... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...
Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel; Valenzuela, Carolina; Brito, Alex; Weinborn, Valerie; Flores, Sebastián; Arredondo, Miguel
Forty-five women (35-45 year) were randomly assigned to three iron (Fe) absorption sub-studies, which measured the effects of dietary animal proteins on the absorption of heme Fe. Study 1 was focused on heme, red blood cell concentrate (RBCC), hemoglobin (Hb), RBCC+beef meat; study 2 on heme, heme+fish, chicken, and beef; and study 3 on heme and heme+purified animal protein (casein, collagen, albumin). Study 1: the bioavailability of heme Fe from Hb was similar to heme only (∼13.0%). RBCC (25.0%) and RBCC+beef (21.3%) were found to be increased 2- and 1.6-fold, respectively, when compared with heme alone (p<0.05). Study 2: the bioavailability from heme alone (10.3%) was reduced (p<0.05) when it was blended with fish (7.1%) and chicken (4.9%), however it was unaffected by beef. Study 3: casein, collagen, and albumin did not affect the bioavailability of Fe. Proteins from animal source foods and their digestion products did not enhance heme Fe absorption. PMID:26593548
Appleton, K. M.
Protein intakes in the older population can be lower than recommended for good health, and while reasons for low protein intakes can be provided, little work has attempted to investigate these reasons in relation to actual intakes, and so identify those of likely greatest impact when designing interventions. Questionnaires assessing: usual consumption of meat, fish, eggs and dairy products; agreement/disagreement with reasons for the consumption/non-consumption of these foods; and several demographic and lifestyle characteristics; were sent to 1000 UK community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and over. In total, 351 returned questionnaires, representative of the UK older population for gender and age, were suitable for analysis. Different factors were important for consumption of the four food groups, but similarities were also found. These similarities likely reflect issues of particular concern to both the consumption of animal-based protein-rich foods and the consumption of these foods by older adults. Taken together, these findings suggest intakes to be explained by, and thus that strategies for increasing consumption should focus on: increasing liking/tastiness; improving convenience and the effort required for food preparation and consumption; minimizing spoilage and wastage; and improving perceptions of affordability or value for money; freshness; and the healthiness of protein-rich foods. PMID:27043615
... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... This conclusion stems from an extensive study of animal cloning and related food safety, culminating in the release ...
The general idea of this text is to reflect biopolitical constitution of the society and its implications related to the issues of animal welfare. Since animal in biopolitical formation is technically reduced to an object - commodity for contentment of the industry and of the people needs - critical public advisories are calling from moral, ethical and legal standpoint for attention to the fact that is necessary to protect animals from the unnecessary exploitation. It is obvious that animal p...
Allaoua Achouri; Wang Zhang; Xu Shiying
Acylation has been shown to be an effective tool for improving surface functional properties of plant proteins.Soy bean protein has been extensively modified through chemical and enzymatic treatments. Their effectiveness lies in their high nutritional value and low cost, which promote their use as ingredients for the formulation of food products.This paper reports a complete review of chemical modification of various proteins from plant and animal sources. The nutritive and toxicological aspects through in vitro and in vivo tests are also described.
The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins were tested for binding of phenolics. It appeared that a proline-rich open protein structure, as in β-casein, favored binding of phenolics. Globular proteins other than bovine serum albumin sh...
Animal models have been used to provide insight into the complex immunological and pathophysioligical mechanisms of human Type 1 allergic diseases. Research efforts that include mechanistic studies in search of new therapies and screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens in a...
The structure,shape,color,smell and taste of food were decided by protein functionality.The utilization of protein will improve by changing the protein functionality.Protein functionality is also advantage to maintain and utilize the nutrition of food.This paper summarized the nature,classification,factors and prospect of protein functionality.It ccn provide a theoretical basis for application of protein in food industry.
de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H
The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could
Baron, Caroline P.
oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...... may not only induce quality losses but may be desirable in some type of foods, such as salted herring....
Yeping Tan; Changhua Lu; Yinong Hu
The safety of animal derived food has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years. In this paper, we stress major animal derived food issues and challenges including microbial pathogens, food additives and chemical residues. In addition, the countermeasures to animal derived food issues including animal health and welfare, animal identification and traceability, antimicrobial interventions, new processes and technologies in the processing and preservation of animal derived food...
Full Text Available The safety of animal derived food has been at the forefront of societal concerns in recent years. In this paper, we stress major animal derived food issues and challenges including microbial pathogens, food additives and chemical residues. In addition, the countermeasures to animal derived food issues including animal health and welfare, animal identification and traceability, antimicrobial interventions, new processes and technologies in the processing and preservation of animal derived food products, and Risk assessment are discussed.
Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A. [Centro Universitário da FEI, São Bernardo do Campo (Brazil); Medina, Nilberto H. [Instituto de Física da USP, São Paulo (Brazil)
Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) μSv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) μSv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) μSv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 μSv/year.
Full Text Available The main task of food packaging is to protect the product during storage and transport against the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors. The paper presents packaging systems for food of animal origin. Vacuum and modified atmosphere packagings were characterised together with novel types of packagings, referred to as intelligent packaging and active packaging. The aim of this paper was to present all advantages and disadvantages of packaging used for meat products. Such list enables to choose the optimal type of packaging for given assortment of food and specific conditions of the transport and storing.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misbranding of animal food. 501.18 Section 501.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.18 Misbranding...
The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs
There is a plethora of schemes for assuring the welfare of food animals but, with each having different standards and with incomplete coverage of all livestock sectors, consumers are confused about what they all mean. A debate at this year's BVA Congress highlighted the problem, and considered how it might be addressed at a farm and consumer level. Laura Honey reports. PMID:24337085
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED Listing of Specific Substances Prohibited From Use in Animal Food or Feed §...
Baron, Caroline P.
The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...
Pier Lorenzo Secchiari
Full Text Available The subject of this paper deals in the description of Italian zootechny with regard to animal food production and their quality. The last is well documented by the presence of a large number of certificated origin marks (53 POD e 11 PGI. Firstly, nutritional quality of food has been described, with particular emphasis for Glucides, Proteins, Lipids, Vitamins and Mineral elements contents and their metabolic role, in the most important food of animal origin: milk, meat, fish and eggs. After, the presence of nutraceutical substances in the same foods has been discussed. In particular the attention has been focused on the metabolic role of ω-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA and Rumenic Acid (C 18:2 cis 9 trans 11, the most important isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA. In conclusion has been underlined the importance of nutraceutical substances of animal origin in human balanced diet. Furthermore the fundamental role of Italian zootechny to assure animal food safety and quality has been confirmed.
Kevin C. Gough
Full Text Available Prions are an enigma amongst infectious disease agents as they lack a genome yet confer specific pathologies thought to be dictated mainly, if not solely, by the conformation of the disease form of the prion protein (PrPSc. Prion diseases affect humans and animals, the latter including the food-producing ruminant species cattle, sheep, goats and deer. Importantly, it has been shown that the disease agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE is zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (vCJD in humans. Current diagnostic tests can distinguish different prion types and in food-producing animals these focus on the differentiation of BSE from the non-zoonotic agents. Whilst BSE cases are now rare, atypical forms of both scrapie and BSE have been reported, as well as two types of chronic wasting disease (CWD in cervids. Typing of animal prion isolates remains an important aspect of prion diagnosis and is now becoming more focused on identifying the range of prion types that are present in food-producing animals and also developing tests that can screen for emerging, novel prion diseases. Here, we review prion typing methodologies in light of current and emerging prion types in food-producing animals.
Nuclear techniques applied to animal production and health are concentrated in three main fields: Animal nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Isotopic markers, both radioactive (''1''4C, ''51Cr, 32P and 35S) and stable (15N), have been used in the development of feeding strategies by understanding the rumen fermentation process, and how protein and other nutrients are utilized to determine a balanced diet for meeting animal requirements for growth, pregnancy and lactation. The simple and easily applicable technology was developed for the preparation of a urea mineral multi nutrient block as a supplement and animal cake for the replacement of concentrate feed used by dairy cattle holders. The model was developed in Yerli Kara Cattle and its cross-breeds to estimate protein requirements of animals. Progesterone immunoassays (RIA/EIA) make it possible to control the reproductive performance of cattle, sheep and goats. A milk progesterone enzyme immunoassay kit known as Reprokon was developed at our Center. The kit has licensed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs. As for animal diseases, especially parasitic infections, nuclear techniques have proved to be of great value, namely in the production of irradiated vaccines against helminitic diseases. The Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) diagnostic techniques were used on the diagnosis of babesiosis, a disease which cause great economic loss in livestock in Turkey. Food irradiation is the treatment of raw, semi-processed or processed food or food ingredients with ionizing radiation to achieve a reduction of losses due to insect infestation, germination of root crops, spoilage and deterioration of perishable produce, and/or the control of microorganisms and other organisms that cause food borne diseases
Noriega, Kristen E.; Brian L. Lindshield
Fortified blended foods (FBF) are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF) in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC), especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve...
Maslovarić M.; Jovanović R.; Janković S.; Lević J.; Tolimir N.
The importance of NIR technology in the animal food industry is presented in this study. As the example of the calibration procedure of NIR devices a calibration model for 14 samples of soybean cake was designed. Samples were previously analyzed in the standard laboratory testing of the moisture content, content of crude proteins, crude fats and crude fibre. In this calibration procedure high determination coefficients - R2 were established for these parame...
Various plutonium studies have been conducted using domestic animals in an attempt to determine what fraction of a quantified exposure would reach the edible animal products. Following either intravenous or oral plutonium doses to selected livestock species, milk, liver, eggs and skeletal muscle have been considered as critical deposition sites or materials almost irrespective of resulting nuclide concentrations. Milk and eggs received primary attention as their production represents an efficient way of converting dietary crude protein and energy into edible substances. Potential problems concerning the biological availability of plutonium from in vivo labeled food materials and the hazards associated with recycling carcass residues have been considered
Whey proteins, modified whey proteins, and whey components are useful as nutrients or supplements for health maintenance. Extrusion modified whey proteins can easily fit into new products such as beverages, confectionery items (e.g., candies), convenience foods, desserts, baked goods, sauces, and in...
Albertin, S V
An article describes the original method allowing to study a mechanism of food preference related to the sensory properties of foods in animals. The method gives a good possibility to select the role of visual and orosensory signaling in food preference as well as to model the processes of physiological and pathological food and drug dependence in animal experiments. The role of discrete food presentation in the formation of the current motivations and food preferences was discussed. PMID:26827492
... human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Food-Producing Animals § 530.20 Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food... prescribing or dispensing an approved new animal or human drug for an extralabel use in food animals,...
Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals,AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAⅠ, AApoAⅡ,localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Aβ and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein,whereas in tho prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. Aβ-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis and therapy of amyloid deposits are shortly commented.
Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7-10nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross beta pleated sheets. About 25 different types of amyloid have been characterised. In animals, AA-amyloid is the most frequent type. Other types of amyloid in animals represent: AIAPP (in cats), AApoAⅠ, AApoAⅡ, localised AL-amyloid, amyloid in odontogenic or mammary tumors and amyloid in the brain. In old dogs Aβ and in sheep APrPsc-amyloid can be encountered. AA-amyloidosis is a systemic disorder with a precursor in blood, acute phase serum amyloid A (SAA). In chronic inflammatory processes AA-amyloid can be deposited. A rapid crystallization of SAA to amyloid fibrils on small beta-sheeted fragments, the ‘amyloid enhancing factor' (AEF), is known and the AEF has been shown to penetrate the enteric barrier. Amyloid fibrils can aggregate from various precursor proteins in vitro in particular at acidic pH and when proteolytic fragments are formed. Molecular chaperones influence this process. Tissue data point to amyloid fibrillogenesis in lysosomes and near cell surfaces. A comparison can be made of the fibrillogenesis in prion diseases and in enhanced AA-amyloidosis. In the reactive form, acute phase SAA is the supply of the precursor protein, whereas in the prion diseases, cell membrane proteins form a structural source. AI3-amyloid in brain tissue of aged dogs showing signs of dementia forms a canine counterpart of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ccSDAT) in man. Misfolded proteins remain potential food hazards. Developments concerning prevention of amyloidogenesis
The food consumer science as the science with the ambition to overcome the difference between food science and consumer science is presented. The major stakeholders involved are listed and the role of animal science and animal scientists within the framework of food consumer science is discoursed. The importance of animal scientists to understand the complexity of food consumer science knowledge system and need for them to broaden the scope of interest beyond the traditional area of expertise...
The food consumer science as the science with the ambition to overcome the difference between food science and consumer science is presented. The major stakeholders involved are listed and the role of animal science and animal scientists within the framework of food consumer science is discoursed. The importance of animal scientists to understand the complexity of food consumer science knowledge system and need for them to broaden the scope of interest beyond the traditional area of expertise...
... Waste Food Safety Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Vegetarian choices You are here Home / MyPlate / Protein Foods Vegetarian choices Print Share Vegetarian choices in the Protein Foods Group Vegetarians get ...
Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert;
of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...... validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...
Reperant, L A; Brown, I H; Haenen, O L; de Jong, M D; Osterhaus, A D M E; Papa, A; Rimstad, E; Valarcher, J-F; Kuiken, T
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective
Radiation-hygienic control of animal food (concentrated fodder, row material for making fodder and food for pets) was done through the first and second circle of radiation biotechnology monitoring system (BIMOS) in 1996. The gamma-spectrometry determined activity of 137 Cs was less than 2,65 Bq/kg with one sample of fish flour exception (23,9 Bq/kg), so the completely radiation safety for animal food was confirmed. (author)
Whether animals are herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores, each one is part of an eternal food chain that carries on from one generation to the next. In this videotape, students learn more about terms like "predator,""pre-consumer" and "producer," as well as the cycles of food chains and food webs and how they support all of Earth's creatures. This…
... Federal Regulations (21 CFR part 556) (40 FR 13802 at 13942, March 27, 1975). The part 556 regulations... must be non-detectable or below the limit of detection of the approved regulatory method (67 FR 78172...-AG17 New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food...
Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.
The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.
