Sample records for animal migration disappearing

  1. Going, Going, Gone: Is Animal Migration Disappearing

    Joel Berger; Young, Julie K; Kim Murray Berger


    Hunting pressure and habitat loss place the endangered saiga, a type of antelope that was once abundant in central Asia, at high risk of extinction, and make the protection of the migratory routes of Mongolian populations even more critical for conserving the species.

  2. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J


    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  3. Optimal chemotaxis in animal cell intermittent migration

    Romanczuk, Pawel


    Animal cells can sense chemical gradients without moving, and are faced with the challenge of migrating towards a target despite noisy information on the target position. Here we discuss optimal search strategies for a chaser that moves by switching between two phases of motion ("run" and "tumble"), reorienting itself towards the target during tumble phases, and performing a persistent random walk during run phases. We show that the chaser average run time can be adjusted to minimize the target catching time or the spatial dispersion of the chasers. We obtain analytical results for the catching time and for the spatial dispersion in the limits of small and large ratios of run time to tumble time, and scaling laws for the optimal run times. Our findings have implications for optimal chemotactic strategies in animal cell migration.

  4. Energetic and biomechanical constraints on animal migration distance.

    Hein, Andrew M; Hou, Chen; Gillooly, James F


    Animal migration is one of the great wonders of nature, but the factors that determine how far migrants travel remain poorly understood. We present a new quantitative model of animal migration and use it to describe the maximum migration distance of walking, swimming and flying migrants. The model combines biomechanics and metabolic scaling to show how maximum migration distance is constrained by body size for each mode of travel. The model also indicates that the number of body lengths travelled by walking and swimming migrants should be approximately invariant of body size. Data from over 200 species of migratory birds, mammals, fish, and invertebrates support the central conclusion of the model - that body size drives variation in maximum migration distance among species through its effects on metabolism and the cost of locomotion. The model provides a new tool to enhance general understanding of the ecology and evolution of migration. PMID:22093885

  5. Animal migration: linking models and data beyond taxonomic limits

    Bauer, Silke; Barta Zoltán (1967-) (biológus, zoológus); Ens, Bruno J.; Hays, Graeme C.; McNamara, John M; Klaassen, Marcel


    An international workshop on animal migration was held at the Lorentz Center in Leiden, The Netherlands, 2–6 March 2009, bringing together leading theoreticians and empiricists from the major migratory taxa, aiming at the identification of cutting-edge questions in migration research that cross taxonomic borders.

  6. Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) migrating from packaging material ´disappears´ in food: reaction with food components

    Petersen, Hauke; Biereichel, Andrea; Burseg, Kerstin; Simat, Thomas Joachim; Steinhart, Hans


    Abstract Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) is widely applied as a monomer for coatings and adhesives in use for food contact. Reports have been published indicating that, after migration from packagings into foodstuffs, BADGE undergoes various reactions with yet unidentified food components. In order to elucidate its fate, losses of BADGE were determined after incubation with different foodstuffs and food components. Hereby, food proteins were identified as the reaction partn...

  7. Disappearance of the last lions and hyenas of Europe in the Late Quaternary - a chain reaction of large mammal prey migration, extinction and human antagonism

    Diedrich, Cajus G.


    there are no records of indirectly dated hyena and lion remains being younger then even Aurignacian/Early Gravettian (35.000-28.000 BP). Those largest Late Quaternary predators must have got extinct in northern Germany with the Late Weichselian/Wuermian extending Skandinavian Glacier, which reached northern Europe between Hamburg and Berlin its maximum extension about 24.000 BP (Skupin et al. 1993). The two largest predators of the Late Quaternary of Europe seem to have been well represented in the Gravettian and up to Magdalénian Late Palaeolithic of southern Europe, in which mainly lions, but only rarely hyenas are well documented within the cave and mobile art (e.g Breuil 1952, Begouen and Clottes 1987, Chauvet et al. 1995, Diedrich and Rathgeber in review, Diedrich 2005). Hyenas and lions must have been represented in the Gravettian, Early and Middle and possibly even ?Late Magdalenian in southern Europe, which must have resulted from a southern migration of those predators during the Late Weichselian/Wuermian together with the megafauna and humans. The disappearance of hyenas and lions also correlate with the extinction of mammoth and woolly rhinoceros in northern Germany. The large mammals such as elephants and rhinoceroses were highly important for hyenas and lions during the Late Quaternary. Hyenas had a systematic scavenging strategy on both large prey which was even "transferred" until today compared to modern spotted hyenas and lions of Africa (Diedrich 2010d, e, in prep). Where those Late Quaternary giant mammals such as woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were absent in middle mountainous regions (e.g. Sauerland Karst, Harz Mountain Karst, Bohemian Karst, Thuringian Karst) those had to kill other medium sized animals such as horse or steppe bison and those in larger amounts (Diedrich 2008, 2010c). Woolly rhinoceros and woolly mammoth seem to be not known in northern Germany after Aurignacian/?Early Gravettian times (Sauerland Karst and Münsterland Bay

  8. Incorporating Climate Variability into Precipitation Isoscapes for Interpreting Animal Migration

    Vander Zanden, H.; Hobson, K. A.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Wunder, M. B.; Welker, J. M.; Bowen, G. J.


    Large-scale continental gradients in δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation lead to predictable isotopic patterns across the landscape. These light isotopes are thus useful endogenous markers in tracing long-distance movements of animals. Hydrogen in water is assimilated into tissues that are inert after synthesis, such as chitin or keratin, that are not altered when the animal moves so that the tissue reflects the environment or region from which it originated at the time when the tissue was synthesized. Models to predict the patters of δ2H in precipitation with the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) use long-term averages because models allowing estimation of isotopic values in more specific time periods have often not been available. Yet, inter-annual variation in precipitation and other climate variables may lead to large deviations from the mean values modeled over four decades, and particular regions may be more susceptible to higher departures from long-term average δ2H values. We examine whether incorporating such variation offers an improvement over static isoscapes to understand patterns of animal movement and geographic origin. Here we investigate the accuracy of Bayesian geographic assignments to predict the origin of two migratory species (monarch butterflies in the eastern United States and reed warblers in western Europe) using time-specific isoscapes. We use known-origin data from these organisms to provide calibration and validation datasets to compare the sensitivity of predictions from both year-specific and long-term isoscapes developed in IsoMAP, a freely available online workspace for modeling and predicting isotope ratio variation in precipitation. Determining how to incorporate climate and inter-annual variation into models that predict isotopic values of animal tissues can aid in improving geospatial assignments across a wide range of taxa.

  9. Animal migration and risk of spread of viral infections: Chapter 9

    Prosser, Diann J.; Nagel, Jessica; Takekawa, John Y.


    The potential contribution of migration towards the spread of disease is as varied as the ecology of the pathogens themselves and their host populations. This chapter outlines multiple examples of viral diseases in animal populations and their mechanisms of viral spread. Many species of insects, mammals, fish, and birds exhibit migratory behavior and have the potential to disperse diseases over long distances. The majority of studies available on viral zoonoses have focused on birds and bats, due to their highly migratory life histories. A number of studies have reported evidence of changes in the timing of animal migrations in response to climate change. The majority indicate an advancement of spring migration, with few or inconclusive results for fall migration. Predicting the combined effects of climate change on migratory patterns of host species and epidemiology of viral pathogens is complex and not fully realistic.

  10. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour - their diversity, structure and use

    Bauer, S; Klaassen, M.R.J.


    Summary Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, for example in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants. Theoretical methods can mak...

  11. An Information Entropy-Based Animal Migration Optimization Algorithm for Data Clustering

    Lei Hou


    Full Text Available Data clustering is useful in a wide range of application areas. The Animal Migration Optimization (AMO algorithm is one of the recently introduced swarm-based algorithms, which has demonstrated good performances for solving numeric optimization problems. In this paper, we presented a modified AMO algorithm with an entropy-based heuristic strategy for data clustering. The main contribution is that we calculate the information entropy of each attribute for a given data set and propose an adaptive strategy that can automatically balance convergence speed and global search efforts according to its entropy in both migration and updating steps. A series of well-known benchmark clustering problems are employed to evaluate the performance of our approach. We compare experimental results with k-means, Artificial Bee Colony (ABC, AMO, and the state-of-the-art algorithms for clustering and show that the proposed AMO algorithm generally performs better than the compared algorithms on the considered clustering problems.

  12. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: Lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; Nelson, Abigail A.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Klaver, Robert W.


    Migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. Historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. Here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (Cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside Yellowstone National Park, USA. We attribute this decline to a long-term reduction in the demographic benefits that ungulates typically gain from migration. Among migratory elk, we observed a 21-year, 70% reduction in recruitment and a 4-year, 19% depression in their pregnancy rate largely caused by infrequent reproduction of females that were young or lactating. In contrast, among resident elk, we have recently observed increasing recruitment and a high rate of pregnancy. Landscape-level changes in habitat quality and predation appear to be responsible for the declining productivity of Yellowstone migrants. From 1989 to 2009, migratory elk experienced an increasing rate and shorter duration of green-up coincident with warmer spring–summer temperatures and reduced spring precipitation, also consistent with observations of an unusually severe drought in the region. Migrants are also now exposed to four times as many grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) as resident elk. Both of these restored predators consume migratory elk calves at high rates in the Yellowstone wilderness but are maintained at low densities via lethal management and human disturbance in the year-round habitats of resident elk. Our findings suggest that large-carnivore recovery and drought, operating simultaneously along an elevation gradient, have disproportionately influenced the demography of migratory elk. Many migratory animals travel large geographic distances between their seasonal ranges. Changes in land use and climate that disparately influence

  13. Energetics of Photoinduced Charge Migration within the Tryptophan Tetrad of an Animal (6-4) Photolyase.

    Cailliez, Fabien; Müller, Pavel; Firmino, Thiago; Pernot, Pascal; de la Lande, Aurélien


    Cryptochromes and photolyases are flavoproteins that undergo cascades of electron/hole transfers after excitation of the flavin cofactor. It was recently discovered that animal (6-4) photolyases, as well as animal cryptochromes, feature a chain of four tryptophan residues, while other members of the family contain merely a tryptophan triad. Transient absorption spectroscopy measurements on Xenopus laevis (6-4) photolyase have shown that the fourth residue is effectively involved in photoreduction but at the same time could not unequivocally ascertain the final redox state of this residue. In this article, polarizable molecular dynamics simulations and constrained density functional theory calculations are carried out to reveal the energetics of charge migration along the tryptophan tetrad. Migration toward the fourth tryptophan is found to be thermodynamically favorable. Electron transfer mechanisms are sought either through an incoherent hopping mechanism or through a multiple sites tunneling process. The Jortner-Bixon formulation of electron transfer (ET) theory is employed to characterize the hopping mechanism. The interplay between electron transfer and relaxation of protein and solvent is analyzed in detail. Our simulations confirm that ET in (6-4) photolyase proceeds out of equilibrium. Multiple site tunneling is modeled with the recently proposed flickering resonance mechanism. Given the position of energy levels and the distribution of electronic coupling values, tunneling over three tryptophan residues may become competitive in some cases, although a hopping mechanism is likely to be the dominant channel. For both reactive channels, computed rates are very sensitive to the starting protein configuration, suggesting that both can take place and eventually be mixed, depending on the state of the system when photoexcitation takes place. PMID:26765169

  14. Spontaneously disappearing lumbar disc protrusion

    Ushewokunze, Shungu; Abbas, Naeem; Dardis, Ronan; Killeen, Ian


    Spontaneous disappearance of a herniated lumbar disc is known to occur. This case study describes a 45-year-old patient whose symptoms of lumbar radiculopathy resolved and follow-up imaging showed complete disappearance of the disc prolapse. This phenomenon strengthens the role of conservative treatment in the management of lumbar disc protrusions.

  15. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    Xavier Hoenner

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata estimated from (a highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th percentile error was 4 km for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3 and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively. This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  16. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    McCormick, S.D.


    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  17. Disappearing Saccular Intracranial Aneurysms: Do They Really Disappear?

    Jayakumar, P. N.; Ravishankar, S.; Balasubramaya, K.S.; Chavan, R.; Goyal, G


    Evolution and natural history of cerebral aneurysms is a dynamic process. Spontaneous regression in size or complete disappearance of an aneurysm is a known phenomenon, more commonly noted in giant intracranial aneurysms. However, reappearance or regrowth of such aneurysms is rare with few anecdotal reports. We report a series of four cases including one giant aneurysm, which either disappeared or regressed on sequential angiograms. Regrowth or reappearance of two of these previously disappea...

  18. Disappearances

    David Morris


    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes David B. Morris. In between twenty years as a self-employed writer, Morris held professorships at the University of Iowa, at the University of Virginia, and at Stanford University. His wider understanding of books and lives owes much to his wife, Ruth, a technical services librarian and library [...

  19. Disappearances

    David Morris


    In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes David B. Morris. In between twenty years as a self-employed writer, Morris held professorships at the University of Iowa, at the University of Virginia, and at Stanford University. His wider understanding of books and lives owes much to his wife, Ruth, a technical services librarian and library [...

  20. Animals

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  1. Migration of strontium in the food chain of plants, animals and man - problems and risks

    The aims of investigation were to follow the Sr transport in the food chain from the flora to the fauna and humans, and its dependence on the geological origin og the plant site, industrial emissions, the age and site of plants, the part of plant used for nutrition and the strontium content in the drinking water, to determine the Sr intake of humans with the help of the duplicate method, and to estimate the apparent absorption rate and balance of strontium depending on of the form of diet (mixed or ovolactovegetarian), sex, season, age, region (geological origin of the living space) and method of intake measurement (duplicate or basket method). Strontium, an ultra trace element widespread in the earth's crust, is not essential and only mildly toxic for plants, animals and man according to current knowledge. The biological essentiality of Sr has not been investigated yet. Amoeba species living in sea water use Sr for the formation of their skeleton instead of Ca. There have been no Sr deficiency experiments in animals. Sr is assumed to have cariostatic effect. The toxicity of Sr to humans is not high but is discussed controversially. Therefore, the interest in this ultra trace element used to be exclusively concentrated on the ''90Sr isotope released after nuclear tests. The Sr content in the flora is determined by the geological origin of the habitat and anthropogenic Sr emissions. Syenite and granite weathering soils, moor and loess sites produce a Sr-rich vegetation, whereas plants growing on alluvial riverside and Muschelkalk weathering soils are poor in Sr. The age of plants only has an insignificant effect on their Sr content. Leafy dicotyledons store much, while monocotyledons store less Sr. Root and stem thickenings (carrots, kohlrabi) accumulate medium Sr amounts, whereas fruit and seeds (tuber) are Sr-poor. The winter grazing of game is Sr-rich. The fauna reflects the Sr offer very well through the Sr content in the body or particular tissues. The highest

  2. [Radiological examinations that have disappeared].

    Puylaert, Carl B A J; Puylaert, Julien B C M


    If a radiologist from 1950 could travel in time to 2011, he or she would be baffled to see how few of the radiological examinations he was familiar with, remain. We review the radiological examinations that have disappeared since X-rays were discovered, and include the causes of their disappearance. Barium studies have mainly been replaced by endoscopy, oral cholecystography by ultrasound, and intravenous urography by CT-scan. Angiography by means of a direct puncture of carotid artery and aorta has been replaced by Seldinger angiography. Pneumencephalography and myelography have been replaced by CT and MRI. Bronchography has been replaced by bronchoscopy and CT-scan, arthrography by MRI and arthroscopy. Many other radiological examinations have been replaced by ultrasound, CT or MRI. PMID:21447222

  3. Animals



    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.



    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  5. Development of a New Hanging-Type Esophageal Stent for Preventing Migration: A Preliminary Study in an Animal Model of Esophagotracheal Fistula

    Endo, Masayuki, E-mail:; Kaminou, Toshio, E-mail:; Ohuchi, Yasufumi, E-mail: [Tottori University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Sugiura, Kimihiko, E-mail: [Yonago Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yata, Shinsaku, E-mail:; Adachi, Akira, E-mail:; Kawai, Tsuyoshi, E-mail:; Takasugi, Syohei, E-mail:; Yamamoto, Shuichi, E-mail:; Matsumoto, Kensuke, E-mail: [Tottori University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Hashimoto, Masayuki, E-mail: [Tottori Prefectural Kosei Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ihaya, Takashi, E-mail: [Sanin Rosai Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ogawa, Toshihide, E-mail: [Tottori University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine (Japan)


    Purpose: Covered, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been enthusiastically adopted for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula, but problems with stent migration have yet to be resolved. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new hanging-type esophageal stent designed to prevent migration, and we conducted an animal study to assess the efficacy of our method. Methods: A total of six female pigs were used in this study. The main characteristic of our stent was the presence of a string tied to the proximal edge of the stent for fixation under the skin of the neck. The first experiment was performed to confirm technical feasibility in three pigs with esophagotracheal fistula. The second experiment was performed to evaluate stent migration and esophagotracheal fistula in three pigs. Results: Creation of the esophagotracheal fistula and stent placement were technically successful in all pigs. In the first experiment, esophagotracheal fistula was sealed by stent placement. In the second experiment, no stent migration was seen 11 or 12 days after stent placement. Gross findings showed no fistulas on the esophageal or tracheal wall. Conclusions: Our new hanging-type esophageal stent seems to offer a feasible method for preventing stent migration.

