Sample records for animal disease detection

  1. Evidence-based early clinical detection of emerging diseases in food animals and zoonoses: two cases.

    Saegerman, Claude; Humblet, Marie-France; Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Zanella, Gina; Martinelle, Ludovic


    If diseases of food-producing animals or zoonoses (re-)emerge, early clinical decision making is of major importance. In this particular condition, it is difficult to apply a classic evidence-based veterinary medicine process, because of a lack of available published data. A method based on the partition of field clinical observations (evidences) could be developed as an interesting alternative approach. The classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to improve the early clinical detection in two cases of emerging diseases: bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and bluetongue due to the serotype 8-virus in cattle. PMID:22374122

  2. OIE activities for the global improvement of animal disease detection and control

    Full text: The OIE, the World Organisation for Animal Health, which was created in 1924 to prevent animal diseases from spreading around the world has, since then, enlarged its mandate to the improvement of animal health worldwide. The OIE is an intergovernmental organisation with a total of 172 Member Countries and Territories. It is recognised by the sanitary and phytosanitary agreement (SPS agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as the international reference organisation for international standards, guidelines and recommendations related to global animal health with the main purpose of facilitating international trade in animals and animal products. The OIE develops and publishes two types of international health standards for animals and animal products - trade standards and biological standards. These standards are developed through the elected Specialist Commissions and are adopted democratically by OIE Members during the annual OIE General Assembly. They are developed for use not only by the veterinary services of Members, but also by the private sector. For strengthening surveillance of disease, public-private sector partnership is essential and should be based on the collaboration between official veterinarians, private veterinarians, farmers and other stakeholders. The most effective way of detecting, diagnosing, controlling and responding to animal disease and zoonotic incursions, is to ensure good veterinary governance in Member Countries. Integral to good governance is the ability and capacity of all Member Countries to comply with the guidelines, recommendations and international standards of the OIE and to establish efficient chains of command. The OIE has therefore embarked on a unique strategic initiative to develop an assessment and evaluation system to assist countries to identify weaknesses in their system that makes it difficult for them to comply with the minimum standards, guidelines and recommendations of the OIE. The evaluation

  3. Robust detection of exotic infectious diseases in animal herds : a comparative study of three decision methodologies under severe uncertainty.

    Troffaes, Matthias C. M.; Gosling, John Paul


    When animals are transported and pass through customs, some of them may have dangerous infectious diseases. Typically, due to the cost of testing, not all animals are tested: a reasonable selection must be made. How to test effectively whilst avoiding costly disease outbreaks? First, we extend a model proposed in the literature for the detection of invasive species to suit our purpose. Secondly, we explore and compare three decision methodologies on the problem at hand, namely, Bayesian stati...

  4. Detection of Helicobacter felis in a cat with gastric disease in laboratory animal facility

    Hong, Sunhwa; Chung, Yungho; Kang, Won-Guk


    A 3-month-old male cat in the animal facility was presented for investigation of anorexia and occasional vomiting. We collected the specimens from gastroscopic biopsy and stool collection. The gastroscopic biopsy specimens were tested using a rapid urease test, CLO Helicobacter-detection kits. Stool specimens were gathered and evaluated using the commercially available SD Bioline H. pylori Ag kit according to the manufacturer's instructions. Genomic DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens of the cat were extracted and submitted to the consensus PCR to amplify Helicobacter rpoB gene. Then the DNAs from gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens were conducted a multiplex species-specific PCR to amplify urease B gene for H. heilmannii, H. pylori and H. felis. As the results, the rapid urease test with gastroscopic biopsy was revealed positive reaction. The result of H. pylori Stool Ag assay was one red line, negative for H. pylori. The gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimen were positive reactions by the consensus PCR reaction using the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-coding gene (rpoB) to detect Helicobacter species. By multiplex species-specific PCR with gastroscopic biopsy and stool specimens, no amplification products corresponding to either H. heilmannii or H. pylori were detected, but the specimens tested were positive for H. felis. This case was confirmed as gastroenteric disease induced by H. felis infection. On our knowledge, this is a very rare report about H. felis-induced gastroenteric disease in cat and may provide a valuable data on the study of feline Helicobacter infection. PMID:27382381

  5. Robust detection of exotic infectious diseases in animal herds: A comparative study of three decision methodologies under severe uncertainty

    Troffaes, Matthias C M


    When animals are transported and pass through customs, some of them may have dangerous infectious diseases. Typically, due to the cost of testing, not all animals are tested: a reasonable selection must be made. How to test effectively, yet avoid cataclysmic events? First, we extend a model proposed in the literature for the detection of invasive species to suit our purpose. Secondly, we explore and compare three decision methodologies on the problem at hand, namely, Bayesian statistics, info-gap theory and imprecise probability theory, all of which are designed to handle severe uncertainty. We show that, under rather general conditions, every info-gap solution is maximal with respect to a suitably chosen imprecise probability model, and that therefore, perhaps surprisingly, the set of maximal options can be inferred at least partly---and sometimes entirely---from an info-gap analysis.

  6. Detecting inflammation and fibrosis in bowel wall with photoacoustic imaging in a Crohn's disease animal model

    Xu, Guan; Johnson, Laura A.; Hu, Jack; Dillman, Jonathan R.; Higgins, Peter D. R.; Wang, Xueding


    Crohn's disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease affecting 700,000 people in the United States. This condition may cause obstructing intestinal narrowings (strictures) due to inflammation, fibrosis (deposition of collagen), or a combination of both. Utilizing the unique strong optical absorption of hemoglobin at 532 nm and collagen at 1370 nm, this study investigated the feasibility of non-invasively characterizing intestinal strictures using photoacoustic imaging (PAI). Three normal controls, ten pure inflammation and 9 inflammation plus fibrosis rat bowel wall samples were imaged. Statistical analysis of the PA measurements has shown the capability of discriminating the purely inflammatory from mixed inflammatory and fibrotic strictures.

  7. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    ... the Knowledge Base Browse AVMA Policies Browse by Animal/Species Browse by Topic Browse by Discipline Resources ... Your Veterinarian Pet Care Currently selected Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Disease Risks for ...


    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui


    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  9. Detection and genetic characterization of foot‐and‐mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.; Hussain, M.;


    A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets...... in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15......%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative...

