Sample records for anna power station

  1. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...


    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment..., Section III.O, ``Oil collection system for reactor coolant pump,'' for Facility Operating License No. NPF... Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS Unit 1), located in Louisa County, Virginia. Therefore, as required by...

  2. Solid radwaste characterization at surry and North Anna Power Stations

    This paper describes a characterization of the solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's North Anna and Surry power stations. The primary focus of this characterization was dry active waste (DAW). The characterization, covering the 21-month period from January 1985 through September 1986, was based on information in the station's health physics procurement records, radwaste shipping records, and from interviews with station personnel. The procurement records were the principal source of information for DAW. They were reviewed to determine the quantities of various materials, purchased during the study period, that were expected to become DAW. This provides an upper limit on the quantity in the waste for several major DAW components and a basis for the total amount of other components in the waste. The approach to characterizing DAW discussed in this paper could be implemented and regularly updated by utilizing a computerized procurement records system. If a use code (i.e., contaminated or noncontaminated) is associated with each stock requisition, a characterization could be performed by a computer run. This approach would help track minimization effort effectiveness and would refine the characterization of DAW considerably

  3. Evaluation of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    During a recent inservice inspection (ISI) of a dissimilar metal weld (DMW) in an inlet (hot leg) steam generator nozzle at North Anna Power Station Unit 1, several axially oriented flaws went undetected by the licensee's manual ultrasonic testing (UT) technique. The flaws were subsequently detected as a result of outside diameter (OD) surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the DMW. Further ultrasonic tests were then performed, and a total of five axially oriented flaws, classified as primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference.

  4. Risk management of the North Anna Power Station Service Water System Preservation Project using the IPE model

    This paper discusses the application of the North Anna Power Station Individual Plant Examination (IPE) models in PRA study of the Service Water System Preservation Project (SWSPP). The service water project involves repair and restoration of the Service Water System (SWS) piping and will require excavation of the buried SWS lines in addition to temporarily removing one of the two redundant SWS loops from operation. The SWSPP will be carried out with one or both units in normal operation. The objective of the PRA study was to quantify the risk impact (as measured by the change in Core Damage Frequency (ΔCDF)) of the SWSPP and to identify and evaluate countermeasures to reduce the risk impact of the project activities. The study concluded that the ΔCDF would be acceptable by undertaking preventative measures and by providing additional accident mitigating measures during performance of the SWSPP activities

  5. Final environmental statement related to the operation of North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2: (Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339)

    The proposed action is the issuance of Operating Licenses to the Virginia Electric and Power Company for the startup and operation of the North Anna Power Station, Units No. 1 and 2, located on Lake Anna in Louisa County, 40 miles east of Charlottesville, Virginia. The information in this second addendum responds to the Commission's directive that the staff address in narrative form the environmental dose commitments and health effects from fuel cycle releases, fuel cycle socioeconomic impacts, and possible cumulative impacts pending further treatment by rulemaking

  6. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of stainless steel tubing and piping in the service water system at North Anna Nuclear Power Station

    Since original plant construction in the 1970's, the carbon steel piping of the service water system (SWS) of Virginia Power's North Anna Nuclear Power Station has experienced general corrosion and pitting due to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Corrosion of the carbon steel piping was combatted by the implementation of chemical treatment of the SWS and by repair/replacement of portions of the piping utilizing type 316L stainless steel (SS) on 10 in. and smaller piping and 100% solids epoxy coating on the rest of the piping. Only recently, in early 1994, MIC was discovered on the 18 gage 304 S welded tubes in the Component Cooling Heat Exchangers (CCHXs). Earlier, MIC was discovered on 316L SS pipe base metal adjacent to several socket weld locations on small diameter piping. This paper will concentrate on the Virginia Power action plan to combat further degradation due to MIC and to maintain operable SS piping and equipment with SS tubing which is exposed to service water

  7. Final Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Examinations Applied to Detect Flaws in Primary System Dissimilar Metal Welds at North Anna Power Station

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Doctor, Steven R.


    PNNL conducted a technical assessment of the NDE issues and protocols that led to missed detections of several axially oriented flaws in a steam generator primary inlet dissimilar metal weld at North Anna Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS-1). This particular component design exhibits a significant outside-diameter (OD) taper that is not included as a blind performance demonstration mock-up within the industry’s Performance Demonstration Initiative, administered by EPRI. For this reason, the licensee engaged EPRI to assist in the development of a technical justification to support the basis for a site-specific qualification. The service-induced flaws at NAPS-1 were eventually detected as a result of OD surface machining in preparation for a full structural weld overlay. The machining operation uncovered the existence of two through-wall flaws, based on the observance of primary water leaking from the dissimilar metal weld. A total of five axially oriented flaws were detected in varied locations around the weld circumference. The field volumetric examination that was conducted at NAPS-1 was a non-encoded, real-time manual ultrasonic examination. PNNL conducted both an initial assessment, and subsequently, a more rigorous technical evaluation (reported here), which has identified an array of NDE issues that may have led to the subject missed detections. These evaluations were performed through technical reviews and discussions with NRC staff, EPRI NDE Center personnel, industry and ISI vendor personnel, and ultrasonic transducer manufacturers, and laboratory tests, to better understand the underlying issues at North Anna.

  8. Technical evaluation report on the seven main transformer failures at the North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-338, 50-339)

    This report documents technical evaluations on various aspects pertaining to the seven main transformer failures at the North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2. These reports cover the subjects of Probability Risk Assessment (PRA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Root Causes, Protection Systems, Modifications, Failure Statistics, and Generic Aspects. The PRA determined that the contribution from a main transformer failure affecting plant safety systems so as to increase the risk to the public health and safety is negligible. The FMEA determined that a main transformer failure can have primary and secondary effects on plant safety system operation. The evaluation of the Root Causes found that no single common cause contributed to the seven failures. Each failure was found to have specific circumstances for initiating the failure. Both the generator and transformer primary protection systems were found to perform correctly and were designed within industry standards and practices. The proposed modifications resulting from the analyses of the failures will improve system reliability and integrity, and will reduce potentially damaging effects. The failure statistic survey found very limited data bases from which a meaningful correlation could be ascertained. The statistical comparison found no appreciable anomalies with the NAPS failures. The evaluation of all the available information and the results of the separate reports on the main transformer failures found that several generic concerns exist

  9. 77 FR 18874 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Receipt of Request for Action


    ... Virginia Electric and Power Company's (the licensee's) North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna... North Anna 1 and 2. (13) Concerns exist about the response of North Anna 1 and 2, to a prolonged station blackout. (14) The current emergency evacuation plans for North Anna 1 and 2, need to be revised to...

  10. 77 FR 20438 - Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna...


    ... COMMISSION Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power... Manager, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and...-011-C in their current condition at the Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI)...

  11. 77 FR 65419 - Virginia Electric and Power Company


    ... and 2, to a prolonged station blackout. (11) The current emergency evacuation plans for North Anna 1... Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna 1 and 2), by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO...

  12. Power station instrumentation

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  13. Biblis nuclear power station

    A short constructive description of the components of the Biblis nuclear power station is given here. In addition to the heat flow diagram, the coolant cycle and the turbine control system, some details of construction and reactor safety are presented. (TK/AK)

  14. Fessenheim nuclear power station

    The Fessenheim nuclear power plant includes two PWR type units each with net electrical output of 890MW(e). The site and layout of the station, geological features and cooling water characteristics are described. Reference is made to other aspects of the environment such as population density and agronomy. (U.K.)

  15. The nuclear power station

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

  16. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  17. Islands for nuclear power stations

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  18. Nuclear power stations licensing

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  19. Anna Politkovskaja

    Giulietto Chiesa


    Full Text Available This paper draws a profile of Anna Politkovskaja, the journalist murdered in Moscow in October 2006. When the communist regime collapsed she sided with the “Democrats” (Boris Eltsin, but afterwards she departed from them when the first Cecenia War began (autumn 1994. With the beginning of the second Cecenia War (August-September 1999 Anna Politkovskaja definitively understood the Democrats no longer existed in Russia. In fact, opening the road to the new massacre had been their own responsibility. Once she had understood the truth, she began to tell the way “they”, the “Democrats” had organized the Cecenia Wars. Many times she went to that devastated land and denounced the dreadful war crimes committed there by the Russians, writing on her daily Novaja Gazeta. She openly condemned the Russian army and government for their lacking in respect of civil rights and their violation of the Constitutional State, both in Russia and Cecenia. In the West she had published a book –Putin’s Russia– from which she gained fame. But it provoked the Russian President to anger. The strong will of this woman with a feeble voice to testify and inform has been blown out, together with her obstinate tenaciousness. Anna Politkovskaja had staked her own life, conscious of the risk.

  20. Anna Freud

    Oei, T.I.


    Die Herausgeberin Brigitte Spreitzer macht die literarischen Texte von Sigmund Freuds jüngster Tochter Anna Freud zum ersten Mal vollständig zugänglich und liest sie in der Einführung zur Edition als paradigmatische Dokumente der Aus-einandersetzung einer jungen Frau aus dem assimilierten jüdischen Bürgertum mit den sozi¬alhistorischen und kulturellen Bedingungen im Wien der Jahrhundertwende. Damit werden sie als Teil eines historischen Prozesses begreifbar gemacht, der durch das Ringen von F...

  1. The Miksova water power station

    This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m3.s-1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m3.s-1, runaway speed 4.9 m3.s-1. Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos φ of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the Miksova water

  2. Balakovo nuclear power station

    A key means of improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants is through effective training of plant personnel. The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the training at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant, and the important role that international cooperation programs have played in that progress

  3. Power station unit control

    The VDI/VDE code refers to the power generating unit within the process control system that interconnects the power unit and the consumer. Basic principles and requirements to be met by the various networks are explained, as well as characteristics of control engineering of the power generating unit and its components. This is followed by a description of the configurations of the unit control system, the control equipment and operational characteristics, the suitability and applicability of unit control configurations, and finally of the control quality with regard to sensibility to disturbances. A list of symbols used and of catchwords is given. (HAG)

  4. Safeguarding nuclear power stations

    The basic features of nuclear fuel accounting and control in present-day power reactors are considered. Emphasis is placed on reactor operations and spent-fuel characteristics for Light-Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy-Water Reactors (HWRs)

  5. Checking nuclear power station safety

    The paper describes the test facilities and research projects for Sizewell-B and other nuclear power stations, directed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC). The NNC is Britain's nuclear power station design and construction company, and is currently carrying out commissioning on both the Heysham and Torness AGRs. A description is given of NNC's nuclear research and development work, which includes: the production of Cobalt-free alloy, coatings for the primary containment shell, and ''fitness for purpose'' tests on reactor components using its 'Loki' rig to put the equipment through postulated accident conditions. NNC also has a rig to test structural features under extreme thermal shock conditions. (U.K.)

  6. Damage prevention in power stations

    The conference provided orientational information for engineers as planners, manufacturers, designers and operators of power stations working in planning, quality assurance, assembly/installation and safety. The topics were: Risk analysis; failure detection and evaluation; failure examples; reliability from planning to acceptance; reliability during operation; risk reduction by insurances; successful damage prevention. (orig./GL)

  7. Merchant funding for power stations

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  8. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  9. Construction costs - nuclear power stations

    According to present development plans in the western industrial nations nuclear power will be able to cover 35 to 45% of power requirements in the mid 1980's. Although specific investment costs are higher for nuclear power plants than for other thermal power stations, nuclear plants are in a position today to generate power more economically than fossil fired plants into the upper part of the middle load sector. The relatively high proportion of fixed costs of the total power generation costs, and a still considerable potential to exploit the economy of scale, will contribute to minimize the inflationary burden on electric power generation. Nevertheless price development of nuclear power plants should be watched attentively, rapid price escalation for components, extremely long planning and construction times and exaggerated environmental protection requirements which serve no real purpose may reduce the economic benefit gained by nuclear energy. Electrical utilities will try to hold investment cost down by all means; for instance they will encourage standardization of nuclear power plants or order twin stations. For long term utilization of nuclear energy the development of high temperature reactors and fast breeders is a logical step forward. (author)

  10. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  11. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...


    ... Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, Methodology for Development of Emergency Action Levels.'' The... the quality or quantity of non- radiological effluents. No changes to the National Pollution Discharge... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  12. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  13. Waste management at power stations

    Like most other industrial processes, nuclear power stations produce waste in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Gaseous and liquid wastes are routinely discharged from the stations after suitable treatment, the residual radioactivity being diluted and dispersed in the environment. The discharges are controlled and authorised under the Radioactive Substances Act and the environmental impact is minimal. In recent years low level wastes (LLW) have been sent to BNFL's disposal site at Drigg. Recent charges at Drigg have resulted in changed arrangements for the transport and disposal of low level wastes. This disposal route will be used until an alternative facility is brought into operation. Consideration is being given to volume reduction by supercompaction. Small amounts of intermediate level waste (ILW) such as spent ion exchange resins are now stored pending the availability of a disposal route. Such as a mobile waste treatment plant. In the case of Magnox debris a demonstration dissolution plant has been constructed at Dungeness and this will significantly reduce the volume of waste being stored whilst retaining the bulk of the activity on site for later treatment. At Trawsfynydd a few debris store will hold the fuel element debris in 500 litre drums. (author)

  14. Sources of the wind power stations

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  15. Water pollution and thermal power stations

    There are a number of thermal power stations dotting the countryside in India for the generation of electricity. The pollution of environment is continuously increasing in the country with the addition of new coal based power stations and causing both a menace and a hazard to the biota. The paper reviews the problems arising out of water pollution from the coal based thermal power stations. (author). 2 tabs

  16. Simulators of nuclear power stations

    The report deals with the simulators of nuclear power stations used for the training of operators and for the analysis of operations. It reviews the development of analogical, hybrid and digital simulators up to the present, indicating the impact resulting from the TMI-2 accident. It indicates, the components of simulators and the present accepted terminology for a classification of the various types of simulators. It reviews the present state of the art of the technology: how a basic mathematical model of a nuclear power system is worked out and what are the technical problems associated with more accurate models. Examples of elaborate models are given: for a PWR pressurizer, for an AGR steam generator. It also discusses certain problems of hardware technology. Characteristics of present replica simulators are given with certain details: simulated transient evolutions and malfunctions, accuracy of simulation. The work concerning the assessment of the validity of certain simulators is reported. A list of simulator manufacturers and a survey of the principal simulators in operation in the countries of the European Community, in the United States, and in certain other countries are presented. Problem associated with the use of simulators as training facilities, and their use as operational devices are discussed. Studies and research in progress for the expected future development of simulators are reviewed

  17. Conflicts in Anna Karenina



    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy.This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina,which involves the conflicts between religious ethics,capitalistic new ideas,bravery and limitation,love for son and love for a lover,plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  18. Conflicts in Anna Karenina



    Anna Karenina is a huge classic tragedy which is created by Tolstoy. This paper mainly talks about the conflict in the classic fictional story of Anna Karenina, which involves the conflicts between religious ethics, capitalistic new ideas, bravery and limitation, love for son and love for a lover, plus the variances between rural custom culture and urban culture.

