Anomalous dissipation and kinetic-energy distribution in pipes at very high Reynolds numbers.
Chen, Xi; Wei, Bo-Bo; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su
2016-01-01
A symmetry-based theory is developed for the description of (streamwise) kinetic energy K in turbulent pipes at extremely high Reynolds numbers (Re's). The theory assumes a mesolayer with continual deformation of wall-attached eddies which introduce an anomalous dissipation, breaking the exact balance between production and dissipation. An outer peak of K is predicted above a critical Re of 10^{4}, in good agreement with experimental data. The theory offers an alternative explanation for the recently discovered logarithmic distribution of K. The concept of anomalous dissipation is further supported by a significant modification of the k-ω equation, yielding an accurate prediction of the entire K profile. PMID:26871016
Anomalous fermion number non-conservation at high temperatures: Two dimensional example
We consider γ5 version of Abelian Higgs model in 1+1 dimensions and find one loop expression for the rate of fermion number non-conservation at high temperatures. We discuss the construction of the noncontractible loop in the configuration space and an analog of the sphaleron solution in the theory. (orig.)
Influence of the electron's anomalous magnetic dipole moment on high-atomic number atoms
Super heavy atoms ( Z > 100 ) are usually studied in the context of the so-called Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields. In this theory the problem of the singularity in the electron energy whenever Z > 137 is overcome. This is done by considering the finite size of the nucleus and leads to interesting phenomena, such as the spontaneous production of positrons. Here, we show that, taking into account the contribution from the Anomalous Magnetic Dipole Moment of the electron ( by means of an effective theory ), within a point nucleus model, is a sufficient condition to obtain regular wave functions and physically acceptable energy values for Z > 137. (author)
Non-Anomalous Semigroups and Real Numbers
Binder, Damon
2016-01-01
Motivated by intuitive properties of physical quantities, the notion of a non-anomalous semigroup is formulated. These are totally ordered semigroups where there are no `infinitesimally close' elements. The real numbers are then defined as the terminal object in a closely related category. From this definition a field structure on $\\mathbb R$ is derived, relating multiplication to morphisms between non-anomalous semigroups.
Anomalous fermion number violation and numerical simulations
After discussing the problem of lattice regularization of chiral gauge theories, a simple model for anomalous fermion number violation is formulated which can be numerically studied with present day technique. Exploratory results of numerical simulations of a two-dimensional U(1) Higgs model are presented. (orig.)
A discussion on the existence of the anomalous high and the anomalous low
Li, N
2015-01-01
The air flow in a three-way balance between the Coriolis force, the centrifugal force and the pressure gradient force, i.e., the gradient wind, is discussed. The author studies formation mechanisms and possible existence of four types of gradient wind (the normal high, the normal low, the anomalous high and the anomalous low), and proposes reasonable explanation of the evolution of the gradient wind, especially for the anomalous high and the anomalous low, both of which are ...
Khurana Ekta
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudogenes provide a record of the molecular evolution of genes. As glycolysis is such a highly conserved and fundamental metabolic pathway, the pseudogenes of glycolytic enzymes comprise a standardized genomic measuring stick and an ideal platform for studying molecular evolution. One of the glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, has already been noted to have one of the largest numbers of associated pseudogenes, among all proteins. Results We assembled the first comprehensive catalog of the processed and duplicated pseudogenes of glycolytic enzymes in many vertebrate model-organism genomes, including human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, chicken, zebrafish, pufferfish, fruitfly, and worm (available at http://pseudogene.org/glycolysis/. We found that glycolytic pseudogenes are predominantly processed, i.e. retrotransposed from the mRNA of their parent genes. Although each glycolytic enzyme plays a unique role, GAPDH has by far the most pseudogenes, perhaps reflecting its large number of non-glycolytic functions or its possession of a particularly retrotranspositionally active sub-sequence. Furthermore, the number of GAPDH pseudogenes varies significantly among the genomes we studied: none in zebrafish, pufferfish, fruitfly, and worm, 1 in chicken, 50 in chimpanzee, 62 in human, 331 in mouse, and 364 in rat. Next, we developed a simple method of identifying conserved syntenic blocks (consistently applicable to the wide range of organisms in the study by using orthologous genes as anchors delimiting a conserved block between a pair of genomes. This approach showed that few glycolytic pseudogenes are shared between primate and rodent lineages. Finally, by estimating pseudogene ages using Kimura's two-parameter model of nucleotide substitution, we found evidence for bursts of retrotranspositional activity approximately 42, 36, and 26 million years ago in the human, mouse, and rat lineages, respectively
Route towards Localization for Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems with Chern Number 2.
Song, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Song, Jun-Tao; Li, Shu-Shen
2016-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall system with Chern number 2 can be destroyed by sufficiently strong disorder. During its process towards localization, it was found that the electronic states will be directly localized to an Anderson insulator (with Chern number 0), without an intermediate Hall plateau with Chern number 1. Here we investigate the topological origin of this phenomenon, by calculating the band structures and Chern numbers for disordered supercells. We find that on the route towards localization, there exists a hidden state with Chern number 1, but it is too short and too fluctuating to be practically observable. This intermediate state cannot be stabilized even after some "smart design" of the model and this should be a universal phenomena for insulators with high Chern numbers. By performing numerical scaling of conductances, we also plot the renormalization group flows for this transition, with Chern number 1 state as an unstable fixed point. This is distinct from known results, and can be tested by experiments and further theoretical analysis. PMID:26743996
Route towards Localization for Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems with Chern Number 2
Song, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yan-Yang; Song, Jun-Tao; Li, Shu-Shen
2016-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall system with Chern number 2 can be destroyed by sufficiently strong disorder. During its process towards localization, it was found that the electronic states will be directly localized to an Anderson insulator (with Chern number 0), without an intermediate Hall plateau with Chern number 1. Here we investigate the topological origin of this phenomenon, by calculating the band structures and Chern numbers for disordered supercells. We find that on the route towards localization, there exists a hidden state with Chern number 1, but it is too short and too fluctuating to be practically observable. This intermediate state cannot be stabilized even after some “smart design” of the model and this should be a universal phenomena for insulators with high Chern numbers. By performing numerical scaling of conductances, we also plot the renormalization group flows for this transition, with Chern number 1 state as an unstable fixed point. This is distinct from known results, and can be tested by experiments and further theoretical analysis.
Quantum Dualities and Quantum Anomalous Hall Phases with Arbitrary Large Chern Numbers
Chern, Tong
2016-01-01
Quantum duality is a far reaching concept in contemporary theoretical physics. In the present paper, we reveal the quantum dualities in quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) phases through concrete two bands Hamiltonian models. Our models can realize QAH phases with arbitrary large Chern numbers. In real materials these models may be realized by stacked $n$ layer systems of $c_1=1$ QAH insulators. The topological phase transitions that can change the Chern numbers are studied. And we investigate the g...
Anomalous Magnetohydrodynamics
Giovannini, Massimo
2013-01-01
Anomalous symmetries induce currents which can be parallel rather than orthogonal to the hypermagnetic field. Building on the analogy with charged liquids at high magnetic Reynolds numbers, the persistence of anomalous currents is scrutinized for parametrically large conductivities when the plasma approximation is accurate. Different examples in globally neutral systems suggest that the magnetic configurations minimizing the energy density with the constraint that the helicity be conserved co...
On the anomalous electroweak baryon number non-conservation in the early universe
We estimate the rate of the anomalous electroweak baryon-number non-conserving processes in the cosmic plasma and find that it exceeds the expansion rate of the Universe at T> (a few).102 GeV. We study whether these processes wash out the Baryon Asymmetry of the Universe (BAU) generated at some earlier state (say, at GUT temperatures). We also discuss the possibility of the BAU generation by the electroweak processes themselves and find that this does not take place if the electroweak phase transition is of the second order. No definite conclusion is made for the strongly first-order phase transition. We point out that the BAU might be attributed to the anomalous decays of heavy (Msub(F)> or approx. Msub(W)/αsub(W)) fermions if these decays are unsuppressed. (author)
Anomalous Transport of High Energy Cosmic Rays in Galactic Superbubbles
Barghouty, Nasser F.
2014-01-01
High-energy cosmic rays may exhibit anomalous transport as they traverse and are accelerated by a collection of supernovae explosions in a galactic superbubble. Signatures of this anomalous transport can show up in the particles' evolution and their spectra. In a continuous-time-random- walk (CTRW) model assuming standard diffusive shock acceleration theory (DSA) for each shock encounter, and where the superbubble (an OB stars association) is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks, acceleration and transport in the superbubble can be shown to be sub-diffusive. While the sub-diffusive transport can be attributed to the stochastic nature of the acceleration time according to DSA theory, the spectral break appears to be an artifact of transport in a finite medium. These CTRW simulations point to a new and intriguing phenomenon associated with the statistical nature of collective acceleration of high energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles.
Radar-anomalous, high-altitude features on Venus
Muhleman, Duane O.; Butler, Bryan J.
1992-01-01
Over nearly all of the surface of Venus the reflectivity and emissivity at centimeter wavelengths are about 0.15 and 0.85 respectively. These values are consistent with moderately dense soils and rock populations, but the mean reflectivity is about a factor of 2 greater than that for the Moon and other terrestrial planets. Pettingill and Ford, using Pioneer Venus reflectivities and emissivities, found a number of anomalous features on Venus that showed much higher reflectivities and much lower emissivities with both values approaching 0.5. These include Maxwell Montes, a number of high regions in Aphrodite Terra and Beta Regio, and several isolated mountain peaks. Most of the features are at altitudes above the mean radius by 2 to 3 km or more. However, such features have been found in the Magellan data at low altitudes and the anomalies do not exist on all high structures, Maat Mons being the most outstanding example. A number of papers have been written that attempt to explain the phenomena in terms of the geochemistry balance of weathering effects on likely surface minerals. The geochemists have shown that the fundamentally basaltic surface would be stable at the temperatures and pressures of the mean radius in the form of magnetite, but would evolve to pyrite and/or pyrrhotite in the presence of sulfur-bearing compounds such as SO2. Pyrite will be stable at altitudes above 4 or 5 km on Venus. Although the geochemical arguments are rather compelling, it is vitally important to rationally look at other explanations for radar and radio emission measurements such as that presented by Tryka and Muhleman. The radar reflectivity values are retrieved from the raw Magellan backscatter measurements by fitting the Hagfors' radar scattering model in which a surface roughness parameters and a normal incidence electrical reflectivity are estimated. The assumptions of the theory behind the model must be considered carefully before the results can be believed. These include
Consistent high-energy constraints in the anomalous QCD sector
Roig, Pablo; Sanz-Cillero, Juan José
2014-01-01
The anomalous 〈VVP〉 Green function and related form-factors ( π0→γ⁎γ⁎ and τ−→X−ντ vector form-factors, with X−=(KKπ)− , φ−γ , (φV)− ) are analyzed in this letter in the large- NC limit. Within the single (vector and pseudoscalar) resonance approximation and the context of Resonance Chiral Theory, we show that all these observables overdetermine in a consistent way a unique set of compatible high-energy constraints for the resonance couplings. This result is in agreement with analogous relatio...
On the Anomalous Weight Losses of High Voltage Symmetrical Capacitors
Porcelli, Elio B
2015-01-01
In this work, we analyzed an anomalous effect verified from symmetrical capacitor devices, working in very high electric potentials. The mastery of that effect could mean in the future the possible substitution of propulsion technology based on fuels by single electrical propulsion systems. From experimental measurements, we detected small variations of the device inertia that cannot be associated with known interactions, so that the raised force apparently has not been completely elucidated by current theories. We measured such variations within an accurate range and we proposed that the experimental results can be explained by relations like Clausius-Mossotti one, in order to quantify the dipole forces that appear in the devices. The values of the weight losses in the capacitors were calculated by means of the theoretical proposal and indicated good agreement with our experimental measurements for 7kV and with many other experimental works.
Quasiperpendicular high Mach number Shocks
Sulaiman, A H; Dougherty, M K; Burgess, D; Fujimoto, M; Hospodarsky, G B
2015-01-01
Shock waves exist throughout the universe and are fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. Reformation is a process, driven by microphysics, which typically occurs at high Mach number supercritical shocks. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. In this letter we present a study of very high Mach number shocks in a parameter space that has been poorly explored and we identify reformation using in situ magnetic field observations from the Cassini spacecraft at 10 AU. This has given us an insight into quasi-perpendicular shocks across two orders of magnitude in Alfven Mach number (MA) which could potentially bridge the gap between modest terrestrial shocks and more exotic astrophysical shocks. For the first time, we show evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted timescale of ~0.3 {\\tau}c, where {\\tau}c is the ion gyroperio...
Anomalous electroweak baryon number non-conservation and GUT mechanism for baryogenesis
We formulate the necessary conditions for the survival of the baryon asymmetry generated in the B-L conserving leptoquark decays. We find that equilibrium anomalous electroweak B-non-conserving interactions do not wash out all the baryon asymmetry if: (I) there is no mixing in the leptonic sector, (II) there is large flavour asymmetry in the leptoquark decays, (III) mass of the Higgs boson is larger than 56 GeV. (orig.)
孔庆宇; 赵利; 庄军; 钱士雄; 李郁芬; 王钰
2001-01-01
Photofragmentation of fullerene-doped silica aerogels has been investigated by the excimer laser ablation reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometric technique. Great enhancement in the formation of odd-numbered 'fullerene' fragments has been observed in the negative-ion channel for the chemically doped aerogel sample. Generally, oddnumbered species C57, C55, C53 and C51 appeared in the mass spectra. Under optimM experimental conditions C55 can be even more intense than the neighbouring even-numbered carbon clusters. In contrast, for the physicallydoped sample, just like pristine C6o, only weak odd-numbered fragments were observed. In the positive-ion channel, the behaviour of all these samples is similar, no odd-numbered species was ever detected. A mechanism related to the interaction between the fullerene dopant and the silica aerogel host is suggested for the anomalous enhancement of the odd-numbered duster formation. A preliminary discussion on the structures of the oddnumbered 'fullerene' fragments is given.
Anomalous Hall effect from vortex motion in high-Tc superconductors
In this work, the unusual Seebeck effect is taken into consideration in explaining the possible origin of the anomalous Hall effect for high-Tc superconductors. Combining Maki's theory of transport entropy and Tinkham's theory of resistive transition, we explain why the anomalous Hall effect can be observed in high-Tc superconductors, but is absent in most conventional superconductors. The behavior of ρxy(H,T) in our theory is qualitatively consistent with experiments. In addition, our theory not only predicts that ρxy will become positive from ρxyxy|∝ρxx2 in the region of ρxyxy will diminish with increasing defect concentration
Li, Zhongyang; Palacios, Edgar; Butun, Serkan; Aydin, Koray
2015-03-11
Ultrathin metasurfaces have recently emerged as promising materials that have huge potential to enable novel, flat optical components, and surface-confined, miniature photonic devices. Metasurfaces offer new degrees of freedom in molding the optical wavefronts by introducing abrupt and drastic changes in the amplitude, phase, and/or polarization of electromagnetic radiation at the wavelength scale. By carefully arranging multiple subwavelength anisotropic or gradient optical resonators, metasurfaces have been shown to enable anomalous transmission, anomalous reflection, optical holograms, and spin-orbit interaction. However, experimental realization of high-performance metasurfaces that can operate at visible frequency range has been a significant challenge due to high optical losses of plasmonic materials and difficulties in fabricating several plasmonic resonators of subwavelength size with high uniformity. Here, we propose a highly efficient yet a simple metasurface design comprising of a single, anisotropic silver antenna in its unit cell. We demonstrate broadband (450-850 nm) anomalous reflection and spectrum splitting at visible and near-IR frequencies with high conversion efficiency. Average power ratio of anomalous reflection to the strongest diffraction mode was calculated to be on the order of 10(3) and measured to be on the order of 10. The anomalous reflected photons have been visualized using a charge-coupled device camera, and broadband spectrum splitting performance has been confirmed experimentally using a free space, angle-resolved reflection measurement setup. Metasurface design proposed in this study is a clear departure from conventional metasurfaces utilizing multiple, anisotropic and/or gradient optical resonators and could enable high-efficiency, broadband metasurfaces for achieving flat high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectrometers, polarization beam splitters, directional emitters, and spectrum splitting surfaces for photovoltaics. PMID
Bache, Morten; Zhou, Binbin
A new high-energy pulse compressor uses self-defocusing spectral broadening in anomalously dispersive quadratic nonlinear crystals, followed by positive group-delay-dispersion compensation. Compression to sub-50 fs is possible from Joule-class 1.03 µm femtosecond amplifiers in large-aperture KDP....
The (Anomalous) Hall Magnetometer as an Analysis Tool for High Density Recording Media
Haan, de S.; Lodder, J.C.
1991-01-01
In this work an evaluation tool for the characterization of high-density recording thin film media is discussed. The measurement principles are based on the anomalous and the planar Hall effect. We used these Hall effects to characterize ferromagnetic Co-Cr films and Co/Pd multilayers having perpend
Anomalous properties of flavonoids in reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography
Zenkevich, I. G.; Gushchina, S. V.
2011-09-01
It is shown through reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography that a characteristic feature of such abundant natural flavonoids as flavon-3-ols is an anomalously strong antibate dependence of their retention indices ( RI) on the organic solvent concentration ( C) in the eluent, dRI/ dC flavonoids in aqueous solutions.
Number Theory in the High School Classroom.
Dence, Thomas
1999-01-01
Demonstrates some of the usefulness of number theory to students on the high school setting in four areas: Fibonacci numbers, Diophantine equations, continued fractions, and algorithms for computing pi. (ASK)
Anomalous waiting times in high-frequency financial data
Scalas, E; Luckock, H; Mainardi, F; Mantelli, M; Raberto, M; Scalas, Enrico; Gorenflo, Rudolf; Luckock, Hugh; Mainardi, Francesco; Mantelli, Maurizio; Raberto, Marco
2004-01-01
In high-frequency financial data not only returns, but also waiting times between consecutive trades are random variables. Therefore, it is possible to apply continuous-time random walks (CTRWs) as phenomenological models of the high-frequency price dynamics. An empirical analysis performed on the 30 DJIA stocks shows that the waiting-time survival probability for high-frequency data is non-exponential. This fact imposes constraints on agent-based models of financial markets.
A workshop entitled 'Anomalous Electronic States and Physical Properties in High-Temperature Superconductors' was held on November 7-8, 2006 at Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University. In the workshop, leading scientists in the field of high-Tc superconductivity, both experimentalists and theorists, gathered in a hall to report the recent progress of the study, clarify the problems to be solved, and discuss the future prospects. The workshop was jointly organized by Specially Promoted Research of MEXT, Development of the 4D Spaces Access Neutron Spectrometer and Elucidation of the Mechanism of Oxide High-Tc Superconductivity' (repr. by M. Arai, JAEA) and by the Inter-university Cooperative Research Program of the Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 'Anomalous Electronic States and Physical Properties in High-Temperature Superconductors' (repr. by T. Tohyama, Kyoto Univ.). This report includes abstracts and materials of the presentations in the workshop. (author)
Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers
2015-11-01
During periods of intense geomagnetic activity, electric fields penetrating from the Earth's magnetosphere to the high-latitude E-region ionosphere drive strong currents named electrojets and excite there plasma instabilities. These instabilities give rise to plasma turbulence that induces nonlinear currents and strong anomalous electron heating. This increases the ionospheric conductances and modifies the global energy flow, affecting behavior of the entire near-Earth plasma. A quantitative understanding of anomalous conductance and global energy transfer is important for accurate modeling of the geomagnetic storm/substorm evolution. Our theoretical analysis, supported by recent 3D fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, shows that during strong geomagnetic storms the inclusion of anomalous conductivity can more than double the total Pedersen conductance - the crucial factor responsible for magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the current closure. We have started incorporating the effects of anomalous heating and nonlinear conductivity into existing global magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere codes developed for predictive modeling of Space. In our presentation, we will report on the latest progress in this modeling. Work supported by NASA Heliophysics GCR Grant NNX14AI13G.
On anomalous 24Na production in high-energy nuclear interactions
Recent experiments on anomalously high production of 24Na fragments at large angles in high-energy C-Cu interactions are analysed starting from a cascade-evaporation model (CEM) and taking into consideration effects of particle transport through a matter. It turned out that no unusual mechanism of nucleus-nucleus collisions is needed to explain the experimental results. 14 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs
On the Anomalous Flicker Noise Intensity in High-Temperature Superconductors
Kazakov, Kirill A.
2009-01-01
The problem of anomalously high levels of flicker noise observed in the normal state of the high-temperature superconductors is addressed. It is argued that the anomaly is the result of incorrect normalization of the power spectra according to the Hooge formula. A careful analysis of the available experimental data is given, which shows that the scaling of the spectral power with sample size is essentially different from the inverse proportionality. It is demonstrated that the measured spectr...
Anomalous mobility of highly charged particles in pores.
Qiu, Yinghua; Yang, Crystal; Hinkle, Preston; Vlassiouk, Ivan V; Siwy, Zuzanna S
2015-08-18
Single micropores in resistive-pulse technique were used to understand a complex dependence of particle mobility on its surface charge density. We show that the mobility of highly charged carboxylated particles decreases with the increase of the solution pH due to an interplay of three effects: (i) ion condensation, (ii) formation of an asymmetric electrical double layer around the particle, and (iii) electroosmotic flow induced by the charges on the pore walls and the particle surfaces. The results are important for applying resistive-pulse technique to determine surface charge density and zeta potential of the particles. The experiments also indicate the presence of condensed ions, which contribute to the measured current if a sufficiently high electric field is applied across the pore. PMID:26177843
Anomalous high-temperature coercivities in hard nanocomposite alloys
To elucidate the interphase interactions inherent to nanocomposite magnetic alloys, measurements of remanence Br, and coercivity Hci were made on a series of four meltspun, remanence-enhanced nanocomposite alloys consisting solely of various amounts of Nd2Fe14B and α-Fe. The phase constitution and microstructural scale of the alloys were characterized with synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Magnetic measurements were made using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry on evacuated and encapsulated samples in the temperature range of 300K≤T≤750K, in order to characterize the α-Fe component independently of the Nd2Fe14B component. The high-temperature coercivities of the samples increase with the amount of α-Fe present in the samples, ranging from an average value of approximately 75 Oe for the sample with 14 wt% excess Fe to over 400 Oe at 700 K for the sample with 27 wt% excess Fe. The relatively high coercivities of the samples found at elevated temperatures imply that a tabular morphology of the α-Fe grains is conferring anisotropy to the phase; this conclusion is supported by transmission electron microscopy. It is concluded that while the significant coercivity of the α-Fe phase likely reduces the room-temperature remanence enhancement of the alloy below its theoretical ideal, the favorable interphase interface orientation promotes exchange coupling. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Anomalous transport in high-temperature plasmas with applications to solenoidal fusion systems
The linear, non-linear, and anomalous transport properties associated with various micro-instabilities driven by cross-field currents in high-temperature plasmas are reviewed. Particular emphasis is placed on instabilities pertinent to the implosion and post-implosion phases of theta-pinch plasmas, e.g. Buneman (electron-ion two-stream), ion acoustic, lower-hybrid-drift, electromagnetic ion cyclotron, and ion-ion cross-field instabilities. Analytic studies of the non-linear and quasi-linear evolution of these instabilities are presented, together with a detailed comparison with computer simulation experiments to test the validity of the various theoretical models and non-linear saturation mechanisms. A general theoretical formalism is presented which describes, in a self-consistent manner, the macroscopic transport produced by the (short-wave-length) turbulence associated with the microinstabilities enumerated above. The experimental evidence that such a self-consistent anomalous transport model is required for describing the implosion behaviour (characterized by diffuse current sheaths) in rapidly pulsed theta pinches is reviewed, together with the early attempts at modelling these implosions numerically with a one-fluid (MHD) model including artificial viscosity. It is shown that fluid-numerical simulations that include (at each space and time step) the effects of anomalous transport in a fully self-consistent manner, explain several features of the experimental observations. The relevance of reflected ions to sheath structure and implosion dynamics is also discussed, and state-of-the-art hybrid-numerical studies (Vlasov ions and fluid electrons) of pinch implosions are presented, which include reflected ion dynamics as well as the anomalous transport associated with cross-field instabilities. Finally, instability mechanisms for producing long-time interpenetration of plasma and magnetic field in post-implosion theta pinches are discussed, together with estimates
Anomalously high δD values in the mantle
Xia, Qun-Ke; Deloule, Etienne; Wu, Yuan-Bao; Chen, Dao-Gong; Cheng, Hao
2002-11-01
Hydrogen isotopic compositions of four amphibole grains from three lherzolite xenoliths hosted in Cenozoic basanites of Nushan, eastern China have been analyzed by ion microprobe. δD values of all analyzed points range from -94 to +46‰. Large heterogeneities of D/H ratios within single grains have been observed with variations of δD up to 80‰ on the scale of less than 400 μm. Neither correlation between δD values and water contents of the analyzed points nor regular variation between δD values and positions of analyzed points within the same grain can be found, implying that the scatter of δD values could not result from a late shallow process such as hydrogen loss or hydrothermal alterations and should be considered as inherited from the source at depth. Chemical compositions of Nushan amphiboles are very homogeneous, excluding the possibility that the scatter of δD values could arise from variable fractionation factors between a single fluid source and minerals. Therefore, metasomatic fluids responsible for the formation of Nushan amphiboles should have variable and unusually high hydrogen isotopic compositions. We suggest that this variation in the metasomatic fluids could be related to melt degassing in the mantle source.