  10. Application of the indirect enzyme-labeled antibody microtest to the detection and surveillance of animal diseases. [Brucellosis, cholera, and trichinosis in cattle and swine

    Saunders, G.C. Clinard, E.H.; Bartlett, M.L.; Sanders, W.M.


    The rapid, indirect enzyme-labeled antibody (ELA) microplate test has been developed as a diagnostic and surveillance tool to aid in the control of animal disease. Data are presented, which illustrate the application of the test to viral (hog cholera), parasitic (trichinosis), and bacterial (brucellosis) diseases of animals. A greater than 95 percent correlation was observed between the hog cholera ELA test and the hog cholera serum neutralization test performed on over 2000 mixed hog cholera positive and negative field samples obtained during the 1976 New Jersey epizootic. Of 56 swine naturally infected with Trichinella spiralis at a level considered dangerous to man, all were ELA positive, while only one of 360 T. spiralis negative packing house sera was ELA positive. Preliminary experiments with bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) indicate that the ELA test is more sensitive than other test methods currently in use. ELA procedures should soon become tests of choice for the detection of antibodies to animal disease agents.

  11. Animal models for human diseases.

    Rust, J H


    The use of animal models for the study of human disease is, for the most part, a recent development. This discussion of the use of animal models for human diseases directs attention to the sterile period, early advances, some personal experiences, the human as the model, biological oddities among common laboratory animals, malignancies in laboratory animals, problems created by federal regulations, cancer tests with animals, and what the future holds in terms of the use of animal models as an aid to understanding human disease. In terms of early use of animal models, there was a school of rabbis, some of whom were also physicians, in Babylon who studied and wrote extensively on ritual slaughter and the suitability of birds and beasts for food. Considerable detailed information on animal pathology, physiology, anatomy, and medicine in general can be found in the Soncino Babylonian Talmudic Translations. The 1906 edition of the "Jewish Encyclopedia," has been a rich resource. Although it has not been possible to establish what diseases of animals were studied and their relationship to the diseases of humans, there are fascinating clues to pursue, despite the fact that these were sterile years for research in medicine. The quotation from the Talmud is of interest: "The medical knowledge of the Talmudist was based upon tradition, the dissection of human bodies, observation of disease and experiments upon animals." A bright light in the lackluster years of medical research was provided by Galen, considered the originator of research in physiology and anatomy. His dissection of animals and work on apes and other lower animals were models for human anatomy and physiology and the bases for many treatises. Yet, Galen never seemed to suggest that animals could serve as models for human diseases. Most early physicians who can be considered to have been students of disease developed their medical knowledge by observing the sick under their care. 1 early medical investigator

  12. Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus in imported amphibians reveals an unanticipated foreign animal disease threat.

    Ip, Hon S; Lorch, Jeffrey M; Blehert, David S


    Global translocation of plants and animals is a well-recognized mechanism for introduction of pathogens into new regions. To mitigate this risk, various tools such as preshipment health certificates, quarantines, screening for specific disease agents and outright bans have been implemented. However, such measures only target known infectious agents and their hosts and may fail to prevent translocation of even well-recognized pathogens if they are carried by novel host species. In a recent example, we screened an imported shipment of Chinese firebelly newts (Cynops orientalis) for Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans, an emergent fungal pathogen of salamanders. All animals tested negative for the fungus. However, a virus was cultured from internal organs from 7 of the 11 individual dead salamanders and from two pools of tissues from four additional dead animals. Sequencing of a portion of the glycoprotein gene from all viral isolates indicated 100% identity and that they were most closely related to spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV). Subsequently, SVCV-specific PCR testing indicated the presence of virus in internal organs from each of the four animals previously pooled, and whole-genome sequencing of one of the viral isolates confirmed genomic arrangement characteristic of SVCV. SVCV is a rhabdovirus pathogen of cyprinid fish that is listed as notifiable to the Office International des Epizooties. This discovery reveals a novel route for potential spillover of this economically important pathogen as rhabdovirus has not previously been documented in amphibians. PMID:27599472

  13. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M.; Philip H Jones; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J.; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J.M.; Radford, Alan D


    This second Small Animal Disease Surveillance report focuses on syndromic surveillance of i) respiratory disease in veterinary practice and ii) feline calicivirus (FCV) based on laboratory diagnosis, in a large veterinary-visiting pet population of the UK between January 2014 and December 2015. Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7%, 2.3% and 2.5% of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively. In dogs, the most frequent respiratory sign reported was coughing (71.1% of ...

  14. Animal Models of Allergic Diseases

    Domenico Santoro


    Full Text Available Allergic diseases have great impact on the quality of life of both people and domestic animals. They are increasing in prevalence in both animals and humans, possibly due to the changed lifestyle conditions and the decreased exposure to beneficial microorganisms. Dogs, in particular, suffer from environmental skin allergies and develop a clinical presentation which is very similar to the one of children with eczema. Thus, dogs are a very useful species to improve our understanding on the mechanisms involved in people’s allergies and a natural model to study eczema. Animal models are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease and to control for confounding factors which are present in studies with patients with spontaneously occurring disease and to test new therapies that can be beneficial in both species. It has been found that drugs useful in one species can also have benefits in other species highlighting the importance of a comprehensive understanding of diseases across species and the value of comparative studies. The purpose of the current article is to review allergic diseases across species and to focus on how these diseases compare to the counterpart in people.

  15. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    ... cause Lyme disease. Some wild animals may carry rabies. Enjoy wildlife from a distance. Pets can also make you sick. Reptiles pose a particular risk. Turtles, snakes and iguanas can transmit Salmonella bacteria to their owners. You can get rabies from an infected dog or toxoplasmosis from handling ...

  16. Using exceedance probabilities to detect anomalies in routinely recorded animal health data, with particular reference to foot-and-mouth disease in Viet Nam.

