Sample records for anonymized ons queries

  1. Evaluation of Anonymized ONS Queries

    Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Kranakis, Evangelos


    Electronic Product Code (EPC) is the basis of a pervasive infrastructure for the automatic identification of objects on supply chain applications (e.g., pharmaceutical or military applications). This infrastructure relies on the use of the (1) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to tag objects in motion and (2) distributed services providing information about objects via the Internet. A lookup service, called the Object Name Service (ONS) and based on the use of the Domain Name System (DNS), can be publicly accessed by EPC applications looking for information associated with tagged objects. Privacy issues may affect corporate infrastructures based on EPC technologies if their lookup service is not properly protected. A possible solution to mitigate these issues is the use of online anonymity. We present an evaluation experiment that compares the of use of Tor (The second generation Onion Router) on a global ONS/DNS setup, with respect to benefits, limitations, and latency.

  2. Private Queries and Trajectory Anonymization: a Dual Perspective on Location Privacy

    Gabriel Ghinita


    Full Text Available The emergence of mobile devices with Internet connectivity (e.g., Wi-Fi and global positioning capabilities (e.g., GPS have triggered the widespread development of location-based applications. For instance, users are able to ask queries about points of interest in their proximity. Furthermore, users can act as mobile sensors to monitor traffic flow, or levels of air pollution. However, such applications require users to disclose their locations, which raises serious privacy concerns. With knowledge of user locations, a malicious attacker can infer sensitive information, such as alternative lifestyles or political affiliations. Preserving location privacy is an essential requirement towards the successful deployment of location-based services (LBS. Currently, two main LBS use scenarios exist: in the first one, users send location-based queries to an un-trusted server, and the privacy objective is to protect the location of the querying user. In the second setting, a trusted entity, such as a telephone company, gathers large amounts of location data (i.e., trajectory traces and wishes to publish them for data mining (e.g., alleviating traffic congestion. In this case, it is crucial to prevent an adversary from associating trajectories to user identities. In this survey paper, we give an overview of the state-of-the-art in location privacy protection from the dual perspective of query privacy and trajectory anonymization. We review the most prominent design choices and technical solutions, and highlight their relative strengths and weaknesses.

  3. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  4. Anonymizing Unstructured Data

    Motwani, Rajeev


    In this paper we consider the problem of anonymizing datasets in which each individual is associated with a set of items that constitute private information about the individual. Illustrative datasets include market-basket datasets and search engine query logs. We formalize the notion of k-anonymity for set-valued data as a variant of the k-anonymity model for traditional relational datasets. We define an optimization problem that arises from this definition of anonymity and provide a constant factor approximation algorithm for the same. We evaluate our algorithms on the America Online query log dataset.

  5. Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data

    Hua, Ming


    Uncertain data is inherent in many important applications, such as environmental surveillance, market analysis, and quantitative economics research. Due to the importance of those applications and rapidly increasing amounts of uncertain data collected and accumulated, analyzing large collections of uncertain data has become an important task. Ranking queries (also known as top-k queries) are often natural and useful in analyzing uncertain data. Ranking Queries on Uncertain Data discusses the motivations/applications, challenging problems, the fundamental principles, and the evaluation algorith

  6. Anonymous communication networks protecting privacy on the web

    Peng, Kun


    In today's interactive network environment, where various types of organizations are eager to monitor and track Internet use, anonymity is one of the most powerful resources available to counterbalance the threat of unknown spectators and to ensure Internet privacy.Addressing the demand for authoritative information on anonymous Internet usage, Anonymous Communication Networks: Protecting Privacy on the Web examines anonymous communication networks as a solution to Internet privacy concerns. It explains how anonymous communication networks make it possible for participants to communicate with

  7. Anonymous Fingerprinting Based on Electronic Cash

    CHENXiaofeng; ZHANGFangguo; WANGJilin; WANGYumin


    A new anonymous fingerprinting protocol based on the principle of electronic cash is proposed in this paper.Redistributing a data item is equal to doublespending electronic cash.Contrasting with the previous coin-based anonymous fingerprinting protocol,we use the real electronic cash to trace traitors instead of the "coins" which serve only as a cryptographic primitive and have no monetary value,so it is easily understood and the bank does not need key-distribution and registration to prepare the "coina".

  8. User perspectives on query difficulty

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    difficult for the system to address? (2) Are users aware of specific features in their query (e.g., domain-specificity, vagueness) that may render their query difficult for an IR system to address? A study of 420 queries from a Web search engine query log that are pre-categorised as easy, medium, hard by...

  9. Digital anonymity on the internet : new rules for anonymous electronic transactions? an exploration of the private law implications of digital anonymity

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.; Prins, C.


    This article sets out the most important conclusions of the first stage of a study into the dimensions of digital anonymity. It is intended to set out the problem, make people aware of the intricacies of the problem and thus stimulate the debate on useful legal structures for anonymity. The article focuses on Holland’s private law dimensions, addressing situations where consumers want to purchase anonymously on the Internet.

  10. An Anonymous Authenticated Protocol Based on Zero Knowledge Proof

    Chao Jing


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the Internet, anonymity and privacy protection in many applications of the scene is critical. The anonymous authentication means that the server cant know the users identity when they are communicating with each other. In this paper, based on the Wangs zero knowledge proof scheme of possessing a digital signature, we propose a new anonymous authentication scheme. Compared with the Cui-Caos anonymous authentication protocol based on the ring signature, our scheme has two advantages. First, we dont need to know all users public keys. And then our scheme reduces the communication traffic largely. We also discuss the security attributes of our new scheme which are authentication, anonymity and unlinkablity. And then we introduce a concrete application of our scheme. Finally, we make a conclusion of this paper.

  11. On the Utility of Anonymized Flow Traces for Anomaly Detection

    Burkhart, Martin; May, Martin


    The sharing of network traces is an important prerequisite for the development and evaluation of efficient anomaly detection mechanisms. Unfortunately, privacy concerns and data protection laws prevent network operators from sharing these data. Anonymization is a promising solution in this context; however, it is unclear if the sanitization of data preserves the traffic characteristics or introduces artifacts that may falsify traffic analysis results. In this paper, we examine the utility of anonymized flow traces for anomaly detection. We quantitatively evaluate the impact of IP address anonymization, namely variations of permutation and truncation, on the detectability of large-scale anomalies. Specifically, we analyze three weeks of un-sampled and non-anonymized network traces from a medium-sized backbone network. We find that all anonymization techniques, except prefix-preserving permutation, degrade the utility of data for anomaly detection. We show that the degree of degradation depends to a large exten...

  12. Comments onAnonymous reviewers” [“Anonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”

    Robinove, Charles J.

    Mryl Beck's Forum article denouncing anonymous reviews (Eos, 1 July 2003) is right on the money. Perhaps he read my letter in Applied Physics in 1990 also denouncing anonymous reviews.Some years ago, I received an anonymous review of a paper I had submitted for journal publication. The reviewer raised such interesting questions that I wanted to discuss them with him. I phoned the editor of the journal and asked if he would tell me the name of the reviewer. He politely declined, but when I told him I thought I recognized the handwriting of the reviewer and named him, he relented and said I was correct! I called the reviewer and he was generous enough to spend a wonderful hour on the phone with me discussing the paper. The paper was published with great consideration given to his ideas, much to its betterment. Now that's a reviewer whose interest is in improving the paper and helping the author, not just showing how smart he is or slapping down a junior colleague. The AGU motto,“unselfish cooperation in research,” can be well exemplified by those who wish to help rather than to tear down.

  13. Path querying system on mobile devices

    Lin, Xing; Wang, Yifei; Tian, Yuan; Wu, Lun


    Traditional approaches to path querying problems are not efficient and convenient under most circumstances. A more convenient and reliable approach to this problem has to be found. This paper is devoted to a path querying solution on mobile devices. By using an improved Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm and a natural language translating module, this system can help people find the shortest path between two places through their cell phones or other mobile devices. The chosen path is prompted in text of natural language, as well as a map picture. This system would be useful in solving best path querying problems and have potential to be a profitable business system.

  14. Search Result Diversification Based on Query Facets

    胡莎; 窦志成; 王晓捷; 继荣


    In search engines, different users may search for different information by issuing the same query. To satisfy more users with limited search results, search result diversification re-ranks the results to cover as many user intents as possible. Most existing intent-aware diversification algorithms recognize user intents as subtopics, each of which is usually a word, a phrase, or a piece of description. In this paper, we leverage query facets to understand user intents in diversification, where each facet contains a group of words or phrases that explain an underlying intent of a query. We generate subtopics based on query facets and propose faceted diversification approaches. Experimental results on the public TREC 2009 dataset show that our faceted approaches outperform state-of-the-art diversification models.

  15. Evaluating SPARQL queries on massive RDF datasets

    Al-Harbi, Razen


    Distributed RDF systems partition data across multiple computer nodes. Partitioning is typically based on heuristics that minimize inter-node communication and it is performed in an initial, data pre-processing phase. Therefore, the resulting partitions are static and do not adapt to changes in the query workload; as a result, existing systems are unable to consistently avoid communication for queries that are not favored by the initial data partitioning. Furthermore, for very large RDF knowledge bases, the partitioning phase becomes prohibitively expensive, leading to high startup costs. In this paper, we propose AdHash, a distributed RDF system which addresses the shortcomings of previous work. First, AdHash initially applies lightweight hash partitioning, which drastically minimizes the startup cost, while favoring the parallel processing of join patterns on subjects, without any data communication. Using a locality-aware planner, queries that cannot be processed in parallel are evaluated with minimal communication. Second, AdHash monitors the data access patterns and adapts dynamically to the query load by incrementally redistributing and replicating frequently accessed data. As a result, the communication cost for future queries is drastically reduced or even eliminated. Our experiments with synthetic and real data verify that AdHash (i) starts faster than all existing systems, (ii) processes thousands of queries before other systems become online, and (iii) gracefully adapts to the query load, being able to evaluate queries on billion-scale RDF data in sub-seconds. In this demonstration, audience can use a graphical interface of AdHash to verify its performance superiority compared to state-of-the-art distributed RDF systems.

  16. Theoretical Results on De-Anonymization via Linkage Attacks

    Martin M. Merener


    Full Text Available Consider a database D with records containing history of individuals' transactions, that has been de-identified, i.e., the variables that uniquely associate records with individuals have been removed from the data. An adversary de-anonymizes D via a linkage attack if using some auxiliary information about a certain individual in the database, it can determine which record of D corresponds to such individual. One example of this is given in the article Robust De-anonymization of Large Sparse Datasets, by Narayanan and Shmatikov [19], which shows that an anonymized database containing records with ratings of different movies rented by customers of Netflix, could in fact be de-anonymized using very little auxiliary information, even with errors. Besides the heuristic de-anonymization of the Netflix database, Narayanan and Shmatikov provide interesting theoretical results about database de-anonymization that an adversary can produce under general conditions. In this article we revisit these theoretical results, and work them further. Our first contribution is to exhibit different simple cases in which the algorithm Scoreboard, meant to produce the theoretical de-anonymization in [19], fails to do so. By requiring 1-sim to be a pseudo-metric, and that the algorithm producing the de-anonymization outputs a record with minimum support among the candidates, we obtain and prove deanonymization results similar to those described in [19]. We then consider a new hypothesis, motivated by the fact (observed in heuristic de-anonymizations that when the auxiliary information contains values corresponding to rare attributes, the de-anonymization achieved is stronger. We formalize this using the notion on long tail [4], and give new theorems expressing the level of de-anonymization in terms of the parameters of the tail of the database D. The improvement in the deanonymization is reflected in the fact that when at least one value in the auxiliary information

  17. On the Feasibility of (Practical Commercial Anonymous Cloud Storage

    Tobias Pulls


    Full Text Available Current de facto standard payment and billing models for commercial cloud storage services provide a plethora of information to the cloud provider about its clients. This leads to a hostile environment when seen from a privacy perspective. Motivated by recently leaked facts about large scale governmental surveillance efforts as well as the lack of privacy-preserving measures in existing commercial cloud storage services, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of so called anonymous cloud storage services which require user payment (which we call commercial anonymous cloud storage. Anonymity in this context can be seen as the absence of information to uniquely identify a provider's client that is storing and manipulating data at the provider while at the same time still allowing fair billing, for both, the clients and the cloud provider. Although encrypting data prior to outsourcing helps to protect data privacy and can be achieved without the cloud provider's consent, the issues we are interested in, do not seem to be achievable that easily. However, while various measures for the latter issue, i.e., realizing access privacy, have been studied in the past, the role of privacy in context of billing and payment for cloud storage has, until now, remained unexplored. We therefore introduce an abstract model for commercial cloud storage services to define various types of anonymous cloud storage, study several payment and billing models for cloud storage services and their impact on the anonymity of the service's clients. Moreover, we discuss several solutions to provide anonymity within the different models. Our findings highlight the importance of anonymous payment for the practical deployment of commercial privacy-friendly cloud storage services. Furthermore, we provide directions for future work in some settings, i.e., when anonymous payment is not available, as interesting open challenges.

  18. Location Prediction Based on Transition Probability Matrices Constructing from Sequential Rules for Spatial-Temporal K-Anonymity Dataset.

    Zhang, Haitao; Chen, Zewei; Liu, Zhao; Zhu, Yunhong; Wu, Chenxue


    Spatial-temporal k-anonymity has become a mainstream approach among techniques for protection of users' privacy in location-based services (LBS) applications, and has been applied to several variants such as LBS snapshot queries and continuous queries. Analyzing large-scale spatial-temporal anonymity sets may benefit several LBS applications. In this paper, we propose two location prediction methods based on transition probability matrices constructing from sequential rules for spatial-temporal k-anonymity dataset. First, we define single-step sequential rules mined from sequential spatial-temporal k-anonymity datasets generated from continuous LBS queries for multiple users. We then construct transition probability matrices from mined single-step sequential rules, and normalize the transition probabilities in the transition matrices. Next, we regard a mobility model for an LBS requester as a stationary stochastic process and compute the n-step transition probability matrices by raising the normalized transition probability matrices to the power n. Furthermore, we propose two location prediction methods: rough prediction and accurate prediction. The former achieves the probabilities of arriving at target locations along simple paths those include only current locations, target locations and transition steps. By iteratively combining the probabilities for simple paths with n steps and the probabilities for detailed paths with n-1 steps, the latter method calculates transition probabilities for detailed paths with n steps from current locations to target locations. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments, and correctness and flexibility of our proposed algorithm have been verified. PMID:27508502

  19. [Self-disclosure on the Internet: the effects of anonymity of the self and the other].

    Sato, Hirotsune; Yoshida, Fujio


    The effects of anonymity on self-disclosure were investigated in a CMC (computer-mediated communication) situation by separately manipulating the anonymity of the self and the other. It was hypothesized that anonymity of the self would enhance disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other would decrease it. Female undergraduate students (n = 60) were randomly assigned to a 2 (self: anonymous or non-anonymous) x 2 (other: anonymous or non-anonymous) experimental design. The anonymity of the self and the other was manipulated in the profile, such as the photo, name, and sex of the self or the other, on the computer screen. The results indicated that anonymity of the self decreased the feeling of anxiety, but had no effect on disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other decreased the feeling of closeness and decreased the intimacy of disclosure. PMID:18402057

  20. Implementing Graph Pattern Queries on a Relational Database

    Kaplan, I L; Abdulla, G M; Brugger, S T; Kohn, S R


    When a graph database is implemented on top of a relational database, queries in the graph query language are translated into relational SQL queries. Graph pattern queries are an important feature of a graph query language. Translating graph pattern queries into single SQL statements results in very poor query performance. By taking into account the pattern query structure and generating multiple SQL statements, pattern query performance can be dramatically improved. The performance problems encountered with the single SQL statements generated for pattern queries reflects a problem in the SQL query planner and optimizer. Addressing this problem would allow relational databases to better support semantic graph databases. Relational database systems that provide good support for graph databases may also be more flexible platforms for data warehouses.

  1. Query Expansion Based on Clustered Results

    Liu, Ziyang; Chen, Yi


    Query expansion is a functionality of search engines that suggests a set of related queries for a user-issued keyword query. Typical corpus-driven keyword query expansion approaches return popular words in the results as expanded queries. Using these approaches, the expanded queries may correspond to a subset of possible query semantics, and thus miss relevant results. To handle ambiguous queries and exploratory queries, whose result relevance is difficult to judge, we propose a new framework for keyword query expansion: we start with clustering the results according to user specified granularity, and then generate expanded queries, such that one expanded query is generated for each cluster whose result set should ideally be the corresponding cluster. We formalize this problem and show its APX-hardness. Then we propose two efficient algorithms named iterative single-keyword refinement and partial elimination based convergence, respectively, which effectively generate a set of expanded queries from clustered r...

  2. Research on Deep Web Query Interface Clustering Based on Hadoop

    Baohua Qiang; Rui Zhang; Yufeng Wang; Qian He; Wei Li; Sai Wang


    How to cluster different query interfaces effectively is one of the most core issues when generating integrated query interface on Deep Web integration domain. However, with the rapid development of Internet technology, the number of Deep Web query interface shows an explosive growth trend. For this reason, the traditional stand-alone Deep Web query interface clustering approaches encounter bottlenecks in terms of time complexity and space complexity. After further study of the Hadoop distrib...

  3. Research on Anonymization and De-anonymization in the Bitcoin System

    ShenTu, QingChun; Yu, JianPing


    The Bitcoin system is an anonymous, decentralized crypto-currency. There are some deanonymizating techniques to cluster Bitcoin addresses and to map them to users' identifications in the two research directions of Analysis of Transaction Chain (ATC) and Analysis of Bitcoin Protocol and Network (ABPN). Nowadays, there are also some anonymization methods such as coin-mixing and transaction remote release (TRR) to cover the relationship between Bitcoin address and the user. This paper studies an...

  4. Query Representation with Global Consistency on User Click Graph

    Zhang, Daqiang; Zhu, Rongbo; Men, Shuqiqiu; Raychoudhury, Vaskar


    Extensive research has been conducted on query log analysis. A query log is generally represented as a bipartite graph on a query set and a URL set. Most of the traditional methods used the raw click frequency to weigh the link between a query and a URL on the click graph. In order to address the disadvantages of raw click frequency, researchers proposed the entropy-biased model, which incorporates raw click frequency with inverse query frequency of the URL as the weighting scheme for query r...

  5. On-Line Anonymity: A New Privacy Battle in Cyberspace.

    Lee, Laurie Thomas


    States that lawsuits are being filed that challenge anonymity and freedom of speech in cyberspace--is there a right to online anonymity? Examines the debate and issues associated with anonymous communications in cyberspace. Explores the "right of informational privacy" as it pertains to anonymity. Suggests some regulatory approaches for addressing…

  6. A Fast Survey on Methods for Classification Anonymity Requirements

    Kharaji, Morteza Yousefi; Rizi, Fatemeh Salehi


    Anonymity has become a significant issue in security field by recent advances in information technology and internet. The main objective of anonymity is hiding and concealing entities privacy inside a system. Many methods and protocols have been proposed with different anonymity services to provide anonymity requirements in various fields until now. Each anonymity method or protocol is developed using particular approach. In this paper, first, accurate and perfect definitions of privacy and a...