Phillips, Jon C.; Ortega, Adriana; Cook, Marquesa; Concepcion, Marian; Kimmons, Tina; Ralph, Kelly; Ponce, Joanna; Miller, Hannah; Lam, Michelle; Baldwin, Sarah
Animals such as poultry and cattle have been used for production and human consumption throughout the history of agriculture. This work defines and analyzes the concepts of animal rights and animal welfare. It compares and contrasts the viewpoints of animal rights and animal welfare organizations in an effort to portray a comprehensive perspective of this ethical concept as it relates to agriculture and the supply chain for food. These organizations have had significant impacts by urging gove...
Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T; Levin, Simon A; Robinson, Timothy P; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan
Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg(-1), 148 mg⋅kg(-1), and 172 mg⋅kg(-1) for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health. PMID:25792457
Reperant, L.A.; Brown, I.H.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Jong, de M.D.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Papa, A.; Rimstad, E.; Valarcher, J.F.; Kuiken, T.
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known
Frewer, Lynn J.; Coles, David; Houdebine, Louis; Gijs A. Kleter
Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review identified 42 English language peer reviewed papers assessing public opinion of GM animals associated with food production. Thematic analysis...
Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchaud, Grégory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M; Noti, Mario; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie; Kimber, Ian; Verhoeckx, Kitty; O'Mahony, Liam
Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant controls and endpoints measured. PMID:27313841
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... of predominance by weight on either the principal display panel or the information panel in..., reconstituted milk, and dry whole milk may be declared as milk. (5) Bacterial cultures may be declared by...
E. Sarno; T.A. Sarli
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratubercolosis (MAP) is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (or paratubercolosis),a chronic infectious enteritis in cattle, sheep and goats. Infected animals shed viable MAP in their milk, faeces and semen. MAP may have a role in development of Crohn’s disease,a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in humans, via the consumption of contamined milk and milk products, meat and contamined water supplies. For some authors pasteurization is not sufficient to...
Sreekumar, C.; Selvaraj, J.; Gomathinayagam, S.; Thangapandiyan, M.; Ravikumar, G.; Roy, Parimal; C Balachandran
Blastocystis, a zoonotic protozoan found in the intestinal tracts of a wide range of animals, has not been reported from non-human hosts from India so far. Organisms indistinguishable from Blastocystis sp. were identified in the Giemsa stained intestinal scrapings collected from carcasses of piglet and poultry that were brought for necropsy to the Central University Laboratory, Chennai. The ‘central vacuole forms’ of the parasite, with number of nuclei ranging from 1 to 12 were identified. Th...
Krnjaja V.; Lević J.; Stanković S.
Numerous plant species, which are main components of various mixtures used in animal nutrition, can be contaminated by mycotoxins created by large number of pathogenic and toxigenic fungi (moulds). From the aspect of animal nutrition, most important are cereals and oil crops (in form of meals) because they constitute the highest share in preparation of animal food, and on the other hand, they are especially sensitive to toxigenic fungi and can contain mycot...
After the problem of Salmonella infections in foods and feeding stuffs is emphasized, an account is given of the current ways of manufacturing bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, fish meal, fish flour, egg products and coconut. The effectiveness in eliminating salmonellae and the chance and possible sources of recontamination are described for each production method. Besides heat treatment, fumigation by ethylene oxide and irradiation with gamma rays are considered. The bacteriological tests required to establish the effectiveness of treatment are also discussed, as well as the effect of the treatment on the nutritive value of the product. (author). 50 refs, 4 tabs
Clostridium difficile is an antibiotic-resistant bacterium that causes diarrhea and sometimes serious intestinal illnesses. In recent years, C. difficile infections have been increasing in number and severity, including among some people outside healthcare settings. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Michael Jhung discusses his recent study that looked at a new, increasingly prevalent strain of C. difficile in people and compared it to a strain historically found in animals to see whether the two might be linked. The study is published in the July 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Created: 6/30/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 7/3/2008.
Engel, Erwan; Ratel, Jérémy; Planche, Christelle
Food-producing animals are exposed to toxic micropollutants via their environment and feeds. These micropollutants represent a chemical human health hazard because they are capable of entering the animals and being transferred to edible tissues 1 . Most current approaches to assessing contamination levels in foods are based on high performance analytical methods designed to determine the concentration of targeted micropollutant residues present down to trace levels in the food. Alternative...
Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola
A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development. PMID:24555902
Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratubercolosis (MAP is the causative agent of Johne’s disease (or paratubercolosis,a chronic infectious enteritis in cattle, sheep and goats. Infected animals shed viable MAP in their milk, faeces and semen. MAP may have a role in development of Crohn’s disease,a chronic inflammatory bowel disease in humans, via the consumption of contamined milk and milk products, meat and contamined water supplies. For some authors pasteurization is not sufficient to kill all MAP cells present in milk and it has been cultured from raw or pasteurizated milk and isolated from cheese. MAP has not isolated from retail beef to date, although limited testing has been carried out. Probably MAP may be involved in other chronic diseases like Type-1 Diabetes. Which is the possible public health consequence of periodically use by susceptible individuals is uncertain.
Nagodawithana, Tilak W.; Nelles, Lynn; Trivedi, Nayan B.
Early civilizations have relied upon their good sense and experience to develop and improve their food quality. The discovery of soy sauce centuries ago can now be considered one of the earliest protein hydrolysates made by man to improve palatability of foods. Now, it is well known that such savory systems are not just sources for enjoyment but complex semiotic systems that direct the humans to satisfy the body's protein need for their sustenance. Recent developments have resulted in a wide range of cost effective savory flavorings, the best known of which are autolyzed yeast extracts and hydrolyzed vegetable proteins. New technologies have helped researchers to improve the savory characteristics of yeast extracts through the application of Maillard reaction and by generating specific flavor enhancers through the use of enzymes. An interesting parallel exists in the pet food industry, where a similar approach is taken in using animal protein hydrolysates to create palatability enhancers via Maillard reaction scheme. Protein hydrolysates are also utilized extensively as a source of nutrition to the elderly, young children and immuno-compromised patient population. These hydrolysates have an added advantage in having peptides small enough to avoid any chance of an allergenic reaction which sometimes occur with the consumption of larger sized peptides or proteins. Accordingly, protein hydrolysates are required to have an average molecular weight distribution in the range 800-1,500 Da to make them non-allergenic. The technical challenge for scientists involved in food and feed manufacture is to use an appropriate combination of enzymes within the existing economic constraints and other physical factors/limitations, such as heat, pH, and time, to create highly palatable, yet still nutritious and hypoallergenic food formulations.
Kristen E. Noriega
Full Text Available Fortified blended foods (FBF are used for the prevention and treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM in nutritionally vulnerable individuals, particularly children. A recent review of FBF recommended the addition of animal source food (ASF in the form of whey protein concentrate (WPC, especially to corn-soy blends. The justification for this recommendation includes the potential of ASF to increase length, weight, muscle mass accretion and recovery from wasting, as well as to improve protein quality and provide essential growth factors. Evidence was collected from the following four different types of studies: (1 epidemiological; (2 ASF versus no intervention or a low-calorie control; (3 ASF versus an isocaloric non-ASF; and (4 ASF versus an isocaloric, isonitrogenous non-ASF. Epidemiological studies consistently associated improved growth outcomes with ASF consumption; however, little evidence from isocaloric and isocaloric, isonitrogenous interventions was found to support the inclusion of meat or milk in FBF. Evidence suggests that whey may benefit muscle mass accretion, but not linear growth. Overall, little evidence supports the costly addition of WPC to FBFs. Further, randomized isocaloric, isonitrogenous ASF interventions with nutritionally vulnerable children are needed.
Aarestrup, Frank Møller
Large amounts of antimicrobial agents are in the production of food animals used for therapy and prophylactics of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents causes problems in the therapy of infections through the selection for resistance among bacteria...... pathogenic for animals or humans. Current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimes to limit the development of resistance is...... major differences between programmes designed to detect changes in a national population, individual herds or groups of animals. In addition, programmes have to be designed differently according to whether the aim is to determine changes in resistance for all antimicrobial agents or only the...
Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products
Trapp, A L; Taylor, R F
This article summarizes the methods of euthanasia in poultry and food-producing animals and details some of the advantages and disadvantages of specific methods. Specific recommendations are made for each type of animal, with alternative methods for special circumstances. Reasons are given for recommending methods that are not "first-choice methods" of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia. Detailed descriptions are included for selected methods of euthanasia. PMID:2936436
Brandt, Kirsten; Bügel, Susanne Højbjerg; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Frøsig, Lars
The overall objective is to determine, if conventional and organic food products show differences in effects on animal physiology, of a type and magnitude, that indicates that such products will affect humans differently. The agricultural treatments used are: 1: An organic cultivation treatment, with low input of nutrients through animal manure and use of catch crops, and no pesticides. 2: A conventional cultivation system, with high input of nutrients through mineral fertiliser and in...
... food-producing animals. 530.25 Section 530.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... may issue an order prohibiting extralabel use of an approved new animal or human drug in food... an extralabel use of a drug in food-producing animals. Such order shall state that an...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions for food-producing animals. 530.21... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals § 530.21 Prohibitions...
In the first article in an occasional series for Veterinary Record, Dorothy Craig introduces the work of the Veterinary Residues Committee, the independent scientific advisory committee that advises government on the testing of foods from animals to look for residues of veterinary medicines and banned substances. PMID:24736819
Frewer, L.J.; Coles, D.; Houdebine, L.M.; Kleter, G.A.
Purpose – Food products developed using genetically modified (GM) animals may soon be introduced in Europe and beyond. Their successful commercialisation depends on consumer acceptance, and so it is timely to review the existing literature in this respect. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Des
Gaskell, George; Kronberger, Nicole; Fischler, Claude;
In the view of the authors of this report converging lines of theoretical and empirical research suggest that cloned meat is likely to be a controversial issue with the European public, sitting as it does at the nexus of sensitivities around food, animals and the life sciences. If, as appears pro...
Knippels, L.M.J.; Wijk, F. van; Penninks, A.H.
Purpose of review This review summarizes selected articles on animal models of food allergy published in 2003. The research areas that are covered include mechanistic studies, the search for new therapies, as well as screening models for hazard identification of potential allergens. Recent findings
Background: Clostridium difficile-associated disease is increasingly reported and studies indicate that food animals may be sources of human infections. Methods: The presence of C. difficile in 345 swine fecal, 1,325 dairy cattle fecal, and 371 dairy environmental samples were examined. Two isolati...
Two isolation methods were compared for isolation of Clostridium difficile from food animal feces. The single alcohol shock method (SS) used selective enrichment in cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose broth supplemented with 0.1% sodium taurocholate (TCCFB) followed by alcohol shock and isolation on tryp...
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ
Full Text Available Carbapenems are broad-spectrum β-lactam antimicrobials used for the treatment of serious infections in humans. To date only sporadic studies have reported the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing (CP bacteria in food-producing animals and their environment. The bacteria and enzymes isolated include VIM-1 producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis from pigs and poultry in Germany, OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter spp. from cattle and horses in France and Belgium, and NDM-producing Acinetobacter spp. from pigs and poultry in China. In the German S. Infantis and E. coli isolates, the VIM-1-encoding genes were located on IncHI2 plasmids. A methodology including selective culture is proposed for the detection of CP strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. The choice of selective media for the surveillance of carbapenem resistance for testing animal and food samples needs to be experimentally evaluated and validated. Biochemical and phenotypic tests for the confirmatory identification of CP bacteria are available. For CP bacteria in animals and food, active/passive monitoring and/or targeted surveys should cover key zoonotic agents, animal pathogens and indicator organisms. Priority should be given to broilers, fattening turkeys, fattening pigs, veal calves and meat thereof. Because there are no data on the comparative efficacy of individual control options, prioritisation is complex. Continued prohibition of the use of carbapenems in food-producing animals would be a simple and effective option. As genes encoding carbapenemase production are mostly plasmid-mediated, and co-resistance may be an important issue in the spread of such resistance mechanisms, decreasing the frequency of use of antimicrobials in animal production in the EU in accordance with prudent use guidelines is also of high priority. The effectiveness of any control measures should be monitored by targeted surveys, using selective isolation methods and pre
Ward, Marsha D W; Selgrade, Maryjane K
Protein induced respiratory hypersensitivity, particularly atopic disease in general, and allergic asthma in particular, has increased dramatically over the last several decades in the US and other industrialized nations as a result of ill-defined changes in living conditions in modern western society. In addition, work-related asthma has become the most frequently diagnosed occupational respiratory illness. Animal models have demonstrated great utility in developing an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of many diseases. A few models been developed as predictive models to identify a protein as an allergen or to characterize its potency. Here we describe animal models that have been used to investigate and identify protein respiratory sensitizers. In addition to prototypical experimental design, methods for exposure route, sample collection, and endpoint assessment are described. Some of the most relevant endpoints in assessing the potential for a given protein to induce atopic or allergic asthma respiratory hypersensitivity are the development of cytotropic antibodies (IgE, IgG1), eosinophil influx into the lung, and airway hyperresponsiveness to the sensitizing protein and/or to non-antigenic stimuli (Mch). The utility of technologies such as PCR and multiplexing assay systems is also described. These models and methods have been used to elucidate the potential for protein sources to induce allergy, identify environmental conditions (pollutants) to impact allergy responsiveness, and establish safe exposure limits. As an example, data are presented from an experiment designed to compare the allergenicity of a fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) crude extract with the one of its components, conidia (CON) extract. PMID:17161304
Lewis, Janine L
Food regulation aims to protect public health through a safe and nutritious food supply produced by a compliant food industry. Food standards of developed countries generally do not regulate protein content or protein quality because the risk of dietary protein inadequacy in their national populations is very low. Protein is nevertheless regulated for reasons of product quality or protein labelling or to minimise assessed health risks associated with consumption of certain animal- and vegetable-protein foods; analogue products that extend or simulate commonly available animal-protein foods; and special purpose foods such as infant formula and foods, supplementary and medical foods, and foods for weight loss. The extent and approach to protein regulation varies greatly among jurisdictions but where it occurs, it is applied through minimum and sometimes maximum limits on protein content or quality measures or both using an inter-related approach. Protein quality measures range from amino acid profiles and digestibility corrected scores to protein rating, a rat bioassay and reference proteins not further described. Regulatory methods for protein quality determination are referenced to the published scientific literature or developed nationally. Internationally, the Codex Alimentarius regulates the protein content and quality of some foods. The Codex approach varies according to the food but is similar to the approaches used in national and regional food regulation. This paper provides a comparison of the regulation of protein in foods using examples from the food regulations of Australia New Zealand, Canada, the European Union, the United States of America and the Codex Alimentarius. PMID:23107530
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Recommendations for Preparation and Submission of Animal Food Additive Petitions; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...