  6. Development of a New Hanging-Type Esophageal Stent for Preventing Migration: A Preliminary Study in an Animal Model of Esophagotracheal Fistula

    Purpose: Covered, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been enthusiastically adopted for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula, but problems with stent migration have yet to be resolved. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new hanging-type esophageal stent designed to prevent migration, and we conducted an animal study to assess the efficacy of our method. Methods: A total of six female pigs were used in this study. The main characteristic of our stent was the presence of a string tied to the proximal edge of the stent for fixation under the skin of the neck. The first experiment was performed to confirm technical feasibility in three pigs with esophagotracheal fistula. The second experiment was performed to evaluate stent migration and esophagotracheal fistula in three pigs. Results: Creation of the esophagotracheal fistula and stent placement were technically successful in all pigs. In the first experiment, esophagotracheal fistula was sealed by stent placement. In the second experiment, no stent migration was seen 11 or 12 days after stent placement. Gross findings showed no fistulas on the esophageal or tracheal wall. Conclusions: Our new hanging-type esophageal stent seems to offer a feasible method for preventing stent migration.

  7. Mexico: the aesthetic challenge of forced disappearance

    Jean-Louis Deotté


    Full Text Available This essay is a reflection on the aesthetic of forced disappearance based on the case in Mexico in October 2014 in which 43 young students from Ayotzinapa, in the state of Guerrero, disappeared. We analyse the photographic support of this shocking event and relate it to the function of the image in other cases of serious crimes against humanity, establishing a genealogy of the aesthetic of disappearance. We present fifteen declarations on the aesthetic of disappearance which enable us to debate on old and new forms of organised violence, particularly in the Latin American context.

  8. The Disappearance and Death of Ettore Majorana

    Guerra, Francesco; Robotti, Nadia


    At the end of March 1938, Ettore Majorana disappeared under still mysterious circumstances while he was Professor of Theoretical Physics at the University of Naples. We exploit new archival documents that provide evidence that without any doubt he was deceased before September 1939. These include documents pertaining to the foundation of a Fellowship in his name, announced on November 3, 1939, in the journal, The Missions of the Society of Jesus, and documents pertaining to the Police and Vatican inquires after his disappearance. We conclude by discussing the biographical sketch of Majorana that his uncle Giuseppe Majorana wrote before his death in 1940.

  9. Field determination of bacterial disappearance in seawater

    Harremoës, Poul


    The article presents two approaches to field determination of disappearance of viable, fecal bacteria after discharge with sewage into a marine environment. The first approach is based on simultaneous sampling for bacterial counting and monitoring of dilution using a conservative tracer, which is...... released continuously with the sewage. The second approach uses an abrupt release of tracer for determination of both dilution and residence time in the sewage field. In both cases, the disappearance rate is best determined by comparison of fluxes of two bacteria and of tracer through cross-sections of the...

  10. Disappearance and Creation of Constrained Amorphous Phase

    Cebe, Peggy; Lu, Sharon X.


    We report observation of the disappearance and recreation of rigid, or constrained, amorphous phase by sequential thermal annealing. Tempera- ture modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) is used to study the glass transition and lower melting endotherm after annealing. Cold crystallization of poly(phenylene sulfide), PPS, at a temperature just above Tg creates an initial large fraction of rigid amorphous phase (RAP). Brief, rapid annealing to a higher temperature causes RAP almost to disappear completely. Subsequent reannealing at the original lower temperature restores RAP to its original value. At the same time that RAP is being removed, Tg decreases; when RAP is restored, Tg also returns to its initial value. The crystal fraction remains unaffected by the annealing sequence.

  11. Theoretical treatment of microtubules disappearing in solution.

    Chen, Y; Hill, T L


    The origin of the two-phase (cap, no cap) macroscopic kinetic model of the end of a microtubule is reviewed. The model is then applied to a new theoretical problem, namely, the Mitchison-Kirschner [Mitchison, T. & Kirschner, M. W. (1984) Nature (London) 312, 237-242] experiment in which aggregated microtubules in solution spontaneously decrease in number (shorten to disappearance) while the surviving microtubules increase in length. The model fits the experiments without difficulty.

  12. Migration in birds and fishes

    Verwey, J.


    Our knowledge concerning the periodical movements in animals called migrations is chiefly based on observations on birds. By and by, however, a number of facts concerning migration in other animal groups have been assembled and it seems worth while to compare them with those known for birds. There i

  13. 7 CFR 784.11 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.


    ... specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such benefits, as determined appropriate by FSA. ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 784.11 Section... Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In the case of death, incompetence, disappearance or...

  14. 7 CFR 786.111 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.


    ... alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such benefits, as determined appropriate... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 786.111 Section... Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In the case of death, incompetency, disappearance, or...

  15. 7 CFR 701.33 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 701.33 Section... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.33 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In case of death, incompetency, or disappearance of any participant, any cost-share payment due...

  16. ANF disappearance and tissue distribution in rats

    The disappearance of [125I]atrial natriuretic factor (ANF; Ser99-Tyr126) from the circulation and its tissue distribution with or without nonlabeled ANF pretreatment were investigated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Preadministration of the cold peptide increased plasma radioactivity levels for over 8 min following labeled ANF injection but did not change the half-life of circulating labeled ANF. The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and volume of distribution in the first, second, and steady state phase were significantly decreased after cold ANF pretreatment. Circulating iodo-labeled ANF was taken up by several organs, even by tissues such as fat or bone, but its urinary excretion was very low. The highest uptake was found in the liver (16 +/- 1% of the injected dose), lung (14 +/- 1%), and kidney (12 +/- 1%), diminishing by 21, 89, and 59%, respectively, after cold ANF preinjection. The brain radioactivity was negligible implying an inability of [125I]ANF to cross the blood-brain barrier. Our data underscore the importance of the uptake-mediated, cold ANF preadministration suppressible clearance of ANF from the circulation, probably one of its basic elimination mechanisms. The liver, lung, and kidney are probably the most important participants in the MCR of ANF

  17. Activated T lymphocytes disappear from circulation during endotoxemia in humans

    Suarez Krabbe, Karen; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard; Qvist, Jesper;


    disappearance were characterized by an activated phenotype (CD45RA(-) CD45RO(+)) as well as a phenotype linked to apoptosis (CD95(+) CD28(-)). In conclusion, endotoxin-induced lymphopenia reflects the disappearance from the circulation of activated lymphocytes prone to undergo apoptosis....

  18. 7 CFR 760.1311 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.


    ... with this subpart, such alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 760.1311... Program § 760.1311 Death, incompetence, or disappearance. (a) In the case of the death, incompetency,...

  19. 7 CFR 1430.611 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.


    ... benefits in accordance with this subpart, such alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 1430.611... Disaster Assistance Payment Program II (DDAP-II) § 1430.611 Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In...

  20. 7 CFR 1430.311 - Death, incompetence, or disappearance.


    ... this subpart, such alternate person or persons specified in 7 CFR part 707 may receive such benefits... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetence, or disappearance. 1430.311... Disaster Assistance Payment Program § 1430.311 Death, incompetence, or disappearance. In the case of...

  1. 7 CFR 1430.222 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 1430.222 Section 1430.222 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... Contract Program § 1430.222 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In the case of death,...

  2. 7 CFR 760.29 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 760.29 Section 760.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Provisions § 760.29 Death, incompetency, or disappearance. In the case of the death, incompetency,...

  3. The cost of migration: spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only

    Lok, T.; Overdijk, O.; Piersma, T.


    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are estab

  4. The cost of migration : Spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Piersma, Theunis


    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are estab

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Disappearing after Left Capsular Genu Infarction

    Ji-Hyang Oh


    Full Text Available This case report describes a 74-year-old woman with obsessive-compulsive behaviors that disappeared following a left capsular genu infarction. The patient’s capsular genu infarction likely resulted in thalamocortical disconnection in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical loop, which may have caused the disappearance of her obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The fact that anterior capsulotomy has been demonstrated to be effective for treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder further supports this hypothesis.

  6. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    Cordier, Floraine; Degond, Pierre; Kumbaro, Anela


    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. ...

  7. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences

    Chapman, B.B.; Hulthén, K.; Brodersen, J.;


    Partial migration, where only some individuals from a population migrate, has been widely reported in a diverse range of animals. In this paper, what is known about the causes and consequences of partial migration in fishes is reviewed. Firstly, the ultimate and proximate drivers of partial...... reflection on the future opportunities in this field, and the avenues of research that are likely to be fruitful to shed light on the enduring puzzle of partial migration in fishes...

  8. Phase appearance or disappearance in two-phase flows

    Cordier, Floraine; Kumbaro, Anela


    This paper is devoted to the treatment of specific numerical problems which appear when phase appearance or disappearance occurs in models of two-phase flows. Such models have crucial importance in many industrial areas such as nuclear power plant safety studies. In this paper, two outstanding problems are identified: first, the loss of hyperbolicity of the system when a phase appears or disappears and second, the lack of positivity of standard shock capturing schemes such as the Roe scheme. After an asymptotic study of the model, this paper proposes accurate and robust numerical methods adapted to the simulation of phase appearance or disappearance. Polynomial solvers are developed to avoid the use of eigenvectors which are needed in usual shock capturing schemes, and a method based on an adaptive numerical diffusion is designed to treat the positivity problems. An alternate method, based on the use of the hyperbolic tangent function instead of a polynomial, is also considered. Numerical results are presente...

  9. Medical migration.

    Loefler, I J


    The issue of professional migration, however emotional it may have become, ought not to be regarded in moralizing terms. The history of western medicine is the history of migrating physicians. A doctor who moves from a locality to another to take up a new assignment there cannot be said to have "abandoned his patients". This emotional bond has become the victim of specialization and of depersonalization of medical services and not of medical migration, brain drain or otherwise. The primary reason for medical migration is not financial; the desire to migrate usually begins with the desire to learn. Professionals crave in the first line for professional satisfaction. The migration of medical manpower cannot be stopped with administrative measures and will not be stopped by exhortations and appeals, moralization and condemnations. Brain drain is a global phenomenon and has always been so. A country which loses its professionals, its doctors, should examine the social relationships within the profession and should investigate whether the opportunities for deriving professional satisfaction from everyday work exist or whether these have been thwarted by the hierarchy, conservatism, cronyism and the general lack of comprehension of what good medical care is about. PMID:11593497

  10. Migration chemistry

    Migration chemistry, the influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour of pollutants in the environment, is an interplay between the actual natur of the pollutant and the characteristics of the environment, such as pH, redox conditions and organic matter content. The wide selection of possible pollutants in combination with varying geological media, as well as the operation of different chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions compleactes the prediction of the influence of these processes on the mobility of pollutants. The report summarizes a wide range of potential pollutants in the terrestrial environment as well as a variety of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions, which can be expected to influence the migration behaviour, comprising diffusion, dispersion, convection, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, transformations/degradations, biochemical reactions and complex formation. The latter comprises the complexation of metal ions as well as non-polar organics to naturally occurring organic macromolecules. The influence of the single types of processes on the migration process is elucidated based on theoretical studies. The influence of chemical -, biochemical - and physico-chemical reactions on the migration behaviour is unambiguous, as the processes apparently control the transport of pollutants in the terrestrial environment. As the simple, conventional KD concept breaks down, it is suggested that the migration process should be described in terms of the alternative concepts chemical dispersion, average-elution-time and effective retention. (AB) (134 refs.)

  11. FGF8 activates proliferation and migration in mouse post-natal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

    Pablo Cruz-Martinez

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8 is a key molecular signal that is necessary for early embryonic development of the central nervous system, quickly disappearing past this point. It is known to be one of the primary morphogenetic signals required for cell fate and survival processes in structures such as the cerebellum, telencephalic and isthmic organizers, while its absence causes severe abnormalities in the nervous system and the embryo usually dies in early stages of development. In this work, we have observed a new possible therapeutic role for this factor in demyelinating disorders, such as leukodystrophy or multiple sclerosis. In vitro, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were cultured with differentiating medium and in the presence of FGF8. Differentiation and proliferation studies were performed by immunocytochemistry and PCR. Also, migration studies were performed in matrigel cultures, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were placed at a certain distance of a FGF8-soaked heparin bead. The results showed that both migration and proliferation was induced by FGF8. Furthermore, a similar effect was observed in an in vivo demyelinating mouse model, where oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were observed migrating towards the FGF8-soaked heparin beads where they were grafted. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that FGF8 is a novel factor to induce oligodendrocyte progenitor cell activation, migration and proliferation in vitro, which can be extrapolated in vivo in demyelinated animal models.

  12. KPipe: a decisive test for muon neutrino disappearance

    Axani, Spencer N; Conrad, Janet M; Shaevitz, Mike H; Spitz, Josh; Wongjirad, Taritree


    The short baseline neutrino oscillation experiment, KPipe, is designed to perform a sensitive search for muon neutrino disappearance in the current global fit allowed regions for sterile neutrinos. KPipe is to be located at the Material Life Science Experimental Facility at J-PARC: the world's most intense source of 236~MeV, monoenergetic muon neutrinos. By measuring the $\

  13. 7 CFR 82.17 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.


    ..., under 7 CFR part 707 of this title, be eligible for payments and benefits covered by this part, may... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 82.17 Section... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS CLINGSTONE PEACH DIVERSION PROGRAM § 82.17 Death, incompetency,...

  14. 7 CFR 81.17 - Death, incompetency, or disappearance.


    ... 7 CFR part 707 be eligible for payments and benefits covered by that part, may receive the tree... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death, incompetency, or disappearance. 81.17 Section... DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION PROGRAMS PRUNE/DRIED PLUM DIVERSION PROGRAM § 81.17 Death, incompetency,...

  15. Disappearance of neutron magic numbers and deformation coexistence

    The disappearance of N=8, 20 and 28 magic numbers in the neutron excess nuclei is a representative example of the special features of the unstable nuclei. In this lecture of summer school, the problems of the magic number disappearance are presented. And the appearance of the deformation coexistence and the anomalous cluster structure come into the problem with them. At the begging the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamic (AMD) framework is explained with finite range two body central force and Gorgny DIS force composed of the zero range spin-orbit force and saturability. Island of inversion is explained in the nuclear chart shown in the figure and energy curves of the nuclei near 32Mg and the excitation level schemes of 32Mg are shown in the serial figures. As one of the extreme example of the nuclear structure the deformation of 19F is picked up. The level schemes and structures of 21F are shown as well. The molecule-like structure in the island of inversion is clear. The rotational band energy of fluorine isotopes are shown up to 29F. As a new deformation area, disappearance of N=28 magic number is in the spotlight recently. In this case it is characteristic properties that the parities of the orbits to form the gap must be the same but the angular momenta should be different by 2. According to the AMD research, it is shown that deformations of prolate, three-axis asymmetric and oblate characters coexist in the very low excitation energy region accompanying the disappearance of N=28 gap. The concept of magic numbers has been very fundamental in nuclear physics since the success of shell model. At present its disappearance in the unstable nuclei is one of the most challenging problems in the understanding of the nuclear many body problems. (S. Funahashi)

  16. Sharing the World with Animals


    IN the era of industry and technology, human beings continue to brutally hunt and kill animals to obtain furs or simply to satisfy gourmet appetites; everyday, more species disappear forever—species whose existence was the result of millions of years of evolution.

  17. Great tits growing old: selective disappearance and the partitioning of senescence to stages within the breeding cycle

    Bouwhuis, S.; Sheldon, B C; Verhulst, S.; Charmantier, A


    Deterioration of reproductive traits with age is observed in an increasing number of species. Although such deterioration is often attributed to reproductive senescence, a within-individual decline in reproductive success with age, few studies on wild animals have focused on direct fitness measures while accounting for selective disappearance and terminal effects, and to our knowledge none have determined how senescence effects arise from underlying reproductive traits. We show for female gre...

  18. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.