  7. Context-Free Path Queries on RDF Graphs

    Zhang, Xiaowang; Feng, Zhiyong; Wang, Xin; Rao, Guozheng


    A navigational query on a graph database returns binary relations over the nodes of the graph. Recently, regular expression-based path query languages are popular in expressing navigational queries on RDF graphs. It is natural to replace regular expressions by context-free grammar so that the power of current regular expression-based path query languages would be increased since regular expressions are strictly subsumed in context-free grammar. In this paper, we present context-free path quer...

  8. Complex transitive closure queries on a fragmented graph

    Houtsma, Maurice A.W.; Apers, Peter M.G.; Ceri, Stefano; Abiteboul, Serge; Kanellakis, Paris C.


    In this paper we study the reformulation of transitive closure queries on a fragmented graph. We split a query into several subqueries, each requiring only a fragment of the graph. We prove this reformulation to be correct for shortest path and bill of material queries. Here we describe the reformul

  9. A Framework for WWW Query Processing

    Wu, Binghui Helen; Wharton, Stephen (Technical Monitor)


    Query processing is the most common operation in a DBMS. Sophisticated query processing has been mainly targeted at a single enterprise environment providing centralized control over data and metadata. Submitting queries by anonymous users on the web is different in such a way that load balancing or DBMS' accessing control becomes the key issue. This paper provides a solution by introducing a framework for WWW query processing. The success of this framework lies in the utilization of query optimization techniques and the ontological approach. This methodology has proved to be cost effective at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (GDAAC).

  10. Effects of data anonymization by cell suppression on descriptive statistics and predictive modeling performance.

    Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Vinterbo, Staal; Dreiseitl, Stephan


    Protecting individual data in disclosed databases is essential. Data anonymization strategies can produce table ambiguation by suppression of selected cells. Using table ambiguation, different degrees of anonymization can be achieved, depending on the number of individuals that a particular case must become indistinguishable from. This number defines the level of anonymization. Anonymization by cell suppression does not necessarily prevent inferences from being made from the disclosed data. P...

  11. Practical System for Querying Encrypted Data on the Cloud

    Parul Upadhyaya


    Full Text Available This paper proposes, compares and analyses query optimization techniques to securely query encrypted databases. Such querying capability is becoming increasingly relevant as individuals and enterprises move their data to the cloud. The schemes discussed delve into various design issues like speed, scalability and efficiency that are encountered in the context querying encrypted data that is on the cloud. We determine the exact differences in terms of the nature, scenario and behavior amongst the different approaches in between the existing probable solution and our solution that can be applied to the querying problem.

  12. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible. (general)

  13. Multidimensional Data Querying on Tree-Structured Overlay

    XU Lizhen; WANG Shiyuan


    Multidimensional data query has been gaining much interest in database research communities in recent years, yet many of the existing studies focus mainly on centralized systems.A solution to querying in Peer-to-Peer(P2P) environment was proposed to achieve both low processing cost in terms of the number of peers accessed and search messages and balanced query loads among peers.The system is based on a balanced tree structured P2P network.By partitioning the query space intelligently, the amount of query forwarding is effectively controlled, and the number of peers involved and search messages are also limited.Dynamic load balancing can be achieved during space partitioning and query resolving.Extensive experiments confirm the effectiveness and scalability of our algorithms on P2P networks.

  14. Path-based Queries on Trajectory Data

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Pelekis, Nikos; Theodoridis, Yannis;


    In traffic research, management, and planning a number of path-based analyses are heavily used, e.g., for computing turn-times, evaluating green waves, or studying traffic flow. These analyses require retrieving the trajectories that follow the full path being analyzed. Existing path queries cannot...... sufficiently support such path-based analyses because they retrieve all trajectories that touch any edge in the path. In this paper, we define and formalize the strict path query. This is a novel query type tailored to support path-based analysis, where trajectories must follow all edges in the path...... a specific path by only retrieving data from the first and last edge in the path. To correctly answer strict path queries existing network-constrained trajectory indexes must retrieve data from all edges in the path. An extensive performance study of NETTRA using a very large real-world trajectory data set...

  15. The effect of query complexity on Web searching results

    B.J. Jansen


    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study of the effects of query structure on retrieval by Web search services. Fifteen queries were selected from the transaction log of a major Web search service in simple query form with no advanced operators (e.g., Boolean operators, phrase operators, etc. and submitted to 5 major search engines - Alta Vista, Excite, FAST Search, Infoseek, and Northern Light. The results from these queries became the baseline data. The original 15 queries were then modified using the various search operators supported by each of the 5 search engines for a total of 210 queries. Each of these 210 queries was also submitted to the applicable search service. The results obtained were then compared to the baseline results. A total of 2,768 search results were returned by the set of all queries. In general, increasing the complexity of the queries had little effect on the results with a greater than 70% overlap in results, on average. Implications for the design of Web search services and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Anonymity in the Wild: Mixes on unstructured networks

    Nagaraja, Shishir


    As decentralized computing scenarios get ever more popular, unstructured topologies are natural candidates to consider running mix networks upon. We consider mix network topologies where mixes are placed on the nodes of an unstructured network, such as social networks and scale-free random networks. We explore the efficiency and traffic analysis resistance properties of mix networks based on unstructured topologies as opposed to theoretically optimal structured topologies, under high latency conditions. We consider a mix of directed and undirected network models, as well as one real world case study -- the LiveJournal friendship network topology. Our analysis indicates that mix-networks based on scale-free and small-world topologies have, firstly, mix-route lengths that are roughly comparable to those in expander graphs; second, that compromise of the most central nodes has little effect on anonymization properties, and third, batch sizes required for warding off intersection attacks need to be an order of ma...

  17. On the query complexity of finding a local maximum point

    Rastsvelaev, A.L.; Beklemishev, L.D.


    We calculate the minimal number of queries sufficient to find a local maximum point of a functiun on a discrete interval for a model with M parallel queries, M≥1. Matching upper and lower bounds are obtained. The bounds are formulated in terms of certain Fibonacci type sequences of numbers.

  18. External Data Structures for Shortest Path Queries on Planar Digraphs

    Arge, Lars; Toma, Laura

    In this paper we present space-query trade-offs for external memory data structures that answer shortest path queries on planar directed graphs. For any S = Ω(N 1 + ε) and S = O(N2/B), our main result is a family of structures that use S space and answer queries in O(N2/ S B) I/Os, thus obtaining...... optimal space-query product O(N2/B). An S space structure can be constructed in O(√S · sort(N)) I/Os, where sort(N) is the number of I/Os needed to sort N elements, B is the disk block size, and N is the size of the graph.......In this paper we present space-query trade-offs for external memory data structures that answer shortest path queries on planar directed graphs. For any S = Ω(N 1 + ε) and S = O(N2/B), our main result is a family of structures that use S space and answer queries in O(N2/ S B) I/Os, thus obtaining...

  19. Query deforestation

    Grust, Torsten; Scholl, Marc H.


    The construction of a declarative query engine for a DBMS includes the challenge of compiling algebraic queries into efficient execution plans that can be run on top of the persistent storage. This work pursues the goal of employing foldr-build deforestation for the derivation of efficient streaming programs - programs that do not allocate intermediate data structures to perform their task - from algebraic (combinator) query plans. The query engine is based on the insertion representation of ...

  20. Blink and it's done: Interactive queries on very large data

    Agarwal, Sameer; Iyer, Anand P.; Panda, Aurojit; Mozafari, Barzan; Stoica, Ion; Madden, Samuel R.


    In this demonstration, we present BlinkDB, a massively parallel, sampling-based approximate query processing framework for running interactive queries on large volumes of data. The key observation in BlinkDB is that one can make reasonable decisions in the absence of perfect answers. BlinkDB extends the Hive/HDFS stack and can handle the same set of SPJA (selection, projection, join and aggregate) queries as supported by these systems. BlinkDB provides real-time answers along with statistical...

  1. On the Definitions of Anonymity for Ring Signatures

    Ohkubo, Miyako; Abe, Masayuki

    This paper studies the relations among several definitions of anonymity for ring signature schemes in the same attack environment. It is shown that one intuitive and two technical definitions we consider are asymptotically equivalent, and the indistinguishability-based technical definition is the strongest, i. e., the most secure when achieved, when the exact reduction cost is taken into account. We then extend our result to the threshold case where a subset of members cooperate to create a signature. The threshold setting makes the notion of anonymity more complex and yields a greater variety of definitions. We explore several notions and observe certain relation does not seem hold unlike the simple single-signer case. Nevertheless, we see that an indistinguishability-based definition is the most favorable in the threshold case. We also study the notion of linkability and present a simple scheme that achieves both anonymity and linkability.

  2. The retrieval effectiveness of search engines on navigational queries

    Lewandowski, Dirk


    Purpose - To test major Web search engines on their performance on navigational queries, i.e. searches for homepages. Design/methodology/approach - 100 real user queries are posed to six search engines (Google, Yahoo, MSN, Ask, Seekport, and Exalead). Users described the desired pages, and the results position of these is recorded. Measured success N and mean reciprocal rank are calculated. Findings - Performance of the major search engines Google, Yahoo, and MSN is best, with around 90 perce...

  3. Study on consistent query answering in inconsistent databases

    XIE Dong; YANG Luming


    Consistent query answering is an approach to retrieving consistent answers over databases that might be inconsistent with respect to some given integrity constraints The approach is based on a concept of repair.This paper surveys several recent researches on obtaining consistent information from inconsistent databases,such as the underlying semantic model,a number of approaches to computing consistent query answers and the computational complexity of this problem.Furthermore,the work outlines potential research directions in this area.

  4. Data Processing on Database Management Systems with Fuzzy Query

    Şimşek, Irfan; Topuz, Vedat

    In this study, a fuzzy query tool (SQLf) for non-fuzzy database management systems was developed. In addition, samples of fuzzy queries were made by using real data with the tool developed in this study. Performance of SQLf was tested with the data about the Marmara University students' food grant. The food grant data were collected in MySQL database by using a form which had been filled on the web. The students filled a form on the web to describe their social and economical conditions for the food grant request. This form consists of questions which have fuzzy and crisp answers. The main purpose of this fuzzy query is to determine the students who deserve the grant. The SQLf easily found the eligible students for the grant through predefined fuzzy values. The fuzzy query tool (SQLf) could be used easily with other database system like ORACLE and SQL server.

  5. gSketch: On Query Estimation in Graph Streams

    Zhao, Peixiang; Wang, Min


    Many dynamic applications are built upon large network infrastructures, such as social networks, communication networks, biological networks and the Web. Such applications create data that can be naturally modeled as graph streams, in which edges of the underlying graph are received and updated sequentially in a form of a stream. It is often necessary and important to summarize the behavior of graph streams in order to enable effective query processing. However, the sheer size and dynamic nature of graph streams present an enormous challenge to existing graph management techniques. In this paper, we propose a new graph sketch method, gSketch, which combines well studied synopses for traditional data streams with a sketch partitioning technique, to estimate and optimize the responses to basic queries on graph streams. We consider two different scenarios for query estimation: (1) A graph stream sample is available; (2) Both a graph stream sample and a query workload sample are available. Algorithms for differen...

  6. Who Goes There? Staying Anonymous on the Internet

    Descy, Don E.


    Privacy is a thing of the past. Monitoring is everywhere. If one is looking at this online, the author is sure that lots of information has been stored and linked to anyone about that action. Nevertheless, at least people can try to play with "their" minds and surf the web anonymously. In this article, the author discusses ways to try to hide…

  7. Against anonymity.

    Baker, Robert


    In 'New Threats to Academic Freedom' Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ' After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?'--an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial articles the option of publishing their articles anonymously. This response reviews the history of anonymous publication and concludes that its reintroduction in the Internet era would recreate problems similar to those that led print journals to abandon the practice: corruption of scholarly discourse by invective and hate speech, masked conflicts of interest, and a diminution of editorial accountability. It also contends that Minerva misreads the intent of the hostile e-mails provoked by 'After-birth abortion,' and that ethicists who publish controversial articles should take responsibility by dialoguing with their critics--even those whose critiques are emotionally charged and hostile. PMID:24724540

  8. Alcoholics Anonymous

    ... Banners Site Help What's New Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® NEED HELP WITH A DRINKING PROBLEM? If you ... drinking problem, wish to learn more about Alcoholics Anonymous or want to find A.A. near you, ...

  9. On the Feasibility of (Practical) Commercial Anonymous Cloud Storage

    Tobias Pulls; Daniel Slamanig


    Current de facto standard payment and billing models for commercial cloud storage services provide a plethora of information to the cloud provider about its clients. This leads to a hostile environment when seen from a privacy perspective. Motivated by recently leaked facts about large scale governmental surveillance efforts as well as the lack of privacy-preserving measures in existing commercial cloud storage services, in this paper, we investigate the feasibility of so called anonymous clo...

  10. Query Translation on the Fly in Deep Web Integration

    JIANG Fangjiao; JIA Linlin; MENG Xiaofeng


    To facilitate users to access the desired information,many researches have dedicated to the Deep Web (i.e. Web databases) integration. We focus on query translation which is an important part of the Deep Web integration. Our aim is to construct automatically a set of constraints mapping rules so that the system can translate the query from the integrated interface to the Web database interfaces based on them. We construct a concept hierarchy for the attributes of the query interfaces, especially, store the synonyms and the types (e.g. Number, Text, etc.) for every concept.At the same time, we construct the data hierarchies for some concepts if necessary. Then we present an algorithm to generate the constraint mapping rules based on these hierarchies. The approach is suitable for the scalability of such application and can be extended easily from one domain to another for its domain independent feature. The results of experiment show its effectiveness and efficiency.


    Li, Xingan


    While information systems provide modern society with great convenience, it also poses new problems in maintaining social order. One of its negative influences is the anonymity of cyberspace, which makes identity tracing a noteworthy predicament which poses obstacles in detection and investigations. It has been found that cyber anonymity has critical impacts on criminal motivation, and the phenomena of victimization, and should be tackled on different layers including technology and law enfor...

  12. Quantum anonymous ranking based on the Chinese remainder theorem

    Lin, Song; Guo, Gong-De; Huang, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Fen


    In this paper, an efficient quantum anonymous ranking protocol with single particles is proposed. A semitrusted server is introduced to help multiple users achieve this secure task. At the end of the protocol, each user can obtain the rankings of his private data, and keep these data secret. The Chinese remainder theorem is utilized to reduce the level of signal particles and to improve the efficiency of the presented protocol. Meanwhile, a secret transmission order of the signal particles is used to keep the traveling particles secure. Finally, we discuss the security of this protocol and prove it to be secure against certain common attacks under ideal conditions.

  13. Efficient Path Query and Reasoning Method Based on Rare Axis

    姜洋; 冯志勇; 王鑫马晓宁


    A new concept of rare axis based on statistical facts is proposed, and an evaluation algorithm is designed thereafter. For the nested regular expressions containing rare axes, the proposed algorithm can reduce its evaluation complexity from polynomial time to nearly linear time. The distributed technique is also employed to construct the navigation axis indexes for resource description framework (RDF) graph data. Experiment results in DrugBank and BioGRID show that this method can improve the query efficiency significantly while ensuring the accuracy and meet the query requirements on Web-scale RDF graph data.

  14. On a Fuzzy Algebra for Querying Graph Databases

    Pivert, Olivier; Thion, Virginie; Jaudoin, Hélène; Smits, Grégory


    International audience This paper proposes a notion of fuzzy graph database and describes a fuzzy query algebra that makes it possible to handle such database, which may be fuzzy or not, in a flexible way. The algebra, based on fuzzy set theory and the concept of a fuzzy graph, is composed of a set of operators that can be used to express preference queries on fuzzy graph databases. The preferences concern i) the content of the vertices of the graph and ii) the structure of the graph. In a...

  15. Public Forum Help Seeking: the Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behavior

    Barnes, David J.


    Public Forum Help Seeking: The Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behaviour David J. Barnes Published in Computer Based Learning in Science '99, Editor Graham M. Chapman, ISBN 80-7042-144-4. Conference Proceedings of CBLIS '99, Twente University, Enschede, the Netherlands, 2nd July - 6th July 1999. Abstract We investigate the impact of providing anonymity to a group of undergraduate Computing students, in order to encourage them to seek help for course related questions. We...

  16. On (dynamic) range minimum queries in external memory

    Arge, L.; Fischer, Johannes; Sanders, Peter; Sitchinava, Nodari

    We study the one-dimensional range minimum query (RMQ) problem in the external memory model. We provide the first space-optimal solution to the batched static version of the problem. On an instance with N elements and Q queries, our solution takes Θ(sort(N + Q)) = Θ( N+QB log M /B N+QB ) I....../O complexity and O(N + Q) space, where M is the size of the main memory and B is the block size. This is a factor of O(log M /B N) improvement in space complexity over the previous solutions. We also show that an instance of the batched dynamic RMQ problem with N updates and Q queries can be solved in O ( N...

  17. To Speak or Not to Speak: Developing Legal Standards for Anonymous Speech on the Internet

    Tomas A. Lipinski


    Full Text Available This paper explores recent developments in the regulation of Internet speech, in specific, injurious or defamatory speech and the impact such speech has on the rights of anonymous speakers to remain anonymous as opposed to having their identity revealed to plaintiffs or other third parties. The paper proceeds in four sections.  First, a brief history of the legal attempts to regulate defamatory Internet speech in the United States is presented. As discussed below this regulation has altered the traditional legal paradigm of responsibility and as a result creates potential problems for the future of anonymous speech on the Internet.  As a result plaintiffs are no longer pursuing litigation against service providers but taking their dispute directly to the anonymous speaker. Second, several cases have arisen in the United States where plaintiffs have requested that the identity of an anonymous Internet speaker be revealed.  These cases are surveyed.  Third, the cases are analyzed in order to determine the factors that courts require to be present before the identity of an anonymous speaker will be revealed.  The release is typically accomplished by the enforcement of a discovery subpoena instigated by the party seeking the identity of the anonymous speaker. The factors courts have used are as follows: jurisdiction, good faith (both internal and external, necessity (basic and sometimes absolute, and at times proprietary interest. Finally, these factors are applied in three scenarios--e-commerce, education, and employment--to guide institutions when adopting policies that regulate when the identity of an anonymous speaker--a customer, a student or an employee--would be released as part of an internal initiative, but would nonetheless be consistent with developing legal standards.

  18. Private database queries based on counterfactual quantum key distribution

    Zhang, Jia-Li; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bin; Wen, Qiao-Yan


    Based on the fundamental concept of quantum counterfactuality, we propose a protocol to achieve quantum private database queries, which is a theoretical study of how counterfactuality can be employed beyond counterfactual quantum key distribution (QKD). By adding crucial detecting apparatus to the device of QKD, the privacy of both the distrustful user and the database owner can be guaranteed. Furthermore, the proposed private-database-query protocol makes full use of the low efficiency in the counterfactual QKD, and by adjusting the relevant parameters, the protocol obtains excellent flexibility and extensibility.

  19. Design of a Visual Query Language for Geographic Information System on a Touch Screen

    Wu, Siju; Otmane, Samir; Moreau, Guillaume; Servieres, Myriam


    This paper presents two spatial query methods for a Geographic Information System (GIS) that runs on a touch screen. On conventional GIS interfaces SQL is used to construct spatial queries. However keyboard typing proves to be inefficient on touch screens. Furthermore, SQL is not an easy-learning language, especially for novices to GIS. To simplify query construction, firstly we have designed a map interaction based query method (MIBQM). This method allows users to make simple queries by sele...