Pettitt, R G
Since the 1950s, consumers in the United Kingdom (UK) have learned to expect cheap, but safe food. A number of incidents in the 1980s and 1990s caused public alarm and loss of confidence in the role of producers and the Government in the food supply. This review examines the impact of recent food scares in the UK, where scrutiny of the food industry has led to the introduction of new controls at all stages of production. Animal feed manufacture, livestock production, slaughter and the use or disposal of animal by-products are now controlled in ways unimagined prior to the identification of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the late 1980s. Traceability has become an important issue for consumers and, by proxy, for the multiple retailers that service consumer needs. Retailers have increasingly managed the food chain to ensure high standards that can be proven by audit. The retailers have also found that a commercial advantage can be gained from certain aspects of source verification. In order to maximise sales in a depressed market, producer groups have themselves developed a multiplicity of assurance schemes. PMID:11548528
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...
In my study entitled "Whey proteins utilization in food processing" I address functional, nutritional and physiological properties of whey and whey proteins. In the first section I describe the composition and significance of whey and I pay attention to the surfactant and physiological properties of whey proteins. The second part of my bachelor thesis deals with technological operations during whey processing, commercially accessible whey products, and finally the use of whey proteins in the ...
... detention of food for human or animal consumption under the Bioterrorism Act (68 FR 25242 at 25250). The... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... amending its regulations on administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption. As...
... feed. 589.1 Section 589.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN ANIMAL FOOD OR FEED General Provisions § 589.1 Substances prohibited from use in animal food or feed. (a)...
... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...
Knippels, Léon M. J.; Penninks, André H
The need for widely accepted and validated animal models to test the potential allergenicity and potency of novel (biotechnology-derived) proteins has become an important issue for their safety evaluation. In this article, we summarize the results of the development of an oral sensitization protocol for food proteins in the rat. Young Brown Norway rats were exposed to either various purified allergenic proteins (e.g., ovalbumin, partly purified), a whole food (cow's milk), or total protein ex...
Lund, Marianne; Heinonen, Marina; Baron, Caroline P.;
Protein oxidation in living tissues is known to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of relevant degenerative diseases, whereas the occurrence and impact of protein oxidation (Pox) in food systems have been ignored for decades. Currently, the increasing interest among food scientists in this...... topic has led to highlight the influence that Pox may have on meat quality and human nutrition. Recent studies have contributed to solid scientific knowledge regarding basic oxidation mechanisms, and in advanced methodologies to accurately assess Pox in food systems. Some of these studies have provided...... insight into the reactions involved in the oxidative modifications undergone by muscle proteins. Moreover, a variety of products derived from oxidized muscle proteins, including cross-links and carbonyls, have been identified. The impact of oxidation on protein functionality and on specific meat quality...
Meinert, Lene; Broge, Eva Honnens de Lichtenberg; Bejerholm, Camilla; Jensen, Kirsten
With increasing consumer interest in functional foods, proteins from slaughterhouse side streams can offer interesting application opportunities in this respect. Worldwide, increasing numbers of people are suffering from hypertension and protein deficiency. Hydrolyzed proteins of animal origin may show ACE-inhibitory activity, which is central to the treatment of hypertension. Furthermore, the protein content of, for example, meat products increases markedly through the addition of hydrolyzed proteins, and these protein-rich products are of interest to those suffering from protein deficiency. Through a series of analyses, six selected hydrolysates were analyzed for their application potential in the Danish meat product saveloy. Hydrolyzed pig rectum and bovine diaphragm showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activities, and these activities were maintained in the processed saveloys. The ACE-inhibitory activities could not readily be explained by the amino acid profile. The content of N-compounds in the saveloys increased with increasing addition of hydrolysate, with little difference between the added hydrolysates. A sensory panel assessed the saveloys with added porcine rectum (8%), bovine diaphragm (8%), and bovine heart (4% and 8%) as having the strongest off-flavors (chemical flavor). No increase in salty taste resulting from the addition of hydrolysates was detected in the saveloys. Finally, the consumers found the saveloys too mild in flavor and recommended the addition of more spices. PMID:27004118
The author discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body. The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented. Meanwhile, the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed
Food restriction (FR) is a well-recognized method of extending mean and maximum longevity of rodents, but the mode of its action remains to be uncovered. This article reviews the effect of FR on the physical-chemical properties and lipid peroxidizability of cellular membranes. FR prevents the age-dependent increase in microviscosity and peroxidizability of cellular membranes. It has been suggested that a decrease in the body temperature occurring in undernourished animals may play a fundament...
EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ)
Carbapenems are broad-spectrum β-lactam antimicrobials used for the treatment of serious infections in humans. To date only sporadic studies have reported the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing (CP) bacteria in food-producing animals and their environment. The bacteria and enzymes isolated include VIM-1 producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella Infantis from pigs and poultry in Germany, OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter spp. from cattle and horses in France and Belgium, and NDM-producing Acin...
Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.
Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobial...
Bacteriological examination of 100 samples of animal food stuffs (fish meal and bone and meat meal; as models of dry food materials) and 50 samples of minced meat (as a model of moist food materials) revealed the isolation of different bacterial pathogens; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus spp., Staph. aureus and Salmonella species, in a decreasing order of occurrence. In the experiment; the dry food stuffs were sterilized in autoclave and the minced meat was sterilized by gamma irradiation at 10 kGy. The efficacy of gamma irradiation against the inoculated bacterial isolates (E coli 0157: H7, Salmonella enteritidis and Staph. aureus) in animal food stuffs and minced meat was investigated. Irradiated samples were stored at room temperature (25 degree C) for 2 weeks. The food borne pathogens used in this study showed a difference in radiation sensitivity. E. coli 0157: H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enteritidis were eradicated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Also, inoculated pathogens in minced meat were more sensitive to ionizing radiation than dry animal food stuffs. It could be concluded that low doses of gamma irradiation are effective means of inactivating pathogenic bacteria. This radiation sensitivity is related to the bacterial isolates and the evaluated growth
Leonard, Stephanie A; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a rare, non-immunoglobulin E-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy primarily diagnosed in infancy, but has also been reported in older children and adults. Acute FPIES reactions typically present with delayed, repetitive vomiting, lethargy, and pallor within 1 to 4 hours of food ingestion. Chronic FPIES typically presents with protracted vomiting and/or diarrhea, and weight loss or poor growth. Common foods triggering FPIES include cow's milk, soy, rice, oats, fish, and egg. More detailed diagnostic criteria may help in increasing awareness of FPIES and reducing delayed diagnoses or misdiagnoses. PMID:26456444
Verhoeckx, Kitty; Broekman, Henrike; Knulst, André; Houben, Geert
To solve the future food insecurity problem, alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects, rapeseed, fava bean and algae) are now being explored for the production of food and feed. To approve these novel protein sources for future food a comprehensive risk assessment is needed according to the European food legislation. Allergenicity risk assessment might pose some major difficulties, since detailed guidance on how to assess the allergenic potential of novel foods is not available. At present, the approach relies mostly on the guidance of allergenicity assessment for genetically modified (GM) plant foods. The most recent one was proposed by EFSA (2010 and 2011); "weight-of-evidence approach". However this guidance is difficult to interpret, not completely applicable or validated for novel foods and therefore needs some adjustments. In this paper we propose a conceptual strategy which is based on the "weight-of-evidence approach" for food derived from GM plants and other strategies that were previously published in the literature. This strategy will give more guidance on how to assess the allergenicity of novel food proteins and protein sources. PMID:27012375
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General considerations; tolerances for residues of new animal drugs in food. 556.1 Section 556.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD General Provisions § 556.1 General considerations; tolerances...
Jongen, W.M.F.; Meerdink, G.
Profetas (Protein Foods, Environment, Technology and Society) is a Dutch trans-disciplinary research programme, aiming to develop more sustainable food systems. The central theme of the programme is the question: is a transition feasible from a diet based primarily on animal proteins to a diet based
...). Microbiological and other testing used to help ensure the safety of specific human food and animal food/feed..., and medical food. Specific biological, chemical, radiological, and physical hazards and controls for... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration--Human and Animal Food; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of draft Compliance...
Vala, Helena; Fondevila, D.; Ferrer, L
The distribution of keratins and the expression of cornified cell envelope proteins are well studied in epidermis and mucous membranes of human specie, laboratory species and, scarcely, in the dog. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of immunohistochemical techniques, the expression of these components in the nasal and labial mucocutaneous junctions from food-producing animals. Samples from two mucocutaneous junctions were collected from goat, sheep, cow and pig, fixed in forma...
Mijačević Zora M.
Full Text Available The currently valid regulations (Official Gazette 26/2002 define the requirements for the quality of milk and milk products. The same legislature defines also the concept of composite products, that is, products in which part of the fat or proteins have been substituted with fat or proteins of different origin. A composite product must include the term composite in its name, and the part of the declaration which lists the contents of total proteins and fat must specify the part of plant proteins and fat in total proteins and fat of milk products. With the growth of the population and the concern for health, new requirements have been set, and consumers expect a food article to meet not only the nutritive requirements, but also to have certain functional characteristics, or that it is not burdened with components which have a negative effect on health (the presence of cholesterol, sodium chloride, a high percentage of saturated fatty acids. The complete substitution of one milk component results in a completely new product. A change in the traditional composition of a certain food article must be clearly declared, so as not to confuse consumers and to provide them with the possibility of choice. In our market, there have lately appeared products that are marked as imitations, alternatives, diet cheese, vegetable cheese. Modified products which do not meet the traditional identity standards must be marked as imitations, in case they are nutritionally inferior with respect to the traditionally standardized food articles, or as substitutes or alternatives, in the event that they are a nutritive equivalent to the traditional food articles. The lack of legal regulations for this category of product leads to the irregular declaration of such products, and consequently provides false information about the characteristics of such articles to the consumer. It is necessary to regulate this area with the respective laws in order to protect the consumer.
The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors)
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Identity labeling of animal food in package form... § 501.3 Identity labeling of animal food in package form. (a) The principal display panel of a food in package form shall bear as one of its principal features a statement of the identity of the commodity....
Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic resistance in many bacteria related to animal and public health stresses the importance of decreasing the use of antibiotics in animal production. The reduction of antibiotic application in livestock can only be achieved if alternative antimicrobial strategies are available. A number of strategies have been explored to control microbial pathogens and to improve growth and feed efficiency in livestock without the use of antibiotics. Bacteriocins have been more extensively studied and proposed as potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics in animal husbandry. Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides ribosomally synthesized by many species of Bacteria and some strains of Archaea. In general, bacteriocins just exhibited bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against other bacteria that are closely related to the producing strain. The main mechanisms of bacteriocin activity vary from pore formation in cytoplasmic membranes to the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis and enzyme activities (RNAse or DNAse in target cells. The use of bacteriocins in probiotic applications, as preservatives, and most excitingly as alternatives to conventional antibiotics is being broadly explored and studied. This review will describe the bacteriocins potency for animal health and food safety, as well as the results of bacteriocin study that had been conducted in Indonesia.
Rice bran, a good source of protein and fat, is at present underutilized as a food material. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 27.3 million t. The presence of enzyme lipase in rice bran causes rapid deterioration of oil to free fatty acids and glycerol. Various stabilization techniques involving heat treatment, low-temperature storage, chemical treatment, control of relative humidity during storage, and simultaneous milling and extraction were evolved to inactivate lipase. Multiple forms of rice bran lipase have been identified. Fractional classification of proteins reveals a high percentage of albumins and globulins. Proteins can be extracted from full-fat or defatted rice bran by alkaline extraction and acid or heat precipitation. Extraction procedures influence the protein content of concentrates, which ranged from 19.4 to 76.1% in concentrates from full-fat rice bran and 17.5 to 85.0% in concentrates from defatted rice bran. The PER of rice bran ranges from 1.59 to 2.04 and that of protein concentrates from 1.99 to 2.19. Available lysine contents of protein concentrates ranged from 54 to 58.8%. The essential amino acid profiles of protein concentrates indicate that threonine and isoleucine are limiting amino acids. Various functional properties of rice bran protein concentrates have also been investigated that are known to be influenced by drying technique and stabilization treatment of rice bran. Rice bran has been used in food as full-fat rice bran, defatted rice bran, and in the form of rice bran oil and protein concentrates. Full-fat and defatted rice bran have been used in bakery products, breakfast cereals, wafers, as a protein supplement, binder ingredients for meats and sausages, and as a beverage base. Incorporation of protein concentrates have been studied in bread, beverages, confections, and weaning foods. PMID:8841730
Full Text Available Antigenicity of proteins found in cow's milk is age dependent. This is primarily due to infants possessing a more permeable intestinal wall than that in adults. Thus infants may acquire cow's milk allergy during their first year of life. While milk antigen specific IgE may cause allergy in susceptible subjects, there is some evidence indicating that milk antigen specific IgG may play some role in chronic disease development. The puropose of this study was to determine the antigenicity of cow's milk proteins in two animal models and to recommend the more sensitivie one, as an evaluation tool, to assess the antigenicity of a poteintial hypoallergenic formula. A crude extract of cow's milk was injected either to young male rabbits or BALB/C mice in four doses. Pure standard proteins of cow's milk were also injected to separate groups of animals to use their anti sera in later stages. The polyclonal pooled serum was then used to evaluate the antigenicity of the extract by indirect enzyme-linked immunossorbeni assay (LEISA. and Western blotting. Both the rabbit and BALB/C murine mode! demonstrated strong ELISA titres against casein and BSA proteins. However, the rabbit model also had a high antibody response against beta-lactoglobulin (/Mg. The lowest antibody response was found against alpha-kictalbumin («-la in both animal models and no response against immunoglobulins (Igs in either model. In Western blotting, rabbit antiserum showed four bands («-la, /Mg, caseins and BSA compared to two bands (caseins and BSA for mouse antiserum. Considering the allergenicity of these proteins in genetically prone subjects, it may be wise to exclude food sources of caseins as well as major whey proteins (BSA, from the diet of infants with a family history of atopy during the first year of life. The rabbit hyperimmunization model was more sensitive than the murine mode! in detecting antibodies against milk proteins. Thus, the rabbii model should be employed when
Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Gislum, René; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn;
Income growth, urbanization, and changes in lifestyles and food preferences combined with continuing population growth lead to increasing demand for plant protein production worldwide. All the proteins we eat are produced by crops, including the proteins we get from animals, which initially come...