Can I solve my structure by SAD phasing? Anomalous signal in SAD phasing.
Terwilliger, Thomas C; Bunkóczi, Gábor; Hung, Li Wei; Zwart, Peter H; Smith, Janet L; Akey, David L; Adams, Paul D
2016-03-01
A key challenge in the SAD phasing method is solving a structure when the anomalous signal-to-noise ratio is low. A simple theoretical framework for describing measurements of anomalous differences and the resulting useful anomalous correlation and anomalous signal in a SAD experiment is presented. Here, the useful anomalous correlation is defined as the correlation of anomalous differences with ideal anomalous differences from the anomalous substructure. The useful anomalous correlation reflects the accuracy of the data and the absence of minor sites. The useful anomalous correlation also reflects the information available for estimating crystallographic phases once the substructure has been determined. In contrast, the anomalous signal (the peak height in a model-phased anomalous difference Fourier at the coordinates of atoms in the anomalous substructure) reflects the information available about each site in the substructure and is related to the ability to find the substructure. A theoretical analysis shows that the expected value of the anomalous signal is the product of the useful anomalous correlation, the square root of the ratio of the number of unique reflections in the data set to the number of sites in the substructure, and a function that decreases with increasing values of the atomic displacement factor for the atoms in the substructure. This means that the ability to find the substructure in a SAD experiment is increased by high data quality and by a high ratio of reflections to sites in the substructure, and is decreased by high atomic displacement factors for the substructure. PMID:26960122
Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars as highly magnetized white dwarfs
Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
2016-01-01
We show that the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) can be explained as recently proposed highly magnetized white dwarfs (B-WDs). The radius and magnetic field of B-WDs are perfectly adequate to explain energies in SGRs/AXPs as the rotationally powered energy. While the highly magnetized neutron stars require an extra, observationally not well established yet, source of energy, the magnetized white dwarfs, yet following Chandrasekhar's theory (C-WDs), exhibit large ultra-violet luminosity which is observationally constrained from a strict upper limit.
On the anomalous flicker noise intensity in high-temperature superconductors
The problem of anomalously high levels of flicker noise observed in the normal state of the high-temperature superconductors is addressed. It is argued that the anomaly is the result of incorrect normalization of the power spectra according to the Hooge formula. A careful analysis of the available experimental data is given, which shows that the scaling of the spectral power with sample size is essentially different from the inverse proportionality. It is demonstrated that the measured spectra obey the law given by the recently proposed quantum theory of fundamental flicker noise.
Chaotic behaviour of high Mach number flows
Varvoglis, H.; Ghosh, S.
1985-01-01
The stability of the super-Alfvenic flow of a two-fluid plasma model with respect to the Mach number and the angle between the flow direction and the magnetic field is investigated. It is found that, in general, a large scale chaotic region develops around the initial equilibrium of the laminar flow when the Mach number exceeds a certain threshold value. After reaching a maximum the size of this region begins shrinking and goes to zero as the Mach number tends to infinity. As a result high Mach number flows in time independent astrophysical plasmas may lead to the formation of 'quasi-shocks' in the presence of little or no dissipation.
The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses.
Barber, C.; Schaye, J.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R. A.; Schaller, M.; Theuns, T.
2016-01-01
Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, MBH, relative to their stellar mass, M*, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Λ cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 ‘MBH(M*)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having MBH more than 1.5 dex above the median MBH(M*) relation in the simulation, ...
The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses.
Barber, C; Schaye, J.; Bower, R. G.; Crain, R.A.; Schaller, M.; Theuns, T.
2016-01-01
Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BHs) of anomalously high mass, M_BH, relative to their stellar mass, M_star, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Lambda cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 'M_BH(M_star)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having M_BH more than 1.5 dex above the median M_BH(M_star) relati...
Numerical Simulation of the Anomalous Transport of High-Energy Cosmic Rays in Galactic Superbubble
Barghouty, A. F.; Price, E. M.; MeWaldt, R. A.
2013-01-01
A continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) model to simulate the transport and acceleration of high-energy cosmic rays in galactic superbubbles has recently been put forward (Barghouty & Schnee 2102). The new model has been developed to simulate and highlight signatures of anomalous transport on particles' evolution and their spectra in a multi-shock, collective acceleration context. The superbubble is idealized as a heterogeneous region of particle sources and sinks bounded by a random surface. This work concentrates on the effects of the bubble's assumed astrophysical characteristics (cf. geometry and roughness) on the particles' spectra.
The (Anomalous) Hall Magnetometer as an Analysis Tool for High Density Recording Media
Haan; Lodder, J. C.
1991-01-01
In this work an evaluation tool for the characterization of high-density recording thin film media is discussed. The measurement principles are based on the anomalous and the planar Hall effect. We used these Hall effects to characterize ferromagnetic Co-Cr films and Co/Pd multilayers having perpendicular anisotropy. The measurements set-up that was built has a sensitivity capable of measuring the hysteresis loops of 0.2x0.2 mm2 Hall structures in Co-Cr and jumps were observed in the Hall vol...
High cetane number paraffinic diesel fuel studies
Larmi, Martti; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Imperato, Matteo; Hulkkonen, Tuomo; Kaario, Ossi; Wehrfritz, Armin; Tilli, Aki; Brink, Anders [Aalto University (Finland)
2010-07-01
In the energy sector, stringent regulations have been implemented on combustion emissions in order to address health and environmental concerns and help improve air quality. High cetane number paraffinic fuels and their oxygenate blends have a good potential for reducing emissions. The aim of this collaborative study among several universities and industries is to develop optimum combustion technologies for those fuels and decrease their emissions by 70%. To do so, a literature review was undertaken as was the evaluation of reaction scheme, fuel spray studies, designs with CFD, engine tests with both high and medium speed research engines, and emissions measurement and analysis; all the tests and measurements were carried out using HVO, which is a typical high cetane number paraffinic fuel. Results from these studies are presented herein, further work will comprise the analysis of these results, CFD optimization, and tests with oxygenate blends.
The riddle of high-energy baryon number violation
The exciting possibility that anomalous baryon and lepton number violation might be observable at the next generation of supercolliders is suggested by an instanton calculation due to Ringwald and Espinosa. In these Lectures, the current controversial status of these claims is discussed, and several new technologies designed to analyze this question are reviewed. These technologies should contribute more generally to our understanding of weakly- coupled field theories in the nonperturbative regime where both energies and multiplicities are very large. 61 refs., 35 figs
Anomalously high values of cesium-137 in soils on the Peninsula de Paraguana (Venezuela)
The activity of 137Cs in surface soils (2-5 cm) was determined at twenty-one sampling sites along the northwestern and eastern coast of the Paraguana peninsula (Venezuela), as well as, at nine locations, between 95 and 535 m.a.s.l. on Cerro Santa Ana. The measurements were performed by high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy employing a compatible IBM computer. Most of the values were much higher than those found along the coastline of the mainland; four sites were found to be anomalously high, with 137Cs values greater than 10 Bq/kg. It is difficult to explain these anomalous 137Cs values by geographical or climatological factors since there is little rainfall here and the clouds and fog are rarely if never present along the coast of the peninsula. Possibly, some mechanism of the mist that is blown ashore could explain these anomalies. The values of the 137Cs versus altitude on the Cerro Santa Ana show an increase of two or three times at 500 m.a.s.l. level, thus we have concluded that the base of the clouds was at this height when the fallout was directly deposited by condensation in this cloud forest. These results in the Cerro Santa Ana cloud forest are similar to those of other cloud forests along the Venezuelan coast, but the altitude (m.a.s.l.) of the base of the clouds here are much lower. (author)
Turbulent convection at high Rayleigh numbers
Ahlers, Guenter
2015-11-01
Russ Donnelly had a vision of building a ten-meter tall Rayleigh-Bénard convection cell for use at helium temperatures at one of the high-energy physics facilities with very large helium liquefaction capacity. It would have reached Rayleigh numbers in the 1020 range and had the promise of yielding detailed information about the so-called ultimate state of turbulent convection which is highly relevant to many geophysical and astrophysical problems as well as to oceanography and climate physics. Although this was not to happen for reasons beyond his control, a laboratory-sized precursor of this venture yielded data for Ra up to 1017. The results were interpreted to yield no definitive indication of a transition to the ultimate state. This talk will review some of these data and compare them with more recent measurements using SF6 at ambient temperatures and high pressure. This comparison suggests that the Donnelly group actually entered a transition range to the ultimate state near Ra1* ~= 6 ×1012 , but re-entered the classical state at larger Ra because with increasing Ra the Prandtl number (which affects Ra1*) also increased in those experiments. In view of the above, one can estimate that, for the same parameter values, the originally envisioned ten-meter cell could have yielded a range of a couple of decades of Ra in the ultimate state. Supported by NSF Grant DMR11-58514.
Vertical split-ring resonator based anomalous beam steering with high extinction ratio.
Hsu, Wei-Lun; Wu, Pin Chieh; Chen, Jia-Wern; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Bo Han; Chen, Wei Ting; Huang, Yao-Wei; Liao, Chun Yen; Sun, Greg; Tsai, Din Ping
2015-01-01
Metasurfaces created artificially with metal nanostructures that are patterned on surfaces of different media have shown to possess "unusual" abilities to manipulate light. Limited by nanofabrication difficulties, so far most reported works have been based on 2D metal structures. We have recently developed an advanced e-beam process that allowed for the deposition of 3D nanostructures, namely vertical split-ring resonators (VSRRs), which opens up another degree of freedom in the metasurface design. Here we explore the functionality of beam steering with phase modulation by tuning only the vertical dimension of the VSRRs and show that anomalous steering reflection of a wide range of angles can be accomplished with high extinction ratio using the finite-difference-time-domain simulation. We also demonstrate that metasurfaces made of 3D VSRRs can be made with roughly half of the footprint compared to that of 2D nano-rods, enabling high density integration of metal nanostructures. PMID:26054048
Saidi, Wissam A.; Norman, Patrick
2016-07-01
The van der Waals C6 coefficients of fullerenes are shown to exhibit an anomalous dependence on the number of carbon atoms N such that C6 ∝ N2.2 as predicted using state-of-the-art quantum mechanical calculations based on fullerenes with small sizes, and N2.75 as predicted using a classical-metallic spherical-shell approximation of the fullerenes. We use an atomistic electrodynamics model where each carbon atom is described by a polarizable object to extend the quantum mechanical calculations to larger fullerenes. The parameters of this model are optimized to describe accurately the static and complex polarizabilities of the fullerenes by fitting against accurate ab initio calculations. This model shows that C6 ∝ N2.8, which is supportive of the classical-metallic spherical-shell approximation. Additionally, we show that the anomalous dependence of the polarizability on N is attributed to the electric charge term, while the dipole-dipole term scales almost linearly with the number of carbon atoms.
Anomalous phase transition of InN nanowires under high pressure
Tang, Shun-Xi; Zhu, Hong-Yang; Jiang, Jun-Ru; Wu, Xiao-Xin; Dong, Yun-Xuan; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Da-Peng; Cui, Qi-Liang
2015-09-01
Uniform InN nanowires were studied under pressures up to 35.5 GPa by using in situ synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction technique at room temperature. An anomalous phase transition behavior has been discovered. Contrary to the results in the literature, which indicated that InN undergoes a fully reversible phase transition from the wurtzite structure to the rocksalt type structure, the InN nanowires in this study unusually showed a partially irreversible phase transition. The released sample contained the metastable rocksalt phase as well as the starting wurtzite one. The experimental findings of this study also reveal the potentiality of high pressure techniques to synthesize InN nanomaterials with the metastable rocksalt type structure, in addition to the generally obtained zincblende type one. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 50772043, 51172087, and 11074089).
Experimental and theoretical investigation of anomalous behavior in rotational bands at high spin
High spin states of the barium nuclei have been investigated via the 114Cd(16O,4n)126Ba, 120Sn(12C,4n)128Ba and 124Sn(12C,4n)132Ba reactions. The even spin positive parity yrast band in 126Ba has been excited up to the 16+, and possibly the 18+ state. In addition, another strongly excited band was excited with spins and parities: 7-, 9-, 11-, 13- and 15-. In 128Ba, the even spin positive parity band has been excited up to the 12+ state. Backbending seems to begin at the 12+ state. Two-quasiparticles-plus-rotor bandmixing calculations have been performed in order to explain the backbending and the anomalous negative parity bands observed in 126128Ba and several other nuclei. The test case of 68156Er88 was studied in detail. Good agreement with experimental excitation energies was obtained. The E2 transition rates between the negative parity yrast states were estimated for 156Er. Strongly enhanced rates are found within the states of odd spin, and within the state of even spin. The values of the g-factors were also estimated for the two-quasineutron yrast states in 156Er, showing considerable deviations from the rotational values. The calculation was applied, with very similar results to 56126Ba70. Reasonable fits to the excitation energies were obtained. The case of 46104Pd58 was considered, and very similar results were obtained. The nucleus 80192Hg112 was also studied. No reasonable fit was obtained for the negative parity states. The above evidence suggests that decoupling effects are responsible for the anomalous high spin behavior of the nuclei considered
Baryon number violation in high energy collisions
We study the phenomenology of baryon number violation induced by electroweak instantons. We find that if the naive-instanton amplitudes were valid for arbitrarily high energies, the event rate at the SSC would be a few per hour, with a typical event consisting of 3 'primary' antileptons and 7 'primary' antiquark jets, accompanied by ≅ 85 electroweak gauge bosons, having a sharp threshold in the total sub-energy at about 17 TeV. We describe how to establish their electroweak-instanton-induced origin. The naive instanton approximation is known to overestimate the rate for these processes, so this work focusses attention on the need for more accurate calculations, and for a calculational method which is appropriate when the energy of the initial particles is above the sphaleron energy. (orig.)
Pair separation in high Reynolds number turbulence
Bourgoin, M O; Xu, H; Joergensen, J B; Bodenschatz, E; Bourgoin, Mickael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Xu, Haitao; Joergensen, Jacob B.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard
2005-01-01
The separation of two nearby particles in a turbulent flow is fundamental in our everyday lives. Turbulent mixing is important everywhere from mundane applications like stirring milk into a cup of tea to technological processes such as the mixing of chemicals in reactors, combustion engines, or jet turbines. Environmental problems such as the spread of pollutants or bioagents in the atmosphere and oceans are fundamentally turbulent mixing processes. Even biological organisms use it to survive in marine ecosystems. Despite intense scientific inquiry, however, no convincing agreement has been found with the Richardson and Batchelor two-particle dispersion predictions over a wide range of timescales. Here we report measurements in a laboratory water flow at very high turbulence intensities (Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers of R_lambda = 690 and 815) that show excellent agreement with a refinement of Batchelor's prediction. We find that even for large initial spatial separations Batchelor scaling is fulfilled. ...
Inosov, D. S.; Fink, J.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Borisenko, S. V.; Zabolotnyy, V. B.; Schuster, R.; Knupfer, M.; Büchner, B.; Follath, R.; Dürr, H. A.; Eberhardt, W.; Hinkov, V.; Keimer, B.; Berger, H.
2007-12-01
Using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy we have studied the momentum and photon energy dependence of the anomalous high-energy dispersion, termed waterfalls, between the Fermi level and 1 eV binding energy in several high-Tc superconductors. We observe strong changes of the dispersion between different Brillouin zones and a strong dependence on the photon energy around 75 eV, which we associate with the resonant photoemission at the Cu3p→3dx2-y2 edge. We conclude that the high-energy “waterfall” dispersion results from a strong suppression of the photoemission intensity at the center of the Brillouin zone due to matrix element effects and is, therefore, not an intrinsic feature of the spectral function. This indicates that the new high-energy scale in the electronic structure of cuprates derived from the waterfall-like dispersion may be incorrect.
Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars as highly magnetized white dwarfs
Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility that soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are powered by highly magnetized white dwarfs (B-WDs). We take a sample of SGRs and AXPs and provide the possible parameter space in mass, radius, and surface magnetic field based on their observed properties (period and its derivative) and the assumption that these sources obey the mass-radius relation derived for the B-WDs. The radius and magnetic field of B-WDs are adequate to explain energies in SGRs/AXPs as the rotationally powered energy. In addition, B-WDs also adequately explain the perplexing radio transient GCRT J1745-3009 as a white dwarf pulsar. Note that the radius and magnetic fields of B-WDs are neither extreme (unlike of highly magnetized neutron stars) nor ordinary (unlike of magnetized white dwarfs, yet following the Chandrasekhar's mass-radius relation (C-WDs)). In order to explain SGRs/AXPs, while the highly magnetized neutron stars require an extra, observationally not well established yet, ...
Anomalous high photoconductivity in short channel indium-zinc-oxide photo-transistors
Choi, Hyun-Sik [Semiconductor Device Laboratory, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology (SAIT), Samsung Electronics Corporation, Gyeonggi 449-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Sanghun, E-mail: jeonsh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Display and Semiconductor Physics, Korea University, 2511 Sejongro, Sejong, 339-700 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-05
Upon light exposure, an indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) presents higher photoconductivity by several orders of magnitude at the negative gate bias region. Among various device geometrical factors, scaling down the channel length of the photo-transistor results in an anomalous increase in photoconductivity. To probe the origin of this high photoconductivity in short-channel device, we measured transient current, current–voltage, and capacitance–voltage characteristics of IZO–TFTs with various channel lengths and widths before and after illumination. Under the illumination, the equilibrium potential region which lies far from front interface exists only in short-channel devices, forming the un-depleted conducting back channel. This region plays an important role in carrier transport under the illumination, leading to high photoconductivity in short-channel devices. Photon exposure coupled with gate-modulated band bending for short-channel devices leads to the accumulation of V{sub o}{sup ++} at the front channel and screening negative gate bias, thereby generating high current flow in the un-depleted back-channel region.
Wu, Chong-Rong; Chang, Xiang-Rui; Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang, Chung-En; Wu, Chao-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Yen
2015-11-01
We show that multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown with the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) may exhibit quite distinct behaviors of Raman shifts from those of exfoliated ones. The anomalous Raman shifts depend on CVD growth modes and are attributed to the modified dielectric screening and interlayer coupling of MoS2 in various growth conditions. With repeated CVD growths, we demonstrated the precise control over the layer number of MoS2. A decently large drain current, high ON/OFF ratio of 105, and enhanced field-effect mobility can be achieved in transistors fabricated on the six-layer MoS2.
The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses
Barber, Christopher; Bower, Richard G; Crain, Robert A; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom
2016-01-01
Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, M_BH, relative to their stellar mass, M_star, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a LCDM context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 "M_BH(M_star)-outlier" galaxies, defined as having M_BH more than 1.5 dex above the median M_BH(M_star) relation in the simulation, M_{BH,med}. All M_BH(M_star)-outliers are satellite galaxies, typically with M_star ~ 10^10 M_sun and M_BH ~ 10^8 M_sun. They have all become outliers primarily due to tidal stripping of their outer stellar component acting over several Gyr, with a secondary effect of rapid BH growth at high-z causing some to lie approximately 1 dex above the z=0 relation prior to stripping. The same mechanisms also cause the M_BH(M_star)-outlier satellites to be amongst the most compact galaxies in the simulation, making them ideal can...
Multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction at high x-ray intensity
Son, Sang-Kil; Santra, Robin
2011-01-01
The multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) method is used to determine phase information in x-ray crystallography by employing dispersion corrections from heavy atoms on coherent x-ray scattering. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) show promise for revealing the structure of single molecules or nanocrystals within femtoseconds, but the phase problem remains largely unsolved. Due to the ultrabrightness of x-ray FEL, samples experience severe electronic radiation damage, especially to heavy atoms, which hinders direct implementation of the MAD method with x-ray FELs. We propose a generalized version of the MAD phasing method at high x-ray intensity. We demonstrate the existence of a Karle--Hendrickson-type equation for the MAD method in the high-intensity regime and calculate relevant coefficients with detailed electronic damage dynamics of heavy atoms. Our results show that the bleaching effect on the scattering strength of the heavy atoms can be advantageous to the phasing method. The present method offe...
Search for anomalous production of events with a high energy lepton and photon at the Tevatron
Loginov, Andrey Borisovich; /Moscow, ITEP
2006-01-01
We present results of a search for the anomalous production of events containing a high-transverse momentum charged lepton ({ell}, either e or {mu}) and photon ({gamma}), accompanied by missing transverse energy (E{sub T}), and/or additional leptons and photons, and jets (X). We use the same kinematic selection criteria as in a previous CDF search, but with a substantially larger data set, 305 pb{sup -1}, a p{bar p} collision energy of 1.96 TeV, and the upgraded CDF II detector. We find 42 {ell}{gamma}E{sub T} events versus a standard model expectation of 37.3 {+-} 5.4 events. The level of excess observed in Run I, 16 events with an expectation of 7.6 {+-} 0.7 events (corresponding to a 2.7 {sigma} effect), is not supported by the new data. In the signature of {ell}{ell}{gamma} + X we observe 31 events versus an expectation of 23.0 {+-} 2.7 events. In this sample we find no events with an extra photon or E{sub T} and so find no events like the one ee{gamma}{gamma} E{sub T} event observed in Run I.
The origin of compact galaxies with anomalously high black hole masses
Barber, Christopher; Schaye, Joop; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom
2016-07-01
Observations of local galaxies harbouring supermassive black holes (BH) of anomalously high mass, MBH, relative to their stellar mass, M*, appear to be at odds with simple models of the co-evolution between galaxies and their central BHs. We study the origin of such outliers in a Λ cold dark matter context using the EAGLE cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. We find 15 `MBH(M*)-outlier' galaxies, defined as having MBH more than 1.5 dex above the median MBH(M*) relation in the simulation, MBH, med(M*). All MBH(M*)-outliers are satellite galaxies, typically with M* ˜ 1010 M⊙ and MBH ˜ 108 M⊙. They have all become outliers due to a combination of tidal stripping of their outer stellar component acting over several Gyr and early formation times leading to rapid BH growth at high redshift, with the former mechanism being most important for 67 per cent of these outliers. The same mechanisms also cause the MBH(M*)-outlier satellites to be amongst the most compact galaxies in the simulation, making them ideal candidates for ultracompact dwarf galaxy progenitors. The 10 most extreme central galaxies found at z = 0 (with log10(MBH/MBH, med(M*)) ∈ [1.2, 1.5]) grow rapidly in MBH to lie well above the present-day MBH - M* relation at early times (z ≳ 2), and either continue to evolve parallel to the z = 0 relation or remain unchanged until the present day, making them `relics' of the high-redshift universe. This high-z formation mechanism may help to explain the origin of observed MBH(M*)-outliers with extended dark matter haloes and undisturbed morphologies.
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
Pica, Claudio
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small for a wide range of number of flavours. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.
Determination of the anomalous scattering factors of high-Z atoms using bremsstrahlung radiation
The anomalous scattering factors (f' and f'') of tungsten, gold and lead atoms have been determined using external bremsstrahlung (EB) photons. The EB photons are produced by the interaction of a beta particle from a beta source with a nickel target. These photons are allowed to pass through thin targets of tungsten, gold and lead. The transmitted photons have been measured by using a GMX-type HPGe detector coupled to an 8K multichannel analyser. The transmitted spectra show a sharp decrease in intensity at the K shell binding energies of the target atoms. The regions around the decreased portion have been used to determine the anomalous scattering factors. The experimentally measured values are compared with the available theoretical values.
Determination of the anomalous scattering factors of high-Z atoms using bremsstrahlung radiation
Hosur, Savita B; Naik, L R; Badiger, N M [Department of Physics, Karnatak University, Dharwad 580003 (India)], E-mail: nagappa123@yahoo.co.in
2009-02-14
The anomalous scattering factors (f' and f'') of tungsten, gold and lead atoms have been determined using external bremsstrahlung (EB) photons. The EB photons are produced by the interaction of a beta particle from a beta source with a nickel target. These photons are allowed to pass through thin targets of tungsten, gold and lead. The transmitted photons have been measured by using a GMX-type HPGe detector coupled to an 8K multichannel analyser. The transmitted spectra show a sharp decrease in intensity at the K shell binding energies of the target atoms. The regions around the decreased portion have been used to determine the anomalous scattering factors. The experimentally measured values are compared with the available theoretical values.