  20. Protecting whistle-blowers: Anonymity on the internet

    Even though strict legislation exists in many countries, it appears that the next few years should be a golden opportunity for groups to successfully monitor and publish the activity of the nuclear states, and human right violations through use of the Internet. The reasons for this are: 1. The Internet is becoming widespread even in repressive regimes; 2. Software is available to either hide messages from others or hide the mailers account; 3. Information from sites in other countries can be easily obtained to be read inside repressive regimes from the Internet. In this regard It is suggested the Pugwash or a similar organization should set up either an anonymous account to receive information or maybe use a more heavily protected cyperpunk remailer. Such an ability would hopefully prompt more people to notify treaty violations

  1. On Statistical Query Sampling and NMR Quantum Computing

    Blum, A S; Blum, Avrim; Yang, Ke


    We introduce a ``Statistical Query Sampling'' model, in which the goal of an algorithm is to produce an element in a hidden set $Ssubseteqbit^n$ with reasonable probability. The algorithm gains information about $S$ through oracle calls (statistical queries), where the algorithm submits a query function $g(cdot)$ and receives an approximation to $Pr_{x in S}[g(x)=1]$. We show how this model is related to NMR quantum computing, in which only statistical properties of an ensemble of quantum systems can be measured, and in particular to the question of whether one can translate standard quantum algorithms to the NMR setting without putting all of their classical post-processing into the quantum system. Using Fourier analysis techniques developed in the related context of {em statistical query learning}, we prove a number of lower bounds (both information-theoretic and cryptographic) on the ability of algorithms to produces an $xin S$, even when the set $S$ is fairly simple. These lower bounds point out a difficu...

  2. Lower Bounds on Quantum Query Complexity

    P. Hoyer; R. Spalek


    Shor's and Grover's famous quantum algorithms for factoring and searching show that quantum computers can solve certain computational problems significantly faster than any classical computer. We discuss here what quantum computers cannot do, and specifically how to prove limits on their computation

  3. Research on Extension of Sparql Ontology Query Language Considering the Computation of Indoor Spatial Relations

    Li, C.; Zhu, X.; Guo, W.; Liu, Y.; Huang, H.


    A method suitable for indoor complex semantic query considering the computation of indoor spatial relations is provided According to the characteristics of indoor space. This paper designs ontology model describing the space related information of humans, events and Indoor space objects (e.g. Storey and Room) as well as their relations to meet the indoor semantic query. The ontology concepts are used in IndoorSPARQL query language which extends SPARQL syntax for representing and querying indoor space. And four types specific primitives for indoor query, "Adjacent", "Opposite", "Vertical" and "Contain", are defined as query functions in IndoorSPARQL used to support quantitative spatial computations. Also a method is proposed to analysis the query language. Finally this paper adopts this method to realize indoor semantic query on the study area through constructing the ontology model for the study building. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can effectively support complex indoor space semantic query.

  4. On performing semantic queries in small devices

    Costea, C.; Petrovan, A.; Neamţ, L.; Chiver, O.


    The sensors have a well-defined role in control or monitoring industrial processes; the data given by them can generate valuable information of the trend of the systems to which they belong, but to store a large volume of data and then analysis offline is not always practical. One solution is on-line analysis, preferably as close to the place where data have been generated (edge computing). An increasing amount of data generated by a growing number of devices connected to the Internet resulted in processing data sensors to the edge of the network, in a middle layer where smart entities should interoperate. Diversity of communication technologies outlined the idea of using intermediate devices such as gateways in sensor networks and for this reason the paper examines the functionality of a SPARQL endpoint in the Raspberry Pi device.

  5. Anonymity, Deindividuation and Aggression.

    Baron, Robert S.

    Several writers suggest that reducing one's sense of individuality reduces social restraints. The author suggests that the effect of uniformity of appearance on aggression is unclear when anonymity is held constant. This poses a problem of interpretation given that a distinction must be made between lack of individuality and anonymity. One must…

  6. Open Access and Database Anonymization an Open Source Procedure Based on an Italian Case Study

    Leschiutta, Luca; Futia, Giuseppe


    The only method, believed to be compliant to privacy laws, to open a database that contains personal data is anonymization. This work is focused on a car accidents database case study and on the Italian DP law. Database anonymization is described from a procedural point of view and it is explained how it is possible to complete the whole process relying solely on widespread open-source software applications. The proposed approach is empirical and is founded on the letter of the Italian privac...

  7. Query optimization for graph analytics on linked data using SPARQL

    Hong, Seokyong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Sangkeun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lim, Seung -Hwan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sukumar, Sreenivas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Vatsavai, Ranga Raju [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Triplestores that support query languages such as SPARQL are emerging as the preferred and scalable solution to represent data and meta-data as massive heterogeneous graphs using Semantic Web standards. With increasing adoption, the desire to conduct graph-theoretic mining and exploratory analysis has also increased. Addressing that desire, this paper presents a solution that is the marriage of Graph Theory and the Semantic Web. We present software that can analyze Linked Data using graph operations such as counting triangles, finding eccentricity, testing connectedness, and computing PageRank directly on triple stores via the SPARQL interface. We describe the process of optimizing performance of the SPARQL-based implementation of such popular graph algorithms by reducing the space-overhead, simplifying iterative complexity and removing redundant computations by understanding query plans. Our optimized approach shows significant performance gains on triplestores hosted on stand-alone workstations as well as hardware-optimized scalable supercomputers such as the Cray XMT.

  8. True Anonymity Without Mixes

    Molina-Jimenez, C.; Marshall, L.


    Anonymizers based on mix computers interposed between the sender and the receiver of an e-mail message have been used in the Internet for several years by senders of e-mail messages who do not wish to disclose their identity. Unfortunately, the degree of anonymity provided by this paradigm is limited and fragile. First, the messages sent are not truly anonymous but pseudo-anonymous since one of the mixes, at least, always knows the sender's identity. Secondly, the strength of the system to protect the sender's identity depends on the ability and the willingness of the mixes to keep the secret. If the mixes fail, the sender/'s anonymity is reduced to pieces. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for sending truly anonymous messages over the Internet where the anonymous message is sent from a PDA which uses dynamically assigned temporary, non-personal, random IP and MAC addresses. Anonymous E-cash is used to pay for the service.

  9. A Personalization Recommendation Method Based on Deep Web Data Query

    Tao Tan; Hongjun Chen


    Deep Web is becoming a hot research topic in the area of database. Most of the existing researches mainly focus on Deep Web data integration technology. Deep Web data integration can partly satisfy people's needs of Deep Web information search, but it cannot learn users’ interest, and people search the same content online repeatedly would cause much unnecessary waste. According to this kind of demand, this paper introduced personalization recommendation to the Deep Web data query, propo...

  10. Impact of Anonymity on Information Sharing through Internal Psychological Processes: A Case of South Korean Online Communities

    Ho Lee; Jaewon Choi; Kyung Kyu Kim; Ae Ri Lee


    Many web users post their opinions and information without revealing their identities (i.e., demographics, social standing, and/or expertise); anonymity has become a common form of information exchange in online communities such as social media sites and Internet forums. In the meantime, negative social consequences have resulted from anonymous activities in online communities. Existing literature reports largely mixed results about the impact of online anonymity on online community outcomes....

  11. Adding query privacy to robust DHTs

    Backes, Michael; Goldberg, Ian; Kate, Aniket;


    Interest in anonymous communication over distributed hash tables (DHTs) has increased in recent years. However, almost all known solutions solely aim at achieving sender or requestor anonymity in DHT queries. In many application scenarios, it is crucial that the queried key remains secret from in...

  12. The Framework for Approximate Queries on Simulation Data

    Abdulla, G; Baldwin, C; Critchlow, T; Kamimura, R; Lee, B; Musick, R; Snapp, R; Tang, N


    AQSim is a system intended to enable scientists to query and analyze a large volume of scientific simulation data. The system uses the state of the art in approximate query processing techniques to build a novel framework for progressive data analysis. These techniques are used to define a multi-resolution index, where each node contains multiple models of the data. The benefits of these models are two-fold: (1) they are compact representations, reconstructing only the information relevant to the analysis, and (2) the variety of models capture different aspects of the data which may be of interest to the user but are not readily apparent in their raw form. To be able to deal with the data interactively, AQSim allows the scientist to make an informed tradeoff between query response accuracy and time. In this paper, we present the framework of AQSim with a focus on its architectural design. We also show the results from an initial proof-of-concept prototype developed at LLNL. The presented framework is generic enough to handle more than just simulation data.

  13. Implementation of federated query processing on Linked Data

    Zhou Y; S. De; Moessner K.


    As the number of Linked Data sets increases with more and more interconnections defined between them, querying a single data set is no longer enough for users who need data from mixed domains. The requirement to query data from different data sets motivates the research into federated queries. Network latency is one of the key factors which affect the performance of a federated query. The influence of network latency can be minimised by decreasing the number of remote requests, which is relat...

  14. Multiple Query Evaluation Based on an Enhanced Genetic Algorithm.

    Tamine, Lynda; Chrisment, Claude; Boughanem, Mohand


    Explains the use of genetic algorithms to combine results from multiple query evaluations to improve relevance in information retrieval. Discusses niching techniques, relevance feedback techniques, and evolution heuristics, and compares retrieval results obtained by both genetic multiple query evaluation and classical single query evaluation…

  15. Query optimization in DDBS

    Garima Mahajan


    Full Text Available Query processing is an important concern in the field of distributed databases. The main problem is when a query can be decomposed into sub-queries that require operations at geographically separated databases, determine the sequence and the sites for performing this set of operations such that the operating cost (communication cost and processing cost for processing this query is minimized. The problem is complicated by the fact that query processing not only depends on the operations of the query, but also on the parameter values associated with the query. Distributed query processing is an important factor in the overall performance of a distributed database system.

  16. ADQUEX: Adaptive Processing of Federated Queries over Linked Data based on Tuple Routing

    Beiranvand, Amin; Ghadiri, Nasser


    Due to the distribution of linked data across the web, the methods that process federated queries through a distributed approach are more attractive to the users and have gained more prosperity. In distributed processing of federated queries, we need methods and procedures to execute the query in an optimal manner. Most of the existing methods perform the optimization task based on some statistical information, whereas the query processor does not have precise statistical information about th...

  17. What's in a Name? Some Reflections on the Sociology of Anonymity.

    Marx, Gary T.


    Presents seven types of identity knowledge. Identifies major rationales and contexts for anonymity and identifiability and suggests a principle which holds that those who use pseudonyms on the Internet in personal communications are obliged to indicate they are doing so. Suggests 13 procedural questions to guide the development and assessment of…

  18. The Impact of Anonymous and Assigned Use of Student Response Systems on Student Achievement

    Poole, Dawn


    This study examined the impact of two approaches to use of student response systems (SRSs) on achievement in a study designed to better understand effective use of the devices. One condition was anonymous use of SRSs, in which graduate students selected a random clicker when entering the classroom. The second condition assigned devices to students…

  19. Evaluating XML-Extended OLAP Queries Based on a Physical Algebra

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    is desirable. In this paper, we extend previous work on the logical federation of OLAP and XML data sources by presenting a simplified query semantics,a physical query algebra and a robust OLAP-XML query engine.Performance experiments with a prototypical implementation suggest that the performance for OLAP...

  20. Anonymous Gossiping

    Datta, Anwitaman


    In this paper we introduce a novel gossiping primitive to support privacy preserving data analytics (PPDA). In contrast to existing computational PPDA primitives such as secure multiparty computation and data randomization based approaches, the proposed primitive `anonymous gossiping' is a communication primitive for privacy preserving personalized information aggregation complementing such traditional computational analytics. We realize this novel primitive by composing existing gossiping mechanisms for peer sampling & information aggregation and onion routing technique for establishing anonymous communication. This is more an `ideas' paper, rather than providing concrete and quantified results.

  1. Trust in Anonymity Networks

    Sassone, Vladimiro; Hamadou, Sardaouna; Yang, Mu

    Anonymity is a security property of paramount importance, as we move steadily towards a wired, online community. Its import touches upon subjects as different as eGovernance, eBusiness and eLeisure, as well as personal freedom of speech in authoritarian societies. Trust metrics are used in anonymity networks to support and enhance reliability in the absence of verifiable identities, and a variety of security attacks currently focus on degrading a user's trustworthiness in the eyes of the other users. In this paper, we analyse the privacy guarantees of the Crowds anonymity protocol, with and without onion forwarding, for standard and adaptive attacks against the trust level of honest users.

  2. An Anonymity Revocation Technology for Anonymous Communication

    Antoniou, Giannakis; Batten, Lynn; Parampalli, Udaya

    A number of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) have been proposed in the last three decades offering unconditional communication anonymity to their users. Unconditional anonymity can, however, be a security threat because it allows users to employ a PET in order to act maliciously while hiding their identity. In the last few years, several technologies which revoke the identity of users who use PETs have been proposed. These are known as anonymity revocation technologies (ARTs). However, the construction of ARTs has been developed in an ad hoc manner without a theoretical basis outlining the goals and underlying principles. In this chapter we present a set of fundamental principles and requirements for construction of an ART, identifying the necessary features. We then propose an abstract scheme for construction of an ART based on these features.

  3. Web Database Query Interface Annotation Based on User Collaboration

    LIU Wei; LIN Can; MENG Xiaofeng


    A vision based query interface annotation method is used to relate attributes and form elements in form-based web query interfaces, this method can reach accuracy of 82%.And a user participation method is used to tune the result; user can answer "yes" or "no" for existing annotations, or manually annotate form elements.Mass feedback is added to the annotation algorithm to produce more accurate result.By this approach, query interface annotation can reach a perfect accuracy.

  4. Anonymity in the Internet

    Federrath, Hannes


    Research in Privacy Enhancing Technology has meanwhile a tradition of at least 20 years. One application (if not the most significant at the present) of Privacy Enhancing Technology is anonymous Web surfing. While weak protection can be achieved by simple proxy solutions, strong anonymity needs more effort: Systems like JAP and TOR are based on the idea of the "mix network" introduced by David Chaum in 1981. The talk presents selected basic privacy enhancing techniques, available practical so...

  5. De-anonymizing BitTorrent Users on Tor

    Le Blond, Stevens; Manils, Pere; Chaabane, Abdelberi; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali; Legout, Arnaud; Castellucia, Claude; Dabbous, Walid


    Some BitTorrent users are running BitTorrent on top of Tor to preserve their privacy. In this extended abstract, we discuss three different attacks to reveal the IP address of BitTorrent users on top of Tor. In addition, we exploit the multiplexing of streams from different applications into the same circuit to link non-BitTorrent applications to revealed IP addresses.

  6. Effects of prior destructive behavior, anonymity, and group presence on deindividuation and aggression.

    Diener, E


    Three of Zimbardo's deindividuation input variables (group presence, anonymity, and arousal) were manipulated in laboratory experiment, and their effects on aggression and deindividuation were measured. Only arousal produced a significant increase in aggression (p less than .05), while group presence produced a significant decrease in aggression (p less than .01). Anonymity had no significant effect on subjects' aggressiveness. Deindividuation per se was measured on a postsession questionnaire that assessed subjects' memory for their own aggressive behavior, self-consciousness, concern for social evaluation, and memory for central and peripheral cues. Only arousal condition participants showed deindividuation changes, but a factor analysis revealed that the deindividuation changes did not comprise a unified factor. Also it did not appear that the internal changes caused aggressive behavior, since the correlation between the two was low. PMID:1271222

  7. The Impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on other substance abuse related Twelve Step programs

    Laudet, Alexandre B.


    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the 12-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery 12-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addi...


    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be rethought, especially on the internet, where the navigation data of people deserve protection, as well as their rights to remain anonymous, a fact which entails the need for reflection on the scope and how best to interpret the constitutional provision cited, a debate that, in the proposed article will deal think the ideas of paternalism, authoritarianism and freedom, whose focus will be about within the Internet, social networks and the Knowledge Society.

  9. Design on PKI-Based Anonymous Mobile Agent Security in E-Commerce

    MENG Xiangsong; HAN Fengwu


    The security of mobile agent directly decides its usage width in e-commerce. Especially, to protect users' private information is becoming more important now and future. So an anonymous mobile agent security mechanism with the secure authentication infrastructure based on PKI(public key infrastructure) is proposed in the paper. The multi-agent system is programmed by java language and every agent must register itself in CA(certificate authority) before working in the net and express his legit identity which is temptly produced and used only once. The CA ensures the legal of all agents' identity which take part in communicaiton or trade. And every user agent identity only is used once which makes other agents cannot decipher users' private information. The security mechanism of the multi-agent system implements anonymity, integrity, data confidentiality of mobile agent based on the MH(multiple hop) integrity protection regard to PKI limit.

  10. Double-blind in light of the internet: A note on author anonymity

    Holm, Jerker


    This paper analyses the credibility of author anonymity that is provided by a double-blind review process. It is argued that authors have strong incentives to disseminate information about their papers before publication. A sample from two economics journals, both using double-blind review processes, provides evidence that author-revealing information of most accepted papers is available on the Internet before the review process is finished. The difficulty and cost of identifying authors of u...

  11. Quantum private query based on single-photon interference

    Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song


    Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.

  12. Quantum private query based on single-photon interference

    Xu, Sheng-Wei; Sun, Ying; Lin, Song


    Quantum private query (QPQ) has become a research hotspot recently. Specially, the quantum key distribution (QKD)-based QPQ attracts lots of attention because of its practicality. Various such kind of QPQ protocols have been proposed based on different technologies of quantum communications. Single-photon interference is one of such technologies, on which the famous QKD protocol GV95 is just based. In this paper, we propose two QPQ protocols based on single-photon interference. The first one is simpler and easier to realize, and the second one is loss tolerant and flexible, and more practical than the first one. Furthermore, we analyze both the user privacy and the database privacy in the proposed protocols.

  13. On Enhancing Data Utility in K-Anonymization for Data without Hierarchical Taxonomies

    Mohammad Rasool Sarrafi Aghdam


    Full Text Available K-anonymity is the model that is widely used to protect the privacy of individuals in publishing micro-data. It could be defined as clustering with constrain of minimum k tuples in each group. K-anonymity cuts down the linking confidence between sensitive information and specific individual by the ration of 1/k. However, the accuracy of the data in k-anonymous dataset decreases due to information loss. Moreover, most of the current approaches are for numerical attributes or in case of categorical attributes they require extra information such as attribute hierarchical taxonomies which often do not exist. In this paper we propose a new model, based on clustering, defining the distance between tuples including numerical and categorical attributes which does not require extra information and present the SpatialDistance (SD heuristic algorithm. Comparisons of experimental results on real datasets between SD algorithm and existing well-known algorithms show that SD performs the best and offers much higher data utility and reduces the information loss significantly.

  14. Advice from a medical expert through the Internet on queries about AIDS and hepatitis: analysis of a pilot experiment.