  19. Improving nuclear power station output

    The total annual output of Nuclear Electric's five advanced gas cooled reactor (AGR) stations has increased by more than 80% from 21.7 to 39.3 TW·h over the last four years since the company was formed. This has been achieved through increasing both the capability (maximum power output) and the availability of the reactors. The successive stages of technical modifications, testing and safety case preparation and approval by which the capability of each of the reactor units was raised, whilst ensuring safety, are detailed and the further stages that are planned for the future are outlined. The availability of the reactors has been increased by removing the constraints associated with refuelling operations, reducing statutory overhaul lengths and frequency, and reducing unplanned losses. In 1990, the fuel routes at four of the five stations operated too slowly to supply the fuel needed by the reactors and also required substantial periods of outage of the fuel route for modifications in order to consolidate their off-load refuelling safety cases. The programmes of work undertaken are outlined and the improved performance of the fuel route operations to match the increased output of reactor units is detailed. The future developments, particularly of on-load refuelling, are outlined. The lengths of statutory outages have been reduced by improved management and performance of plant operations and maintenance, and permission has also been received to extend the period between overhauls from 24 to 36 months. Unplanned losses have also been reduced. The improvements in output have not been achieved at the expense of safety nor by increasing the resources deployed. Indeed the reverse is true; key safety indicators show an improvement in both nuclear and industrial safety; and the manpower employed at the AGRs and the total annual expenditure in real terms have both decreased over the past four years. (author). 7 figs, 1 tab

  20. Surry nuclear power station: 25th anniversary

    Virginia Power is one of the ten biggest electricity utilities in the United States of America. In 1972, the Surry-1 nuclear generating unit, equipped with an 850 MWe pressurized water reactor from Westinghouse, was accepted into commercial operation. Unit-2 followed in 1973. The North Anna plant is equipped with two 950 MWe PWR commissioned in 1978 and 1980, respectively. The four units together supply roughly one third of the electric power of the grid system in Virginia. They convert nuclear energy into electric power in an economic way: capacity utilization averaged over five years amounted to 90%, and the generating costs were 1.2 cents per kilowatthour. In 1996, the operator began to make use of the experience accumulated in running his plants when backfitting the three generating units on the Millstone site, which are currently out of operation. An agreement on cooperation to this effect was signed by the two utilities, Virginia Power and Northeast Nuclear Energy Company. As a consequence of deregulation of the US electricity market it may be economically preferable to buy electric power instead of generating it in-house. (orig.)

  1. Safety of Russia's nuclear power stations

    Currently, 29 nuclear power plant units are in operation in Russia. The units 2, respectively, of both the Novovoronesh and Belojarsk nuclear power stations are shut down for decommissioning. In judjing the safety of the units of the first and second generation, GOSATOMNAZDOR applies very strict standards. For several nuclear power stations this entailed restraints on their power output as well as upgrading and retrofitting measures (Kurk, Balakovo, Kalinin, Leningrade 1 and 2, and Kola). (DG)

  2. Underground location of nuclear power stations

    In Japan where the population is dense and the land is narrow, the conventional location of nuclear power stations on the ground will become very difficult sooner or later. At this time, it is very important to establish the new location method such as underground location, Quaternary ground location and offshore location as the method of expanding the location for nuclear power stations from the viewpoint of the long term demand and supply of electric power. As for underground location, the technology of constructing an underground cavity has been already fostered basically by the construction of large scale cavities for underground pumping-up power stations in the last 20 years. In France, Norway and Sweden, there are the examples of the construction of underground nuclear power stations. In this way, the opportunity of the underground location and construction of nuclear power stations seems to be sufficiently heightened, and the basic research has been carried out also in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. In this paper, as to underground nuclear power stations as one of the forms of utilizing underground space, the concept, the advantage in aseismatic capability, the safety at the time of a supposed accident, and the economical efficiency are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  3. Indoor switchyards for power stations

    Special problems encountered in the design of the 230 kV switchyards of the coastal nuclear station at Tarapur, India, are discussed. The remedial measures taken to overcome the deleterious effects of the salty sea water are also outlined. (K.B.)

  4. Reducing nitrogen oxides from power stations

    The report contains 17 individual lectures of the seminar included in databanks. The lectures concern combustion and waste gas measures for reducing the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission from coal-fired and gas-fired power stations. (PW)

  5. Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power station project

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station is the largest joint-venture project which is also the largest commercial nuclear power plant currently under construction in China mainland. Organized and executed strictly in accordance with international standards, the Daya Bay project is seen as the first step taken by China in the development programme of large-capacity commercial nuclear power units

  6. Space power station. Uchu hatsuden

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))


    A calculation tells that the amount of electric power the world will use in the future will require 100 to 500 power plants each with an output of 5-GW class. If this conception is true, it is beyond dispute that utilizing nuclear power will constitute a core of the power generation even though the geographical conditions are severe for nuclear power plants. It is also certain that power generation using clean solar energy will play important roles if power supply stability can be achieved. This paper describes plans to develop space solar power generation and space nuclear power generation that can supply power solving problems concerning geographical conditions and power supply stability. The space solar power generation is a system to arrest solar energy on a static orbit. According to a result of discussions in the U.S.A., the plan calls for solar cell sheets spread over the surface of a structure with a size of 5 km [times] 10 km [times] 0.5 km thick, and electric power obtained therefrom is transmitted to a rectenna with a size of 10 km [times] 13 km, a receiving antenna on the ground. The space nuclear power generation will be constructed similarly on a static orbit. Researches on space nuclear reactors have already begun. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom

    Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor


    NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

  8. 75 FR 53984 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...


    ... the Baker-Just equation to be used to predict the rates of energy release, hydrogen concentration, and... non-radiological effluents. No changes to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR...

  9. 75 FR 76495 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...


    ...,'' using the guidance of NRC Regulatory Issue Summary 2003-18, Supplement 1 and 2, ``Use of Nuclear Energy... quantity of non- radiological effluents. No changes to the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  10. 77 FR 63342 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2 and North Anna Power...


    ... 21, 2012 (77 FR 10001). However, by letter dated September 27, 2012, the licensee withdrew the..., Project Manager, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S... ``Affecting Safe Shutdown''; in addition, the main dam is added to the Initiating Condition (IC) for HA1...


    T.K Sai; K.A. Reddy


    Power generation today is an increasingly demanding task, worldwide, because of emphasis on efficient ways of generation. A power station is a complicated multivariable controlled plant, which consists of boiler, turbine, generator, power network and loads. The power sector sustainability depends on innovative technology and practices in maintaining unit performance, operation, flexibility and availability . The demands being placed on Control & Instrumentation engineers include economic opti...

  12. Nuclear Power 2010 Program Dominion Virginia Power Cooperative Project U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-05ID14635 Construction and Operating License Demonstration Project Final Report

    This report serves to summarize the major activities completed as part of Virginia Electric and Power Company's North Anna construction and operating license demonstration project with DOE. Project successes, lessons learned, and suggestions for improvement are discussed. Objectives of the North Anna COL project included preparation and submittal of a COLA to the USNRC incorporating ESBWR technology for a third unit a the North Anna Power Station site, support for the NRC review process and mandatory hearing, obtaining NRC approval of the COLA and issuance of a COL, and development of a business case necessary to support a decision on building a new nuclear power plant at the North Anna site.

  13. Starting of nuclear power stations

    The procedure is briefly characterized of jobs in nuclear power plant start-up and the differences are pointed out from those used in conventional power generation. Pressure tests are described oriented to tightness, tests of the secondary circuit and of the individual nodes and facilities. The possibility is shown of increased efficiency of such jobs on an example of the hydraulic tests of the second unit of the Dukovany nuclear power plant where the second and the third stages were combined in the so-colled integrated hydraulic test. (Z.M.). 5 figs

  14. Distributed systems for protecting nuclear power stations

    The advantages of distributed control systems for the control of nuclear power stations are obviously of great interest. Some years ago, EPRI, (Electric Power Research Institute) showed that multiplexing the signals is technically feasible, that it enables the availability specifications to be met and costs to be reduced. Since then, many distributed control systems have been proposed by the manufacturers. This note offers some comments on the application of the distribution concept to protection systems -what should be distributed- and ends with a brief description of a protection system based on microprocessors for the pressurized power stations now being built in France

  15. Socioeconomic impacts: nuclear power station siting

    The rural industrial development literature is used to gain insights on the socioeconomic effects of nuclear power stations. Previous studies of large industrial facilities in small towns have important implications for attempts to understand and anticipate the impacts of nuclear stations. Even a cursory review of the nuclear development literature, however, reveals that industrialization research in rural sociology, economic geography and agricultural economics has been largely ignored

  16. Principles of nuclear power station control

    Lecture notes are presented which were first distributed as part of a UKAEA introductory course on reactor technology held during November 1975. The material is presented in a manner which hopefully will enable recent graduates in science and technology to obtain a broad overall picture of the problems involved. A nuclear power station is only one element of a dispersed interconnected arrangement of other nuclear and fossil-fired units which together constitute the national 'grid'. Thus the control of any one station must relate to the objectives of the grid network as a whole. Economic and technological factors are shown to lead to a national power supply operating around 50 Hz. A precise control of the supply frequency is also motivated by economic and technological considerations, and it is achieved by regulating the output power of individual stations. In order to make the whole grid network stable in following the load, it is shown that a satisfactory practical criterion is for each station to be stable when operating in isolation with a variable load. As regards individual stations, several special control problems concerned with individual plant items are discussed; these include controlled reactivity insertions, temperature reactivity time constants and flow instability. A simplified analysis establishes a fundamental relationship between the stored thermal energy of a boiler unit (a function of mechanical construction) and the flexibility of the heat source (nuclear or fossil-fired) if the station is to cope satisfactorily with demands arising from unscheduled losses of other generating sets or transmission capacity. Finally, two basic control schemes for power station operation are described, known as coupled and decoupled control. Each of the control modes has its own merits, which depend on the proposed station operating strategy (base-load or load-following) and the nature of the heat source. (author)

  17. Power station stack gas emissions

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  18. How dangerous are atomic power stations?

    This article takes a look at potential dangers presented by atomic power stations and measures taken to ensure safety. Since the accident in Chernobyl, atomic power stations represent, from the point of view of the general public, a considerable danger. The article analyses the actual risks presented by atom power stations and asks the question, if these risks can even be assessed. Basic considerations on the stability and safety of reactors are discussed. Safety precautions implemented for the world's first nuclear reactor in the USA are discussed. The various safety precautions taken for various types of reactor are examined in detail. Also, the dangers presented by emissions that occur during normal operation are examined. The danger of a nuclear meltdown caused by external factors such as earthquakes, fire, aircraft crashes and terrorist activity is discussed

  19. Themis - A solar power station

    Hillairet, J.

    The organization, goals, equipment, costs, and performance of the French Themis (Thermo-helio-electric-MW) project are outlined. The program was begun for both the domestic energy market and for export. The installation comprises a molten eutectic salt loop which receives heat from radiators situated in a central tower. The salt transfers the heat to water for steam generation of electricity. A storage tank holds enough molten salt to supply one day's reserve of power, 40 MWh. A field of heliostats directs the suns rays for an estimated 2400 hr/yr onto the central receiver aperture, while 11 additional parabolic concentrators provide sufficient heat to keep the salt reservoir at temperatures exceeding 200 C. In a test run of several months during the spring of 1982 the heliostats directed the sun's rays with an average efficiency of 75 percent, yielding 2.3 MW of power at a system efficiency of 20.5 percent in completely automatic operation.

  20. Developmental state and perspectives of USSR power stations, espec. nuclear power stations

    According to the resolutions of the 25th and 26th party congresses of the CPSU, the Soviet electric and thermal energy economy envisages as the mainstreams in development: Energy projects based on nuclear fuel, i.e. nuclear power stations (NPS), nuclear heat- and -power stations (NHPS) and nuclear heat stations (NHS); fuel-energy complexes: Ekibastuz, Kansk-Achinsk, West-Siberian complex (Tyumen); power stations utilizing non-conventional regenerative energy sources, i.e. solar, geothermal, MHD power stations. Further down, an overview is given on the developmental perspectives of nuclear-heat and nuclear-power economy and on the development of energy management based on fossil fuels. (orig./UA)

  1. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1984 Annual environmental report, radiological. Volume 2

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1984 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1984. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1984. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment. 23 figs., 18 tabs

  2. Tethered nuclear power for the space station

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation. 23 references

  3. Series: Information pavilions of nuclear power stations

    The information pavilion of the Leibstadt nuclear power station is featured. Some 10,000 people visit annually the pavilion, 1/3rd of which are school pupils, and 30% to 40% are German nationals. The pavilion is open to visitors and individuals seven days/week and tours cover the actual installations of which the cooling tower is very popular. Seating space is available for discussions. Some 165,000 people have visited the Leibstadt nuclear power station since 1974. (P.F.K.)

  4. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice


    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  5. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...


    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  6. Studying dynamics of indicators of nuclear power stations exploitation (the case of US nuclear power stations)

    Varshavsky, Leonid


    Analysis of external and internal factors influencing significant improvement of economic indicators of US nuclear power stations in the 1990s is carried out. Approaches to modeling dynamics of capacity factors of nuclear power stations are proposed. Comparative analysis of dynamics of capacity factors and occupational radiation exposure for various generations of US nuclear power plants is carried out. Dynamical characteristics of «learning by doing» effects for analyzed indicators are measu...

  7. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations

    This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper. (author)

  8. Comissioning of Fessenheim nuclear power station

    Fessenheim Nuclear Power Station comprises two power plant units of the same design each with a net electrical rated capacity of 890 MW. Each unit comprises a nuclear steam generator system of the pressurized water type and the associated turbine-generator. Successive commissioning procedures extended over a period of three years from initial functional tests to commercial operation of the steam generator system. (orig.)

  9. Phasing out Britain's nuclear power stations

    This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of phasing-out Britain's nuclear power stations. It considers a range of strategies, from complete closure by 1990, to allowing them to run the full course of their planned lives, which for some reactors would be well into the next century. For reasons stated, closure of all Britain's nuclear power stations by 1990 or shortly afterwards would be likely to lead to a shortfall in generating capacity. Sufficient new generating capacity could not be provided quickly enough to avoid this shortfall, so power cuts at times of winter peak demand would probably occur. However, the older Magnox reactors, which comprise nine of the sixteen nuclear power stations, could be closed by the end of the present decade without risking power cuts. The seven AGRs, which are all newer, could be closed between 1995 and 2000, as replacement capacity was completed. 6 GW of new capacity, equivalent to three coal-fired power stations of standard design, would be needed for this purpose. The phasing out of nuclear power would add to the electricity industry operating costs. Taking all costs together - decommissioning, operating costs and the capital cost of replacement - the increase in electricity price is unlikely to exceed 10%. It is essential that the phasing-out of nuclear power is supported by new investment in the UK coal industry. Given the long time lag in completing new developments, it would be wise to make an early start on this new capacity in order to avoid large coal imports in the 1990s. (author)

  10. Environmental policy for power stations

    There are several potential explanations for the fact that ambitious CO2 emission reduction goals co-exist with continued existence and even building of high-emission power plants. Three hypothesis have been analyzed in this study, whereby two of them actually seem to occur in practice. First, it is reasonable to assume that long-term public policy regarding climate change is so vague that companies are not able to take them into account. Second, the Dutch allocation mechanism of emission rights under the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) appears to be biased towards high-carbon technologies. The hypothesis that firms are myopic, in the sense that they ignore future public policy when they make investment decisions, is not backed by empirical evidence. The policy consequences of these findings can be twofold. First, short term government regulation can direct firms towards the adoption of low-carbon technologies. Several technical measures that would be effective in reducing CO2 emissions have been mentioned. However, the government might not want to prescribe companies which action to undertake. There is a risk that they would force investments in technologies that turn out to be less efficient than ex-ante expected. It might be better to rely on the EU market for emission rights, provided that it works well. Unfortunately, the current EU ETS system seems to suffer from some distortion due to applied allocation mechanisms of emission allowances. A second policy consequence is therefore to improve the distribution of emission rights among participants. Benchmarking can be done, but it should be as independent of historic use and fuel type as possible. The auctioning of emission permits is also an option. Whether significant alternations to the system will be made and which changes are to be expected is, however, uncertain. It highly depends on the political climate in Brussels and in the EU member states. This leads us to the conclusion that reliance on

  11. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations


    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES:...