Anomalous quark-gluon chromomagnetic interaction and high-energy ρ-meson electroproduction
It is shown that existence of a large anomalous chromomagnetic moment of quark induced by nonperturbative structure of QCD leads to the additional contribution to exclusive ρ -meson electroproduction off proton target. The contribution coming from new type of quark-gluon interaction to the ρ -meson production cross section for both transversal and longitudinal polarization of virtual photon is found. Such nonperturbative contribution together with conventional perturbative two-gluon exchange allows us to describe the experimental data at low Q2 for transversal polarization. However, in the longitudinal polarization case there is still some discrepancy with the data. The possible source of this deviation is discussed
Anomalous temperature dependency of the Anderson-Grüneisen parameters in high ionic conductors
The Anderson-Grüneisen (AG) parameter carries information on the anharmonicity of the atomic vibrations of the materials. Therefore, its study is expected to provide useful insights to understand the ion transport properties in solids. However, few attentions on the AG parameter of ionic conductors have been paid till now. In the present paper, a comparative study on the temperature dependence of the AG parameter in superionic materials and other crystals is presented. It is shown that the AG parameter of superionic materials exhibit anomalously large temperature dependencies. The relations of this finding with the material properties of ionic conductors are briefly discussed.
Anomalous pion decay revisited
Battistel, O A; Nemes, M C; Hiller, B
1999-01-01
An implicit four dimensional regularization is applied to calculate the axial-vector-vector anomalous amplitude. The present technique always complies with results of Dimensional Regularization and can be easily applied to processes involving odd numbers of $\\gamma_5$ matrices. This is illustrated explicitely in the example of this letter.
On the Degeneration of Turbulence at High Reynolds Numbers
Sinhuber, Michael; Bewley, Gregory P
2014-01-01
Turbulent fluctuations in a fluid wind down at a certain rate once stirring has stopped. The role of the most basic parameter in fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number, in setting this decay rate is not generally known. This paper concerns the high-Reynolds-number limit of the process. In a wind-tunnel experiment that reached higher Reynolds numbers than ever before and covered more than two decades in the Reynolds number ($10^4 < Re = UM/\
Analytical solutions for anomalous dispersion transport
O'Malley, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.
2014-06-01
Groundwater flow and transport often occur in a highly heterogeneous environment (potentially heterogeneous at multiple spatial scales) and is impacted by geochemical reactions, advection, diffusion, and other pore scale processes. All these factors can give rise to large-scale anomalous dispersive behavior that can make complex model representation and prediction of plume concentrations challenging due to difficulties unraveling all the complexities associated with the governing processes, flow medium, and their parameters. An alternative is to use upscaled stochastic models of anomalous dispersion, and this is the approach used here. Within a probabilistic framework, we derive a number of analytical solutions for several anomalous dispersion models. The anomalous dispersion models are allowed to be either non-Gaussian (α-stable Lévy), correlated, or nonstationary from the Lagrangian perspective. A global sensitivity analysis is performed to gain a greater understanding of the extent to which uncertainty in the parameters associated with the anomalous behavior can be narrowed by examining concentration measurements from a network of monitoring wells and to demonstrate the computational speed of the solutions. The developed analytical solutions are encoded and available for use in the open source computational framework MADS (http://mads.lanl.gov).
Kordts, Arne; Guo, Hairun; Brasch, Victor; Kippenberg, Tobias J
2015-01-01
High-Q silicon nitride (SiN) microresonators enable optical Kerr frequency comb generation on a photonic chip and have recently been shown to support fully coherent combs based on temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation. For bright soliton formation it is necessary to operate SiN waveguides in the multimode regime so as to produce anomalous group velocity dispersion. This can lead to local disturbances of the dispersion due to avoided crossings caused by coupling between different mode families, and therefore prevent the soliton formation. Here we demonstrate that a single mode "filtering" section inside high-Q resonators enables to efficiently suppress avoided crossings, while preserving high quality factors (Q~10^6). We demonstrate the approach by single soliton formation in SiN resonators with filtering section.
Kordts, A; Pfeiffer, M H P; Guo, H; Brasch, V; Kippenberg, T J
2016-02-01
High-Q silicon nitride (SiN) microresonators enable optical Kerr frequency comb generation on a photonic chip and have recently been shown to support fully coherent combs based on temporal dissipative Kerr soliton formation. For bright soliton formation, it is necessary to operate SiN waveguides in the multimode regime in order to produce waveguide induced anomalous group velocity dispersion. However, this regime can lead to local disturbances of the dispersion due to avoided crossings caused by coupling between different mode families and, therefore, prevent the soliton formation. Here, we demonstrate that a single-mode "filtering" section inside high-Q resonators enables efficiently suppression of avoided crossings, while preserving high quality factors (Q∼10(6)). We verify the approach by demonstrating single soliton formation in SiN resonators with a filtering section. PMID:26907395
Zhang, Ying-Tao; Deng, Xinzhou; Sun, Qing-Feng; Qiao, Zhenhua
2015-01-01
The quantum entanglement between two qubits is crucial for applications in the quantum communication. After the entanglement of photons was experimentally realized, much effort has been taken to exploit the entangled electrons in solid-state systems. Here, we propose a Cooper-pair splitter, which can generate spatially-separated but entangled electrons, in a quantum anomalous Hall insulator proximity-coupled with a superconductor. After coupling with a superconductor, the chiral edge states of the quantum anomalous Hall insulator can still survive, making the backscattering impossible. Thus, the local Andreev reflection becomes vanishing, while the crossed Andreev reflection becomes dominant in the scattering process. This indicates that our device can serve as an extremely high-efficiency Cooper-pair splitter. Furthermore, because of the chiral characteristic, our Cooper-pair splitter is robust against disorders and can work in a wide range of system parameters. Particularly, it can still function even if the system length exceeds the superconducting coherence length. PMID:26450824
Anomalous gauge boson interactions
We discuss the direct measurement of the trilinear vector boson couplings in present and future collider experiments. The major goals of such experiments will be the confirmation of the Standard Model (SM) predictions and the search for signals of new physics. We review our current theoretical understanding of anomalous trilinear gauge-boson self interactions. If the energy scale of the new physics is ∼ 1 TeV, these low energy anomalous couplings are expected to be no larger than Ο(10-2). Constraints from high precision measurements at LEP and low energy charged and neutral current processes are critically reviewed
Promoting Number Theory in High Schools or Birthday Problem and Number Theory
Srinivasan, V. K.
2010-01-01
The author introduces the birthday problem in this article. This can amuse willing members of any birthday party. This problem can also be used as the motivational first day lecture in number theory for the gifted students in high schools or in community colleges or in undergraduate classes in colleges.
Biko, David M. [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chung, Claudia; Chung, Taylor [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Hitt, David M. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH (United States); Kurio, Gregory [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiology, Oakland, CA (United States); Reinhartz, Olaf [UCSF Benioff Children' s Hospital Oakland, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Oakland, CA (United States)
2015-08-15
Anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the contralateral coronary sinus is a rare coronary anomaly associated with sudden death. The inter-arterial course is most closely associated with sudden death, but it has been suggested that the presence of an intramural segment of a right anomalous coronary is associated with more symptoms and therefore may be an important criterion for intervention in these patients. To demonstrate that MR angiography can accurately determine the presence or absence of an intramural segment in an anomalous coronary artery. All studies of children who underwent MR angiography for the evaluation of an anomalous coronary artery were retrospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists in consensus. Criteria for an intramural anomalous coronary artery were the presence of a small or slit-like ostium and the relative smaller size of the proximal intramural portion of the coronary artery in relation to the more distal epicardial coronary artery. The anomalous coronary artery was classified as not intramural if these two findings were absent. These findings were correlated with operative reports confirming the presence or absence of an intramural segment. Twelve patients (86%) met MR angiography criteria for the presence of an intramural course. Only 2 patients (14%) met MR angiography criteria for a non-intramural course. When correlating with intraoperative findings, MR angiography was successful in distinguishing between intramural and non-intramural anomalous coronary arteries in all cases (P = 0.01). MR angiography may be able to reliably identify the intramural segment of an anomalous coronary artery in older children using the imaging criteria of a small or slit-like ostium and relative decrease in size of the proximal portion of the anomalous coronary artery compared to the distal portion of the anomalous coronary artery. Determining the presence of the intramural segment may help with surgical planning and may be an important
Anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the contralateral coronary sinus is a rare coronary anomaly associated with sudden death. The inter-arterial course is most closely associated with sudden death, but it has been suggested that the presence of an intramural segment of a right anomalous coronary is associated with more symptoms and therefore may be an important criterion for intervention in these patients. To demonstrate that MR angiography can accurately determine the presence or absence of an intramural segment in an anomalous coronary artery. All studies of children who underwent MR angiography for the evaluation of an anomalous coronary artery were retrospectively reviewed by two pediatric radiologists in consensus. Criteria for an intramural anomalous coronary artery were the presence of a small or slit-like ostium and the relative smaller size of the proximal intramural portion of the coronary artery in relation to the more distal epicardial coronary artery. The anomalous coronary artery was classified as not intramural if these two findings were absent. These findings were correlated with operative reports confirming the presence or absence of an intramural segment. Twelve patients (86%) met MR angiography criteria for the presence of an intramural course. Only 2 patients (14%) met MR angiography criteria for a non-intramural course. When correlating with intraoperative findings, MR angiography was successful in distinguishing between intramural and non-intramural anomalous coronary arteries in all cases (P = 0.01). MR angiography may be able to reliably identify the intramural segment of an anomalous coronary artery in older children using the imaging criteria of a small or slit-like ostium and relative decrease in size of the proximal portion of the anomalous coronary artery compared to the distal portion of the anomalous coronary artery. Determining the presence of the intramural segment may help with surgical planning and may be an important
Turbulent film flow heat transfer at high film Reynolds number
Kuhn, S.Z.; Peterson, P.F.; Schrock, V.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
This investigation presents experimental measurements for the local heat transfer of turbulent film flow inside vertical tubes at high film Reynolds numbers with varying interfacial shear stress. Most experimental data available now for water vapor condensation in vertical tubes have been limited to film Reynolds number values under 2500 (Re{sub f} = {Gamma}/{mu}{sub 1}) and low shear stress ranges. Here a novel experimental system was constructed for measuring local heat fluxes in downward turbulent flow with a pregenerated liquid film. This work both extended the experimental database to film Reynolds numbers of 10,000 and fills out the database to high shear values.
Turbulent film flow heat transfer at high film Reynolds number
This investigation presents experimental measurements for the local heat transfer of turbulent film flow inside vertical tubes at high film Reynolds numbers with varying interfacial shear stress. Most experimental data available now for water vapor condensation in vertical tubes have been limited to film Reynolds number values under 2500 (Ref = Γ/μ1) and low shear stress ranges. Here a novel experimental system was constructed for measuring local heat fluxes in downward turbulent flow with a pregenerated liquid film. This work both extended the experimental database to film Reynolds numbers of 10,000 and fills out the database to high shear values
High Resolution Modelling of Anomalous Transport of Carbon Dioxide in Fracture Networks
Annewandter, R.; Main, I. G.; Geiger, S.
2012-12-01
Currently, large-scale modelling for Geological Carbon Storage (GCS) focuses mainly on carbon dioxide plume migration in porous media and do not account for sub-grid heterogeneities. A prevailing assumption therefore is that component transport and chemical reaction happens under well-mixed conditions. However, it has been shown that spreading of a dispersed plume and mixing of its components with the moving fluid is being affected by spatial changes in hydraulic and chemical properties. This leads to incomplete mixing as relevant processes at scales considered are not in local equilibrium resulting in anomalous transport. Anomalous transport is characterized by early or late component arrival and non-linear growth of the second moment of phase distributions and displacing saturation front. Incomplete mixing affects the amount of carbon dioxide in storage repositories. Using classical means to compute effective transport properties by averaging permeabilities and porosities, and assuming well-mixed carbon dioxide concentrations, may lead to significantly different patterns for large-scale flow and transport. Subsequent trapping processes such as capillary, solubility and mineral trapping therefore overpredicts the amount of supercritical carbon dioxide in storage repositories as as only a fraction of the rock volume will be exposed to it. We study the impact of variable length correlated apertures of fracture networks on breakthrough curves and on upscaled effective properties for carbon dioxide transport. We use an advection-dispersion equation which accounts for capillarity and gravity effects. Chemical reactions are not considered. Simulations are carried out using a general purpose reservoir simulator, the 'Complex System Modelling Platform (CSMP)'. It has been purposefully designed to solve compositional and compressible multi-phase flow and transport problems for fractured porous media in complex geological settings. It uses a Godunov operator
Vorticity transformation in high Karlovitz number premixed flames
Bobbitt, Brock; Lapointe, Simon; Blanquart, Guillaume
2016-01-01
To better understand the two-way coupling between turbulence and chemistry, the changes in turbulence characteristics through a premixed flame are investigated. Specifically, this study focuses on vorticity, ω, which is characteristic of the smallest length and time scales of turbulence, analyzing its behavior within and across high Karlovitz number (Ka) premixed flames. This is accomplished through a series of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of premixed n-heptane/air flames, modeled with a 35-species finite-rate chemical mechanism, whose conditions span a wide range of unburnt Karlovitz numbers and flame density ratios. The behavior of the terms in the enstrophy, ω2 = ω ṡ ω, transport equation is analyzed, and a scaling is proposed for each term. The resulting normalized enstrophy transport equation involves only a small set of parameters. Specifically, the theoretical analysis and DNS results support that, at high Karlovitz number, enstrophy transport obtains a balance of the viscous dissipation and production/vortex stretching terms. It is shown that, as a result, vorticity scales in the same manner as in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence within and across the flame, namely, scaling with the inverse of the Kolmogorov time scale, τη. As τη is a function only of the viscosity and dissipation rate, this work supports the validity of Kolmogorov's first similarity hypothesis in premixed turbulent flames for sufficiently high Ka numbers. Results are unaffected by the transport model, chemical model, turbulent Reynolds number, and finally the physical configuration.
An experimental study of high Reynolds number turbulence in the atmosphere
Dhruva, Brindesh R.
2000-11-01
High Reynolds number turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer has been investigated using constant temperature hot-wire anemometry. The Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers (Rλ) were typically between 5 × 103 at 2 meters in the salt flats of Western Utah and 2 × 104 at 35 meters on the meterological tower of Brookhaven National Laboratory in Long Island. The measurements were used to study the statistical properties of inertial range quantities, Reynolds stress and wind direction. The identification of possible self- similar behavior in the inertial range is a primary goal in turbulence research. To motivate the need for high Reynolds number measurements we demonstrate the Reynolds number effect on the existence and extent of the inertial range. We find that the inertial range is non-existent at typical laboratory Reynolds numbers. We thus turn to high Reynolds numbers and analyze the asymmetry in the probability distribution function (pdf) of the longitudinal velocity increment. We compute the scaling exponents of the positive and negative structure functions and find that the negative exponents are more anomalous than the positive ones. Furthermore, we quantify the contribution to the asymmetry-or the skewness-from different regions of the pdf. We find that the core region of the pdf is more or less symmetric and the skewness comes primarily from the rare large amplitude events contained in the tails of the pdf. We discuss this result in the context of the down-scale cascade of energy. Next it is shown that even at Rλ ~ 20,000 the structure functions do not scale unambiguously-although the situation is far better than that at low Reynolds numbers. By applying various filtering techniques and conditional sampling it is shown that this lack of strict scaling even at very high Reynolds numbers is due to large scale ``corrupting effects'' on the inertial range. We propose a plausible scheme to remove the large scale effects. Next, we characterize the
Very High Mach Number Electrostatic Shocks in Collisionless Plasmas
Sorasio, G.; Marti, M.; R. Fonseca; Silva, L. O.
2005-01-01
The kinetic theory of collisionless electrostatic shocks resulting from the collision of plasma slabs with different temperatures and densities is presented. The theoretical results are confirmed by self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations, revealing the formation and stable propagation of electrostatic shocks with very high Mach numbers ($M \\gg 10$), well above the predictions of the classical theories for electrostatic shocks.
Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number
SANFORD,THOMAS W. L.
2000-05-23
Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here.
Wire-number effects on high-power annular z-pinches and some characteristics at high wire number
Characteristics of annular wire-array z-pinches as a function of wire number and at high wire number are reviewed. The data, taken primarily using aluminum wires on Saturn are comprehensive. The experiments have provided important insights into the features of wire-array dynamics critical for high x-ray power generation, and have initiated a renaissance in z-pinches when high numbers of wires are used. In this regime, for example, radiation environments characteristic of those encountered during the early pulses required for indirect-drive ICF ignition on the NIF have been produced in hohlraums driven by x-rays from a z-pinch, and are commented on here
The Anomalously High Pole Tide in the North and Baltic Seas Estimated by the PSMSL Tide Gauge Data
Medvedev, Igor; Rabinovich, Alexander; Kulikov, Evgueni
2014-05-01
Pole tide driven by the Chandler wobble, has the period of about 14 months and typical amplitudes in the World Ocean of ~ 0.5 cm. However, in the North and Baltic Seas they are anomalously high. To examine this effect we used long monthly sea level records from 80 stations with the length up to 212 years. High-resolution spectra revealed a cluster of neighboring peaks with periods from 410 to 440 days. The results of spectral analysis were applied to estimate the integral amplitudes of pole tides from all available tide gauges along the coast of seas. The height of the pole tide was found to gradually increase from the entrance of the Baltic Sea (Danish Straits) to the northeast end of the Baltic Sea. The largest amplitudes - up to 4.5-7 cm - were observed in the heads of the Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Bothnia. Significant temporal fluctuations in amplitudes and periods of the pole tide were observed during XIX and XX centuries.
Glacier mass balance in high-arctic areas with anomalous gravity
Sharov, A.; Rieser, D.; Nikolskiy, D.
2012-04-01
All known glaciological models describing the evolution of Arctic land- and sea-ice masses in changing climate treat the Earth's gravity as horizontally constant, but it isn't. In the High Arctic, the strength of the gravitational field varies considerably across even short distances under the influence of a density gradient, and the magnitude of free air gravity anomalies attains 100 mGal and more. On long-term base, instantaneous deviations of gravity can have a noticeable effect on the regime and mass budget of glaciological objects. At best, the gravity-induced component of ice mass variations can be determined on topographically smooth, open and steady surfaces, like those of arctic planes, regular ice caps and landfast sea ice. The present research is devoted to studying gravity-driven impacts on glacier mass balance in the outer periphery of four Eurasian shelf seas with a very cold, dry climate and rather episodic character of winter precipitation. As main study objects we had chosen a dozen Russia's northernmost insular ice caps, tens to hundreds of square kilometres in extent, situated in a close vicinity of strong gravity anomalies and surrounded with extensive fields of fast and/or drift ice for most of the year. The supposition about gravitational forcing on glacioclimatic settings in the study region is based on the results of quantitative comparison and joint interpretation of existing glacier change maps and available data on the Arctic gravity field and solid precipitation. The overall mapping of medium-term (from decadal to half-centennial) changes in glacier volumes and quantification of mass balance characteristics in the study region was performed by comparing reference elevation models of study glaciers derived from Russian topographic maps 1:200,000 (CI = 20 or 40 m) representing the glacier state as in the 1950s-1980s with modern elevation data obtained from satellite radar interferometry and lidar altimetry. Free-air gravity anomalies were
Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas
Quest, Kevin B.
1986-01-01
The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.
A Moving Frame Algorithm for High Mach Number Hydrodynamics
Trac, H; Trac, Hy; Pen, Ue-Li
2004-01-01
We present a new approach to Eulerian computational fluid dynamics that is designed to work at high Mach numbers encountered in astrophysical hydrodynamic simulations. The Eulerian fluid conservation equations are solved in an adaptive frame moving with the fluid where Mach numbers are minimized. The moving frame approach uses a velocity decomposition technique to define local kinetic variables while storing the bulk kinetic components in a smoothed background velocity field that is associated with the grid velocity. Gravitationally induced accelerations are added to the grid, thereby minimizing the spurious heating problem encountered in cold gas flows. Separately tracking local and bulk flow components allows thermodynamic variables to be accurately calculated in both subsonic and supersonic regions. A main feature of the algorithm, that is not possible in previous Eulerian implementations, is the ability to resolve shocks and prevent spurious heating where both the preshock and postshock Mach numbers are h...
Colmenero, J.
2013-05-01
In a recent paper by Ngai and Capaccioli ["Unified explanation of the anomalous dynamic properties of highly asymmetric polymer blends," J. Chem. Phys. 138, 054903 (2013), 10.1063/1.4789585] the authors claimed that the so-called coupling model (CM) provides a unified explanation of all dynamical anomalies that have been reported for dynamically asymmetric blends over last ten years. Approximately half of the paper is devoted to chain-dynamic properties involving un-entangled polymers. According to the authors, the application of the CM to these results is based on the existence of a crossover at a time tc ≈ 1-2 ns of the magnitudes describing chain-dynamics. Ngai and Capaccioli claimed that the existence of such a crossover is supported by the neutron scattering and MD-simulation results, corresponding to the blend poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene oxide), by Niedzwiedz et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 168301 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.168301] and Brodeck et al. [Macromolecules 43, 3036 (2010), 10.1021/ma902820a], respectively. Being one of the authors of these two papers, I will demonstrate here that there is no evidence supporting such a crossover in the data reported in these papers.
High Rayleigh number convection with double diffusive fingers
Hage, Ellen; Tilgner, Andreas
2010-01-01
An electrodeposition cell is used to sustain a destabilizing concentration difference of copper ions in aqueous solution between the top and bottom boundaries of the cell. The resulting convecting motion is analogous to Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection at high Prandtl numbers. In addition, a stabilizing temperature gradient is imposed across the cell. Even for thermal buoyancy two orders of magnitude smaller than chemical buoyancy, the presence of the weak stabilizing gradient has a profound effe...
Vortex dynamics in high Froude number variable-density flows
Joly, Laurent; Reinaud, Jean; Micallef, J; Suarez, Juan; Bretonnet, L; Fontane, Jérôme; Campagne, Gaëlle
2004-01-01
Outline of the presentation : 1.Introduction - Illustrative examples from experiments and simulations 2.The baroclinic torque in high Froude number flows, its organization, scale and order of magnitude 3.Transition of the inhomogeneous mixing--layer and the 2D secondary baroclinici instability 4.The strain field of 2D light jets and the question of side-jets 5.Mass segregation in 2D turbulence and the baroclinic instability of massive of vortices
High Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using a Lagrangian model
Graham, J. Pietarila; P. D. Mininni; Pouquet, A.
2011-01-01
With the help of a model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence tested previously, we explore high Reynolds number regimes up to equivalent resolutions of 6000^3 grid points in the absence of forcing and with no imposed uniform magnetic field. For the given initial condition chosen here, with equal kinetic and magnetic energy, the flow ends up being dominated by the magnetic field, and the dynamics leads to an isotropic Iroshnikov-Kraichnan energy spectrum. However, the locally anisotropic m...
Anomalous thermal expansion in the metallic phase of SmS under high pressure
SmS exhibits a pressure-induced phase transition at 0.6 GPa from a semiconducting state to a rather metallic state accompanied with a change of Sm valence and volume compression. Using the X-ray diffraction technique under high pressures, we found local minima of the lattice constant of SmS in the metallic phase up to near 2 GPa. The pressure region of the volume minima coincides with that of the low-temperature increase and the humps of electrical resistivity. We succeeded in reproducing the volume minima by a phenomenological model of a Schottky-type behavior due to electronic gap suppressed by pressure
Frequency agile microwave photonic notch filter with anomalously-high stopband rejection
Marpaung, David; Pant, Ravi; Eggleton, Benjamin J
2013-01-01
We report a novel class microwave photonic (MWP) notch filter with a very narrow isolation bandwidth (10 MHz), an ultrahigh stopband rejection (> 60 dB), a wide frequency tuning (1-30 GHz), and flexible bandwidth reconfigurability (10-65 MHz). This record performance is enabled by a new concept of sidebands amplitude and phase controls using an electro-optic modulator and an optical filter. This new concept enables energy efficient operation in active MWP notch filters, and opens up the pathway to enable low-power nanophotonic devices as high performance RF filters.
Anomalous magnetic moments in Fe-Pt and Fe-Pd Invar alloys under high pressure
Magnetization measurements have been carried out for disordered Fe72Pt28, Fe66Pd34, and Fe68Pd32 Invar alloys under high pressure using a technique combining a pressure-clamp-type Drickamer cell and a pulse magnet. In Fe72Pt28 at room temperature, the magnetization decreased rapidly with increasing pressure up to 2.5 GPa, but above 2.5 GPa the rate of decrease became small and remained at a small value up to 5.6 GPa. In Fe-Pd Invar alloys at room temperature, the magnetization decreased linearly with increasing pressure. But, at 4.2 K, the change of magnetization with pressure was small in Fe66Pd34, which means that Fe66Pd34 behaves as a strong ferromagnet
Anomalously high intercombination line ratios in symbiotic stars - Extreme Bowen pumping?