    Javier Marco


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advice from a medical expert on concerns and queries expressed anonymously through the Internet by patients and later posted on the Web, offers a new type of patient-doctor relationship. The aim of the current study was to perform a descriptive analysis of questions about AIDS and hepatitis made to an infectious disease expert and sent through the Internet to a consumer-oriented Web site in the Spanish language. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Questions were e-mailed and the questions and answers were posted anonymously in the "expert-advice" section of a Web site focused on AIDS and hepatitis. We performed a descriptive study and a temporal analysis of the questions received in the first 12 months after the launch of the site. A total of 899 questions were received from December 2003 to November 2004, with a marked linear growth pattern. Questions originated in Spain in 68% of cases and 32% came from Latin America (the Caribbean, Central America, and South America. Eighty percent of the senders were male. Most of the questions concerned HIV infection (79% with many fewer on hepatitis (17%. The highest numbers of questions were submitted just after the weekend (37% of questions were made on Mondays and Tuesdays. Risk factors for contracting HIV infection were the most frequent concern (69%, followed by the window period for detection (12.6%, laboratory results (5.9%, symptoms (4.7%, diagnosis (2.7%, and treatment (2.2%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a great demand for this type of "ask-the-expert" Internet service, at least for AIDS and hepatitis. Factors such as anonymity, free access, and immediate answers have been key factors in its success.

  15. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    Ghinita, Gabriel


    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Group Anonymity

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61


    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  17. Technology for Anonymity: Names By Other Nyms.

    Wayner, Peter


    Provides a summary of some of the technical solutions for producing anonymous communication on the Internet and presents an argument that anonymity is as much a part of crime prevention as requiring people to provide their names. Discusses identity theft; the three major techniques that make anonymous cash possible; and anonymizing Internet…

  18. Query Optimization in OODBMS: Identifying Subquery for Complex Query Management

    Sheetal S. Dhande


    Full Text Available This paper is based on relatively newer approach fo r query optimization in object databases, which uses query decomposition and cached query res ults to improve execution a query. Issues that are focused here is fast retrieval and high re use of cached queries, Decompose Query into Sub query, Decomposition of complex queries into sm aller for fast retrieval of result. Here we try to address another open area of query c aching like handling wider queries. By using some parts of cached results helpful for answ ering other queries (wider Queries and combining many cached queries while producing the r esult. Multiple experiments were performed to prove the pr oductivity of this newer way of optimizing a query. The limitation of this technique is that i t’s useful especially in scenarios where data manipulation rate is very low as compared to data r etrieval rate.


    Sheetal S. Dhande


    Full Text Available This paper is based on relatively newer approach for query optimization in object databases, which uses query decomposition and cached query results to improve execution a query. Issues that are focused here is fast retrieval and high reuse of cached queries, Decompose Query into Sub query, Decomposition of complex queries into smaller for fast retrieval of result. Here we try to address another open area of query caching like handling wider queries. By using some parts of cached results helpful for answering other queries (wider Queries and combining many cached queries while producing the result. Multiple experiments were performed to prove the productivity of this newer way of optimizing a query. The limitation of this technique is that it’s useful especially in scenarios where data manipulation rate is very low as compared to data retrieval rate.

  20. 一种基于SPKI的匿名支付方案%An Anonymous Payment Scheme Based on SPKI

    朱庆生; 李唯唯; 王茜; 傅鹤岗


    SPKI is a proposed standard for public-key certificates. One important property of SPKI is that SPKI is key-oriented rather than name-oriented, and the public-key is globally unique. In this paper we propose an anonymous paymentscheme based on SPKI aiming at the problem of anonymous payment in B2C e-commerce. In the scheme we use the key-oriented characteristic of SPKI to link the public key to the account, and use authorization certificates to pay. The scheme achieves the anonymity very well.

  1. On the Querying for Places on the Mobile Web

    Jensen, Christian S.


    The web is undergoing a fundamental transformation: it is becoming mobile and is acquiring a spatial dimension. Thus, the web is increasingly being used from mobile devices, notably smartphones, that can be geo-positioned using GPS or technologies that exploit wireless communication networks. In...... addition, web content is being geo-tagged. This transformation calls for new, spatio-textual query functionality. The research community is hard at work enabling efficient support for such functionality....

  2. On the Effectiveness of the Minimization Approach to the Query Optimization

    N. Mendkovich


    Full Text Available A standard problem of DBMSs usage is a lack of efficiency and high cost of the access to the stored data. The acceptable level of system performance may be achieved by query optimization technics that determine the most efficient way to execute a given query by its modification and considering possible query execution plans. The goal of this paper is to prove the efficiency of the query minimization algorithms based on minimization of the query restriction by elimination of the redundant conditions. The paper represents minimization algorithms based on the mathematical transformations, which detect and remove redundant conditions from query restriction to simplify it. It includes minimization algorithms based on “condition absorption”, prime implicants, and a set of linear inequalities minimization technics. The paper also includes theoretical justification of the efficiency of minimization approach to the query optimization based on restriction simplification. We also observe experimental results of the implementation of these optimization techniques and their influence on the query processing speed. In the end, we represent an observation of the query minimization impact on the whole optimization process 

  3. Online Query Scheduling on Source Permutation for Big Data Integration

    Yuan, Zimu; Guo, Shusheng


    Big data integration could involve a large number of sources with unpredictable redundancy information between them. The approach of building a central warehousing to integrate big data from all sources then becomes infeasible because of so large number of sources and continuous updates happening. A practical approach is to apply online query scheduling that inquires data from sources at runtime upon receiving a query. In this paper, we address the Time-Cost Minimization Problem for online qu...

  4. A Voronoi-Based Location Privacy-Preserving Method for Continuous Query in LBS


    Most of the mobile phones have GPS sensors which make location based service (LBS) applicable. LBS brings not only convenience but also location privacy leak to us. Achieving anonymity and sending private queries are two main privacy-preserving courses in LBS. A novel location privacy-preserving method is proposed based on Voronoi graph partition on road networks. Firstly, based on the prediction of a user’s moving direction, a cooperative k-anonymity method is proposed without constructing c...

  5. Anonymous Publish-Subscribe Overlays

    Daubert, Jörg


    Freedom of speech is a core value of our society. While it can be exercised anonymously towards undesired observers in the physical world, the Internet is based on unique and nonanonymous identifiers (IDs) for every participant. Anonymity, however, is a crucial requirement to exercise freedom of speech using the Internet without having to face political persecution. To achieve anonymity, messages must be unlinkable to senders an receivers. That means that messages cannot be linked to IDs and ...

  6. Optimization Query Process of Mediators Interrogation Based On Combinatorial Storage

    L. Cherrat


    Full Text Available In the distributed environment where a query involves several heterogeneous sources, communication costs must be taken into consideration. In this paper we describe a query optimization approach using dynamic programming technique for set integrated heterogeneous sources. The objective of the optimization is to minimize the total processing time including load processing, request rewriting and communication costs, to facilitate communication inter-sites and to optimize the time of data transfer from site to others. Moreover, the ability to store data in more than one centre site provides more flexibility in terms of Security/Safety and overload of the network. In contrast to optimizers which are considered a restricted search space, the proposed optimizer searches the closed subsets of sources and independency relationship which may be deep laniary or hierarchical trees. Especially the execution of the queries can start traversal anywhere over any subset and not only from a specific source.

  7. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer. (general)

  8. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping with signer anonymity

    Li, Wei; Fan, Ming-Yu; Wang, Guang-Wei


    In this paper an arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed. In this scheme a message to be signed is coded with unitary operators. Combining quantum measurement with quantum encryption, the signer can generate the signature for a given message. Combining the entangled states generated by the TTP's Bell measurement with the signature information, the verifier can verify the authentication of a signature through a single quantum state measurement. Compared with previous schemes, our scheme is more efficient and less complex, furthermore, our scheme can ensure the anonymity of the signer.

  9. On the Necessity of Term Dependence in a Query Space for Weighted Retrieval.

    Bollmann-Sdorra, Peter; Raghavan, Vijay V.


    Discussion of the vector space model and properties of document and query spaces focuses on the proof that requiring term independence to hold in the query space is inconsistent with the goal of achieving better performance by means of weighted retrieval. Proofs are provided. (Author/LRW)

  10. Study on Pear Diseases Query System Based on Ontology and SWRL

    Sun, Qian; Liang, Yong


    International audience This paper studied the construction of Pear Diseases Domain Ontology (PDDO), and the realization of query system based on PDDO and SWRL. First, an approach to build PDDO based on SWRL was proposed, which consists of confirming core concepts, adding the properties of concepts and the relationships between concepts, adding the instances of concepts, representing domain ontology, adding SWRL rules and reasoning. Then the query system model and implementation algorithm w...

  11. Is it the end for anonymity as we know it? A critical examination of the ethical principle of anonymity in the context of 21st century demands on the qualitative researcher

    Tilley, Liz; Woodthorpe, Kate


    Told from the perspective of two UK-based early career researchers, this article is an examination of contemporary challenges posed when dealing with the ethical principle of anonymity in qualitative research, specifically at the point of dissemination. Drawing on their respective doctoral experience and literature exploring the difficulties that can arise from the application of anonymity with regard to historical and geographical contexts, the authors question the applicability of the princ...

  12. Efficient Queries of Stand-off Annotations for Natural Language Processing on Electronic Medical Records.

    Luo, Yuan; Szolovits, Peter


    In natural language processing, stand-off annotation uses the starting and ending positions of an annotation to anchor it to the text and stores the annotation content separately from the text. We address the fundamental problem of efficiently storing stand-off annotations when applying natural language processing on narrative clinical notes in electronic medical records (EMRs) and efficiently retrieving such annotations that satisfy position constraints. Efficient storage and retrieval of stand-off annotations can facilitate tasks such as mapping unstructured text to electronic medical record ontologies. We first formulate this problem into the interval query problem, for which optimal query/update time is in general logarithm. We next perform a tight time complexity analysis on the basic interval tree query algorithm and show its nonoptimality when being applied to a collection of 13 query types from Allen's interval algebra. We then study two closely related state-of-the-art interval query algorithms, proposed query reformulations, and augmentations to the second algorithm. Our proposed algorithm achieves logarithmic time stabbing-max query time complexity and solves the stabbing-interval query tasks on all of Allen's relations in logarithmic time, attaining the theoretic lower bound. Updating time is kept logarithmic and the space requirement is kept linear at the same time. We also discuss interval management in external memory models and higher dimensions. PMID:27478379

  13. Evaluating XML-Extended OLAP Queries Based on a Physical Algebra

    Yin, Xuepeng; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    In today’s OLAP systems, physically integrating fast-changing data, e.g., stock quotes, into a cube is complex and time-consuming. This data is likely to be available in XML format on the WWW; thus, instead of physical integration, making XML data logically federated with OLAP systems is desirable....... In this paper, we extend previous work on the logical federation of OLAP and XML data sources by presenting a simplified query semantics, a physical query algebra and a robust OLAP-XML query engine as well as the query evaluation techniques. Performance experiments with a prototypical implementation...... suggest that the performance for OLAP-XML federations is comparable to queries on physically integrated data....

  14. The Effect of Number of Agents on Optimization of adaptivity Join Queries in Heterogeneous Distributed Databases

    Amir ASIL


    Full Text Available Distributed systems signify data distribution, association of activities, and controlling the distributed components of the system. Distributed systems are mostly used to share the workload or transfer data processing functions to a place nearer to those functions. This important task should be mentioned in database query optimization. The growing need for optimizing query processing in databases has given rise to many methods of doing this. This article provides a multi-agent system for heterogeneous distributed databases by combining optimization techniques for processing queries in databases and adaptivity. In this system the effect of the number of agents on optimization of query processing in Heterogeneous distributed databases will be analyzed. In this system an agent has been added to make the database adaptable. In this system the greatness of the effect of number of agents on optimization of processing of joined queries has been analyzed.

  15. Relaxing rdf queries based on user and domain preferences

    Dolog, Peter; Stueckenschmidt, Heiner; Wache, Holger;


    knowledge and user preferences. We describe a framework for information access that combines query refinement and relaxation in order to provide robust, personalized access to heterogeneous resource description framework data as well as an implementation in terms of rewriting rules and explain its...... application in the context of e-learning systems....

  16. Extracting Result Schema Based on Query Instances in the Deep Web

    NIE Tiezheng; YU Ge; SHEN Derong; KOU Yue; LIU Wei


    Deep Web sources contain a large of high-quality and query-related structured date. One of the challenges in the Deep Web is extracting result schemas of Deep Web sources. To address this challenge, this paper describes a novel approach that extracts both result data and the result schema of a Web database.The approach first models the query interface of a Deep Web source and fills in it with a specifically query instance. Then the result pages of the Deep Web sources are formatted in the tree structure to retrieve subtrees that contain elements of the query instance. Next, result schema of the Deep Web source is extracted by matching the subtree' nodes with the query instance, in which,a two-phase schema extraction method is adopted for obtaining more accurate result schema. Finally, experiments on real Deep Web sources show the utility of our approach, which provides a high precision and recall.

  17. Anonymous Biometric Access Control

    Shuiming Ye


    Full Text Available Access control systems using the latest biometric technologies can offer a higher level of security than conventional password-based systems. Their widespread deployments, however, can severely undermine individuals' rights of privacy. Biometric signals are immutable and can be exploited to associate individuals' identities to sensitive personal records across disparate databases. In this paper, we propose the Anonymous Biometric Access Control (ABAC system to protect user anonymity. The ABAC system uses novel Homomorphic Encryption (HE based protocols to verify membership of a user without knowing his/her true identity. To make HE-based protocols scalable to large biometric databases, we propose the k-Anonymous Quantization (kAQ framework that provides an effective and secure tradeoff of privacy and complexity. kAQ limits server's knowledge of the user to k maximally dissimilar candidates in the database, where k controls the amount of complexity-privacy tradeoff. kAQ is realized by a constant-time table lookup to identity the k candidates followed by a HE-based matching protocol applied only on these candidates. The maximal dissimilarity protects privacy by destroying any similarity patterns among the returned candidates. Experimental results on iris biometrics demonstrate the validity of our framework and illustrate a practical implementation of an anonymous biometric system.

  18. Most Recent Match Queries in On-Line Suffix Trees

    Larsson, N. Jesper


    arbitrary patterns, at each step of processing an online stream. We present augmentations to Ukkonen's suffix tree construction algorithm for optimal-time queries, maintaining indexing time within a logarithmic factor in the size of the indexed string. We show that the algorithm is applicable to sliding......A suffix tree is able to efficiently locate a pattern in an indexed string, but not in general the most recent copy of the pattern in an online stream, which is desirable in some applications. We study the most general version of the problem of locating a most recent match: supporting queries for......-window indexing, and sketch a possible optimization for use in the special case of Lempel-Ziv compression....

  19. Relative expressive power of navigational querying on graphs

    Fletcher, GHL George; Gyssens, M; Leinders, D; Surinx, D; Van den Bussche, J; Van Gucht, D; Vansummeren, S; Wu, Y


    Motivated by both established and new applications, we study navigational query languages for graphs (binary relations). The simplest language has only the two operators union and composition, together with the identity relation. We make more powerful languages by adding any of the following operators: intersection; set difference; projection; coprojection; converse; and the diversity relation. All these operators map binary relations to binary relations. We compare the expressive power of al...

  20. Relative expressive power of navigational querying on graphs

    Fletcher, George H. L.; Gyssens, Marc; Leinders, Dirk; Van den Bussche, Jan; Van Gucht, Dirk; Vansummeren, Stijn; Wu, Yuqing


    Motivated by both established and new applications, we study navigational query languages for graphs (binary relations). The simplest language has only the two operators union and composition, together with the identity relation. We make more powerful languages by adding any of the following operators: intersection; set di erence; projection; coprojection; converse; transitive closure; and the diversity relation. All these operators map binary relations to binary relat...


    Zulaini Yahya


    Full Text Available In Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR process, the translation effects have a direct impact on the accuracy of follow-up retrieval results. In dictionary-based approach, we are dealing with the words that have more than one meaning which can decrease the retrieval performance if the query translation return an incorrect translations. These issues need to be overcome using efficient technique. In this study we proposed a Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR method based on domain ontology using Quran concepts for disambiguating translation of the query and to improve the dictionary-based query translation. For experimentation, we use Quran ontology written in English and Malay languages as a bilingual parallel-corpora and Quran concepts as a resource for cross-language query translation along with dictionary-based translation. For evaluation, we measure the performance of three IR systems. IR1 is natural language query IR, IR2 is natural language query CLIR based on dictionary (as a Baseline and IR3 is the retrieval of this research proposed method using Mean Average Precision (MAP and average precision at 11 points of recall. The experimental result shows that our proposed method brings significant improvement in retrieval accuracy for English document collections, but deficient for Malay document collections. The proposed CLIR method can obtain query expansion effect and improve retrieval performance in certain language.

  2. Effects of Cultural Orientation on Attitude Toward Anonymity in E-Collaboration

    Zhong, Yingqin; Liu, Na; Lim, John

    The important role of attitude in the acceptance and diffusion of technology has been widely acknowledged. Greater research efforts have been called for examining the relationships between cultural variables and attitude toward technology. In this regard, this study investigates the impact of cultural orientation (focusing on an individual's degree of collectivism) on attitude toward e-collaboration technology. A theoretical model is proposed and subsequently tested using a questionnaire survey involving 236 data points. Self-reliance, competitive success, and group work orientation are found as significant indicators reflecting an individual's degree of collectivism, which in turn influences willingness to participate, evaluation of collaborative effort, and preference for anonymity feature. Subsequently, the three variables are found to affect perceptions about decision quality, enjoyment, uncertainty, and pressure in e-collaboration.




    Full Text Available Privacy Preservation in data mining protects the data from revealing unauthorized extraction of information. Data Anonymization techniques implement this by modifying the data, so that the original values cannot be acquired easily. Perturbation techniques are variedly used which will greatly affect the quality of data,since there is a trade-off between privacy preservation and information loss which will subsequently affect the result of data mining. The method that is proposed in this paper is based on nested clustering of data andperturbation on each cluster. The size of clusters is kept optimal to reduce the information loss. The paper explains the methodology, implementation and results of nested clustering. Various metrics are also provided to explicate that this method overcomes the disadvantages of other perturbation methods.

  4. Effects of personality and loss of anonymity on aggression: a reevaluation of deindividuation.

    Propst, L R


    Zimbardo's deindividuation hypothesis was reexamined by individuating some subjects. Twelve four-person groups administered shock to a confederate in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of social individuation (subjects' level of anonymity to group members), two levels of nonsocial individuation (subjects' opportunity to give identifying information to the experimenter on a word association test) and two levels of individual differences. It was found that subjects, who individuated themselves by giving information to the experimenter on the word association test showed more, not less, antisocial behavior. Furthermore, this increased antisocial behavior was exhibited only by externally oriented subjects: those with an external locus of control and a low mysticism score. Some of those more antisocial subjects were also more likely to report feeling like they stood out from the group. It was concluded that antisocial behavior in this paradigm may thus be a response to experimenter demand felt most strongly when subjects felt most identifiable. PMID:490306

  5. Lower Bounds on Quantum Query Complexity for Read-Once Formulas with XOR and MUX Operators

    Fukuhara, Hideaki; Takimoto, Eiji

    We introduce a complexity measure r for the class F of read-once formulas over the basis {AND, OR, NOT, XOR, MUX} and show that for any Boolean formula F in the class F, r(F) is a lower bound on the quantum query complexity of the Boolean function that F represents. We also show that for any Boolean function f represented by a formula in F, the deterministic query complexity of f is only quadratically larger than the quantum query complexity of f. Thus, the paper gives further evidence for the conjecture that there is an only quadratic gap for all functions.

