An online survey was completed by 131 second year undergraduate psychology students…

  17. Security Analysis and Improvement of an Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Roaming Services

    Youngsook Lee; Juryon Paik


    An anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services in global mobility networks allows a mobile user visiting a foreign network to achieve mutual authentication and session key establishment with the foreign-network operator in an anonymous manner. In this work, we revisit He et al.’s anonymous authentication scheme for roaming services and present previously unpublished security weaknesses in the scheme: (1) it fails to provide user anonymity against any third party as well as the foreig...

  18. Effects of data anonymization by cell suppression on descriptive statistics and predictive modeling performance.

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Vinterbo, Staal; Dreiseitl, Stephan


    Protecting individual data in disclosed databases is essential. Data anonymization strategies can produce table ambiguation by suppression of selected cells. Using table ambiguation, different degrees of anonymization can be achieved, depending on the number of individuals that a particular case must become indistinguishable from. This number defines the level of anonymization. Anonymization by cell suppression does not necessarily prevent inferences from being made from the disclosed data. P...

  19. People With HIV Now Live a Better Life

    China Daily


    As a UN Volunteer,working with UNAIDS China,I have the opportunity to get involved in a wide range of areas.From working with community-based organizations,set up by people living with HIV to interacting with the media on topics related to HIV/AIDS to supporting campaigns to fight HIV/AIDS-related discrimination in the workplace,I get to do it all.

  20. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann


    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted. PMID:26179596

  1. Faculty mentoring programme--ways of reducing anonymity.

    Woessner, R; Honold, M; Stehle, I; Stehr, S; Steudel, W I


    Increasing anonymity and the lack of personal contact between professor and student due to high enrolment is one of the major problems at German universities. Therefore, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of the Saarland started a pilot project in 1995. The intention was to reduce anonymity within the faculty by introducing a faculty mentoring programme (Studientutorium). A group of up to 12 students from different years is allocated a faculty member on a personal basis. The member responds to questions and problems concerning such areas as the curriculum, career planning or doctoral thesis as well as to personal problems. After 2 years participants were interviewed about the programme for the first time and the acceptance turned out to be high. PMID:9743811

  2. Anonymous Card Shuffling and its Applications to Parallel Mixnets

    Goodrich, Michael T


    We study the question of how to shuffle $n$ cards when faced with an opponent who knows the initial position of all the cards {\\em and} can track every card when permuted, {\\em except} when one takes $K< n$ cards at a time and shuffles them in a private buffer "behind your back," which we call {\\em buffer shuffling}. The problem arises naturally in the context of parallel mixnet servers as well as other security applications. Our analysis is based on related analyses of load-balancing processes. We include extensions to variations that involve corrupted servers and adversarially injected messages, which correspond to an opponent who can peek at some shuffles in the buffer and who can mark some number of the cards. In addition, our analysis makes novel use of a sum-of-squares metric for anonymity, which leads to improved performance bounds for parallel mixnets and can also be used to bound well-known existing anonymity measures.

  3. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang


    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  4. Secure Web Transaction with Anonymous Mobile Agent over Internet

    WANG ChangJie(王常杰); ZHANG FangGuo(张方国); WANG YuMin(王育民)


    A major problem of mobile agents is their apparent inability to authenticate transactions in hostile environments. In this paper, a new secure anonymous mobile agent scheme is proposed for the prevention of agent tempering without compromising the mobility or autonomy of the agent. In the scheme, a mobile agent can produce valid signature on website's bid (it means to transact a contact with the web site) on behalf of its customer, without revealing the customer's real private key. In addition, the anonymity of the customer is also achieved when its agent transacts with the websites. Furthermore, the customer who issues a malicious agent or denies the transaction can be identified and detected by Agent Management Center (AMC). Therefore, the scheme is practical in the future electronic commerce over Internet.

  5. Anonymous voting for multi-dimensional CV quantum system

    Rong-Hua, Shi; Yi, Xiao; Jin-Jing, Shi; Ying, Guo; Moon-Ho, Lee


    We investigate the design of anonymous voting protocols, CV-based binary-valued ballot and CV-based multi-valued ballot with continuous variables (CV) in a multi-dimensional quantum cryptosystem to ensure the security of voting procedure and data privacy. The quantum entangled states are employed in the continuous variable quantum system to carry the voting information and assist information transmission, which takes the advantage of the GHZ-like states in terms of improving the utilization of quantum states by decreasing the number of required quantum states. It provides a potential approach to achieve the efficient quantum anonymous voting with high transmission security, especially in large-scale votes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272495, 61379153, and 61401519), the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20130162110012), and the MEST-NRF of Korea (Grant No. 2012-002521).

  6. Compromising Tor Anonymity Exploiting P2P Information Leakage

    Manils, Pere; Blond, Stevens Le; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Castelluccia, Claude; Legout, Arnaud; Dabbous, Walid


    Privacy of users in P2P networks goes far beyond their current usage and is a fundamental requirement to the adoption of P2P protocols for legal usage. In a climate of cold war between these users and anti-piracy groups, more and more users are moving to anonymizing networks in an attempt to hide their identity. However, when not designed to protect users information, a P2P protocol would leak information that may compromise the identity of its users. In this paper, we first present three attacks targeting BitTorrent users on top of Tor that reveal their real IP addresses. In a second step, we analyze the Tor usage by BitTorrent users and compare it to its usage outside of Tor. Finally, we depict the risks induced by this de-anonymization and show that users' privacy violation goes beyond BitTorrent traffic and contaminates other protocols such as HTTP.

  7. Sexual inactivity among men who have sex with men living with hiv in europe

    Platteau, Tom; Nostlinger, Christiana; Schrooten, Ward; Kenyon, Chris; van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; Colebunders, Robert


    Objectives: Most people living with HIV stay sexually active, but some remain inactive. This study investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual inactivity among European HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: An anonymous sexual health questionnaire was distributed in 17 HIV outpatient clinics throughout Europe. Ninety-seven (11.6%) of 838 respondents reported absence of sexual activity. Results: Multivariable regression analysis identified older age, relationship status, ...

  8. Mobbing on the workplace

    Vuković Drenka


    A phenomenon of mobbing has become very popular in mass-media, everyday speech, and scientific literature. In recent decades of the previous century, the systematic researches of the problem of mobbing on the workplace have been intensified. Most often, they refer to the research conducted by Henz Leymann, who precisely defined the term, determined the basic features, phases and consequences of mobbing, and also founded a clinic for giving support to the victims of mobbing. Further research o...

  9. Mobbing in the workplace

    Kantorová, Petra


    This bachelor thesis deals with the problems of mobbing in the workplace. The aim is to describe the issue of mobbing and based on information obtained from both the theoretical and practical part of this work to identify the features characteristic of mobbing and propose appropriate recommendations that would lead to prevention or early detection of mobbing. The work is divided into three parts, namely theoretical, methodological and practical.The first part is focused on the issue of mobbin...

  10. Reciprocity in the Workplace.

    Barr, Abigail; Serneels, Pieter


    Using combined experimental and survey data, this paper provides empirical evidence that firm productivity is related to worker’s pro-social behavior in the workplace. At the firm level, we find a strong positive relationship between firm productivity and reciprocating behavior among workers. Investigating workers’ individual behavior we find a similar, strong relationship when regressing earnings, a proxy for productivity, on reciprocity. To address simultaneity we use an inst...