Peter J Woolf
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indispensible amino acids (IAAs are used by the body in different proportions. Most animal-based foods provide these IAAs in roughly the needed proportions, but many plant-based foods provide different proportions of IAAs. To explore how these plant-based foods can be better used in human nutrition, we have created the computational tool vProtein to identify optimal food complements to satisfy human protein needs. METHODS: vProtein uses 1251 plant-based foods listed in the United States Department of Agriculture standard release 22 database to determine the quantity of each food or pair of foods required to satisfy human IAA needs as determined by the 2005 daily recommended intake. The quantity of food in a pair is found using a linear programming approach that minimizes total calories, total excess IAAs, or the total weight of the combination. RESULTS: For single foods, vProtein identifies foods with particularly balanced IAA patterns such as wheat germ, quinoa, and cauliflower. vProtein also identifies foods with particularly unbalanced IAA patterns such as macadamia nuts, degermed corn products, and wakame seaweed. Although less useful alone, some unbalanced foods provide unusually good complements, such as Brazil nuts to legumes. Interestingly, vProtein finds no statistically significant bias toward grain/legume pairings for protein complementation. These analyses suggest that pairings of plant-based foods should be based on the individual foods themselves instead of based on broader food group-food group pairings. Overall, the most efficient pairings include sweet corn/tomatoes, apple/coconut, and sweet corn/cherry. The top pairings also highlight the utility of less common protein sources such as the seaweeds laver and spirulina, pumpkin leaves, and lambsquarters. From a public health perspective, many of the food pairings represent novel, low cost food sources to combat malnutrition. Full analysis results are available online
Fábio Rosa Sussel
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing animal protein with vegetable protein sources on the productive performance of Astyanax altiparanae (lambari-do-rabo-amarelo. Five experimental diets were formulated with increasing replacement levels of animal protein by vegetable protein. A total of 9000 individuals (initial mean weight 1.18 ± 0.12 g, initial mean length 2.1 ± 0.3 cm were distributed in 20 net cages (1 m3 with a density of 450 ind. m-3. Cages were randomly placed in a pond (180 m2, 1.5 m deep, 10% water renewal per day. After 63 days of cultivation, total count and individual biometrics from 20% of each experimental unit were taken. Mean weight, total length, survival, feed conversion, biomass weight gain and proximate body composition were evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and four replications. The reduction in the formulation cost achieved by increasing levels of vegetable protein compensated the slight decrease in biomass gain. Besides that, inclusion of vegetable protein resulted in greater fat deposition, suggesting future exploration of A. altiparanae as a functional food.
... food additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ferm Solutions, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...
Sunday Ositadinma Udegbunam; Rita Ijeoma Udegbunam; Madubuike Umunna Anyanwu
Staphylococcal ocular infections of food animals have been somewhat under diagnosed probably due to the ubiquitous nature of staphylococcal organisms. This study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of staphylococcal ocular infections of food producing animals in Nsukka Southeast, Nigeria, and to determine the antibiogram of the isolated staphylococci. A total of 5,635 food producing animals were externally examined for signs of clinical ocular conditions. Animals that showed clinical e...
Navarro, M P; Castrillón, A M; Ortega, R M; Varela, G
The effect of the manufacturing process on canned tuna (Thunnus alalunga) by the sterilization procedure at 115 degrees C for 60 and 90 minutes on its protein quality was studied. Protein quality was mainly evaluated according to its efficiency for animal growth. Protein from food obtained by the sterilization procedure at 115 degrees C for 60 minutes was similar for animal growth to that from a standard casein-methionine diet. No changes in digestibility and biological values were found between both proteins. Nevertheless, when the sterilization procedure was prolonged up to 90 minutes, the protein suffered modifications. Thus, protein digestibility decreased in spite of the fact that protein digestibility remained unmodified. On the other hand, introduction of the mixed protein into a diet based on flour plus tuna sterilized at 115 degrees C for 90 minutes, was not capable of maintaining the optimum patterns for weight evolution. PMID:3632194
... storage of food and animal feed. 2.35 Section 2.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Foods § 2.35 Use of secondhand containers for the shipment or storage of food and animal feed. (a... State public health agencies have revealed practices whereby food and animal feed stored or shipped...
Almeida, A. M.; Bassols, A.; Bendixen, E.; Bhide, M; F. Ceciliani; Cristobal, S.; Eckersall, P.D.; Hollung, K.; Lisacek, F.; Mazzucchelli, G.; McLaughlin, M.; I. Miller; Nally, J. E.; Plowman, J.; Renaut, J.
Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study of all proteins present in a given tissue or fluid - i.e. the proteome) has an enormous potential when applied to APH. Nevertheless, for ...
Stefan M. Pasiakos
Full Text Available Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years. Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.
Pasiakos, Stefan M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L
Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public. PMID:26308049
... Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that published in the Federal Register on May 5, 2011... July 3, 2011. On May 5, 2011, FDA issued an IFR (76 FR 25538) that implemented section 207 of FSMA...
... part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...
... Federal Regulations (CFR) in part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use in dry...
Azzarri, Carlo; Cross, Elizabeth; Haile, Beliyou; Zezza, Alberto
In many developing countries, consumption of animal source foods among the poor is still at a level where increasing its share in total caloric intake may have many positive nutritional benefits. This paper explores whether ownership of various livestock species increases consumption of animal source foods and helps improve child nutritional status. The paper finds some evidence that food ...
The effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection of mammals, particularly of the small intestine of the sheep, on protein metabolism of skeletal muscle, liver, the gastrointestinal tract and wool are described. These changes have been integrated to explain poor growth and production in the sheep heavily infected with Trichostrongylus colubriformis. The rates of both synthesis and catabolism of muscle protein are depressed, but nitrogen is lost from this tissue because the depression of synthesis exceeds that of catabolism. Anorexia is the major cause of these changes. Although the effect on liver protein synthesis is unclear, it is probable that the leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract stimulates an early increase in the rate of synthesis of these proteins, but this eventually declines and is insufficient to correct developing hypoalbuminaemia. Changes in the intestinal tract are complex. Exogenous nitrogen is reduced by anorexia, but the flow of nitrogen through the tract from abomasum to faeces is above normal because of the increase of endogenous protein from leakage of plasma protein and, presumably, from exfoliated epithelial cells. There is evidence that protein metabolism of intestinal tissue, particularly in the uninfected distal two-thirds, is increased. Synthesis of wool protein is decreased. As the result of anorexia, intestinal loss of endogenous protein and an increased rate of intestinal protein metabolism there is a net movement of amino nitrogen from muscle, liver and possibly skin to the intestine of the heavily infected sheep. Thus, the availability of amino nitrogen for growth and wool production is reduced. (author)
Full Text Available The survey describes the work of the Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA in the provision of scientific advice on the welfare of food producing animals including animal health and food safety aspects, where relevant, and on the impact of these scientific assessments on the EU regulatory framework. EFSA was created in 2002 with the mission to provide advice and scientific and technical support for the Community legislation and policies in all fields which have a direct or indirect impact on food and feed safety, plant health, environment and animal health and animal welfare. When providing objective and independent science-based advice, the risk assessment approach should be followed, whenever possible. The AHAW Panel of EFSA provides specific advices on risk factors related to animal diseases and welfare, mainly of food producing animals, including fish. According to EFSA’s remit, ethical, socio-economic, cultural and religious aspects are outside the scope of the EFSA’s assessments. Since 2004, the Animal Health and Welfare Panel of EFSA adopted a total of 21 scientific opinions on animal welfare. Animal diseases and food safety aspects have also been taken into account, where relevant. Animal welfare aspects have been considered in some scientific opinions on animal diseases (e.g. AI, FMD. The AHAW Panel is currently working on five scientific opinions on the welfare of dairy cows and on the welfare aspects of the stunning and killing of farmed fish for eight fish species (salmon, trout, carp, eel, tuna, sea bass, sea bream and turbot. The possible interactions and implications for food safety and animal disease have been considered, when relevant, in most of the AW scientific opinions, involving other areas of expertise in EFSA, like Biohazards, Contaminants and Plant Health. The final aim of EFSA’s scientific assessments on animal welfare is to support animal welfare EU legislation on the
We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.
... regulations in part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Lanxess Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...
Broens, E.M.; Cleef, van B.A.G.L.; Graat, E.A.M.; Kluytmans, J.A.J.W.
International surveillance of antimicrobial use in food animal production shows that methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), traditionally a human pathogen associated with hospitals, has emerged in the community and animals. Since 1961, MRSA has been causing human infections in hospitals
The reason why I have chosen the topic named “Use of animal waste for the production of pet food for dogs“ was mainly the fact that I am interested in pet food for dogs its composition and use of animal waste for its prepare. Literature research is focused on the use of animal waste, such as slaughter waste, uneaten leftovers from the store, etc., to the production of feed dogs as pets. It can be industry food, which has three sections dry food, semi-dry food and canned or homemade BARF di...
Listeria monocytogenes often contaminates food derived from animal and serves as pathogenic bacteria for animals and human. The outbreaks were related with the consumption of food derived from animals such as meat, milk, egg, seafood and its product that poorly cooked. Human listeriosis could be transmitted by direct contact with infected animal. The disease often is asymtomatic and widely distributes in the world. The mortality rate reaches to 30%. The bacteria is important because of the w...
Baltasar Balsalobre Hernández; Joaquín Hernández-Godoy
Extensive use of antibiotics in both human and animal health and in cattle production has generated resistant microorganisms to common antibiotics. Resistances spread caused by human and animal therapeutic is well known, but we know poorly frecuency of resistant bacteria in foods with animal origin and destinated to human consumers. In this paper, sensitivity to nineteen antibiotics was investigated in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains isolated from foods with animal orig...
Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...
Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...
Full Text Available Benefits and risks of antimicrobial drugs, used in food-producing animals, continue to be complex and controversial issues. This review comprehensively presents the benefits of antimicrobials drugs regarding control of animal diseases, protection of public health, enhancement of animal production, improvement of environment, and effects of the drugs on biogas production and public health associated with antimicrobial resistance. The positive and negative impact, due to ban issue of antimicrobial agents used in food-producing animals, is also included in discussion. As a double-edged sword, use of these drugs in food-animals persists as a great challenge.
Fibrillar proteins form structural elements of cells and the extracellular matrix. Pathological lesions of fibrillar microanatomical structures, or secondary fibrillar changes in globular proteins are well known. A special group concerns histologically amorphous deposits, amyloid. The major characteristics of amyloid are: apple green birefringence after Congo red staining of histological sections, and non-branching 7–10 nm thick fibrils on electron microscopy revealing a high content of cross...
A general model is presented of the relationships between animal and food characteristics which help lead to predictions of food consumption and animal performance. It is an important part of this scheme that equal weight is given to the description of food and animal characteristics. The results of some experiments are given suggesting that ruminants can select between feeds to meet their nutrient needs and that, in growing animals, the physical capacity to bite is an important determinant of grazing efficiency and ecology. Studies with growing lambs of the energetic efficiency of growth suggest that variation in the energy cost of protein accretion may be a more important determinant of overall energetic efficiency of growth than is conventionally supposed. In lactating animals that also exercise, milk protein and lactose yields fall during exercise and this effect is difficult to counteract by protein and/or starch supplementation of straw diets. Studies of forage substitution by supplements have not revealed differences in substitution rate with age in sheep. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs
... use as a source of animal protein, phosphorus, and salt (NaCl) as follows: (1) In poultry and swine feed in an amount not to exceed 5 percent by weight of the feed. (2) In feed concentrates for cattle...
Aarestrup, Frank Møller
Antimicrobial agents are used in food animals for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. The use of antimicrobial agents for food animals may cause problems in the therapy of infections by selecting for resistance among bacteria pathogenic for animals or...... humans. The emergence of resistant bacteria and resistance genes following the use of antimicrobial agents is relatively well documented and it seems evident that all antimicrobial agents will select for resistance. However, current knowledge regarding the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in food...... animals, the quantitative impact of the use of different antimicrobial agents on selection for resistance and the most appropriate treatment regimens to limit the development of resistance is incomplete. Surveillance programmes monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of...
Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong
This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutr...
Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C
Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. PMID:26021783
The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return
Meijboom, F.L.B.; Li, Jianjun
In China and Europe many millions of animals are used for food production. For both regions animal food production is considered to be important for both the internal market, but also for export. In spite of these similarities there are many differences. First, while in Europe there currently is a l
Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar
The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans...
... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR part 573) to provide for the safe use of... Additive Petition (Animal Use) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of petition... petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of...
Blokhuis, H.J.; Jones, R.B.; Geers, R.; Miele, M.; Veissier, I.
Animal welfare is of increasing significance for European consumers and citizens. Previously, agricultural production focused mainly on supply, price and competition but consumers now expect their food to be produced and processed with greater respect for the welfare of the animals. Food quality is
Stojanović Lazar; Katić Vera R.; Bunčić Olivera
The consumer demands that to be provided with a sufficient quantity of articles of animal origin that meet the requirements of sanitary hygiene and are available at acceptable prices. Food articles of animal origin that are safe for human consumption can be obtained only from healthy animals. Veterinarians are daily concerned with the health of animals and are taking measures to prevent the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from animals to humans. The knowledge of epizootiology, micro...