    Richards, K K; Hazelton, M L; Stevenson, M A; Lockhart, C Y; Pinto, J; Nguyen, L


    The widespread availability of computer hardware and software for recording and storing disease event information means that, in theory, we have the necessary information to carry out detailed analyses of factors influencing the spatial distribution of disease in animal populations. However, the reliability of such analyses depends on data quality, with anomalous records having the potential to introduce significant bias and lead to inappropriate decision making. In this paper we promote the use of exceedance probabilities as a tool for detecting anomalies when applying hierarchical spatio-temporal models to animal health data. We illustrate this methodology through a case study data on outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Viet Nam for the period 2006-2008. A flexible binomial logistic regression was employed to model the number of FMD infected communes within each province of the country. Standard analyses of the residuals from this model failed to identify problems, but exceedance probabilities identified provinces in which the number of reported FMD outbreaks was unexpectedly low. This finding is interesting given that these provinces are on major cattle movement pathways through Viet Nam. PMID:25457601

  17. Thermal animal detection system (TADS)

    Desholm, M.


    This report presents data from equipment tests and software development for the Thermal Animal Detection System (TADS) development project: 'Development of a method for estimating collision frequency between migrating birds and offshore wind turbines'. The technical tests were performed to investigate the performance of remote controlling, video file compression tool and physical stress of the thermal camera when operating outdoors and under the real time vibration conditions at a 2 MW turbine. Furthermore, experimental tests on birds were performed to describe the decreasing detectability with distance on free flying birds, the performance of the thermal camera during poor visibility, and finally, the performance of the thermal sensor software developed for securing high -quality data. In general, it can be concluded that the thermal camera and its related hardware and software, the TADS, are capable of recording migrating birds approaching the rotating blades of a turbine, even under conditions with poor visibility. If the TADS is used in a vertical viewing scenario it would comply with the requirements for a setup used for estimating the avian collision frequency at offshore wind turbines. (au)

  18. Engineering large animal models of human disease

    Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Timothy P Sheets; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P.


    Abstract The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site‐specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of...

  19. An overview of animal prion diseases.

    Imran, Muhammad; Mahmood, Saqib


    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases. PMID:22044871

  20. An overview of animal prion diseases

    Imran Muhammad; Mahmood Saqib


    Abstract Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encep...

  1. Animal health: foot-and-mouth disease

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases that can affect cloven-hoofed livestock and wild animals. Outbreaks of FMD have caused devastating economic losses and the slaughter of millions of animals in many regions of the world affecting the food chain and global devel...

  2. Animal models for diseases of respiratory system

    R. Adil


    Full Text Available Latest trends in understanding of respiratory diseases in human beings can be derived from thorough clinical studies of these diseases occurring in man, but conducting such studies in man is difficult in terms of experimental manipulation. In the last 2 decades, various types of experimental respiratory disease models has been developed and utilized by investigators, which have contributed a lot to the understanding of respiratory diseases in man, but only little investigation has been done on the naturally occurring pulmonary diseases of animals as potential models which could have added to our knowledge. There are certain selected examples of spontaneous pulmonary disease in animals that may serve as exploitable models for human chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, emphysema, interstitial lung disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, hyaline membrane disease, and bronchial asthma.

  3. CDC Disease Detective Camp


    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  4. An overview of animal prion diseases

    Imran Muhammad


    Full Text Available Abstract Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions affecting human and a wide range of animal species. The pathogenesis of prion diseases is associated with the accumulation of aggregates of misfolded conformers of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC. Animal prion diseases include scrapie of sheep and goats, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or mad cow disease, transmissible mink encephalopathy, feline spongiform encephalopathy, exotic ungulate spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease of cervids and spongiform encephalopathy of primates. Although some cases of sporadic atypical scrapie and BSE have also been reported, animal prion diseases have basically occurred via the acquisition of infection from contaminated feed or via the exposure to contaminated environment. Scrapie and chronic wasting disease are naturally sustaining epidemics. The transmission of BSE to human has caused more than 200 cases of variant Cruetzfeldt-Jacob disease and has raised serious public health concerns. The present review discusses the epidemiology, clinical neuropathology, transmissibility and genetics of animal prion diseases.

  5. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    J. A. Potashkin


    Full Text Available Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of the disease and provide a means for testing new treatments. However, the current animal models often fall short in replicating the true pathophysiology occurring in idiopathic PD, and thus results from animal models often do not translate to the clinic. In this paper we will explain the limitations of animal models of PD and why their use is inappropriate for the study of some aspects of PD.

  6. Small animal disease surveillance: respiratory disease.

    Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Daly, Janet M; Jones, Philip H; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind; Menacere, Tarek; Heayns, Bethaney; Wardeh, Maya; Newman, Jenny; Everitt, Sally; Day, Michael J; McConnell, Katie; Noble, Peter J M; Radford, Alan D


    Presentation for respiratory disease comprised 1.7 per cent, 2.3 per cent and 2.5 per cent of canine, feline and rabbit consultations, respectively, between January 2014 and December 2015Coughing was the most frequent respiratory sign reported in dogs (71.1 per cent of consultations); in cats it was sneezing (42.6 per cent)Mean percentage of samples testing positive for feline calicivirus (FCV) was 30.1 per cent in 2014 and 27.9 per cent in 2015January was the month with the highest percentage of FCV-positive samples in both 2014 and 2015. PMID:27056810

  7. Limitations of Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    J. A. Potashkin; Blume, S. R.; Runkle, N. K.


    Most cases of Parkinson's disease (PD) are sporadic. When choosing an animal model for idiopathic PD, one must consider the extent of similarity or divergence between the physiology, anatomy, behavior, and regulation of gene expression between humans and the animal. Rodents and nonhuman primates are used most frequently in PD research because when a Parkinsonian state is induced, they mimic many aspects of idiopathic PD. These models have been useful in our understanding of the etiology of t...

  8. Global Disease Detectives


    This podcast documents U.S. efforts to prevent, detect, and control emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS and pandemic influenza.  Created: 9/21/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 9/21/2010.

  9. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Tamar Farfel-Becker


    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD, is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display symptoms correlating with human disease and also died soon after birth. Recently, conditional knockout mice that mimic some features of the human disease have become available. Here, we review the contribution of all currently available animal models to examining pathological pathways underlying GD and to testing the efficacy of new treatment modalities, and propose a number of criteria for the generation of more appropriate animal models of GD.

  10. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  11. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    Sider, Krista L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Simmons, Craig A.


    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the u...