    Full Text Available

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

  19. Experimental limits on neutron disappearance into another braneworld

    Recent theoretical works have shown that matter swapping between two parallel braneworlds could occur under the influence of magnetic vector potentials. In our visible world, galactic magnetism possibly produces a huge magnetic potential. As a consequence, this Letter discusses the possibility to observe neutron disappearance into another braneworld in certain circumstances. The setup under consideration involves stored ultracold neutrons - in a vessel - which should exhibit a non-zero probability p to disappear into an invisible brane at each wall collision. An upper limit of p is assessed based on available experimental results. This value is then used to constrain the parameters of the theoretical model. Possible improvements of the experiments are discussed, including enhanced stimulated swapping by artificial means.

  20. Disappearance of Black Hole Singularity in Quantum Gravity

    Modesto, Leonardo


    We apply techniques recently introduced in quantum cosmology to the Schwarzschild metric inside the horizon and near the black hole singularity at r = 0. In particular, we use the quantization introduced by Husain and Winkler, which is suggested by Loop Quantum Gravity and is based on an alternative to the Schrodinger representation introduced by Halvorson. Using this quantization procedure, we show that the black hole singularity disappears and spacetime can be dynamically extended beyond th...

  1. Fighting impunity of enforced disappearances through a regional model

    C.; Genovese; Wilt, de, J.


    Grievous moral opprobrium has often been the trigger justifying the recourse to individual criminal responsibility of perpetrators. The process of ‘justice cascade’ initiated by the Nuremberg trials should not come to a halt. Though the current measures of criminal justice enforcement within international tribunals and national courts prove to be necessary mechanisms, they are not always sufficient. Bringing forward the crime of enforced disappearance as an illustration of a phenomenon where ...

  2. Monarch Migration.

    Williamson, Brad; Taylor, Orley


    Describes the Monarch Watch program that tracks the migration of the monarch butterfly. Presents activities that introduce students to research and international collaboration between students and researchers. Familiarizes students with monarchs, stimulates their interest, and helps them generate questions that can lead to good research projects.…

  3. Effect of epidermal growth factor on the migration of neural stem cells

    Faliang Duan; Guoping Yang; Junwu Wei; Jinglei Wu


    BACKGROUND:Recently,researches on neural stem cells(NSCs)are focus on differentiation and migration of stem cells.How to regulate and control differentiation and migration of NSCs based on human wills is still a hot topic.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effct of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the migration and proliferation of NSCs and analyze duration of the effect.DESIGN:Contrast study based on cells.SETFING:Department of Neurological Surgery,the First Hospital of Wuhan.MATERIALS:Healthy SD rats aged 13-14 embryonic days.EGF(Sigma Company).METHODS:The experiment was carried out in the Animal Laboratory of Experimental Center Affiliated to the First Hospital of Wuhan from October 2004 to July 2006.NSCs selected from embryonic striatum of rats with 13-14 embryonic days were cultured;7 days later,suspended neural sphere was used to make simple cell suspension and cultured once more.Then,DMEM-F12+20 μg/L EGF was added into culture medium;14 days latar.the rats were divided into experimental group and control group.Rats in the experimental group were cultured with the same medium mentioned above;however, rats in the control group were cultured with only DMEM-F12.Migration of cells was observed under microscope every day.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:NSCs migration in both experimental group and control group.RESULTS:Cell spheres in primary culture were NSCs.In addition,14 days later,proliferation of stem cells were observed remarkably in EGF culture.and size of cell sphere was about that of 100 cells.In exparimental group.proliferation of cell sphere was slow down on the 14th culture day,and apophysis was erupted to neighbor cell sphere.Moreover,NSCs migrated from big cell sphere to small cell sphere during 14-17 culture days.and then,cell migration was disappeared at 17 days after culture.In control group.cell migration was not observed.CONCLUSION:EGF can induce proliferation and migration of NSCs during a special time(14-17 days).However,NSCs do not immigrate over the

  4. The Rising Tides of Climate Migration

    Jakobsen, Klara Nordahl; Zilmer Johansen, Ida; Torp, Isabel Holm; Raarup Balle, Signe; Frisdahl Sønderstrup, Katrine


    This study engages with the Republic of Kiribati placed in the Pacific Ocean, which is said to disappear due to rising sea levels and climate change within 30 years. The starting point of the study contemplates the terminology of a person displaced as diffuse. Thus, we ask how climate migration is discursively constructed by the three actors Anote Tong, Pelenise Alofa and John Key, and further how this relates to power relations, and the way meaning is ascribed to climate change, responsibili...

  5. Gideon's Migration

    Eagly, Ingrid


    For the past fifty years, immigration law has resisted integration of Gideon v.Wainwright’s legacy of appointed counsel for the poor. Today, however, this resistance has given way to Gideon’s migration. At the level of everyday practice, criminal defense attorneys appointed pursuant to Gideon now advise clients on the immigration consequences of convictions, negotiate “immigration safe” plea bargains, defend clients charged with immigration crimes, and, in some model programs, even represent ...

  6. Lymphocyte migration studies in man

    In this paper the author outlines what is known of the migration and recirculation of the lymphocyte in man and animals. He then attempts to demonstrate how a better grasp of these phenomena may contribute to an understanding of the pathophysiology of human diseases such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, Hodgkin's, and other diseases

  7. Disappearance of isospin effect in projectile fragmentation at intermediate energy

    The 140 MeV/u 40,48Ca+9Be and 58,64Ni+9Be reactions are simulated by the statistical abrasion ablation model, and the simulation results are compared to the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) experimental data. By comparing the fragment isotopic distributions of 40,48Ca and 58,64Ni, we study the isospin effect in the projectile fragmentation induced by the neutron-rich nuclei at intermediate energy experimentally and theoretically. It is found that the isospin effect in projectile fragmentation decreases and even disappears as the violence of the collision increases. (nuclear physics)

  8. Directed transverse flow and its disappearance for asymmetric reactions

    We study the directed transverse flow for mass asymmetry reactions. This is done by keeping the target fixed and varying the projectile mass from 4He to 131Xe. We find that directed transverse flow is sensitive to the mass of the projectile. We also study the disappearance of flow at a particular impact parameter called Geometry of Vanishing Flow (GVF) for such mass asymmetry reactions. Our results indicate that GVF is sensitive to the beam energy as well as to the mass of the projectile.

  9. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    Radovic, Alexander [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)


    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  10. An improved measurement of muon antineutrino disappearance in MINOS

    Adamson, P.; Ayres, D. S.; Backhouse, C.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G.J.; Boehnlein, D. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Danko, I. Z.


    We report an improved measurement of muon anti-neutrino disappearance over a distance of 735km using the MINOS detectors and the Fermilab Main Injector neutrino beam in a muon anti-neutrino enhanced configuration. From a total exposure of 2.95e20 protons on target, of which 42% have not been previously analyzed, we make the most precise measurement of the anti-neutrino "atmospheric" delta-m squared = 2.62 +0.31/-0.28 (stat.) +/- 0.09 (syst.) and constrain the anti-neutrino atmospheric mixing ...

  11. A preference for migration

    Stark, Oded


    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  12. The Solar Internetwork. II. Magnetic Flux Appearance and Disappearance Rates

    Gošić, Milan; Iniesta, Jose Carlos Del Toro; Suárez, David Orozco; Katsukawa, Yukio


    Small-scale internetwork magnetic fields are important ingredients of the quiet Sun. In this paper we analyze how they appear and disappear on the solar surface. Using high resolution \\textit{Hinode} magnetograms, we follow the evolution of individual magnetic elements in the interior of two supergranular cells at the disk center. From up to 38 hr of continuous measurements, we show that magnetic flux appears in internetwork regions at a rate of $120\\pm3$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.3 \\pm 0.2 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$ over the entire solar surface). Flux disappears from the internetwork at a rate of $125 \\pm 6$~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$ ($7.6\\pm 0.4 \\times 10^{24}$~Mx~day$^{-1}$) through fading of magnetic elements, cancellation between opposite-polarity features, and interactions with network patches, which converts internetwork elements into network features. Most of the flux is lost through fading and interactions with the network, at nearly the same rate of about 50~Mx~cm$^{-2}$~day$^{-1}$. Our results ...

  13. New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Mercier, Norbert; Sistiaga, Ainara; Soler, Vicente


    The timing of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic and the disappearance of Neanderthals continue to be strongly debated. Current chronometric evidence from different European sites pushes the end of the Middle Palaeolithic throughout the continent back to around 42 thousand years ago (ka). This has called into question some of the dates from the Iberian Peninsula, previously considered as one of the last refuge zones of the Neanderthals. Evidence of Neanderthal occupation in Iberia after 42 ka is now very scarce and open to debate on chronological and technological grounds. Here we report thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from El Salt, a Middle Palaeolithic site in Alicante, Spain, the archaeological sequence of which shows a transition from recurrent to sporadic human occupation culminating in the abandonment of the site. The new dates place this sequence within MIS 3, between ca. 60 and 45 ka. An abrupt sedimentary change towards the top of the sequence suggests a strong aridification episode coinciding with the last Neanderthal occupation of the site. These results are in agreement with current chronometric data from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and point towards possible breakdown and disappearance of the Neanderthal local population around the time of the Heinrich 5 event. Iberian sites with recent dates (<40 ka) attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic should be revised in the light of these data. PMID:25016565

  14. " Animal, trop animal "

    Potestà, Andréa


    Dans la tradition philosophique, on trouve plusieurs définitions de l’homme. La célèbre définition aristotélicienne, zoon logon echon (animal doué du langage ou animal rationnel) fournit le paradigme ainsi que la méthode de toutes les définitions successives. Il s’agit d’ajouter au vivant, à l’animal, quelque chose d’autre, quelque chose de plus, qui permette de le caractériser et le fasse entendre comme différent des bêtes. Cette diversité peut être conçue différemment : en tant qu’élévation...

  15. Grand challenges in migration biology.

    Bowlin, Melissa S; Bisson, Isabelle-Anne; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Reichard, Jonathan D; Sapir, Nir; Marra, Peter P; Kunz, Thomas H; Wilcove, David S; Hedenström, Anders; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Åkesson, Susanne; Ramenofsky, Marilyn; Wikelski, Martin


    Billions of animals migrate each year. To successfully reach their destination, migrants must have evolved an appropriate genetic program and suitable developmental, morphological, physiological, biomechanical, behavioral, and life-history traits. Moreover, they must interact successfully with biotic and abiotic factors in their environment. Migration therefore provides an excellent model system in which to address several of the "grand challenges" in organismal biology. Previous research on migration, however, has often focused on a single aspect of the phenomenon, largely due to methodological, geographical, or financial constraints. Integrative migration biology asks 'big questions' such as how, when, where, and why animals migrate, which can be answered by examining the process from multiple ecological and evolutionary perspectives, incorporating multifaceted knowledge from various other scientific disciplines, and using new technologies and modeling approaches, all within the context of an annual cycle. Adopting an integrative research strategy will provide a better understanding of the interactions between biological levels of organization, of what role migrants play in disease transmission, and of how to conserve migrants and the habitats upon which they depend. PMID:21558203

  16. Dynamic of degradation and disappearance of monocrotophos in submerged soil

    The experimental results indicated that the disappearance rates of monocrotophos and its degraded products were much faster in the unsterilized soil than that in the sterilized soil. Their half lives were 27.29 and 69.16 days respectively. Monocrotophos degraded into both methanol extractable and unextractable residues in the submerged soil. The analysis of 14C-methanol extractable residue by TLC and ARG indicated that degraded products of monocrotophos were triether phosphate, N-demethyl Azodrin, O, O-dimethyl-vinyl-phosphate, O-demethyl Azodrin, and O, C-demethyl Azodrin. The principal degraded extratable product of monocrotophos was triether phosphate, which incresed from 5% of the parent solution of monocrotophos to a range of 28-83%; its degradation process was much faster in the unterilized soil than in the sterilized soil

  17. Black holes, wormholes, and the disappearance of global charge

    Coleman, Sidney Richard; Coleman, Sidney; Hughes, Shane


    One of the paradoxes associated with the theory of the formation and subsequent Hawking evaporation of a black hole is the disappearance of conserved global charges. It has long been known that metric fluctuations at short distances (wormholes) violate global-charge conservation; if global charges are apparently conserved at ordinary energies, it is only because wormhole-induced global-charge-violating terms in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are suppressed by large mass denominators. However, such suppressed interactions can become important at the high energy densities inside a collapsing star. We analyze this effect for a simple model of the black-hole singularity. (Our analysis is totally independent of any detailed theory of wormhole dynamics; in particular it does not depend on the wormhole theory of the vanishing of the cosmological constant.) We find that in general all charge is extinguished before the infalling matter crosses the singularity. No global charge appears in the outgoing Hawking radi...

  18. An Improved Measurement of Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    Webber, David M


    The theory of neutrino oscillations explains changes in neutrino flavor, count rates, and spectra from solar, atmospheric, accelerator, and reactor neutrinos. These oscillations are characterized by three mixing angles and two mass-squared differences. The solar mixing angle, {\\theta}_12, and the atmospheric mixing angle, {\\theta}_23, have been well measured, but until recently the neutrino mixing angle {\\theta}_13 was not well known. The Daya Bay experiment, located northeast of Hong Kong at the Guangdong Nuclear Power Complex in China, has made a precise measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance using six functionally-identical gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator-based detectors at three sites with distances between 364 and 1900 meters from six reactor cores. This proceeding describes the Daya Bay updated result, using 127 days of good run time collected between December 24, 2011 and May 11, 2012. For the far site, the ratio of the observed number of events to the expected number of events assumin...

  19. Observation of Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance at RENO and Future Plan

    Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation (RENO) in South Korea observed electron anti-neutrino disappearance using data taken from August 2011 to March 2012 (about 222 live-days) at Yonggwang nuclear reactor site. The observed deficit resulted in measuring the last unknown neutrino mixing angle, sin22θ13, as 0.113 +/- 0.013 (stat) +/- 0.019 (sys.) which is 4.9 sigma level discovery over no oscillation hypothesis. We have taken about 440 live-days of data in total so far and those data are being analyzed. The ultimate goal of RENO analysis is that we would like to reduce statistical and systematic errors down to more than half of what are now by taking data for 3 years in total and by improving analysis method and reducing background. At the end, our future project, RENO-50, is discussed

  20. Simvastatin-induced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution

    Stojaković Nataša


    Full Text Available Introduction. Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. Case Outline. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the ‘desirable’ range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day. The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day. At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. Conclusion. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  1. EU Migration Policy

    Kleinschmidt, Harald


    I shall confine myself in this paper to international migration as migration across international borders.I do so despite the fact that,still today,international migration accounts only for a small share of migration at large.Likewise,I shall deal widh voluntary migration and shall thus exclude,deportation ...

  2. Amazing Animals

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad


    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  3. Partial Altitudinal Migration of a Himalayan Forest Pheasant

    Norbu, Nawang; Wikelski, Martin C.; Wilcove, David S.; Partecke, Jesko; Ugyen; Tenzin, Ugyen; Sherub,; Tempa, Tshering


    Background Altitudinal migration systems are poorly understood. Recent advances in animal telemetry which enables tracking of migrants across their annual cycles will help illustrate unknown migration patterns and test existing hypotheses. Using telemetry, we show the existence of a complex partial altitudinal migration system in the Himalayas and discuss our findings to help better understand partial and altitudinal migration. Methodology/Principal Findings We used GPS/accelerometer tags to ...

  4. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine


    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration. PMID:26473314

  5. Enigmatic Solar Wind Disappearance Events – Do We Understand Them?

    Janardhan P.


    At the Sun–Earth distance of one astronomical unit (1 AU), the solar wind is known to be strongly supersonic and super Alfvénic with Mach and Alfvén numbers being on average 12 and 9 respectively. Also, solar wind densities (average ∼ 10 cm-3) and velocities (average ∼ 450 km s-1) at 1 AU, are known to be inversely correlated with low velocities having higher than average densities and vice versa. However, on May 11 and 12 1999 the Earth was engulfed by an unusually low density (< 0.1 cm-3) and low velocity (< 350 km s-1) solar wind with an Alfvén Mach number significantly less than 1. This was a unique low-velocity, low-density, sub-Alfvénic solar wind flow which spacecraft observations have shown lasted more than 24 hours. One consequence of this extremely tenuous solar wind was a spectacular expansion of the Earth’s magnetosphere and bow shock. The expanding bow shock was observed by several spacecraft and reached record upstream distances of nearly 60 Earth radii, the lunar orbit. The event was so dramatic that it has come to be known as the solar wind disappearance event. Though extensive studies of this event were made by many authors in the past, it has only been recently shown that the unusual solar wind flows characterizing this event originated from a small coronal hole in the vicinity of a large active region on the Sun. These recent results have put to rest speculation that such events are associated with global phenomenon like the periodic solar polar field reversal that occurs at the maximum of each solar cycle. In this paper we revisit the 11 May 1999 event, look at other disappearance events that have ocurred in the past, examine the reasons why speculations about the association of such events with global phenomena like solar polar field reversals were made and also examine the role of transient coronal holes as a possible solar source for such events.