  12. Hovering energetics and thermal balance in Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna).

    Evangelista, Dennis; Fernández, María José; Berns, Madalyn S; Hoover, Aaron; Dudley, Robert


    We studied the energetics of hover-feeding Anna's hummingbirds, using three different simultaneous techniques: heat loss as estimated via thermal imaging, metabolic rate as measured at a feeder mask using flow-through respirometry, and aerodynamic power estimated from wingbeat kinematic data. These three methods yielded comparable estimates of power output at ambient air temperatures ranging from 18 degrees to 26 degrees C, whereas heat imbalance at higher air temperatures (up to 34 degrees C) suggested loss by mechanisms other than convection and radiation from the body, such as evaporative cooling and enthalpy rise associated with exhaled air and excreted water and convective heat loss from the patagia. Hummingbirds increased wingbeat frequency and decreased stroke amplitude as air temperature increased, but overall muscle efficiency was found to be approximately constant over the experimental range of air temperatures. PMID:20350142

  13. 77 FR 24541 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, North Anna Power Station Units 1 and 2, Independent Spent...


    ... system is designed for zone loading based on decay heat. CoC 1030 specifies requirements, conditions, and...). The TS restrict the decay heat in lower Zone 1a locations to 10 CFR 72.212(b)(3), which states the... assemblies having decay heat exceeding the limits required by CoC No. 1030, Amendment No. 0, at the time...

  14. Technological development of Guangdong nuclear power station

    After over 5 years of operations, the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) has achieved good results both economically and in operational safety performance. The main attributes to the success of the plant operational performances include the equipment reliability, the technical capability and management efficiency. To that the key strategy has been to adopt know-how and technological transfer and encourage self-innovation, aiming to strive for the long-term self-reliance in design, manufacturing and operating the plant. (author)

  15. Robot equipment for nuclear power stations

    A cassette transfer device produced at GANZ-MAVAG, to be installed at the Paks nuclear power station has been previously reported. Further on the requirements set against the robot equipment are described with special regard to safety and economic aspects. Besides the cassette transfer devices designed to tend reactors of an output of 440 MW, information is given on the cassette transfer devices intended for reactors having an output of 1000 MW, actually under development. (author)

  16. Requirement profile for nuclear power station personnel

    The starting point in deriving the requirement profile for the shift personnel in the control rooms of nuclear power stations is information of a technical, organisational and ergonomic kind. The technique used, the distribution of work to different work areas and the configuration of the workplace is determined by the tasks and the environmental conditions in which they have to be done. (orig./DG)

  17. Thermodynamic power stations at low temperatures

    Malherbe, J.; Ployart, R.; Alleau, T.; Bandelier, P.; Lauro, F.

    The development of low-temperature thermodynamic power stations using solar energy is considered, with special attention given to the choice of the thermodynamic cycle (Rankine), working fluids (frigorific halogen compounds), and heat exchangers. Thermomechanical conversion machines, such as ac motors and rotating volumetric motors are discussed. A system is recommended for the use of solar energy for irrigation and pumping in remote areas. Other applications include the production of cold of fresh water from brackish waters, and energy recovery from hot springs.

  18. Community reaction to noise from power stations

    Community reaction is a major consideration in noise control. The relationship between noise exposure and community reaction has received considerable attention in relation to railway, traffic, aircraft and impulsive noise. The results have shown a number of features in common, including: similarly shaped noise/reaction functions; similar results across different measurement techniques and cultures, noise/reaction correlations based on individual respondent data are low (mean r = 0.42 ± 0.12: Job, 1988), although correlations of .58 and above have been reported correlations based on data grouped by noise exposure are generally high and relatively unaffected by the type of noise studied whereas correlations based on individual data tend to be lower for impulsive noise than for transportation noise attitude to the noise source and sensitivity to noise shows strong correlations with reaction. This paper reports that the present study was undertaken in order toe establish over a wider range of noise exposure whether community reaction to power station noise is similar to reaction to other types of non-impulsive noise. It is possible that reaction is different given important differences in the source of the noise which may affect attitude. Attitudes towards power stations may be more positive than attitudes to aircraft or rail noise for example, because almost all respondents use electricity regularly every day. Further, the power stations in the present study provided employment for the relatively small surrounding communities


    T.K Sai


    Full Text Available Power generation today is an increasingly demanding task, worldwide, because of emphasis on efficient ways of generation. A power station is a complicated multivariable controlled plant, which consists of boiler, turbine, generator, power network and loads. The power sector sustainability depends on innovative technology and practices in maintaining unit performance, operation, flexibility and availability . The demands being placed on Control & Instrumentation engineers include economic optimization, practical methods for adaptive and learning control, software tools that place state-of-art methods . As a result, Fuzzy techniques are explored which aim to exploit tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, and partial truth to achieve robustness, tractability, and low cost. This paper proposes use of fuzzy techniques in two critical areas of Soot Blowing optimization and Drum Level Control.

  20. Special Protection Scheme at BTPS Power Station

    Ballal, Makarand Sudhakar; Suryawanshi, Hiralal Murlidhar; Ballal, Deepali Makarand; Mishra, Mahesh Kumar


    After 2003 free licensees' act in power sector, it is observed that many power plants from public sector as well as from private sectors are going to be commissioned. The load growth in India is about more than 10% pa. As these plants are going to connect to the power grid, therefore the grid is going to become more complicated. Also the problems related to grid stability are enhanced. There shall be possibilities regarding failure of grid system and under such circumstance it is always desirable to island minimum single generating unit in power plant of specified geographical area. After islanding the generating unit, this unit has to survive not only for the restoration of grid but also for power supply to important consumers. For the grid stability and effective survival of islanded generating unit, it is mandatory to maintain the power balance equation. This paper focuses on the lacunae's observed in implementation of special protection scheme to carry out islanding operation at Bhusawal Thermal Power Station (BTPS) by considering the case studies. The concepts of islanding, load shedding, generator tripping and along with importance of power balance equation is discussed. Efforts are made to provide the solution for the survival of islanding scheme.

  1. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  2. Decommissioning U.K. power stations

    The strategy for decommissioning U.K. commercial nuclear power stations at the end of their operating lives has hitherto been based on early partial dismantling and clearance to green-field site after about 100 years. This strategy involves a considerable financial liability particularly in the early years following shutdown of the stations. In 1990 Nuclear Electric identified the potential for significantly reducing this liability by reviewing a range of alternative strategies for decommissioning. This review has now been completed by Nuclear Electric and this paper describes the background to it, the review itself and the conclusions. As a result Nuclear Electric are now proposing to adopt a new strategy, referred to as the ''Deferred Safestore strategy'' for all its gas-cooled power stations. This does not involve any significant active dismantling until about 135 years after shutdown, allowing radioactivity levels in the plant to decay to very low levels in-situ. Following defuelling, an initial care and maintenance phase of about 30 years occurs followed by construction of containments (Safestores) around all buildings containing active plant. The purpose of these is to protect the buildings and their contents from deterioration due to weathering for a further 100 years. Complete dismantling is carried out after that time. An alternative option at that time, with further considerable cost savings, could be In-situ decommissioning. (Author)

  3. Maintenance experience at Rajasthan atomic power station

    The Rajasthan Atomic Power Station is a twin-unit station of the CANDU-PHW type with a nominal rating of 200 MW(e) net per unit and on-power refuelling capability. Unit-I became critical in August 1972 and was declared commercial in December 1973. Unit-II is in an advanced stage of construction. Maintenance and repairs of both the nuclear and conventional equipment are done during routine planning, breakdown outages, poison shutdown outages and planned annual shutdown periods. Yearly, a period of three to four weeks may be needed for carrying out major inspection and maintenance activity on large equipment such as the steam turbine, generator, main condenser, station transformer, primary coolant recirculation pumps, moderator pumps and fuelling machines. Preventive maintenance jobs are planned and executed in accessible areas daily as a matter of routine and during poison shutdown outages in inaccessible areas. This requires that the maintenance crews be more or less continually on the alert. In addition to gamma radiation, radiation doses due to tritium are encountered and pose special problems for the maintenance personnel. During the past two years (1972-74) it was found that there is a need, in the maintenance crews, for more specialists for various radioactive and conventional jobs. This paper outlines the significant nuclear and conventional maintenance activities as well as problems in maintenance encountered during the period 1972-74. (author)

  4. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Robertson, R.C.


    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  5. Atomic thermoelectric power stations of small capacity

    In the beginning of 90 years a competition among atomic power stations of small capacity 'ATPS SC-91' was conducted under the aegis of Russian Nuclear Society. More than 20 designs of atomic power stations of small capacity (ATPS SC) were presented at the competition by way of conversion developments of leading design and planning organizations of Russian Minatom. The preliminary analysis of ATPS SC showed their high competitiveness comparing to traditional power-suppliers in the remote Russian territories even if there were local energy resources. In Russia by order of 'Rosenergoatom' Concern the ATPS SC project is developed on the basis of a floating power unit (FPU) with KLT-40S RF.The stationary option of ATPS SC with KLT-40S RF was developed for the Republic of Kazakhstan.The options of the project optimization made afterwards by NNC RK specialists allowed to substantially reduce construction budget due to, first, the change of price policy, and, secondly, the use of a number of supporting buildings, structures and systems located on the prospective construction sites. In Russia the designs of floating ATPS SC are developed, at first, on the basis of ABV-6 reactor facilities

  6. 77 FR 43382 - Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Exemption


    ... the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. MPS2 shares the site with Millstone Power Station Unit 1... COMMISSION Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc., (the... operation of the Millstone Power Station, Unit 2 (MPS2). The license provides, among other things, that...

  7. Dealing with operational power station wastes

    The disposal of wastes from nuclear power stations is discussed. Liquid and gaseous wastes, from magnox stations, which are of low level activity, are dispersed to the sea or estuaries on coastal sites or for the case of Trawfynyeld, to the nearby lake. Low activity solid wastes are either disposed of on local authority tips or in shallow land burial sites. Intermediate level wastes, consisting mainly of wet materials such as filter sludges and resins from cooling ponds, are at present stored in shielded storage tanks either dry or under water. Only one disposal route for intermediate waste is used by Britain, namely, sea-dumping. Materials for sea dumping have to be encapsulated in a durable material for example, concrete. (U.K.)

  8. Peculiar Features of Nuclear Power and Steam and Gas Plant of Thermal Power Station

    I. A. Bokoun


    The paper reveals peculiar features concerning of power generation at a nuclear power station and a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station. According to technical and economical indices a nuclear power station is at a disadvantage in relation to a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station.

  9. Experience in increasing power at Grohnde nuclear power station

    Steps to improve performance were taken at Grohnde nuclear power station in the years 1986-1990. These are described, together with details of operation since. Also covered are the main factors in calculating plant data as part of monitoring performance. 4 tabs

  10. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    Multivariable methods have the potential to improve the control of large systems such as nuclear power stations. Linear-quadratic optimal control is a multivariable method based on the minimization of a cost function. A related technique leads to the Kalman filter for estimation of plant state from noisy measurements. A design program for optimal control and Kalman filtering has been developed as part of a computer-aided design package for multivariable control systems. The method is demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator, and simulated results are presented

  11. Allegations of poor construction practices on the North Anna nuclear power plants: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Report to the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce

    GAO accompanied Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspectors to the North Anna nuclear powerplants in Virginia to observe their investigation of allegations of poor construction practices. The inspectors found 32 instances where the owner of the powerplants and its contractors failed to meet acceptable construction criteria. GAO found that the inspectors were very thorough and aggressive in the investigation at North Anna. But, the Commission's investigation report did not justify its conclusion that the items found did not have direct safety significance. GAO made several recommendations to the Commission aimed at assuring that the powerplants are constructed in accordance with prescribed criteria

  12. Programmable controller for the power station environment

    A programmable controller has been developed specifically to meet the needs of a large power station. Designed to be used in large numbers throughout the station, each controller replaces one separately fused relay logic circuit controlling one or several devices in a process or electrical logic system. A number of built-in diagnostic features have been provided to reduce substantially the cost of detecting and locating field wiring faults such as discontinuities and ground faults. The mechanical and electrical design has been arranged to minimize the installation and maintenance costs through such features as factory pre-assembled field connectors, a compact mechanical arrangement, a small number of standard replaceable modules, and the mounting of all failure-prone components on the modules as opposed to the motherboard or crate. Production prototype units have been tested for their capability of withstanding the environmental effects of temperature, transient interference, RFI and seismic vibration. A pre-production pilot run is underway leading to the installation of large numbers of units in a nuclear station. 7 refs

  13. Slovak power stations (Annual report 1997)

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Slovak power stations, s.a. (SE) in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Foreword of the chairman of the Board of directors; (2) Highlights of 1997; (3) Board of directors; (4) Supervisory board; (5) Organisation structure of SE; (6) Branches of SE; (7) Auditor's report; (8) Balance sheet / Economic balance; (9) Economic results; (10) Analysis of economic result; (11) SE capital investment in other trade companies; (12) Basic data; (13) Management and operation of the Slovak Republic's power system; (14) Labour safety and health, fire protection; (15) Electricity trade; (16) Trade heat; (17) Customer services provided to electricity users (18) Investment programme; (19) Environmental protection; (20) Support of renewable; (21) Nuclear safety; (22) Quality system; (23) International co-operation; (24) Centrel; (25) Information technology; (26) Public relations; (27) Business strategy and development programme; (28) Strategic change programme

  14. Grohnde nuclear power station in operation

    The Grohnde Nuclear Power Station in Hamelin on the river Weser is equipped with a pressurized water reactor in the 1,300 MWe power category. The plant was built by Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) for Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Grohnde GmbH (KWG), in which Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG and Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Weser GmbH (Stadtwerke Bielefeld GmbH, Elektrizitaetswerk Minden-Ravensberg GmbH, Elektrizitaetswerk Wesertal GmbH) each hold 50%. Including the preplanning phase begun 1972, twelve years and a half passed until the complete plant was delivered to the operator. This is an extension of the planning and construction period by five and a half years compared to the original completion date of mid-1979. The delay was caused especially by the well-known licensing problems in the seventies and by a court order interrupting construction work. (orig./GL)

  15. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.


    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  16. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Fairlie Ian


    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  17. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  18. Tidal currents measured near Sizewell Power Station

    During the latter half of 1975 the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) commissioned a survey of water temperatures and currents in the sea near Sizewell Power Station, which is located on the coast of the southern North Sea some 150 km north-east of London. The survey was performed in coastal waters up to 5 km offshore and spanning an area of about 50 km2, to assist in an estimation of the marine dispersion of heat released with the cooling water discharge from the power station. Variations in time and space of the residual tidal movements are presented which provide the mechanism for bulk transport of water, and therefore of heat or other contaminants, from the area. It is shown that these variations can be considerable, and that this has important implications for far-field models of cooling water discharges. The results of harmonic analysis of the tidal velocity are used in two ways- first, the variation of the current with depth is discussed and the implications for the mid-field mixing of cooling water are brought out- second, the significance of reflections from the coast is highlighted by splitting the tidal wave into progressive and standing components. (author)

  19. Underground construction of nuclear power stations

    In the discussions about the safety of nuclear installations the question of building nuclear power stations below ground is being raised again and again. Almost all the experts in the field regard further investigations of underground construction as necessary or desirable. Although in present above-ground plant designs safety measures must ensure that the consequences of hypothetical accidents will in any case be accommodated without involving any hazard to the public, there are some question marks when it comes to ensuring protection against acts of war and sabotage. This contribution outlines the variants of underground designs of nuclear power stations and their feasibility at the present state of the art. The question is studied whether underground construction will increase the safety of the public as against present above-ground designs. Another problem considered is the question of whether the extensive protective measures required under the present licensing procedures and implemented in these plants already preclude any real hazard to the environment with a high degree of certainty, which would leave no necessity for underground constructions. (orig.)