  12. Animal and cellular models of human disease

    Arends, Mark; White, Eric; Whitelaw, Christopher


    In this eighteenth (2016) Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present a collection of 19 invited review articles that cover different aspects of cellular and animal models of disease. These include genetically-engineered models, chemically-induced models, naturally-occurring models, and combinations thereof, with the focus on recent methodological and conceptual developments across a wide range of human diseases.

  13. The social and political impact of animal diseases.

    Evans, B


    The twenty-first century is characterised by 'epidemiological globalisation' on an unprecedented scale with resulting impacts at the interface of economic, scientific, social and political forces arising from the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases. Throughout history, animals have served as a source to humankind of food, transportation, medicines, entertainment, clothing, fuel, military advantage and financial security. It is therefore not at all surprising that animal diseases have resulted in significant social and political impacts that have shaped and continue to shape the course of national and international events. The social impacts can be expressed as indirect health consequences or behavioural changes, changes in societal values and changes in social standing and can be felt at the individual, family or community level. The political impact of major disease outbreaks can include loss of public and consumer confidence, resistance to investments in disease surveillance, reluctance to report disease detections in a timely or transparent manner, failure to implement science-based international standards for safe trade (which protect animal, human and ecosystem health) and the removal of government officials. The magnitude of these impacts would support that social and political impacts warrant their inclusion in the consequence assessment of a robust animal disease risk analysis framework. PMID:20429074

  14. Large genetic animal models of Huntington's Disease.

    Morton, A Jennifer; Howland, David S


    The dominant nature of the Huntington's disease gene mutation has allowed genetic models to be developed in multiple species, with the mutation causing an abnormal neurological phenotype in all animals in which it is expressed. Many different rodent models have been generated. The most widely used of these, the transgenic R6/2 mouse, carries the mutation in a fragment of the human huntingtin gene and has a rapidly progressive and fatal neurological phenotype with many relevant pathological changes. Nevertheless, their rapid decline has been frequently questioned in the context of a disease that takes years to manifest in humans, and strenuous efforts have been made to make rodent models that are genetically more 'relevant' to the human condition, including full length huntingtin gene transgenic and knock-in mice. While there is no doubt that we have learned, and continue to learn much from rodent models, their usefulness is limited by two species constraints. First, the brains of rodents differ significantly from humans in both their small size and their neuroanatomical organization. Second, rodents have much shorter lifespans than humans. Here, we review new approaches taken to these challenges in the development of models of Huntington's disease in large brained, long-lived animals. We discuss the need for such models, and how they might be used to fill specific niches in preclinical Huntington's disease research, particularly in testing gene-based therapeutics. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of animals in which the prodromal period of disease extends over a long time span. We suggest that there is considerable 'value added' for large animal models in preclinical Huntington's disease research. PMID:25063426

  15. Maintaining a vigilance for foreign animal diseases.

    Waldrup, Kenneth A; Conger, Terry H


    The incursion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) into the United Kingdom in February 2001 served as a wakeup call for North American agriculture. As the livestock health crisis in the United Kingdom progressed, it became increasingly evident that the United States, Canada, and Mexico were also susceptible to an incursion of a foreign animal disease. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent anthrax mailings reaffirmed the fact that the United States is vulnerable to an infectious assault, regardless of whether it is intentional or accidental. PMID:12442572

  16. Phaeohyphomycoses, Emerging Opportunistic Diseases in Animals

    Seyedmousavi, S.; Guillot, J; Hoog, de, G.S.


    Emerging fungal diseases due to black yeasts and relatives in domestic or wild animals and in invertebrates or cold- and warm-blooded vertebrates are continually being reported, either as novel pathogens or as familiar pathogens affecting new species of hosts. Different epidemiological situations can be distinguished, i.e., occurrence as single infections or as zoonoses, and infection may occur sporadically in otherwise healthy hosts. Such infections are found mostly in mammals but also in co...

  17. Animal models for Gaucher disease research

    Tamar Farfel-Becker; Vitner, Einat B.; Futerman, Anthony H.


    Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), is caused by the defective activity of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase, which is encoded by the GBA gene. Generation of animal models that faithfully recapitulate the three clinical subtypes of GD has proved to be more of a challenge than first anticipated. The first mouse to be produced died within hours after birth owing to skin permeability problems, and mice with point mutations in Gba did not display sympt...

  18. Foreign animal disease outbreaks, the animal welfare implications for Canada: Risks apparent from international experience

    Whiting, Terry L.


    Any outbreak of an Office International des Épizooties List A disease, such as classical swine fever or foot and mouth disease, has severe consequences for animal welfare, livestock production, exports of animals and animal products, and the environment. The public concern with the animal welfare effects of methods of disease eradication that result in the destruction of large numbers of uninfected animals has initiated a reconsideration of disease eradication policy in Europe. In many recent...

  19. Disease detection and elimination

    In micropropagation, the health status of the donor mother plant and of the plants multiplied from it are among the most critical factors, which determine the success of a tissue culture operation. The indexing of the mother plants for freedom from viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases is a normal procedure in large-scale plant propagation through tissue culture. Plants not originating from pathogen-tested material must be screened for the presence of viruses Laboratories, which do not have in-house facilities to carry out plant indexing, should obtain their indexed stock plants from organizations such as Departments of Agriculture, agricultural universities or privately owned certified germplasm repositories that routinely produce such plant material. Batches of micropropagated plants should be tested for freedom from diseases either in-house or by other laboratories. ELISA has been the most effective method for virus and pathogen detection in plants. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid hybridization are more sensitive than ELISA, and can detect pathogens in extremely low amounts. The elimination of most viruses can be achieved by a combination of apical meristem culture and thermotherapy. (author)

  20. Challenges for risk management related to emerging animal diseases

    Aaltonen, Taina


    The uncertainties related to climate change and its effects on the spreading of animal diseases causes the most difficulties for the risk management. Preparedness and contingency planning for serious animal diseases in EU has mainly focused on conventional animal diseases, like foot- and-mouth-disease, classical swine fever and avian influenza.

  1. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo


    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... of small herds, given the among-herd design prevalence and test diagnostic sensitivity. Both a binomial model and a Poisson model can be used to establish the confidence for a given sample size of herds (and vice versa). The results of a simulation study suggest that the Poisson model provides more...