Kastner, S. O.; Bhatia, A. K.; Feibelman, W. A.
1989-01-01
International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the ratio of the O III intercombination lines near 1660 A are assembled, showing that the observed ratios in symbiotic stars are significantly higher than the theoretically predicted optically thin limit of 2.5. The presence of an enhancing physical process is thereby indicated. It is suggested that Bowen pumping of the lower level of the 1666.2 A line in an 'external saturation' limit, coupled with appreciable optical depth, could logically explain the high ratios. Some tentative evidence for this is presented and the relevance of far-infrared observations of the O III 51.8 and 88.3 micron lines in symbiotic sources is emphasized.
Anomalously high intercombination line ratios in symbiotic stars; extreme Bowen pumping?
We assemble International Ultraviolet Explorer observations of the ratio of the O III intercombination lines near 1660 A, showing that the observed ratios in symbiotic stars are significantly higher than the theoretically predicted optically thin limit of 2.5. The presence of an enhancing physical process is thereby indicated. It is suggested that Bowen pumping of the lower level of the 1666.2 A line in an 'external saturation' limit, coupled with appreciable optical depth, could logically explain the high ratios. Some tentative evidence for this is presented and the relevance of far-infrared observations of the O III 51.8 and 88.3 μm lines in symbiotic sources is emphasized. (author)
Anomalous open-circuit voltage from a high-Tc superconducting dynamo
Bumby, C. W.; Jiang, Zhenan; Storey, J. G.; Pantoja, A. E.; Badcock, R. A.
2016-03-01
We report on the behavior of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) homopolar dynamo which outputs a DC open-circuit voltage when the stator is in the superconducting state, but behaves as a conventional AC alternator when the stator is in the normal state. We observe that this time-averaged DC voltage arises from a change in the shape of the AC voltage waveform that is obtained from a normal conducting stator. The measured DC voltage is proportional to frequency, and decreases with increasing flux gap between the rotor magnet and the HTS stator wire. We observe that the DC output voltage decreases to zero at large flux gaps, although small differences between the normal-conducting and superconducting waveforms are still observed, which we attribute to screening currents in the HTS stator wire. Importantly, the normalised pulse shape is found to be a function of the rotor position angle only. Based on these observations, we suggest that the origin of this unexpected DC effect can be explained by a model first proposed by Giaever, which considers the impact of time-varying circulating eddy currents within the HTS stator wire. Such circulating currents form a superconducting shunt path which "short-circuits" the high field region directly beneath the rotor magnet, at those points in the cycle when the rotor magnet partially overlaps the superconducting stator wire. This reduces the output voltage from the device during these periods of the rotor cycle, leading to partial rectification of the output voltage waveform and hence the emergence of a time-averaged DC voltage.
Vortex Tubes in Turbulence Velocity Fields at High Reynolds Numbers
Mouri, H
2008-01-01
The elementary structures of turbulence, i.e., vortex tubes, are studied using velocity data obtained in laboratory experiments for boundary layers and duct flows at microscale Reynolds numbers 332-1934. While past experimental studies focused on intense vortex tubes, the present study focuses on all vortex tubes with various intensities. We obtain the mean velocity profile. The radius scales with the Kolmogorov length. The circulation velocity scales with the Kolmogorov velocity, in contrast to the case of intense vortex tubes alone where the circulation velocity scales with the rms velocity fluctuation. Since these scaling laws are independent of the configuration for turbulence production, they appear to be universal at high Reynolds numbers.
Anomalous magnetic moments in Fe-Pt and Fe-Pd Invar alloys under high pressure
Matsushita, M; Endo, S; Ishizuka, M; Kindo, K; Ono, F
2002-01-01
Magnetization measurements have been carried out for disordered Fe sub 7 sub 2 Pt sub 2 sub 8 , Fe sub 6 sub 6 Pd sub 3 sub 4 , and Fe sub 6 sub 8 Pd sub 3 sub 2 Invar alloys under high pressure using a technique combining a pressure-clamp-type Drickamer cell and a pulse magnet. In Fe sub 7 sub 2 Pt sub 2 sub 8 at room temperature, the magnetization decreased rapidly with increasing pressure up to 2.5 GPa, but above 2.5 GPa the rate of decrease became small and remained at a small value up to 5.6 GPa. In Fe-Pd Invar alloys at room temperature, the magnetization decreased linearly with increasing pressure. But, at 4.2 K, the change of magnetization with pressure was small in Fe sub 6 sub 6 Pd sub 3 sub 4 , which means that Fe sub 6 sub 6 Pd sub 3 sub 4 behaves as a strong ferromagnet.
High-power Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk oscillator in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes
Pronin, Oleg; Brons, Jonathan; Seidel, Marcus; Lücking, Fabian; Grasse, Christian; Boehm, Gerhard; Amann, Marcus C.; Pervak, Vladimir; Apolonski, Alexander; Kalashnikov, Vladimir L.; Krausz, Ferenc
2013-03-01
A femtosecond thin-disk Yb:YAG oscillator in both the anomalous and the normal dispersion regime is demonstrated. Both regimes are realized with practically the same resonator configuration. The power scaling potential of the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The recipe to obtain Kerr-lens mode-locking (KLM) in the thin-disk configuration is presented here and oscillator characteristics as well as start-up difficulties are described. The oscillator stability in terms of output power, beam pointing and sensitivity to back reflections is measured and corresponds to the level of commercial systems.
Anomalous electric field changes and high flash rate beneath a thunderstorm in northeast India
S D Pawar; P Murugavel; V Gopalakrishnan
2010-10-01
In spite of many experimental and theoretical studies the relationships between storm dynamics, severe weather,and lightning activity have been least understood.Measurements of electric ﬁeld made under a severe thunderstorm at a northeastern Indian station,Guwahati,India are reported. Lightning ﬂash rate increases drastically to about 84 ﬂashes per minute (fpm)during the active stage which lasted for about 7 minutes,from about 15 ﬂashes per minute during the initial phase of thunderstorm.Sudden increase in lightning ﬂash rate (‘lightning jump ’)of about 65 fpm/min is also observed in the beginning of the active stage.The dissipating stage is marked by slow and steady decrease in lightning frequency.Despite very high ﬂash rate during the active stage, no severe weather conditions are observed at the ground.It is proposed that the short duration of the active stage might be the reason for the non-observance of severe weather conditions at the ground.Analysis of Skew-t graph at Guwahati suggests that vertical distribution of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE)also may play some role in non-occurrence of severe weather at ground in spite of large lightning ﬂash rate and lightning jump observed in this thunderstorm.Further,all electric ﬁeld changes after a lightning discharge indicates the presence of strong Lower Positive Charge Centers (LPCC)in the active and dissipation stages. This suggests that LPCC plays an important role in initiation of lightning discharges in these stages.
Ba-filled Ni-Sb-Sn based skutterudites with anomalously high lattice thermal conductivity.
Paschinger, W; Rogl, G; Grytsiv, A; Michor, H; Heinrich, P R; Müller, H; Puchegger, S; Klobes, B; Hermann, R P; Reinecker, M; Eisenmenger-Sitter, Ch; Broz, P; Bauer, E; Giester, G; Zehetbauer, M; Rogl, P F
2016-07-01
Novel filled skutterudites BayNi4Sb12-xSnx (ymax = 0.93) have been prepared by arc melting followed by annealing at 250, 350 and 450 °C up to 30 days in vacuum-sealed quartz vials. Extension of the homogeneity region, solidus temperatures and structural investigations were performed for the skutterudite phase in the ternary Ni-Sn-Sb and in the quaternary Ba-Ni-Sb-Sn systems. Phase equilibria in the Ni-Sn-Sb system at 450 °C were established by means of Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). With rather small cages Ni4(Sb,Sn)12, the Ba-Ni-Sn-Sb skutterudite system is perfectly suited to study the influence of filler atoms on the phonon thermal conductivity. Single-phase samples with the composition Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8, Ba0.42Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 and Ba0.92Ni4Sb6.7Sn5.3 were used to measure their physical properties, i.e. temperature dependent electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity. The resistivity data demonstrate a crossover from metallic to semiconducting behaviour. The corresponding gap width was extracted from the maxima in the Seebeck coefficient data as a function of temperature. Single crystal X-ray structure analyses at 100, 200 and 300 K revealed the thermal expansion coefficients as well as Einstein and Debye temperatures for Ba0.73Ni4Sb8.1Sn3.9 and Ba0.95Ni4Sb6.1Sn5.9. These data were in accordance with the Debye temperatures obtained from the specific heat (4.4 K thermal conductivity. The elastic moduli, collected from Resonant Ultrasonic Spectroscopy ranged from 100 GPa for Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 to 116 GPa for Ba0.92Ni4Sb6.7Sn5.3. The thermal expansion coefficients were 11.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Ni4Sb8.2Sn3.8 and 13.8 × 10(-6) K(-1) for Ba0.92Ni4Sb6.7Sn5.3. The room temperature Vickers hardness values vary within the range from 2.6 GPa to 4.7 GPa. Severe plastic deformation via high-pressure torsion was used to introduce nanostructuring; however, the physical properties before and after HPT showed no
Computation of high Reynolds number internal/external flows
A general, user oriented computer program, called VNAP2, has been developed to calculate high Reynolds number, internal/external flows. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either a mixing-length, a one transport equation, or a two transport equation model. Interior grid points are computed using the explicit MacCormack scheme with special procedures to speed up the calculation in the fine grid. All boundary conditions are calculated using a reference plane characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source terms. Several internal, external, and internal/external flow calculations are presented
Wave phenomena in a high Reynolds number compressible boundary layer
Bayliss, A.; Maestrello, L.; Parikh, P.; Turkel, E.
1987-01-01
The behavior of spatially unstable waves in a high Reynolds number compressible laminar boundary layer is investigated by solution of the laminar two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations (solved to fourth-order accuracy) over a flat plate with a fluctuating disturbance generated at the inflow. A significant nonlinear distortion is produced, in qualitative agreement with experimental data. It is shown that increasing compressibility can significantly stabilize the flow over a flat plate, and that the mechanism of phase cancellation is a viable mechanism for the control of growing disturbances.
Spectroscopic measurements are reported of the plasma formed inside a cathode having a ferroelectric source incorporated in it. The measurements were performed during generation of a high-frequency modulated electron beam in a planar diode with the above cathode. A qualitative model is suggested, which is based on fast periodic appearance of anomalous plasma resistance. The latter is supposed to be due to generation of ion-acoustic instability
The high-pressure compression behaviour of 3 different cation forms of gallosilicate zeolite with CGS topology has been investigated using in situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell technique. Under hydrostatic conditions mediated by a nominally penetrating pressure-transmitting medium, unit-cell lengths and volume compression is modulated by different degrees of pressure-induced hydration and accompanying channel distortion. In a Na-exchanged CGS (Na10Ga10Si22O64.16H2O), the unit-cell volume expands by ca. 0.6% upon applying hydrostatic pressure to 0.2 GPa, whereas, in an as-synthesized K-form (K10Ga10Si22O64.5H2O), this initial volume expansion is suppressed to ca. 0.1% at 0.16 GPa. In the early stage of hydrostatic compression below ∼1 GPa, relative decrease in the ellipticity of the non-planar 10-rings is observed, which is then reverted to a gradual increase in the ellipticity at higher pressures above ∼1 GPa, implying a change in the compression mechanism. In a Sr-exchanged sample (Sr5Ga10Si22O64.19H2O), on the other hand, no initial volume expansion is observed. Instead, a change in the slope of volume contraction is observed near 1.5 GPa, which leads to a 2-fold increase in the compressibility. This is interpreted as pressure-induced rearrangement of water molecules to facilitate further volume contraction at higher pressures. - Graphical abstract: Three different cation forms of gallosilicate CGS zeolites have been investigated using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and a diamond-anvil cell. Under hydrostatic conditions, unit-cell lengths and volume show anomalous compression behaviours depending on the non-framework cation type and initial hydration level, which implies different modes of pressure-induced hydration and channel distortion
Semaan, Georges; Ben Braham, Fatma; Salhi, Mohamed; Meng, Yichang; Bahloul, Faouzi; Sanchez, François
2016-04-18
We have experimentally demonstrated square pulses emission from a co-doped Er:Yb double-clad fiber laser operating in anomalous dispersion DSR regime using the nonlinear polarization evolution technique. Stable mode-locked pulses have a repetition rate of 373 kHz with 2.27 µJ energy per pulse under a pumping power of 30 W in cavity. With the increase of pump power, both the duration and the energy of the output square pulses broaden. The experimental results demonstrate that the passively mode-locked fiber laser operating in the anomalous regime can also realize a high-energy pulse, which is different from the conventional low-energy soliton pulse. PMID:27137277
High Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamic turbulence using a Lagrangian model.
Graham, J Pietarila; Mininni, P D; Pouquet, A
2011-07-01
With the help of a model of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence tested previously, we explore high Reynolds number regimes up to equivalent resolutions of 6000(3) grid points in the absence of forcing and with no imposed uniform magnetic field. For the given initial condition chosen here, with equal kinetic and magnetic energy, the flow ends up being dominated by the magnetic field, and the dynamics leads to an isotropic Iroshnikov-Kraichnan energy spectrum. However, the locally anisotropic magnetic field fluctuations perpendicular to the local mean field follow a Kolmogorov law. We find that the ratio of the eddy turnover time to the Alfvén time increases with wave number, contrary to the so-called critical balance hypothesis. Residual energy and helicity spectra are also considered; the role played by the conservation of magnetic helicity is studied, and scaling laws are found for the magnetic helicity and residual helicity spectra. We put these results in the context of the dynamics of a globally isotropic MHD flow that is locally anisotropic because of the influence of the strong large-scale magnetic field, leading to a partial equilibration between kinetic and magnetic modes for the energy and the helicity. PMID:21867311
Passive scalars in turbulent channel flow at high Reynolds number
Pirozzoli, Sergio; Bernardini, Matteo; Orlandi, Paolo
2015-11-01
We study passive scalars in turbulent plane channels at computationally high Reynolds number, which allows to observe previously unnoticed effects. The mean scalar profiles are found to obey a generalized logarithmic law which includes a linear correction term in the whole lower half-channel, and they follow a universal parabolic defect profile in the core region. This is consistent with recent findings regarding the mean velocity profiles in channel flow. The scalar variances also exhibit a near universal parabolic distribution in the core flow, and hints of a sizeable log layer, unlike the velocity variances. The energy spectra highlight the formation of large scalar-bearing eddies spanning each half-channel, which are caused by production excess over dissipation, and which are clearly visible in the flow visualizations. Close correspondence of the velocity and scalar eddies is observed, the main difference being that the latter have more convoluted interfaces, which translates into higher scalar dissipation. Another notable Reynolds number effect is the decreased correlation of the scalar field with the vertical velocity field, which is traced to the reduced effectiveness of ejection events. We acknowledge that the results reported in this paper have been achieved using the PRACE Research Infrastructure resource FERMI based at CINECA, Casalecchio di Reno, Italy.
Observation of photonic anomalous Floquet Topological Insulators
Maczewsky, Lukas J; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander
2016-01-01
Commonly, a two-dimensional topological insulator is characterized by non-zero Chern numbers associated with its band structure. In our work, we present the experimental demonstration of an anomalous topological insulator, for which the Chern numbers are always zero, and the winding number is the appropriate quantity describing the topological character of the system. We probe the robustness of the chiral edge states in such anomalous topological insulators and analyze the phase transition between topological and trivial phase.
Anomalous Hydrodynamics of Two-Dimensional Vortex Fluid
Wiegmann, Paul
2013-01-01
Turbulent flows of incompressible liquid in two dimensions are comprised of dense systems of vortices. Such system of vortices can be treated as a fluid and itself could be described in terms of hydrodynamics. We develop the hydrodynamics of the vortex fluid. This hydrodynamics captures characteristics of fluid flows averaged over fast circulations in the inter-vortex space. The hydrodynamics of the vortex fluid features the anomalous stress absent in Euler's hydrodynamics. The anomalous stress yields a number of interesting effects. Some of them are: a deflection of stream lines, a correction to the Bernoulli law, accumulation of vortices in regions with high curvature in the curved space. The origin of the anomalous stresses is a divergence of inter-vortex interactions at the micro-scale which manifest at the macro-scale. We obtain the hydrodynamics of the vortex fluid from the Kirchhoff equations for dynamics of point-like vortices
Prandtl and Rayleigh number dependence of heat transport in high Rayleigh number thermal convection
Stevens, Richard J A M; Verzicco, Roberto
2011-01-01
Results from direct numerical simulation for three-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection in samples of aspect ratio $\\Gamma=0.23$ and $\\Gamma=0.5$ up to Rayleigh number $Ra=2\\times10^{12}$ are presented. This includes the largest spatially resolved turbulent flow simulation ever performed in a closed system, setting a benchmark also for experiments. In addition, the broad range of Prandtl numbers $0.5
The results from direct numerical simulations of turbulent Boussinesq convection are briefly presented. The flow is computed for a cylindrical cell of aspect ratio 1/2 in order to compare with the results from recent experiments. The results span eight decades of Ra from 2x106 to 2x1014 and form the baseline data for a strictly Boussinesq fluid of constant Prandtl number (Pr=0.7). A conclusion is that the Nusselt number varies nearly as the 1/3 power of Ra for about four decades towards the upper end of the Ra range covered. (author)
Mohebbi, Akbar; Abbaszadeh, Mostafa; Dehghan, Mehdi
2013-05-01
The aim of this paper is to study the high order difference scheme for the solution of modified anomalous fractional sub-diffusion equation. The time fractional derivative is described in the Riemann-Liouville sense. In the proposed scheme we discretize the space derivative with a fourth-order compact scheme and use the Grünwald-Letnikov discretization of the Riemann-Liouville derivative to obtain a fully discrete implicit scheme. We analyze the solvability, stability and convergence of the proposed scheme using the Fourier method. The convergence order of method is O(τ+h4). Numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical results and high accuracy of the proposed scheme.
Universal decay of high Reynolds number Taylor-Couette turbulence
Verschoof, Ruben A; van der Veen, Roeland C A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2015-01-01
We study the decay of high-Reynolds number Taylor-Couette turbulence, i.e. the turbulent flow between two coaxial rotating cylinders. To do so, the rotation of the inner cylinder ($Re_i = 2 \\cdot 10^6$, the outer cylinder is at rest) was suddenly stopped. Using a combination of laser Doppler anemometry and particle image velocimetry measurements, six decay decades of the kinetic energy could be captured. First, in the absence of cylinder rotation, the flow-velocity during the decay does not develop any height dependence in contrast to the well-known Taylor vortex state. Next, the radial profile of the azimuthal velocity is found to be self-similar, i.e. when normalizing it with the mean velocity, it is universal. Nonetheless, the decay of this wall-bounded inhomogeneous turbulent flow does not follow a strict power law as for decaying turbulent homogeneous isotropic flows, but it is faster, due to the strong viscous drag applied by the bounding walls. We theoretically describe the decay in a quantitative way ...
Helicon waves in uniform plasmas. II. High m numbers
Helicons are whistler modes with azimuthal wave numbers. They have been studied in solids and plasmas where boundaries play a role. The present work shows that very similar modes exist in unbounded gaseous plasmas. Instead of boundaries, the antenna properties determine the topology of the wave packets. The simplest antenna is a magnetic loop which excites m = 0 or m = 1 helicons depending on whether the dipole moment is aligned parallel or perpendicular to the ambient background magnetic field B0. While these low order helicons have been described by J. M. Urrutia and R. L. Stenzel [“Helicon modes in uniform plasmas. I. Low m modes,” Phys. Plasmas 22, 092111 (2015)], the present work focuses on high order modes up to m = 8. These are excited by antenna arrays forming magnetic multipoles. Their wave magnetic field has been measured in space and time in a large and uniform laboratory plasma free of boundary effects. The observed wave topology exhibits m pairs of unique field line spirals which may have inspired the name “helicon” to this mode. All field lines converge into these nested spirals which propagate like corkscrews along B0. The field lines near the axis of helicons are perpendicular to B0 and circularly polarized as in parallel whistlers. Helical antennas couple to these transverse fields but not to the spiral fields of helicons. Using a circular antenna array of phased m = 0 loops, right or left rotating or non-rotating multipole antenna fields are generated. They excite m < 0 and m > 0 modes, showing that the plasma supports both modes equally well. The poor excitation of m < 0 modes is a characteristic of loops with dipole moment across B0. The radiation efficiency of multipole antennas has been found to decrease with m
Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Bridges, Robert A.
2016-06-07
A system is described for receiving a stream of events and scoring the events based on anomalousness and maliciousness (or other classification). The system can include a plurality of anomaly detectors that together implement an algorithm to identify low-probability events and detect atypical traffic patterns. The anomaly detector provides for comparability of disparate sources of data (e.g., network flow data and firewall logs.) Additionally, the anomaly detector allows for regulatability, meaning that the algorithm can be user configurable to adjust a number of false alerts. The anomaly detector can be used for a variety of probability density functions, including normal Gaussian distributions, irregular distributions, as well as functions associated with continuous or discrete variables.
Secco, R A; Imanaka, N; Adachi, G
2002-01-01
The ionic conductivity of Sc sub 2 (WO sub 4) sub 3 at 400 deg. C shows a normal decrease with increase in pressure up to 2.9 GPa but then increases anomalously at pressures up to 4.3 GPa. Synchrotron in situ x-ray diffraction results show that Sc sub 2 (WO sub 4) sub 3 undergoes pressure-induced amorphization at pressures coincident with the reversal in conductivity behaviour. The loss of crystal structure at high pressure may be associated with the property of negative thermal expansion in Sc sub 2 (WO sub 4) sub 3.
The total chromatic number of regular graphs of high degree
XIE DeZheng; YANG WanNian
2009-01-01
The total chromatic number XT (G) of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the edges and the vertices of G so that incident or adjacent elements have distinct colors.We show that if G is a regular graph and d(G)≥2/3|V(G)|+23/6,where d(G) denotes the degree of a vertex in G,then xT(G)≤d(G) + 2.
The total chromatic number of regular graphs of high degree
2009-01-01
The total chromatic number χT (G) of a graph G is the minimum number of colors needed to color the edges and the vertices of G so that incident or adjacent elements have distinct colors. We show that if G is a regular graph and d(G) 32 |V (G)| + 263 , where d(G) denotes the degree of a vertex in G, then χT (G) d(G) + 2.
Statistics and geometry in high-Schmidt number scalar mixing
The physics of scalar mixing depends strongly on the ratio of the kinematic viscosity of the fluid to the diffusivity of the scalar. It is given by the Schmidt number. In this report we focus to the so-called Batchelor regime of scalar mixing
Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As/GaAs(100) hetermostructures with anomalously high carrier mobility
Seredin, P. V., E-mail: paul@phys.vsu.ru; Goloshchapov, D. L.; Lenshin, A. S.; Ternovaya, V. E. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Arsentyev, I. N., E-mail: arsentyev@mail.ioffe.ru; Nikolaev, D. N.; Tarasov, I. S.; Shamakhov, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Popov, A. V. [Research Institute of Electronics (Russian Federation)
2015-08-15
Structural and spectroscopic methods are used to study the epitaxial layers of n-type Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As solid solutions produced by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. It is shown that, when Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As solid solutions are doped with carbon to a level of (1.2–6.7) × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, the electron mobility is anomalously high for the given impurity concentration and twice exceeds the calculated value. It is assumed that the ordered arrangement of carbon in the metal sublattice of the solid solution leads to a change in the average distance between impurity ions, i.e., to an increase in the mean free path of the carriers and, consequently, in the carrier mobility. The observed effect has immediate practical importance in the search for various technological ways of increasing the operating speed of functional elements of modern optoelectronic devices. The effect of the anomalously high carrier mobility in the epitaxial layer of a heteropair opens up new opportunities for the development of new structures on the basis of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As compounds.
The aim of the study was to assess coronary arteries arising from the wrong coronary sinus, including CT-evaluated high-risk anatomic features, clinical symptoms and cardiac events during follow-up. A total of 7,115 patients scheduled for 64-slice or dual-source cardiac CT were screened for the presence of isolated anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the wrong coronary sinus. Anomalous origin of the coronary artery was found in 54 (0.76 %) patients (29 men, 25 women, mean age 60.9 ± 11.6 years). Sixteen (30 %) patients with abnormal right coronary origin (ARCA) more commonly had a slit-like orifice (15 vs. 3; p < 0.001), intramural course (15 vs. 3; p < 0.001) and interarterial course (11 vs. 0; p < 0.001) than 22 (41 %) and 13 (24 %) individuals with abnormal circumflex artery (ALCx) and left coronary artery (ALCA) origin, respectively. Patients with ALCA presented less frequently with chest pain than subjects with ARCA and ALCx (25 vs. 3; p = 0.03). Patients with ARCA tended to show higher occurrence of cardiac events in the follow-up than individuals with ALCA and ALCx (5 vs. 4; p = NS). High-risk anatomy features are most common in patients with ARCA and these patients also have higher prevalence of chest pain and cardiac events in the follow-up than individuals with ALCA and ALCx. (orig.)