  6. Supporting K nearest neighbors query on high-dimensional data in P2P systems

    Mei LI; Wang-Chien LEE; Anand SIVASUBRAMANIAM; Jizhong ZHAO


    Peer-to-peer systems have been widely used for sharing and exchanging data and resources among numerous computer nodes.Various data objects identifiable with high dimensional feature vectors,such as text,images,genome sequences,are starting to leverage P2P technology.Most of the existing works have been focusing on queries on data objects with one or few attributes and thus are not applicable on high dimensional data objects.In this study,we investigate K nearest neighbors query (KNN)on high dimensional data objects in P2P systems.Efficient query algorithm and solutions that address various technical challenges raised by high dimensionality,such as search space resolution and incremental search space refinement,are proposed.An extensive simulation using both synthetic and real data sets demonstrates that our proposal efficiently supports KNN query on high dimensional data in P2P systems.

  7. [Name Withheld]: Anonymity and Its Implications

    Weicher, Maureen


    Anonymity allows the individual to have a voice without having a name. Since the word “anonymous” entered the English language with the advent of the printing press, the implications of being anonymous - and its lexical offspring “anonymity” - have shifted with time, place, and circumstance. What are the perceived effects of being anonymous/anonymity on the individual and on society? In this paper, I will explore some of the shifting meanings and implications of this concept, first as i...

  8. Collective spatial keyword querying

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.;


    With the proliferation of geo-positioning and geo-tagging, spatial web objects that possess both a geographical location and a textual description are gaining in prevalence, and spatial keyword queries that exploit both location and textual description are gaining in prominence. However, the...... queries studied so far generally focus on finding individual objects that each satisfy a query rather than finding groups of objects where the objects in a group collectively satisfy a query. We define the problem of retrieving a group of spatial web objects such that the group's keywords cover the query......'s keywords and such that objects are nearest to the query location and have the lowest inter-object distances. Specifically, we study two variants of this problem, both of which are NP-complete. We devise exact solutions as well as approximate solutions with provable approximation bounds to the problems. We...

  9. On the evaluation of fuzzy quantified queries in a database management system

    Bosc, Patrick; Pivert, Olivier


    Many propositions to extend database management systems have been made in the last decade. Some of them aim at the support of a wider range of queries involving fuzzy predicates. Unfortunately, these queries are somewhat complex and the question of their efficiency is a subject under discussion. In this paper, we focus on a particular subset of queries, namely those using fuzzy quantified predicates. More precisely, we will consider the case where such predicates apply to individual elements as well as to sets of elements. Thanks to some interesting properties of alpha-cuts of fuzzy sets, we are able to show that the evaluation of these queries can be significantly improved with respect to a naive strategy based on exhaustive scans of sets or files.

  10. Query Optimization on Compressed and Decompressed Object-Oriented Database Using Operators

    Abhijit Banubakode,


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an approach using various database operators that permits to enrich technique of query optimization existing in the objectoriented databases and the comparative analysis of query optimization of compressed and uncompressed object oriented database based on cost, cardinality and no of bytes. Focus is on query optimization using relational operator, logical operator and special operators. Our experimental study shows that the improvement in the quality of plans is significant only with decrease in cost, cardinality and no of bytes after database compression. Looking at the success of query optimization in the relational model, our approach inspires itself of these optimization techniques and enriched it so that they can support the new concepts introduced by the object oriented databases.

  11. Query Optimization in Object Oriented Databases Based on SD-Tree and n-ary Tree

    Tran Minh Bao


    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a new technique to create index helping to query almost identical similarities with keywords in case there is no correct match found. It is based on a SD-Tree and a n-ary Tree helping to query related information when there is no correct match. Index structure arranges signatures according to hierarchical clustering for improving assessment of query. This method is based on technique of using signature file and SD-Tree and signature files are organized according to decentralization to filter unsuitable data quickly and each signature file is saved according to SD-Tree structure for increasing speed of scanning signature. This method helps to decrease effectively search space, so therefore improving effectively complexity of query time.


    Svetlana A. Firsova; Elena A. Ryabukhina


    Introduction: this article explores the pedagogical technology employed to teach medical students foundations of work with MICROSOFT ACCESS databases. The above technology is based on integrative approach to the information modeling in public health practice, drawing upon basic didactic concepts that pertain to objects and tools databases created in MICROSOFT ACCESS. The article examines successive steps in teaching the topic “Queries in MICROSOFT ACCESS” – from simple queries to complex ones...

  13. On the Expressiveness of Implicit Provenance in Query and Update Languages

    Buneman, Peter; Cheney, James; Vansummeren, Stijn


    Information describing the origin of data, generally referred to as provenance, is important in scientific and curated databases where it is the basis for the trust one puts in their contents. Since such databases are constructed using operations of both query and update languages, it is of paramount importance to describe the effect of these languages on provenance. In this article we study provenance for query and update languages that are closely related to SQL, and compare two ways in wh...

  14. ZuiScat : querying and visualizing information spaces on personal digital assistants

    Büring, Thorsten; Reiterer, Harald


    ZuiScat is a visualization concept for querying large information spaces on Personal Digital Assistants (PDA). Retrieval results are presented in a dynamic scatterplot, which is enhanced by geometric and semantic zoom techniques to provide smooth transitions from abstract visual encodings to data content. The same visualization is also used to manage bookmarks and to serve as a powerful query history tool. User feedback suggests that ZuiScat provides intuitive and efficient data access but st...

  15. Anonymous Boh avatud kunsti maastikul / Raivo Kelomees

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-


    Anonymous Bohi näitus Tartu Kunstimajas, avatud 30. juulini 2010. Anonymous Boh on koos Non Grataga läbi viinud performance´id Euroopas, Ameerikas ja Aasias. Anonymous Bohi vastused oma näituse ja loominguga seotud küsimustele

  16. An Automatic Approximate Matching Technique Based on Phonetic Encoding for Odia Query

    Rakesh Chandra Balbantray


    Full Text Available In search engine query optimization plays the major role in order to give relevant result. The user query mostly contains name entities. Not only names but so many words are frequently used as search criteria for information retrieval and identity matching systems in Odia. The names have normally several variations. This variations and errors in names make the exact string matching problematic. If all the variations are approximately matched, then the result can be more relevant. In this paper we put forward an automatic approximate matching technique by which all the variations having similar phonetic code of the query word can be searched and gives the best result. Our algorithm is based on the phonetic encoding of the given query words which can give more relevant result of the desired search.

  17. Efficient Anonymizations with Enhanced Utility

    Jacob Goldberger


    Full Text Available One of the most well studied models of privacy preservation is k-anonymity. Previous studies of k-anonymization used various utility measures that aim at enhancing the correlation between the original public data and the generalized public data. We, bearing in mind that a primary goal in releasing the anonymized database for datamining is to deducemethods of predicting the private data from the public data, propose a new information-theoretic measure that aims at enhancing the correlation between the generalized public data and the private data. Such a measure significantly enhances the utility of the released anonymized database for data mining. We then proceed to describe a new algorithm that is designed to achieve k-anonymity with high utility, independently of the underlying utility measure. That algorithm is based on a modified version of sequential clustering which is the method of choice in clustering. Experimental comparison with four well known algorithms of k-anonymity show that the sequential clustering algorithm is an efficient algorithm that achieves the best utility results. We also describe a modification of the algorithm that outputs k-anonymizations which respect the additional security measure of l-diversity.


    丁晓渊; 顾春华; 王明永


    Query extension is a key issue in information retrieval , the efficiency of query expansion determines the retrieval performance of retrieval system .Most of the query expansions are based on global analysis or local analysis , though the accuracies have been greatly improved, but they all have their own limitations .Query log is the record of long term query behaviour by a great quantity of users .In this paper, we propose a query log-based expansion method of local co-occurrence, through which we can build an associated diagram of user initial query and user document through mining the link between user ’ s initial query and user logs , and construct the related word list using local co-occurrence method , thus to realise the query expansion .The test on 50, 000 corpora shows that the precision has about 44%improvement after using this method .%查询扩展是信息检索中的一个关键问题,查询扩展的有效性决定了检索系统的检索性能。大多数的查询扩展基于全局分析或者局部分析法,虽然准确率有了很大的提高,但是都有各自的局限性。查询日志是大量用户长期查询行为的记录。提出了基于查询日志的局部共现查询扩展方法,该方法通过挖掘用户初始查询与查询日志之间的联系,构建一个用户初始查询与用户文档的关联关系图,并且使用局部共现的方法构建相关词表,从而实现查询扩展。在50000篇语料上的测试表明,该方法相对于未扩展时准确率提高了44%以上。

  19. Top-K Queries on Uncertain Data: On Score Distribution and Typical Answers

    Ge, Tingjian; Zdonik, Stan; Madden, Samuel R.


    Uncertain data arises in a number of domains, including data integration and sensor networks. Top-k queries that rank results according to some user-defined score are an important tool for exploring large uncertain data sets. As several recent papers have observed, the semantics of top-k queries on uncertain data can be ambiguous due to tradeoffs between reporting high-scoring tuples and tuples with a high probability of being in the resulting data set. In this paper, we demonstrate the need ...

  20. Anonymous Authentication for Smartcards

    J. Hajny


    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative solution in the field of RFID (Radio-Frequency IDentification smartcard authentication. Currently the smartcards are used for many purposes - e.g. employee identification, library cards, student cards or even identity credentials. Personal identity is revealed to untrustworthy entities every time we use these cards. Such information could later be used without our knowledge and for harmful reasons like shopping pattern scanning or even movement tracking. We present a communication scheme for keeping one’s identity private in this paper. Although our system provides anonymity, it does not allow users to abuse this feature. The system is based on strong cryptographic primitives that provide features never available before. Besides theoretical design of the anonymous authentication scheme and its analysis we also provide implementation results.

  1. Narcotics Anonymous: Anonymity, admiration, and prestige in an egalitarian community

    Snyder, Jeffrey K.; Fessler, Daniel M.T.


    Narcotics Anonymous (NA) supports long-term recovery for those addicted to drugs. Paralleling social dynamics in many small-scale societies, NA exhibits tension between egalitarianism and prestige-based hierarchy, a problem exacerbated by the addict’s personality as characterized by NA’s ethnopsychology.  We explore how NA’s central principle of anonymity normatively translates into egalitarianism among group members.  Turning to the lived reality of membership, building on Carr’s (2011) conc...

  2. Superfund Query

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Query allows users to retrieve data from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) database.


    Dr. V. Shanthi


    Full Text Available The advancement in mobile communications and its integration with Geographical Information System result in tremendous increase in Location aware computing. Users thirst for Geo-Point of interest leads to exploration of different classes of spatial queries like nearest neighbor, range queries etc in location based computing. Eachquery type is unique and there is no frame work to combine these spatial queries. In this paper, we introduce a PASQAR: Privacy aware Spatial Query Assessor on Road Networks that processes the different types of queries based on user inputs. Further PASQAR masks the user identity using encryption technique. The experimental evaluation reflects result of applying various optimization techniques in query processing and proves the efficiency of PASQAR model.

  4. Navigational Query Languages

    Surinx, Dimitri


    In this thesis we introduce navigational query languages on graphs. Path queries in our languages are built over several operators: identity, union, composition, projection, coprojection, converse, transitive closure, diversity, intersection and difference. The smallest language we will consider only contains the first 3 operators, while the largest language contains all operators. For these query languages we will characterize their complete relative expressive power, i.e., we will compare t...

  5. Determination of the Internet Anonymity Influence on the Level of Aggression and Usage of Obscene Lexis

    Potapova, Rodmonga; Gordeev, Denis


    This article deals with the analysis of the semantic content of the anonymous Russian-speaking forum, different verbal means of expressing of the emotional state of aggression are revealed for this site, and aggression is classified by its directions. The lexis of different Russian-and English- speaking anonymous forums ( and, and public community "MDK" of the Russian-speaking social network VK is analyzed and compared with the Open Corpus of the Russian lang...

  6. A Report on the Utilization of the Computer Program QUERY by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Teacher Education.

    Tatis, Rita M.

    This paper reports the results of the testing and use of a batch-mode program, QUERY, in three large computer runs performed by the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) Clearinghouse on Teacher Education from March through August 1970. Focus is on the behavior of QUERY as a search tool, not on cost-benefit analysis or comparison with…


    Hazra Imran


    Full Text Available The explosive growth of the World Wide Web is making it difficult for a user to locate information that isrelevant to his/her interest. Though existing search engines work well to a certain extent but they still faceproblems like word mismatch which arises because the majority of information retrieval systemscompare query and document terms on lexical level rather than on semantic level and short query: theaverage length of queries by the user is less than two words. Short queries and the incompatibilitybetween the terms in user queries and documents strongly affect the retrieval of relevant document.Query expansion has long been suggested as a technique to increase the effectiveness of the informationretrieval. Query expansion is the process of supplementing additional terms or phrases to the originalquery to improve the retrieval performance. The central problem of query expansion is the selection ofthe expansion terms based on which user’s original query is expanded. Thesaurus helps to solve thisproblem. Thesaurus have frequently been incorporated in information retrieval system for identifying thesynonymous expressions and linguistic entities that are semantically similar. Thesaurus has been widelyused in many applications, including information retrieval and natural language processing.

  8. Anonymity in Voting Revisited

    Jonker, Hugo; Pieters, Wolter

    According to international law, anonymity of the voter is a fundamental precondition for democratic elections. In electronic voting, several aspects of voter anonymity have been identified. In this paper, we re-examine anonymity with respect to voting, and generalise existing notions of anonymity in e-voting. First, we identify and categorise the types of attack that can be a threat to anonymity of the voter, including different types of vote buying and coercion. This analysis leads to a categorisation of anonymity in voting in terms of a) the strength of the anonymity achieved and b) the extent of interaction between voter and attacker. Some of the combinations, including weak and strong receipt-freeness, are formalised in epistemic logic.

  9. Query Recommendation employing Query Logs in Search Optimization

    Neha Singh


    Full Text Available In this paper we suggest a method that, given a query presented to a search engine, proposes a list of concerned queries. The concerned queries are founded in antecedently published queries, and can be published by the user to the search engine to tune or redirect the search process. The method proposed is based on a query clustering procedure in which groups of semantically like queries are named. The clustering procedure uses the content of historical preferences of users registered in the query log of the search engine. The method not only discloses the related queries, but also ranks them agreeing to a relevance criterion. Finally, we show with experiments over the query log of a search engine the potency of the method.

  10. Shortest Path and Distance Queries on Road Networks: An Experimental Evaluation

    Wu, Lingkun; Deng, Dingxiong; Cong, Gao; Zhu, Andy Diwen; Zhou, Shuigeng


    Computing the shortest path between two given locations in a road network is an important problem that finds applications in various map services and commercial navigation products. The state-of-the-art solutions for the problem can be divided into two categories: spatial-coherence-based methods and vertex-importance-based approaches. The two categories of techniques, however, have not been compared systematically under the same experimental framework, as they were developed from two independent lines of research that do not refer to each other. This renders it difficult for a practitioner to decide which technique should be adopted for a specific application. Furthermore, the experimental evaluation of the existing techniques, as presented in previous work, falls short in several aspects. Some methods were tested only on small road networks with up to one hundred thousand vertices; some approaches were evaluated using distance queries (instead of shortest path queries), namely, queries that ask only for the ...

  11. PRESY: A Context Based Query Reformulation Tool for Information Retrieval on the Web

    Abdelkrim Bouramoul


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The huge number of information on the web as well as the growth of new inexperienced users creates new challenges for information retrieval. It has become increasingly difficult for these users to find relevant documents that satisfy their individual needs. Certainly the current search engines (such as Google, Bing and Yahoo offer an efficient way to browse the web content. However, the result quality is highly based on uses queries which need to be more precise to find relevant documents. This task still complicated for the majority of inept users who cannot express their needs with significant words in the query. For that reason, we believe that a reformulation of the initial user's query can be a good alternative to improve the information selectivity. This study proposed a novel approach and presents a prototype system called Profile-based Reformulation System (PRESY for information retrieval on the web. Approach: It used an incremental approach to categorize users by constructing a contextual base. The latter was composed of two types of context (static and dynamic obtained using the users' profiles. The architecture proposed was implemented using .Net environment to perform queries reformulating tests. Results: The experiments gave at the end of this article show that the precision of the returned content is effectively improved. The tests were performed with the most popular searching engine (i.e., Google, Bind and Yahoo selected in particular for their high selectivity. Among the given results, we found that query reformulation improve the first three results by 10.7 and 11.7% of the next seven returned elements. So as we could see the reformulation of users' initial queries improves the pertinence of returned content. Conclusion/Recommendations: Therefore, we believed that the exploitation of contextual data based on users' profiles could be a very good way to reformulate user query. This complementary mechanism would

  12. An Improved HITS Algorithm Based on Page-query Similarity and Page Popularity

    Xinyue Liu; Hongfei Lin; Cong Zhang


    The HITS algorithm is a very popular and effective algorithm to rank web documents based on the link information among a set of web pages. However, it assigns every link with the same weight. This assumption results in topic drift. In this paper, we firstly define the generalized similarity between a query and a page, and the popularity of a web page. Then we propose a weighted HITS algorithm which differentiates the importance of links with the query-page similarities and the popularity of w...

  13. KoralQuery -- A General Corpus Query Protocol

    Bingel, Joachim; Diewald, Nils

    The task-oriented and format-driven development of corpus query systems has led to the creation of numerous corpus query languages (QLs) that vary strongly in expressiveness and syntax. This is a severe impediment for the interoperability of corpus analysis systems, which lack a common protocol. In...... this paper, we present KoralQuery, a JSON-LD based general corpus query protocol, aiming to be independent of particular QLs, tasks and corpus formats. In addition to describing the system of types and operations that KoralQuery is built on, we exemplify the representation of corpus queries in the...

  14. Query recommendation for children

    Duarte Torres, Sergio; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Weber, Ingmar; Serdyukov, Pavel


    One of the biggest problems that children experience while searching the web occurs during the query formulation process. Children have been found to struggle formulating queries based on keywords given their limited vocabulary and their difficulty to choose the right keywords. In this work we propo

  15. Google BigQuery analytics

    Tigani, Jordan


    How to effectively use BigQuery, avoid common mistakes, and execute sophisticated queries against large datasets Google BigQuery Analytics is the perfect guide for business and data analysts who want the latest tips on running complex queries and writing code to communicate with the BigQuery API. The book uses real-world examples to demonstrate current best practices and techniques, and also explains and demonstrates streaming ingestion, transformation via Hadoop in Google Compute engine, AppEngine datastore integration, and using GViz with Tableau to generate charts of query results. In addit


    Marlus Heriberto Arns de Oliveira; José Renato Gaziero Cella


    The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 1988 during the democratization process of the country after the end of an authoritarian regime preceded by several others that show a non-democratic tradition in the Brazilian Republic, remained still remnants an authoritarian Patronizing and Paternalist state, the example of the final part of the Article 5, item IV, which claims to be the free expression of thought, but forbids anonymity, prohibition which deserves to be reth...

  17. A Comparison of the Effects of K-Anonymity on Machine Learning Algorithms

    Hayden Wimmer; Loreen Powell


    While research has been conducted in machine learning algorithms and in privacy preserving in data mining (PPDM), a gap in the literature exists which combines the aforementioned areas to determine how PPDM affects common machine learning algorithms. The aim of this research is to narrow this literature gap by investigating how a common PPDM algorithm, K-Anonymity, affects common machine learning and data mining algorithms, namely neural networks, logistic regression, decision trees, and Baye...