  2. Animal models for genetic neuromuscular diseases.

    Vainzof, Mariz; Ayub-Guerrieri, Danielle; Onofre, Paula C G; Martins, Poliana C M; Lopes, Vanessa F; Zilberztajn, Dinorah; Maia, Lucas S; Sell, Karen; Yamamoto, Lydia U


    The neuromuscular disorders are a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, caused by mutations in genes coding sarcolemmal, sarcomeric, and citosolic muscle proteins. Deficiencies or loss of function of these proteins leads to variable degree of progressive loss of motor ability. Several animal models, manifesting phenotypes observed in neuromuscular diseases, have been identified in nature or generated in laboratory. These models generally present physiological alterations observed in human patients and can be used as important tools for genetic, clinic, and histopathological studies. The mdx mouse is the most widely used animal model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Although it is a good genetic and biochemical model, presenting total deficiency of the protein dystrophin in the muscle, this mouse is not useful for clinical trials because of its very mild phenotype. The canine golden retriever MD model represents a more clinically similar model of DMD due to its larger size and significant muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle MD forms models include the SJL/J mice, which develop a spontaneous myopathy resulting from a mutation in the Dysferlin gene, being a model for LGMD2B. For the human sarcoglycanopahties (SG), the BIO14.6 hamster is the spontaneous animal model for delta-SG deficiency, whereas some canine models with deficiency of SG proteins have also been identified. More recently, using the homologous recombination technique in embryonic stem cell, several mouse models have been developed with null mutations in each one of the four SG genes. All sarcoglycan-null animals display a progressive muscular dystrophy of variable severity and share the property of a significant secondary reduction in the expression of the other members of the sarcoglycan subcomplex and other components of the Dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mouse models for congenital MD include the dy/dy (dystrophia-muscularis) mouse and the allelic mutant dy(2J)/dy(2J) mouse

  3. A Brief Overview on Different Animal Detection Methods

    Sachin Sharma; Shah, D J


    Researches based on animal detection plays a very vital role in many real life applications. Applications which are very important are preventing animal vehicle collision on roads, preventing dangerous animalintrusion in residential area, knowing locomotive behavioural of targeted animal and many more. There are limited areas of research related to animal det ection. In this paper we will discuss some of these areas for detection of animals

  4. Animal Models of Cardiac Disease and Stem Cell Therapy

    Ou, Lailiang; Li, Wenzhong; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.); Jie, Shen; Kong, Deling; Steinhoff, Gustav; Ma, Nan


    Animal models that mimic cardiovascular diseases are indispensable tools for understanding the mechanisms underlying the diseases at the cellular and molecular level. This review focuses on various methods in preclinical research to create small animal models of cardiac diseases, such as myocardial infarction, dilated cardiomyopathy, heart failure, myocarditis and cardiac hypertrophy, and the related stem cell treatment for these diseases.

  5. Global Disease Detectives in Kibera


    In partnership with our disease detectives, urban poor open their homes to the world to prevent and control emerging diseases.  Created: 12/6/2010 by CDC Center for Global Health.   Date Released: 12/6/2010.

  6. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    Horst, H.S.


    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surveillance zones with complete standstill of animals and possible export bans on live animals. Epidemics clearly have a serious impact, in particular on countries with a high farm density and an export- oriented produ...

  7. Joint diseases in animal paleopathology: Veterinary approach

    Oliver Stevanović,; Maciej Janeczek,; Aleksander Chrószcz; Nemanja Marković


    Animal paleopathology is not a very well known scientific discipline within veterinary science, but it has great importance for historical and archaeological investigations. In this paper, authors attention is focused on the description of one of the most common findings on the skeletal remains of animals - osteoarthropathies. This review particularly emphasizes the description and classification of the most common pathological changes in synovial joints. The authors have provided their obser...

  8. Disease protection vs animal protection--synergisms and contradictions.

    Dimander, S O

    Health is an important part of animal welfare. This implies that measures for the protection against disease will also affect animal protection. In most instances, efforts to improve disease protection act synergistically with efforts to promote animal protection, and vice versa. In the context of farm animal transport, however, infectious disease protection and animal protection may not always be mutually beneficial. Examples of contradictions are: Logistic perturbations; Current farm animal production is increasingly sensitive to logistic perturbations. Control and prevention of epizootic diseases involve extraordinary transport precautions that rapidly result in overcrowded stables. Transhumance; The practise of transhumance is compromised when control measures are taken to prevent spread of epizootic diseases. Travel sickness; Travel sickness is a problem particularly in pigs. Starvation before transport prevents vomiting but result in hungry animals. Lack of experience; Animals that are kept under conditions estranged from situations associated with transport alike are more prone to transport induced stress. Flooring; A non-slip flooring is a prerequisite for firm footing but demand more careful cleaning and disinfection to prevent spread of infectious agents. PMID:16429802

  9. Animal Models of Human Granulocyte Diseases

    Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph


    In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve di...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis in animal disease control

    Animal health economics is a relatively new discipline which is progressively developing a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision making process in optimizing animal health management. Research in this field deals primarily with three interrelated aspects: (1) quantifying the financial effects of animal diseases, (2) developing methods for optimizing decisions when individual animals, herds or populations are affected, and (3) determining the costs and benefits of disease control measures. In the paper the four most common economic modelling techniques in animal health economics (i.e. partial budgeting, cost-benefit analysis, decision analysis, and systems simulation) are described and applied on three levels of veterinary decision making: the animal, herd and national level. Outcomes so far are summarized, and shortcomings indicated and discussed. The importance of a close link between economics and epidemiology is stressed for future development, as well as the need for, and possibilities of, an international exchange of models and procedures. (author)

  11. Zoonotic disease concerns in animal-assisted therapy and animal visitation programs

    Waltner-Toews, David


    A survey was done of 150 systematically selected United States animal care agencies and 74 Canadian humane societies to determine the prevalence of animal assisted therapy (AAT) programs; concerns about, and experience with, zoonotic diseases; and precautions taken to prevent zoonotic disease transmission. Of the 69 US agencies and 49 Canadian societies that reported having AAT programs, 94% used dogs and/or cats in their programs, 28% used rabbits, 15% used “pocket pets” (hamsters, gerbils, ...