Krupinski, Maciej; Urbanczyk-Zawadzka, Malgorzata; Laskowicz, Bartosz; Irzyk, Malgorzata; Banys, Robert; Klimeczek, Piotr [John Paul II Hospital, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Krakow (Poland); Gruszczynska, Katarzyna; Baron, Jan [Medical University of Silesia, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Katowice (Poland)
2014-10-15
The aim of the study was to assess coronary arteries arising from the wrong coronary sinus, including CT-evaluated high-risk anatomic features, clinical symptoms and cardiac events during follow-up. A total of 7,115 patients scheduled for 64-slice or dual-source cardiac CT were screened for the presence of isolated anomalous origin of the coronary artery from the wrong coronary sinus. Anomalous origin of the coronary artery was found in 54 (0.76 %) patients (29 men, 25 women, mean age 60.9 ± 11.6 years). Sixteen (30 %) patients with abnormal right coronary origin (ARCA) more commonly had a slit-like orifice (15 vs. 3; p < 0.001), intramural course (15 vs. 3; p < 0.001) and interarterial course (11 vs. 0; p < 0.001) than 22 (41 %) and 13 (24 %) individuals with abnormal circumflex artery (ALCx) and left coronary artery (ALCA) origin, respectively. Patients with ALCA presented less frequently with chest pain than subjects with ARCA and ALCx (25 vs. 3; p = 0.03). Patients with ARCA tended to show higher occurrence of cardiac events in the follow-up than individuals with ALCA and ALCx (5 vs. 4; p = NS). High-risk anatomy features are most common in patients with ARCA and these patients also have higher prevalence of chest pain and cardiac events in the follow-up than individuals with ALCA and ALCx. (orig.)
Quasi-static magnetohydrodynamic turbulence at high Reynolds number
We analyse the anisotropy of turbulence in an electrically conducting fluid submitted to a uniform magnetic field, for low magnetic Reynolds number, using the quasi-static approximation. In the linear limit, the kinetic energy of velocity components normal to the magnetic field decays faster than the kinetic energy of the component along the magnetic field (Moffatt, 1967). However, numerous numerical studies predict a different behaviour, wherein the final state is characterised by dominant horizontal energy. We investigate the corresponding nonlinear phenomenon using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and spectral closures based on Eddy Damping Quasi-Normal Markovian (EDQNM) models. The initial temporal evolution of the decaying flow indicates that the turbulence is very similar to the so-called 'two-and-a-half-dimensional' flow (Montgomery and Turner, 1982) which explains the observations in numerical studies. EDQNM models confirm this statement at higher Reynolds number.
Turbulent convection at high Rayleigh numbers and aspect ratio 4
We report measurements of the Nusselt number, Nu, in turbulent thermal convection in a cylindrical container of aspect ratio 4. The highest Rayleigh number achieved was Ra=2x1013. Except for the last half a decade or so of Ra, experimental conditions obey the Boussinesq approximation accurately. For these conditions, the data show that the log Nu-log Ra slope saturates at a value close to 1/3, as observed previously by us in experiments with smaller aspect ratios. The increasing slope over the last half a decade of Ra is inconclusive because the corresponding conditions are non-Boussinesq. Finally, we report a modified scaling relation between the plume advection frequency and Ra that collapses data for different aspect ratios. (author)
Yamamoto, Yoshinobu, E-mail: yamamotoy@yamanashi.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu 400-8511 (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University Yoshida, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)
2015-01-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • For the first time, the MHD heat transfer DNS database corresponding to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design using molten salt, were established. • MHD heat transfer correlation was proposed and about 20% of the heat transfer degradation was evaluated under the design conditions. • The contribution of the turbulent diffusion to heat transfer is increased drastically with increasing Hartmann number. - Abstract: The high-Prandtl number passive scalar transport of the turbulent channel flow imposed a wall-normal magnetic field is investigated through the large-scale direct numerical simulation (DNS). All essential turbulence scales of velocities and temperature are resolved by using 2048 × 870 × 1024 computational grid points in stream, vertical, and spanwise directions. The heat transfer phenomena for a Prandtl number of 25 were observed under the following flow conditions: the bulk Reynolds number of 14,000 and Hartman number of up to 28. These values were equivalent to the typical nondimensional parameters of the fusion blanket design proposed by Wong et al. As a result, a high-accuracy DNS database for the verification of magnetohydrodynamic turbulent heat transfer models was established for the first time, and it was confirmed that the heat transfer correlation for a Prandtl number of 5.25 proposed by Yamamoto and Kunugi was applicable to the Prandtl number of 25 used in this study.
Crossover from high to low Reynolds number turbulence
Lohse, Detlef
1994-01-01
The Taylor-Reynolds and Reynolds number ($Re_\\lambda$ and $Re$) dependence of the dimensionless energy dissipation rate $\\ceps =\\eps L / \\u1rms^3$ is derived for statistically stationary isotropic turbulence, employing the results of a variable range mean field theory. Here, $\\eps$ is the energy dissipation rate, $L$ is the (fixed) outer length scale, and $\\u1rms$ a rms velocity component. Our fit-parameter free results for $\\ceps (Re_\\lambda)$ and also for $Re_\\lambda (Re)$ are in good agree...
High Reynolds number liquid layer flow with flexible walls
J S B Gajjar
2015-05-01
The stability of liquid layer flow over an inclined flexible wall is studied using asymptotic methods based on the assumption that the Reynolds number is large. The flexible wall behaviour is described by a spring-plate model, and parameters chosen so that the wall flexibility affects the governing boundary layer problem. For the case of a rigid wall, the problem reverts to one studied by Gajjar. Asymptotic analysis of the governing equations leads to the triple-deck equations governing the interaction between the wall layer and the free-surface. The linearised and other solution properties of these set of equations are discussed.
Spectrum of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-05-01
The equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics describe an Abelian plasma where conduction and chiral currents are simultaneously present and constrained by the second law of thermodynamics. At high frequencies the magnetic currents play the leading role, and the spectrum is dominated by two-fluid effects. The system behaves instead as a single fluid in the low-frequency regime where the vortical currents induce potentially large hypermagnetic fields. After deriving the physical solutions of the generalized Appleton-Hartree equation, the corresponding dispersion relations are scrutinized and compared with the results valid for cold plasmas. Hypermagnetic knots and fluid vortices can be concurrently present at very low frequencies and suggest a qualitatively different dynamics of the hydromagnetic nonlinearities.
High-Reynolds Number Taylor-Couette Turbulence
Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2016-01-01
Taylor-Couette flow, the flow between two coaxial co- or counter-rotating cylinders, is one of the paradigmatic systems in the physics of fluids. The (dimensionless) control parameters are the Reynolds numbers of the inner and outer cylinders, the ratio of the cylinder radii, and the aspect ratio. One key response of the system is the torque required to retain constant angular velocities, which can be connected to the angular velocity transport through the gap. Whereas the low-Reynolds number regime was well explored in the 1980s and 1990s of the past century, in the fully turbulent regime major research activity developed only in the past decade. In this article, we review this recent progress in our understanding of fully developed Taylor-Couette turbulence from the experimental, numerical, and theoretical points of view. We focus on the parameter dependence of the global torque and on the local flow organization, including velocity profiles and boundary layers. Next, we discuss transitions between different (turbulent) flow states. We also elaborate on the relevance of this system for astrophysical disks (quasi-Keplerian flows). The review ends with a list of challenges for future research on turbulent Taylor-Couette flow.
Design of a High-Reynolds Number Recirculating Water Tunnel
Daniel, Libin; Elbing, Brian
2014-11-01
An experimental fluid mechanics laboratory focused on turbulent boundary layers, drag reduction techniques, multiphase flows and fluid-structure interactions has recently been established at Oklahoma State University. This laboratory has three primary components; (1) a recirculating water tunnel, (2) a multiphase pipe flow loop, and (3) a multi-scale flow visualization system. The design of the water tunnel is the focus of this talk. The criteria used for the water tunnel design was that it had to produce a momentum-thickness based Reynolds number in excess of 104, negligible flow acceleration due to boundary layer growth, maximize optical access for use of the flow visualization system, and minimize inlet flow non-uniformity. This Reynolds number was targeted to bridge the gap between typical university/commercial water tunnels (103) and the world's largest water tunnel facilities (105) . These objectives were achieved with a 152 mm (6-inch) square test section that is 1 m long and has a maximum flow speed of 10 m/s. The flow non-uniformity was mitigated with the use of a tandem honeycomb configuration, a settling chamber and an 8.5:1 contraction. The design process that produced this final design will be presented along with its current status.
Subodh K. Gautam
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO2 lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb+5 in the TiO2 lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm−1 for the Eg(1 mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B1g mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm−1 with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO2 crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb5+ doping induced reduction of Ti4+ ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.
Gautam, Subodh K.; Gautam, Naina; Singh, R. G.; Ojha, S.; Shukla, D. K.; Singh, Fouran
2015-12-01
The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO) thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO2 lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb+5 in the TiO2 lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR) spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm-1 for the Eg(1) mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B1g mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm-1 with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO2 crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb5+ doping induced reduction of Ti4+ ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.
High Rayleigh number simulations in a slender laterally periodic domain
Verzicco, Roberto; van der Poel, Erwin; Lohse, Detlef
2015-11-01
The results of three-dimensional DNS simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection with Ra up to 1013 in a laterally periodic geometry with progressively decreasing aspect-ratios are presented. We show global quantities such as the heat transport as well as local time-averages and vertical profiles. It is observed that the heat transport for laterally unconfined geometries can be computed at relatively small aspect-ratios whose value decreases with Rayleigh number. This is beneficial in terms of computational cost, as the total simulated domain gets smaller. The boundary layers profiles are studied and movies of horizontal cross-section of the bulk and the boundary layer are shown.
Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion
This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the open-quotes insoluble surfactantclose quotes model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed
Effects of viscoelasticity in the high Reynolds number cylinder wake
Richter, David
2012-01-16
At Re = 3900, Newtonian flow past a circular cylinder exhibits a wake and detached shear layers which have transitioned to turbulence. It is the goal of the present study to investigate the effects which viscoelasticity has on this state and to identify the mechanisms responsible for wake stabilization. It is found through numerical simulations (employing the FENE-P rheological model) that viscoelasticity greatly reduces the amount of turbulence in the wake, reverting it back to a state which qualitatively appears similar to the Newtonian mode B instability which occurs at lower Re. By focusing on the separated shear layers, it is found that viscoelasticity suppresses the formation of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability which dominates for Newtonian flows, consistent with previous studies of viscoelastic free shear layers. Through this shear layer stabilization, the viscoelastic far wake is then subject to the same instability mechanisms which dominate for Newtonian flows, but at far lower Reynolds numbers. © Copyright Cambridge University Press 2012.
Numerical simulation of high Reynolds number bubble motion
McLaughlin, J.B. [Clarkson Univ., Potsdam, NY (United States)
1995-12-31
This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of bubble motion. All the results are for single bubbles in unbounded fluids. The liquid phase is quiescent except for the motion created by the bubble, which is axisymmetric. The main focus of the paper is on bubbles that are of order 1 mm in diameter in water. Of particular interest is the effect of surfactant molecules on bubble motion. Results for the {open_quotes}insoluble surfactant{close_quotes} model will be presented. These results extend research by other investigators to finite Reynolds numbers. The results indicate that, by assuming complete coverage of the bubble surface, one obtains good agreement with experimental observations of bubble motion in tap water. The effect of surfactant concentration on the separation angle is discussed.
On the Number of Galaxies at High Redshift
Lorenzo Zaninetti
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The number of galaxies at a given flux as a function of the redshift, z, is derived when the z-distance relation is non-standard. In order to compare different models, the same formalism is also applied to the standard cosmology. The observed luminosity function for galaxies of the zCOSMOS catalog at different redshifts is modeled by a new luminosity function for galaxies, which is derived by the truncated beta probability density function. Three astronomical tests, which are the photometric maximum as a function of the redshift for a fixed flux, the mean value of the redshift for a fixed flux, and the luminosity function for galaxies as a function of the redshift, compare the theoretical values of the standard and non-standard model with the observed value. The tests are performed on the FORS Deep Field (FDF catalog up to redshift z = 1.5 and on the zCOSMOS catalog extending beyond z = 4. These three tests show minimal differences between the standard and the non-standard models.
A giant magnetoresistance effect (∼46% at 20 K under 7 T) and anomalous magnetic properties were found in a highly epitaxial double perovskite LaBaCo2O5.5+δ (LBCO) thin film on (001) MgO. Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy and related analytical techniques were employed to understand the nature of these unusual physical properties. The as-grown film is epitaxial with the c-axis of the LBCO structure lying in the film plane and with an interface relationship given by (100)LBCO || (001)MgO and [001]LBCO || [100]MgO or [010]MgO. Orderly oxygen vacancies were observed by line profile electron energy loss spectroscopy and by atomic resolution imaging. Especially, oxygen vacancy and nanodomain structures were found to have a crucial effect on the electronic transport and magnetic properties
Anomalous Chiral Superfluidity
Lublinsky, Michael(Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel); Zahed, Ismail
2009-01-01
We discuss both the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy-momentum tensor in a left chiral theory with flavour anomalies as an effective theory for flavored chiral phonons in a chiral superfluid with the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In the mean-field (leading tadpole) approximation the anomalous Cartan currents and the energy momentum tensor take the form of constitutive currents in the chiral superfluid state. The pertinence of higher order corrections and the Adler-Bardeen theorem is ...
Gautam, Subodh K., E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com, E-mail: fouran@gmail.com; Ojha, S.; Singh, Fouran, E-mail: subodhkgtm@gmail.com, E-mail: fouran@gmail.com [Material Science Group, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi -110067 (India); Gautam, Naina [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi - 110023 (India); Singh, R. G. [Department of Physics, Bhagini Nivedita College, Delhi University, Delhi– 110043 (India); Shukla, D. K. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452017 (India)
2015-12-15
The effect of Niobium doping and size of crystallites on highly transparent nano-crystalline Niobium doped Titanium Dioxide (NTO) thin films with stable anatase phase are reported. The Nb doping concentration is varied within the solubility limit in TiO{sub 2} lattice. Films were annealed in controlled environment for improving the crystallinity and size of crystallites. Elemental and thickness analysis were carried out using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and cross sectional field emission scanning electron microscopy. Structural characteristics reveal a substitutional incorporation of Nb{sup +5} in the TiO{sub 2} lattice which inhibits the anatase crystallites growth with increasing the doping percentage. The micro-Raman (MR) spectra of films with small size crystallites shows stiffening of about 4 cm{sup −1} for the E{sub g(1)} mode and is ascribed to phonon confinement and non-stoichiometry. In contrast, B{sub 1g} mode exhibits a large anomalous softening of 20 cm{sup −1} with asymmetrical broadening; which was not reported for the case of pure TiO{sub 2} crystallites. This anomalous behaviour is explained by contraction of the apical Ti-O bonds at the surface upon substitutional Nb{sup 5+} doping induced reduction of Ti{sup 4+} ions also known as hetero-coordination effect. The proposed hypotheses is manifested through studying the electronic structure and phonon dynamics by performing the near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and temperature dependent MR down to liquid nitrogen temperature on pure and 2.5 at.% doped NTO films, respectively.
Kuo, Ying-Ping; Tung, Hsin; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Tan, Eh
2016-04-01
The southwestern Taiwan is located in the transition zone of an active accretionary wedge and the northern end of the Manila trench, where the thrust sheets demonstrate a distinctive deformation pattern. To characterize the deformation pattern, we use the PSInSAR technique with constrains by precise leveling and GPS measurements to derive the line of sight (LOS) velocities of the study area. From different periods of SAR images of various wavelengths and different periods (e.g. ERS, Envisat and ALOS satellites), we noticed that the boundary between the subsidence and the uplift area roughly aligns with the deformation front. The main subsidence area is in the Chianan coastal plain with a LOS velocity of ~ 30 mm/yr relative to a continuous GPS station LIKN as a local reference point. The maximum LOS velocities of ~ 20 - 30 mm/yr is recorded on an active fault-related folding in Tainan tableland and the footwall of Longchuan reverse fault in Gutingkang mudstone formation. From PSInSAR and GPS measurements, the northern segment of the Longchuan fault shows a high LOS velocity gradient of ~ 10 - 15 mm/yr with a right-lateral component of 4 mm/yr across the fault. However, it demonstrates a reverse fault with a left-lateral component of about 10 mm/yr at the middle segment, while it turns back to a reverse fault with a right-lateral component at the southern segment. Based on precise leveling data, the footwall of Longchuan reverse fault demonstrates a very high uplift rate of ~ 20 - 30 mm/yr, which is unusual for a reverse fault. The anomalous deformation rate might part be related with a ramp duplex located in the footwall and the triggered slip of moderate earthquake in nearby area. In addition, high uplift rate of footwall can be also observed in the surrounding area (Chishan fault), and it might be due to the mechanical heterogeneity of mudstone in the Gutingkang formation. Consequently, we use DynearthSol3D, an efficient unstructured finite element code, to
Petrology of Anomalous Eucrites
Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Ross, D. K.
2015-01-01
Most mafic achondrites can be broadly categorized as being "eucritic", that is, they are composed of a ferroan low-Ca clinopyroxene, high-Ca plagioclase and a silica phase. They are petrologically distinct from angritic basalts, which are composed of high-Ca, Al-Ti-rich clinopyroxene, Carich olivine, nearly pure anorthite and kirschsteinite, or from what might be called brachinitic basalts, which are composed of ferroan orthopyroxene and high-Ca clinopyroxene, intermediate-Ca plagioclase and ferroan olivine. Because of their similar mineralogy and composition, eucrite-like mafic achondrites formed on compositionally similar asteroids under similar conditions of temperature, pressure and oxygen fugacity. Some of them have distinctive isotopic compositions and petrologic characteristics that demonstrate formation on asteroids different from the parent of the HED clan (e.g., Ibitira, Northwest Africa (NWA) 011). Others show smaller oxygen isotopic distinctions but are otherwise petrologically and compositionally indistinguishable from basaltic eucrites (e.g., Pasamonte, Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91007). The degree of uniformity in delta O-17 of eucrites and diogenites is one piece of evidence considered to favor of a magma-ocean scenario for their petrogenesis. Given that the O isotopic differences separating Pasamonte and PCA 91007 from other eucrites are small, and that there is an absence of other distinguishing characteristics, a legitimate question is: Did the HED parent asteroid fail to homogenize via a magma-ocean stage, thus explaining outliers like Pasamonte? We are initiating a program of study of anomalous eucrite-like achondrites as one part of our effort to seek a resolution of this issue. Here we present preliminary petrologic information on Asuka (A-) 881394, Elephant Moraine (EET) 87520 and EET 87542. We will have studied several more by conference time.
González-Garciá, M Concepción
1999-01-01
We review the effects of new effective interactions on Higgs-boson phenomenology. New physics in the electroweak bosonic sector is expected to induce additional interactions between the Higgs doublet field and the electroweak gauge bosons, leading to anomalous Higgs couplings as well as anomalous gauge-boson self-interactions. Using a linearly realized SU(2)/sub L/*U(1)/sub Y/ invariant effective Lagrangian to describe the bosonic sector of the Standard Model, we review the effects of the new effective interactions on the Higgs- boson production rates and decay modes. We summarize the results from searches for the new Higgs signatures induced by the anomalous interactions in order to constrain the scale of new physics, in particular at CERN LEP and Fermilab Tevatron colliders. (43 refs).
Lapas, Luciano C., E-mail: luciano.lapas@unila.edu.br [Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana, Caixa Postal 2067, 85867-970 Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná (Brazil); Ferreira, Rogelma M. S., E-mail: rogelma.maria@gmail.com [Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, Bahia (Brazil); Rubí, J. Miguel, E-mail: mrubi@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Fernando A., E-mail: fernando.oliveira@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física and Centro Internacional de Física da Matéria Condensada, Universidade de Brasília, Caixa Postal 04513, 70919-970 Brasília, Distrito Federal (Brazil)
2015-03-14
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics
Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.
2015-03-01
We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.
Bridge, Tom C.L.; Renata Ferrari; Mitch Bryson; Renae Hovey; Figueira, Will F.; Stefan B Williams; Oscar Pizarro; Harborne, Alastair R.; Maria Byrne
2014-01-01
High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in c...
Bridge, Tom C L; Ferrari, Renata; Bryson, Mitch; Hovey, Renae; Figueira, Will F; Williams, Stefan B; Pizarro, Oscar; Harborne, Alastair R; Byrne, Maria
2014-01-01
High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in corals. While bleaching has been reported on numerous high-latitude reefs, post-bleaching trajectories of benthic communities are poorly described. Consequently, the longer-term effects of thermal anomalies on high-latitude reefs are difficult to predict. Here, we use an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct repeated surveys of three 625 m(2) plots on a coral-dominated high-latitude reef in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, over a four-year period spanning a large-magnitude thermal anomaly. Quantification of benthic communities revealed high coral cover (>70%, comprising three main morphospecies) prior to the bleaching event. Plating Montipora was most susceptible to bleaching, but in the plot where it was most abundant, coral cover did not change significantly because of post-bleaching increases in branching Acropora. In the other two plots, coral cover decreased while macroalgal cover increased markedly. Overall, coral cover declined from 73% to 59% over the course of the study, while macroalgal cover increased from 11% to 24%. The significant differences in impacts and post-bleaching trajectories among plots underline the importance of understanding the underlying causes of such variation to improve predictions of how climate change will affect reefs, especially at high-latitudes. PMID:25426718
Tom C L Bridge
Full Text Available High-latitude reefs support unique ecological communities occurring at the biogeographic boundaries between tropical and temperate marine ecosystems. Due to their lower ambient temperatures, they are regarded as potential refugia for tropical species shifting poleward due to rising sea temperatures. However, acute warming events can cause rapid shifts in the composition of high-latitude reef communities, including range contractions of temperate macroalgae and bleaching-induced mortality in corals. While bleaching has been reported on numerous high-latitude reefs, post-bleaching trajectories of benthic communities are poorly described. Consequently, the longer-term effects of thermal anomalies on high-latitude reefs are difficult to predict. Here, we use an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct repeated surveys of three 625 m(2 plots on a coral-dominated high-latitude reef in the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, over a four-year period spanning a large-magnitude thermal anomaly. Quantification of benthic communities revealed high coral cover (>70%, comprising three main morphospecies prior to the bleaching event. Plating Montipora was most susceptible to bleaching, but in the plot where it was most abundant, coral cover did not change significantly because of post-bleaching increases in branching Acropora. In the other two plots, coral cover decreased while macroalgal cover increased markedly. Overall, coral cover declined from 73% to 59% over the course of the study, while macroalgal cover increased from 11% to 24%. The significant differences in impacts and post-bleaching trajectories among plots underline the importance of understanding the underlying causes of such variation to improve predictions of how climate change will affect reefs, especially at high-latitudes.
唐昆; 邱春印; 柯满竹; 陆久阳; 刘正猷
2014-01-01
We demonstrate an effective design of metasurface structures that can deflect the transmitted airborne sound in an anomalous way. This flat lens, made of spatially varied coiling-slit subunits, has a thickness of deep subwavelength. By elaborately optimizing its microstructures, the proposed lens exhibits high performance in steering sound wavefronts. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. This study may open new avenues for numerous daily life applications, such as controlling indoor sound effects by decorating rooms with light metasurface walls.%我们将展示一种控制声波反常折射的超表面，这种结构由空间变化的弯曲缝-亚单元组成，厚度处于深亚波长，通过精心优化微观结构，这种设计在控制声波波前方面表现出了优异的性能，我们实验测量的结果与理论预测吻合得很好。这项研究为众多日常生活应用开辟了新的途径，例如通过装上轻而薄的超表面结构来控制室内声场效应。
Results are reported from a search for the anomalous production of highly boosted Z bosons with large transverse momentum and decaying to μ+μ−. Such Z bosons may be produced in the decays of new heavy particles. The search uses pp collision data at √(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb−1 recorded with the CMS detector. The shape of the observed transverse momentum distribution of Z bosons is consistent with standard model expectations. Constraints are obtained on models predicting the production of excited quarks decaying via electroweak processes. Assuming a compositeness scale that is equal to the excited quark mass as well as transition coupling strengths between Z bosons and excited quarks that are equal to standard model couplings to quarks, masses of excited quarks below 1.94 TeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level. For excited quark production via a novel contact interaction, masses below 2.22 TeV are excluded, even if the excited quarks do not couple to gluons
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Scheurer, Armin; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Bansal, Monika; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Dattola, Domenico; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Traczyk, Piotr; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Griffiths, Scott; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Li, Wei; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Brownson, Eric; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua
2013-01-01
Results are reported from a search for the anomalous production of highly boosted Z bosons with large transverse momentum and decaying to the dimuon final state. Such Z bosons may be produced in the decays of new heavy particles. The search uses pp collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns recorded with the CMS detector. The shape of the observed transverse-momentum distribution of Z bosons is consistent with standard-model expectations. Constraints are obtained on models predicting the production of excited quarks decaying via electroweak processes. For excited-quark decays involving only standard-model gauge bosons and coupling strengths, masses of excited quarks below 1.94 TeV are excluded at the 95% confidence level, assuming a compositeness scale equal to the excited-quark mass. For excited-quark production via novel contact interactions, masses below 2.22 TeV are excluded, even if the excited quarks do not couple to gluons.