Nitrogen was the most commonly yield-limiting nutrient in all pre-industrial agricultures. Only the Haber-Bosch synthesis of ammonia broke this barrier. The rising dependence on nitrogenous fertilizers, which represents the largest human interference in the biospheric N cycle, has two different roles. In affluent nations it helps to produce excess of food in general, and of animal foods in particular, and it boosts agricultural exports. But for at least a third of humanity in the world's most populous countries the use of N fertilizers makes the difference between malnutrition and adequate diet. Our understanding of human N (protein) needs has undergone many revisions and although some uncertainties still remain it is clear that average protein intakes are excessive in rich countries and inadequate for hundreds of millions of people in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. More dietary protein will be needed to eliminate these disparities but the future global use of N fertilizers can be moderated not just by better agronomic practices but also by higher feeding efficiencies and by gradual changes of prevailing diets. As a result, it could be possible to supply adequate nutrition to the world's growing population without any massive increases of N inputs. PMID:12078001
Avena, Nicole M.
This review summarizes evidence of “food addiction” using animal models of binge eating. In our model of sucrose bingeing, behavioral components of addiction are demonstrated and related to neurochemical changes that also occur with addictive drugs. Evidence supports the hypothesis that rats can become dependent and “addicted” to sucrose. Results obtained when animals binge on other palatable foods, including a fat-rich food, are described and suggest that increased body weight can occur. How...
... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals to provide for the safe use of erythromycin... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration North American Bioproducts Corp.; Filing of Food Additive... filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use...
Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Pakky Reddy, G.; Zimmermann, K.L.
This paper presents ongoing results of the EU project PEGASUS (Public Perception of Genetically modified Animals – Science, Utility and Society, 7th FP).The overall objective is to provide support for future policy regarding the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, both terrestrial and aquatic, together with the foods and pharmaceutical products derived from them. Food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market. Nonethel...
Oslage, H.J.; Schulz, E.
For the production of microorganisms with high content of protein technologies on the basis of carbon rich substrates have been developed during the past years. Thus, signification of Single Cell Protein (SCP) for nutrition of farm animals has changed. While, in former times, yeasts were added only in small portions (1-2%) as vitamin supplementation today it is the aim to use microbial biomass as a protein component. The use of SCP as a feedstuff requires a careful physiological and toxicological evaluation as well as extensive investigations of possible use and frontiers of those products for farm animals. Topic of this work were bacteria, bred on methanol as well as yeasts, grown on alcanes and on whey/lactic acid respectively. SCP is preferently used as a feedstuff for poultry, pigs, calves and fishes. Digestibility and utilisation of protein is good till very good, for the a.m. animals, digestibility being between 75-93% and net protein utilisation (NPU) being between 60-76%. In rations of young animals (chicken, piglets and calves) contents of 5-10% SCP have been proved to be without any negative effect on acceptance, body gain, feed utilisation and mortality. For older animals SCP can be used as the only protein source beside the basic feedstuffs.
Davis, Gregg S; Price, Lance B
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a colonizer of livestock, a contaminant of retail meats and vegetables, and a cause of extraintestinal infections in humans. Antibiotic-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae are becoming increasingly prevalent among hospital and community-acquired infections. Antibiotics are used extensively in conventional food-animal production, where they select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae has been isolated from livestock as well as from a variety of retail meats, seafood, and vegetables. Furthermore, recent phylogenetic analyses suggest close relationships between K. pneumoniae from humans and livestock. Therefore, it is essential that we quantify the contribution of foodborne K. pneumoniae to antibiotic-resistant human infections. PMID:27022987
Caminiti, Lucia; Salzano,Giuseppina; Crisafulli, Giuseppe; Porcaro, Federica; Pajno, Giovanni Battista
Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is an uncommon and potentially severe non IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergy. It is usually caused by cow’s milk or soy proteins, but may also be triggered by ingestion of solid foods. The diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and symptoms. Management of acute phase requires fluid resuscitation and intravenous steroids administration, but avoidance of offending foods is the only effective therapeutic option. Infant with ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...
ZHOU Zunlai; FENG Zhibiao
Plastein reaction is considered a reversal of the usual protein hydrolysis by proteinase, which was applied to prepare a higher-molecular, protein-like substance. It can improve biological value and functional properties of food proteins, meliorate flavor of protein hydrolysates and, especially, provide a way to synthesize new sources of proteins. Although the mechanism(s) of the plastein reaction is not clarified, it will have great values in food industry with the development of technologies in enzymology and microbiology.
Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal; Wilson Massamitu Furuya; Elias Nunes Martins; Tadeu Orlandi Xavier; Mariana Michelato; Themis Sakaguti Graciano
The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one....
Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Glogowski, Robert; López-Expósito, Iván; Bouchard, Gregory; Blanchard, Carine; Bodinier, Marie; Smit, Joost; Pieters, Raymond; Bastiaan-Net, Shanna; de Wit, Nicole; Untersmayr, Eva; Adel-Patient, Karine; Knippels, Leon; Epstein, Michelle M.
Food allergy is a major health problem of increasing concern. The insufficiency of protein sources for human nutrition in a world with a growing population is also a significant problem. The introduction of new protein sources into the diet, such as newly developed innovative foods or foods produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in...
Full Text Available Intensive systems have facilitated the production of animal-based products at relatively low prices. On one hand, these methods have been increasingly considered to be responsible for a dramatic reduction in animal welfare, as indicated by the high prevalence of stereotypies in sows, brittle bones in hens, lameness in broilers and short life span in dairy cattle. As a consequence, large segments of animal welfare-sensitive consumers have been identified. On the other hand, price conscious consumers, if accepting higher prices, are more likely to require explicit justification of returns in quality. Therefore, scientifically validated monitoring systems for assessing the welfare of farm animals have been developed in order to provide a certification system, allow the differentiation of animal-based products through constant and reliable signaling systems, and promote animal welfare friendly farming systems.
Bremer, M.G.E.G.; Margry, R.J.C.F.; Vaessen, J.C.H.; Doremalen, van A.M.H.; Palen, van der J.G.P.; Kaathoven, van R.G.C.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.E.M.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.
Due to a growing aquaculture industry, demand for high-quality proteins for aquatic feeds is increasing. Non-ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) have shown great potential for this purpose. Safe reintroduction of non-ruminant PAPs in aqua feed requires methods that can discriminate ruminant an
Full Text Available Due to the price hike of imported grains for feed, the production of Ecofeed, feed produced from recycled food waste, has increased in recent years. Food dregs from the food and beverage processing industry and out-of-date food from supermarkets and convenience stores are most often used as raw materials for Ecofeed. As food waste usually contains a lot of moisture and is easily spoiled, guidelines prescribing measures to be taken when collecting, transporting and storing raw materials, and for the production, shipment, storage and use of Ecofeed products, have been developed to ensure the safety of Ecofeed. The guidelines also include measures that should be taken to prevent the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy when producing and using Ecofeed. A certification system was introduced in March 2009 to ensure the quality and safety of Ecofeed and thus promote its use.
Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee
Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector. PMID:27215411
Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G
The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND...
The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)
Henikoff Steven; Bryson Terri D; Talbert Paul B
Abstract Background Centromeres represent the last frontiers of plant and animal genomics. Although they perform a conserved function in chromosome segregation, centromeres are typically composed of repetitive satellite sequences that are rapidly evolving. The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone (CenH3), which evolves rapidly and adaptively in Drosophila and Arabidopsis. Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere prote...
Afonnikov Dmitry A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.
Rao, Qinchun; Klaassen Kamdar, Andre; Labuza, Theodore P
In recent years, mainly due to the specific health benefits associated with (1) the discovery of bioactive peptides in protein hydrolysates, (2) the reduction of protein allergenicity by protein hydrolysis, and (3) the improved protein digestibility and absorption of protein hydrolysates, the utilization of protein hydrolysates in functional foods and beverages has significantly increased. Although the specific health benefits from different hydrolysates are somewhat proven, the delivery and/or stability of these benefits is debatable during distribution, storage, and consumption. In this review, we discuss (1) the quality changes in different food protein hydrolysates during storage; (2) the resulting changes in the structure and texture of three food matrices, i.e., low moisture foods (LMF, aw foods (IMF, 0.6 ≤ aw foods (HMF, aw ≥ 0.85); and (3) the potential solutions to improve storage stability of food protein hydrolysates. In addition, we note there is a great need for evaluation of biofunction availability of bioactive peptides in food protein hydrolysates during storage. PMID:24915379
Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo
The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. PMID:23851038
Skau, Jutta Kloppenborg Heick; Touch, Bunthang; Chhoun, Chamnan;
Background: Poor nutritional quality of complementary foods often limits growth. Animal source foods, such as milk or meat, are often unaffordable. Local affordable alternatives are needed. Objective: We evaluate the efficacy of 2 newly developed, rice-based complementary food products: WinFood (WF......) with small fish and edible spiders and WinFood-Lite (WF-L) fortified with small fish, against 2 existing fortified corn-soy blend products, CSB+ (purely plant based) and CSB++ (8% dried skimmed milk). Design: In total, 419 infants aged 6 mo were enrolled in this randomized, single-blinded study for 9...... to milk to improve complementary foods. The dietary role of edible spiders needs to be further explored. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN19918531....
Protein functionality in food products strongly relies on the fact that proteins can undergo intermolecular interactions, called aggregation. It was found that very subtle dynamics inherent to the protein of interest can have consequences for the functional properties of proteins. The aim of this th
Berge, A C; Wierup, M
Nutritional strategies to minimize Salmonella in food animal production are one of the key components in producing safer food. The current European approach is to use a farm-to-fork strategy, where each sector must implement measures to minimize and reduce Salmonella contamination. In the pre-harvest phase, this means that all available tools need to be used such as implementation of biosecurity measures, control of Salmonella infections in animals at the farm as well as in transport and trade, optimal housing and management including cleaning, disinfection procedures as well as efforts to achieve Salmonella-free feed production. This paper describes some nutritional strategies that could be used in farm control programmes in the major mono-gastric food production animals: poultry and pigs. Initially, it is important to prevent the introduction of Salmonella onto the farm through Salmonella-contaminated feed and this risk is reduced through heat treatment and the use of organic acids and their salts and formaldehyde. Microbiological sampling and monitoring for Salmonella in the feed mills is required to minimize the introduction of Salmonella via feed onto the farm. In addition, feed withdrawal may create a stressful situation in animals, resulting in an increase in Salmonella shedding. Physical feed characteristics such as coarse-ground meal to pigs can delay gastric emptying, thereby increasing the acidity of the gut and thus reducing the possible prevalence of Salmonella. Coarse-ground grains and access to litter have also been shown to decrease Salmonella shedding in poultry. The feed can also modify the gastro-intestinal tract microflora and influence the immune system, which can minimize Salmonella colonization and shedding. Feed additives, such as organic acids, short- and medium-chain fatty acids, probiotics, including competitive exclusion cultures, prebiotics and certain specific carbohydrates, such as mannan-based compounds, egg proteins, essential oils
-organisms and is biochemically transformed. (3) Detritus forms an important food source of many marine animals. These aspects are considered in detail here, with particular emphasis on the mangroves....
Luiz Vítor Oliveira Vidal
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate mathematical models to estimate digestible protein in some animal feeds for tilapia. Literature results of the proximate composition of crude protein, ether extract, and mineral matter, as well as digestible protein obtained in biological assays, were used. The data were subjected to multiple linear stepwise backward regression. Path analysis was performed to measure the direct and indirect effects of each independent variable on the dependent one. To validate the model, the experience used data from independent studies and values obtained from a digestibility trial with juvenile Nile tilapia testing five meat and bone meals, using the Guelph feces collecting system and chromium oxide (III as an indicator. The obtained model used to estimate digestible protein values (DP of animal origin is: DP(g kg-1 = -204.15+1.203xCP;R² = 0.953. The path coefficients showed a high direct positive effect (0.900 of crude protein on the digestible protein content. The mineral matter content has an indirect negative effect on protein digestibility (-0.710, reducing the crude protein content and quality.
Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes often contaminates food derived from animal and serves as pathogenic bacteria for animals and human. The outbreaks were related with the consumption of food derived from animals such as meat, milk, egg, seafood and its product that poorly cooked. Human listeriosis could be transmitted by direct contact with infected animal. The disease often is asymtomatic and widely distributes in the world. The mortality rate reaches to 30%. The bacteria is important because of the widespread in the environment, tolerant to acid, hot or salt environments, forms a biofilm layer and produces virulent factor (listeriolisin O/LLO. The bacteria can grow at 4°C or in the frozen food. Appropriate handlings of animals and their products are important to prevent from L. monocytogenes contamination.
A report on the Plant and Animal Genome XXI meeting, held in San Diego, USA, January 12-16, 2013. Meeting Report On 12 January, on a morning full of blue sky and cold sunshine, the Plant and Animal Genome XXI meeting opened its doors for the 21st time at the Town and Country Hotel in San Diego. I arrived a couple of hours late, a newbie toting a roller suitcase, a little unprepared for the sheer scope of the meeting I was about to attend. The diversity of topics and attendees at the meeting, ...
McGarvey, Richard; Dowling, Natalie; Cohen, Joel E
Factors constraining the structure of food webs can be investigated by comparing classes of ecosystems. We find that pelagic ecosystems, those based on one-celled primary producers, have longer food chains than terrestrial ecosystems. Yet pelagic ecosystems have lower primary productivity, contrary to the hypothesis that greater energy flows permit higher trophic levels. We hypothesize that longer food chain length in pelagic ecosystems, compared with terrestrial ecosystems, is associated with smaller pelagic animal body size permitting more rapid trophic energy transfer. Assuming negative allometric dependence of biomass production rate on body mass at each trophic level, the lowest three pelagic animal trophic levels are estimated to add biomass more rapidly than their terrestrial counterparts by factors of 12, 4.8, and 2.6. Pelagic animals consequently transport primary production to a fifth trophic level 50-190 times more rapidly than animals in terrestrial webs. This difference overcomes the approximately fivefold slower pelagic basal productivity, energetically explaining longer pelagic food chains. In addition, ectotherms, dominant at lower pelagic animal trophic levels, have high metabolic efficiency, also favoring higher rates of trophic energy transfer in pelagic ecosystems. These two animal trophic flow mechanisms imply longer pelagic food chains, reestablishing an important role for energetics in food web structure. PMID:27322123
Full Text Available Abstract Background Centromeres represent the last frontiers of plant and animal genomics. Although they perform a conserved function in chromosome segregation, centromeres are typically composed of repetitive satellite sequences that are rapidly evolving. The nucleosomes of centromeres are characterized by a special H3-like histone (CenH3, which evolves rapidly and adaptively in Drosophila and Arabidopsis. Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C, that is characterized by a single 24 amino-acid motif (CENPC motif. Results Whereas we find no evidence that mammalian CenH3 (CENP-A has been evolving adaptively, mammalian CENP-C proteins contain adaptively evolving regions that overlap with regions of DNA-binding activity. In plants we find that CENP-C proteins have complex duplicated regions, with conserved amino and carboxyl termini that are dissimilar in sequence to their counterparts in animals and fungi. Comparisons of Cenpc genes from Arabidopsis species and from grasses revealed multiple regions that are under positive selection, including duplicated exons in some grasses. In contrast to plants and animals, yeast CENP-C (Mif2p is under negative selection. Conclusions CENP-Cs in all plant and animal lineages examined have regions that are rapidly and adaptively evolving. To explain these remarkable evolutionary features for a single-copy gene that is needed at every mitosis, we propose that CENP-Cs, like some CenH3s, suppress meiotic drive of centromeres during female meiosis. This process can account for the rapid evolution and the complexity of centromeric DNA in plants and animals as compared to fungi.