  20. The micro power station of Verbois

    The policy of the public utilities of the City of Geneva includes the promotion of renewable energy and the conservation of the environment. The erection of the most important hydroelectric power plant in the canton of Geneva at Verbois, on the Rhone River dates back to the years 1938 to 1944. Several retrofits have been made since then, the last dating from 1996 to 1998. In 2000, due to ecological considerations, a fish ladder was added, resulting in a loss of generated power equivalent to a water flow of 2 m3/s at a height of 18.35 meters. In order to compensate for this energy loss, a micro hydropower station with a maximum output power of 316 kW was added. It is fitted with a Francis turbine with horizontal axis and fixed opening; the rotation speed is 605 rpm. A reduced power output could be traced back to the deposition of solids on the grids upstream of the water supply duct. The necessary modifications are discussed

  1. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The systems benefits of the selection of the Sizewell site for a PWR power station are dealt with. The transmission modifications which would be needed to provide effective connection of this station to the system are considered. (U.K.)

  2. Ardennes nuclear power station. Annual report, 1976

    The Ardennes nuclear power station suffered two serious production setbacks in 1976 in spite of the satisfactory behavior of the equipment. The first is due to exceptionally unfavorable temperature and flow-rate conditions of the river Meuse, which caused a loss of production of about 300 million kWh. The second arises from the application of the Service des Mines regulations (decree of February 26th 1974) which in 1976 entailed the thorough inspection of the primary circuit and the ten-yearly hydraulic trial during the routine shutdown. This shutdown, intended for three months, in fact lasted an extra two weeks. Calculating the immobilization necessary for a general revision of the material, the production loss ascribable to statutory inspection may also estimated to 300 GWh. The net energy produced was 1362 GWh, the number of hours connected 5536h, the availability coefficient in time 62%, the total number of shutdowns 14. The equipment as a whole works very well. The tests carried out on the occasion of the ten-yearly trial showed the state of the main circuit to be perfectly satisfactoy, while inspections during the hydraulic trial at 207 bar revealed no anomalies. Where the behavior of the steam generators is concerned, only 20 tubes over a total of 6500 have been obstructed since the unit was started up in 1967. The cost per kWh electric of the station is 8.82 French centimes

  3. Nuclear power stations located around Latvia

    The paper consider technical parameters of the nuclear power stations (NPPs) located around Latvia at a distance up to 1500 km. On this territory 163 NPPs were built meant for commercial use. They gave up to 123535 M We(net) in total. At the end of the twentieth century from the mentioned number there remained 141 functioning NPPs yielding totally 115327 M We(net). From these latter the majority (67.4 %) are water-cooled type reactors, half of them, 47, having been built after the projects by specialists of the former US. On the neighbouring territories (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Czech and Slovak Republics) 18 NPPs are currently under construction, which are envisaged to yield about 14089 M We in total. (author)

  4. Location and security of nuclear power stations

    Starting from recent court decisions, the author highlights environmental safety in regard to operation according to regulations and to accidents, and the excludability of an uncontrollable, catastrophic accident. He discusses the site issue under the legal aspect of protecting the individual, of reducing the residual risk, of an international process of consultations on nuclear power stations situated near to frontiers. A decision on sites by parliament and the setting of dose limits by law are rejected by the author who advocates further government provisions to reduce the residual risk. He comes to the conclusion that the site problem and the problems of legal decision-making are shrinking with the achieved safety, test and control techniques. This is also demonstrated to an increasing extent by legal proceedings at administrative courts. Despite many difficulties occurring in this proceedings - stringent decisions made very quickly, long duration of proceedings - it seems useless to shift the competence of decision-making elsewhere. (HSCH)

  5. Water chemistry in nuclear power station

    The nuclear power generation in Japan takes about 30 % of the total generated electric power, and the stable operation and the improvement of the rate of operation are anticipated. In such situation, the water quality control in nuclear power stations aims at the prevention of the corrosion damage of structural materials in the plants, the grasp of the behavior of corrosion products of infinitesimal amount and the countermeasures for reducing them as the important subjects. At the beginning of the operation of LWRs in Japan, stress corrosion cracking and the rise of plant dose rate in BWRs and the corrosion damage of steam generator tubes in PWRs occurred, and the importance of water quality control was recognized. The water quality control standard and the materials for BWRs are shown. In BWRs, the maintenance of the purity of water is the primary subject. The quantity of dissolved oxygen is properly adjusted, and the reduction of generation and removal of iron crud are carried out. Also the water quality control standard and the materials for PWRs are shown. In the primary system, the concentrations of boric acid and lithium hydroxide are controlled, and the pH of coolant is an adjustment factor. In the secondary system, all volatile treatment and condensate desalting equipment are used. (Kako, I.)

  6. Evaluation of predicted and operated parameters of photovoltaic power - station

    This report is concerned with comparison of amount of power produced by photovoltaic power-station determined before construction by simulation of the given system with actually measured values during the full operation of the power-station. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the results of prediction against actual situation. The solution result is the justification of deviations measured. (authors)

  7. Living near a nuclear power station

    The need to expand nuclear power and its advantages are discussed publicly nearly each week. According to politicians and the nuclear lobby investing tens of billions Sk at Mochovce will bring Slovakia the often cited 'independence and energy self-sufficiency'. It will also mean profit for Slovenske elektrarne and the company's shareholders - the state and Italian company, Enel. In addition to the lively discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear energy, TREND was also interested in the living conditions around the concrete and strictly guarded, potentially dangerous plants and in the opinion of the people most affected by Mochovce and Jaslovske Bohunice on expansion of the existing and the building of new nuclear power plants. The construction of nuclear powers stations in these regions was not only about new jobs. The state 'prescribed' iodine pills and did not allow any construction in the region and, in the case of Mochovce, ordered the complete demolition of a village. The only thing that remained from Mochovce village was the church. 'And when it was found that the power plant would not reach it, it was even given a new roof. Former inhabitants, especially the older ones that had problems accepting the evacuation, used to visit it often,' explained Jan Foldy, the head of the local municipality in Kalna nad Hronom. After many years, life in the neighbouring villages is not bad. Their budgets are overflowing and so they can afford to spoil their inhabitants with free cable TV and high standard sport facilities, which should partly compensate for the fact that the people are living so close to a nuclear facility. (authors)

  8. Engineering blasting and vibration monitor near nuclear power station

    The record of earth and stone work blasting test near the Daya bay nuclear power station is presented. Through the test, the schemes of earth and stone work blasting excavation and vibration monitor are gained, ensuring not only the safe operation of Daya bay nuclear power station but also the progress of Lingao nuclear power station engineering. Practice indicates that the two schemes are feasible

  9. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    Contractor, A.D.; Lele, H.G.; Vaze, K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Division; Srivastava, A.


    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  10. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  11. Work place regulations - effects on power station construction

    The paper describes that the Workplace Order and Workplace Regulations cannot be applied in every area of a conventional power station or the conventional sections of nuclear power stations. In any case extensive regulations already exist for the hot regions of nuclear power stations. A proposal is made as to which areas of power stations should be developed in accordance with the Workplace Order and the Workplace Regulations and which areas are not deemed to be 'Workplaces'. This is illustrated with the aid of typical examples. (orig.)


    Kavelin, V.; National Aviation University, Kyiv


     Gas-turbine power station is a modern, high-technology plant, which generates electricity and heat energy. It consists of one or more gas-turbine engines – power-plants ganged with electric generator and combined into one power complex by controlling system. Mobile power stations are used in districts, which are distant from source of electric power, e.g. during building of waterworks, mines, bore-holes drilling etc. Primary purpose of mobile power stations is their usage as emergency source...

  13. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station project in... interconnection agreement to construct the proposed 300 megawatt (MW) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and...

  14. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station in White...) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota (Project). The proposed facility...

  15. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station


    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station Energy Facility project (Project) in Brookings... to construct, own, operate, and maintain the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility, a 300 MW...

  16. Modern power station practice incorporating modern power system practice

    Reynolds, PM


    This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi

  17. Modern power station practice, incorporating modern power system practice. Volume A: station planning and design; 3rd. ed.

    Martin, P.C.; Hannah, I.W. [eds.


    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with `non-engineering` factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are also treated, from the earliest planning and site selection studies, through estimating, finance and quantity surveying, to final landscaping. Main chapter headings are: power station siting and site layout; station design and layout; and civil engineering and building works. The book draws on experience gained by the CEGB through the commissioning of its large modern power stations in the United Kingdom. 216 figs.

  18. Trustworthiness test of nuclear power station employees

    The trustworthiness test is an important part of securing nuclear facilities against internal offenders. For performing such a test the supervisory authority, which is the State's physical protection authority, contacts the security offices or authorities regarding persons who work inside the sensitive areas of nuclear power stations - areas containing nuclear material. The trustworthiness test covers the present activities of the employees and gives a prediction for the following five years; after this time the test must be repeated. The trustworthiness test is a prerequisite for a facility to obtain a licence for the use of nuclear material, to hire persons for work in the inner area of a nuclear facility or the hire persons for leading positions. In Germany the content and form of the test as well as the evaluation of the results are regulated in a guideline of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) (latest edition in June 1996). The test is performed by the licensing authority or the supervisory authority. the basis of the test is a declaration by the employee concerned, containing personal data and the agreement of the person to the use of the data files by the safety authorities. It the results of the test are positive, the person tested has the possibility to comment on differences or to explain certain facts. The paper presents details of the BMU guideline. (author)

  19. Corrosion protection at a nuclear power station

    Early in the 1970's, the Electricity Supply Commission (Eskom) in South Africa took the decision to construct South Africa's first nuclear fuelled power station. The environment at Koeberg, however, was determined as being particularly corrosive. Eskom was thus faced with the task of selecting corrosion resistant materials and protective coating systems that would provide the required performance in the hostile marine environment. In order to select the correct coating, it was decided to conduct an investigation into the behaviour of various coating systems. All the major coating suppliers in South Africa were invited to provide wet samples of the coating systems that they would recommend. These coatings were applied to mild steel panels which had been prepared in accordance with the coating manufacturer's specification. The panels were then mounted on exposure test racks at various sites. The results of this coating exposure programme were used in the compilation of the corrosion protection specifications for plant and components exposed to the atmosphere at Koeberg. 1 ill

  20. Improvements in steam-cycle thermal power-stations

    The invention concerns means for improving the thermodynamic output of thermal power stations and in particular nuclear power stations. A heat pump is used for compressing steam taken from a generator and the thus pressurized steam is used for re-superheating the operating fluid, once partially expanded or even prior to the expansion thereof. Within a given temperature and pressure range, the additional power thus provided by the turbine is greater than the power spent by the pump. This can be applied to power stations comprising means for re-superheating the operating fluid through quick steam and/or steam drawn from the turbine

  1. Human reliability analysis of Lingao Nuclear Power Station

    The necessity of human reliability analysis (HRA) of Lingao Nuclear Power Station are analyzed, and the method and operation procedures of HRA is briefed. One of the human factors events (HFE) is analyzed in detail and some questions of HRA are discussed. The authors present the analytical results of 61 HFEs, and make a brief introduction of HRA contribution to Lingao Nuclear Power Station

  2. Computer management of refueling for nuclear power station

    The author analyzes the disadvantages of refueling management for nuclear power station at present. A method of computer management of refueling for nuclear power station is put forward and the main functions of the system are explained. The implementation method of the system is also discussed. Finally the expanded prospect is given

  3. The economic consequences of the Sizewell 'B' nuclear power station

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (the background to Sizewell 'B'); policy options (Sizewell 'B'; a new coal-fired station; the no-new-station option; a PWR programme); economic framework (direct effects; financing; final macroeconomic effects); the construction phase (capital costs; direct effects; final effects; summary); the operating phase (a new power station as a replacement for older stations; the period of base-load operation; the later years of operation; summary); conclusions and policy recommendations. The first recommendation is that if a new power station is built it should be a coal-fired station rather than a PWR. The second recommendation is that if a new coal station is built there is a case for building it early, ahead of demand. (U.K.)

  4. A concept of the energy storable orbital power station (ESOPS)

    Akiba, Ryojiro; Takano, Tadashi; Yokota, Hiroki

    To save foreseeable difficulties and risks associated with large scale development of the Space Power Station on GEO at a remote distance, the Energy Storable Orbital Power Station (ESOPS) placed in a near earth orbit is proposed. Most promising orbit for ESOPS is a fixed periapsis pseudo sun synchronous orbit. A thermodynamical power generation is preferable owing to its inherent insensitive nature against radiation suffered on the medium altitude orbit. Thermal energy storage using latent heat of fusion seems the best choice for this system. The power transmission from ESOPS to ground station presents most critical problems due to non-stationary characteristics.

  5. Podcast - Interview with Anna Sfard

    Sfard, Anna


    , The Doctoral School of Human Centered Informatics (HCI) and The Doctoral school of Education, Learning and Philosophy. During the course Thomas Ryberg had the opportunity to interview the invited guest speakers about their views on the notion of identity within learning and educational research. The...... first interview was with Anna Sfard who at present holds a joint appointment in Michigan State University in US (as Lappan-Phillips-Fitzgerald Professor of Mathematics Education) and in the University of Haifa, Israel. During the interview Anna talks about her research on identity and two metaphors on...

  6. The safety reinforcement measures at Shika Nuclear Power Station

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was initiated by the Tohoku earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011. To prevent the event as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, we had implemented the necessary safety reinforcement measures in Shika Nuclear Power Stations. In this paper, we are going to introduce the flood prevention measures that prevent seawater from entering the power stations. And we also secured emergency power supplies for the case of loss of all AC power supplies. In addition, we secured the function of coolant systems by diversifying water sources and deployment of fire engines and so forth. As the next step, including the adaptation of Shika Nuclear Power Stations for the new regulations that are going to be forced on next July, not staying the existing state, we are going to study and implement the further measures to improve safety and reliability of Shika Nuclear Power Stations. (author)

  7. Review of radioactive discharges from nuclear power stations

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report is a review of the arisings and concludes that suitable technologies exist, which if applied, could reduce discharges from nuclear power plants in England and Wales in line with the rest of Europe. (author)

  8. Station planning and design incorporating modern power system practice

    Martin, PC


    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with ""non-engineering"" factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are

  9. Analysis of boron at Koeberg Power Station

    Soluble reactivity poisons, also called chemical shim, produce spatially uniform neutron absorption when dissolved in reactor coolant water. The boron-10 isotope having a high neutron absorption coefficient is used in commercial pressurised water reactors (PWR) to limit and control reactivity. This is achieved at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) and the majority of commercial PWR's worldwide by the addition of natural boric acid to the reactor coolant. The boric acid dissolved in the coolant decreases the thermal utilisation factor, causing a decrease in reactivity. By varying the concentration of boric acid (and hence also the B-10 concentration) in the coolant, a process referred to as boration and dilution, the reactivity of the core can be easily managed. An increase in boron concentration (boration) creates negative reactivity and if the boron concentration is reduced (dilution), positive reactivity is added. The changing of boron concentration in a PWR is used primarily to compensate for fuel burn-up or poison build-up. The variation in boron concentration allows control rod use to be minimised, which results in a flatter flux profile over the core than can be produced by control rod manipulation. Accurate laboratory and on-line chemical analysis of boron concentration is important because of its operational implications associated with reactivity control and also for nuclear safety. In a normal fuel cycle, as the nuclear fuel is being consumed, the reactor coolant boric acid (B-10) concentration must be reduced by dilution with purified water to maintain the reactor at constant power. Besides in the reactor coolant water, boric acid concentration is also important in the chemical and volume control system and reactor make-up system for operation. For nuclear safety, boric acid concentrations are technical specification parameters, maintained and monitored in the spent fuel system and safety injection systems. Boron concentration determination is

  10. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    A description is given of the policy and practices that would be adopted in the commissioning, operation and maintenance of the proposed Sizewell B PWR power station. The system of personnel recruitment and training required to staff the station is discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Application of additional diesel generators in nuclear power stations

    In order to enlarge the nuclear safety margin, ensure safe shutdown of nuclear reactors under loss of on-site and offsite power supply, and raise the unit availability through elongation of diesel fallback time under unavailability of emergency diesel generators, at present, nuclear power stations of most countries and zones in the world such as France, the U.S., south Africa, South Korea and Taiwan have been equipped with additional diesel generators, making the safety performance of above-mentioned nuclear power stations advanced in the world. The wiring procedures, power supply mode, testing methods and the power supply and connection schemes of motor control center are described

  12. Automation of Space Station module power management and distribution system

    Bechtel, Robert; Weeks, Dave; Walls, Bryan


    Viewgraphs on automation of space station module (SSM) power management and distribution (PMAD) system are presented. Topics covered include: reasons for power system automation; SSM/PMAD approach to automation; SSM/PMAD test bed; SSM/PMAD topology; functional partitioning; SSM/PMAD control; rack level autonomy; FRAMES AI system; and future technology needs for power system automation.