  6. Neuronal Migration Disorders

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Neuronal Migration Disorders Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What are Neuronal Migration Disorders? Neuronal migration disorders (NMDs) are a group ...

  7. Migration of birds

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  8. Research on Protocol Migration

    汪芸; 顾冠群; 等


    This paper elaborates the concept and model of protocol migration in network interconnection.Migration strategies and principles are discussed and several cases are studied in detail which show the basic procedure and techniques used in protocol migration.

  9. Lipid reserves and immune defense in healthy and diseased migrating monarchs Danaus plexippus



    Recent studies suggest that the energetic demands of long-distance migration might lower the pool of resources available for costly immune defenses. Moreover, migration could amplify the costs of parasitism if animals suffering from parasite-induced damage or depleted energy reserves are less able to migrate long distances. We investigated relationships between long-distance migration, infection, and immunity in wild fall-migrating monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus. Monarchs migrate annual...

  10. Are Migratory Animals Superspreaders of Infection?

    Fritzsche McKay, Alexa; Hoye, Bethany J


    Migratory animals are simultaneously challenged by the physiological demands of long-distance movements and the need to avoid natural enemies including parasites and pathogens. The potential for animal migrations to disperse pathogens across large geographic areas has prompted a growing body of research investigating the interactions between migration and infection. However, the phenomenon of animal migration is yet to be incorporated into broader theories in disease ecology. Because migrations may expose animals to a greater number and diversity of pathogens, increase contact rates between hosts, and render them more susceptible to infection via changes to immune function, migration has the potential to generate both "superspreader species" and infection "hotspots". However, migration has also been shown to reduce transmission in some species, by facilitating parasite avoidance ("migratory escape") and weeding out infected individuals ("migratory culling"). This symposium was convened in an effort to characterize more broadly the role that animal migrations play in the dynamics of infectious disease, by integrating a range of approaches and scales across host taxa. We began with questions related to within-host processes, focusing on the consequences of nutritional constraints and strenuous movement for individual immune capability, and of parasite infection for movement capacity. We then scaled-up to between-host processes to identify what types, distances, or patterns of host movements are associated with the spread of infectious agents. Finally, we discussed landscape-scale relationships between migration and infectious disease, and how these may be altered as a result of anthropogenic changes to climate and land use. We are just beginning to scratch the surface of the interactions between infection and animal migrations; yet, with so many migrations now under threat, there is an urgent need to develop a holistic understanding of the potential for migrations to

  11. Black holes, wormholes, and the disappearance of global charge

    Coleman, Sidney; Hughes, Shane


    One of the paradoxes associated with the theory of the formation and subsequent Hawking evaporation of a black hole is the disappearance of conserved global charges. It has long been known that metric fluctuations at short distances (wormholes) violate global-charge conservation; if global charges are apparently conserved at ordinary energies, it is only because wormhole-induced global-charge-violating terms in the low-energy effective Lagrangian are suppressed by large mass denominators. However, such suppressed interactions can become important at the high energy densities inside a collapsing star. We analyze this effect for a simple model of the black-hole singularity. (Our analysis is totally independent of any detailed theory of wormhole dynamics; in particular it does not depend on the wormhole theory of the vanishing of the cosmological constant.) We find that in general all charge is extinguished before the infalling matter crosses the singularity. No global charge appears in the outgoing Hawking radiation because it has all gone down the wormholes.

  12. Observation of Reactor Electron Antineutrino Disappearance at RENO

    The Reactor Experiment for Neutrino Oscillation (RENO) has obtained a definitive measurement of the smallest neutrino mixing angle of θ13 by observing the disappearance of electron antineutrinos emitted from a nuclear reactor, excluding the no-oscillation hypothesis at 4.9 σ. From the deficit, the best fit value of sin22θ13 is obtained as 0.113±0.013(stat.)±0.019(syst.) based on a rate-only analysis. Antineutrinos from six 2.8 GWth reactors at the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant in Korea, are detected by two identical detectors at 294 m and 1383 m, respectively, from the reactor array center. In the 229 day data-taking period between 11 August 2011 and 26 March 2012, the far (near) detector observed 17102 (154088) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 5.5% (2.7%). The ratio of observed to expected numbers of the reactor antineutrinos in the far detector is 0.920±0.009(stat.)±0.014(syst.)

  13. Existence and disappearance of conical singularities in GLPV theories

    De Felice, Antonio; Tsujikawa, Shinji


    In a class of Gleyzes-Langlois-Piazza-Vernizzi (GLPV) theories, we derive both vacuum and interior Schwarzschild solutions under the condition that the derivatives of a scalar field $\\phi$ with respect to the radius $r$ vanish. If the parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ characterizing the deviation from Horndeski theories approaches a non-zero constant at the center of a spherically symmetric body, we find that the conical singularity arises at $r=0$ with the Ricci scalar given by $R=-2\\alpha_{\\rm H}/r^2$. This originates from violation of the geometrical structure of four-dimensional curvature quantities. The conical singularity can disappear for the models in which the parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ vanishes in the limit that $r \\to 0$. We propose explicit models without the conical singularity by properly designing the classical Lagrangian in such a way that the main contribution to $\\alpha_{\\rm H}$ comes from the field derivative $\\phi'(r)$ around $r=0$. We show that the extension of covariant Galileons with a diatoni...

  14. Optimal Control of a Collective Migration Model

    Piccoli, Benedetto; Duteil, Nastassia Pouradier; Scharf, Benjamin


    Collective migration of animals in a cohesive group is rendered possible by a strategic distribution of tasks among members: some track the travel route, which is time and energy-consuming, while the others follow the group by interacting among themselves. In this paper, we study a social dynamics system modeling collective migration. We consider a group of agents able to align their velocities to a global target velocity, or to follow the group via interaction with the other agents. The bala...

  15. Migration of radioactive products through alimentary chains

    Data on the migration of radioactive products in biocoenoses are presented and their main migration routes are discussed. Data on the radioactive contamination of food of vegetable, animal and marine origin are mentioned. It was proved that the processing of raw foodstuffs and cooking considerably reduces their contamination. Data on the amounts of radionuclides taken in by the human organism owing to local and global radioactive fallout are presented. (author)

  16. Migration and trade

    Peter H. Egger; Ehrlich, Maximilian von; Nelson, Douglas R.


    Theoretical and empirical research in economics suggests that bilateral migration triggers bilateral trade through a number of channels. This paper assesses the functional form of the impact of migration on trade flows in a quasi-experimental setting. We provide evidence that the relationship is not log-linear. In particular, at small levels of migration (stocks) the elasticity of trade to migration is quite high, and it declines to zero at about 4,000 immigrants. If migration stocks exceed s...

  17. Animal Farm



    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  18. Animal Bites

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  19. Animal Bites

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  20. Animal Farm



    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  1. Animal ethics

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possibl...

  2. Quadruped Animation

    Skrba, Ljiljana; Reveret, Lionel; Hétroy, Franck; Cani, Marie-Paule; O'Sullivan, Carol


    Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation of realistic animals in the computer graphics area. In...

  3. Thin Animals

    Johnston, D.


    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals ...

  4. The cost of migration: spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only.

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Piersma, Theunis


    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are established, none has investigated whether mortality during the actual migration increases with migration distance. Here, we compared seasonal survival between Eurasian spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia leucorodia) that breed in The Netherlands and migrate different distances (ca 1000, 2000 and 4500 km) to winter in France, Iberia and Mauritania, respectively. On the basis of resightings of individually marked birds throughout the year between 2005 and 2012, we show that summer, autumn and winter survival were very high and independent of migration distance, whereas mortality during spring migration was much higher (18%) for the birds that wintered in Mauritania, compared with those flying only as far as France (5%) or Iberia (6%). As such, this study is the first to show empirical evidence for increased mortality during some long migrations, likely driven by the presence of a physical barrier (the Sahara desert) in combination with suboptimal fuelling and unfavourable weather conditions en route. PMID:25589489

  5. Animal Deliberation

    Driessen, C.P.G.


    While much has been written on environmental politics on the one hand, and animal ethics and welfare on the other, animal politics, as the interface of the two, is underexamined. There are key political implications in the increase of animal protection laws, the rights of nature, and political parti

  6. Animal models

    Gøtze, Jens Peter; Krentz, Andrew


    In this issue of Cardiovascular Endocrinology, we are proud to present a broad and dedicated spectrum of reviews on animal models in cardiovascular disease. The reviews cover most aspects of animal models in science from basic differences and similarities between small animals and the human...

  7. The wicked problem of China's disappearing coral reefs.

    Hughes, Terry P; Huang, Hui; Young, Matthew A L


    We examined the development of coral reef science and the policies, institutions, and governance frameworks for management of coral reefs in China in order to highlight the wicked problem of preserving reefs while simultaneously promoting human development and nation building. China and other sovereign states in the region are experiencing unprecedented economic expansion, rapid population growth, mass migration, widespread coastal development, and loss of habitat. We analyzed a large, fragmented literature on the condition of coral reefs in China and the disputed territories of the South China Sea. We found that coral abundance has declined by at least 80% over the past 30 years on coastal fringing reefs along the Chinese mainland and adjoining Hainan Island. On offshore atolls and archipelagos claimed by 6 countries in the South China Sea, coral cover has declined from an average of >60% to around 20% within the past 10-15 years. Climate change has affected these reefs far less than coastal development, pollution, overfishing, and destructive fishing practices. Ironically, these widespread declines in the condition of reefs are unfolding as China's research and reef-management capacity are rapidly expanding. Before the loss of corals becomes irreversible, governance of China's coastal reefs could be improved by increasing public awareness of declining ecosystem services, by providing financial support for training of reef scientists and managers, by improving monitoring of coral reef dynamics and condition to better inform policy development, and by enforcing existing regulations that could protect coral reefs. In the South China Sea, changes in policy and legal frameworks, refinement of governance structures, and cooperation among neighboring countries are urgently needed to develop cooperative management of contested offshore reefs. PMID:23140101

  8. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum silage treated with inoculants.

    Thomas, M E; Foster, J L; McCuistion, K C; Redmon, L A; Jessup, R W


    Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have the potential to improve the value of sorghum feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of 4 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage varieties: Dairy Master BMR (DBMR; brown midrib; Richardson Seed, Vega, TX), PS 747 (PS; photoperiod sensitive; Pogue Seed, Kenedy, TX), Silo 700D (S700D; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed), and MMR 381/73 (MMR; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed) pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase, XC; 50:50 mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus; Dyadic, Juniper, FL) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum); Cargill Animal Nutrition, Indianapolis, IN; PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS and the least for MMR. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC-treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC- and PRO-treated silage. When silage was treated with XC, concentrations of NDF concentrations decreased, on average, 4.81% across all cultivars and ADF concentrations decreased, on average, 3.23% in all cultivars except MMR. Inoculant PRO reduced the NDF concentration of DBMR by 6.47%. The ADF concentrations of DBMR and PS treated with PRO were decreased by 3.25%. Treating sorghum silage with XC or PRO reduced the NDF and ADF fractions, which increased cell wall degradability. In vitro true digestibility was greatest for PRO-treated DBMR, whereas acid detergent lignin was least for PRO-treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO; however, aerobic stability of XC-treated MMR was 63 h greater than that of the control. Acetate concentrations were greatest for XC-treated MMR, which explains the 63-h improvement in aerobic stability due to the inhibition of fungi. However, inoculant PRO did not improve yeast and mold counts or aerobic stability of sorghum

  9. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  10. Animal research

    Olsson, I.A.S.; Sandøe, Peter


    in science (as in any other human use that is not also in the animals’ best interest). These views are not compatible, and since all three views in more or less pure form are found in modern Western societies, use of animals for research is bound to cause controversy. However, there may be room for some kind......This article presents the ethical issues in animal research using a combined approach of ethical theory and analysis of scientific findings with bearing on the ethical analysis. The article opens with a general discussion of the moral acceptability of animal use in research. The use of animals...... in research is analyzed from the viewpoint of three distinct ethical approaches: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights view. On a contractarian view, research on animals is only an ethical issue to the extent that other humans as parties to the social contract care about how research animals...

  11. International Migration and its Effects on Family

    Cornel Constantinescu


    Full Text Available The crises period that still cross Romania explain, between others, the apparition and development of international migration, after 1990. In a world marked by globalization, migration can not disappear, contrary, it grows bigger ant it remains an interesting subject in future. A study about migration consequences on family, specially on children’s personality left in the country, is justified because migration is a present phenomena in Romanian space at the beginning of the XXIth century. We try to analyse the effects of this phenomenon on family. Related to these goal we offer the conclusions obtained from a research realized in Campulung Muscel municipality, Arges county, on a lot of pupils that have parents left in foreign countries and the results to the investigation made in Pitesti municipality. The research showed that it is a relationship between children’s marks at school and parent’s leaving; children’s perceptions on parent’s leaving; identifies school’s interest level in diminution of the low school performance effects caused by this socio-economical phenomena.

  12. Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards

    van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas;


    Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring......The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may not...... generally correct for displacement during fall migration. Waterbirds such as the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus 1758) are more flexible in their migration behavior than most migratory songbirds, but previous experiments with waterbirds have not yet allowed clear conclusions about their navigation...

  13. Migration and revolution

    Nando Sigona


    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has not radically transformed migration patterns in the Mediterranean, and the label ‘migration crisis’ does not do justice to the composite and stratified reality.

  14. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    Reinhardt, Christoph


    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  15. International Migration and Remittances

    Dattatray Sitaram Bagade


    Human migration is a physical movement by human beings from one geographical areato another geographical area. Migration is internal as well as external. At theinternational level, no universally accepted definition for “Migrant” exists. The UniteNations defines “migration as an individual who has resided in a foreign country formore than one year irrespective of the causes, voluntary or involuntary, and the means,regular or irregular, used migrate”. Key terms of migrations is documented migr...

  16. Migration, Remittances and Growth

    Nurgul Ukueva


    This paper analyzes the effect of migration and remittances on a small, open, migrant-sending country in the context of an endogenous growth model with technology transfers. The paper demonstrates that, due to a dynamic feedback effect from economic conditions to migration and from migration to economic development in an economy exposed to migration, initial conditions can determine its long-run steady state, leading to the rise of vicious or virtues circles of development. Countries with a l...

  17. Essays on temporary migration

    Mestres Domenech, J.


    My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption decisions. We simulate our model with return intentions and perform policy simulations. The se...

  18. Animal Shelter


    Beijing activist Zhang Luping gives up a lucrative business career to provide a home for stray and abandoned pets "I have never been married, but I have I hundreds of children," said Zhang Luping, founder of the Beijing Human and Animal Environment Education Center (the Animal Center). "God sent me to this planet and gave me the mission of taking care of helpless and homeless dogs and cats. I will never let Him down." The Animal Center, one of a few non-

  19. Animal ethics

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter


    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...... the nature of our duties to animals. They are: contractarianism, utilitarianism, the animal rights view, contextual views, and a respect for nature view. Finally, we briefly consider whether it is possible to combine elements from the presented views, and how to make up one’s mind....

  20. On Marriage and Migration

    Stark, Oded


    Marriage, migration and related phenomena such as marital stability, fertility and investment in human capital may be better explained by studying marriage and migration jointly. We thus proceed in this paper to explore the role of migration in obtaining joint labour-market and marriage-market equilibrium. This facilitates identification of several novel and testable hypotheses.

  1. Modeling animal landscapes.

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B


    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  2. Sun clocks in as migration key.

    Williams, Nigel


    The mechanisms by which some animals are able to achieve astonishing feats of migration have often eluded researchers because of the difficulty of designing suitable experiments. Two Canadian researchers believe they now have a set-up to throw light on the flight of the monarch butterfly. Nigel Williams reports. PMID:12176370

  3. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas


    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  4. Search for Muon Neutrino and Antineutrino Disappearance in MiniBooNE

    The MiniBooNE Collaboration reports a search for νμ and νμ disappearance in the Δm2 region of 0.5-40 eV2. These measurements are important for constraining models with extra types of neutrinos, extra dimensions, and CPT violation. Fits to the shape of the νμ and νμ energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance at the 90% confidence level (C.L.) in either mode. The test of νμ disappearance probes a region below Δm2=40 eV2 never explored before.

  5. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    Staczek, J.


    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovir...

  6. ANIMAL code

    This report describes ANIMAL, a two-dimensional Eulerian magnetohydrodynamic computer code. ANIMAL's physical model also appears. Formulated are temporal and spatial finite-difference equations in a manner that facilitates implementation of the algorithm. Outlined are the functions of the algorithm's FORTRAN subroutines and variables

  7. Kindergarten Animation

    Hinshaw, Craig


    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  8. Patterns of migration in Tanzania.