Comerford, Kevin B; Pasin, Gonca
Observational studies provide evidence that a higher intake of protein from plant-based foods and certain animal-based foods is associated with a lower risk for type 2 diabetes. However, there are few distinguishable differences between the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in plant-based foods, and it is likely their numerous non-protein components (e.g., fibers and phytochemicals) that drive the relationship with type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Conversely, the glucoregulatory qualities of the proteins in animal-based foods are extremely divergent, with a higher intake of certain animal-based protein foods showing negative effects, and others showing neutral or positive effects on type 2 diabetes risk. Among the various types of animal-based protein foods, a higher intake of dairy products (such as milk, yogurt, cheese and whey protein) consistently shows a beneficial relationship with glucose regulation and/or type 2 diabetes risk reduction. Intervention studies provide evidence that dairy proteins have more potent effects on insulin and incretin secretion compared to other commonly consumed animal proteins. In addition to their protein components, such as insulinogenic amino acids and bioactive peptides, dairy products also contain a food matrix rich in calcium, magnesium, potassium, trans-palmitoleic fatty acids, and low-glycemic index sugars-all of which have been shown to have beneficial effects on aspects of glucose control, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and/or type 2 diabetes risk. Furthermore, fermentation and fortification of dairy products with probiotics and vitamin D may improve a dairy product's glucoregulatory effects. PMID:27455320
Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin
Keywords: General equilibrium modelling, Welfare programs, Non-convexities, Novel Protein Foods, Environmental life cycle assessment.Intensive animal production systems inEurope, particularly in theNetherlands, result in a series of environmental problems mainly due to manure surplus. This thesis aims to make contributions to identifying solutions to the problems related to protein production and consumption.The first contribution concerns the theoretical modelling of environmental problems. ...
Animal production and health (APH) are important sectors to the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the EU and in other continents. APH are highly competitive sectors with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit country to country variations, on s...
Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi
The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (
Stephanie eCoufal-Majewski; Kim eStanford; Tim eMcAllister; Barry eBlakley; John eMcKinnon; Alexandre Vieira Chaves; Yuxi eWang
The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the largest interface between an animal’s internal milieu and its exterior environment. As such, it forms a physical barrier between both environments. However, the function of the GI tract in the well-being of an animal is more complex than this passive role. Th...
... (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of seed meal from a... for the safe use of seed meal from a variety of bioengineered safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)...
... the Federal Register of August 10, 2001 (66 FR 42167), the Agency published an advance notice of... Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions,'' of January 4, 1979 (44 FR 1957, January 9, 1979); and 21 CFR 25... Tolerances for Residues of Unapproved New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration,...
Spiegel, van der M.; Noordam, M.Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.
Novel protein sources (like insects, algae, duckweed, and rapeseed) are expected to enter the European feed and food market as replacers for animal-derived proteins. However, food safety aspects of these novel protein sources are not well-known. The aim of this article is to review the state of the
Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.
The aim of this chapter is to analyse the importance of longevity in relation to the welfare of production animals. I hypothesize that the concept of longevity helps to support the moral intuition that premature culling of animals is a moral wrong. The analysis shows that the interpretation of the c
Tryphonas, Helen; Arvanitakis, George; Vavasour, Elizabeth; Bondy, Genevieve
Respiratory allergy and allergy to foods continue to be important health issues. There is evidence to indicate that the incidence of food allergy around the world is on the rise. Current estimates indicate that approximately 5% of young children and 1-2% of adults suffer from true food allergy (Kagan 2003). Although a large number of in vivo and in vitro tests exist for the clinical diagnosis of allergy in humans, we lack validated animal models of allergenicity. This deficiency creates serio...
Van Gramberg, Jenna L.; de Veer, Michael J.; Robyn E. O'Hehir; Meeusen, Els N. T.; Robert J. Bischof
Food allergy is an emerging epidemic that affects all age groups, with the highest prevalence rates being reported amongst Western countries such as the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), and Australia. The development of animal models to test various food allergies has been beneficial in allowing more rapid and extensive investigations into the mechanisms involved in the allergic pathway, such as predicting possible triggers as well as the testing of novel treatments for food allergy. ...
... Register of August 23, 1966 (31 FR 11141), asking sponsors of drugs containing any antibiotic intended for use in food-producing animals to submit data to establish whether such antibiotic and its metabolites are present as residues in edible tissues, milk, and eggs from treated animals. The data on...
Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.
The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this pape
The removal of antibiotics from animal feed as mandated by the European Union in 2006 and recently proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will require new strategies to maintain animal health, optimize nutrition, and control foodborne pathogens. We have recently pursued three main approa...
Food producing animals can be reservoirs of human pathogenic bacteria such as enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (O157- and non-O157 Shigatoxin-producing E. coli), Salmonella, and Campylobacter, often harboring these pathogens within their gastrointestinal tracts. Carrier animals colonized by these...
Too many foodborne illnesses happen around the world and are linked to the consumption of meat or contact with animals or their feces. Strategies to reduce these pathogen levels in food animals include the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and competitive exclusion cultures. These products all utiliz...
This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. The food chain provides a clear example of how life continues year after year. Students learn how the cycle of energy starts with the sun,…
Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.
Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have
Environmental effects of consumption of protein-rich products in the Netherlands. Consequences of the substitution of animal proteins in 2008; Milieueffecten van Nederlandse consumptie van eiwitrijke producten. Gevolgen van vervanging van dierlijke eiwitten anno 2008
Blonk, H.; Kool, A.; Luske, B. [Blonk Milieu Advies, Gouda (Netherlands); De Waart, S. [Nederlandse Vegetariers Bond NVB, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ten Pierick, E. [Landbouw-Economisch Instituut LEI, Den Haag (Netherlands)
The title study concerns the consequences of substituting vegetable proteins for animal proteins in the Dutch diet of protein-rich food products. The research focused on the environmental impacts: the greenhouse effect and land use activities, with possible biodiversity impacts. With regard to the animal welfare issue the animals kept according to different substitution scenario's are quantified. [Dutch] Er is onderzocht wat de milieueffecten zijn van een tiental voedingspatronen en van de productie van plantaardige en dierlijke eiwitrijke producten.
Bottini, Annamaria; Hartung, Thomas
"Money makes the world go around". We all have heard this, but in the field of alternative methods, we use to talk about ethics, scientific progress, politics, animal welfare or consumer and environment safety. In this series of articles, however, we have occasionally come to issues which were difficult to separate from economical reasoning. Most obviously, the article on globalisation [Bottini et al. 2007] showed the resonance of a major economical trend and recent developments in the field ...
Cristina Mora; Davide Menozzi; Gijs Kleter; Aramyan, Lusine H.; Valeeva, Natasha I.; Karin l. Zimmermann; Giddalury Pakki Reddy
The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scopin...
Mora, C.; Menozzi, D.; Kleter, G.A.; Aramyan, L.H.; Valeeva, N.I.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Pakky Reddy, G.
The production of genetically modified (GM) animals is an emerging technique that could potentially impact the livestock and pharmaceutical industries. Currently, food products derived from GM animals have not yet entered the market whilst two pharmaceutical products have. The objective of this paper is twofold: first it aims to explore the socio-economic drivers affecting the use of GM animals and, second, to review the risks and benefits from the point of view of the life sciences. A scopin...
Benefits and risks of antimicrobial drugs, used in food-producing animals, continue to be complex and controversial issues. This review comprehensively presents the benefits of antimicrobials drugs regarding control of animal diseases, protection of public health, enhancement of animal production, improvement of environment, and effects of the drugs on biogas production and public health associated with antimicrobial resistance. The positive and negative impacts, due to ban issue of antimicro...
Marta Sajdakowska; Sylwia Żakowska-Biemans; Krystyna Gutkowska
This paper attempts to identify the perception of the quality of food of animal origin by Polish consumers and their opinion on higher quality with particular emphasis on the chosen methods of production and processing referring to the protection of the environment and animal welfare. In 2013 a quantitative study of the project: “BIOFOOD – innovative, functional products of animal origin” was conducted. Analysis of the results can be noted that the surveyed respondents...
The pivotal point of this paper is an analysis and a discussion of the animated film “MultiTrust”. The film is a result a research project dealing with the “Multicriteria assessment and communication of effects of organic food systems”. A primary intention of this project was to help consumers make...... informed choices when it comes to purchasing organic foods. The animation presents a novel way of communicating domain-specific knowledge of organic food products to consumers. In order to analyze “MultiTrust”, a model of analysis is presented, which is framed by the research field communication and...
Augsburg, J K
The Center for Veterinary Medicine supports the effort to have a practical, workable form of mandatory animal identification. An animal identification system will make tracing of the source of animals with drug or chemical residues quicker and more effective. One of the best means of addressing and solving the problem of residues is through mandatory livestock identification. A successful traceback benefits both the producer and the industry. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has proposed a mandatory nationwide system to require that all swine in interstate commerce be identified. Under the proposal several means of identification are listed and could be used. Additional methods or devices could be requested in writing to USDA. Persons required to keep records under the system would maintain the documents at their place of business for 2 yr. Records would be available to authorized USDA employees during ordinary business hours. FDA has had difficulty tracing tissue residue violations, particularly those involving sulfamethazine residues in swine. Investigations involving culled dairy cows and veal calves also have been closed due to lack of producer identification. The ability for FDA to determine the source of residues is vitally important in a coordinated government program to eliminate illegal tissue residues. PMID:2318742
Coufal-Majewski, Stephanie; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim; Blakley, Barry; McKinnon, John; Chaves, Alexandre Vieira; Wang, Yuxi
The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the fifth century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine, and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety, and genotype. Considerable animal-to-animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors, such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome. PMID:26942186
Seawright, G.L.; Holm, D.M.; Sanders, W.M.
Two radiotelemetric systems were developed for remote monitoring of body temperature in livestock. A battery-powered transmitter system was developed as a laboratory tool for remote continuous monitoring of ear-canal temperatures in animals used in vaccine trials and in studies of livestock diseases. An automated data-recording and processing system was also developed. Pilot studies in cattle indicate that the system will be a valuable quantitative tool for vaccine testing and animal experiments. A second telemetry system was developed for widescale use in the livestock industry. It relies on an implantable passive (no batteries) transponder that is energized by an external source of microwaves to transmit temperature and decimal digit identification to a remote receiver. The animal identification feature, coupled with computers, offers the livestock producer unprecedented capabilities for efficient management of his operation. The temperature feature of transponders can aid in disease detection and control, disease diagnosis, and stress and ovulation detection. Its use for identifying temperature markers in disease and stress-tolerent breeding stock may be valuable in selective breeding programs.
Food chain radiocontaminants are detailed according to their conditions of production and their physico-chemical and biological properties. The modalities of their dispersion in the environment are studied in soils, surface water, plants and animals. Transfer factors from soil to plants and plants to animals are given for the three main radiocontaminants, i.e. iodine, strontium and caesium; their metabolic transit is described specially in ruminants. Countermeasures are discussed for limitating the radionuclides transfer from soil to plants and from plants to animals, specially using Prussian blue derivatives. Intervention levels for food and feeding stuffs are reminded according to the last EEC recommendations
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen bacteria causing food poisoning and various infection in animals and humans. Haemolysin is one of the virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus. The aims of the research were to characterize haemolysins of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origin, phenotypic- and genotypically. In the present study, eleven Staphylococcus aureus isolated from various food of animal origins from traditional markets and supermarkets in Yogyakarta, Sidoarjo, Jakarta, and Bandung were characterized for haemolysin, pheno- and genotypically. Characterization of haemolysin phenotypically based on haemolysis pattern of Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plate. Genes encoding hemolysin were amplified with specific primers by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. The results of the studies showed that Staphylococcus aureus on sheep blood agar plates revealed an alpha haemolysis pattern (18,18%, beta haemolysis (27,27% and gamma haemolysis (54,55%. Based on amplification of the gene encoding haemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus with specific primers showed hla genes (81,81%, and hla combined with hlb genes (18,18%. The amplification of gene hla and hlb had a single amplicon with a size of approximately 534 bp and 833 bp, respectively. The haemolysin characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus from various food of animal origin could be used as important information to control staphylococcal food poisoning.Keywords : Staphylococcus aureus, haemolysin, PCR, food of animal origins
Coles, Graeme D; Wratten, Stephen D; Porter, John R
Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility. We extend our analysis with an accompanying economic analysis of commercially-available, pre-prepared or simply-cooked foods that can be produced from our case-study crop and animal products. We calculate the per-person, per-day cost of both quality-corrected protein and dietary energy as provided in the processed foods. We conclude that mixed dairy/cropping systems provide the greatest quantity of high-quality protein per unit price to the consumer, have the highest food energy production and can support the dietary requirements of the highest number of people, when assessed as all-year-round production systems. Global food and nutritional security will largely be an outcome of national or regional agroeconomies addressing their own food needs. We hope that our model will be used for similar analyses of food production systems in other countries, agroecological zones and economies. PMID:27478691
Full Text Available Chemical hazards may occur in any phases of the different livestock production systems. Aim of this review is to address an update about the key issues related to the risk of contamination in foods of animal origin by environmental contaminants linked to industrialisation or urbanisation (e.g., heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants, and natural contaminants (e.g., mycotoxins. This review deals with current issues and future perspectives on the complex issue of the safety of feeds and foods of animal origin, by taking into account the estimation of the occurrence of chemical residues in food, the hazard identification and characterisation of mycotoxins in animal feeds, and the analysis of feedstuffs as a tool to control and evaluate food safety.