  13. Reload Startup Physics Tests for Tianwan Nuclear Power station

    This paper briefly describes the test purposes, test items, test schedules and test equipment's for reload startup physics test's on Unit 1 and 2 of Tianwan Nuclear Power station. Then, an overview of the previous thrice tests and evaluations on the tests results are presented. In the end, the paper shows the development and work direction of optimization project for reload startup physics tests on Unit 1 and 2 of Tianwan Nuclear Power station. (Authors)

  14. The first n4 power station: Chooz B

    The authorization to commence construction of the first N4 nuclear power station, Chooz B, with a capacity of 1400 MWe; was granted at the end of 1983. After giving the reasons behind the development of this new generation of power stations the author describes its main characteristics in the light of new developments in various sectors: main components of the system; the control room; health physics; safety; extension of campaigns; improved performance

  15. Planning and preparedness for radiological emergencies at nuclear power stations

    The Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program was created after the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assists state and local governments in reviewing and evaluating state and local REP plans and preparedness for accidents at nuclear power plants, in partnership with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which evaluates safety and emergency preparedness at the power stations themselves. Argonne National Laboratory provides support and technical assistance to FEMA in evaluating nuclear power plant emergency response exercises, radiological emergency plans, and preparedness

  16. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array


    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  17. Optimal Selection of Floating Platform for Tidal Current Power Station

    Fengmei Jing


    Full Text Available With continuous development of marine engineering, more and more new structures are used in the exploring of tidal current energy. Three are there different kinds of support structures for tidal current power station, which are sea-bed mounted/gravity based system, pile mounted system and floating moored platform. Comparison with them, the floating mooring system is suit for deep water and the application of which will be widely. In this study, catamaran and semi-submersible as floating platform of tidal current power station are studied. And they are compared with its economic, efficiency of turbine and stability of station. It is found that the catamaran is optimal choice. Based on basic ship theory and using software MOSES, the stability of Catamaran tidal current power station is also calculated. The research of this study is significant and it will be as the reference for the future study.

  18. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: statement of case

    This Statement of Case contains full particulars of the case which the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) proposes to put forward at the Hinkley Point ''C'' Inquiry. It relates to the planning application made by the CEGB for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power station at Hinkley Point in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The inquiry will consider economic, safety, environmental and planning matters relevant to the application and the implications for agriculture and local amenities of re-aligning two power transmission lines. The Statement contains submissions on the following matters: Topic 1 The Requirement for the Station; Topic 2 Safety and Design, including Radioactive Discharges; Topic 3 The On-Site Management of Radioactive Waste and Decommissioning of the Station; Topic 4 Emergency Arrangements; Topic 5 Local and Environmental Issues. (author)

  19. Renewal of a nuclear power station using the nuclear power station. Proposal to the energy policy by British Energy, Co

    British Energy, Co. (BE) carried out a proposal containing the titled content on review of energy policy promoted by the English Government. At present, in England, as about one fourth of total power generation is supplied by nuclear power generation, because of no construction plan of a new nuclear power station, no unit will be operated on 2025 except the Sizewell Nuclear Power Station. Now, BE proposed that from a viewpoint of energy security in England and the Earth environment, shares of power generation on 2025 should be 15 % in coal heat, 40 % in gas heat, 20 % in reusable energy, and 25 % in nuclear power generations. Therefore, it is said that about ten units of 1.0 to 1.2 million kW output of nuclear power station must be constructed and begun to operate from 2010 to 2025. However, as at present power market price in England, new construction of a nuclear power station will not be payable, together with proposing a carbon-free obligation system where a part of power is obtained from a source without emission of CO2, BE claims to have a negotiation to exempt disposal responsibility on used fuels and radioactive wastes of neck in BE's yield to enforce equity finance ability of BE. Here was introduced on outlines of the proposal. (G.K.)

  20. Hydroelectric power stations and ecological energy policy

    The report discusses the place of hydroenergy in solving the power and ecological problems of Bulgaria: level of building up of the hydroelectric capacity of the country; possibilities for new hydro electric construction; environmental problems of design, construction and operation of the hydroelectric units; advantages of the hydroelectric engineering. The possibilities of the hydroelectric power plants as an alternative of the other more or less conventional electicity producers are shown in order to help in decision making as regards the problems of the economic, power and environmental crisis. (author)

  1. Nuclear power station and environmental protection

    Environmental pollution has become a major problem of the present times. In addition to the pollution of air, water, noise and food, there is pollution by industries and factories. Nuclear power plant is the best option to meet the increasing demand for power and to make use of available uranium and thorium in the country. It is generally believed that nuclear power plants increase pollution and are hazardous and not safe. An attempt has been made to analyse these beliefs on a scientific basis. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. Active screening of magnetic field near power stations generator buses

    B.I. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available An experimental study technique for a prototyping system of active screening of power-frequency magnetic field distortions near power station generator buses via controllable magnetic field sources is presented. Results of experimental research on a proto-typing active screening system with different control algorithms are given.

  3. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations


    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-4016, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff considers acceptable for terrestrial environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power...

  4. Construction of Dukovany nuclear power station

    A brief list is given of basic data on the construction of the third Czechoslovak nuclear power plant at Dukovany with four WWER-440 reactors. The technical specifications of the reactors are given as are the specifications of steam generators and of the main circulating pumps. The layout is given of the nuclear power plant designed with regard to operating efficiency, urban integration, fire protection, safety and hygiene control. (J.C.)

  5. Erection all risks insurance for nuclear power station

    Nuclear power stations are built and installed with components and facilities highly sophisticated on the basis of modern science and technology. Therefore, it has various features in both risks and insurance provision. In considering the damage insurance for nuclear installations, the insurance for nuclear power stations is the most characteristic, and further, the outline can be grasped relatively easily. Among the various damage insurances for nuclear power stations, an insurance for all risks during their erection is described: risk-covering method, the objects of insurance, insurance-contracting particles, damages compensated by the insurance, damages and expenses not compensated, the amounts covered and the limits in damage compensation, the term of insurance, the burden charges of the insured party, the amounts of damage and the amounts covered, adjustment with a nuclear-power property insurance. (Mori, K.)

  6. The ISO 9001 combined cycle gas turbine power station

    Copeland, C. [Enron Power Operations Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom)


    Enron Power Operations Limited is believed to be one of the first organisations to achieve BS EN ISO9001: 1994 for an Operational Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Station. In 1997 the Power Station decided to re-create policies and procedures to fill in the unknown gaps in its array of policies and procedures. The creation of the Quality Management System was expected to take six months utilising limited resources and the experiences of operational staff. Initial checks and internal audits created a wealth of information and highlighted some significant short falls, once certification was gained further issues have been noted. This paper concerns the development, implementation and certification of the Quality Management System at Teesside Power Station showing some benefits noted during this period and the short period after certification. Any other improvements and benefits will come in the future during continued development of the system. (author)

  7. Preventive maintenance activities for nuclear power station

    The supply of stable electric power by getting rid of the failures of nuclear power plants is an important factor for obtaining reliance and social acceptance for nuclear power plants as power sources. Electric power companies have improved their installations as well as carried out maintenance during operation, regular inspection and arrangement. Nuclear plant manufacturers not only implement maintenance and facility-improving works at the request of electric power companies, but also have charge of cooperation in maintenance planning, maintenance engineering services such as operation and repair data analysis and the development of working robots for maintenance. This paper introduces the maintenance activities presently performed by Hitachi Ltd., that is (1) servicing activities for supporting maintenance centering around the Nuclear Plant Service Center; (2) maintenance works in regular inspection; (3) maintenance engineering services to offer preventive maintenance data; and (4) the automation of maintenance works and the development of working robots for reducing exposure to radiation. The robots for nuclear plants are roughly divided into the following four types, and the results of using robots are described. They are exchange machines for replacing reactor or auxiliary components; inspection machines for monitoring plant conditions during reactor operation and for inspection works during shutdown; decontamination machines for reducing radiation dose of reactor equipment; and machining robots for reactor equipment reconstruction or repairing works. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Modern power station practice: incorporating modern power system practice. V. J: Nuclear power generation. 3. ed.

    The contents of this new edition of the nuclear volume of Modern Power Station Practice reflect the considerable expansion and development of nuclear power generation in the UK since the initial volume was published in 1964. During that period the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) programme has been completed, the approval of Sizewell B launches a new generation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) stations and the first of the Magnox has completed its useful life. Thus the current volume presents a comprehensive picture of the design, development and operation of the majority of the nuclear station designs currently being operated throughout the world. Four independent but complementary chapters cover Nuclear physics and basic technology; Nuclear station design; Nuclear station operation and Nuclear safety. Although each chapter is complete within itself, some overlap of technical matter between the chapters is inevitable and indeed essential, reflecting the co-operation of widely differing technical disciplines necessary to ensure the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear stations. (Author)

  9. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power station

    It is stipulated that nuclear power plants are to be built on solid rock bases on land in Japan. However, there are a limited number of appropriate siting grounds. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has engaged since 1981 in the studies on the construction technology of power plants, aiming at establishing new siting technology to expand the possible siting areas for nuclear power plants. Underground siting is regarded as a proven technology due to the experience in underground hydroelectric power plants. The technology of siting on quaternary ground is now at the stage of verification. In this report, the outline of floating type offshore/inshore siting technology is introduced, which is considered to be feasible in view of the technical and economical aspects. Three fixed structure types were selected, of which the foundations are fixed to seabed, plant superstructures are above sea surface, and which are floating type. Aiming at ensuring the aseismatic stability of the plant foundations, the construction technology is studied, and the structural concept omitting buoyancy is possible. The most practical water depth is not more than 20 m. The overall plant design, earthquake isolation effect and breakwater are described. (Kako, I.)

  10. The power station society's new research and development initiative

    The society of power stations in Sweden has taken an initiative to promote research and development by its members which consist of privately owned generating stations. The areas of work are to be: technology, organisation, economy and finance, environment and relationship to society and man. The article deals with the economics, resources, aims and basis for cooperation and general administrative aspects. (J.H.H.)

  11. Improvements in operational safety performance of the Magnox power stations

    In the 43 years since commencement of operation of Calder Hall, the first Magnox power station, there remain eight Magnox stations and 20 reactors still in operation, owned by BNFL Magnox Generation. This paper describes how the operational safety performance of these stations has significantly improved over the last ten years. This has been achieved against a background of commercial competition introduced by privatization and despite the fact that the Magnox base design belongs to the past. Finally, the company's future plans for continued improvements in operational safety performance are discussed. (author)

  12. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is ± 0.5 dB in amplitude and ± 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  13. Tritium releases and impact about EDF nuclear power stations

    After a description of the different ways of formation of tritium in the nuclear power stations (either by fission or by activation), the authors discuss the levels of tritium releases by these power stations, indicate the tritium average activities in liquid and gaseous radioactive releases in 2008. They indicate the choices made by EDF and the actions performed to control these releases. They describe how the presence of tritium in the environment is monitored and how measurements are published. They discuss the interpretation of these measurements (in water streams, water sheets, sediments, along the Channel French coasts), and the impact of the tritium released by the nuclear power stations. They evoke modelling studies and researches supported by EDF on the impact of tritium on mankind

  14. Focus on coal power station installations and population health

    Marco Valenti


    Full Text Available Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence.

  15. Waste management and environmental issues at Callide B Power Station

    Callide B is a coal-fired power station located east of Biloela in the Callide Valley of Central Queensland. To protect the Callide Valley groundwater, a zero waste-water discharge concept was adopted for the power station. This strategy is possible because waste-water volumes are minimized through natural evaporation, is re-used for ash transport and remaining wastes (mainly ash and water) are held behind a clay-cored earth dam 3.2 km in length. This paper describes the environmental monitoring programs, dam surveillance and waste management adopted to maintain the quality of the Callide Valley resource. Groundwater quality downstream of the power station site is considered good to marginal. It is used extensively as a source of irrigation water for agriculture and also supplies 40 percent of Biloela's town water requirements. (author). 8 figs., 17 refs

  16. Focus on coal power station installations and population health.

    Valenti, Marco; Masedu, Francesco; Tiberti, Sergio


    Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence. PMID:21952157

  17. Modelling of the Installed Capacity of Landfill Power Stations

    Blumberga, D.; Kuplais, Ģ.; Veidenbergs, I.; Dāce, E.; Gušča, J.


    More and more landfills are being developed, in which biogas is produced and accumulated, which can be used for electricity production. Currently, due to technological reasons, electricity generation from biogas has a very low level of efficiency. In order to develop this type of energy production, it is important to find answers to various engineering, economic and ecological issues. The paper outlines the results obtained by creating a model for the calculations of electricity production in landfill power stations and by testing it in the municipal solid waste landfill "Daibe". The algorithm of the mathematical model for the operation of a biogas power station consists of four main modules: • initial data module, • engineering calculation module, • tariff calculation module, and • climate calculation module. As a result, the optimum capacity of the power station in the landfill "Daibe" is determined, as well as the analysis of the landfill's economic data and cost-effectiveness is conducted.

  18. Nuclear Power 2010 Program Dominion Virginia Power Cooperative Project U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-05ID14635 Construction and Operating License Demonstration Project Final Report

    Eugene S. Grecheck


    This report serves to summarize the major activities completed as part of Virginia Electric and Power Company's North Anna construction and operating license demonstration project with DOE. Project successes, lessons learned, and suggestions for improvement are discussed. Objectives of the North Anna COL project included preparation and submittal of a COLA to the USNRC incorporating ESBWR technology for a third unit a the North Anna Power Station site, support for the NRC review process and mandatory hearing, obtaining NRC approval of the COLA and issuance of a COL, and development of a business case necessary to support a decision on building a new nuclear power plant at the North Anna site.