  12. Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors for Forest Fire Detection

    Yasar Guneri Sahin


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a mobile biological sensor system that can assist in earlydetection of forest fires one of the most dreaded natural disasters on the earth. The main ideapresented in this paper is to utilize animals with sensors as Mobile Biological Sensors(MBS. The devices used in this system are animals which are native animals living inforests, sensors (thermo and radiation sensors with GPS features that measure thetemperature and transmit the location of the MBS, access points for wireless communicationand a central computer system which classifies of animal actions. The system offers twodifferent methods, firstly: access points continuously receive data about animals’ locationusing GPS at certain time intervals and the gathered data is then classified and checked tosee if there is a sudden movement (panic of the animal groups: this method is called animalbehavior classification (ABC. The second method can be defined as thermal detection(TD: the access points get the temperature values from the MBS devices and send the datato a central computer to check for instant changes in the temperatures. This system may beused for many purposes other than fire detection, namely animal tracking, poachingprevention and detecting instantaneous animal death.

  13. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K


    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  14. The enduring importance of animal modelsin understanding periodontal disease

    Hajishengallis, George; Lamont, Richard J.; Graves, Dana T.


    Whereas no single animal model can reproduce the complexity of periodontitis, different aspects of the disease can be addressed by distinct models. Despite their limitations, animal models are essential for testing the biological significance of in vitro findings and for establishing cause-and-effect relationships relevant to clinical observations, which are typically correlative. We provide evidence that animal-based studies have generated a durable framework for dissecting the mechanistic b...

  15. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt


    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer's disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that...... of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer's disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to the existing mouse models. This review summarizes the contributions and current status of the rat as an...... animal model of Alzheimer's disease....

  16. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    de Koeijer, A.A.


    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the availability of information and data to build and quantify these models is essential for applying such models in real life. In this thesis, models on the spread of infectious diseases in animals are...

  17. Transmission and Epidemiology of Zoonotic Protozoal Diseases of Companion Animals

    Esch, Kevin J.; Petersen, Christine A.


    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, b...

  18. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Wen DONG


    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  19. Research progress on animal models of Alzheimer's disease

    Dong, Wen; Wang, Rong


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, and its pathogenesis is complex. Animal models play an important role in study on pathogenesis and treatment of AD. This paper summarized methods of building models, observation on animal models and evaluation index in recent years, so as to provide related evidence for basic and clinical research in future. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.003

  20. Animal models for Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: a perspective

    Jürgen Götz; Naeman N Götz


    In dementia research, animal models have become indispensable tools. They not only model aspects of the human condition, but also simulate processes that occur in humans and hence provide insight into how disease is initiated and propagated. The present review discusses two prominent human neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. It discusses what we would like to model in animals and highlights some of the more recent achievements using species as ...

  1. Animal models of primary myocardial diseases.

    Liu, S. K.; Tilley, L. P.


    Feline and canine cardiomyopathies (primary myocardial diseases) were reviewed and divided into three groups based on the clinical, hemodynamic, angiocardiographic, and pathologic findings: (1) feline and canine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, (2) feline and canine congestive (dilated) cardiomyopathy, and (3) feline restrictive cardiomyopathy. All three groups consisted predominantly of mature adult male cats and dogs. Cardiomyopathy in the hamster and turkey was also reviewed. The most common p...

  2. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    Orriss, G. D.


    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  3. Engineering Large Animal Species to Model Human Diseases.

    Rogers, Christopher S


    Animal models are an important resource for studying human diseases. Genetically engineered mice are the most commonly used species and have made significant contributions to our understanding of basic biology, disease mechanisms, and drug development. However, they often fail to recreate important aspects of human diseases and thus can have limited utility as translational research tools. Developing disease models in species more similar to humans may provide a better setting in which to study disease pathogenesis and test new treatments. This unit provides an overview of the history of genetically engineered large animals and the techniques that have made their development possible. Factors to consider when planning a large animal model, including choice of species, type of modification and methodology, characterization, production methods, and regulatory compliance, are also covered. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367161

  4. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    Horst, H.S.


    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surve

  5. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    R.A. Bem; J.B. Domachowske; H.F. Rosenberg


    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for n

  6. Transmission and epidemiology of zoonotic protozoal diseases of companion animals.

    Esch, Kevin J; Petersen, Christine A


    Over 77 million dogs and 93 million cats share our households in the United States. Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of pets in their owners' physical and mental health. Given the large number of companion animals in the United States and the proximity and bond of these animals with their owners, understanding and preventing the diseases that these companions bring with them are of paramount importance. Zoonotic protozoal parasites, including toxoplasmosis, Chagas' disease, babesiosis, giardiasis, and leishmaniasis, can cause insidious infections, with asymptomatic animals being capable of transmitting disease. Giardia and Toxoplasma gondii, endemic to the United States, have high prevalences in companion animals. Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi are found regionally within the United States. These diseases have lower prevalences but are significant sources of human disease globally and are expanding their companion animal distribution. Thankfully, healthy individuals in the United States are protected by intact immune systems and bolstered by good nutrition, sanitation, and hygiene. Immunocompromised individuals, including the growing number of obese and/or diabetic people, are at a much higher risk of developing zoonoses. Awareness of these often neglected diseases in all health communities is important for protecting pets and owners. To provide this awareness, this review is focused on zoonotic protozoal mechanisms of virulence, epidemiology, and the transmission of pathogens of consequence to pet owners in the United States. PMID:23297259

  7. Critical Behavior in a Cellular Automata Animal Disease Transmission Model

    Morley, P D; Chang, Julius


    Using a cellular automata model, we simulate the British Government Policy (BGP) in the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. When clinical symptoms of the disease appeared on a farm, there is mandatory slaughter (culling) of all livestock on an infected premise (IP). Those farms that neighbor an IP (contiguous premise, CP), are also culled, aka nearest neighbor interaction. Farms where the disease may be prevalent from animal, human, vehicle or airborne transmission (dangerous contact, DC), are additionally culled, aka next-to-nearest neighbor iteractions and lightning factor. The resulting mathematical model possesses a phase transition, whereupon if the physical disease transmission kernel exceeds a critical value, catastrophic loss of animals ensues. The non-local disease transport probability can be as low as .01% per day and the disease can still be in the high mortality phase. We show that the fundamental equation for sustainable disease transport is the criticality equation for neutron fissio...