    Bernstein, H


    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper identifying internal migration patterns and employment implications in Tanzania - discusses reasons for migration, types (seasonal workers, permanent, etc.), Migration within rural areas or urban areas, rural migration, land settlement trends, etc. References.)

  9. There and back again: migration in freshwater fishes

    Brönmark, C.; Hulthén, K.; Nilsson, P.A.; Skov, Christian; Hansson, L.-A.; Brodersen, J.; Chapman, B.B.


    migration occurs in a range of freshwater fish taxa from many different habitats. In this review we focus on the causes and consequences of migration in freshwater fishes. We start with an introduction of concepts and categories of migration, and then address the evolutionary causes that drive individuals......Animal migration is an amazing phenomenon that has fascinated humans for long. Many freshwater fishes also show remarkable migrations, whereof the spectacular mass migrations of salmonids from the spawning streams are the most well known and well studied. However, recent studies have shown that...... to make these migratory journeys. The basis for the decision of an individual fish to migrate or stay resident is an evaluation of the costs and benefits of different strategies to maximize its lifetime reproductive effort. We provide examples by discussing our own work on the causes behind seasonal...

  10. A strong genetic correlation underlying a behavioural syndrome disappears during development because of genotype-age interactions.

    Class, Barbara; Brommer, Jon E


    In animal populations, as in humans, behavioural differences between individuals that are consistent over time and across contexts are considered to reflect personality, and suites of correlated behaviours expressed by individuals are known as behavioural syndromes. Lifelong stability of behavioural syndromes is often assumed, either implicitly or explicitly. Here, we use a quantitative genetic approach to study the developmental stability of a behavioural syndrome in a wild population of blue tits. We find that a behavioural syndrome formed by a strong genetic correlation of two personality traits in nestlings disappears in adults, and we demonstrate that genotype-age interaction is the likely mechanism underlying this change during development. A behavioural syndrome may hence change during organismal development, even when personality traits seem to be strongly physiologically or functionally linked in one age group. We outline how such developmental plasticity has important ramifications for understanding the mechanistic basis as well as the evolutionary consequences of behavioural syndromes. PMID:26041348

  11. Xaraés palisadegrass remains productive after the disappearance of stylo in tropical legume-grass pasture

    Rodrigo Carvalho Menezes


    Full Text Available Gradual reduction of legumes in mixed tropical pastures requires periodic oversowing. Exploiting the carrying capacity of grass for an extra year after the disappearance of legumes can be economically advantageous to the farmer. This study aimed to evaluate the productivity of Xaraés palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha pastures in response to its historical association with stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis under two canopy heights to determine whether different grazing management conditions affect the defoliation pattern left by grazing animals. The split-plot experimental design was used, with the historical botanical composition (HBC (24, 34, 45 and 52 % legume composition corresponding to the main plots and the canopy frequency of defoliation determined at heights of 30 and 45 cm for Xaraés palisadegrass corresponding to the subplots with two replicates (500 m2 grazed by Tabapuã cows. Pastures with over 34 % stylo in the botanical composition remained productive for one year after legume disappearance, accumulating more than 8 mg ha−1 of forage per year. Xaraés palisadegrass pastures at a height of 30 cm provided better canopy structure, with 64 % less stem production and 43 % less dead material. The 30-cm pre-grazing canopy height provided a grazing environment conducive to forage intake by animals that resulted in efficient use of the pasture. In response to the improved canopy structure, the cows grazed an average of 60 fewer minutes. A HBC greater than 34 % of legumes in the pastures allows for the postponement of legume oversowing until the next growing season.

  12. Animal learning.

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A


    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  13. A search for muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance in the Booster Neutrino Beam

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna McConnel; /Columbia U.


    This dissertation presents a search for {mu}{sub {nu}} and {bar {mu}{sub {nu}}} disappearance with the MiniBooNE experiment in the {Delta}m{sup 2} region of a few eV{sup 2}. Disappearance measurements in this oscillation region constrain sterile neutrino models and CPT violation in the lepton sector. Fits to the shape of the {mu}{sub {nu}} and {bar {mu}{sub {nu}}} energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance in either mode. This is the first test of {bar {mu}{sub {nu}}} disappearance between {Delta}m{sup 2} = 0:1 -- 10 eV2. In addition, prospects for performing a joint analysis using the SciBooNE detector in conjunction with MiniBooNE are discussed.

  14. Disappearance and revival of squeezing in quantum communication with squeezed state over a noisy channel

    Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi


    Squeezed state can increase the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum communication and quantum measurement. However, losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy the squeezing. The phenomenon of disappearance of the squeezing will result in the failure of quantum communication. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disappearance and revival of the squeezing in quantum communication with squeezed state. The experimental results show that the squeezed light is robust (squeezing never disappears) in a pure lossy but noiseless channel. While in a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disappearance of the squeezing, and the squeezing can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The channel capacity of quantum communication is increased after the squeezing is revived. The presented results provide useful technical references for quantum communication with squeezed light.

  15. Disappearing neutrinos at KamLAND suport the case for neutrino mass

    Johnson, G


    Measurements from KamLAND, show that anti-neutrinos emanating from nearby nuclear reactors are "disappearing," which indicates they have mass and can oscillate or change from one type to another (2 pages)

  16. Vacuum excitation by sudden (dis-)appearance of a Dirichlet wall in a cavity

    Harada, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Umpei


    Vacuum excitation by time-varying boundary conditions is not only of fundamental importance but also has recently been confirmed in a laboratory experiment. In this paper, we study the vacuum excitation of a scalar field by the instantaneous appearance and disappearance of a both-sided Dirichlet wall in the middle of a 1D cavity, as toy models of bifurcating and merging spacetimes, respectively. It is shown that the energy flux emitted positively diverges on the null lines emanating from the (dis-)appearance event, which is analogous to the result of Anderson and DeWitt. This result suggests that the semiclassical effect prevents the spacetime both from bifurcating and merging. In addition, we argue that the diverging flux in the disappearance case plays an interesting role to compensate for the lowness of ambient energy density after the disappearance, which is lower than the zero-point level.

  17. Vacuum excitation by sudden appearance and disappearance of a Dirichlet wall in a cavity

    Harada, Tomohiro; Kinoshita, Shunichiro; Miyamoto, Umpei


    Vacuum excitation by time-varying boundary conditions is not only of fundamental importance but also has recently been confirmed in a laboratory experiment. In this paper, we study the vacuum excitation of a scalar field by the instantaneous appearance and disappearance of a two-sided Dirichlet wall in the middle of a one-dimensional cavity, as toy models of bifurcating and merging spacetimes, respectively. It is shown that the energy flux emitted positively diverges on the null lines emanating from the appearance and disappearance events, which is analogous to the result of Anderson and DeWitt. This result suggests that the semiclassical effect prevents the spacetime both from bifurcating and merging. In addition, we argue that the diverging flux in the disappearance case plays an interesting role to compensate for the low ambient energy density after the disappearance, which is lower than the zero-point level.

  18. Wild Animals



    Many of us think that all wild animals are dangerous. In fact, very few of them will eat a man if he leaves them alone. If you meet a tiger, I'm sure you will run away, but even a tiger doesn't like meeting a man if it isn't hungry. Tigers only kill and eat man when they are too old to catch their food, such as sheep and other small animals. Some animals get frightened when they only smell a man. Some of themst and and look at a man for a short time before they run away.

  19. Intermittent Disappearance of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus Murmur: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Cokkinos, Dennis V.; Leachman, Robert D.; Lufschanowski, Roberto


    A 10-year-old girl with a diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus from the time of birth was noted to have disappearance of her typical continuous murmur on two separate, well-documented occasions. Cardiac catheterization showed a small patent ductus arteriosus with a pulmonic/systemic flow ratio of 1.3:1. Conservative treatment was advised. Twelve other cases of intermittent disappearance of the murmur of a patent ductus arteriosus were found in the literature.

  20. COMADRE: a global database of animal demography

    Salguero-Gómez, R.; Jones, O.R.; Archer, C.R.; Bein, C.; Buhr, de, H.; Farack, C.; Gottschalk, F.; Hartmann, A.; Henning, A.; Hoppe, G.; Römer, G.; Ruoff, T.; Sommer, V.; Wille, J.; Voigt, J.(Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany)


    1. The open-data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open-data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics spanning the rich diversity of the animal kingdom world-wide. This information is fundamental to our understanding of the conditions that have shaped variation in animal life histories and their relatio...

  1. Animal performance

    Abaye, A. O. (Azenegashe Ozzie); Rotz, Jonathan Daniel; Scaglia Alonso, Guillermo, 1963-; Fike, John Herschel; Smith, Ray Lee, 1962-


    Any forage crop that stretches the grazing season by providing additional feed in early spring, mid-summer, and late fall will provide the livestock producer with lower feed costs and boost animal performance.

  2. Animation & Neurocinematics*

    Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción


    , indeed, can be considered a social/ emotional learning media, which goes beyond the limitations of live action movies. This is due to the diversity of techniques, and its visual plasticity that constructs the impossible. Animators are not real actors but more like the midwife who brings the anima...... machines that think”-(Damasio, A. Descartes error). Such feelings come from the interpretation of the emotions in our bodies. Emotions are our universal language, the motivation of living, the key to what makes a movie successful and truly an art piece that you will remember because moves you. Animation...... into aliveness, which requires knowing how emotions work. Ed Hooks as an expert in training animators and actors, always remarks: “emotions tend to lead to action”. In this paper we want to argue that by producing animated films, as we watch them, cause a stronger effect, not only in our brains, but also in our...

  3. Groundwater animals

    Maurice, Louise; Bloomfield, John; Robertson, Anne; Allen, Debbie


    Groundwater animals are adapted to live in environments with no light and limited nutrients, They can provide insights into fundamental questions of evolution, ecology and biodiversity. They also have an important role to play in informing the reconstruction of past changes in geomorphology and climate, and can be used for characterising aquifers. The BGS is undertaking a systematic survey of selected areas and lithologies in the UK where groundwater animals have not been inves...

  4. Radon depth migration

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  5. Malaysia and forced migration

    Arzura Idris


    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysi...

  6. Unemployment, migration, and growth

    Valerie R. Bencivenga; Bruce D. Smith


    Economic development is typically accompanied by a very pronounced migration of labor from rural to urban employment. This migration, in turn, is often associated with large scale urban underemployment. Both factors appear to play a very prominent role in the process of development. We consider a model in which rural-urban migration and urban underemployment are integrated into an otherwise conventional neoclassical growth model. Unemployment arises not from any exogenous rigidities, but from...




    The detailed classification of migration is analyzed, also a conclusion is drawn according to the fact that migration contributes to the development of the population of countries and regions, appearing to be a driving force and an important factor of globalization in the XXI century. Russia, also as other countries, strongly depends on migration: future of the Russian Federation depends on the fact how socially-spiritual community of Russian people will change, and also culture and values of...

  8. Many Faces of Migrations

    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs


    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  9. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out to be...... equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  10. Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America.

    Bartel, Rebecca A; Oberhauser, Karen S; De Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia M


    Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats (i.e., migratory escape), and (2) long-distance migration weeds out infected animals (i.e., migratory culling). We combined field-sampling and analysis of citizen science data to examine spatiotemporal trends of parasite prevalence and evaluate evidence for these two mechanisms. Analysis of within-breeding-season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape. Prevalence was also positively related to monarch breeding activity, as indexed by larval density. Among adult monarchs captured at different points along the east coast fall migratory flyway, parasite prevalence declined as monarchs progressed southward, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory culling. Parasite prevalence was also lower among monarchs sampled at two overwintering sites in Mexico than among monarchs sampled during the summer breeding period. Collectively, these results indicate that seasonal migration can affect parasite transmission in wild animal populations, with implications for predicting disease risks for species with threatened migrations. PMID:21618914

  11. Pushing the pace of tree species migration.

    Eli D Lazarus

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale.

  12. From Immigration to Migration Systems: New Concepts in Migration History.

    Hoerder, Dirk


    Describes the characteristics of migration systems where two or more societies are connected through migration patterns. Identifies the four major migration systems that populated North America. Reviews the literature in relation to migration systems and discusses autobiographical accounts of migration. Provides an extensive bibliography. (CMK)

  13. The dynamic neptunian ring arcs: evidence for a gradual disappearance of Liberté and resonant jump of courage

    de Pater, Imke; Gibbard, Seran G.; Chiang, Eugene; Hammel, Heidi B.; Macintosh, Bruce; Marchis, Franck; Martin, Shuleen C.; Roe, Henry G.; Showalter, Mark


    We present Adaptive Optics observations of Neptune's ring system at 1.6 and 2.2 μm, taken with the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope in July 2002 and October 2003. We recovered the full Adams and Le Verrier rings for the first time since the Voyager era (1989), and show that the overall appearance of these rings did not change much, except for the ring arcs. Both the location and intensity of all arcs changed drastically relative to trailing arc Fraternité, which has a mean orbital motion of 820.1118 ± 0.0001 deg/day, equal to that of Nicholson et al.'s (1995, Icarus 113, 295-330) solution 2. Our data suggest that all arcs may have decayed over the last decade, while Liberté, in 2003, may be on the verge of disappearing completely. The observed changes in the relative intensities and locations of all arcs further indicate that material is migrating between resonance sites; leading arc Courage, for example, has jumped ˜8°, or, when adopting Namouni and Porco's (2002, Nature 417, 45-47) CER (corotation eccentricity resonance) theory, it advanced by one full corotation potential maximum. Overall, our observations reveal a system that is surprisingly dynamic, and no comprehensive theory exists as of yet that can explain all the observed intricacies.

  14. Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards.

    Mariëlle L van Toor

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may not generally correct for displacement during fall migration. Waterbirds such as the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus 1758 are more flexible in their migration behavior than most migratory songbirds, but previous experiments with waterbirds have not yet allowed clear conclusions about their navigation abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring returned to the population's breeding grounds in the Baltics and Northwest Russia. Contrary to the control animals, the translocated mallards did not continue migration and stayed at Lake Constance. In spring, three types of movement tactics could be observed: 61.5% of the ducks (16 of 26 stayed around Lake Constance, 27% (7 of 26 migrated in a northerly direction towards Sweden and 11.5% of the individuals (3 of 26 headed east for ca. 1,000 km and then north. We suggest that young female mallards flexibly adjust their migration tactics and develop a navigational map that allows them to return to their natal breeding area.

  15. Biotecnologia animal

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Millor Fernandes do Rosário; Erika Cristina Jorge


    A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candi...

  16. Animated symbols

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    This paper is based on data about animation film production by 18-year-old students in a Danish upper secondary school. The optic is the on-going potential for learning and development of reflection. The purpose is to clarify what might support young people's reflection on media. I propose...... an analytic working model called Animated Symbols concerning critical reflection in a dialogic learning process. The model shows dialogue as interactions that involve two types of transformation: inner ‘learning processes' and outer signs and symbols. The classroom-based research study is part of a Ph...

  17. Spatiotemporal isoscapes for migration research

    Bowen, G. J.; Hobson, K. A.; Wassenaar, L.; Zhang, T.


    Light stable isotope tracers have become a popular and widely used source of information on the regional to continental scale migration patterns of many animal groups. This work is founded on a quantitative understanding of the spatial distribution of environmental isotopes (isoscapes) that are assimilated in animal tissues, providing a basis for assigning animals to locations or regions based on retrospective analysis of their tissues. To date, almost all studies have developed interpretations on climatological, or 'static', isoscapes, because in most cases data and models allowing accurate estimation of isotope distributions for specific calendar years or seasons have not been available. This situation creates a disconnect between the timescales of biological samples and environmental isoscapes, which is limiting in many systems that exhibit a high degree of temporal variability. We report here on new analyses characterizing temporal variation in environmental water (H and O) isotope ratios and testing our ability to accurately model short-term (individual months and seasons) water isoscapes using existing datasets. We implement the resulting data products in a case study using previously published data from monarch butterfly wing keratin and compare the accuracy and sensitivity of Bayesian geographic assignments for these samples using different climatological and time-specific isoscapes. Combined with a continued emphasis on environmental isotope monitoring, the modeling tools used here should support continued improvement in the precision and accuracy of geographic assignments. The data and data analysis methods have been implemented in the IsoMAP web portal and are freely available to the migration research community in support of their research.

  18. Capturing migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife using camera traps

    Tape, Ken D.; Gustine, David D.