  19. Proceedings of scientific-technical seminar: materials investigation for power stations and power grid

    This report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power stations as well as power grid. The diagnostic methods are also discussed. (author)

  20. General technical characteristics of the Paks nuclear power station

    The power station is planned to have 1760 MW; it will consist of 4 power units of 440 MW each. The energy source for the power station is a heterogeneous pressurized water reactor of the type V-213 representing a thermal output of 1375 MW. The reactor will use moderately enriched uranium as a fuel. As to its technological scheme the power plant will have two circuits. The radioactive primary circuit, accomodated in a hermetic box, will contain the reactor, the six loops including the steam generators, main circulating pumps, gate valves, pipings. The non-radioactive secondary circuit accomodates the turbogenerator sets, all their ancillary equipment and heat supply installations. Associated to the reactor hall an auxiliary building serves to store temporarily the liquid and solid radioactive waste. The power plant will be connected to the national grid at voltages of 120 and 400 kV. (author)

  1. Gas electric power station - real option approach

    In this paper a real option approach for a concrete Gas Power Plant (GPP) is analysed. The classical approach determines the Net Present Value (NPV) for investment in the GPP when the capital of a unit value is at least as large as its installation cost. But the classical NPV rule does not include the opportunity cost of the possibility of waiting a new information from the market that may affect the desirability or the timing of the investment (project). In addition, we must note that in the short run the volatility of the variable dominates, but in the long-run the trend dominates. (Original)

  2. Improving Energy Efficiency of Hydroelectric Power Stations at Irrigation Reservoirs by Wind Power Add-In

    We demonstrated the possibility of improving the energy efficiency of hydropower stations at irrigation reservoirs based on the energy use of mountain-valley wind flows of surface layers of the atmosphere through the establishment of wind power generation superstructures to the hydroelectric power station that work with them. (author)

  3. Large containment vessel for nuclear power station

    Reactor containment vessels are installed for preventing scattering radioactive substances at the time of breaking of nuclear equipments, and they have grown large with the increase of reactor power output. As for the types of containment vessels, self-supporting type, concrete liner type, and hybrid type are named, and there are cylindrical, conical, spherical, and electric bulb forms. Reactor pressure vessels and important equipments and pipings are contained in containment vessels, and the measures for safety and in-service inspection are the factors enlarging the containment vessels. The present tendency is to enlarge containment vessels so as to obtain large free space for taking sufficient safety measures and carrying out in-service inspection. The steels for contruction self-supporting containment vessels must be tough enough at low temperature, have good weldability, not require stress relief annealing in field welding, and have stable quality. In case of using SPV-50, the plate thickness required is smaller than 38 mm, the limit that annealing is not required, even when the internal pressure and earthquake load are taken into account. Spherical containment vessels used for small output so far became to be used also for large power output because the plate thickness required is relatively small, sufficient working space can be obtained, and the manufacture is easy. (Kako, I.)

  4. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Li Qiankun


    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  5. Design Provisions for Withstanding Station Blackout at Nuclear Power Plants

    International operating experience has shown that the loss of off-site power supply concurrent with a turbine trip and unavailability of the standby alternating current power system is a credible event. Lessons learned from the past and recent station blackout events, as well as the analysis of the safety margins performed as part of the ‘stress tests’ conducted on European nuclear power plants in response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, have identified the station blackout event as a limiting case for most nuclear power plants. The magnitude 9.0 earthquake and consequential tsunami which occurred in Fukushima, Japan, in March 2011, led to a common cause failure of on-site alternating current electrical power supply systems at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant as well as the off-site power grid. In addition, the resultant flooding caused the loss of direct current power supply, which further exacerbated an already critical situation at the plant. The loss of electrical power resulted in the meltdown of the core in three reactors on the site and severely restricted heat removal from the spent fuel pools for an extended period of time. The plant was left without essential instrumentation and controls, and this made accident management very challenging for the plant operators. The operators attempted to bring and maintain the reactors in a safe state without information on the vital plant parameters until the power supply was eventually restored after several days. Although the Fukushima Daiichi accident progressed well beyond the expected consequences of a station blackout, which is the complete loss of all alternating current power supplies, many of the lessons learned from the accident are valid. A failure of the plant power supply system such as the one that occurred at Fukushima Daiichi represents a design extension condition that requires management with predesigned contingency planning and operator training. The extended loss of all power at a

  6. Port construction works in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station

    Sendai Nuclear Power Station is the second nuclear power station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., with two PWR plants of 890 MW each, and the operation of No.1 plant will be started in July, 1984, and that of No.2 plant in March, 1986. The civil engineering works for both plants were started in June, 1978, and March, 1981, respectively, and the rate of progress as of the end of September, 1982, was 97 % and 66 %, respectively. In the construction of this power station, the port facility was provided for the transport of construction materials and spent fuel, and for the intake of condenser cooling water. In order to make the construction by dry work, the double cofferdam structures with steel sheet piles were made offshore. The use of the wharf was started in March, 1980, though typhoons hit the area several times, and the dredging in the port was completed in May, 1982. The outline of the plan of this power station, the state of affairs before the start of construction, the outline of the port construction works, the topography, geological features and sea conditions, the design of the port such as breakwaters, unloading wharf and water intake, the manufacture and installation of caissons, dredging, and the temporary cofferdam works for water intake are described. (author)

  7. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky


    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. PMID:25646673

  8. Safety of CANDU nuclear power stations

    A nuclear plant contains a large amount of radioactive material which could be a potential threat to public health. The plant is therefore designed, built and operated so that the risk to the public is low. Careful design of the normal reactor systems is the first line of defense. These systems are highly resistant to an accident happening in the first place, and can also be effective in stopping it if it does happen. Independent and redundant safety sytems minimize the effects of an accident, or stop it completely. They include shutdown systems, emergency core cooling systems, and containment systems. Massive impairment of any one safety system together with an accident can be tolerated. This 'defence in depth' approach recognizes that men and machines are imperfect and that the unexpected happens. The nuclear power plant need not be perfect to be safe. To allow meaningful judgements we must know how safe the plant is. The Atomic Energy Control Board guidelines give one such measure, but they may overestimate the true risk. We interpret these guidelines as an upper limit to the total risk, and trace their evolution. (author)

  9. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    J. Bauer


    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  10. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    A description is given of the work of the CEGB's Health and Safety Department in assessing the safety of the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station. Issues considered include: external hazards; layout of buildings and plant; primary coolant pressure circuit; fuel; reactor protection systems; safety analysis; radioactive waste management systems; radiological protection; quality assurance; human factors. (U.K.)

  11. Overall strategy of Creys Malville power station dismantling

    The power station was stopped by a government decision following the elections in 1997. This shutdown was then officialized by a letter dated April 1998 and the decree of December 1998. This was a non-technical shutdown and as such had not been envisaged; there has been no early warning. (author)

  12. The Staffing of Central Electricity Generating Board Nuclear Power Stations

    An account is given of the staffing requirements and organization at a CEBG nuclear power station. The training of staff and licensing requirements for reactoroperating staff are discussed. Experience gained to data of the outcome of pre-operating training and detailed planning in the operational sphere is given. (author)

  13. Prospects for solving environmental problems pertinent to thermal power stations

    A.G. Tumanovskii; V.R. Kotler [OAO All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Possible ways to protect the atmosphere and water basin against harmful emissions and effluent waters discharged from thermal power stations are considered. Data on the effectiveness of different methods for removing NOx, SO{sub 2}, and ash particles, as well as heavy metals and CO{sub 2}, from these emissions and discharges are presented.

  14. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    A description is given of the role of Lloyd's Register of Shipping as Independent Inspection Agency for the primary circuit of the PWR for the proposed Sizewell B power station. Topics discussed include: Lloyd's Register of Shipping and its functions; the Independent Inspection Agency and its functions; fabrication of the reactor pressure vessel; inspection on site at Sizewell. (U.K.)

  15. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The non-destructive testing of components for the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station is discussed. Issues considered include: non-destructive testing techniques available; inspection of ferritic steel components during fabrication; reliability of the ultrasonic inspection of ferritic structures; inspection of components of austenitic steel; in-service inspection of the reactor coolant system. (U.K.)

  16. Considerations on control systems in power stations and similar technologies

    Friedrich, H.J.; Scholz, K.


    The statements made are mainly to be regarded as a contribution to the discussion at the ETG/GMR converence on control system in power stations in May 1982. The authors discuss the special subject of the use of central information transmission channels. They indicate both possible limits and also special advantages, and then discuss these.

  17. Ozone for purification of water in nuclear power stations

    Visibility problems are uncommon in BWR reactors of the German type but they do occur occasionally. At KRB A nuclear power station, the water in the storage pond became turbid in shutdown conditions, which slowed down the work. The authors describe attempts to solve the problem. Ozone treatment was successful

  18. Automated power management within a Space Station module

    Miller, William D.; Jones, Ellen F.


    An effort to advance and develop techniques and approaches for automation and autonomy in power management and distribution with a Space Station module is described. The applicable breadboard architecture is discussed, summarizing the function partitioning. The breadboard software is briefly addressed, and the breadboard automated operation is described in detail.

  19. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The scenic effect of the proposed Sizewell B power station is considered. Offsite planting of trees, landscaping of the areas around the new access road and of the site itself are discussed. The landscape designs are in a separate volume. (U.K.)


    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  1. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The case for Sizewell B in terms of the CEGB's overall duties, policies and objectives is presented. The discussion concentrates on the rationale of the CEGB's wish to proceed with Sizewell B and the implications which an eventual decision to proceed with a Pressurised Water Reactor at Sizewell could have for future power station orders. (U.K.)

  2. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The practice of radiological protection within the CEGB is described. Health physics at nuclear power stations is discussed. Radiation exposure of operational staff at a PWR and radiation exposure of members of the public are considered. Finally arrangements for dealing with radiological hazards arising during a site emergency are described. (U.K.)

  3. Emergency evacuation around nuclear power stations :a systems approach

    Kari, Uday Shankar


    Prior to this work, MASSVAC (MASS eVACuation) had evolved as a micro-computer simulation model for analysis and evaluation of areas facing natural disasters (hurricanes and floods). Conceptual and technical enhancements have been made to procedures within MASSVAC to deal with the special problems of evacuating around nuclear power stations. Its incorporation into TEDSS-3 (Transportation-Evacuation Decision Support System) has resulted in a powerful tool to assist development...

  4. Focus on coal power station installations and population health

    Marco Valenti; Francesco Masedu; Sergio Tiberti


    Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power sta...

  5. Total life cycle cost model for electric power stations

    The Total Life Cycle Cost (TLCC) model for electric power stations was developed to provide a technology screening model. The TLCC analysis involves normalizing cost estimates with respect to performance standards and financial assumptions and preparing a profile of all costs over the service life of the power station. These costs when levelized present a value in terms of a utility electricity rate. Comparison of cost and the pricing of the electricity for a utility shows if a valid project exists. Cost components include both internal and external costs. Internal costs are direct costs associated with the purchase, and operation of the power station and include initial capital costs, operating and maintenance costs. External costs result from societal and/or environmental impacts that are external to the marketplace and can include air quality impacts due to emissions, infrastructure costs, and other impacts. The cost stream is summed (current dollars) or discounted (constant dollars) to some base year to yield a overall TLCC of each power station technology on a common basis. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it may not always be a preferred method for some utilities who may prefer minimizing capital costs. Such consideration does not always result in technology penetration in a marketplace such as the utility sector. Under various regulatory climates, the utility is likely to heavily weigh initial capital costs while giving limited consideration to other costs such as societal costs. Policy makers considering external costs, such as those resulting from environmental impacts, may reach significantly different conclusions about which technologies are most advantageous to society. The TLCC analysis model for power stations was developed to facilitate consideration of all perspectives

  6. Battersea Power Station and environmental issues 1929-1989

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    From inception (1920s) to partial demolition (1980s) London's Battersea Power Station provoked public concern over environmental impacts. Adverse reaction during the early stages concerned siting and the effects of air pollutants on the urban surroundings. Potential air pollution problems resulted in a restrictive 'condition' being inserted in the consent for Battersea which required smoke and sulphur dioxide to be controlled. The 'condition' did not reassure either the public or special interest groups who campaigned against the construction of the station. However plans were too advanced to be halted and the official response focused on ensuring successful implementation of flue gas desulphurization. Though the subsequent effectiveness of emission control during the station's working life is arguable, the building itself rapidly became a popular London landmark and an architectural symbol of the fascination that surrounds technology. Objections to its decommissioning and demolition in the 1980s once again placed Battersea Power Station at the centre of public protest. Reactions to the station illustrate the rapidity with which our perception of environmental threats may change.

  7. Heat from nuclear power stations of Nordwestdeutsche Kraftwerke AG (NWK)

    Because of dramatically increased prices, especially for conventional fuels, the feasibility of supplying heat from condensation power plants, constructed solely for generating electric power, has been examined at NWK. In this report, a brief outline is given of the nuclear power stations with which NWK is involved, the main focal point being the heat output derivation from the nuclear power station at Stade. From the end of 1983, 60 tonnes of steam per hour, at a pressure of 8 bar and a temperature of 270 deg. C, will be supplied mainly for the production and heating requirements of an industrial firm which boils salt. Background factors which have led to the realization of this project, as well as the technology and its economy, are discussed. The secondary circulatory system of the nuclear power station and the 'external steam system' are separated from one another by surface heat exchangers. The steam converter required for generating external steam is heated by steam derived from tap A6 of the turbine. When the power station is operated at partial load, the heating steam pressure can be boosted by a reduction of live steam. The external steam is then conveyed to the saline via an approximately 1.5 km conduit pipe, and about 95% of it returns in the form of the condensation product. By releasing the steam, the electric capacity of the power station, available for generating electricity, is reduced by about 10 MW. The external steam-generating plant will be installed in an annex to the engine room. Taking into account the additional investments of almost DM 20 million, as well as the costs of providing a substitute for the shortfall of electric energy actually produced by the power station, even today steam can be supplied more cheaply than by the conventional process of using heavy fuel oil. In addition, the price of steam will change solely according to cost factors related to electricity generation, i.e. it will not be dependent on developments in the sphere

  8. Risk of loss power for ATWT in Daya Bay and Ling'ao nuclear power stations

    In order to analyze the differences between the Anticipated Transient Without Reactor Trip (ATWT) and other reactor protection methods, this paper analyzes in detail the realizing means of ATWT and the effect of lost of power supply on the units based on Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Stations by system wiring diagram. Based on the comprehensive analysis,this paper proposes the sequence for powering when recovering the power source after ATWT power supply (LCC/LNE) loss for Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Stations. (authors)

  9. Hovering and forward flight energetics in Anna's and Allen's hummingbirds.

    Clark, Christopher James; Dudley, Robert


    Aerodynamic theory predicts that the mechanical costs of flight are lowest at intermediate flight speeds; metabolic costs of flight should trend similarly if muscle efficiency is constant. We measured metabolic rates for nine Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) and two male Allen's hummingbirds (Selasphorus sasin) feeding during flight from a free-standing mask over a range of airspeeds. Ten of 11 birds exhibited higher metabolic costs during hovering than during flight at intermediate airspeeds, whereas one individual exhibited comparable costs at hovering and during forward flight up to speeds of approximately 7 m s(-1). Flight costs of all hummingbirds increased at higher airspeeds. Relative to Anna's hummingbirds, Allen's hummingbirds exhibited deeper minima in the power curve, possibly due to higher wing loadings and greater associated costs of induced drag. Although feeding at a mask in an airstream may reduce body drag and, thus, the contributions of parasite power to overall metabolic expenditure, these results suggest that hummingbird power curves are characterized by energetic minima at intermediate speeds relative to hovering costs. PMID:20455711

  10. Transwaal - economic district heat from the Beznau nuclear power station

    Initial study phases of the Transwaal project for distribution of heat from the Beznau nuclear power station via pipe lines to Aare and Limmat valley regions in Switzerland are presented. 500 MW heat availability through heat exchangers providing forward flow water temperature of 1200C, pipe line network and pumping station aspects, and the system energy flow diagram, are described. Considerations based on specific energy requirements in the year 2000 including alternative schemes showed economic viability. Investment and consumer costs and savings compared with oil and gas heating are discussed. Heat supply is guaranteed well into the 21st century and avoids environmental disadvantages. (H.V.H.)