  8. New Methods for Integrated Models of Animal Disease Control

    Rich, Karl M.


    Accurate assessments of the epidemiological and economic impacts of an animal disease require the incorporation of feedbacks between disease spread and production incentives. This paper motivates a new modeling framework that is sensitive to the dynamics of disease, production decisions and incentives, different livestock production systems, and their interaction through the use of an integrated system dynamics framework. Preliminary simulation results are provided to demonstrate proof-of-con...

  9. Detecting Rare Disease-Causing Glitches

    ... Health Capsules Detecting Rare Disease-Causing Glitches A Priceless Gift: Your Family Health History Featured Website: Go4Life ... Health Capsules Detecting Rare Disease-Causing Glitches A Priceless Gift: Your Family Health History Featured Website: Go4Life ...

  10. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission

    Park, Andrew W.


    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit th...

  11. Miniature pig as a large animal model of Huntington disease

    Juhás, Štefan; Hruška-Plocháň, Marian; Juhásová, Jana; Vodička, Petr; Pavlok, Antonín; Baxa, Monika; Miyanohara, A.; Marsala, M.; Motlík, Jan

    Liběchov : Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics AS CR, v.v ,, 2010. s. 48-48. [Czech-Japan Joint Symposium for Animal Reproduction. 20.09.2010-21.09.2010, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : miniature pig * Huntington disease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. Microwave sensors for detection of wild animals during pasture mowing

    A. Patrovsky


    Full Text Available More than 400000 wild animals are killed or severely injured every year during spring time pasture mowing. Conventional methods for detection and removal or expulsion of animals before mowing are either inefficient or very time-consuming. The first really working method is based on a pyro-detector which senses the temperature contrast between the animals body and the surrounding pasture. Unfortunately, the detection reliability of this sensor decreases with increasing ambient temperature and strong sunlight, i.e. for typical weather conditions, when pasture is mowed, especially around noon. In this paper, a detector is presented that exhibits complementary behaviour. It works best during dry conditions (i.e. around noon, but has a tendency to false alarms when dew is present (i.e. morning and evening. The sensor is based on a commercial, low-cost Doppler module at 24GHz. It senses the difference of radar cross section between the animals body (high water content, specular reflection and the pasture (low water content, diffuse reflection. The signal is analysed by means of a non-linear Wigner time-frequency transformation. Experimental results are presented for a laboratory setup as well as for measurement in actual spring-time pasture. The results prove that a microwave sensor is capable of reliably detecting animals of the size of a fawn even if it is covered by a layer of pasture.

  13. The Cut Detection Issue in the Animation Movie Domain

    Bogdan Ionescu


    Full Text Available In this paper we are proposing an improved cut detection algorithm adapted to the animation movies domain. A cut is the direct concatenation of two different shots and produces an important visual discontinuity in the video stream. As color is one major feature of the animation movies (each movie has its own particular color palette the proposed approach performs by thresholding the distance values obtained between frame color histograms. To overcome the difficulty raised by the peculiarity of the animation movies several improvements have been adopted. The frames are divided intro quadrants to reduce the influence of the entering/exiting objects. The second order derivative is used to reduce the influence of the fast object/camera motions. For the frame classification, an automatic threshold estimation is proposed. Moreover, to reduce the false detections, we are proposing an algorithm to detect a particular color effect, named ”short color changes” (i.e. lightnings, explosions, flashes etc.. The proposed cut detection algorithm achieved better results compared to the conventional histogram–based and motion–discontinuity based approaches as shown by tests conducted on several animation movies.

  14. Concise Review: Stem Cell Trials Using Companion Animal Disease Models.

    Hoffman, Andrew M; Dow, Steven W


    Studies to evaluate the therapeutic potential of stem cells in humans would benefit from more realistic animal models. In veterinary medicine, companion animals naturally develop many diseases that resemble human conditions, therefore, representing a novel source of preclinical models. To understand how companion animal disease models are being studied for this purpose, we reviewed the literature between 2008 and 2015 for reports on stem cell therapies in dogs and cats, excluding laboratory animals, induced disease models, cancer, and case reports. Disease models included osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration, dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's fistulas, meningoencephalomyelitis (multiple sclerosis-like), keratoconjunctivitis sicca (Sjogren's syndrome-like), atopic dermatitis, and chronic (end-stage) kidney disease. Stem cells evaluated in these studies included mesenchymal stem-stromal cells (MSC, 17/19 trials), olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC, 1 trial), or neural lineage cells derived from bone marrow MSC (1 trial), and 16/19 studies were performed in dogs. The MSC studies (13/17) used adipose tissue-derived MSC from either allogeneic (8/13) or autologous (5/13) sources. The majority of studies were open label, uncontrolled studies. Endpoints and protocols were feasible, and the stem cell therapies were reportedly safe and elicited beneficial patient responses in all but two of the trials. In conclusion, companion animals with naturally occurring diseases analogous to human conditions can be recruited into clinical trials and provide realistic insight into feasibility, safety, and biologic activity of novel stem cell therapies. However, improvements in the rigor of manufacturing, study design, and regulatory compliance will be needed to better utilize these models. Stem Cells 2016;34:1709-1729. PMID:27066769

  15. Control and eradication of animal diseases in New Zealand.

    Davidson, R M


    New Zealand is free from all the major epidemic (Office International des Epizooties List A) diseases of animals and other important diseases, such as rabies and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The once endemic conditions of sheep scab (Psoroptes ovis), bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus), hydatids (Echinococcus granulosus) and Aujeszky's disease have been eradicated. Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) is no longer considered endemic and Pullorum disease (Salmonella Pullorum) has effectively been eradicated from commercial poultry flocks. There are current control programmes for bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis), enzootic bovine leucosis in dairy cattle, infectious bursal disease, ovine epididymitis (Brucella ovis), and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Historically, incursions by three important non-endemic diseases, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, classical swine fever and scrapie, have been successfully eliminated. Any new occurrence of a serious exotic disease would be dealt with swiftly using powerful legislative authorities available for the purpose. PMID:16032229

  16. Infectious diseases among animals : combining models with data

    Koeijer, A.A. de


    To eradicate or control the spread of infectious diseases, knowledge on the spread of the infection between (groups of) animals is necessary. Models can include such information and can subsequently be used to observe the efficacy of various control measures in fighting the infection. However, the a