2002-01-01
The proposal concerns an extension to higher energies of previous experiments which have provided evidence for anomalously short reaction mean free paths among projectile fragments from heavy ion interactions.\\\\ \\\\ It is intended to provide information on the interaction properties of projectile fragments, mainly 3He, P, D, T as well as of scattered 4He nuclei in passive detectors exposed to beams of energies exceeding those available in previous experim factor of about 7. \\\\ \\\\ Interaction mean free paths and event topologies will be measured in a nuclear emulsion stack (LBL) of 7.5~cm~x~5~cm~x~25~cm dimensions. Decay effects will be recorded by comparing the activity of spallation residues in dense and diluted copper target assemblies (Marburg). Target fragmentation will be studied in a stack of silverchloride crystal foils (Frankfurt) of about 7~cm~x~6~cm~x~1~cm dimensions. The \\alpha beam ejected at EJ~62 will be used to provide both exposures at high intensity of 10|1|2 alphas on th and at low intensity ...
Nagaosa, N.; Sinova, Jairo; Onoda, S.; MacDonald, A. H.; Ong, N. P.
2010-01-01
Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), s. 1539-1592. ISSN 0034-6861 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : anomalous Hall effect * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 51.695, year: 2010
High Mach-number Bondi--Hoyle--Lyttleton flow around a small accretor
Edgar, Richard
2005-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a two-dimensional numerical study of isothermal high Mach number Bondi--Hoyle--Lyttleton flow around a small accretor. The flow is found to be unstable at high Mach numbers, with the instability appearing even for a larger accretor. The instability appears to be the unstable radial mode of the accretion column predicted by earlier analytic work.
Irrecoverable pressure loss coefficients for two out-of-plane piping elbows at high Reynolds number
Pressure drops of multiple piping elbows were experimentally determined for high Reynolds number flows. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties in the currently used methods for predicting irrecoverable pressure losses and also to provide a qualification database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes. The earlier high Reynolds number correlations had been based on extrapolations over several orders of magnitude in Reynolds number from where the original database existed. Recent single elbow test data shows about a factor of two lower elbow pressure loss coefficient (at 40x 106 Reynolds number) than those from current correlations. This single piping elbow data has been extended in this study to a multiple elbow configuration of two elbows that are 90o out-of-plane relative to each other. The effects of separation distance and Reynolds number have been correlated and presented in a form that can be used for design application. Contrary to earlier extrapolations from low Reynolds numbers (Re c 1.0x 106), a strong Reynolds number dependence was found to exist. The combination of the high Reynolds number single elbow data with the multiple elbow interaction effects measured in this study shows that earlier design correlations are conservative by significant margins at high Reynolds numbers. Qualification of CFD predictions with this new high Reynolds number database will help guide the need for additional high Reynolds number testing of other piping configurations. The study also included velocity measurements at several positions downstream of the first and second test elbows using an ultrasonic flowmeter. Reasonable agreement after the first test elbow was found relative to flow fields that are known to exist from low Reynolds number visual tests and also from CFD predictions. This data should help to qualify CFD predictions of the three-dimensional flow stream downstream of the second test elbow
Nemoto, Yuya; Ohno, Fumitaka; Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi
2016-09-01
We examine a resonance structure of Floquet state in dynamic fractional Stark ladder (DFSL) realized in biased semiconductor superlattices driven by a terahertz cw laser on the basis of the R-matrix Floquet theory. To do this, we calculate an excess density of state ρ (ex)(E) corresponding to lifetime of the Floquet state with a fractional matching ratio η, where η is the ratio of a Bloch frequency ΩB to a laser frequency ω, namely, η =ΩB / ω. The results for η = 3 / 2 demonstrate the appearance of discernibly large peaks associated with Floquet states with longevity in a region of relatively high laser-intensity. The underlying physics is discussed in terms of an analytical expression of ρ (ex)(E) and the associated Green function in which ponderomotive couplings are included in a non-perturbative way.
刘桐君; 习翔; 令永红; 孙雅丽; 李志伟; 黄黎蓉
2015-01-01
Polarization-insensitive metasurfaces are of great value in practical applications. In this paper, we present a polarization-insensitive reflective phase-gradient metasurface operating in optical communication band which has almost the same electromagnetic (EM) responses for both x- and y-polarized incident waves with high-eﬃciency anomalous reflection. The reflective metasurface employs a typical metal (Au)-insulator (SiO2)-metal (Au) structure, in which the top metal layer consists of periodic arrays of isotropic cross-shaped gold antennas, i.e. unit cells. The supercell of the metasurface is composed of five unit cells with their dimensions different from each other. The normally incident waves are reflected by the metal-grounded plane, but the reflection phases of both x- and y-polarized waves are controlled by changing the dimensions of their unit cells. Based on the finite-difference time-domain simulations, we investigate the polarization-dependent EM responses of this metasurface under the illumination of linearly polarized incident plane waves. Selecting carefully five cross-shaped gold antennas in different dimensions, we obtain polarization-insensitive metasurface with high-performance anomalous reflection in optical communication band. First, in order to investigate the polarization sensitivity of the proposed metasurface, we study the EM responses for x-and y-polarized incident waves, since arbitrary linearly-polarized EM waves can be separated into two orthogonally-polarized components. We find that the two orthogonally-polarized incident EM waves have almost the same phase and amplitude response with the phase nearly linearly changing from 0 to 2π within a supercell, hence a constant gradient of phase discontinuity is introduced and anomalous reflection will occur. We further analyze the reflected electric-field patterns and the far-field intensity distributions, from which we find that the reflected beams exhibit low-distortion wave-fronts and
Between 1949 and 1989, the former USSR conducted more than 450 nuclear explosions, including atmospheric, above ground and underground nuclear tests, at the proving ground (SNTS) near Semipalatinsk City in Eastern Kazakhstan. We have visited to these areas ten several times, and estimated current contamination levels and distribution of long-lived radionuclides 137Cs and Pu isotopes (238,239,240Pu) of the ground at various areas and radiation doses by TL using brick. Parallel to these soil and brick samplings, pond and lake sediment core samples were also taken from the water bodies (impoundments) scattered on the vicinity of the SNTS. They include from north to south, Pond Korosteli (maximum depth: 2-3 m), Lake Kanoneruka (deeper than 5 m), Pond Veramenka (ca.3 m), Lake Semanailka (deeper than 10 m) and Pond Alkat (ca. 1 m in summer season). In each pond and lake, sediment cores to 25440 cm depth were collected in September 1998 by inserting a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe (5.0 cm i.d.) into the sediment by hand at the depths ranging approximately 1 to 3 m. The underlying final objective is to get information on total 137Cs and Pu deposition and their history of SNTS fallout within the regions of the study: After non-destructive gamma-ray measurements of 137Cs and natural radionuclides including 210Pb, Pu and U isotopes were determined by alpha-ray spectrometry after radiochelnical separation. We found some ponds and lakes which were accumulating an anomalously high U in the sediments. This 235U/238U activity ratios of U found are almost the same as that (0.046) of natural U. In this paper, depth profiles of 137Cs and Pu concentrations in the sediments from these impoundments are presented with emphasis on those of high U accumulation. (authors)
Calculation of the vacuum Green's function valid for high toroidal mode number in tokamaks.
Chance, Morrell; Turnbull, Alan
2005-10-01
The present evaluation of the Green's function used for the magmetic scalar potential in vacuum calculations for axisymmetric geometry in the vacuum segments of gato, pest and other mhd stability codes has been found to be deficient for moderately high toroidal mode numbers. This was due to the loss of numerical precision arising from the upward recursion relation used for generating the functions to high mode numbers. The recursion is initiated from the complete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds. To ameliorate this, a direct integration of the integral representation of the function was crafted to achieve the necessary high accuracy for moderately high mode numbers. At very high mode numbers the loss of numerical precision due to the oscillatory behavior of the integrand is further avoided by judiciously deforming the integration contour in the complex plane. Machine precision, roughly 14 -- 16 digits, accuracy can be achieved by using a combination of both these techniques.
High-Quality Random Number Generation Software for High-Performance Computing Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Random number (RN) generation is the key software component that permits random sampling. Software for parallel RN generation (RNG) should be based on RNGs that are...
Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale
One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10-11. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs
Highlights: • It is observed that particle clustering is inversely proportional to Reynolds number. • A better relation is proposed for average settling velocity in dilute suspension. • Froude number and power spectrum can be used for estimating particle clustering. • For φ = 0.03 and 0.05, unfavorable wake structures reduces the formation of close particles pairs. - Abstract: Finite sized particles settling under the action of gravity are investigated by immersed boundary method for dilute suspensions and low to high range of Reynolds number. The Reynolds number based on the terminal velocity of a single particle is varied from 1 to 300 and the solid volume fraction (φ) is varied from 0.005 to 0.05. The studied range of Reynolds number corresponds from streamlined flow to downstream vortex shedding flow for single particle. For φ = 0.005, 0.01 and high Reynolds number (Re ≧ 175), settling particles clusters due to the entrapment in high fluid shear regions. However for Re = 50 and 100, particles form separated pairs due to relatively weak strength of wakes that promote to drafting–kissing and tumbling scenario. These particle structures at high Reynolds number changes the settling behaviors of particles e.g. increase in the settling velocity and fluid velocity fluctuations. For φ = 0.03, 0.05, hindered settling effects dominate and reduce the effects of particles clustering due to Reynolds number
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.
Baryshevsky, V G
2016-01-01
The degree of depolarization of neutral particles in crystals can reach tens of percents over the crystal length of several centimeters, which can be the basis for possible experimental application of the depolarization effect for measuring anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived neutral hyperons.
In high energy neutrino-emulsion collisions, the normalized distribution of two-particle relative pseudorapidity and the correlation between the mean maximum number density of shower particles and multiplicity are investigated
Anomalous fluorescence line intensity in megavoltage bremsstrahlung
Pereira, Nino; Litz, Marc; Merkel, George; Schumer, Joseph; Seely, John; Carroll, Jeff
2009-11-01
A Cauchois transmission crystal spectrometer intended for laser plasma diagnostics has measured an anomalous ratio between the fluorescence lines in megavoltage bremsstrahlung. When observed in reflection, Kα1 fluorescence is twice as strong as the Kβ line, as is usual. However, in forward-directed bremsstrahlung from a 2 MV end point linear accelerator with a tungsten converter, the Kα1 and Kβ fluorescence are approximately equal. The anomalous fluorescence line ratio, unity, reflects the large amount of fluorescence generated on the side of the converter where the electrons enter, and the differential attenuation of the fluorescence photons as they pass through the converter to opposite side. Understanding of fluorescence in megavoltage bremsstrahlung is relevant to the explanation of anomalous line ratios in spectra produced by high-energy electrons generated by intense femtosecond laser irradiation.
DNS of turbulent heat transfer under a uniform magnetic field at high Reynolds number
A low Pr number fluid flow, such as liquid-metals, has relatively less than turbulent heat transport capability because of the liquid-metals' high thermal conductivity and its very large thermal boundary layer. Liquid-metals as coolant material in fusion reactor have a significant role in the design of advanced reactors. This is true since the investigation of thermal behavior in the actual facility environment such as in the case of low Pr number fluid flow, is needed at high Reynolds number under a magnetic field. In the present study, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) for the low Pr number fluid flow of turbulent heat transfer with high Reynolds number has been carried out to show the effects of magnetic field. The Reynolds number for channel flow based on bulk velocity Ub, viscosity ν, and channel width 2δ was set to be constant as Reb = 2δUb/ν = 45,818. A uniform magnetic field was applied in a direction perpendicular to the wall of the channel. The values of Hartmann number Ha were 0 and 65 (where Ha=2δB0√(σ/ρν)), and Prandtl number was 0.06. The turbulent quantities such as the mean temperature, turbulent heat flux, and temperature variant were obtained by DNS. Although large-scale turbulent structures of both velocity and temperature fields are found at the central region of the channel, the mean temperature profiles near wall region show up as laminar profile, that is, the thermal efficiency of the transport is less than that of turbulent flow. This means that it is necessary to consider the fusion reactor design of thermal mixing argumentation for low Pr number fluid flow because the heat transfer enhancement at turbulent flow cannot be acceptable even where the flow state happens to be a turbulent flow at high Reynolds number
Dongfang Li; Zhaojun Lu; Xuecheng Zou; Zhenglin Liu
2015-01-01
Random number generators (RNG) play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF) elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true rand...
Multigrid solution of the convection-diffusion equation with high-Reynolds number
Zhang, Jun [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
1996-12-31
A fourth-order compact finite difference scheme is employed with the multigrid technique to solve the variable coefficient convection-diffusion equation with high-Reynolds number. Scaled inter-grid transfer operators and potential on vectorization and parallelization are discussed. The high-order multigrid method is unconditionally stable and produces solution of 4th-order accuracy. Numerical experiments are included.
The Building Blocks of High School Redesign. Info Brief. Number 49
Ewing, Tom
2007-01-01
U.S. high schools are, with a number of notable exceptions, failing to prepare students adequately for futures as well-equipped and productive contributors to our society, whether as college students or as members of the workplace. This "Infobrief" focuses on three key elements of high school redesign proposed by Association for Supervision and…
Minashin P.V.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A method of spectroscopic diagnostics of the average perpendicular-to-magnetic-field momentum of the superthermal component of the electron velocity distribution (EVD, based on the high-number-harmonic electron cyclotron (EC radiation, is suggested for nuclear fusion-reactor plasmas under condition of a strong auxiliary heating (e.g. in tokamak DEMO, a next step after tokamak ITER. The method is based on solving an inverse problem for reconstruction of the EVD in parallel and perpendicular-to-magnetic-field components of electron momentum at high and moderate energies responsible for the emission of the high-number-harmonic EC radiation.
Determination of nuclear fission number by high-energy delayed γ-rays
Fission numbers of 235U samples irradiated in short time were obtained by fission yield method. The total emission rate of high-energy delayed γ-rays above 3 MeV per fission over time was measured by large volume NaI detector, and high-energy delayed γ-rays emission rate of pulse irradiation was gained. Fission numbers of two 235U samples were obtained by applying the emission rate of high-energy delayed γ-rays per fission, and the relative uncertainty is less than 4%. (authors)
The small-scale dynamo: Breaking universality at high Mach numbers
Schleicher, Dominik R G; Federrath, Christoph; Bovino, Stefano; Schmidt, Wolfram
2013-01-01
(Abridged) The small-scale dynamo may play a substantial role in magnetizing the Universe under a large range of conditions, including subsonic turbulence at low Mach numbers, highly supersonic turbulence at high Mach numbers and a large range of magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, i.e. the ratio of kinetic viscosity to magnetic resistivity. Low Mach numbers may in particular lead to the well-known, incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence, while for high Mach numbers, we are in the highly compressible regime, thus close to Burgers turbulence. In this study, we explore whether in this large range of conditions, a universal behavior can be expected. Our starting point are previous investigations in the kinematic regime. Here, analytic studies based on the Kazantsev model have shown that the behavior of the dynamo depends significantly on Pm and the type of turbulence, and numerical simulations indicate a strong dependence of the growth rate on the Mach number of the flow. Once the magnetic field saturates on the current ...
The quantum anomalous Hall effect
LIU, CHAO-XING; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2015-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect is defined as a quantized Hall effect realized in a system without external magnetic field. Quantum anomalous Hall effect is a novel manifestation of topological structure in many-electron systems, and may have potential applications in future electronic devices. In recent years, quantum anomalous Hall effect has been proposed theoretically and realized experimentally. In this review article, we provide a systematic overview of the theoretical and experimenta...
Asymmetric and Unsteady Flow Separation in High Mach Number Planar Nozzles
E. Shimshi; Ben-Dor, G.; Levy, A; A. Krothapalli
2015-01-01
This paper presents numerical and experimental findings regarding flow separation phenomenon in a high Mach number over expanded planar nozzle. The experimental work is done using a tapered nozzle with a variable area ratio that can produce separation Mach numbers in the range 2.6-3.5. Shadowgraph visualization reveals that depending on the nozzle pressure ratio and the area ratio, steady symmetric, unsteady symmetric and steady asymmetric separations can occur. These sepa...
Interaction of high Mach-number shocks in laser-produced plasmas
We report the laboratory experiment for high Mach-number collisionless shock formation and for studying the interaction of them. These shocks are formed in high-velocity counterstreaming plasmas produced by ablating a double-foil plastic target with a high-power laser. The laser-produced plasmas are diagnosed with space and time-resolved optical pyrometry and shadowgraphy. Multiple shocks are formed and interact with each other, resulting in the increase of plasma temperature and density. (authors)
On the motion of non-spherical particles at high Reynolds number
Mandø, Matthias; Rosendahl, Lasse
2010-01-01
This paper contains a critical review of available methodology for dealing with the motion of non-spherical particles at higher Reynolds numbers in the Eulerian- Lagrangian methodology for dispersed flow. First, an account of the various attempts to classify the various shapes and the efforts...... motion it is necessary to account for the non-coincidence between the center of pressure and center of gravity which is a direct consequence of the inertial pressure forces associated with particles at high Reynolds number flow. Extensions for non-spherical particles at higher Reynolds numbers are far in...
Anomalous 90Sr deposition during the fall, 1995 at MRI, Tsukuba, Japan
An anomalous 90Sr deposition was observed at the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Tsukuba, Japan during the fall of 1995. This anomalous 90Sr deposition was confirmed by the re-analysis of the sample, the associated lowest 137Cs/90Sr activity ratio and high r/s ratio, etc. We discuss the cause of this anomalous 90Sr deposition and conclude that the anomalous 90Sr may come from an accidental release of nuclear battery, etc. (author)
Discrete fields and the Pioneer anomalous acceleration
De Souza, M M
2001-01-01
The dominant contributions from a discrete gravitational interaction produce the standard potential as an effective continuous field. The sub-dominant contributions are, in a first approximation, linear on n, the accumulated number of (discrete) interaction events along the test-body trajectory. For a nearly radial trajectory n is proportional to the traversed distance and its effects may have been observed as the Pioneer anomalous constant radial acceleration, which cannot be observed on the nearly circular planetary orbits.
Quadruplex MAPH: improvement of throughput in high-resolution copy number screening
Walker Susan
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Copy number variation (CNV in the human genome is recognised as a widespread and important source of human genetic variation. Now the challenge is to screen for these CNVs at high resolution in a reliable, accurate and cost-effective way. Results Multiplex Amplifiable Probe Hybridisation (MAPH is a sensitive, high-resolution technology appropriate for screening for CNVs in a defined region, for a targeted population. We have developed MAPH to a highly multiplexed format ("QuadMAPH" that allows the user a four-fold increase in the number of loci tested simultaneously. We have used this method to analyse a genomic region of 210 kb, including the MSH2 gene and 120 kb of flanking DNA. We show that the QuadMAPH probes report copy number with equivalent accuracy to simplex MAPH, reliably demonstrating diploid copy number in control samples and accurately detecting deletions in Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC samples. Conclusion QuadMAPH is an accurate, high-resolution method that allows targeted screening of large numbers of subjects without the expense of genome-wide approaches. Whilst we have applied this technique to a region of the human genome, it is equally applicable to the genomes of other organisms.
Active Control of Flow Separation on a High-Lift System with Slotted Flap at High Reynolds Number
Khodadoust, Abdollah; Washburn, Anthony
2007-01-01
The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) airfoil was tested at NASA Langley's Low- Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT) to assess the effectiveness of distributed Active Flow Control (AFC) concepts on a high-lift system at flight scale Reynolds numbers for a medium-sized transport. The test results indicate presence of strong Reynolds number effects on the high-lift system with the AFC operational, implying the importance of flight-scale testing for implementation of such systems during design of future flight vehicles with AFC. This paper describes the wind tunnel test results obtained at the LTPT for the EET high-lift system for various AFC concepts examined on this airfoil.
STIS MAMA Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown
Wheeler, Thomas
2013-10-01
This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the STIS FUV MAMA or NUV MAMA detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flags are used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage.The recovery procedure consists of three separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, intermediate voltage high voltage ramp-up, and 3} ramp-up to full operating voltage followed by a fold analysis test {See STIS ISR 98-02R}. Each must be successfully completed before proceeding onto the next. This proposal executes the same steps as Cycle 20 proposal 13150.
Flooding-limited thermal mixing: The case of high-froude number injection
The stratification in the cold leg due to high pressure injection in a stagnated loop of a PWR is considered. The working hypothesis is that at high injection Froude numbers the extent of mixing approaches a limit controlled only by the flooding condition at the cold leg exit. The available experimental data support this hypothesis. Predictions for reactor conditions indicate a stratification of about --400C. As a consequence, the downcomer plume would be rather weak (low Froude Number) and is expected to decay quickly
The spectrum of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-01-01
The equations of anomalous magnetohydrodynamics describe an Abelian plasma where conduction and chiral currents are simultaneously present and constrained by the second law of thermodynamics. At high frequencies the magnetic currents play the leading role and the spectrum is dominated by two-fluid effects. The system behaves instead as a single fluid in the low-frequency regime where the vortical currents induce potentially large hypermagnetic fields. After deriving the physical solutions of the generalized Appleton-Hartree equation, the corresponding dispersion relations are scrutinized and compared with the results valid for cold plasmas. Hypermagnetic knots and fluid vortices can be concurrently present at very low frequencies and suggest a qualitatively different dynamics of the hydromagnetic nonlinearities.
Large anomalous Nernst effect in a skyrmion crystal
Mizuta, Yo Pierre; Ishii, Fumiyuki
2016-06-01
Thermoelectric properties of a model skyrmion crystal were theoretically investigated, and it was found that its large anomalous Hall conductivity, corresponding to large Chern numbers induced by its peculiar spin structure leads to a large transverse thermoelectric voltage through the anomalous Nernst effect. This implies the possibility of finding good thermoelectric materials among skyrmion systems, and thus motivates our quests for them by means of the first-principles calculations as were employed in this study.
A Study of Hypersonic Compression-Corner Flow at High Reynolds Numbers
Vetlutsky, V. N.; Ganimedov, V. L.
2002-07-01
To numerically solve the problem for the ramp flow at high Reynolds number, it is justified to use the classical Prandtl model and to part the flow into an inviscid region and a thin boundary layer. This model is based on a rigorous asymptotic theory and describes the flow the more accurately, the higher the Reynolds number is. Since a flow separation in a compression corner may occur, the present work deals with unsteady boundary-layer equations. The approximation error in discretization of boundary-layer equations is always smaller than the value of viscid terms since the Reynolds number can be eliminated from the equations by a suitable substitution of variables. Besides, the requirement for the sufficient number of points in the cross-flow direction can be fulfilled in the case of middle-class computers since the solution is being built in a narrow near-wall region.
DNS of turbulent heat transfer under a uniform magnetic field at high Reynolds number
In recent developments in nuclear fusion research, certain design concepts for liquid breeder blankets for nuclear fusion reactors use molten salts, such as FLiBe, as coolant material. The mean velocity of liquid coolant material in a reactor is strongly influenced by magnetic field, and hence it is important to study the turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow behavior for an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the main flow. Furthermore, because the flow characteristics of coolant at high Reynolds number are assumed to be different from the usual turbulent MHD flow, it is important to investigate the flow under a magnetic field where the Reynolds number is high. A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent heat transfer with high Reynolds number has been carried out to show the effects of magnetic field. In this study, the Reynolds number for channel flow based on bulk velocity, viscosity, and channel width was set to be constant; Reb=45818. A uniform magnetic field was applied in the direction of the wall normal. The values of Hartmann number Ha were 32.5 and 65. A constant temperature was applied to the wall as a thermal boundary condition. Prandtl number of the working fluid was assumed to be 0.06. The number of computational grids used in this study was 1024 x 1024 x 768 in the x-, y- and z- directions, respectively. The turbulent quantities such as the mean flow, mean temperature, turbulent stress, and turbulent statistics were obtained by DNS. Moreover, the large-scale turbulent structure about temperature field will be presented at final paper. (orig.)