  11. Computer based training simulator for Hunterston Nuclear Power Station

    For reasons which are stated, the Hunterston-B nuclear power station automatic control system includes a manual over-ride facility. It is therefore essential for the station engineers to be trained to recognise and control all feasible modes of plant and logic malfunction. A training simulator has been built which consists of a replica of the shutdown monitoring panel in the Central Control Room and is controlled by a mini-computer. This paper highlights the computer aspects of the simulator and relevant derived experience, under the following headings: engineering background; shutdown sequence equipment; simulator equipment; features; software; testing; maintenance. (U.K.)

  12. Environmental radon monitoring in gas turbine power station in Haryana

    Measurement of indoor radon and its progeny levels was carried out in Gas Turbine Power Station in Haryana, where natural gas is used as fuel. In the power station LR-115, Type- II plastic track detectors were exposed for 100 days at different locations. The radon levels measured at various locations were moderate to high and thus unsafe from health point of view. The potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), radon levels (EEC), annual exposure, annual effective dose in the Plant varied from 4.14 mWL to 26.7 mWL, 38.3 Bq m-3 to 247.6 Bq m-3, 0.17 WLM to 1.10 WLM and 0.66 mSv to 4.25 mSv. For comparison, the results of a study carried out in thermal power plant in Haryana are also presented. (author)

  13. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)


    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  14. Automatic plant start-up system for nuclear power station

    An automatic plant start-up system using a process computer has been applied to the unit No. 1 of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. This is the world's first commercial-base system for LWRs. Turbine start-up and power control by reactor recirculation flow are automated to reduce operator's labor and to improve the efficiency and accuracy of plant operation. The test data and the results of practical operation have proved the performance of the system is satisfactory. Major functions, configuration, and the results of performance tests at factory and at site are represented here. (author)

  15. Slovak power stations, Nuclear Power Plants Mochovce (Annual report 1997)

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1997; (4) Capital construction; (5) Nuclear safety; (6) Radiation safety; (7) Work safety and health protection at work; (9) Fire protection; (10) Units upgrading - safety measures; (11) Maintenance; (12) Operation; (13) Environmental impacts of operations; (14) List of balances; (15) Human sources; (16) International co-operation; (17) Public relations

  16. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede


    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses, the...... deposits can be grouped into five textural types, which all possess distinct textural and chemical characteristics. Likewise, the deposition mechanisms for these five types are characteristic and they may be used for constructing a model for the buildup and maturation of an ash deposit. The deposits...... collected on the probes were thin (maximum 2 mm after 9 h) and the influence of operational parameters and probe temperatures on the magnitude of the deposits were minor. The probe temperatures had no influence on the composition of the ash deposits for coals with low ash deposition propensities, whereas...

  17. Organization of radiation protection in German nuclear power stations

    Using the operating handbooks of the nuclear power stations in West Germany, an examination was carried out of how far the existing organisational structure for radiation protection fulfils the requirements for protection and whether a standardisation of the organisation would provide improvements for the protection of the personnel and for the practicability of the radiation protection organisation. In particular, the parts 'Personnel operating organisation', 'Radiation protection order' and 'Maintenance order' of the operating handbook were evaluated and an audit was made of the radiation protection organisation. In general, the result of the assessment is that the organisation of radiation protection does not contradict the orders, guidelines and regulations in any of the nuclear power stations examined. Corresponding to the possibilities of regulating details of the radiation protection organisation within the undertaking, the target of 'protection of the personnel against radioactive irradiation' is achieved by the various organisation structures which are largely equal to the given example. (orig./HP)

  18. Cooling water practices at coal and gas based power stations

    Water is used for a number of diverse purposes in a power plant. In most cases, the water cannot be used as such and requires treatment to ensure higher efficiency and protection of equipment. Corrosion, scale deposition and fouling have since long posed as challenges to the technical expertise of cooling water chemists at industrial and utility power plants. The study of the raw water, water samples from the CW tower basin and clarified water of various coal and gas based power stations has indicated that problem of corrosion and scale formation are linked with the quality of raw water and operating parameters. The present paper deals with the different cooling water treatment practices being followed at various power stations and which have been quite helpful in improving the quality of water and reduce scale promotion, thereby improving heat transfer of condenser and heat exchangers, and in addition to prevent corrosion in the pipelines, water boxes, tube plates and condenser tubes. The above said studies constitutes a part of the Research work being carried out by corrosion group of Research and Development Centre, NTPC under the project entitled evaluation of standards for cooling water treatment which has been sanctioned under CBIP (Central Board of Irrigation and Power) action plan by Department of Power to Research and Development Centre of NTPC in the 8th plan period. (author)

  19. Design Provisions for Station Blackout at Nuclear Power Plants

    A station blackout (SBO) is generally known as 'a plant condition with complete loss of all alternating current (AC) power from off-site sources, from the main generator and from standby AC power sources important to safety to the essential and nonessential switchgear buses. Direct current (DC) power supplies and un-interruptible AC power supplies may be available as long as batteries can supply the loads. Alternate AC power supplies are available'. A draft Safety Guide DS 430 'Design of Electrical Power Systems for Nuclear Power Plants' provides recommendations regarding the implementation of Specific Safety Requirements: Design: Requirement 68 for emergency power systems. The Safety Guide outlines several design measures which are possible as a means of increasing the capability of the electrical power systems to cope with a station blackout, without providing detailed implementation guidance. A committee of international experts and advisors from numerous countries is currently working on an IAEA Technical Document (TECDOC) whose objective is to provide a common international technical basis from which the various criteria for SBO events need to be established, to support operation under design basis and design extension conditions (DEC) at nuclear power plants, to document in a comprehensive manner, all relevant aspects of SBO events at NPPs, and to outline critical issues which reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. This paper discusses the commonly encountered difficulties associated with establishing the SBO criteria, shares the best practices, and current strategies used in the design and implementation of SBO provisions and outline the structure of the IAEA's SBO TECDOC under development. (author)

  20. Safety aspects of station blackout at nuclear power plants

    The principal focus of this report is on existing light water reactor nuclear power plants. However, many of the considerations discussed herein can be equally applied to new plants, i.e. those not yet in construction. This report is organized to provide a description of design and procedural factors which safety assessments and reviews of operating experience have shown to be important. These are divided into the off-site power system, the on-site AC power systems and alternate (or nearby) sources of power. The latter may be used in the unlikely event that both normal off-site and on-site sources fail. It must be emphasized that first priority should be placed on designing and maintaining high reliability of both the off-site and on-site AC power systems. This basic concept also applies to the capabilities for restoring power sources which failed and making use of all available alternative and nearby power sources during an emergency, to restore AC power in a prompt manner. Discussions on these aspects are provided in chapters 2 and 3 of this report. Because the expected event frequency and associated confidence in such estimations of station blackout are uncertain, preparations should be made to deal with a station blackout. The nature of those preparations, whether they be optimizing emergency procedures to use existing equipment, modifying this equipment to enhance capabilities, or adding new components or systems to cope with station blackout, must be made in light of plant-specific assessments and regulatory safety philosophies/requirements. Discussions on these matters are provided in chapter 4. General and specific conclusions and recommendations are provided in chapter 5. Appendix A provides a description of several case studies on station blackout and loss of off-site power. Abstracts of papers and presentations are provided in Appendix B with authors and affiliations identified to facilitate personal contact. The References and Bibliography contain a

  1. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    A description is given of the main sources of radioactivity and the barriers which would prevent their release at the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station. The methods of calculating the radiological consequences associated with the most significant faults within the design are outlined. The following possibilities are considered: faults involving high fuel temperatures; loss of coolant accidents; secondary coolant circuit faults; waste processing system faults; irradiated fuel faults. (U.K.)

  2. The risks at nuclear power stations and their insurance

    Insurance can offer an uninterrupted insurance cover from start-up-to shut-down of a nuclear power station. This is assured by the insurance for the erection, for the nuclear liability, for the nuclear/fire, for the engines, for operational interruptions and for the transport. For each of the above mentioned insurance branches, essential characteristic features, such as risk carrier, protection range and insurance costs, are given. (orig.)

  3. Dungeness Power Station off-site emergency plan

    This off-site Emergency Plan in the event of an accidental release of radioactivity at the Dungeness Nuclear power station sets out the necessary management and coordination processes between Nuclear Electric, operators of the site, the emergency services and relevant local authorities. The objectives promoting the aim are identified and the activities which will be undertaken to protect the public and the environment in the event of an emergency are outlined. (UK)

  4. Optimal Selection of Floating Platform for Tidal Current Power Station

    Fengmei Jing; Gang Xiao; Nasir Mehmood; Liang Zhang


    With continuous development of marine engineering, more and more new structures are used in the exploring of tidal current energy. Three are there different kinds of support structures for tidal current power station, which are sea-bed mounted/gravity based system, pile mounted system and floating moored platform. Comparison with them, the floating mooring system is suit for deep water and the application of which will be widely. In this study, catamaran and semi-submersible as floating platf...


    K.Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; Pappa, N.


    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  6. Special address: Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station update

    This paper discusses the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station event and progression. It discusses the recovery road map and the IAEA fact finding mission which provides important preliminary results. It concludes that the response of the expert and dedicated staff in extreme conditions resulted in the best possible response given the exceptional circumstances. The Japanese government's response to protect the public including evacuation has been impressive and well organized. The hazards for several sites has been underestimated.

  7. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The biological consequences of using a direct cooled system at the proposed Sizewell B power station are dealt with. Problems caused by the impingement of organisms on the fine-mesh screens through which the water is pumped, by the entrainment of smaller organisms in the flow through the cooling system and by the discharge of warmed chlorinated water into the sea are discussed. The chlorination of cooling water is described. (U.K.)

  8. Estimation of Power Efficiency of Combined Heat Pumping Stations in Heat Power Supply Systems

    I. I. Matsko


    The paper considers realization of heat pumping technologies advantages at heat power generation for heat supply needs on the basis of combining electric drive heat pumping units with water heating boilers as a part of a combined heat pumping station.The possibility to save non-renewable energy resources due to the combined heat pumping stations utilization instead of water heating boiler houses is shown in the paper.The calculation methodology for power efficiency for introduction of combine...

  9. Optimization of air ducts for nuclear reactor power generation station

    In the optimization study on the heating, ventilating and air conditions system in Nuclear Reactor Power Generation Station, proper arrangement of air ducts has been studied using the experimental and analytical investigation from a viewpoint of duct arrangement optimization. This study consists of two parts. Part I is optimization of air ducts in the corridors and Part II is optimization of air duct in each room. In part I, from viewpoints of confinement of radioactive materials in facilities having possible radioactive contamination and improvement of thermal environment for workers, the authors have studied air ducts system in which fresh air is supplied to corridors and heat removal and ventilation for each room are performed by transferring air from the corridors, instead of current ducts system with supply duct to each room. In part II, the condenser room with complex configuration and large space, and the electrical equipment room with simple space are selected for model areas. Based on these studies, experimental and analytical investigation (using a three-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis) technique has been established, and the effective design method for duct arrangement of HVAC design has been verified for Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. The air-duct arrangements optimized in this study are applied to an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Power Station in trial and reduction of the air-duct quantity is confirmed

  10. Turbo-generator sets in conventional and nuclear power stations

    The development of unit power in conventional and nuclear power stations in Germany and the USA - the development of design criteria for conventional and reheat turbines - a survey of constructional types and problems of conventional reheat turbines by the example of turbine types for 150, 300, 600 and 1,200 MW - saturated steam turbines for boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors - maintenance, automatics, and turbine protection systems - reliability and availability - common turbine defects: outlook on limiting outputs of turbines and generators with different cooling systems and low-pressure parts. (orig./AK)

  11. Technical specifications for cold shutdown (Barsebaeck nuclear power station)

    From a reactor safety point of view, it is clear that the conditions at power operation and at cold shutdown are quite different. Because of this a special set of regulations, i.e. Technical Specifications for Cold Shutdown (TSCS), has been prepared for the Barseback nuclear power station. This paper gives a short description of these TSCS. Background, general principles, history, preparation, structure and experiences of TSCS are discussed. In order to provide some deeper information about some part of TSCS, a specific example has been chosen, namely the TSCS concerning the residual heat removal systems

  12. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    A description is given of the CEGB's current assessment of the potential contribution to electricity generation of those methods considered to be the most significant alternatives to conventional power stations or thermal nuclear reactors for generating electricity. The state of development of the technology, the timescale on which it could be developed, its ability to generate electricity reliably and the cost of generating electricity are some of the matters considered. The following topics are covered: potential developments in coal fired generating plant; combined heat and power generation; energy storage; electricity generation from renewable energy sources; fast reactors and fusion. (U.K.)

  13. Studies on anticorrosion layers on steels typical for power stations

    Anticorrosion protective oxide layers arise on ferrous materials in the coolant circuits of power stations from the effect of hot water or steam. The corrosion damage occurring in practice starts with anticorrosion layer failure. However, the extent of corrosion inhibition also determines transfer of metallic compounds into the corrosive medium. The corrosion products transported by the medium form deposits hence leading to a reduction of heat transfer efficiency, local corrosion effects and, in pressurized water reactor circuits, radioactive contamination. Power plant chemistry requires a more detailed clarification of the processes involved at the phase boundary material/operating medium. This work is intended to give a contribution to those problems. (author)

  14. Biblis A nuclear power station: commissioning and first operating experience

    The Biblis A Nuclear Power Station, one of the world's largest nuclear power plants, has fulfilled all expectations in its commissioning phase and the subsequent power operation extending over more then eighteen months and has proved that it is possible to operate generating units of this size perfectly safely. The nuclear power station, which is equipped with a pressurized water reactor and a single shaft turbogenerator set and has an electric power of 1,200 MW, had been started up in the summer of 1974, after a construction period of four years, and accepted by RWE on schedule in February 1975. The outages which have occurred since the acceptance date, which are covered in more detail in this report, were caused primarily by the conventional part of the plant. Cases of this type include defects and maloperation of the mechanical cooling water clean-up system, the instrument transformers of the generator, the high pressure casing of the turbine, and the secondary feed water tank. In the nuclear part of the plant the outages were due mainly to defects of the hydrodynamic shaft seals of the main coolant pumps. All defects were safely controlled by the control and regulating systems of the plant. The behavior of the fuel elements has been normal so far. The radioactivity levels released into the environment were far below the limits prescribed by the licensing authorities. (orig.)