  18. A Review on anonymization approach to preserve privacy of Published data through record elimination

    Isha K. Gayki


    Full Text Available Data mining is the process of analyzing data. Data Privacy is collection of data and dissemination of data. Privacy issues arise in different area such as health care, intellectual property, biological data, financial transaction etc. It is very difficult to protect the data when there is transfer of data. Sensitive information must be protected. There are two kinds of major attacks against privacy namely record linkage and attribute linkage attacks. Research have proposed some methods namely k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness for data privacy. K-anonymity method preserves the privacy against record linkage attack alone. It is unable to prevent address attribute linkage attack. ℓ-diversity method overcomes the drawback of k-anonymity method. But it fails to prevent identity disclosure attack and attribute disclosure attack. t-closeness method preserves the privacy against attribute linkage attack but not identity disclosure attack. A proposed method used to preserve the privacy of individuals sensitive data from record and attribute linkage attacks. In the proposed method, privacy preservation is achieved through generalization by setting range values and through record elimination. A proposed method overcomes the drawback of both record linkage attack and attribute linkage attack.

  19. Query auto completion in information retrieval

    Fei Cai


    Query auto completion is an important feature embedded into today's search engines. It can help users formulate queries which other people have searched for when he/she finishes typing the query prefix. Today's most sophisticated query auto completion approaches are based on the collected query logs

  20. A Semantic Query Transformation Approach Based on Ontology for Search Engine



    Full Text Available These days we are using some popular web search engines for information retrieval in all areas, such engine are as Google, Yahoo!, and Live Search, etc. to obtain initial helpful information.Which information we retrieved via search engine may not be relevant to the search target in the search engine user's mind. When user not found relevant information he has to shortlist the results. Thesesearch engines use traditional search service based on "static keywords", which require the users to type in the exact keywords. This approach clearly puts the users in a critical situation of guessing the exact keyword. The users may want to define their search by using attributes of the search target. But the relevancy of results in most cases may not be satisfactory and the users may not be patient enough to browse through complete list of pages to get a relevant result. The reason behind this is the search engines performs search based on the syntax not on semantics. But they seemed to be less efficient to understand the relationship between the keywords which had an adverse effect on the results it produced. Semantic search engines – only solution to this; which returns concepts not documents according to user query matching. In This paper we proposed a semantic query interface which creates a semantic query according the user input query and study of current semantic search engine techniques for semantic search.

  1. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Wei Yang; Liusheng Huang; Fang Song


    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of...

  2. Lower Bounds on Query Complexity for Testing Bounded-Degree CSPs

    Yoshida, Yuichi


    In this paper, we consider lower bounds on the query complexity for testing CSPs in the bounded-degree model. First, for any ``symmetric'' predicate $P:{0,1}^{k} \\to {0,1}$ except \\equ where $k\\geq 3$, we show that every (randomized) algorithm that distinguishes satisfiable instances of CSP(P) from instances $(|P^{-1}(0)|/2^k-\\epsilon)$-far from satisfiability requires $\\Omega(n^{1/2+\\delta})$ queries where $n$ is the number of variables and $\\delta>0$ is a constant that depends on $P$ and $\\epsilon$. This breaks a natural lower bound $\\Omega(n^{1/2})$, which is obtained by the birthday paradox. We also show that every one-sided error tester requires $\\Omega(n)$ queries for such $P$. These results are hereditary in the sense that the same results hold for any predicate $Q$ such that $P^{-1}(1) \\subseteq Q^{-1}(1)$. For EQU, we give a one-sided error tester whose query complexity is $\\tilde{O}(n^{1/2})$. Also, for 2-XOR (or, equivalently E2LIN2), we show an $\\Omega(n^{1/2+\\delta})$ lower bound for distinguishi...

  3. Quantum anonymous voting with anonymity check

    We propose a new protocol for quantum anonymous voting having serious advantages over the existing protocols: it protects both the voters from a curious tallyman and all the participants from a dishonest voter in unconditional way. The central idea of the protocol is that the ballots are given back to the voters after the voting process, which gives a possibility for two voters to check the anonymity of the vote counting process by preparing a special entangled state of two ballots. Any attempt of cheating from the side of the tallyman results in destroying the entanglement, which can be detected by the voters.

  4. Anonymity and Historical-Anonymity in Location-Based Services

    Bettini, Claudio; Mascetti, Sergio; Wang, X. Sean; Freni, Dario; Jajodia, Sushil

    The problem of protecting user’s privacy in Location-Based Services (LBS) has been extensively studied recently and several defense techniques have been proposed. In this contribution, we first present a categorization of privacy attacks and related defenses. Then, we consider the class of defense techniques that aim at providing privacy through anonymity and in particular algorithms achieving “historical k- anonymity” in the case of the adversary obtaining a trace of requests recognized as being issued by the same (anonymous) user. Finally, we investigate the issues involved in the experimental evaluation of anonymity based defense techniques; we show that user movement simulations based on mostly random movements can lead to overestimate the privacy protection in some cases and to overprotective techniques in other cases. The above results are obtained by comparison to a more realistic simulation with an agent-based simulator, considering a specific deployment scenario.

  5. Query Performance Prediction for Information Retrieval Based on Covering Topic Score

    Hao Lang; Bin Wang; Gareth Jones; Jin-Tao Li; Fan Ding; Yi-Xuan Liu


    We present a statistical method called Covering Topic Score (CTS) to predict query performance for information retrieval. Estimation is based on how well the topic of a user's query is covered by documents retrieved from a certain retrieval system. Our approach is conceptually simple and intuitive, and can be easily extended to incorporate features beyond bag-of-words such as phrases and proximity of terms. Experiments demonstrate that CTS significantly correlates with query performance in a variety of TREC test collections, and in particular CTS gains more prediction power benefiting from features of phrases and proximity of terms. We compare CTS with previous state-of-the-art methods for query performance prediction including clarity score and robustness score. Our experimental results show that CTS consistently performs better than, or at least as well as, these other methods. In addition to its high effectiveness, CTS is also shown to have very low computational complexity, meaning that it can be practical for real applications.

  6. Security Analysis of Accountable Anonymity in Dissent

    Syta, Ewa; Johnson, Aaron; Corrigan-Gibbs, Henry; Weng, Shu-Chun; Wolinsky, David; Ford, Bryan


    Users often wish to communicate anonymously on the Internet, for example in group discussion or instant messaging forums. Existing solutions are vulnerable to misbehaving users, however, who may abuse their anonymity to disrupt communication. Dining Cryptographers Networks (DC-nets) leave groups vulnerable to denial-of-service and Sybil attacks, mix networks are difficult to protect against traffic analysis, and accountable voting schemes are unsuited to general anonymous messaging. DISSENT ...

  7. Internet and the right of anonymity

    Voorhoof, Dirk


    This articles explores the ratio and characteristics of the right of anonymity on the Internet. A right of anonymity is considered as a shield against oppression, harassment, retaliation, censorship or discrimination and therefore it is considered as a vital component of freedom of speech or freedom of expression. Reference is made to several existing types of rights of anonymity in relation to freedom of expression, such as the right to protect (confidential) journalistic sources, free elec...

  8. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  9. Algebraic Optimization of Outerjoin Queries

    Galindo-Legaria, Cesar Alejandro


    An advantage of relational database languages is that they allow "declarative" query specification: users pose queries as a set of conditions or properties on data to be retrieved, rather than by giving a procedure to obtain such data. The database system is then responsible for generating an efficient execution plan, depending on how information is physically stored. In this context, generation of efficient plans is known as database query optimization. Careful query analysis is justified du...

  10. The Interactive Effects of Motivations and Trust in Anonymity on Adolescents' Enduring Participation in Web-Based Social Science Research: A Longitudinal Behavioral Analysis

    Barbara Stiglbauer


    Full Text Available Based on self-determination and social exchange theory, this study investigates the effects of extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and trust in anonymity on enduring survey participation over a period of 2 years. Trust in anonymity was expected to act as a moderator between motivations and the likelihood of repeated survey participation. Participants were N = 227 adolescent members of an academic online panel for youth research. Results of longitudinal logistic regression analyses demonstrated a steady decline in the probability of survey participation over time. Extrinsic but not intrinsic motivation significantly increased the probability of initial survey participation, whereas both, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, buffered the declining probability of survey participation over time; however, only if trust in anonymity was comparably low. These results suggest that the beneficial effects of extrinsic and intrinsic motivations on enduring survey participation are especially prevalent if trust in anonymity is of low to medium size.

  11. Economical quantum anonymous transmissions

    We present a new information-theoretically secure protocol for the anonymous transmission of quantum information. Different from the pioneering works, we use single photons to construct anonymous entanglement instead of multi-partite entangled states in this protocol, and therefore we reduce the complexity of physical implementation in practice.

  12. Orthogonal Query Expansion

    Ackerman, Margareta; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro


    Over the last fifteen years, web searching has seen tremendous improvements. Starting from a nearly random collection of matching pages in 1995, today, search engines tend to satisfy the user's informational need on well-formulated queries. One of the main remaining challenges is to satisfy the users' needs when they provide a poorly formulated query. When the pages matching the user's original keywords are judged to be unsatisfactory, query expansion techniques are used to alter the result set. These techniques find keywords that are similar to the keywords given by the user, which are then appended to the original query leading to a perturbation of the result set. However, when the original query is sufficiently ill-posed, the user's informational need is best met using entirely different keywords, and a small perturbation of the original result set is bound to fail. We propose a novel approach that is not based on the keywords of the original query. We intentionally seek out orthogonal queries, which are r...

  13. [Comment onAnonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”] from R.E. Criss and A.M. Hofmeister

    Criss, Robert E.; Hofmeister, Anne M.

    We share many of the experiences and most of the sentiments relayed by Myrl Beck in his 1 July contribution to the Eos Forum, as well as those of a similar nature expressed by Alexander McBirney in his March 2003 commentary in GSA Today. We are in fact delighted that senior scientists are speaking up about the unsatisfactory nature of anonymous reviews. However, we believe they understate the problems, partly because the situation is worsening with time. Moreover, the brunt of such problems is disproportionately felt not by emeritus professors but by young scientists, women, and minorities, and this is the crux of the issue.This year, we have, like Beck, received rejections based on comments by two anonymous reviewers and an anonymous associate editor. We have also received rejections from anonymous associate editors based on a single constructive review requesting minor revision, along with an anonymous hostile “review” that could have been written about any manuscript on any topic by any author. More common than these are rejections from identified associate editors based on one or two anonymous reviews, which more often than not err on most of the points made, and in two cases dispute work that resulted in Nobel Prizes. We have examples this year of each type where the senior authors are recent Ph.D.s, whose vulnerabilities underscore the reprehensible nature of this “process.”

  14. Query optimization over crowdsourced data

    Park, Hyunjung


    Deco is a comprehensive system for answering declarative queries posed over stored relational data together with data obtained on-demand from the crowd. In this paper we describe Deco\\'s cost-based query optimizer, building on Deco\\'s data model, query language, and query execution engine presented earlier. Deco\\'s objective in query optimization is to find the best query plan to answer a query, in terms of estimated monetary cost. Deco\\'s query semantics and plan execution strategies require several fundamental changes to traditional query optimization. Novel techniques incorporated into Deco\\'s query optimizer include a cost model distinguishing between "free" existing data versus paid new data, a cardinality estimation algorithm coping with changes to the database state during query execution, and a plan enumeration algorithm maximizing reuse of common subplans in a setting that makes reuse challenging. We experimentally evaluate Deco\\'s query optimizer, focusing on the accuracy of cost estimation and the efficiency of plan enumeration.

  15. Optimal query error of quantum approximation on some Sobolev classes


    We study the approximation of the imbedding of functions from anisotropic and general-ized Sobolev classes into Lq([0,1]d) space in the quantum model of computation. Based on the quantum algorithms for approximation of finite imbedding from LpN to LNq , we develop quantum algorithms for approximating the imbedding from anisotropic Sobolev classes B(Wpr ([0,1]d)) to Lq([0,1]d) space for all 1 q,p ∞ and prove their optimality. Our results show that for p < q the quantum model of computation can bring a speedup roughly up to a squaring of the rate in the classical deterministic and randomized settings.

  16. Query complexity in expectation

    Kaniewski, J.; Lee, Troy; Wolf,


    We study the query complexity of computing a function f:{0,1}^n-->R_+ in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f(x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum query complexity by two polynomial degrees, the nonnegative literal degree and the sum-of-squares degree, respectively. We observe that the quantum complexity can be unboundedly smaller than t...

  17. Improving Estimation Accuracy of Aggregate Queries on Data Cubes

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie


    In this paper, we investigate the problem of estimation of a target database from summary databases derived from a base data cube. We show that such estimates can be derived by choosing a primary database which uses a proxy database to estimate the results. This technique is common in statistics, but an important issue we are addressing is the accuracy of these estimates. Specifically, given multiple primary and multiple proxy databases, that share the same summary measure, the problem is how to select the primary and proxy databases that will generate the most accurate target database estimation possible. We propose an algorithmic approach for determining the steps to select or compute the source databases from multiple summary databases, which makes use of the principles of information entropy. We show that the source databases with the largest number of cells in common provide the more accurate estimates. We prove that this is consistent with maximizing the entropy. We provide some experimental results on the accuracy of the target database estimation in order to verify our results.

  18. MHBase: A Distributed Real-Time Query Scheme for Meteorological Data Based on HBase

    Tinghuai Ma


    Full Text Available Meteorological technology has evolved rapidly in recent years to provide enormous, accurate and personalized advantages in the public service. Large volumes of observational data are generated gradually by technologies such as geographical remote sensing, meteorological radar satellite, etc. that makes data analysis in weather forecasting more precise but also poses a threat to the traditional method of data storage. In this paper, we present MHBase, (Meteorological data based on HBase (Hadoop Database, a distributed real-time query scheme for meteorological data based on HBase. The calibrated data obtained from terminal devices will be partitioned into HBase and persisted to HDFS (the Hadoop Distributed File System. We propose two algorithms (the Indexed Store and the Indexed Retrieve Algorithms to implement a secondary index using HBase Coprocessors, which allow MHbase to provide high performance data querying on columns other than rowkey. Experimental results show that the performance of MHBase can satisfy the basic demands of meteorological business services.

  19. Anonymity in science.



    The history of science is replete with important works that were originally published without the author's legal name being revealed. Most modern scientists will have worked anonymously in their capacity as peer reviewers. But why is anonymity so popular? And is it a valid approach? I argue that pseudonymity and anonymity, although not appropriate for all forms of scientific communication, have a vital role to play in academic discourse. They can facilitate the free expression of interpretations and ideas, and can help to ensure that suggestions and criticisms are evaluated dispassionately, regardless of their source. PMID:23570959

  20. On the Complexity of Query Answering under Matching Dependencies for Entity Resolution

    Bertossi, Leopoldo; Gardezi, Jaffer


    Matching Dependencies (MDs) are a relatively recent proposal for declarative entity resolution. They are rules that specify, given the similarities satisfied by values in a database, what values should be considered duplicates, and have to be matched. On the basis of a chase-like procedure for MD enforcement, we can obtain clean (duplicate-free) instances; actually possibly several of them. The resolved answers to queries are those that are invariant under the resulting class of resolved inst...

  1. Perm: Processing provenance and data on the same data model through query rewriting

    Glavic, B; Alonso, G


    Data provenance is information that describes how a given data item was produced. The provenance includes source and intermediate data as well as the transformations involved in producing the concrete data item. In the context of a relational databases, the source and intermediate data items are relations, tuples and attribute values. The transformations are SQL queries and/or functions on the relational data items. Existing approaches capture provenance information by extending the underl...

  2. Increasing user participation: An exploratory study of querying on the Facebook and Twitter platforms

    Crowley, Caren; Daniels, Wilfried; Bachiller Soler, Rafael; Joosen, Wouter; Hughes, Danny


    Participatory applications frequently rely upon a crowd–sourced community of users who contribute data and content to deliver a service. The success or failure of participatory applications is dependent on developing and maintaining a community of responsive users. This paper reports the results of an exploratory 30–day study examining user responsiveness to query messages. In total 3,055 check–in requests were sent via the online social networks Facebook or Twitter to 70 participants who wer...

  3. Querying and Merging Heterogeneous Data by Approximate Joins on Higher-Order Terms

    S. Price; Flach, PA


    Integrating heterogeneous data from sources as diverse as web pages, digital libraries, knowledge bases, the Semantic Web and databases is an open problem. The ultimate aim of our work is to be able to query such heterogeneous data sources as if their data were conveniently held in a single relational database. Pursuant to this aim, we propose a generalisation of joins from the relational database model to enable joins on arbitrarily complex structured data in a higher-order representation. B...

  4. BlinkDB: Queries with Bounded Errors and Bounded Response Times on Very Large Data

    Agarwal, Sameer; Mozafari, Barzan; Madden, Samuel; Stoica, Ion


    Today's web is predominantly data-driven. Corporations, businesses and netizens are increasingly depending on enormous amounts of data (spanning terabytes or even petabytes in size) to make intelligent business and personal decisions. Often the time it takes to make these decisions is critical. Unfortunately, quickly analyzing large volumes of data poses significant challenges. For instance, scanning 1TB of data may take minutes, even when the data is spread across hundreds of machines and read in parallel. In this paper, we present BlinkDB, a massively parallel, sampling-based approximate query engine for running interactive queries on large volumes of data. The key observation in BlinkDB is that one can make perfect decisions in the absence of perfect answers. For example, reliably detecting a malfunctioning server in a distributed collection of system logs does not require knowing every request the server processed. Based on this insight, BlinkDB allows one to tradeoff between query accuracy and response t...


    K. Sridharan


    Full Text Available Due to enhance in complexity of services, there is a necessity for dynamic interaction models. For a service-oriented system to work properly, we need a context-sensitive trust based search. Automatic information transfer is also deficient when unexpected query is given. However, it shows that search engines are vulnerable in answering intellectual queries and shows an unreliable outcome. The user cannot have a fulfillment with these results due to lack of trusts on blogs. In our modified trust algorithm, which process exact skill matching and retrieval of information based on proper content rank. Our contribution to this system is new modified trust algorithm with automatic formulation of meaningful query search to retrieve the exact contents from the top-ranked documents based on the expert rank and their content quality verified of their resources provided. Some semantic search engines cannot show their important performance in improving precision and lowering recall. It hence effectively reduces complexity in combining HPS and software services.

  6. Head lice surveillance on a deregulated OTC-sales market: a study using web query data.

    Johan Lindh

    Full Text Available The head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is an obligate ectoparasite that causes infestations of humans. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between sales figures for over-the-counter (OTC treatment products and the number of humans with head lice. The deregulation of the Swedish pharmacy market on July 1, 2009, decreased the possibility to obtain complete sale figures and thereby the possibility to obtain yearly trends of head lice infestations. In the presented study we wanted to investigate whether web queries on head lice can be used as substitute for OTC sales figures. Via Google Insights for Search and Vårdguiden medical web site, the number of queries on "huvudlöss" (head lice and "hårlöss" (lice in hair were obtained. The analysis showed that both the Vårdguiden series and the Google series were statistically significant (p<0.001 when added separately, but if the Google series were already included in the model, the Vårdguiden series were not statistically significant (p = 0.5689. In conclusion, web queries can detect if there is an increase or decrease of head lice infested humans in Sweden over a period of years, and be as reliable a proxy as the OTC-sales figures.