Sáenz, Y; Zarazaga, M; Briñas, L; Lantero, M; Ruiz-Larrea, F; Torres, C
Antibiotic resistance was investigated in 474 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from animal faeces (broilers, pigs, pets, bulls and horses), human faeces (patients and healthy volunteers) and food products of animal origin. E. coli isolates (3260) recovered from human significant infectious samples were also included. There was a high frequency of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates from broilers (88, 38 and 40%, respectively), and from foods (53, 13 and 17%). High levels of resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and tetracycline have been found in E. coli isolates from broilers, pigs and foods. These data raise important questions about the potential impact of antibiotic use in animals and the possible entry of resistant pathogens into the food chain. PMID:11691568
Ahmed Elawad Elfaki; Sally Ali Abdalla Elhakim
The aim of this study was to detect the safety of two foods (Shawerma and ice cream ) usually sold in streets of Khartoum State. They were collected from different sources (Albait Alssory-Khartoum North, College of Agricultural Studies - Sudan University of Science and Technology, Omdurman maket, Almazallt, Freeway Factory and household). Total Bacterial Count (TBC) (cfu/g) in Shawerma was found to be 5.3×103, 8.4×103 and 5.3×104 in Albait Alssory, Collage and Omdurman market, respectively. C...
The Food and Drug Administration is proposing Protective Action Guides (PAG's) to be used in the event that a radiological incident results in the radioactive contamination of human food and animal feed. PAG's are proposed for two levels of response: (1) PREVENTIVE PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should take protective action to prevent or reduce the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed. (2) EMERGENCY PAG - establishes a level at which responsible officials should isolate food containing radioactivity to prevent its introduction into commerce and determine whether condemnation or another disposition is appropriate. Derived response levels, which are defined as the concentration of radioactivity in food or animal feed corresponding to the above PAG's, are proposed for radionuclides of most significance. The presentation will discuss the supporting rationale as well as the numerical limits for the PAG's. This rationale is based on the process of risk assessment and cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis. The risk assessment compares the risk of radiation exposure to the risk from prevalent hazards accepted by society and from variability of the natural radiation environment. The cost-benefit analysis is limited to protective actions efficacious in the reduction of iodine-131 dose to the thyroid via the milk pathway (condemnation and use of stored feed). In addition, the metabolic and agricultural transfer models that were used to calculate derived response levels will be described briefly. (author)
... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... Gallery What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ...
... MyPlate What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ... Gallery What Is MyPlate? Fruits All About the Fruit Group Nutrients and Health Benefits Tips to Help You Eat Fruits Food ...
Stephany, Rainer W
In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone
Full Text Available The negative impacts of ergot contamination of grain on the health of humans and animals were first documented during the 5th century AD. Although ergotism is now rare in humans, cleaning contaminated grain concentrates ergot bodies in screenings which are used as livestock feed. Ergot is found worldwide, with even low concentrations of alkaloids in the diet (<100 ppb total reducing the growth efficiency of livestock. Extended periods of increased moisture and cold during flowering promote the development of ergot in cereal crops. Furthermore, the unpredictability of climate change may have detrimental impacts to important cereal crops such as wheat, barley and rye, favouring ergot production. Allowable limits for ergot in livestock feed are confusing as they may be determined by proportions of ergot bodies or by total levels of alkaloids, measurements which may differ widely in their estimation of toxicity. The proportion of individual alkaloids including ergotamine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocornine and ergocryptine is extremely variable within ergot bodies and the relative toxicity of these alkaloids has yet to be determined. This raises concerns that current recommendations on safe levels of ergot in feeds may be unreliable. Furthermore, the total ergot alkaloid content is greatly dependent on the geographic region, harvest year, cereal species, variety and genotype. Considerable animal to animal variation in the ability of the liver to detoxify ergot alkaloids also exists and the impacts of factors such as pelleting of feeds or use of binders to reduce bioavailability of alkaloids require study. Accordingly, unknowns greatly outnumber the knowns for cereal ergot and further study to help better define allowable limits for livestock would be welcome.
Threshold doses or Estimated Eliciting Doses (EEDs) represent an important new field of research in food allergy. Clinicians and regulators have embraced some toxicological concepts such as LOAEL and NOAEL and applied them to an area of significant clinical uncertainty and interest. The impact of intrinsic human factors (e.g., asthma and exercise) and extrinsic event factors (e.g., season, location and especially dose of allergen) on a future allergic reaction in the community needs to be considered carefully when interpreting results of clinical and research low-dose food challenges. The ongoing cooperation of food allergy research groups in medicine, food science and government will surely deliver results of the highest importance to the wider communities of allergology, food science and technology and the increasing number of allergic consumers
Jhung, Michael A; Thompson, Angela D; Killgore, George E; Zukowski, Walter E; Songer, Glenn; Warny, Michael; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N; McDonald, L Clifford; Limbago, Brandi M
Clostridium difficile is a recognized pathogen in neonatal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains. From 2001 through 2006, 8 (1.3%) of 620 patient isolates were identified as toxinotype V; before 2001, 7 (tcdC deletion and most produced binary toxin. Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans. PMID:18598622
Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116
Isani, Gloria; Carpenè, Emilio
Metallothioneins (MTs) are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu) and non-essential (Cd and Hg) trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1) homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2) detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3) free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation. PMID:24970224
Full Text Available Metallothioneins (MTs are ubiquitous low molecular weight cysteine-rich proteins characterized by high affinity for d10 electron configuration metals, including essential (Zn and Cu and non-essential (Cd and Hg trace elements. The biological role of these ancient and well-conserved multifunctional proteins has been debated since MTs were first discovered in 1957. Their main hypothesized functions are: (1 homeostasis of Zn and Cu; (2 detoxification of Cd, and Hg; and (3 free radical scavenging. This review will focus on MTs in unconventional animals, those not traditionally studied in veterinary medicine but of increasing interest in this field of research. Living in different environments, these animals represent an incredible source of physiological and biochemical adaptations still partly unexplored. The study of metal-MT interactions is of great interest for clinicians and researchers working in veterinary medicine, food quality and endangered species conservation.
Xu-Dong Jia; Ning Li; Yong-Ning Wu; Xiao-Guang Yang
AIM: To develop a Brown Norway (BN) rat model to determine the potential allergenicity of novel proteins in genetically modified food.METHODS: The allergenicity of different proteins were compared, including ovalbumin (OVA), a potent respiratory and food allergen, bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein that is considered to have a lesser allergenic potential,and potato acid phosphatase (PAP), a non-allergenic protein when administered to BN rats via different routes of exposure (intraperitoneally or by gavage). IgG and IgE antibody responses were determined by ELISA and PCA,respectively. An immunoassay kit was used to determine the plasma histamine level. In addition, possible systemic effect of allergens was investigated by monitoring blood pressure.RESULTS: OVA provoked very vigorous protein-specific IgG and IgE responses, low grade protein-specific IgG and IgE responses were elicited by BSA, while by neither route did PAP elicit anything. In either routes of exposure,plasma histamine level in BN rats sensitized with OVA was higher than that of BSA or PAP. In addition, an oral challenge with BSA and PAP did not induce any effect on blood pressure, while a temporary drop in systolic blood pressure in few animals of each routes of exposure was found by an oral challenge with OVA.CONCLUSION: BN rat model might be a useful and predictive animal model to study the potential allergenicity of novel food proteins.
Feuille, Elizabeth; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna
Food protein-induced enterocolitis (FPIES), allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP), and enteropathy (FPE) are among a number of immune-mediated reactions to food that are thought to occur primarily via non-IgE-mediated pathways. All three are typically present in infancy and are triggered most commonly by cow's milk protein. The usual presenting features are vomiting with lethargy and dehydration in FPIES; bloody and mucous stools in FPIAP; and diarrhea with malabsorption and failure to thrive in FPE. Diagnosis is based on convincing history and resolution of symptoms with food avoidance; confirmatory diagnostic testing other than food challenge is lacking. The mainstay of management is avoidance of the suspected inciting food, with interval challenge to assess for resolution, which usually occurs in the first years of life. Studies published in the past few years clarify common presenting features, report additional culprit foods, address potential biomarkers, and suggest new management strategies. PMID:26174434
Han, Sung-Wook; Chee, Kyu-Man; Cho, Seong-Jun
Rice bran protein (RBP) was prepared by alkali extraction and isoelectric precipitation from defatted rice bran. The protein quality of RPB was evaluated and compared to two vegetable proteins [soy protein (ISP) and rice endosperm protein (REP)] and two animal proteins [whey protein (WPI) and casein]. RPB contained 74.93% of protein and its pepsin digestibility and KOH solubility were 89.8% and 91.5%, respectively. In Sprague-Dawley rats, RBP showed protein efficiency ratio, net protein ratio, net protein utilisation, and biological value of 2.39, 3.77, 70.7, and 72.6, which were comparable to the qualities of animal proteins. The true digestibility of RBP (94.8%) was significantly higher than that of REP (90.8%), ISP (91.7%) and WPI (92.8%) and the same as that of casein. Protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of RBP was 0.90. These results suggest that rice bran protein appears to be a promising protein source with good biological values and digestibility. PMID:25442618
Chung, K Y; Johnson, B J
Postnatal skeletal muscle growth is a result of hypertrophy of existing skeletal muscle fibers in food producing animals. Accumulation of additional nuclei, as a source of DNA, to the multinucleated skeletal muscle fiber aids in fiber hypertrophy during periods of rapid skeletal muscle growth. Muscle satellite cells are recognized as the source of nuclei to support muscle hypertrophy. Exogenous growth-enhancing compounds have been used to modulate growth rate and efficiency in meat animals for over a half century. In cattle, these compounds enhance efficiency of growth by preferentially stimulating skeletal muscle growth compared with adipose tissue. There are 2 main classes of compounds approved for use in cattle in the United States, anabolic steroids and beta-adrenergic agonists (beta-AA). Administration of both trenbolone acetate and estradiol-17beta, as implants, increased carcass protein accumulation 8 to 10% in yearling steers. Muscle satellite cells isolated from steers implanted with trenbolone acetate/ estradiol-17beta had a shorter lag phase in culture compared with satellite cells isolated from control steers. Collectively, these data indicate that activation, increased proliferation, and subsequent fusion of satellite cells in muscles of implanted cattle may be an important mechanism by which anabolic steroids enhance muscle hypertrophy. Oral administration of beta-AA to ruminants does not alter DNA accumulation in skeletal muscle over a typical feeding period (28 to 42 d). Enhanced muscle hypertrophy observed due to beta-AA feeding occurs by direct, receptor-mediated changes in protein synthesis and degradation rates of skeletal muscle tissue. Proper timing of anabolic steroid administration when coupled with beta-AA feeding could result in a synergistic response in skeletal muscle growth due to the effects of anabolic steroids at increasing satellite cell activity, which then can support the rapid hypertrophic changes of the muscle fiber when exposed
Full Text Available Vangelis Economou,1 Panagiota Gousia2 1Department of Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Food-Water Microbiology Unit, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: One of the major breakthroughs in the history of medicine is undoubtedly the discovery of antibiotics. Their use in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine has resulted in healthier and more productive farm animals, ensuring the welfare and health of both animals and humans. Unfortunately, from the first use of penicillin, the resistance countdown started to tick. Nowadays, the infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria are increasing, and resistance to antibiotics is probably the major public health problem. Antibiotic use in farm animals has been criticized for contributing to the emergence of resistance. The use and misuse of antibiotics in farm animal settings as growth promoters or as nonspecific means of infection prevention and treatment has boosted antibiotic consumption and resistance among bacteria in the animal habitat. This reservoir of resistance can be transmitted directly or indirectly to humans through food consumption and direct or indirect contact. Resistant bacteria can cause serious health effects directly or via the transmission of the antibiotic resistance traits to pathogens, causing illnesses that are difficult to treat and that therefore have higher morbidity and mortality rates. In addition, the selection and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant strains can be disseminated to the environment via animal waste, enhancing the resistance reservoir that exists in the environmental microbiome. In this review, an effort is made to highlight the various factors that contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in farm animals and to
Jenna L. Van Gramberg
Full Text Available Food allergy is an emerging epidemic that affects all age groups, with the highest prevalence rates being reported amongst Western countries such as the United States (US, United Kingdom (UK, and Australia. The development of animal models to test various food allergies has been beneficial in allowing more rapid and extensive investigations into the mechanisms involved in the allergic pathway, such as predicting possible triggers as well as the testing of novel treatments for food allergy. Traditionally, small animal models have been used to characterise immunological pathways, providing the foundation for the development of numerous allergy models. Larger animals also merit consideration as models for food allergy as they are thought to more closely reflect the human allergic state due to their physiology and outbred nature. This paper will discuss the use of animal models for the investigation of the major food allergens; cow's milk, hen's egg, and peanut/other tree nuts, highlight the distinguishing features of each of these models, and provide an overview of how the results from these trials have improved our understanding of these specific allergens and food allergy in general.