  15. Papers of 6. Scientific-Technical Seminar Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics

    The report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power station. The normalization problems in power station and gas pipelines according to the prescription of UE are also discussed. (author)

  16. Cooperating expert systems for space station power distribution management

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deemed necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question to arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, the authors have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, they use the two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will serve as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange

  17. The Technical Training Programme for Nuclear Power Station Personnel

    Canada's Nuclear Power Demonstration station (NPD), initiated by the federal agency Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is operated and staffed by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, a provincial public utility. Obtaining and training staff for the station was hampered by the fact that until recently most of Ontario's electricity requirements were supplied by the abundant hydro-electric resources of the province. Increasing use of thermal-electric energy since 1950 created an extreme shortage of staff experienced in the operation of thermal stations. To meet this situation, trained manpower for nuclear generating stations was developed by the following steps: (1) An initial group of professional engineers was selected from among persons with considerable experience in nuclear work, thermal stations and electrical operation; (2) Another group of highly experienced operators and maintainers was selected; (3) The selected groups were given a rigorous training programme involving operation of both nuclear and coal-fired stations, instruction from the designers of NPD and training in the classroom and on the job; and (4) A nuclear training centre was established to select and train additional staff, conduct formal examinations and be generally responsible for personnel quality standards. Independent examinations of personnel were conducted by the Atomic Energy Control Board, a separate federal regulatory agency. Five general categories of personnel are being developed: (1) Supervisors: professional engineers responsible for operation, maintenance and administrative supervision, rotated periodically to increase their versatility; (2) Operators: four levels of qualification depending on the requirements of the job; (3) Control maintainers: four levels of qualification, responsible for maintenance of all instruments, control equipment and electrical equipment; (4) Mechanical maintainers: various levels and combinations of skills (welding, machining, fitting, etc

  18. The local economic and social effects of power station siting: anticipated, demonstrated and perceived

    The paper discusses the economic and social effects of power station siting at a local level using material based on the interim research findings from a project commissioned by the Central Electricity Generating Board. The cases for and against power station development are outlined and a review of the actual economic and social effects is presented, drawn from a study of a conventional power station at Drax and a nuclear power station at Sizewell. (U.K.)

  19. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))


    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  20. Nuclear Stations of Low Power (SMR): Past, Present, Future

    Interest to SMR has arisen from the very beginning of atomic energy development. It is caused by independent energy resource creation for deleted and hard-to-reach areas, where the use of traditional organic sources of energy is impossible or complicated, and electric power lines are absent. Development of small nuclear energy in USA began in 50s of last century and it was subordinated to the tasks of Department of Defense. To solve these tasks 8 experimental SMR of electric power from 0,3 up to 3 ?W were manufactured and put into operation. In 60s these stations were decommissioned. Floating nuclear power plant SMR Sturgis (MN-1A) was in operation since August 1968 till July 1976 in Panama canal region (on lake Gatun). In the USSR design and calculation of SMR were made from the beginning of 50s of last century. The purpose of these researches was to reveal the most perspective SMR projects for implementation as demonstration and industrial samples. It has been worked about 20 variants of SMR with electric power of 1-1,5 ?W with various reactors (on thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons) and different types of execution (stationary, unit-transportable, mobile and floating stations). This work provides the implemented and modern, innovational projects in Russia and in the world. (author)

  1. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement. (Kako, I.)


    Gorlov P. I.; Siokhin V. D.


    The world experience of bird collisions with wind-power stations was analyzed. The detailcharacteristics of principal threats to the birds during building and exploitation of wind-power stations was done. Comparative analysis of factors caused annual birds mortality was performed. Some proposals of negative influence minimization were suggested for wind-power stations utilization.


    Gorlov P. I.


    Full Text Available The world experience of bird collisions with wind-power stations was analyzed. The detailcharacteristics of principal threats to the birds during building and exploitation of wind-power stations was done. Comparative analysis of factors caused annual birds mortality was performed. Some proposals of negative influence minimization were suggested for wind-power stations utilization.

  4. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations


    ... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this... Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations,'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  5. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  6. The Gundremmingen B and C nuclear power station

    The Gundremmingen II Nuclear Power Station, KRB II, was built at Gundremmingen on the river Danube by the KWU/Hochtief consortium with KWU as the reactor manufacturer, for the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG and Bayernwerk AG utilities. Each of the two units has been equipped with a boiling water reactor of the KWU 72 line of 1310 MWe gross power each. Construction of the main buildings of units B and C was started simultaneously on July 20, 1976 after the first partial construction, including the speedy commissioning phase unit B was delivered to the operator on July 19, 1984. Unit C will be able to complete the nuclear commissioning phase probably by early 1985 and then start power operation. The raise in quality standards led to considerable delays in the preliminary testing and fabrication of components and installations. Those delays were counteracted by the advantages inherent in the dual-unit principle, which helped to save time. (orig./GL)

  7. Influence of radiation on maintenance in a nuclear power station

    Maintenance in nuclear power plant differs from that in fossil fuel power plant in many aspects because the maintenance in the former has to be carried out in radiation area. These aspects are : (1) manpower planning to minimise time of repair in order to reduce the radiation dose received by the maintenance crew, (2) difficulties in isolating components to be repaired from reactor which is normally filled with water, (3) shielding and decontamination to reduce radiation fields around equipment and (4) need to write the detailed procedures and use special tools, brief and train personnel before-hand on similar equipment or mock-ups. These aspects are discussed. Two of the major repair jobs carried out at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station are described in brief. The jobs were : (1) tube plugging of secondary steam generators and (2) repair to the guide brackets of dryer -separator assembly in the reactor vessel. (M.G.B.)

  8. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based scheme...

  9. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))


    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  10. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station operation and management indicators system

    Ever since the commercial operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), dynamic objective management concept that features modern enterprises has been adopted by the station to manage all operational activities with the guidance of business plan. And some quantitative indicators have been employed in order to measure effectively the progress status of these operational activities. After several years' evolvement, a hierarchical and standard performance indicators system has been developed and is playing an active part in the plant's efforts towards top quartile of world nuclear power industry. Structured hierarchically with higher levels resolving into lower levels and lower levels committing to higher levels, the indicator system represents the corporate vision, WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) performance indicators, plant integrated indicators and departmental key indicators, covering such areas as safety, production, environment, human resource and cost control. The indicator system not only reflects performance-centered management concept, but also shows the controllability of the whole operational process of the station. Indicators of a certain level serve as both early warnings to superior indicators (lagging indicators in this case) and effects to inferior indicators (leading indicators in this case). The dynamic status of these indicators, numbered more than 230, will eventually be fed back to the business plan and realized through daily work of every branch, and even every member of the workforce. With the indicator system as a quantitative management tool, and an effective tracking system, GNPS has achieved great success in self-assessment, objective definition, improvement follow up, resource re-allocation, and management-staff communication. Periodic plant performance assessment is performed through spider chart and other pictorial diagrams. Indicators are displayed at the plant entrance, offices, Main Control Room and SIS network

  11. Expansion potential for existing nuclear power station sites

    This report is a preliminary analysis of the expansion potential of the existing nuclear power sites, in particular their potential for development into nuclear energy centers (NECs) of 10 (GW(e) or greater. The analysis is based primarily on matching the most important physical characteristics of a site against the dominating site criteria. Sites reviewed consist mainly of those in the 1974 through 1976 ERDA Nuclear Power Stations listings without regard to the present status of reactor construction plans. Also a small number of potential NEC sites that are not associated with existing power stations were reviewed. Each site was categorized in terms of its potential as: a dispersed site of 5 GW(e) or less; a mini-NEC of 5 to 10 GW(e); NECs of 10 to 20 GW(e); and large NECs of more than 20 GW(e). The sites were categorized on their ultimate potential without regard to political considerations that might restrain their development. The analysis indicates that nearly 40 percent of existing sites have potential for expansion to nuclear energy centers

  12. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry. CEGB proof of evidence

    The NNC cost estimates for the construction of the Sizewell B nuclear power station are discussed and the methods employed in their preparation are described. The preparation of the estimates for each of the major divisions of cost are outlined. These divisions are: civil engineering and building works; nuclear steam supply system; NNC costs; turbine generators; other mechanical plant; other electrical plant. The uncertainties which exist in making these estimates are discussed and the cost allowances which must be made as a result are outlined. (U.K.)

  13. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The cooling water system which would be needed for the proposed Sizewell B power station is described. The possible effects upon public safety, local fishing interests and the existing seabed are examined. Studies of the heat dispersion from outfalls, the location of offshore structures and the control of marine growth in the system are reported. Finally the essential service water system, the reserve ultimate heat sink, the discharge of liquid radioactive waste into the sea and the possible use of waste heat for agricultural and fish farming purposes are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    The design of the proposed Sizewell B power station and the policies which have guided design choices are outlined. The specification for Sizewell B and the production of its reference design are discussed. The Nuclear Steam Supply System and the associated safeguards systems are dealt with in more detail. The protection against hazards causing damage to plant and the protection provided to reduce radiation exposure are described. Control, instrumentation and operation of the plant are discussed. A section on quality of design follows. Finally economic aspects of the design are dealt with. (U.K.)

  15. Water chemistry: industrial and power station water treatment

    This book is a blend of basic information on water chemistry at both ambient and high temperature, as well as the problems encountered during wide spread use of water as the fluid for heat transfer in industry. Emphasis is also on steam generating systems and steam quality requirements for high pressure turbines. Special problems of water chemistry and material compatibility in nuclear power stations are also given. A few aspects of both natural waters and effluent treatment systems have also been touched upon briefly

  16. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    A discussion is given on the safety issues for the pressure circuit components of the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station. The detail of the evidence concentrates on the reactor pressure vessel itself, as the principal example of a component whose failure is considered incredible. The general background to construction and operation of pressurized plant is described. A description of the form of the vessel and its role is given. Each of the factors which lead to confidence in the integrity of the vessel is then considered. (U.K.)

  17. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    Evidence is presented to show how the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel to be constructed for the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station could be achieved by the French company Framatome. Following a description of the organization and experience of Framatome, their ability to manufacture the pressure vessel to the preferred design and to meet all the requirements of the National Nuclear Corporation is demonstrated. Then it is shown, using examples, how the various procurement and fabrication operations are carried out and controlled and how the quality of the materials and products is assessed and guaranteed. (U.K.)

  18. U. S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history


    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  19. U.S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history

    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  20. Advanced space solar dynamic power systems beyond IOC Space Station

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Dustin, Miles O.


    Three different solar dynamic power cycle systems were evaluated for application to missions projected beyond the IOC Space Station. All three systems were found to be superior to two photovoltaic systems (a planar silicon array and a GaAs concentrator array), with both lower weight and area. The alkali-metal Rankine cycle was eliminated from consideration due to low performance, and the Stirling cycle was found to be superior to the closed Brayton cycle in both weight and area. LiF salt, which establishes peak cycle temperatures for both of the considered cycles at about 1090 K, was shown to be the most suitable material for Thermal Energy Storage.

  1. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.)

  2. Devices (manipulators) particularly for ultrasonic tests in nuclear power stations

    The manipulator devices for internal and external tests described in this article, were used successfully in the basic and repeat tests for nearly all West German, Swiss and Austrian nuclear power stations. For older reactors or for reactors originating from abroad one did not take sufficient account of the required accessibility to the test location in the configuration of the reactor pressure vessel, which led to complicated special manipulation devices. The handling of which at site requires a great deal of time. The more modern types of reactors are laid out so as to be easier to test and make a better manipulation test system and better test results possible. (orig./RW)

  3. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  4. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    An overview is given of the Safety Case for the Sizewell B nuclear power station as presented in the Pre-Construction Safety Report. Information which has been made available since its publication is included. Safety is considered for normal operation of the reactor and under fault conditions. Faults considered are those due to external hazards such as earthquakes, extreme weather conditions and aircraft crashes, internal hazards such as fire and missiles and reactor faults. Reactor fault studies described include transient analyses of pressurised faults and of loss-of-coolant accidents and the evaluation of the radiological consequences of design basis faults. (U.K.)

  5. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MWt) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965

  6. Development situation about the Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations

    The CANDU reactor is the most versatile commercial power reactor in the world. The acronym 'CANDU', a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, stands for 'CANada Deuterium Uranium'. CANDU uses heavy water as moderator and uranium (originally, natural uranium) as fuel. All current power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU type. Canada exports CANDU type reactor in abroad. CANDU type is used as the nuclear power plants to produce electrical. Today, there are 41 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and the design has continuously evolved to maintain into unique technology and performance. The CANDU-6 power reactor offers a combination of proven, superior and state-of-the-art technology. CANDU-6 was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types. One of its characteristics is a very high operating and fuel efficiency. Canada Nuclear Power Generating Stations were succeeded in a commercial reactor of which the successful application of heavy water reactor, natural uranium method and that on-power fuelling could be achieved. It was achieved through the joint development of a major project by strong support of the federal government, public utilities and private enterprises. The potential for customization to any country's needs, with competitive development and within any level of domestic industrial infrastructure, gives CANDU technology strategic importance in the 21st century

  7. Sustainable Power Supply Solutions for Off-Grid Base Stations

    Asma Mohamad Aris


    Full Text Available The telecommunication sector plays a significant role in shaping the global economy and the way people share information and knowledge. At present, the telecommunication sector is liable for its energy consumption and the amount of emissions it emits in the environment. In the context of off-grid telecommunication applications, off-grid base stations (BSs are commonly used due to their ability to provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. However, in the past, the off-grid BSs usually relied on emission-intensive power supply solutions such as diesel generators. In this review paper, various types of solutions (including, in particular, the sustainable solutions for powering BSs are discussed. The key aspects in designing an ideal power supply solution are reviewed, and these mainly include the pre-feasibility study and the thermal management of BSs, which comprise heating and cooling of the BS shelter/cabinets and BS electronic equipment and power supply components. The sizing and optimization approaches used to design the BSs’ power supply systems as well as the operational and control strategies adopted to manage the power supply systems are also reviewed in this paper.

  8. Radioactive graphite management at UK Magnox nuclear power stations

    The UK nuclear power industry is predominantly based on gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors with their being 20 operating and 6 shutdown Magnox reactors. The radioactive graphite issues associated with the Magnox reactors relate mainly to the reactor core graphite but, at two of the stations, there is also another graphite waste stream which results from the handling of their particular design of fuel elements which incorporate graphite fittings. The decommissioning plan for the Magnox reactors is to apply the Safestore strategy in which the defuelled reactors will be maintained in a quiescent state, e.g. to gain benefit from radioactive decay, with their dismantling being deferred for a period of time. In preparing for and developing the decommissioning strategy detailed studies have been undertaken on all relevant aspects. These have resulted in, for example, extensive information on the graphite radioactive inventories, the condition of the graphite throughout the quiescent deferral period, safety assessment, and, dismantling, waste management and disposal plans. Significant work has also been undertaken on the management of the graphite fuel element debris that has accumulated at the two stations. For example, work is well advanced at one of the stations to install equipment to retrieve this waste and package it in a form suitable for eventual deep geological disposal. (author)

  9. Environmental radiological surveillance in retrospect for Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    Environmental radiological surveillance carried-out at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) site since 1992 is described in the paper. The radiation exposure of members of the public is mainly due to intake of tritium by ingestion and inhalation and skin absorption routes. The gaseous effluent containing tritiated water vapours is discharged through 100 m stack and low level liquid effluent along with cooling tower blow down water is discharged into Moticher lake. The dose through gaseous route is one third of the dose through aquatic route at this site. The irrigation canal outflowing from Moticher lake carrying diluted aquatic releases flow through WSW sector only, so the ingestion dose is mainly in this sector and contribution in other remaining fifteen sectors is lower by a factor of 4 to 5. The highest annual dose due to tritium during the period even in 1.6 to 5 km zone is 2.3 uSv during 1997, which is only 0.8 % of dose limit of 300 uSv/year apportioned by the station. The concentration of biologically significant long lived radionuclides in diet components like milk, vegetables, cereals, pulses etc that are locally produced and consumed by the general public, are at global fallout levels. The station operation practically does not contribute in this vector. (author)

  10. Single phase power : mini power station transforms waste heat to energy; Single phase power: minikraftverk omdanner spillvarme til energi


    Every year large energy quantities vanish as waste heat from Norwegian industry. This was the starting point for Single-Phase Power which has generated a mini power station that utilize waste heat transformed to power. Enova has through the technology program supported the company to develop a pilot plant. (AG)