    Remote photography, using camera traps, can be an effective and noninvasive tool for capturing the migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife. We deployed 14 digital cameras along a 104-kilometer longitudinal transect to record the spring migrations of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and ptarmigan (Lagopus spp.) in the Alaskan Arctic. The cameras recorded images at 15-minute intervals, producing approximately 40,000 images, including 6685 caribou observations and 5329 ptarmigan observations. The northward caribou migration was evident because the median caribou observation (i.e., herd median) occurred later with increasing latitude; average caribou migration speed also increased with latitude (r2 = .91). Except at the northernmost latitude, a northward ptarmigan migration was similarly evident (r2 = .93). Future applications of this method could be used to examine the conditions proximate to animal movement, such as habitat or snow cover, that may influence migration phenology.

  19. Development of a 3D muon disappearance algorithm for muon scattering tomography

    Upon passing through a material, muons lose energy, scatter off nuclei and atomic electrons, and can stop in the material. Muons will more readily lose energy in higher density materials. Therefore multiple muon disappearances within a localized volume may signal the presence of high-density materials. We have developed a new technique that improves the sensitivity of standard muon scattering tomography. This technique exploits these muon disappearances to perform non-destructive assay of an inspected volume. Muons that disappear have their track evaluated using a 3D line extrapolation algorithm, which is in turn used to construct a 3D tomographic image of the inspected volume. Results of Monte Carlo simulations that measure muon disappearance in different types of target materials are presented. The ability to differentiate between different density materials using the 3D line extrapolation algorithm is established. Finally the capability of this new muon disappearance technique to enhance muon scattering tomography techniques in detecting shielded HEU in cargo containers has been demonstrated

  20. Constructing Meaning from Disappearance: Local Memorialisation of the Missing in Nepal

    Simon Robins


    Full Text Available Disappearance in conflict creates challenges of identity and meaning for the families of those whose fate remains unknown: women, for example, who do not know if they are wives or widows and desperately seek to construct positive meanings from their experience. This empirical study of the families of those disappeared during Nepal’s Maoist insurgency focuses on processes of local memorialisation and post-conflict politics of memory in rural areas and on how and why victims seek certain forms of recognition and memorialisation, including their psychosocial motivations. The means of memorialisation chosen by families of the missing served to confirm in a highly social way that the disappeared are missing not dead, and sought to integrate stigmatised families into communities from which they had been alienated by violations. Memorialisation can strengthen the resilience of families of the missing; as a social process, it addresses both the emotional and the social impacts of disappearance. Remembering the disappeared in ways that can aid the well-being of the families left behind demands local approaches that are contextualised in the cultural and social worlds of impacted communities: this challenges memorialisation, and transitional justice processes more broadly, that emerge exclusively from institutional processes directed by elites.

  1. Interplay between Appearance and Disappearance Channels for Precision Measurements of θ₂₃ and δ

    Coloma, Pilar; Minakata, Hisakazu; Parke, Stephen J.


    We discuss how the CP violating phase δ and the mixing angle θ₂₃ can be measured precisely in an environment where there are strong correlations between them. This is achieved by paying special attention to the mutual roles and the interplay between the appearance and the disappearance channels in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We analyze and clarify the general structure of the θ₂₃ - θ₁₃ - δ degeneracy for both the appearance and disappearance channels in a more complete fashion than what has previously been discussed in the literature. A full understanding of this degeneracy is of vital importance if θ₂₃ is close to maximal mixing. The relative importance between the appearance and disappearance channels depends upon the particular setup and how close to maximal mixing Nature has chosen the value for θ₂₃. For facilities that operate with a narrow band beam or a wide band beam centered on the first oscillation extremum, the contribution of the disappearance channel depends critically on the systematic uncertainties assumed for this channel. Whereas for facilities that operate at energies above the first oscillation extremum or at the second oscillation extremum the appearance channels dominate. On the other hand, for δ we find that the disappearance channel usually improves the sensitivity, modestly for facilities around the first oscillation extremum and more significantly for facilities operating at an energy above the first oscillation extremum, especially near δ ~ ± π/2.

  2. Migration, klima og sundhed

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel


    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which...

  3. Migration to Windows NT.

    Doles, Daniel T.

    In the constantly changing world of technology, migration is not only inevitable but many times necessary for survival, especially when the end result is simplicity for both users and IT support staff. This paper describes the migration at Franklin College (Indiana). It discusses the reasons for selecting Windows NT, the steps taken to complete…

  4. International Migration of Couples

    Munk, Martin D.; Junge, Martin; Poutvaara, Panu


    We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it in the context of international migration. Our model predicts that the probability that a couple emigrates increases with the income of the primary earner, whereas the income of the secondary earner may affect...

  5. Migration, Narration, Identity

    Leese, Peter

    (co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  6. Migrating Art History

    Ørum, Tania


    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  7. Migrating for a Profession

    Olwig, Karen Fog


    Youths from the Global South migrating for further education often face various forms of discrimination. This Caribbean case study discusses how conditions in the home country can provide a foundation for educational migration that helps the migrants overcome such obstacles and even develop a...

  8. Samtidskunst og migration

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...

  9. Migration and Rural Development

    Robert E. B. Lucas


    The paper summarizes the key routes through which internal and international migration impact rural development and some of the evidence pertaining to these effects in low income countries. It concludes that, although the study of migration impacts on rural economies has come a long way from the early dual theories of development, some of the potentially more important aspects remain to be investigated systematically.

  10. Environmental change and migration

    Stojanov, Robert

    Santa Barbara, Calif : Praeger, 2012 - (Segal, U.; Elliot, D.), s. 55-89 ISBN 978-0-313-37807-2 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : migration processes * environmental change * climate change * environmental migrants * human migration Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  11. The future scenario for international labour migration.

    Tassello, G


    The study of migration helps us to grasp the social evolution and the political and economic strategies required to meet the new economic trends. The issue of permanent or temporary migration, long debated in the 1960s, now tends to disappear. Migrants are compared more to commuters on the international labor markets. Besides the economic out-migration flows, there are also the refugee migrations or the ever present phenomenon of persons uprooted from their home country as a result of natural disasters and famine. The worldwide economic crisis in the 1970s, the recession affecting some industrialized countries which used to be traditional labor-importing countries have barred many potential immigrant workers from entering these countries. If, on 1 hand, the persistent high rate of unemployment due to the transformation of industry and the computerization process has caused the dismissal of numerous unskilled--mainly immigrants--on the other hand, it has created the exigency of highly qualified personnel. The children of the indigenous population are therefore favored because of their better scholastic training. A 2nd generation is now condemned to remain marginal even though they have been brought up to the ideals of social improvement and integration into higher standards of living. A highly dissatisfied category of young people is now an integral part of many labor-importing countries. Many industrial countries are flirting with zero population growth. Considering the demographic, economic, social, and political imbalances which exist and tend to grow, the world now has all the prerequisites for huge and prolonged migration flows originating from the South and moving almost exclusively toward the megacities and the industrial countries in the North. As long as technological as well as social inequalities persist, inner and international migration flows will continue. It is evident that the aim of many highly industrialized countries is the total ceasing of all

  12. Migration pathways of hypodermically injected technetium-99 m in dogs

    Hypodermic injection of technetium-99 m (99mTC-pertechnetate) at points of low electrical resistance give rise to rapid, longitudinal, and progressive diffusion of the radioactive tracer. We assessed the effect of cutaneous incisions that did not intersect the migration trajectory of 99mTc-pertechnetate and the re-establishment of pathways after the suture of incisions that intersected the migration trajectory. Linear and rapid migration of 99mTc-pertechnetate was not altered or prevented by incisions that did not intersect the migration pathway. Different patterns of 99mTc-pertechnetate spread were found when incisions intersected the radioactive pathways until restoration of the normal migration pathway observed in undamaged skin occurred. In all experiments in which migration of 99mTc-pertechnetate was observed, lavage of surgical wounds was followed by disappearance of the 99mTc-pertechnetate migration observed around the suture. Linear migration of the tracer was not observed when the incision was left uncovered, filled with petroleum jelly, or with a solid silicone sheet, but it was seen when non-sutured incisions were filled with transonic or silicone gel or covered with a solid silicone sheet parallel to the cutaneous plane. These data show that after a cutaneous incision that intersected the diffusion trajectory of the radioactive tracer, linear migration of 99mTc-pertechnetate hypodermically injected at points of low electrical resistance was restored before healing of the cutaneous incision and was independent of incisions made on the skin not overlying the radioactive pathway. A mechanism similar to that of capillary electrophoresis is suggested to explain the hypodermic diffusion of inert particles through specific and constant linear pathways. (orig.)

  13. World Migration Degree Global migration flows in directed networks

    Porat, Idan


    In this article we analyze the global flow of migrants from 206 source countries to 145 destination countries (2006-2010) and focus on the differences in the migration network pattern between destination and source counters as represented by its degree and weight distribution. Degree represents the connectivity of a country to the global migration network, and plays an important role in defining migration processes and characteristics. Global analysis of migration degree distribution offers a strong potential contribution to understanding of migration as a global phenomenon. In regard to immigration, we found that it is possible to classify destination countries into three classes: global migration hubs with high connectivity and high migration rate; local migration hubs with low connectivity and high migration rate; and local migration hubs with opposite strategy of high connectivity and low migration rate. The different migration strategies of destination countries are emerging from similar and homogenies p...

  14. Malaysia and forced migration

    Arzura Idris


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon of “forced migration” in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants. It considers forced migration as an event hosting multifaceted issues related and relevant to forced migrants and suggests that Malaysia has been preoccupied with the issue of forced migration movements. This is largely seen in various responses invoked from Malaysia due to “south-south forced migration movements.” These responses are, however, inadequate in terms of commitment to the international refugee regime. While Malaysia did respond to economic and migration challenges, the paper asserts that such efforts are futile if she ignores issues critical to forced migrants.

  15. Migration of health workers.

    Buchan, James


    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area. PMID:18561695

  16. Animal house

    Turka, Laurence A.


    While the JCI was originally conceived as a journal that would integrate various scientific approaches to the examination of human physiology and pathophysiology, we now find many of its pages filled with animal models of human disease. Is this a good thing?

  17. Transgenic Animals.

    Jaenisch, Rudolf


    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  18. Animated Symbols

    Frolunde, Lisbeth

    ' processer af fem udvalgte elever er gennemgået i forhold til tre opdelinger: filmskabere, filmskabelse processen og film. Den teoretiske tilgang er pragmatisme, social semiotik og diskursanalyse. Modellen "Animating Symbols" er udviklet og diskuteret som forsøg på at forstå reflektion og design som en slags...

  19. The physiological basis of the migration continuum in brown trout ( Salmo trutta)

    Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Baktoft, Henrik;


    Partial migration is common in many animal taxa; however, the physiological variation underpinning migration strategies remains poorly understood. Among salmonid fishes, brown trout (Salmo trutta) is one of the species that exhibits the most complex variation in sympatric migration strategies......, expressed as a migration continuum, ranging from residency to anadromy. In looking at brown trout, our objective with this study was to test the hypothesis that variation in migration strategies is underpinned by physiological variation. Prior to migration, physiological samples were taken from fish in the...... continuum in brown trout....

  20. Evolution of secondary whirls in thermoconvective vortices: Strengthening, weakening, and disappearance in the route to chaos

    Castaño, D.; Navarro, M. C.; Herrero, H.


    The appearance, evolution, and disappearance of periodic and quasiperiodic dynamics of fluid flows in a cylindrical annulus locally heated from below are analyzed using nonlinear simulations. The results reveal a route of the transition from a steady axisymmetric vertical vortex to a chaotic flow. The chaotic flow regime is reached after a sequence of successive supercritical Hopf bifurcations to periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic flow regimes. A scenario similar to the Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario is verified in this convective flow. In the transition to chaos we find the appearance of subvortices embedded in the primary axisymmetric vortex, flows where the subvortical structure strengthens and weakens, that almost disappears before reforming again, leading to a more disorganized flow to a final chaotic regime. Results are remarkable as they connect to observations describing formation, weakening, and virtual disappearance before revival of subvortices in some atmospheric swirls such as dust devils.

  1. Formation and disappearance of thermal stratification in a small shallow lake

    In closed water bodies which the inflow and outflow are usually small, vertical transportation based on the formation of water temperature stratification, the problem of water quality pollution due to the inhibition of mixing easily occur, especially the problems become serious in shallow water bodies. The main reasons that drive the formation and disappearance of water temperature stratification are mechanical disturbance caused by the acting of wind, or solar radiation in daytime, thermal disturbance due to radiational cooling at night. Clarifying the processes of formation and disappearance of stratification response to these two kinds of disturbance is very important for management and improvement of the environment in the water bodies. So, in this research, a shallow closed water body with the overgrowth of aquatic plants was targeted for field observation and quantitative discussion on the processes of formation and disappearance of the thermal stratification

  2. Carbon export by vertically migrating zooplankton

    Hansen, Agnethe Nøhr; Visser, André W.


    Through diel vertical migration (DVM), zooplankton add an active transport to the otherwise passive sinking of detrital material that constitutes the biological pump. This active transport has proven difficult to quantify. We present a model that estimates both the temporal and depth characteristic...... of optimal DVM behavior based on a trade-off between feeding opportunity and predation risk; factors that vary with latitude, time of year, and the size of the migrating animal. This behavioral component, coupled to a nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ) productivity model provides estimates of...... the active transport of carbon by different size fractions of the migrating zooplankton population as function of time and space. The approach is motivated by the difficulty in incorporating behavioral aspects of carbon transport into large scale carbon budgets of the world's oceans. The results show...

  3. Biotecnologia animal

    Luiz Lehmann Coutinho


    Full Text Available A biotecnologia animal tem fornecido novas ferramentas para os programas de melhoramento e, dessa forma, contribuído para melhorar a eficiência da produção dos produtos de origem animal. No entanto, os avanços têm sido mais lentos do que antecipados, especialmente em razão da dificuldade na identificação dos genes responsáveis pelas características fenotípicas de interesse zootécnico. Três estratégias principais têm sido utilizadas para identificar esses genes - mapeamento de QTL, genes candidatos e sequenciamento de DNA e mRNA - e cada uma tem suas vantagens e limitações. O mapeamento de QTL permite determinar as regiões genômicas que contêm genes, mas o intervalo de confiança do QTL pode ser grande e conter muitos genes. A estratégia de genes candidatos é limitada por causa do conhecimento ainda restrito das funções de todos os genes. Os sequenciamentos de genomas e de sequências expressas podem auxiliar na identificação da posição de genes e de vias metabólicas associadas à característica de interesse. A integração dessas estratégias por meio do desenvolvimento de programas de bioinformática permitirá a identificação de novos genes de interesse zootécnico. Assim, os programas de melhoramento genético se beneficiarão pela inclusão da informação obtida diretamente do DNA na avaliação do mérito genético dos plantéis disponíveis.Animal biotechnology is providing new tools for animal breeding and genetics and thus contributing to advances in production efficiency and quality of animal products. However, the progress is slower than anticipated, mainly because of the difficulty involved in identifying genes that control phenotypic characteristics of importance to the animal industry. Three main strategies: QTL mapping, candidate genes and DNA and mRNA sequencing have been used to identify genes of economic interest to animal breeding and each has advantages and disadvantages. QTL mapping allows

  4. Isospin effect of fragmentation reaction and its disappearance in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    Isospin effect of fragmentation reaction on isotopic distribution was investigated by a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. It is shown that the isotopic distribution shifts toward the neutron rich side for neutron rich projectile, but this isospin effect will decrease and disappear at last when (Zproj-Z)/Zproj closes to 0.5 and becomes larger than 0.5 independent of the reaction systems, where Z and Zproj are the atomic numbers of the produced isotop and projectile, respectively. It is pointed out that the disappearance of isospin effect comes mainly from the geometry effect in abrasion stage and the evaporation process later

  5. Influencing factors for the disappearance of hemispatial neglect in patients during acute stroke

    Yaobin Long


    BACKGROUND: Some researches are proved that early sitting balance and body motor control performed on patients with stroke and hemiplegia is related to functional prognosis. For patients with hemispatial neglect (HSN) during acute stroke, whether HSN disappearance is related to those trainings or not should be further studied.OBJ ECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between HSN disappearance and related intervention of patients during acute stroke.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 21 patients with stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from May 2005 to March 2006. Diagnosis criteria: ① Stroke was diagnosed by CT and MRI; ② Diagnosis was coincidence with HSN evaluation criteria; ③ All cases were consent. Exclusion criteria: Patients who had poly-focus, conscious disturbance, severe amentia and hard communication combined with aphasia were excluded. A total of 12 males and 9 females were included, and the mean age was (68±10) years. Among them, 14 patients had cerebral infarction and 7 had cerebral hemorrhage.METHODS: Disappearance and existence of HSN were analyzed with HSN evaluation criteria: body agnosia, left and right agnosia, maintenance of supine position, place of things, sitting up straight, center of line measured by eyes, and cutting 30 lines with paring method. Items mentioned below belonged to HSN disappearance: ① without body agnosia; ② without left and right agnosia; ③ be able to maintain supine position; ④ knowing place of things; ⑤ sitting up straight by one's own; ⑥ be able to measure the center of line by eyes; ⑦ be able to cut 30 lines with paring method. However, only one item belonged to HSN remnant; but only one item belonged to HSN remnant. Numbers of patients who were of body agnosia, left and right agnosia and difficult maintenance of supine

  6. Animal facilities

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  7. [Dangerous animals].