ITER-W monoblocks under high pulse number transient heat loads at high temperature
Loewenhoff, Th., E-mail: T.Loewenhoff@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Linke, J., E-mail: J.Linke@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Pintsuk, G., E-mail: G.Pintsuk@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Pitts, R.A., E-mail: Richard.Pitts@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Riccardi, B., E-mail: Bruno.Riccardi@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy Joint Undertaking, Josep Pla No. 2 – T B3 7/01, Barcelona 08019 (Spain)
2015-08-15
In the context of using a full-tungsten (W) divertor for ITER, thermal shock resistance has become even more important as an issue that may potentially influence the long term performance. To address this issue a unique series of experiments has been performed on ITER-W monoblock mock ups in three EU high heat flux facilities: GLADIS (neutral beam), JUDITH 2 (electron beam) and Magnum-PSI (plasma beam). This paper discusses the JUDITH 2 experiments. Two different base temperatures, 1200 °C and 1500 °C, were chosen superimposed by ∼18,000/100,000 transient events (Δt = 0.48 ms) of 0.2 and 0.6 GW/m{sup 2}. Results showed a stronger surface deterioration at higher base temperature, quantified by an increase in roughening. This is intensified if the same test is done after preloading (exposure to high temperature without transients), especially at higher base temperature when the material recrystallizes.
Wind Tunnel Tests of Wind Turbine Airfoils at High Reynolds Numbers
Wind tunnel tests have been performed to measure the two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of two different airfoil families at high Reynolds numbers (from 3 to 12 millions) in the DNW High Pressure Wind Tunnel in Gottingen (HDG), Germany. Also, tests at a Reynolds number of 3 millions have been performed in the Low-Speed Low- Turbulence Wind Tunnel of Delft University, The Netherlands. The airfoils tested belong to two wind turbine dedicated families: the TU-Delft DU family and the ACCIONA Windpower AWA family that was designed in collaboration with CENER. Reynolds number effects on airfoil performance have been obtained in the range of 3 to 12 millions. The availability of data from two different wind tunnels has brought the opportunity to cross compare the results from the two facilities
Unsteady Numerical Simulation of Flow around 2-D Circular Cylinder for High Reynolds Numbers
Yanhui Ai; Dakui Feng; Hengkui Ye; Lin Li
2013-01-01
In this paper,2-D computational analyses were conducted for unsteady high Reynolds number flows around a smooth circular cylinder in the supercritical and upper-transition flow regimes,i.e.8.21×104＜Re＜l.54×106.The calculations were performed by means of solving the 2-D Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations with a k-ε turbulence model.The calculated results,produced flow structure drag and lift coefficients,as well as Strouhal numbers.The findings were in good agreement with previous published data,which also supplied us with a good understanding of the flow across cylinders of different high Reynolds numbers.Meanwhile,an effective measure was presented to control the lift force on a cylinder,which points the way to decrease the vortex induced vibration of marine structure in future.
Technical performance of vegetable oil methyl esters with a high iodine number
Prankl, H.; Woergetter, M.; Rathbauer, J. [Federal Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Wieselburg (Austria)
1999-07-01
The Federal Institute of Agricultural Engineering in Austria has been gaining more experience about the technical performance of biodiesel with a high iodine number. Long-term bench tests evaluated rape seed oil methyl ester, sunflower oil methyl ester and camelina oil methyl ester with an iodine number of 107 to 150. The oil viscosity was observed and the engine parts were inspected after each run. To demonstrate the suitability of a methyl ester with a high iodine number, a fleet of nine vehicles and one stationary engine was tested for one to three engine oil drain intervals. Camelina oil methyl ester, with a content of 37% linolenic acid (C18:3), was used. No unusual deposits were observed after dismantling the engines. (author)
Dynamics of high Weber number drops impacting on hydrophobic surfaces with closed micro-cells.
Zhang, Rui; Hao, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiwen; He, Feng
2016-06-29
The impact dynamics and bouncing performance of high Weber number drops on hydrophobic surfaces with open and closed micro-cells are investigated. Central wetted rings are observed on both closed-cell and open-cell surfaces under high Weber number collisions, which are proposed to constitute the key element affecting the bouncing behaviour. It is found that the drops rebound on closed-cell surfaces where the central area is in the "hybrid wetting state" at high Weber numbers, while the drops adhere to the open-cell surfaces where the central region is in the Wenzel state. A theoretical model is developed to explain this interesting phenomenon, in which the liquid cannot reach the bottom of the closed-cell hydrophobic surfaces since the air stored in micro-cavities prevents the sliding motion of the liquid film and functions as a "gas spring" lifting the liquid lamella. This indicates that the hydrophobic surface with simple micro cavities can maintain the water-repellent characteristics under drop impacts at high Weber numbers. These findings are expected to be crucial to a fundamental understanding of the rapid collisions between drops and micro-structured surfaces, as well as a valuable strategy to guide the fabrication of novel super water-repellant and anti-icing surfaces. PMID:27306824
Application of Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems to Ultra-High Reynolds Number Facilities
Britcher, Colin P.
1996-01-01
The current status of wind tunnel magnetic suspension and balance system development is briefly reviewed. Technical work currently underway at NASA Langley Research Center is detailed, where it relates to the ultra-high Reynolds number application. The application itself is addressed, concluded to be quite feasible, and broad design recommendations given.
Xu, X Q; Dudson, B; Snyder, P B; Umansky, M V; Wilson, H
2010-10-22
A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, E×B drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the new BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Nonlinear simulations of P-B modes demonstrate that the P-B modes trigger magnetic reconnection, which leads to the pedestal collapse. With the addition of a model of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from simulations using a realistic high-Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the edge localized mode (ELM) size is about 5%-10% of the pedestal stored energy. This is consistent with many observations of large ELMs. PMID:21231055
A minimum set of equations based on the peeling-ballooning (P-B) model with nonideal physics effects (diamagnetic drift, ExB drift, resistivity, and anomalous electron viscosity) is found to simulate pedestal collapse when using the new BOUT++ simulation code, developed in part from the original fluid edge code BOUT. Nonlinear simulations of P-B modes demonstrate that the P-B modes trigger magnetic reconnection, which leads to the pedestal collapse. With the addition of a model of the anomalous electron viscosity under the assumption that the electron viscosity is comparable to the anomalous electron thermal diffusivity, it is found from simulations using a realistic high-Lundquist number that the pedestal collapse is limited to the edge region and the edge localized mode (ELM) size is about 5%-10% of the pedestal stored energy. This is consistent with many observations of large ELMs.
Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart
2007-01-01
Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...
Heat transfer enhancement in sphere-packed pipes under high Reynolds number conditions
In recent design of LHD-type helical reactor FFHR, the first wall is expected to be exposed to the high heat load of almost 1.0 MW/m2, which is removed by high temperature molten salt Flibe flow. The Flibe is a mixture of LiF and BeF2 and has advantages in high heat capacity, reduction of MHD-pressure drop due to its low electric conductivity. The Flibe blanket system, however, needs heat transfer enhancement under high heat flux since the Flibe is categorized as a high Prandtl number fluid. A Sphere-Packed Pipe (SPP) has been proposed as one of heat transfer enhancement techniques for the high Prandtl number fluid. The matrix of SPP is composed of a number of spheres. The fluid is mixed in the process of passing through the complicated flow channels, which leads to high heat transfer performance. In addition, heat conduction between each sphere and a heating wall contributes to the enhancement of heat transport to the center of pipe, which is called fin-effect. However, the complicated structure causes relatively large pressure drop, which means it necessary to exactly solve the trade-off between the heat transfer enhancement and pumping-power increase in order to optimize the design. Although several papers have been published relating to forced-convection heat transfer in SPPs, most of the studies have been performed under low Reynolds number regimes. In this study, therefore, the pressure drop and the heat transfer characteristics of the SPP flow are evaluated under high Reynolds number for different diameter ratios of the pipe to the sphere. A test section is made of a stainless pipe with the diameter of 56 mm and acrylic spheres. The diameters of packed spheres are 18.5 mm, 25.0 mm, 27.6 mm and 42.7 mm, respectively. Water is employed as a working fluid. The pipe wall of 600 mm length is uniformly heated by Joule heating. Experimental results show that the pressure drop in the SPP flows approximately corresponds to the values between Ergun's correlation and
The 2-micron plasmid as a nonselectable, stable, high copy number yeast vector
Ludwig, D. L.; Bruschi, C. V.
1991-01-01
The endogenous 2-microns plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively for the construction of yeast cloning and expression plasmids because it is a native yeast plasmid that is able to be maintained stably in cells at high copy number. Almost invariably, these plasmid constructs, containing some or all 2-microns sequences, exhibit copy number levels lower than 2-microns and are maintained stably only under selective conditions. We were interested in determining if there was a means by which 2-microns could be utilized for vector construction, without forfeiting either copy number or nonselective stability. We identified sites in the 2-microns plasmid that could be used for the insertion of genetic sequences without disrupting 2-microns coding elements and then assessed subsequent plasmid constructs for stability and copy number in vivo. We demonstrate the utility of a previously described 2-microns recombination chimera, pBH-2L, for the manipulation and transformation of 2-microns as a pure yeast plasmid vector. We show that the HpaI site near the STB element in the 2-microns plasmid can be utilized to clone yeast DNA of at least 3.9 kb with no loss of plasmid stability. Additionally, the copy number of these constructs is as high as levels reported for the endogenous 2-microns.
Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρe conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρe over a wide ρe range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU–ρe conversion process. Methods: The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU–ρe conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1–40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. Results: The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,ρecal, for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of ρecal/ρe − 1 is assumed to be within ±2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU–ρe conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU–ρe linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Conclusions: Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU–ρe conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x-ray energies owing to beam-hardening effects arising from the mismatch between the
Saito, Masatoshi, E-mail: masaito@clg.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Tsukihara, Masayoshi [Division of Radiological Technology, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan)
2014-07-15
Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion process. Methods: The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1–40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. Results: The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,ρ{sub e}{sup cal}, for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of ρ{sub e}{sup cal}/ρ{sub e} − 1 is assumed to be within ±2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Conclusions: Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x
Hybrid RANS/LES method for high Reynolds numbers, applied to atmospheric flow over complex terrain
Bechmann, Andreas; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, Jeppe;
2007-01-01
flows at high Reynolds numbers. To reduce the computational cost of traditional LES a hybrid method is proposed in which the near-wall eddies are modelled in a Reynolds-averaged sense. Close to walls the flow is treated with the RANS-equations and this layer act as wall model for the outer flow handled...... by LES. The wellknown high Reynolds number two-equation k - ǫ turbulence model is used in the RANS layer and the model automatically switches to a two-equation k - ǫ subgrid-scale stress model in the LES region. The approach can be used for flow over rough walls. To demonstrate the ability of the...... proposed hybrid method, simulations of the wind flow over a complex terrain near Wellington in New Zealand are presented. Under certain conditions unsteady flow features have been measured at the site - flow features that could lead to high structural loads on a planned wind farm. These transient flow...
Design and Predictions for High-Altitude (Low Reynolds Number) Aerodynamic Flight Experiment
Greer, Donald; Harmory, Phil; Krake, Keith; Drela, Mark
2000-01-01
A sailplane being developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center will support a high-altitude flight experiment. The experiment will measure the performance parameters or an airfoil at high altitudes (70,000 - 100,000 ft), low Reynolds numbers (2 x 10(exp 5) - 7 x 10(exp 5)), and high subsonic Mach numbers (0.5 and 0.65). The airfoil section lift and drag are determined from pilot and static pressure measurements. The locations of the separation bubble, Tollmien-Schlichting boundary-layer instability frequencies, and vortex shedding are measured from a hot-film strip. The details of the planned flight experiment are presented as well as several predictions of the airfoil performance.
High-order lattice Boltzmann models for wall-bounded flows at finite Knudsen numbers
Feuchter, C
2015-01-01
We analyze a large number of high-order discrete velocity models for solving the Boltzmann-BGK equation for finite Knudsen number flows. Using the Chapman-Enskog formalism, we prove for isothermal flows a relation identifying the resolved flow regimes for low Mach numbers. Although high-order lattice Boltzmann models recover flow regimes beyond the Navier-Stokes level we observe for several models significant deviations from reference results. We found this to be caused by their inability to recover the Maxwell boundary condition exactly. By using supplementary conditions for the gas-surface interaction it is shown how to systematically generate discrete velocity models of any order with the inherent ability to fulfill the diffuse Maxwell boundary condition accurately. Both high-order quadratures and an exact representation of the boundary condition turn out to be crucial for achieving reliable results. For Poiseuille flow, we can reproduce the mass flow and slip velocity up to the Knudsen number of 1. Moreov...
Porcine oocyte mtDNA copy number is high or low depending on the donor.
Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Callesen, Henrik
2016-08-01
Oocyte capacity is relevant in understanding decreasing female fertility and in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in human and farm animals. Mitochondria are important to the development of a functionally good oocyte and the oocyte mtDNA copy number has been introduced as a useful parameter for prediction of oocyte competence. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) if the oocyte donor has an influence on its oocyte's mtDNA copy number; and (ii) the relation between oocyte size and mtDNA copy number using pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from individual donor pigs. The oocytes were allocated into different size-groups, snap-frozen and single-oocyte mtDNA copy number was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR using the genes ND1 and COX1. Results showed that mean mtDNA copy number in oocytes from any individual donor could be categorized as either 'high' (≥100,000) or 'low' (difference in threshold between pre- and postpubertal oocytes. No linear correlation was detected between oocyte size and mtDNA copy number within pre- and postpubertal oocytes. This study demonstrates the importance of the oocyte donor in relation to oocyte mtDNA copy number, irrespectively of the donor's puberty status and the oocyte's growth stage. Observations from this study facilitate both further investigations of the importance of mtDNA copy number and the unravelling of relations between different mitochondrial parameters and oocyte competence. PMID:26679989
Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2015-01-01
A new streamfunction/log-conformation formulation of incompressible viscoelastic flows is presented. The log-conformation representation guaranties the positive-definiteness of the conformation tensor and obviates the high Weissenberg number problem. The streamfunction is defined as a vector...... the robustness and the efficiency of the solver. The two-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid inside the lid-driven cavity is simulated for a large range of Weissenberg numbers. The numerical results demonstrate the second-order accuracy of our scheme, and our solutions are in good agreement with...
Significance of the Formal Quantum Number in the Highly Excited Vibration of the DCN Molecule
郑敦胜; 吴国祯
2002-01-01
For the eigenstates of the highly excited vibration of the simple molecule DCN with two stretching modes, a classical approach in a multi-dimensional coset phase space is employed to show that the formal quantum numbers are related to regular or 1east "irregular" trajectories, with zero or least Lyapunov exponents, and are always located in the inner regions of the phase space. This property reflects that they are the approximate constants of motion. It is also demonstrated that formal quantum numbers correspond to the significant phase space density.
Anomalous interactions at a linear collider
Sudhansu S Biswal; Debajyoti Choudhury; Rohini M Godbole; Ritesh K Singh
2007-11-01
We examine, in a model independent way, the sensitivity of a linear collider to the couplings of a light Higgs boson to a pair of gauge bosons, including the possibility of CP violation. We construct several observables that probe the various possible anomalous couplings. For an intermediate mass Higgs, a collider operating at a center of mass energy of 500 GeV and with an integrated luminosity of 500 fb-1 is shown to be able to constrain the vertex at the few per cent level, with even higher sensitivity for some of the couplings. However, lack of sufficient number of observables as well as contamination from the vertex limits the precision to which anomalous part of the coupling can be probed.
The small-scale dynamo: breaking universality at high Mach numbers
The small-scale dynamo plays a substantial role in magnetizing the Universe under a large range of conditions, including subsonic turbulence at low Mach numbers, highly supersonic turbulence at high Mach numbers and a large range of magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, i.e. the ratio of kinetic viscosity to magnetic resistivity. Low Mach numbers may, in particular, lead to the well-known, incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence, while for high Mach numbers, we are in the highly compressible regime, thus close to Burgers turbulence. In this paper, we explore whether in this large range of conditions, universal behavior can be expected. Our starting point is previous investigations in the kinematic regime. Here, analytic studies based on the Kazantsev model have shown that the behavior of the dynamo depends significantly on Pm and the type of turbulence, and numerical simulations indicate a strong dependence of the growth rate on the Mach number of the flow. Once the magnetic field saturates on the current amplification scale, backreactions occur and the growth is shifted to the next-larger scale. We employ a Fokker–Planck model to calculate the magnetic field amplification during the nonlinear regime, and find a resulting power-law growth that depends on the type of turbulence invoked. For Kolmogorov turbulence, we confirm previous results suggesting a linear growth of magnetic energy. For more general turbulent spectra, where the turbulent velocity scales with the characteristic length scale as uℓ∝ℓϑ, we find that the magnetic energy grows as (t/Ted)2ϑ/(1−ϑ), with t being the time coordinate and Ted the eddy-turnover time on the forcing scale of turbulence. For Burgers turbulence, ϑ = 1/2, quadratic rather than linear growth may thus be expected, as the spectral energy increases from smaller to larger scales more rapidly. The quadratic growth is due to the initially smaller growth rates obtained for Burgers turbulence. Similarly, we show that the characteristic
Turbulent convection experiment at high Rayleigh number to support CAP1400 IVR strategy
Highlights: • The facility reached high Ra number at 1012 of CAP1400 working condition. • The fitting formula Nu = 0.085 × Ra0.315 was established to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer at high Ra for the CAP1400. • The coupling method can accurately and safely predict the heat flow distribution of metal layer in high Ra number conditions. • The experiment results will predict the relationship between axial and radial heat transfer well. - Abstract: The characteristics of the heat transfer and the calculation of heat flux in metal layer are both the critical problems for in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy. Turbulent convection occurs in the metal layer when the Rayleigh number (Ra) becomes sufficient high. The Globe–Dropkin (G–D) correlation (Globe and Dropkin, 1959) and Chu–Churchill (C–C) correlation (Churchill and Chu, 1975) have been widely used to calculate the heat flux in the metal layer, where the valid range of the Ra is from 1.5 × 105 to 6.8 × 108 in G–D correlation and less than 1012 in C–C correlation. However, with the increase of reactor power, both the Rayleigh number and the rate of heat transfer below the bottom of metal layer of the molten pool will increase, and in this case the Rayleigh number even can reach 1011 for the China Advanced Passive Plant CAP1400. Accordingly, the G–D correlation is not suitable for the CAP1400. Therefore, our experiment purposes are to establish the appropriate correlation at high Ra for the CAP1400 and predict the axial and radial distribution of the heat transfer in the metal layer with the heat transfer behavior of metal layer experiment (HELM) facility. The experiments are divided into two parts. Each part concerns 39 runs and 47 experimental conditions. Its corresponding results are obtained at middle Prandtl number (Pr = 7 for water) and the Nusselt number is found to be proportional to Ra0.315 in the range 3.93 × 108 < Ra < 3.57 × 1012. Furthermore, the experiment results can
High quantum-efficiency photon-number-resolving detector for photonic on-chip information processing
Calkins, Brice; Lita, Adriana E; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Kolthammer, W Steven; Linares, Antia Lamas; Spring, Justin B; Humphreys, Peter C; Mirin, Richard P; Gates, James C; Smith, Peter G R; Walmsley, Ian A; Gerrits, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo
2013-01-01
The integrated optical circuit is a promising architecture for the realization of complex quantum optical states and information networks. One element that is required for many of these applications is a high-efficiency photon detector capable of photon-number discrimination. We present an integrated photonic system in the telecom band at 1550 nm based on UV-written silica-on-silicon waveguides and modified transition-edge sensors capable of number resolution and over 40% efficiency. Exploiting the mode transmission failure of these devices, we multiplex three detectors in series to demonstrate a combined 79% +/- 2% detection efficiency with a single pass, and 88% +/- 3% at the operating wavelength of an on-chip terminal reflection grating. Furthermore, our optical measurements clearly demonstrate no significant unexplained loss in this system due to scattering or reflections. This waveguide and detector design therefore allows the placement of number-resolving single-photon detectors of predictable efficienc...
Actual flow calibration of a feedwater flowmeter using a high Reynolds number facility at NMIJ
The results of calibration tests of the feedwater flowrate of ultrasonic flowmeters used in a nuclear power plant for variety of upstream conditions obtained using the new high Reynolds number calibration facility at NMIJ are described. In this examination, the measurements are performed for five pattern pipe layouts with one or two elbows. The flow conditioners installed upstream of the flowmeter are the tube bundle type and the Mitsubishi, which are normally used in nuclear power plants. The calibration result for each flowmeter are largely different for each flow conditioner and each upstream pipe layout, except in some special cases. Moreover, the trend of the correction factor with Reynolds number is not uniform for each case. Furthermore, some differences were observed for individual flowmeters. It is recommended that the feedwater flowmeter, especially when used to perform measurement uncertainty recapture, is calibrated based on the actual pipe layout and the Reynolds number corresponding to the actual nuclear power plant conditions.
Actual flow calibration of a feedwater flowmeter using a high Reynolds number facility at NMIJ
Furuichi, Noriyuki [Fluid Flow Division, National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba Central 3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, 305-8563 (Japan)], E-mail: furuichi.noriyuki@aist.go.jp; Terao, Yoshiya [Fluid Flow Division, National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba Central 3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, 305-8563 (Japan)], E-mail: yterao@ni.aist.go.jp; Takamoto, Masaki [Fluid Flow Division, National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST, Tsukuba Central 3, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, 305-8563 (Japan)], E-mail: m.takamoto@nifty.ne.jp
2009-07-15
The results of calibration tests of the feedwater flowrate of ultrasonic flowmeters used in a nuclear power plant for variety of upstream conditions obtained using the new high Reynolds number calibration facility at NMIJ are described. In this examination, the measurements are performed for five pattern pipe layouts with one or two elbows. The flow conditioners installed upstream of the flowmeter are the tube bundle type and the Mitsubishi, which are normally used in nuclear power plants. The calibration result for each flowmeter are largely different for each flow conditioner and each upstream pipe layout, except in some special cases. Moreover, the trend of the correction factor with Reynolds number is not uniform for each case. Furthermore, some differences were observed for individual flowmeters. It is recommended that the feedwater flowmeter, especially when used to perform measurement uncertainty recapture, is calibrated based on the actual pipe layout and the Reynolds number corresponding to the actual nuclear power plant conditions.
Measurements of Molecular Mixing in a High Schmidt Number Rayleigh-Taylor Mixing Layer
Mueschke, N J; Schilling, O; Youngs, D L; Andrews, M
2007-12-03
Molecular mixing measurements are performed for a high Schmidt number (Sc {approx} 10{sup 3}), small Atwood number (A {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup -4}) buoyancy-driven turbulent Rayleigh-Taylor mixing layer in a water channel facility. Salt was added to the top stream to create the desired density difference. The degree of molecular mixing was measured as a function of time by monitoring a diffusion-limited chemical reaction between the two fluid streams. The pH of each stream was modified by the addition of acid or alkali such that a local neutralization reaction occurred as the two fluids molecularly mixed. The progress of this neutralization reaction was tracked by the addition of phenolphthalein - a pH-sensitive chemical indicator - to the acidic stream. Accurately calibrated backlit optical techniques were used to measure the average concentration of the colored chemical indicator. Comparisons of chemical product formation for pre-transitional buoyancy- and shear-driven mixing layers are given. It is also shown that experiments performed at different equivalence ratios (acid/alkali concentration) can be combined to obtain a mathematical relationship between the colored product formed and the density variance. This relationship was used to obtain high-fidelity, quantitative measures of the degree of molecular mixing which are independent of probe resolution constraints. The dependence of such mixing parameters on the Schmidt and Reynolds numbers is examined by comparing the current Sc {approx} 10{sup 3} measurements with Sc = 0.7 gas-phase and Pr = 7 liquid-phase measurements. This comparison indicates that the Schmidt number has a large effect on the bulk quantity of mixed fluid at small Reynolds numbers Re{sub h} < 10{sup 3}. At late times, all mixing parameters indicated a greater degree of molecular mixing and a decreased Schmidt number dependence. Implications for the development and quantitative assessment of turbulent transport and mixing models appropriate for
DNS of passive scalar transport in turbulent channel flow at high Schmidt numbers
We perform DNS of passive scalar transport in low Reynolds number turbulent channel flow at Schmidt numbers up to Sc = 49. The high resolutions required to resolve the scalar concentration fields at such Schmidt numbers are achieved by a hierarchical algorithm in which only the scalar fields are solved on the grid dictated by the Batchelor scale. The velocity fields are solved on coarser grids and prolonged by a conservative interpolation to the fine-grid. The trends observed so far at lower Schmidt numbers Sc ≤ 10 are confirmed, i.e. the mean scalar gradient steepens at the wall with increasing Schmidt number, the peaks of turbulent quantities increase and move towards the wall. The instantaneous scalar fields show a dramatic change. Observable structures get longer and thinner which is connected with the occurrence of steeper gradients, but the wall concentrations penetrate less deeply into the plateau in the core of the channel. Our data shows that the thickness of the conductive sublayer, as defined by the intersection point of the linear with the logarithmic asymptote scales with Sc-0.29. With this information it is possible to derive an expression for the dimensionless transfer coefficient K+ which is only dependent on Sc and Reτ. This expression is in full accordance to previous results which demonstrates that the thickness of the conductive sublayer is the dominating quantity for the mean scalar profile
On the instabilities of supersonic mixing layers - A high-Mach-number asymptotic theory
Balsa, Thomas F.; Goldstein, M. E.