  7. Bayesian Query-Focused Summarization

    Daumé, Hal


    We present BayeSum (for ``Bayesian summarization''), a model for sentence extraction in query-focused summarization. BayeSum leverages the common case in which multiple documents are relevant to a single query. Using these documents as reinforcement for query terms, BayeSum is not afflicted by the paucity of information in short queries. We show that approximate inference in BayeSum is possible on large data sets and results in a state-of-the-art summarization system. Furthermore, we show how BayeSum can be understood as a justified query expansion technique in the language modeling for IR framework.

  8. Legal Issues in Anonymity and Pseudonymity.

    Froomkin, A. Michael


    Regulation of anonymous and pseudonymous communications is an important and contentious Internetrelated issues of the 21st century. Resolution of this controversy will effect freedom of speech, nature of electronic commerce, and capabilities of law enforcement. The legal constraints on anonymous communication, and the constitutional constraints on…

  9. Querying Co-regulated Genes on Diverse Gene Expression Datasets Via Biclustering.

    Deveci, Mehmet; Küçüktunç, Onur; Eren, Kemal; Bozdağ, Doruk; Kaya, Kamer; Çatalyürek, Ümit V


    Rapid development and increasing popularity of gene expression microarrays have resulted in a number of studies on the discovery of co-regulated genes. One important way of discovering such co-regulations is the query-based search since gene co-expressions may indicate a shared role in a biological process. Although there exist promising query-driven search methods adapting clustering, they fail to capture many genes that function in the same biological pathway because microarray datasets are fraught with spurious samples or samples of diverse origin, or the pathways might be regulated under only a subset of samples. On the other hand, a class of clustering algorithms known as biclustering algorithms which simultaneously cluster both the items and their features are useful while analyzing gene expression data, or any data in which items are related in only a subset of their samples. This means that genes need not be related in all samples to be clustered together. Because many genes only interact under specific circumstances, biclustering may recover the relationships that traditional clustering algorithms can easily miss. In this chapter, we briefly summarize the literature using biclustering for querying co-regulated genes. Then we present a novel biclustering approach and evaluate its performance by a thorough experimental analysis. PMID:26626937

  10. Querying JSON Streams

    Bo, Yang


    A data stream management system (DSMS) is similar to a database management system (DBMS) but can search data directly in on-line streams. Using its mediator-wrapper approach, the extensible database system, Amos II, allows different kinds of distributed data resource to be queried. It has been extended with a stream datatype to query possibly infinite streams, which provides DSMS functionality. Nowadays, more and more web applications start to offer their services in JSON format which is a te...


    Kamsuriah Ahmad


    Full Text Available Oracle database is well suited to use for managing and exchanging of corporate data, especially for companies that have large-scale databases. Even though Oracle can work best, however, there are conditions where Oracle does not perform well and consume more time to perform the query transaction. This is when the database tuning process is needed. This process will solve the problems of low performance and high execution time when accessing data in the database. This study aims to propose an improvement process of query tuning that can reduce queries execution time. The cause of the problems can be discovered by reviewing the source code, List of Value (LOV and view on the current system. To enhance the query, existing query scripts need to be modified to fit the tuning process. As an evaluation on the effectiveness of the proposed query tuning process, a comparison of study is done. The result of the study shows that before the tuning process, a system takes 156 milliseconds to execute the query and after implementing the proposed query tuning process, the execution time decreases to less than one millisecond. It means hundred times performance improvement on the query execution. The outcome of the study proved that the query execution time decreased after implementing the proposed query tuning process in the system.

  12. [Comment onAnonymous reviews: Self-serving, counterproductive, and unacceptable”] Anecdotal information is insufficient to claim

    Walder, Joseph S.

    I have read the recent Forum commentaries describing disgruntlement with particular anonymous reviews (1 July 2003 and 29 July 2003 issues), and nodded sympathetically. After all, who among us has not felt, at one time or another, that a reviewer badly misunderstood our contribution to the scientific literature or our grant proposal? But each of these recent Forum contributors in fact committed the elementary logical error of invoking anecdotal evidence to prove a point. I doubt that any of these correspondents would accept scientific claims based on anecdotes. Yet somehow they believe that anecdotes form a sufficient basis for claiming that anonymous reviewing is inherently a nasty business. These correspondents further employed the dubious rhetorical device of contrasting their own self-defined, high ethical standards with those of their adversaries, whom they variously described as rude, hostile, vindictive, lazy, cowardly, selfish, bigoted against women and minorities, and attired in “the costume of crooks.” The parallel with the discourse of political argument is hard to miss.

  13. An Anonymous User Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Based on a Symmetric Cryptosystem in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Jung, Jaewook; Kim, Jiye; Choi, Younsung; Won, Dongho


    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), a registered user can login to the network and use a user authentication protocol to access data collected from the sensor nodes. Since WSNs are typically deployed in unattended environments and sensor nodes have limited resources, many researchers have made considerable efforts to design a secure and efficient user authentication process. Recently, Chen et al. proposed a secure user authentication scheme using symmetric key techniques for WSNs. They claim that their scheme assures high efficiency and security against different types of attacks. After careful analysis, however, we find that Chen et al.'s scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attack and is susceptible to denial of service attack, since it is invalid for verification to simply compare an entered ID and a stored ID in smart card. In addition, we also observe that their scheme cannot preserve user anonymity. Furthermore, their scheme cannot quickly detect an incorrect password during login phase, and this flaw wastes both communication and computational overheads. In this paper, we describe how these attacks work, and propose an enhanced anonymous user authentication and key agreement scheme based on a symmetric cryptosystem in WSNs to address all of the aforementioned vulnerabilities in Chen et al.'s scheme. Our analysis shows that the proposed scheme improves the level of security, and is also more efficient relative to other related schemes. PMID:27537890

  14. Cache Pattern with Multi-Queries

    TUDOR, N. L.


    Full Text Available This article proposes a cache pattern with multi-queries and describes the multi-query optimization with scheduling, caching and pipelining. A set of cache patterns is derived from a set of class of multi-queries that are loaded into the cache. Each cache pattern represents a unique equivalence class in the set of patterns. The multi-query optimization with scheduling, caching and pipelining provides efficient heuristics, for a good queries ordering using a single invocation on the entire batch of queries. Multi-query optimization chooses the results of sub-expression that should be admitted to or discarded from cache, when it executes queries. We introduce the heuristic of pair queries and define the equivalence class of multi-queries from cache pattern. We show that the union of all equivalence classes of queries from the cache patterns is the set of cache patterns.

  15. Using Dempster-Shafer’s evidence theory for query expansion based on freebase knowledge

    Pan, Dazhao; Peng ZHANG; Li, Jingfei; Song, Dawei; Wen, Jirong; Hou, Yuexian; Hu, Bin; Jia, Yuan; De Roeck, Anne


    Query expansion is generally a useful technique in improving search performance. However, some expanded query terms obtained by traditional statistical methods (e.g., pseudo-relevance feedback) may not be relevant to the user's information need, while some relevant terms may not be contained in the feedback documents at all. Recent studies utilize external resources to detect terms that are related to the query, and then adopt these terms in query expansion. In this paper, we present a study ...

  16. Federated SPARQL Query Processing Reconciling Diversity, Flexibility and Performance on the Web of Data

    Basca, C


    Querying the ever-growing Web of Data poses a significant challenge in today’s Semantic Web. The complete lack of any centralised control leads to potentially arbitrary data distribution, high variability of latency between hosts participating in query answering, and, in the extreme, even the (sudden) unavailability of some hosts during query execution. In this thesis we address the question of how to efficiently query the Web of Data while taking into account its scale, diversity and unrelia...

  17. Mining Longitudinal Web Queries: Trends and Patterns.

    Wang, Peiling; Berry, Michael W.; Yang, Yiheng


    Analyzed user queries submitted to an academic Web site during a four-year period, using a relational database, to examine users' query behavior, to identify problems they encounter, and to develop techniques for optimizing query analysis and mining. Linguistic analyses focus on query structures, lexicon, and word associations using statistical…

  18. Effective Density Queries of Continuously Moving Objects

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lin, D.; Ooi, B.C.;


    In this paper, we study a newly emerging type of queries on moving objects - the density query. Basically, this query locates regions in the data space where the density of the objects is high. This type of queries is especially useful in Location Based Services (LBS). For example, in a traffic...

  19. Anonymous quantum communications using the quantum one-time pad

    We present the first quantum secure communication protocol for an anonymous receiver without the assistance of anonymous entanglement. In previous works, if a public sender wants to send quantum messages to a chosen receiver while protecting the identity of the receiver from others, all participants should cooperate first to construct the entanglement between the sender and the anonymous receiver. This is the most important process in anonymous quantum communications. With anonymous entanglement, the sender can communicate quantum messages to the anonymous receiver by applying teleportation protocols. In contrast, our protocol is novel and achieves communication of quantum messages directly from the public sender to the anonymous receiver based on the quantum one-time pad and current achievements. Notably, the anonymity of the receiver, as well as the privacy of the quantum messages, is perfectly protected with the exception of an exponentially small probability in our protocol. (paper)

  20. Anonymous Mobile Payment Solution

    Alhaj Ali Jalila


    Full Text Available The evolution and increasing popularity of mobile handheld devices has led to the development of payment applications. The global acceptance of mobile payments is hindered by security and privacy concerns. One of the main problems evoked is the anonymity related with banking transactions. In this paper I propose a new secured architecture for mobile banking. Anonymity and privacy protection are the measures to be enhanced in order to satisfy people’s current needs. The banking platform must provide the highest level of security for messages exchanged between bank and the customer.

  1. Foreword for the special issue of selected papers from the 7th EDBT/ICDT Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014

    Traian Marius Truta


    Full Text Available The seventh Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014 was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Extending Database Technology (EDBT and International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT in Athens, Greece. The PAIS 2014 workshop provided an open yet focused platform for researchers and practitioners from fields such as computer science, statistics, healthcare informatics, and law to discuss and present current research challenges and advances in data privacy and anonymity research. The present special issue contains three extended papers that have been selected as the best three papers presented at PAIS 2014 workshop.

  2. VISAGE: A Query Interface for Clinical Research.

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Siegler, Trish; Saxman, Paul; Sandberg, Neil; Mueller, Remo; Johnson, Nathan; Hunscher, Dale; Arabandi, Sivaram


    We present the design and implementation of VISAGE (VISual AGgregator and Explorer), a query interface for clinical research. We follow a user-centered development approach and incorporate visual, ontological, searchable and explorative features in three interrelated components: Query Builder, Query Manager and Query Explorer. The Query Explorer provides novel on-line data mining capabilities for purposes such as hypothesis generation or cohort identification. The VISAGE query interface has been implemented as a significant component of Physio-MIMI, an NCRR-funded, multi-CTSA-site pilot project. Preliminary evaluation results show that VISAGE is more efficient for query construction than the i2b2 web-client. PMID:21347154

  3. Quantum Private Query Protocol Based on Two Non-Orthogonal States

    Yan Chang; Shibin Zhang; Guihua Han; Zhiwei Sheng; Lili Yan; Jinxin Xiong


    We propose a loss tolerant quantum private query (QPQ) protocol based on two non-orthogonal states and unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurement. By analyzing a two-point attack by a third party, we find that our protocol has a stronger ability to resist external attacks than G-protocol and Y-protocol. Our protocol requires a smaller number of compressions than that in G-protocol (Gao et al., Opt. Exp. 2012, 20, 17411–17420) and Y-protocol (Yan et al. Quant. Inf. Process. 2014, 13, 8...

  4. Selective Flooding Based on Relevant Nearest-Neighbor using Query Feedback and Similarity across Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks

    Iskandar Ishak


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Efficient searching is a fundamental problem for unstructured peer to peer networks. Flooding requires a lot of resources in the network and thus will increase the search cost. Searching approach that utilizes minimum network resources is required to produce efficient searching in the robust and dynamic peer-to-peer network. Approach: This study addressed the need for efficient flood-based searching in unstructured peer-to-peer network by considering the content of query and only selecting peers that were most related to the query given. We used minimum information to perform efficient peer selection by utilizing the past queries data and the query message. We exploited the nearest-neighbor concept on our query similarity and query hits space metrics for selecting the most relevant peers for efficient searching. Results: As demonstrated by extensive simulations, our searching scheme achieved better retrieval and low messages consumption. Conclusion: This study suggested that, in an unstructured peer-to-peer network, flooding that was based on the selection of relevant peers, can improve searching efficiency.

  5. Optimizing queries in distributed systems

    Ion LUNGU


    Full Text Available This research presents the main elements of query optimizations in distributed systems. First, data architecture according with system level architecture in a distributed environment is presented. Then the architecture of a distributed database management system (DDBMS is described on conceptual level followed by the presentation of the distributed query execution steps on these information systems. The research ends with presentation of some aspects of distributed database query optimization and strategies used for that.

  6. A flexible approach to distributed data anonymization.

    Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Eckert, Claudia; Kuhn, Klaus A


    Sensitive biomedical data is often collected from distributed sources, involving different information systems and different organizational units. Local autonomy and legal reasons lead to the need of privacy preserving integration concepts. In this article, we focus on anonymization, which plays an important role for the re-use of clinical data and for the sharing of research data. We present a flexible solution for anonymizing distributed data in the semi-honest model. Prior to the anonymization procedure, an encrypted global view of the dataset is constructed by means of a secure multi-party computing (SMC) protocol. This global representation can then be anonymized. Our approach is not limited to specific anonymization algorithms but provides pre- and postprocessing for a broad spectrum of algorithms and many privacy criteria. We present an extensive analytical and experimental evaluation and discuss which types of methods and criteria are supported. Our prototype demonstrates the approach by implementing k-anonymity, ℓ-diversity, t-closeness and δ-presence with a globally optimal de-identification method in horizontally and vertically distributed setups. The experiments show that our method provides highly competitive performance and offers a practical and flexible solution for anonymizing distributed biomedical datasets. PMID:24333850

  7. Graphical querying of model-driven spreadsheets

    Cunha, Jácome Miguel Costa; Fernandes, João Paulo de Sousa Ferreira; Pereira, Rui Alexandre Afonso; Saraiva, João Alexandre


    This paper presents a graphical interface to query modeldriven spreadsheets, based on experience with previous work and empirical studies in querying systems, to simplify query construction for typical end-users with little to no knowledge of SQL. We briefly show our previous text based model-driven querying system. Afterwards, we detail our graphical model-driven querying interface, explaining each part of the interface and showing an example. To validate our work, we executed an empirica...

  8. Scalable Package Queries in Relational Database Systems

    Brucato, Matteo; Beltran, Juan Felipe; Abouzied, Azza; Meliou, Alexandra


    Traditional database queries follow a simple model: they define constraints that each tuple in the result must satisfy. This model is computationally efficient, as the database system can evaluate the query conditions on each tuple individually. However, many practical, real-world problems require a collection of result tuples to satisfy constraints collectively, rather than individually. In this paper, we present package queries, a new query model that extends traditional database queries to...




    Full Text Available Continuous aggregation queries are used to monitor the changes in data with time varying for online decision making. For continuous queries low cost and scalable techniques used a network of aggregators. Individual node cannot by itself determine its inclusion in the query result for this a different algorithmic challenges from aggregate and selection queries are presented. At specific coherencies each data item can serve for a set of data aggregators. Technique involves disseminating query into sub query and sub queries are executed on the chosen data aggregators. We build a query cost model which can be used to estimate the number of refresh messages which is required to satisfy the client specified incoherency bound. Performance results shows that by our method the query can be executed using less than one third the messages required for existing schemes. Our adaptive strategy employs distributed decisions made by the distributed servers independently based on localized statistics collected by each server at runtime. When comparatively static environment, propose two motionless tree construction algorithms relying on apriori system statistics. These static trees can also be used as early trees in a dynamic environment and apply our schemes to both single- and multi object distribution. Our extensive performance study illustrate that the adaptive mechanisms.

  10. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Alina Campan


    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  11. Querying Safety Cases

    Denney, Ewen W.; Naylor, Dwight; Pai, Ganesh


    Querying a safety case to show how the various stakeholders' concerns about system safety are addressed has been put forth as one of the benefits of argument-based assurance (in a recent study by the Health Foundation, UK, which reviewed the use of safety cases in safety-critical industries). However, neither the literature nor current practice offer much guidance on querying mechanisms appropriate for, or available within, a safety case paradigm. This paper presents a preliminary approach that uses a formal basis for querying safety cases, specifically Goal Structuring Notation (GSN) argument structures. Our approach semantically enriches GSN arguments with domain-specific metadata that the query language leverages, along with its inherent structure, to produce views. We have implemented the approach in our toolset AdvoCATE, and illustrate it by application to a fragment of the safety argument for an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) being developed at NASA Ames. We also discuss the potential practical utility of our query mechanism within the context of the existing framework for UAS safety assurance.

  12. Code query by example

    Vaucouleur, Sebastien


    We introduce code query by example for customisation of evolvable software products in general and of enterprise resource planning systems (ERPs) in particular. The concept is based on an initial empirical study on practices around ERP systems. We motivate our design choices based on those empirical results, and we show how the proposed solution helps with respect to the infamous upgrade problem: the conflict between the need for customisation and the need for upgrade of ERP systems. We further show how code query by example can be used as a form of lightweight static analysis, to detect automatically potential defects in large software products. Code query by example as a form of lightweight static analysis is particularly interesting in the context of ERP systems: it is often the case that programmers working in this field are not computer science specialists but more of domain experts. Hence, they require a simple language to express custom rules.

  13. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  14. Research Issues in Mobile Querying

    Breunig, M.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Klein, M.; Zeitz, A.; Koloniari, G.; Grünbauer, J.; Marrón, P.J.; Panieyiotoa, C.; Boll, S.; Saltenis, Simonas; Sattler, K.-U.; Hauswirth, M.; Lehner, W.; Wolfson, O.


    This document reports on key aspects of the discussions conducted within the working group. In particular, the document aims to offer a structured and somewhat digested summary of the group's discussions. The document first offers concepts that enable characterization of "mobile queries" as well ...... the types of systems that enable such queries. It explores the notion of context in mobile queries. The document ends with a few observations, mainly regarding challenges....

  15. Query Expansion Strategy based on Pseudo Relevance Feedback and Term Weight Scheme for Monolingual Retrieval

    Vaidyanathan, Rekha; Das, Sujoy; Srivastava, Namita


    Query Expansion using Pseudo Relevance Feedback is a useful and a popular technique for reformulating the query. In our proposed query expansion method, we assume that relevant information can be found within a document near the central idea. The document is normally divided into sections, paragraphs and lines. The proposed method tries to extract keywords that are closer to the central theme of the document. The expansion terms are obtained by equi-frequency partition of the documents obtain...

  16. Geospatial-Enabled RuleML in a Study on Querying Respiratory Disease Information

    Gao, Sheng; Boley, Harold; Mioc, Darka;


    health data query and representation framework is proposed through the formalization of spatial information. We include the geometric representation in RuleML deduction, and apply ontologies and rules for querying and representing health information. Corresponding geospatial built-ins were implemented...... as an extension to OO jDREW. Case studies were carried out using geospatial-enabled RuleML queries for respiratory disease information. The paper thus demonstrates the use of RuleML for geospatial-semantic querying and representing of health information....