    Hasle, Gunnar


    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  8. Animal Locomotion

    Taylor, Graham K; Tropea, Cameron


    This book provides a wide-ranging snapshot of the state-of-the-art in experimental research on the physics of swimming and flying animals. The resulting picture reflects not only upon the questions that are of interest in current pure and applied research, but also upon the experimental techniques that are available to answer them. Doubtless, many new questions will present themselves as the scope and performance of our experimental toolbox develops over the coming years.

  9. Migration, Skills and Productivity

    Robert Hierländer; Peter Huber; Anna Iara; Michael Landesmann; Klaus Nowotny; Mary O'Mahony; Fei Peng; Catherine Robinson; Robert Stehrer


    The literature on international migration has repeatedly emphasized that the extent and structure of migration has an important impact on the competitiveness of regions and countries. This report provides an overview of the extent and the potential effects of high-skill migration to the EU27. It shows how many high-skilled migrants live in the EU, where these migrants come from, and how the European Union is positioned in the international competition for talent. Second, we examine how high-s...

  10. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions Share Tweet Linkedin ...

  11. Reappraising the Disappearing Body and the Disembodied Eye Through Multisensory Art

    Coleman, Maria


    This paper examines the mind/body dualism inherent in western culture, tracing some causes and consequences of the ‘disappearing body.’ It considers the complicity of the ‘disembodied eye’ in privileging the intellect over corporeality and proposes the more holistic approach of interactive and installation art as an antidote to this age-old mind/body split.

  12. Study of muon neutrino and muon antineutrino disappearance with the NOvA neutrino oscillation experiment

    Pawloski, Gregory [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The primary goal of this working group is to study the disappearance rate of νμ charged current events in order to measure the mixing angle θ23 and the magnitude of the neutrino mass square splitting Δm 232.


    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 –1. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  14. Rape embryogenesis. IV. Appearance and disappearance of starch during embryo development

    Teresa Tykarska


    Full Text Available Starch appears first in the suspensor of the proembryo with two-cell apical part. It is observed in the embryo proper from the octant stage. At first it is visible in all the embryo cells in the form of minute transient grains which disappear during cell divisions. But the columella mother cells and their derivatives have persistent large grains. When the embryo turns green in the heart stage a gradual accumulation of storage starch begins and lasts to the end of embryogenesis. Storage starch grains appear first in the auter cortex layers of the hypocotyl where the largest grains are to be found later, and afterwards in all the other tissues. Starch is usually absent in the frequently dividing cells, but even there it appears in the form of minute grains after the end of cell divisions. Disappearance of starch starts when the intensive green colour of the seed coat begins to fade. The first to disappear are the smallest granules in the regions where they were noted latest. In the embryo axis the starch grains remain deposited longest in dermatogen and cortex cells in the lower hypocotyl part. They are visible there, still when the seed turns brown. In black seeds starch may be only found in the columella the cells of which throughout embryogenesis contain amyloplasts filled with starch. These grains disappear completely at the time when the seeds become dry.

  15. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    Glud, Louise Nørgaard; Stenbøg, Anne Sofie Christensen; Albrechtslund, Anders

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  16. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    Stenbøg, Sofie; Nørgaard Glud, Louise; Albrechtslund, Anders


    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  17. Is the treatment effect of IFN-beta restored after the disappearance of neutralizing antibodies?

    Sorensen, P S; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Bendtzen, K


    comparing the NAb-positive with the NAb-negative periods was 1.98 (95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.97). CONCLUSION: Under NAb-positive periods, the clinical effect of IFN-beta was abolished. When NAbs disappeared spontaneously under continued treatment, patients regained the full effect of INF-beta-1b...

  18. The Disappearance of the Red Supergiant Progenitor of Supernova 2008bk

    Mattila, Seppo; Smartt, Stephen; Maund, Justyn; Benetti, Stefano; Ergon, Mattias


    Massive stars end their lives in spectacular supernova explosions. Identifying the progenitor star is a test of stellar evolution and explosion models. Here we show that the progenitor star of the supernova SN 2008bk has now disappeared, which provides conclusive evidence that this was the death of a red supergiant star.

  19. When Race Disappears: College Admissions Policy Discourse in the State of Texas

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; Sulè, V. Thandi; Maramba, Dina C.


    What happens to race in public discussions about "race-neutral" college admissions policies? This article shows how race disappeared from elite political debate during hearings on Texas Senate Bill 175 (2009), the Top Ten Percent Plan (the Plan), which guaranteed college admissions to high school graduates from the top 10% of their…

  20. Complete disappearance of lung abnormalities on high-resolution computed tomography: A case of histiocytosis X


    A case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, proved by both lung high-resolution computed tomography and lung biopsy, is described. Following smoking cessation, lung nodules and cysts gradually disappeared on serial computed tomography scans, with complete clearance of the lesions after 12 months. The role of tobacco smoking is discussed, in detail, against the background of the literature.

  1. Gender differences in educational outcomes are disappearing and yet there remains a gender gap in science

    Breda, Thomas


    Gender segregation persists across majors despite the amelioration or disappearance of gender differences for many educational outcomes. Thomas Breda explores the persistent gender gap in science, reporting on the findings of research into gender stereotypes and discrimination at the Ecole Normale Supérieure.

  2. The Case of the Disappearing E-Book: Academic Libraries and Subscription Packages

    Georgas, Helen


    One of the standard models for e-book licensing in academic libraries is the subscription package. This study is a one-year analysis of "disappeared" titles from ebrary's Academic Complete™ collection. During 2013, 3462 titles were deleted. Deleted titles were mainly recent publications (published within the last ten years), with a high…

  3. Migration og etnicitet

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe


    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....

  4. Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Gas Migration in a Nuclear Waste Repository

    Bourgeat, Alain; Smai, Farid


    We present a compositional compressible two-phase, liquid and gas, flow model for numerical simulations of hydrogen migration in deep geological radioactive waste repository. This model includes capillary effects and the gas diffusivity. The choice of the main variables in this model, Total or Dissolved Hydrogen Mass Concentration and Liquid Pressure, leads to a unique and consistent formulation of the gas phase appearance and disappearance. After introducing this model, we show computational evidences of its adequacy to simulate gas phase appearance and disappearance in different situations typical of underground radioactive waste repository.

  5. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Hugo, G


    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration. PMID:12347370

  6. Labour Migration in Europe

    Menz, Georg; Caviedes, Alexander


    Economic migration has been rediscovered by governments across Europe. Highly skilled migrants are actively solicited, irregular migrants are being offered amnesties, and East-West migration is welcomed by business and employer associations. However, this is a highly politicized and contested policy domain. This timely collection of cutting-edge research explores and examines the new realities of economic immigration to Europe. The thematic focus rests on new trends and developments, includin...

  7. Migration of Interplanetary Dust

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.; Taylor, P.A.


    We numerically investigate the migration of dust particles with initial orbits close to those of the numbered asteroids, observed trans-Neptunian objects, and Comet Encke. The fraction of silicate asteroidal particles that collided with the Earth during their lifetime varied from 1.1% for 100 micron particles to 0.008% for 1 micron particles. Almost all asteroidal particles with diameter d>4 microns collided with the Sun. The peaks in the migrating asteroidal dust particles' semi-major axis d...

  8. Remittances and Return Migration

    Collier, William J.; Piracha, Matloob E; Randozza, Teresa


    This paper utilises survey data of return migrants to analyse the determinants of remittances sent while the migrants were abroad. We approach our research question from the perspective of three sending countries in the Maghreb, namely Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. We investigate the remittance behaviour using the migrants’ conditions before migration as well as during the migration experience. Using a two-part model, we show that the decision to remit and the amount remitted depend on a comb...

  9. Migration and Culture

    Epstein, Gil S.; Ira N. Gang


    Culture is not new to the study of migration. It has lurked beneath the surface for some time, occasionally protruding openly into the discussion, usually under some pseudonym. The authors bring culture into the open. They are concerned with how culture manifests itself in the migration process for three groups of actors: the migrants, those remaining in the sending areas, and people already living in the recipient locations. The topics vary widely. What unites the authors is an understanding...

  10. Timing of feather molt related to date of spring migration in male white-throated sparrows, Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Cristol, Daniel Aaron; Johnson, Karen Michelle; Jenkins, Kendell Daly; Hawley, Dana Michelle


    In migratory birds, the ability to depart wintering grounds at the appropriate time is an important determinant of fitness. Understanding the regulation of this timing will be essential for predicting whether timing of bird migration keeps up with global climate change. We examined whether the timing of the late-winter molt, in which white-throated sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) replace head and body feathers in advance of mating, may constrain the timing of northward migratory departure. In an observational study, we found a significant correlation between timing of molt and the date on which free-living male white-throated sparrows disappeared from our study site during migration. The following year, we tested whether experimentally manipulating molt date by advancing photoperiod during temporary captivity would subsequently advance disappearance date once the birds were released. Sparrows that were experimentally induced to molt early disappeared from the wintering site before controls. However, the captive control birds also molted and disappeared from the site earlier than free-living controls, suggesting that the diet during captivity had played a role. In the third winter we completed the study by advancing or delaying molt using only dietary manipulation. Together, these results show that the ability to molt early in spring is related to early disappearance from the wintering site. Early molt likely has carry-over effects on reproduction and the requirements of molt may prevent populations from adjusting migration timing in response to global climate change. PMID:25287905

  11. Animal Testing

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  12. Animated war

    Frølunde, Lisbeth


    in production: Gzim Rewind (Sweden, 2011) by Knutte Wester, and In-World War (USA, expected 2011) by DJ Bad Vegan. These films have themes of war and include film scenes that are ‘machinima’ (real-time animation made in 3D graphic environments) within live action film scenes. Machinima harnesses...... DIY multimedia storytellers explore new ways to tell and to ‘animate’ stories. The article contains four parts: introduction to machinima and the notions of resemiosis and authorial practice, presentation of DIY filmmaking as a practice that intertwines with new networked economics, analysis...




    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test in the Diagnosis of Lacrimal System Outflow Obstruction in comparison to Lacrimal Syringing . SETTING AND DESIGN: Prospective Non - randomized Non - interventional Case Series of 1000 eyes of 500 patients at a Tertiary Eye Care Hospital in South India over 6 months from June 2013 to November 2013. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Out - patient and inpatients posted for cataract surge ry including those with complaints of epiphora were subjected to a Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test (FDDT followed by a Regurgitation on Pressure over the Lacrimal Sac Area (ROPLAS Test and Lacrimal Syringing. The FDDT grade (Zappia and Milder Classifi cation and ROPLAS and lacrimal syringing results of each eye were recorded and tabulated and results compared to determine the efficacy of Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test. RESULTS: Mean age of the patients included in our study was 59. 6 years (SD±14.3 years. History of e piphora was present in 272 (27. 2% of 1000 eyes in our study. ROPLAS was positive in 19(7% of the 272 eyes with epiphora. Lacrimal syringing demonstra ted a patent system in 904 (90. 4% of 1000 eyes. Sensitivity and Specificity of FDDT in the detection of lacrimal outflow system obstruction in our study was calculated to be 100% and 86. 62% (p value <0.0001, Fischer Test. KEY MESSAGE: Fluorescein Dye Disappearance Test is a simple, non - invasive highly sensitive method for evaluation of lacrimal system obstruction. Our study demonstrates a very high sensitivity indicating an abnormal FDDT is always suggestive of an outflow obstruction. Also, specificity of 86. 62% suggests that a severe anatomical obstruction of the lacrimal drainage sys tem is highly unlikely in the presence of a normal fluorescein dye disappearance test. It can hence be used as a highly sensitive routine screening tool in the detection of a lacrimal outflow block

  14. Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial

    A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases as the surface slopes downhill (north) until the dolomite reaches the surface and forms the bed of a river, 700 m to the north. This study was begun after tritiated water was detected in two picnic wells north of the facility, between the burial plot and the river. Surface and subsurface measurements indicate that tritium is migrating out of the burial site, but no other radionuclides have left the plot. The tritium concentrations decrease with distance from the plot. Tritium was found in the subsoil at all depths sampled, so the ground beneath and immediately around the plot contains tritium down to the dolomite aquifer. Time of travel of water from the burial plot to the nearest well is estimated to be 54 months. This would imply the peak concentration would reach the dolomite in about 35 years. By this time, 86% of the tritium would have disappeared by radioactive decay. The cyclical nature of the tritium content in the two wells implies that tritiated water is carried from the burial site by the spring rains when they recharge the groundwater supply

  15. Return Migration, Wage Differentials, and the Optimal Migration Duration

    Dustmann, Christian


    In simple static models, migration increases with the wage differential between host and home country. In a dynamic framework, and if migrations are temporary, the size of the migrant population in the host country depends also on the migration duration. This paper analyses optimal migration durations in a model which rationalises the decision of the migrant to return to his home country, despite persistently higher wages in the host country. The analysis shows that, if migrations are tempora...

  16. Non-volant modes of migration in terrestrial arthropods

    Reynolds Don R.; Reynolds Andrew M.; Chapman Jason W.


    Animal migration is often defined in terms appropriate only to the ‘to-and-fro’ movements of large, charismatic (and often vertebrate) species. However, like other important biological processes, the definition should apply over as broad a taxonomic range as possible in order to be intellectually satisfying. Here we illustrate the process of migration in insects and other terrestrial arthropods (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, and non-insect hexapods) but provide a different perspective by excludi...


    Kobylinsky S. V.


    Full Text Available Several peculiarities of the implementation of migration policy in the Russian Federation were considered in this article. We have shown main provisions on refugees and forced migrants from the Ukraine and labor migration. On the basis of the study we have suggested an improvement of migration legislation, in particular, creation of a single codex and migration police

  18. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto


    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  19. Non-volant modes of migration in terrestrial arthropods

    Reynolds Don R.


    Full Text Available Animal migration is often defined in terms appropriate only to the ‘to-and-fro’ movements of large, charismatic (and often vertebrate species. However, like other important biological processes, the definition should apply over as broad a taxonomic range as possible in order to be intellectually satisfying. Here we illustrate the process of migration in insects and other terrestrial arthropods (e.g. arachnids, myriapods, and non-insect hexapods but provide a different perspective by excluding the ‘typical’ mode of migration in insects, i.e. flapping flight. Instead, we review non-volant migratory movements, including: aerial migration by wingless species, pedestrian and waterborne migration, and phoresy. This reveals some fascinating and sometimes bizarre morphological and behavioural adaptations to facilitate movement. We also outline some innovative modelling approaches exploring the interactions between atmospheric transport processes and biological factors affecting the ‘dispersal kernels’ of wingless arthropods

  20. Partial altitudinal migration of a Himalayan Forest pheasant.

    Nawang Norbu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Altitudinal migration systems are poorly understood. Recent advances in animal telemetry which enables tracking of migrants across their annual cycles will help illustrate unknown migration patterns and test existing hypotheses. Using telemetry, we show the existence of a complex partial altitudinal migration system in the Himalayas and discuss our findings to help better understand partial and altitudinal migration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used GPS/accelerometer tags to monitor the migration of Satyr tragopan (Tragopan satyra in the Bhutan Himalayas. We tagged 38 birds from 2009 - 2011 and found that tragopans are partially migratory. Fall migration lasted from the 3(rd week of September till the 3(rd week of November with migrants traveling distances ranging from 1.25 km to 13.5 km over 1 to 32 days. Snowfall did not influence the onset of migration. Return migration started by the 1(st week of March and lasted until the 1(st week of April. Individuals returned within 4 to 10 days and displayed site fidelity. One bird switched from being a migrant to a non-migrant. Tragopans displayed three main migration patterns: 1 crossing multiple mountains; 2 descending/ascending longitudinally; 3 moving higher up in winter and lower down in summer. More females migrated than males; but, within males, body size was not a factor for predicting migrants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations of migrants traversing over multiple mountain ridges and even of others climbing to higher elevations is novel. We support the need for existing hypotheses to consider how best to explain inter- as well as intra-sexual differences. Most importantly, having shown that the patterns of an altitudinal migration system are complex and not a simple up and down slope movement, we hope our findings will influence the way altitudinal migrations are perceived and thereby contribute to a better understanding of how species may respond to climate change.