1990-01-01
The stability of a family of tanh mixing layers is studied at large Mach numbers using perturbation methods. It is found that the eigenfunction develops a multilayered structure, and the eigenvalue is obtained by solving a simplified version of the Rayleigh equation (with homogeneous boundary conditions) in one of these layers which lies in either of the external streams. This analysis leads to a simple hypersonic similarity law which explains how spatial and temporal phase speeds and growth rates scale with Mach number and temperature ratio. Comparisons are made with numerical results, and it is found that this similarity law provides a good qualitative guide for the behavior of the instability at high Mach numbers. In addition to this asymptotic theory, some fully numerical results are also presented (with no limitation on the Mach number) in order to explain the origin of the hypersonic modes (through mode splitting) and to discuss the role of oblique modes over a very wide range of Mach number and temperature ratio.
Rüdiger, G.; Schultz, M.; Kitchatinov, L. L.
2016-03-01
With applications to inner solar-type radiative zones, a linear theory is used to analyse the instability of a toroidal background field of dipolar parity, in the presence of density stratification, differential rotation and realistically small Prandtl numbers. The physical parameters are the Alfvén frequency ΩA, the global rotation rate Ω and the buoyancy frequency N with ΩA chemicals can be estimated as Re* = O(100) which indeed is necessary to dissipate the lithium in the solar tachocline with a time-scale of 1 Gyr. The calculated growth rates indicate a destabilization of the system for growing latitudinal shear except for small Mach numbers and antisolar shear. The ratio ε of the magnetic and the kinetic energy of the instability pattern only slightly depends on the shear but a strong dependence on the magnetic Mach number exists with ε ∝ Mm2. The effective magnetic Prandtl number reaches values O(103) so that for the stars with high magnetic Mach number the differential rotation decays much faster than the toroidal background field.
No-Drag Frame for Anomalous Chiral Fluid
Stephanov, Mikhail A.; Yee, Ho-Ung
2016-03-01
We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents can transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous nondissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and in the quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.
The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid
Stephanov, Mikhail A
2015-01-01
We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents do transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous non-dissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.
A third-order-accurate upwind scheme for Navier-Stokes solutions at high Reynolds numbers
Agarwal, R. K.
1981-01-01
A third-order-accurate upwind scheme is presented for solution of the steady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in stream-function/vorticity form. The scheme is found to be accurate and stable at high Reynolds numbers. A series of test computations is performed on flows with large recirculating regions. In particular, highly accurate solutions are obtained for flow in a driven square cavity up to Reynolds numbers of 10,000. These computations are used to critically evaluate the accuracy of other existing first- and second-order-accurate upwind schemes. In addition, computations are carried out for flow in a channel with symmetric sudden expansion, flow in a channel with a symmetrically placed blunt base, and the flowfield of an impinging jet. Good agreement is obtained with the computations of other investigators as well as with the available experimental data.
Heat transfer experiment for high Pr number fluids in sphere-packed rectangular channel
Molten salt, Flibe, is considered for be used for fusion blanket as coolant and tritium breeder. It has, however, poor heat transfer performance resulting from high Prandtl number, and therefore, its heat transfer enhancement is crucial to be qualified as one of the candidates. In this study, the sphere-packed rectangular channel (SPRC) was tested as a heat transfer promoter for high Pr fluid. Two kinds of packing structures were adopted, and their flow and heat transfer characteristics were experimentally investigated in detail. The results showed that the heat transfer performance of SPRC was higher than that of sphere-packed pipe (SPP) when Reynolds number was fixed, while they were almost the same in terms of pump power. (author)
Particle-based simulations of steady-state mass transport at high P\\'eclet numbers
Müller, Thomas; Rajah, Luke; Cohen, Samuel I A; Yates, Emma V; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chrisopher M; Knowles, Tuomas P J
2015-01-01
Conventional approaches for simulating steady-state distributions of particles under diffusive and advective transport at high P\\'eclet numbers involve solving the diffusion and advection equations in at least two dimensions. Here, we present an alternative computational strategy by combining a particle-based rather than a field-based approach with the initialisation of particles in proportion to their flux. This method allows accurate prediction of the steady state and is applicable even at high P\\'eclet numbers where traditional particle-based Monte-Carlo methods starting from randomly initialised particle distributions fail. We demonstrate that generating a flux of particles according to a predetermined density and velocity distribution at a single fixed time and initial location allows for accurate simulation of mass transport under flow. Specifically, upon initialisation in proportion to their flux, these particles are propagated individually and detected by summing up their Monte-Carlo trajectories in p...
Ullrich, A; Miletich, R; 10.1007/s00269-009-0300-8
2010-01-01
The high-pressure behavior of the lattice elasticity of spodumene, LiAlSi2O6, was studied by static compression in a diamond-anvil cell up to 9.3 GPa. Investigations by means of single-crystal XRD and Raman spectroscopy within the hydrostatic limits of the pressure medium focus on the pressure ranges around similar to 3.2 and similar to 7.7 GPa, which have been reported previously to comprise two independent structural phase transitions. While our measurements confirm the well-established first-order C2/c-P2(1)/c transformation at 3.19 GPa (with 1.2% volume discontinuity and a hysteresis between 0.02 and 0.06 GPa), both unit-cell dimensions and the spectral changes observed in high-pressure Raman spectra give no evidence for structural changes related to a second phase transition. Monoclinic lattice parameters and unit-cell volumes at in total 59 different pressure points have been used to re-calculate the lattice-related properties of spontaneous strain, volume strain, and the bulk moduli as a function of pr...
Dongfang Li
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Random number generators (RNG play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks.
Li, Dongfang; Lu, Zhaojun; Zou, Xuecheng; Liu, Zhenglin
2015-01-01
Random number generators (RNG) play an important role in many sensor network systems and applications, such as those requiring secure and robust communications. In this paper, we develop a high-security and high-throughput hardware true random number generator, called PUFKEY, which consists of two kinds of physical unclonable function (PUF) elements. Combined with a conditioning algorithm, true random seeds are extracted from the noise on the start-up pattern of SRAM memories. These true random seeds contain full entropy. Then, the true random seeds are used as the input for a non-deterministic hardware RNG to generate a stream of true random bits with a throughput as high as 803 Mbps. The experimental results show that the bitstream generated by the proposed PUFKEY can pass all standard national institute of standards and technology (NIST) randomness tests and is resilient to a wide range of security attacks. PMID:26501283
Harrison, N.
2016-01-01
We bring resolution to the longstanding problem relating Fermi surface reconstruction to the number of holes contained within the Fermi surface volume in underdoped high Tc superconductors. On considering uniaxial and biaxial charge-density wave order, we show that there exists a relationship between the ordering wave vector, the hole doping and the cross-sectional area of the reconstructed Fermi surface whose precise form depends on the volume of the starting Fermi surface. We consider a `la...
High torque density permanent magnet brushless machines with similar slot and pole numbers
The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation into the electromagnetic performance of permanent magnet brushless machines having similar slot and pole numbers. Finite element analysis is employed to predict the airgap flux density distribution, the cogging torque and emf waveforms, and the winding inductances. It is shown that such machines exhibit a high torque density and is conducive to fault tolerance. The results are validated on two experimental motors
Some new developments in the field of high atomic number semiconductor materials
A presentation of the main properties of high atomic number materials able to work as room temperature dectectors is made, including present status of synthesis. We summarize some applications in nuclear medical probe, tomography scanners, dosimetry and instrumentation. Mainly focused on CdTe and Hg I2 in monocrystal form the presentation will include some industrial applications. Hg I2 is also presented as a photodetector associated with scintillators
Code validation for the magnetohydrodynamic flow at high Hartmann Number based on unstructured grid
Highlights: • In this paper, a numerical code named MTC-H 2.0 based on unstructured mash was developed and validated. • In the code, a current density conservative scheme is used to ensure the conservative of current, Krylov subspace method and AMG method were used to improve the computing performance. • Both analytical and experimental cases were chosen to validate the code at high Hartmann number. • The code has good computing performance, and numerical results matched well with the analytical and experimental results. -- Abstract: In order to analyze the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect in liquid metal fusion blanket, a parallel and high performance numerical code was developed to study MHD flows at high Hartmann Number based on the unstructured grid. In this code, the induced current and the Lorentz force were calculated with a current density conservative scheme, while the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations with the Lorentz force included as a source term was solved by projection method, a set of method were used to improve the computing performance such as Krylov subspace method and AMG method. To validate this code, three benchmarks of MHD flow at high Hartmann Number were conducted. The first benchmark was the case of Shercliff fully development flow, the second benchmark was the MHD flow in a circular pipe with changing external magnetic field, and the third benchmark was the MHD flow in a pipe with sudden expansion. In these cases the Hartmann Numbers were from 1000 to 6000. The code good computing performance, and numerical results show matched well with the analytical and experimental results
Ruddle, RA; Fateen, W; Treanor, D; Quirke, P.; Sondergeld, P
2013-01-01
The scale of comparative genomics data frequently overwhelms current data visualization methods on conventional (desktop) displays. This paper describes two types of solution that take advantage of wall-sized high-resolution displays (WHirDs), which have orders of magnitude more display real estate (i.e., pixels) than desktop displays. The first allows users to view detailed graphics of copy number variation (CNV) that were output by existing software. A WHirD's resolution allowed a 10× incre...
The effect of high frequency sound on Culicoides numbers collected with suction light traps
Gert J. Venter; Karien Labuschagne; Solomon N.B. Boikanyo; Liesl Morey
2012-01-01
Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are involved in the transmission of various pathogens that cause important diseases of livestock worldwide. The use of insect repellents to reduce the attack rate of these insects on livestock could play an important role as part of an integrated control programme against diseases transmitted by these midges. The objective of this study was to determine whether high frequency sound has any repellent effect on Culicoides midges. The number of midge...
Gourdon, Mathias; Karlsson, Erik; Innings, Fredrik; Jongsma, Alfred; Vamling, Lennart
2016-02-01
In many industrial applications, falling film evaporation is an attractive technique for solvent removal due to high heat transfer and low residence times. Examples are the powder production in the dairy industry and in kraft pulp production process to remove water from so called black liquor. Common for both applications is that the fluids exhibit high viscosities in industrial practice. In this paper, results from experimental studies on both black liquor and a dairy product are reported for Prandtl numbers up to 800. The results are compared with several existing correlation in literature, and the need for a modified correlation is recognized especially to cover higher Prandtl-numbers. The following correlation for the turbulent flow region with 3 < Pr < 800 was derived from the data: {Nu}t = 0.0085 \\cdot Re^{0.2} \\cdot {Pr^{0.65}} The correlation has been compared to literature data from one additional study on two other fluids (propylene glycol and cyclohexanol) with fairly high Prandtl-numbers, from 40 to 58 and from 45 to 155 respectively and the agreement was within ±40 %.
Evaluation of Computational Method of High Reynolds Number Slurry Flow for Caverns Backfilling
Bettin, Giorgia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-05-01
The abandonment of salt caverns used for brining or product storage poses a significant environmental and economic risk. Risk mitigation can in part be address ed by the process of backfilling which can improve the cavern geomechanical stability and reduce the risk o f fluid loss to the environment. This study evaluate s a currently available computational tool , Barracuda, to simulate such process es as slurry flow at high Reynolds number with high particle loading . Using Barracuda software, a parametric sequence of simu lations evaluated slurry flow at Re ynolds number up to 15000 and loading up to 25%. Li mitations come into the long time required to run these simulation s due in particular to the mesh size requirement at the jet nozzle. This study has found that slurry - jet width and centerline velocities are functions of Re ynold s number and volume fractio n The solid phase was found to spread less than the water - phase with a spreading rate smaller than 1 , dependent on the volume fraction. Particle size distribution does seem to have a large influence on the jet flow development. This study constitutes a first step to understand the behavior of highly loaded slurries and their ultimate application to cavern backfilling.
Spatial patterning of the neonatal EEG suggests a need for a high number of electrodes
Odabaee, Maryam; Freeman, Walter J III; Colditz, Paul B.; Ramon, Ceon; Vanhatalo, Sampsa
2012-01-01
There is an increasing demand for source analysis of neonatal EEG, but currently there is inadequate knowl- edge about i) the spatial patterning of neonatal scalp EEG and hence ii) the number of electrodes needed to capture neonatal EEG in full spatial detail. This study addresses these issues by using a very high density (2.5 mm interelectrode spacing) linear electrode array to assess the spatial power spectrum, by using a high density (64 electrodes) EEG cap to assess the spatial extent of ...
High-Energy String Scattering Amplitudes and Signless Stirling Number Identity
Jen-Chi Lee
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We give a complete proof of a set of identities (7 proposed recently from calculation of high-energy string scattering amplitudes. These identities allow one to extract ratios among high-energy string scattering amplitudes in the fixed angle regime from high-energy amplitudes in the Regge regime. The proof is based on a signless Stirling number identity in combinatorial theory. The results are valid for arbitrary real values L rather than only for L=0,1 proved previously. The identities for non-integer real value L were recently shown to be realized in high-energy compactified string scattering amplitudes [He S., Lee J.C., Yang Y., arXiv:1012.3158]. The parameter L is related to the mass level of an excited string state and can take non-integer values for Kaluza-Klein modes.
Maija Wolf
2004-05-01
Full Text Available Identification of target genes for genetic rearrangements in prostate cancer and the impact of copy number changes on gene expression are currently not well understood. Here, we applied high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH on cDNA microarrays for analysis of prostate cancer cell lines. CGH microarrays identified most of the alterations detected by classical chromosomal CGH, as well as a number of previously unreported alterations. Specific recurrent regions of gain (28 and loss (18 were found, their boundaries defined with sub-megabasepair accuracy. The most common changes included copy number decreases at 13% and gains at iq and 5p. Refined mapping identified several sites, such as at 13q (33-44, 49-51, 74-76 Mbp from the p-telomere, which matched with minimal regions of loss seen in extensive loss of heterozygosity mapping studies of large numbers of tumors. Previously unreported recurrent changes were found at 2p, 2q, 3p, 17q (losses, at 3q, 5p, 6p (gains. Integration of genomic and transcriptomic data revealed the role of individual candidate target genes for genomic alterations as well as a highly significant (P < .0001 overall association between copy number levels and the percentage of differentially expressed genes. Across the genome, the overall impact of copy number on gene expression levels was, to a large extent, attributable to low-level gains and losses of copy number, corresponding to common deletions and gains of often large chromosomal regions.
LIFT FORCE ON ROTATING SPHERE AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS AND HIGH ROTATIONAL SPEEDS
由长福; 祁海鹰; 徐旭常
2003-01-01
The lift force on an isolated rotating sphere in a uniform flow was investigated by means of a three-dimensional numerical simulation for low Reynolds numbers (based on the sphere diameter) (Re ＜ 68.4) and high dimensionless rotational speeds (Γ＜ 5). The Navier-Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinate system were solved using a finite volume formulation based on SIMPLE procedure. The accuracy of the numerical simulation was tested through a comparison with available theoretical, numerical and experimental results at low Reynolds numbers, and it was found that they were in close agreement under the above mentioned ranges of the Reynolds number and rotational speed. From a detailed computation of the flow field around a rotational sphere in extended ranges of the Reynolds number and rotational speed, the results show that, with increasing the rotational speed or decreasing the Reynolds number, the lift coefficient increases. An empirical equation more accurate than those obtained by previous studies was obtained to describe both effects of the rotational speed and Reynolds number on the lift force on a sphere. It was found in calculations that the drag coefficient is not significantly affected by the rotation of the sphere. The ratio of the lift force to the drag force, both of which act on a sphere in a uniform flow at the same time, was investigated. For a small spherical particle such as one of about 100μm in diameter, even if the rotational speed reaches about 106 revolutions per minute, the lift force can be neglected as compared with the drag force.
Anomalous radiative transitions
Anomalous transitions involving photons derived by many-body interaction of the form ∂μGμ in the standard model are studied for the first time. This does not affect the equation of motion in the bulk, but modifies the wavefunctions, and causes an unusual transition characterized by a time-independent probability. In the transition probability at a time interval T expressed generally in the form P=TΓ0+P(d), now with P(d)≠0. The diffractive term P(d) has its origin in the overlap of waves of the initial and final states, and reveals the characteristics of waves. In particular, the processes of the neutrino–photon interaction ordinarily forbidden by the Landau–Yang theorem (Γ0=0) manifest themselves through the boundary interaction. The new term leads physical processes over a wide energy range to have finite probabilities. New methods of detecting neutrinos using lasers are proposed, based on this diffractive term; these would enhance the detectability of neutrinos by many orders of magnitude
High-Reynolds Number Circulation Control Testing in the National Transonic Facility
Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Chan, David T.; Goodliff, Scott L.
2012-01-01
A new capability to test active flow control concepts and propulsion simulations at high Reynolds numbers in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center is being developed. The first active flow control experiment was completed using the new FAST-MAC semi-span model to study Reynolds number scaling effects for several circulation control concepts. Testing was conducted over a wide range of Mach numbers, up to chord Reynolds numbers of 30 million. The model was equipped with four onboard flow control valves allowing independent control of the circulation control plenums, which were directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. Preliminary analysis of the uncorrected lift data showed that the circulation control increased the low-speed maximum lift coefficient by 33%. At transonic speeds, the circulation control was capable of positively altering the shockwave pattern on the upper wing surface and reducing flow separation. Furthermore, application of the technique to only the outboard portion of the wing demonstrated the feasibility of a pneumatic based roll control capability.
Stability of Isentropic Navier-Stokes Shocks in the High-Mach Number Limit
By a combination of asymptotic ODE estimates and numerical Evans function calculations, we establish stability of viscous shock solutions of the isentropic compressible Navier-Stokes equations with γ-law pressure (i) in the limit as Mach number M goes to infinity, for any γ ≥ 1 ( proved analytically), and (ii) for M ≥ 2500, γ is an element of [1, 2.5] or M ≥ 13000, γ is an element of [2.5, 3] (demonstrated numerically). This builds on and completes earlier studies by Matsumura-Nishihara and Barker-Humpherys Rudd- Zumbrun establishing stability for low and intermediate Mach numbers, respectively, indicating unconditional stability, independent of shock amplitude, of viscous shock waves for γ-law gas dynamics in the range γ is an element of [1, 3]. Other γ-values may be treated similarly, but have not been checked numerically. The main idea is to establish convergence of the Evans function in the high-Mach number limit to that of a pressureless, or 'infinitely compressible', gas with additional upstream boundary condition determined by a boundary-layer analysis. Recall that low-Mach number behavior is formally incompressible. (authors)
DNS of turbulent channel flow at high Reynolds number under a uniform magnetic field
A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow with high Reynolds number has been carried out to show the effects of magnetic field. In this study, the Reynolds number for channel flow based on bulk velocity ub, kinematic viscosity ν, and channel width 2δ was set to be constant; Reb=2δub/ν=45818. A uniform magnetic field was applied in the direction of the wall normal. The Hartmann number was Ha=2δB0√σ/ρν=32.5 and 65. Turbulent quantities such as the mean flow, turbulent stress, and the turbulent statistics were obtained by DNS. Although the influence of the magnetohydrodynamic dissipation terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget was small, large-scale turbulent structures, such as vertical structures, low-speed streaks, ejection, and sweep, disappear at the central region of the channel. Consequently, the difference between production and dissipation in the turbulent kinetic energy decreases with increasing Hartmann number at the central region and large-scale structures at this region disappear. (author)
High copy number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) predicts good prognosis in glioma patients.
Zhang, Yanfang; Qu, Yiping; Gao, Ke; Yang, Qi; Shi, Bingyin; Hou, Peng; Ji, Meiju
2015-01-01
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number have been widely identified in many types of human cancers and are considered a common cancer hallmark. However, the prognostic value of altered mtDNA content in gliomas remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate mtDNA copy number in a cohort of gliomas (n = 124) and non-neoplastic brain tissues (control subjects; n = 27) and to explore the association between variable mtDNA content and clinical outcomes in glioma patients. Using real-time quantitative PCR assay, we demonstrated that glioma patients had an increased mtDNA content as compared with control subjects. In addition, our data showed that increased mtDNA copy number was significantly negatively associated with tumor grade, recurrence and cancer-related death, whereas there was a significantly positively relationship between increased mtDNA content and seizures. More importantly, increased mtDNA content were closely relevant to longer survival in glioma patients. Taken together, our data provide the strong evidences that high copy number of mtDNA may be a useful good prognostic factor in glioma patients. PMID:26045999
We report an anomalous lattice deformation of GaN layers grown on SiC(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. The evolution of the lattice parameters during the growth of the GaN layers was measured by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The lattice parameters in the directions parallel and normal to the surface showed significant deviation from the elastic strains expected for lattice-mismatched films on substrates up to a thickness of 10 nm. The observed lattice deformation was well explained by the incorporation of hydrostatic strains due to point defects. The results indicate that the control of point defects in the initial stage of growth is important for fabricating GaN-based optoelectronic devices
Gotoh, Toshiyuki
2012-11-01
Spectrum of passive scalar variance at very high Schmidt number up to 1000 in isotropic steady turbulence has been studied by using very high resolution DNS. Gaussian random force and scalar source which are isotropic and white in time are applied at low wavenumber band. Since the Schmidt number is very large, the system was integrated for 72 large eddy turn over time for the system to forgot the initial state. It is found that the scalar spectrum attains the asymptotic k-1 spectrum in the viscous-convective range and the constant CB is found to be 5.7 which is larger than 4.9 obtained by DNS under the uniform mean scalar gradient. Reasons for the difference are inferred as the Reynolds number effect, anisotropy, difference in the scalar injection, duration of time average, and the universality of the constant is discussed. The constant CB is also compared with the prediction by the Lagrangian statistical theory for the passive scalar. The scalar spectrum in the far diffusive range is found to be exponential, which is consistent with the Kraichnan's spectrum. However, the Kraichnan spectrum was derived under the assumption that the velocity field is white in time, therefore theoretical explanation of the agreement needs to be explored. Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 21360082, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
Mass transfer in wetted-wall columns: correlations at high Reynolds numbers
Nielsen, Christian H.E.; Kiil, Søren; Thomsen, Henrik W.;
1998-01-01
The rate of gas-and liquid-phase mass transport in a pilot-scale wetted-wall column with an inner diameter of 3.26 cm and a length of 5 m was investigated. Empirical correlations for the physical liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient (k(L)(O)) and the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient (k......(G)) were determined. In dimensionless form, the correlations are given by Sh(L) = 0.01613 Re-G(0.664) Re-L(0.426) Sc-L(0.5) Sh(G) = 0.00031 Re-G(1.05) Re-L(0.207) Sc-G(0.5) and are valid at gas-phase Reynolds numbers from 7500 to 18,300 and liquid-phase Reynolds numbers from 4000 to 12,000, conditions...... of industrial relevance. To our knowledge, no correlations for Sh(G) have been reported in the literature which are valid at such high Reynolds numbers. The wetted-wall column was equipped with six intermediate measuring positions for gas and two for liquid samples, giving rise to a high accuracy...
A note on the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon
Palle, Davor
2016-01-01
The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon is an important observable that tests radiative corrections of all three observed local gauge forces: electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions. High precision measurements reveal some discrepancy with the most accurate theoretical evaluations of the anomalous magnetic moment. We show in this note that the UV finite theory cannot resolve this discrepancy. We believe that more reliable estimate of the nonperturbative hadronic contribution and the new measurements can resolve the problem.
Searching for the fourth family quarks through anomalous decays
The flavor democracy hypothesis predicts the existence of the fourth standard model family. Because of the high masses of the fourth family quarks, their anomalous decays could be dominant if certain criteria are met. This will drastically change the search strategy at hadron colliders. We show that the fourth standard model family down quarks with masses up to 400-450 GeV can be observed (or excluded) via anomalous decays by Tevatron.
A classical picture of anomalous effects in a Tokamak
Hirano, K.
1984-01-01
Atomic collisions between plasma ions and a very small amount of neutral particles remaining in a hot plasma plays a very important role for plasma transports and may be an origin of anomalous effects observed in a Tokamak such as the diffusion coefficient independent of the field strength, a rapid plasma density increase during gas puffing and current penetration with anomalously high speed in the start-up phase. The Ohm's law derived by Cowling is used for the analysis.