  17. On describing human white matter anatomy: the white matter query language.

    Wassermann, Demian; Makris, Nikos; Rathi, Yogesh; Shenton, Martha; Kikinis, Ron; Kubicki, Marek; Westin, Carl-Fredrik


    The main contribution of this work is the careful syntactical definition of major white matter tracts in the human brain based on a neuroanatomist's expert knowledge. We present a technique to formally describe white matter tracts and to automatically extract them from diffusion MRI data. The framework is based on a novel query language with a near-to-English textual syntax. This query language allows us to construct a dictionary of anatomical definitions describing white matter tracts. The definitions include adjacent gray and white matter regions, and rules for spatial relations. This enables automated coherent labeling of white matter anatomy across subjects. We use our method to encode anatomical knowledge in human white matter describing 10 association and 8 projection tracts per hemisphere and 7 commissural tracts. The technique is shown to be comparable in accuracy to manual labeling. We present results applying this framework to create a white matter atlas from 77 healthy subjects, and we use this atlas in a proof-of-concept study to detect tract changes specific to schizophrenia. PMID:24505722

  18. Complex dynamics of our economic life on different scales: insights from search engine query data.

    Preis, Tobias; Reith, Daniel; Stanley, H Eugene


    Search engine query data deliver insight into the behaviour of individuals who are the smallest possible scale of our economic life. Individuals are submitting several hundred million search engine queries around the world each day. We study weekly search volume data for various search terms from 2004 to 2010 that are offered by the search engine Google for scientific use, providing information about our economic life on an aggregated collective level. We ask the question whether there is a link between search volume data and financial market fluctuations on a weekly time scale. Both collective 'swarm intelligence' of Internet users and the group of financial market participants can be regarded as a complex system of many interacting subunits that react quickly to external changes. We find clear evidence that weekly transaction volumes of S&P 500 companies are correlated with weekly search volume of corresponding company names. Furthermore, we apply a recently introduced method for quantifying complex correlations in time series with which we find a clear tendency that search volume time series and transaction volume time series show recurring patterns. PMID:21078644

  19. jQuery Mobile

    Reid, Jon


    Native apps have distinct advantages, but the future belongs to mobile web apps that function on a broad range of smartphones and tablets. Get started with jQuery Mobile, the touch-optimized framework for creating apps that look and behave consistently across many devices. This concise book provides HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript code examples, screen shots, and step-by-step guidance to help you build a complete working app with jQuery Mobile. If you're already familiar with the jQuery JavaScript library, you can use your existing skills to build cross-platform mobile web apps right now. This b

  20. On Mobility Management in Multi-Sink Sensor Networks for Geocasting of Queries

    Paul Havinga


    Full Text Available In order to efficiently deal with location dependent messages in multi-sink wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is key that the network informs sinks what geographical area is covered by which sink. The sinks are then able to efficiently route messages which are only valid in particular regions of the deployment. In our previous work (see the 5th and 6th cited documents, we proposed a combined coverage area reporting and geographical routing protocol for location dependent messages, for example, queries that are injected by sinks. In this paper, we study the case where we have static sinks and mobile sensor nodes in the network. To provide up-to-date coverage areas to sinks, we focus on handling node mobility in the network. We discuss what is a better method for updating the routing structure (i.e., routing trees and coverage areas to handle mobility efficiently: periodic global updates initiated from sinks or local updates triggered by mobile sensors. Simulation results show that local updating perform very well in terms of query delivery ratio. Local updating has a better scalability to increasing network size. It is also more energy efficient than ourpreviously proposed approach, where global updating in networks have medium mobility rate and speed.

  1. Seeking Anonymity in an Internet Panopticon

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Ford, Bryan


    Obtaining and maintaining anonymity on the Internet is challenging. The state of the art in deployed tools, such as Tor, uses onion routing (OR) to relay encrypted connections on a detour passing through randomly chosen relays scattered around the Internet. Unfortunately, OR is known to be vulnerable at least in principle to several classes of attacks for which no solution is known or believed to be forthcoming soon. Current approaches to anonymity also appear unable to offer accurate, princi...

  2. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang


    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  3. A Comparison of Anonymous versus Identifiable e-Peer Review on College Student Writing Performance and the Extent of Critical Feedback

    Lu, Ruiling; Bol, Linda


    Peer review has become commonplace in composition courses and is increasingly employed in the context of telecommunication technology. The purpose of this experiment was to compare the effects of anonymous and identifiable electronic peer (e-peer) review on college student writing performance and the extent of critical peer feedback. Participants…

  4. Form and Function: The Impact of Query Term and Operator Usage on Web Search Results.

    Lucas, Wendy; Topi, Heikki


    Describes a study of college students that investigated Web-based search engine queries and compared relevancy ratings with expert-formulated queries. Considers the number of subject terms used and the use of Boolean operators and discuses the need for designing search engine interfaces that provide greater support in term selection and operator…

  5. Robust Query Processing for Personalized Information Access on the Semantic Web

    Dolog, Peter; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Wache, Holger

    Research in Cooperative Query answering is triggered by the observation that users are often not able to correctly formulate queries to databases that return the intended result. Due to a lack of knowledge of the contents and the structure of a database, users will often only be able to provide v...

  6. Consciousness as a process of queries and answers in architectures based on in situ representations

    Velde, Van der F.


    Functional or access consciousness can be described as an ongoing dynamic process of queries and answers. Whenever we have an awareness of an object or its surroundings, it consists of the dynamic process that answers (implicit) queries like "What is the color or shape of the object?" or "What surro

  7. Geospatial-Enabled RuleML in a Study on Querying Respiratory Disease Information

    Gao, Sheng; Boley, Harold; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Yi, Xialoun

    A spatial component for health data can support spatial analysis and visualization in the investigation of health phenomena. Therefore, the utilization of spatial information in a Semantic Web environment will enhance the ability to query and to represent health data. In this paper, a semantic...... health data query and representation framework is proposed through the formalization of spatial information. We include the geometric representation in RuleML deduction, and apply ontologies and rules for querying and representing health information. Corresponding geospatial built-ins were implemented as...... an extension to OO jDREW. Case studies were carried out using geospatial-enabled RuleML queries for respiratory disease information. The paper thus demonstrates the use of RuleML for geospatial-semantic querying and representing of health information....

  8. Anonymity And Accountability In Web Based Transactions

    H.Jayasree; .Damodaram


    Decreased privacy is an unavoidable consequence in the drive to make the world a more secure, safer place, according to some analysts. In the on-line world, the conflict between privacy and security manifests itself in a debate between anonymity and accountability. Balance between Anonymity and Accountability is a major concern in web based transactions. The protection of users’ privacy when performing web-based transactions is an important factor in the acceptance and use of Internet and we...

  9. Security and Anonymity of Bitcoin Payments

    Korošec, Peter


    This thesis presents the digital payment system Bitcoin. It describes the cryptography on which the system is based. Presented are the short history of the system and the principles of how it works. Highlighted are the state of anonymity that the system provides while making payments and the safety it guarantees while executing transactions. Within the context of anonymity, the state of masking the users identity within the payment system is described, together with warnings and mechanisms to...

  10. Influence of characteristic X-ray of impurity element on anonymous spectral lines excited by hydrogen gas discharge source bombarding targets

    A series of low energy X-ray spectral lines which have constant energy have been detected in hydrogen gas discharge source bombarding targets. Their energy are 1.7 keV, 2.3 keV, 2.6 keV, 3.3 keV and 3.7 keV, respectively. These anonymous spectral lines can not be explained by the known theories. There are still possibilities that they are produced by potential impurity elements in targets or in the discharge chamber, although the energy of the anonymous spectral lines are close to the energy of the characteristic X-ray of some elements,such as Si, Ta, S, Cl, K, Ca and Ti, etc. In this paper, the origin of impurity elements in the experimental system are analyzed, the influence of impurity elements in the discharge chamber and targets on the new spectral lines are studied, and the target surface is analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The study shows that the impurity elements have no influence on the generation of the anonymous spectral lines. The characteristics of the anonymous spectral lines need further experimental and theoretical study. (authors)

  11. Privacy and Anonymity

    Wacks, R


    Since the beginning of the digital area, privacy and anonymity have been impacted drastically (both, positively and negatively), by the different technologies developed for communications purposes. The broad possibilities that the Internet offers since its conception, makes it a mandatory target for those entities that are aiming to know and control the different channels of communication and the information that flows through. In this paper, we address the current threats against privacy and...

  12. Mediated Traceable Anonymous Encryption

    Izabachène, Malika; Pointcheval, David; Vergnaud, Damien


    The notion of key privacy for asymmetric encryption schemes was formally defined by Bellare, Boldyreva, Desai and Pointcheval in 2001: it states that an eavesdropper in possession of a ciphertext is not able to tell which specifi key, out of a set of known public keys, is the one under which the ciphertext was created. Since anonymity can be misused by dishonest users, some situations could require a tracing authority capable of revoking key privacy when illegal behavior is detected. Prior wo...

  13. A solution of spatial query processing and query optimization for spatial databases

    YUAN Jie; XIE Kun-qing; MA Xiu-jun; ZHANG Min; SUN Le-bin


    Recently, attention has been focused on spatial query language which is used to query spatial databases. A design of spatial query language has been presented in this paper by extending the standard relational database query language SQL. It recognizes the significantly different requirements of spatial data handling and overcomes the inherent problems of the application of conventional database query languages. This design is based on an extended spatial data model, including the spatial data types and the spatial operators on them. The processing and optimization of spatial queries have also been discussed in this design. In the end, an implementation of this design is given in a spatial query subsystem.

  14. Similarity extraction mechanism concerning historical personalities based on SQL queries in an RDBMS environment

    Barouchou, Alexandra; Dendrinos, Markos


    An interesting issue in the domain of history of science and ideas is the concept of similarity of historical personalities. Similar objects of research of philosophers and scientists indicate prospective influences, caused either from one another's reading or meetings, communication or even cooperation. Key methodological role in the surfacing of the sought similarities play the keywords extracted from their works as well as their placement in a philosophical and scientific term taxonomy. The case study examined in the framework of this paper concerns scientists and philosophers, who lived in ancient Greece or Renaissance periods and dealt, in at least one work, with the subject God. All the available data (scientists, studies, recorded relations between scientists, keywords, and thematic hierarchy) have been organized in an RDBMS environment, aiming at the emergence of similarities and influences between scientists through properly created SQL queries based on date and thematic hierarchy criteria.

  15. Quantum Private Query Protocol Based on Two Non-Orthogonal States

    Yan Chang


    Full Text Available We propose a loss tolerant quantum private query (QPQ protocol based on two non-orthogonal states and unambiguous state discrimination (USD measurement. By analyzing a two-point attack by a third party, we find that our protocol has a stronger ability to resist external attacks than G-protocol and Y-protocol. Our protocol requires a smaller number of compressions than that in G-protocol (Gao et al., Opt. Exp. 2012, 20, 17411–17420 and Y-protocol (Yan et al. Quant. Inf. Process. 2014, 13, 805–813, which means less post-processing. Our protocol shows better database security and user privacy compared with G-protocol.

  16. Domainwise Web Page Optimization Based On Clustered Query Sessions Using Hybrid Of Trust And ACO For Effective Information Retrieval

    Dr. Suruchi Chawla


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper hybrid of Ant Colony OptimizationACO and trust has been used for domainwise web page optimization in clustered query sessions for effective Information retrieval. The trust of the web page identifies its degree of relevance in satisfying specific information need of the user. The trusted web pages when optimized using pheromone updates in ACO will identify the trusted colonies of web pages which will be relevant to users information need in a given domain. Hence in this paper the hybrid of Trust and ACO has been used on clustered query sessions for identifying more and more relevant number of documents in a given domain in order to better satisfy the information need of the user. Experiment was conducted on the data set of web query sessions to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach in selected three domains Academics Entertainment and Sports and the results confirm the improvement in the precision of search results.

  17. Anon-Pass: Practical Anonymous Subscriptions.

    Lee, Michael Z; Dunn, Alan M; Katz, Jonathan; Waters, Brent; Witchel, Emmett


    We present the design, security proof, and implementation of an anonymous subscription service. Users register for the service by providing some form of identity, which might or might not be linked to a real-world identity such as a credit card, a web login, or a public key. A user logs on to the system by presenting a credential derived from information received at registration. Each credential allows only a single login in any authentication window, or epoch. Logins are anonymous in the sense that the service cannot distinguish which user is logging in any better than random guessing. This implies unlinkability of a user across different logins. We find that a central tension in an anonymous subscription service is the service provider's desire for a long epoch (to reduce server-side computation) versus users' desire for a short epoch (so they can repeatedly "re-anonymize" their sessions). We balance this tension by having short epochs, but adding an efficient operation for clients who do not need unlinkability to cheaply re-authenticate themselves for the next time period. We measure performance of a research prototype of our protocol that allows an independent service to offer anonymous access to existing services. We implement a music service, an Android-based subway-pass application, and a web proxy, and show that adding anonymity adds minimal client latency and only requires 33 KB of server memory per active user. PMID:24504081

  18. A Practical Approach for Scalable Conjunctive Query Answering on Acyclic {EL}^+ Knowledge Base

    Mei, Jing; Liu, Shengping; Xie, Guotong; Kalyanpur, Aditya; Fokoue, Achille; Ni, Yuan; Li, Hanyu; Pan, Yue

    Conjunctive query answering for {EL}^{++} ontologies has recently drawn much attention, as the Description Logic {EL}^{++} captures the expressivity of many large ontologies in the biomedical domain and is the foundation for the OWL 2 EL profile. In this paper, we propose a practical approach for conjunctive query answering in a fragment of {EL}^{++}, namely acyclic {EL}^+, that supports role inclusions. This approach can be implemented with low cost by leveraging any existing relational database management system to do the ABox data completion and query answering. We conducted a preliminary experiment to evaluate our approach using a large clinical data set and show our approach is practical.

  19. A Simplistic Mechanism for Query Cost Optimization

    Debopam De


    Full Text Available The cost of a database query can be optimized so that a more efficient query can be generated. However not many tools are available which work independently to optimize the cost of a query. This article is based on a tool that we developed to serve the purpose. It uses an Oracle Database and Linear Programming Problem concepts to evaluate the optimum cost of the query and compares it with the original cost of the query that the user gives. The optimum cost can also be used to devise a new query which serves the same purpose as the original one and with reduced cost.

  20. jQuery Pocket Reference

    Flanagan, David


    "As someone who uses jQuery on a regular basis, it was surprising to discover how much of the library I'm not using. This book is indispensable for anyone who is serious about using jQuery for non-trivial applications."-- Raffaele Cecco, longtime developer of video games, including Cybernoid, Exolon, and Stormlord jQuery is the "write less, do more" JavaScript library. Its powerful features and ease of use have made it the most popular client-side JavaScript framework for the Web. This book is jQuery's trusty companion: the definitive "read less, learn more" guide to the library. jQuery P

  1. jQuery UI cookbook

    Boduch, Adam


    Filled with a practical collection of recipes, jQuery UI Cookbook is full of clear, step-by-step instructions that will help you harness the powerful UI framework in jQuery. Depending on your needs, you can dip in and out of the Cookbook and its recipes, or follow the book from start to finish.If you are a jQuery UI developer looking to improve your existing applications, extract ideas for your new application, or to better understand the overall widget architecture, then jQuery UI Cookbook is a must-have for you. The reader should at least have a rudimentary understanding of what jQuery UI is

  2. Different ways of providing anonymity

    Glavač, Vesna


    The aim of this thesis is to show the importance of security and anonymity on the internet by demonstrating the use of a SOCKS proxy. In theoretical part, properties of various security mechanisms are explored with focus on SOCKS protocol as one of the most widely used systems. Presented are the inner workings and different versions as well as advantages and drawbacks of the protocol. The paper tries to identify the simplest way of encrypting data traffic by using SOCKS protocol with SSH tunn...

  3. SPIN Query Tools for De-identified Research on a Humongous Database

    McDonald, Clement J.; Dexter, Paul; Schadow, Gunther; Chueh, Henry C.; Abernathy, Greg; Hook, John; Blevins, Lonnie; Overhage, J Marc; Jules J Berman


    The Shared Pathology Informatics Network (SPIN), a research initiative of the National Cancer Institute, will allow for the retrieval of more than 4 million pathology reports and specimens. In this paper, we describe the special query tool as developed for the Indianapolis/Regenstrief SPIN node, integrated into the ever-expanding Indiana Network for Patient care (INPC). This query tool allows for the retrieval of de-identified data sets using complex logic, auto-coded final ...

  4. Approximate dictionary queries

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Gasieniec, Leszek

    Given a set of n binary strings of length m each. We consider the problem of answering d-queries. Given a binary query string of length m, a d-query is to report if there exists a string in the set within Hamming distance d of . We present a data structure of size O(nm) supporting 1-queries in ti...

  5. Anonymity in Large Societies

    Andrei Gomberg; Cesar Martinelli; Ricard Torres


    In a social choice model with an infinite number of agents, there may occur "equal size" coalitions that a preference aggregation rule should treat in the same manner. We introduce an axiom of equal treatment with respect to a measure of coalition size and explore its interaction with common axioms of social choice. We show that, provided the measure space is sufficiently rich in coalitions of the same measure, the new axiom is the natural extension of the concept of anonymity, and in particu...

  6. An Examination of Natural Language as a Query Formation Tool for Retrieving Information on E-Health from Pub Med.

    Peterson, Gabriel M.; Su, Kuichun; Ries, James E.; Sievert, Mary Ellen C.


    Discussion of Internet use for information searches on health-related topics focuses on a study that examined complexity and variability of natural language in using search terms that express the concept of electronic health (e-health). Highlights include precision of retrieved information; shift in terminology; and queries using the Pub Med…

  7. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  8. Foreword for the special issue of selected papers from the 7th EDBT/ICDT Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014)

    Traian Marius Truta; Li Xiong; Farshad Fotouhi


    The seventh Workshop on Privacy and Anonymity in Information Society (PAIS 2014) was held in conjunction with the International Conference on Extending Database Technology (EDBT) and International Conference on Database Theory (ICDT) in Athens, Greece. The PAIS 2014 workshop provided an open yet focused platform for researchers and practitioners from fields such as computer science, statistics, healthcare informatics, and law to discuss and present current research challenges and advances ...

  9. Information Privacy in the Marketspace: Implications for the Commercial Uses of Anonymity on the Web.

    Hoffman, Donna L.; Novak, Thomas P.; Peralta, Marcos A.


    Suggests that the primary barrier to successful commercial development of the Web is lack of consumer trust in the medium. Examines how customer concerns are affecting growth and development of consumeroriented commercial activity on the Web and investigates the implications of these concerns for potential industry response. Suggests that radical…

  10. [Analysis of forensic-medical expert conclusions on rap and concealed rape (data from anonymous questionnaires)].

    Pigolkin, Iu I; Dmitrieva, O A


    Specific features of modern cases of raping are analyzed on the basis of the data of forensic medical obstetrical and gynecological expert evaluations carried out in the Primorye territory. Age and risk groups are defined, health status of victims is characterized, and specific injuries of the body and genitals are described. Specific features of concealed sexual violations in Vladivostok are defined and the need in creation of rehabilitation centers for victims of raping is discussed. PMID:11871331