  1. Animal Intuitions.

    Kaebnick, Gregory E


    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859


    Cristian Incaltarau


    Most studies regarding the contribution of migration to development are limited to an isolated analysis of the economic effects of migration. But the migration process is in turn influenced by other processes. So a wider framework including migration and other processes of development would be more appropriate. The experience of South European and East Asian countries have shown us that, during development, countries can change their migration profile from emigration to immigration. The prese...

  3. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    March, B. E.


    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  4. Biometrics and international migration.

    Redpath, Jillyanne


    This paper will focus on the impact of the rapid expansion in the use of biometric systems in migration management on the rights of individuals; it seeks to highlight legal issues for consideration in implementing such systems, taking as the starting point that the security interests of the state and the rights of the individual are not, and should not be, mutually exclusive. The first part of this paper briefly describes the type of biometric applications available, how biometric systems function, and those used in migration management. The second part examines the potential offered by biometrics for greater security in migration management, and focuses on developments in the use of biometrics as a result of September 11. The third part discusses the impact of the use of biometrics in the management of migration on the individual's right to privacy and ability to move freely and lawfully. The paper highlights the increasing need for domestic and international frameworks to govern the use of biometric applications in the migration/security context, and proposes a number of issues that such frameworks could address. PMID:17536151

  5. Prestack depth migration

    Two lines form the southern North Sea, with known velocity inhomogeneities in the overburden, have been pre-stack depth migrated. The pre-stack depth migrations are compared with conventional processing, one with severe distortions and one with subtle distortions on the conventionally processed sections. The line with subtle distortions is also compared with post-stack depth migration. The results on both lines were very successful. Both have already influenced drilling decisions, and have caused a modification of structural interpretation in the respective areas. Wells have been drilled on each of the lines, and well tops confirm the results. In fact, conventional processing led to incorrect locations for the wells, both of which were dry holes. The depth migrated sections indicate the incorrect placement, and on one line reveals a much better drilling location. This paper reports that even though processing costs are high for pre-stack depth migration, appropriate use can save millions of dollars in dry-hole expense

  6. Bones and humanity. On Forensic Anthropology and its constitutive power facing forced disappearance

    Anne Huffschmid


    Full Text Available Forensic anthropologists seek to decipher traces of anonymous dead, to restitute identities of human remains and to provide their families with the possibility to conclude mourning and even of justice. The article explores the contributions and meanings of forensic anthropology as state-independent practice beyond a mereley criminalistic approach, as it was conceptualized by the Argentine pioneers after the last dictatorship in this nation. I conceive this practice as a sort of arqueology of contemporary terror that seeks to confront a specific violence as the forced disappearance of persons and the deshumanization of their dead bodies. The article proposes reading forensic anthropology as a 'situated cience', with its complexities and ambigueties, that operates between nameless bones (the human remains and names without bodies (the so-called disappeared in settings of violent pasts such as Argentina or Guatemala, and especially in Mexico, where mass graves became the new symbol of a horrified present.

  7. Chronic oral lactate supplementation does not affect lactate disappearance from blood after exercise

    Brouns, F; Fogelholm, M; Van Hall, Gerrit;


    This study tested the hypothesis that a 3-week oral lactate supplementation affects postexercise blood lactate disappearance in untrained male subjects. Fifteen men were randomly assigned to either a lactate supplementation (n = 8) or a placebo (n = 7) treatment. During the treatment period they...... drank an oral lactate or a maltodextrin (placebo) supplement twice a day. The lactate drink contained 10 g of lactate as calcium, sodium, and potassium salts. Blood lactate concentrations were studied before, during, and immediately after three exercise tests, both pre- and posttreatment. Peak lactate...... during the long (30- to 45-min) recovery periods amounted to / 10 mmol/L. Blood lactate changes were highly reproducible. However, a 3-week oral lactate supplementation did not result in differences in lactate disappearance. This study does not support the hypothesis that regular oral lactate intake at...

  8. Gone without a bang: An archival HST survey for disappearing massive stars

    Reynolds, Thomas; Gilmore, Gerard


    It has been argued that a substantial fraction of massive stars may end their lives without an optically bright supernova (SN), but rather collapse to form a black hole. Such an event would not be detected by current SN surveys, which are focused on finding bright transients. Kochanek et al. (2008) proposed a novel survey for such events, using repeated observations of nearby galaxies to search for the disappearance of a massive star. We present such a survey, using the first systematic analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope images of nearby galaxies with the aim of identifying evolved massive stars which have disappeared, without an accompanying optically bright supernova. We consider a sample of 15 galaxies, with at least three epochs of Hubble Space Telescope imaging taken between 1994 and 2013. Within this data, we find one candidate which is consistent with a 25-30 solar mass yellow supergiant which has undergone an optically dark core-collapse.

  9. En fornemmelse for migration

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  10. Charged current disappearance measurements in the NuMI off-axis beam

    R. H. Bernstein


    This article studies the potential of combining charged-current disappearance measurements of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} from MINOS and an off-axis beam. The author finds that the error on {Delta}m{sup 2} from a 100 kt-yr off-axis measurement is a few percent of itself. Further, the author found little improvement to an off-axis measurement by combining it with MINOS.

  11. The Disappearing Middle Ages: Medieval History in National Socialist Volksschulen Textbooks 1933 - 1945

    De Caprio, Pasquale


    My research points out, on the one hand: the “disappering” of the Middle Ages from the Volksschulen textbooks of the National Socialist Germany; on the other hand, the failure of the Nazi Regime policies to reform the German school and education system. Firstly, in the Volksschulen textbooks the German pre-history and not the Medieval history was described as the “golden Age” of the Aryan-Germanic populations. Thereby, the Middle Ages disappeared from many Volksschulen textbooks. Seco...

  12. A (German) Lady Vanishes. : The Silent and Somewhat Restless Disappearance of the GDR Police after 1989

    Jobard, Fabien


    A (German) lady vanishes: The silent and somewhat restless disappearance of the GDR Police after 1989 Introduction What was at stake in the German process of reforming its socialist police after 1989? Of course, some of the problems of the German transformation are common to other former socialist countries, i.e., the integration of former agents, reform of former organisations and bureaucracies, the formulation and implementation of new legislation, etc.. Yet, many factors separate Germany f...

  13. Holographically emulating sequential versus instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons in a hot environment

    Zöllner, Rico


    Descent extensions of the soft-wall model are used to accommodate two variants of Regge trajectories of vector meson excitations. At non-zero temperatures, various options for either sequential or instantaneous disappearance of vector mesons as normalisable modes are found, thus emulating deconfinement at a certain temperature in the order of the (pseudo-) critical temperature of QCD. The crucial role of the blackness function, which steers the thermodynamic properties of the considered system, is highlighted.

  14. Against Enforced Disappearance : The Political Detainees' Case Before the Nepal Supreme Court

    Uprety, K.


    Enforced disappearances, for political reasons, are still a common practice in many countries. In many instances, courts have taken bold steps to deter State agencies from orchestrating and encouraging such acts through orders and decisions. In that vein, Nepal's Supreme Court, in 2007, breaking the long tradition of a conservative and passive approach to justice, issued a verdict of significant proportion which could have a long-lasting effect on the country's political governance, both from...

  15. Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance

    Bansal Rajni; Gautam Sakshi


    We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing...

  16. Disappearance of chorion proteins from Bombyx mori eggs treated with HCl solution to prevent diapause.

    Tsurumaru, Shuichiro; Kawamori, Akihito; Mitsumasu, Kanako; Niimi, Teruyuki; Imai, Kunio; Yamashita, Okitsugu; Yaginuma, Toshinobu


    Bombyx mori eggs enter diapause immediately after completion of mesoderm segregation. HCl treatment of approximately 24-hour-old eggs (germband formation stage) is well known to be the most effective procedure to prevent entry into diapause, although the molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the protein composition of diapausing and nondiapausing eggs after various HCl treatments known to prevent or break diapause and found that proteins of approximately 11 and 8 kDa disappeared immediately after HCl treatment. Partial amino acid sequences of these proteins indicated that they were members of the chorion class A protein L12 family synthesized in follicle cells. Under the hypothesis that the chorion provides a barrier to oxygen, dechorionation of diapausing eggs induces resumption of embryonic development. Hence, to test this and other hypotheses about the function of these proteins, we used 20% SDS-PAGE with Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining to trace their disappearance from embryos and eggshells after treatment with HCl under different conditions and on polyvoltine, univoltine, and bivoltine silkworm races. Even when 10-day-old diapausing eggs were treated with HCl, which did not break diapause, the 11 and 8 kDa proteins disappeared. Our results suggest that disappearance of these proteins is not directly associated with preventing entry into or breaking a diapause state. Nevertheless, our results cannot completely rule out the possibility that the 11 and 8 kDa proteins function to block permeability of O(2) during the period when HCl treatment is physiologically effective to prevent diapause so that after the diapause system is established within the egg, even removing the 11 and 8 kDa proteins may not affect to prevent diapause. We also discuss the role of these proteins in choriogenesis. PMID:20637776

  17. Migration Outflows and Optimal Migration Policy: Rules versus Discretion

    Ismaël Issifou; Francesco Magris


    We study the effects of more open borders on return migration and show that migrants are more likely to return to the origin country when migration rules are softer, because this implies that they could more easily re-migrate if return migration is unsuccessful. As a result, softening migration rules leads to lower net inflows than generally acknowledged. We show that if government follows rules to shape the optimal migration policy, it will chose more open borders than in the case its behavi...

  18. [Migration and diabetes].

    Aydinkoc-Tuzcu, Kadriye; Schindler, Karin; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter


    The article deals with the demographic data of migration in Austria and with therapeutic advice concerning drug therapy and diabetes education for patients with migration background. In this context socio-cultural specifics are discussed. These suggestions are seen complementary to the general treatment guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association.Especially for the fast months Ramadan there are a lot of informations. The most important point is that the patient care must be highly individualized and the management plan may differ for each patient. PMID:27052237

  19. Migration of seismic data

    Prospecting for oil and gas resources poses the problem of determining the geological structure of the earth's crust from indirect measurements. Seismic migration is an acoustic image reconstruction technique based on the inversion of the scalar wave equation. Extensive computation is necessary before reliable information can be extracted form large sets of recorded data. In this paper a collection of open-quotes industrialclose quotes migration techniques, each giving rise to a data parallel algorithm, is outlined. Computer simulations on synthetic seismic data illustrate the problem and the approach

  20. Making Migration Meaningful

    Benwell, Ann Fenger


    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during...... periods of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility...

  1. Unix Application Migration Guide

    Microsoft. Redmond


    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  2. [Migration, climate and health].

    Tellier, Siri; Carballo, Manuel; Calballo, Manuel


    Many tentative connections have been postulated between migration and climate. This article points to rural-urban migration, particularly into low elevation urban slums prone to flooding as an issue needing urgent attention by health professionals. It also notes the no-man's land in which environmental refugees find themselves and the consequences this may have. Finally, it points to the urgent need to reform health systems in both developing and developed countries to adapt to rapidly changing disease patterns and to become more responsive to them. PMID:19857400

  3. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe;


    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...

  4. Is Migration Feminized?

    Toksöz, Gülay


    In the context of Turkey’s accession to the EU, the issue of potential migration from Turkey and its impact upon European labor markets became one of the concerns of the EU, considering Turkey’s growing population and young labor force. In 2011, half a century after the bi-lateral agreement between Turkey and Germany on labor recruitment in 1961, migration plays a key role in relations of Turkey with the EU and will even increase its significance – not necessarily for the next fifty years bu...

  5. Animated nature

    Animated nature is educational-training project pronounced by the Slovak Environmental Agency (SAZP) in cooperation with Field Studies Council form Great Britain and financial support of Darwin Initiative and Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, s.p. In the present time this is ultimate and the most successful children's project aimed on mapping and protection of biodiversity in Europe. Activity in project is spare-time and therefore is voluntary. The interest territory is a natural as well as cultural landscape in vicinity of a school or other organisation, habitation and so on. In the project work schoolchildren at the age from 10 till 15 years. Leaders of work-groups are student of secondary schools and universities, teachers, professional workers of state and non-governmental organisation and parents. In one group works approximately 10 children. Each group which has send to SAZP result of biodiversity mapping, cost free obtained data base CD - Detske mapy biodiverzity (Children's maps of biodiversity) and so they were informed about results of all groups frame: within the frame of Slovakia. Results of activities of this project in 2001-2004 and perspectives for 2005-2006 years are discussed

  6. Optical explanation of the gradual disappearance of flying dots in posterior vitreous detachment.

    Serpetopoulos, C


    It is well-known that flying dots (muscae volitantes) in posterior vitreous detachment gradually disappear. An analogy for this phenomenon is the optical effect of planets casting conic shadows as they are lighted by the sun (in this case the pupil serves as the light source) and these shadows shrink as the planets near the sun. When the opacities move forward in the vitreous cavity, their shadows are not long enough to reach the retina, so the flying dots disappear. They can also disappear when their shadows fall on the optic disk or when they are mixed with the random pattern of bright and dark areas of the retinal image in ordinary conditions. Pupil dilatation makes the conoid shadow shorter; thus, the flying dots became fainter. In advanced cataract, stray light makes the retinal image less sharp, reducing the perception of dots. Replacement of the opacified lens by an intraocular lens restores the sharpness of the retinal image, because the light entering the eye becomes less diffuse, making the flying dots more obvious. The same reasoning explains similar phenomena in aphakia and large ametropias with and without corrective spectacles, as well as opacities of any etiology in the vitreous. PMID:9265706

  7. The distribution of the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in communities where trachoma is disappearing

    Thomas M. Lietman


    Full Text Available Mathematical models predict that the prevalence of infection in different communities where an infectious disease is disappearing should approach a geometric distribution. Trachoma programs offer an opportunity to test this hypothesis, as the World Health Organization (WHO has targeted trachoma to be eliminated as a public health concern by the year 2020. We assess the distribution of the community prevalence of childhood ocular chlamydia infection from periodic, cross-sectional surveys in two areas of Ethiopia. These surveys were taken in a controlled setting, where infection was documented to be disappearing over time. For both sets of surveys, the geometric distribution had the most parsimonious fit of the distributions tested, and goodness-of-fit testing was consistent with the prevalence of each community being drawn from a geometric distribution. When infection is disappearing, the single sufficient parameter describing a geometric distribution captures much of the distributional information found from examining every community. The relatively heavy tail of the geometric suggests that the presence of an occasional high-prevalence community is to be expected, and does not necessarily reflect a transmission hot spot or program failure. A single cross-sectional survey can reveal which direction a program is heading. A geometric distribution of the prevalence of infection across communities may be an encouraging sign, consistent with a disease on its way to eradication.

  8. [Migration and health].

    Litvinjenko, S


    In the last decades of this century we are witnesses of frequent crises in different parts of the world produced by internal disturbance and wars. These crises, together with natural disasters, poverty and hunger, follow the history of mankind often forcing huge population groups to leave their homes. The harmful health consequences are among negative effects of migrations. While stable populations have well-tried routines for maintaining health, migrations mean abandoning such support systems. The increased exposure to harmful factors contributes more to the bad health condition of the migrant population. Setting of newcomers and local people together in the same homes, reduction in food and heating resources, drug shortage as well as importation of new infectious agents, may also endanger health of the native population. These observations have also been confirmed by Yugoslav experience. Depending on the fact whether a migration is elemental or organized i.e. dependent on its place in the large scale between these two extreme endpoints, the size of risk is also dependent on the consequences and degree of their difficulty. Mass health disturbances occur during migrations of the population from war regions, migrations from areas of natural disasters, mass pilgrimage, migrations of seasonal workers and migrations of armies during wars. However, even in these difficult times and conditions, a good organization can contribute to the mitigation of harmful consequences caused by these migrations. For instance, in 1942 there was an epidemic of typhus fever in Bosnia when many refugees crossed the Drina river on the way to Serbia escaping from Ustasha terrorism. At the Serbian side there were checkpoints where the refugees could taka a bath and where their laundry and clothing were depediculated with dry air, and after a two-week quarantine they could continue to Serbian provinces without making new foci of typhus fever. The most vulnerable and numerous group of refugees

  9. Migration scenarii in extrasolar systems

    Crida A.


    Full Text Available In this review talk, I present the theory of type I migration of small mass planets, and its latest developments that open the possibility of outward migration in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk. I also review the type II migration of giant planets, and mention the runaway, type III. Then, we focus on the migration of pairs of planets in resonance. The eccentricity of the planets raise, and possibly their mutual inclination as well. Also, the migration rate can be changed, and directed outward if the outer planet is the lighter. Last, we present a synthetic scenario of migration for the giant planets of our Solar System.


    The Mexican Migration Project is designed to make timely, high-quality data on documented and undocumented Mexican migrants available to researchers and policy analysts. Each year since 1987 the project has administered a semi-structured interview schedule to representative sampl...