Ahmed Elawad Elfaki
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the safety of two foods (Shawerma and ice cream usually sold in streets of Khartoum State. They were collected from different sources (Albait Alssory-Khartoum North, College of Agricultural Studies - Sudan University of Science and Technology, Omdurman maket, Almazallt, Freeway Factory and household. Total Bacterial Count (TBC (cfu/g in Shawerma was found to be 5.3×103, 8.4×103 and 5.3×104 in Albait Alssory, Collage and Omdurman market, respectively. Coliforms count (cfu/g was found to be nil, 1.7×10 and 2.6×10 in Albait Alssory, College and Omdurman market, respectively. The samples of College were found to be highly contaminated by TBC and moulds and yeasts compared to other two sources. On the other hand Omdurman samples were found to be highly contaminated with coliforms.With regard to pathogenic bacteria they were highly contaminating Shawerma of Omdurman Market, while Shawerma of Albait Alssory was of the least contamination by the pathogenic bacteria. TBC of ice cream was 5.9×104, 3.6×103 and 5.9×104 in factory, Almazallat and household, respectively. Moulds and yeasts were not detected in Almazallat and household ice cream, while they were 4.3×102 in the factory. However, Almazallat and Factory ice cream were free of E. coli, Salmonella and Staph.aureus. Household was free of E. coli but with Salmonela and Staph. aureus .The Pb l (ppb in Shawerma of Albait Alssory was 24.84 and 2.90 in College and not detected in Omdurman market. The Pb in ice cream was 5.10, 8.32 and.0.26 in Almazallat , factory and household, respectively. The Al (ppm in Shawerma of Albait Alssory, College, and Omdurman market was 1.37, <0.30 and 1.75, respectively. The Al was 3.5, <0.30 and <0.30 in Almazallat, factory and household, respectively. The peroxide value (% in Shawerma was not detected in Albait Alssory and College but10.0 in Omdorman market samples, while it was 4.0 in ice cream samples. Interactions between
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modifi cation of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. Material and methods. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate – E 252, sodium nitrite – E 250, benzoic acid – E 210, sorbic acid – E 200, and monosodium glutamate – E 621. Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. Results. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fl uids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically signifi cant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention – in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a signifi cant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modifi ed diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Conclusion. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.
Fouzia Sultana; Kamrunnahar; Hafsa Afroz; Afroz Jahan; Md Fakruddin; Suvamoy Datta
Objective: To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results: A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions: This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases.
Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid;
Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...... that organic consumers have a higher willingness to pay for animal welfare than other consumers, but they are not willing to pay more than conventional consumers when it comes to their willingness to pay for avoiding campylobacter....
Hald, Tine; Vose, D.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar;
Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused...... by different Salmonella sero and phage types as a function of the prevalence of these Salmonella types in the animal-food sources and the amount of food source consumed. A multiparameter prior accounting for the presumed but unknown differences between serotypes and food sources with respect to causing human...... salmonellosis was also included. The joint posterior distribution was estimated by fitting the model to the reported number of domestic and sporadic cases per Salmonella type in a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The number of domestic and sporadic cases was obtained by subtracting...
de Mesquita, Marizete Oliveira; de Freitas Saccol, Ana Lúcia; Mesquita, Marilise Oliveira; Fries, Leadir Lucy Martins; Cesar Tondo, Eduardo
The aim of this study was to review the current legislation and rules in Brazil that involve quality assurance of animal products during food service reception. Published federal legislation and technical regulations were verified to present a broad general approach to raw material reception. Food service determinations included specifications of the criteria for evaluating and selecting suppliers, verifying the transport system, reception area requirements, and inspecting raw material. For product approval, the packaging, labeling, and temperature should be evaluated. However, periodic microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory support assessment analyses are not required for receiving animal products. For the safety of the raw material, it was concluded that the largest impacts came from the regulation and supervision of the food sector provider because of the challenges of food service and a lack of requirements to use more complex evaluation methods during the reception of raw materials. PMID:25875352
Hald, Tine; Vose, D.; Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Koupeev, T.
Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused by...... different Salmonella sero and phage types as a function of the prevalence of these Salmonella types in the animal-food sources and the amount of food source consumed. A multiparameter prior accounting for the presumed but unknown differences between serotypes and food sources with respect to causing human...... salmonellosis was also included. The joint posterior distribution was estimated by fitting the model to the reported number of domestic and sporadic cases per Salmonella type in a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The number of domestic and sporadic cases was obtained by subtracting...
Animal models play an important role in study on food allergy.This paper reviews the potential benefits and pitfalls of different animal models,including animal species and strains,test proteins,routes of exposure,the incorpration of adjuvants and evaluting indictor of allergic models,which can provide theoretical basis for evaluting the potential allergenicity of novel proteins and preventing food allergic diseases.%动物模型在研究食物过敏中发挥重要作用,该文讨论不同食物过敏动物模型的优缺点,包括动物种类和品系选择、实验致敏原选择、暴露途径和是否使用佐剂、过敏模型的评价指标等,为评估新型蛋白的变应原性与防治食物过敏提供理论依据.
Schuurman, A.G.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Dorant, E.; R. A. Goldbohm
Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer ...
Xu, W-H.; Dai, Q.; Xiang, Y-B; Zhao, G-M; Zheng, W.; Gao, Y-T; Ruan, Z-X; Cheng, J-R; Shu, X-O
We evaluated animal food intake and cooking methods in relation to endometrial cancer risk in a population-based case–control study in Shanghai, China. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect the usual dietary habits of 1204 cases and 1212 controls aged 30–69 years between 1997 and 2003. Statistical analyses were based on an unconditional logistic regression model adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of meat and fish was associated with an increased risk of en...
Sebastian Gnapowski; Ernest Gnapowski; Aneta Duda
Soy beans powder mixed with water is a good food for animals. However, there are two problems with this brew. One is that soy beans powder is sunk down to fast. Parts of soy beans powder are too big and too heavy. Animals do not eat soy beans powder because after a few minutes (around 3min) is sunk down and soy beans are on the bottom case. Another negative point is a quick growth of mold, especially during summer when the temperature is highest. Mold is making food unhealthy and causes unple...
Heuer, Ole Eske; Hammerum, Anette Marie; Collignon, P.;
. The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that......The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans...... antimicrobial-resistant animal enterococci should be disregarded as a human health hazard. On the basis of review of the literature, we find that neither the results provided by molecular typing that classify enterococci as host-specific organisms nor the occurrence of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci...
Graham, Jay P; Leibler, Jessica H; Price, Lance B; Otte, Joachim M; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Tiensin, T; Silbergeld, Ellen K
Understanding interactions between animals and humans is critical in preventing outbreaks of zoonotic disease. This is particularly important for avian influenza. Food animal production has been transformed since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Poultry and swine production have changed from small-scale methods to industrial-scale operations. There is substantial evidence of pathogen movement between and among these industrial facilities, release to the external environment, and exposure to farm workers, which challenges the assumption that modern poultry production is more biosecure and biocontained as compared with backyard or small holder operations in preventing introduction and release of pathogens. An analysis of data from the Thai government investigation in 2004 indicates that the odds of H5N1 outbreaks and infections were significantly higher in large-scale commercial poultry operations as compared with backyard flocks. These data suggest that successful strategies to prevent or mitigate the emergence of pandemic avian influenza must consider risk factors specific to modern industrialized food animal production. PMID:19006971
Nieuwland, M.; Geerdink, P.; Brier, P.; Eijnden, P. van den; Henket, J.T.M.M.; Langelaan, M.L.P.; Stroeks, N.; Deventer, H.C. van; Martin, A.H.
Developing non-meat food products with an appealing structure is a challenge. In this study, we investigate the possibility to produce thin fibrils as building blocks for texturally interesting meat replacers. The technique applied is electrospinning—a technique which produces thin fibrilswith a hig
Moritz van Vuuren
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to set a benchmark for a monitoring and surveillance programme on the volumes of antimicrobials available and consumed by animals for the benefit of animal health in South Africa. This survey was collated from data available from 2002 to 2004. The authorised antimicrobials available in South Africa were firstly reviewed. The majority of available antimicrobials were registered under the Stock Remedies Act 36 1947. Secondly, volumes of antimicrobials consumed were then surveyed and it was found that the majority of consumed antimicrobials were from the macrolide and pleuromutilin classes, followed by the tetracycline class, the sulphonamide class and lastly the penicillin class.Results showed that 68.5% of the antimicrobials surveyed were administered as in-feed medications. 17.5% of the total volume of antimicrobials utilised were parenteral antimicrobials, whereas antimicrobials for water medication constituted 12% of the total and ’other‘ dosage forms, for example the topical and aural dosage forms, constituted 1.5% of the total. Intramammary antimicrobials represented 0.04% of the total. The surveillance systems for veterinary antimicrobials used by other countries were scrutinised and compared. It was concluded that a combination of the surveillance systems applied by Australia and the United Kingdom is the best model (with modifications to apply to the animal health industry in South Africa. Such a surveillance system, of the volumes of veterinary antimicrobials consumed, should ideally be implemented in conjunction with a veterinary antimicrobial resistance surveillance and monitoring programme. This will generate meaningful data that will contribute to the rational administration of antimicrobials in order to preserve the efficacy of the existing antimicrobials in South Africa.
Rosa Elvira Gavilán; Carolina Nebot; Jose Manuel Miranda; Yolanda Martín-Gómez; Beatriz Vázquez-Belda; Carlos Manuel Franco; Alberto Cepeda
The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed ...
Zurek, Ludek; Ghosh, Anuradha
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections result in higher patient mortality rates, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health care costs. Extensive use of antibiotics as growth promoters in the animal industry represents great pressure for evolution and selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on farms. Despite growing evidence showing that antibiotic use and bacterial resistance in food animals correlate with resistance in human pathogens, the proof for direct transmission of antibi...
Pasiakos, Stefan M.; Sanjiv Agarwal; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L.
Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition t...
Matassa, Silvio; Boon, Nico; Pikaar, Ilje; Verstraete, Willy
Microbial biotechnology has a long history of producing feeds and foods. The key feature of today's market economy is that protein production by conventional agriculture based food supply chains is becoming a major issue in terms of global environmental pollution such as diffuse nutrient and greenhouse gas emissions, land use and water footprint. Time has come to re-assess the current potentials of producing protein-rich feed or food additives in the form of algae, yeasts, fungi and plain bacterial cellular biomass, producible with a lower environmental footprint compared with other plant or animal-based alternatives. A major driver is the need to no longer disintegrate but rather upgrade a variety of low-value organic and inorganic side streams in our current non-cyclic economy. In this context, microbial bioconversions of such valuable matters to nutritive microbial cells and cell components are a powerful asset. The worldwide market of animal protein is of the order of several hundred million tons per year, that of plant protein several billion tons of protein per year; hence, the expansion of the production of microbial protein does not pose disruptive challenges towards the process of the latter. Besides protein as nutritive compounds, also other cellular components such as lipids (single cell oil), polyhydroxybuthyrate, exopolymeric saccharides, carotenoids, ectorines, (pro)vitamins and essential amino acids can be of value for the growing domain of novel nutrition. In order for microbial protein as feed or food to become a major and sustainable alternative, addressing the challenges of creating awareness and achieving public and broader regulatory acceptance are real and need to be addressed with care and expedience. PMID:27389856
... additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals (21 CFR... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 BASF Corp.; Filing of Food Additive Petition... that BASF Corp. has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to...
The correlation between actual enteric diseases and their sources in foods of animal origin is not directly established, since the physician does not always receive the complaint, and rarely has a chance to actually test the food consumed. However, the incidence of various pathogenic microorganisms in such foods as well as that in humans who have consumed such foods are related and therefore measures must be applied to reduce exposure of humans to contaminated foods. Conventional means of intervention and decontamination from enteric pathogenic microorganisms are discussed. The advantages of ionizing radiations compared to conventional methods are pointed out, and the reasons for its limited application mainly because of public non-acceptance, are enumerated. Ways to surmount this resistance are suggested. The irradiation technology, its parameters, and its effects as regards reduction of food microorganisms, are described and microbiological standards for control of the application of this technology are suggested. It is concluded that combination of conventional with irradiation technology can completely eliminate gastro-enteric diseases transmitted via foods of animal origin
Het doel van dit proefschrift is om te onderzoeken hoe meer waarde per hectare Jatropha curcas te verkrijgen door gebruik te maken van Jatropha eiwit voor diverse toepassingen. In het bijzonder, werd de winbaarheid en de functionele eigenschappen van de Jatropha eiwit onderzocht voor non-food/technische toepassingen. Jatropha perskoek en bladeren zijn de potentiële bronnen van eiwit. Jatropha eiwitten kunnen worden gewonnen uit Jatropha zaad perskoek en bladeren, met of zonder ontgiftiging om...
Daniel Sobral; Stefan Schwarz; Dominique Bergonier; Anne Brisabois; Andrea T Feßler; Gilbert, Florence B.; Kristina Kadlec; Benoit Lebeau; Fabienne Loisy-Hamon; Michaël Treilles; Christine Pourcel; Gilles Vergnaud
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, a relevant pathogen in veterinary medicine, and a major cause of food poisoning. Epidemiological investigation tools are needed to establish surveillance of S. aureus strains in humans, animals and food. In this study, we investigated 145 S. aureus isolates recovered from various animal species, disease conditions, food products and food poisoning events. Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), known to be highly...
Scholten, M.C.T.; de Boer; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Lokhorst, C.
This paper introduces a concept for sustainable production of animal-source food. This concept of “Livestock Farming with Care” is founded on care ethics with an integrated approach based on four principles: One Health (i.e. healthy and safe for animals and humans); Customized Care (i.e. from the individual animal's perspective and integrity); No Nuisance (i.e. from an environmental and societal perspective) and Credible Performance (i.e. from an economic and public prospect). It is acknowled...
... Additive Petition (Animal Use); Penicillin G Procaine AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... safe use of penicillin G procaine as an antimicrobial processing aid in fuel- ethanol fermentations... safe use of penicillin G procaine as an antimicrobial processing aid in fuel- ethanol...
... published in the Federal Register on June 21, 1991 (56 FR 28592) and January 6, 1993 (58 FR 2850), respectively. On November 23, 2009, FDA issued a proposed rule (74 FR 61068) (proposed rule) which proposed a... ``frivolous'' and stated that if the color additive was approved by FDA for inclusion in an animal food,...
Clostridium difficile is commonly associated with a spectrum of disease in humans referred to as C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) and use of antimicrobials is considered a risk factor for development of disease in humans. Clostridium difficile can also inhabit healthy food animals and transmi...
Foodborne bacteria are often associated with human infections; these infections can become more complicated to treat if the bacteria are also resistant to antimicrobials. In this study, prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli among food producing animals fr...
Consumers of food animal products worldwide increasingly expect meat products that are inexpensive and which are free of chemical contamination. In addition; they also demand that livestock production systems have minimal to negligible impacts on the environment. These expectations are difficult to ...
... values in the current guidance document, ``Guideline for Establishing a Safe Concentration'' (59 FR 37499... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 556 Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs... the allowable incremental increase for residues of progesterone in edible tissues of cattle and...