  17. Regulatory T Cells and Their Role in Animal Disease.

    Veiga-Parga, T


    In humans and mouse models, Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells are known to control all aspects of immune responses. However, only limited information exists on these cells' role in diseases of other animals. In this review, we cover the most important features and different types of regulatory T cells, which include those that are thymus-derived and peripherally induced, the mechanisms by which they control immune responses by targeting effector T cells and antigen-presenting cells, and most important, their role in animal health and diseases including cancer, infections, and other conditions such as hypersensitivities and autoimmunity. Although the literature regarding regulatory T cells in domestic animal species is still limited, multiple articles have recently emerged and are discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the evidence suggesting that regulatory T cells might limit the magnitude of effector responses, which can have either a positive or negative result, depending on the context of animal and human disease. In addition, the issue of plasticity is discussed because plasticity in regulatory T cells can result in the loss of their protective function in some microenvironments during disease. Lastly, the manipulation of regulatory T cells is discussed in assessing the possibility of their use as a treatment in the future. PMID:26945003

  18. Impact of animal diseases on livestock productivity and economic losses

    The most serious impact of animal disease on livestock productivity in developing countries derives from its effect on overall livestock production and trade development rather than from the direct losses it causes. The global importance of major infectious diseases such as foot and mouth disease, rinderpest and African swine fever is reviewed. The impact of major livestock diseases in tropical Africa on livestock productivity and economic losses is analysed, and the importance of in-depth analysis of the disease impact on livestock and rural development is stressed. Lack of diagnosis facilities that are needed to acquire reliable information on the distribution of disease is often a major constraint to cost-benefit analysis of control options. However, enough evidence exists to substantiate the fact that improved disease control is a prerequisite for progress towards increased productivity based on the adoption of more intensive production systems and use of animals of improved genotype. Veterinary services in developing countries are at various stages of development, and the priority order of infra-structure, manpower and technological development for disease control programmes should be carefully planned and be based on socio-economic, cost-benefit and feasibility studies. (author)

  19. Animal models for Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia: a perspective

    Jürgen Götz


    Full Text Available In dementia research, animal models have become indispensable tools. They not only model aspects of the human condition, but also simulate processes that occur in humans and hence provide insight into how disease is initiated and propagated. The present review discusses two prominent human neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. It discusses what we would like to model in animals and highlights some of the more recent achievements using species as diverse as mice, fish, flies and worms. Advances in imaging and therapy are explored. We also discuss some anticipated new models and developments. These will reveal how key players in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, such as the peptide Aβ (amyloid β and the protein tau, cause neuronal dysfunction and eventually, neuronal demise. Understanding these processes fully will lead to early diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Detection of Blinking Part from Animated Videos / Pictures

    Amit Pal


    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to execute a technique and the region detection of blinking part in gif images, to find out the new method which is capable for it. It is a very difficult task in image mining examines area for extract a blinking part into variations of any size or type of natural blinking image. The intend of this research is to explain this problem by introduce a new technique called Morphology based technique for Extraction and Detection of blinking Region from gif Images which is more capable for area extraction and edge detection of blinking part into any type of gif image edge based and connected component Here we are using the edge based area extraction process which help in detecting and extraction of blinking part and also in fined out the recall rate and precision rate of blinking part of any animated image.

  1. Animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Yoshihisa Takahashi; Yurie Soejima; Toshio Fukusato


    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which excess fat accumulates in the liver of a patient without a history of alcohol abuse.Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),a severe form of NAFLD,can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.NAFLD is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and incidence has been increasing worldwide in line with the increased prevalence of obesity,type 2 diabetes,and hyperlipemia.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH give crucial information,not only in elucidating pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH but also in examining therapeutic effects of various agents.An ideal model of NAFLD/NASH should correctly reflect both hepatic histopathology and pathophysiology of human NAFLD/NASH.Animal models of NAFLD/NASH are divided into genetic,dietary,and combination models.In this paper,we review commonly used animal models of NAFLD/NASH referring to their advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Large Animal Models for Batten Disease: A Review

    Weber, Krystal; Pearce, David A.


    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, collectively referred to as Batten disease, make up a group of inherited childhood disorders that result in blindness, motor and cognitive regression, brain atrophy, and seizures, ultimately leading to premature death. So far more than 10 genes have been implicated in different forms of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Most related research has involved mouse models, but several naturally occurring large animal models have recently been discovered. In th...

  3. Automatic Detection of Animals in Mowing Operations Using Thermal Cameras

    Ole Green


    Full Text Available During the last decades, high-efficiency farming equipment has been developed in the agricultural sector. This has also included efficiency improvement of moving techniques, which include increased working speeds and widths. Therefore, the risk of wild animals being accidentally injured or killed during routine farming operations has increased dramatically over the years. In particular, the nests of ground nesting bird species like grey partridge (Perdix perdix or pheasant (Phasianus colchicus are vulnerable to farming operations in their breeding habitat, whereas in mammals, the natural instinct of e.g., leverets of brown hare (Lepus europaeus and fawns of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus to lay low and still in the vegetation to avoid predators increase their risk of being killed or injured in farming operations. Various methods and approaches have been used to reduce wildlife mortality resulting from farming operations. However, since wildlife-friendly farming often results in lower efficiency, attempts have been made to develop automatic systems capable of detecting wild animals in the crop. Here we assessed the suitability of thermal imaging in combination with digital image processing to automatically detect a chicken (Gallus domesticus and a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a grassland habitat. Throughout the different test scenarios, our study animals were detected with a high precision, although the most dense grass cover reduced the detection rate. We conclude that thermal imaging and digital imaging processing may be an important tool for the improvement of wildlife-friendly farming practices in the future.

  4. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric


    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of

  5. Infectious disease in animal metapopulations: the importance of environmental transmission.

    Park, Andrew W


    Motivated by an array of infectious diseases that threaten wildlife populations, a simple metapopulation model (subpopulations connected by animal movement) is developed, which allows for both movement-based and environmental transmission. The model demonstrates that for a range of plausible parameterizations of environmental transmission, increased movement rate of animals between discrete habitats can lead to a decrease in the overall proportion of sites that are occupied. This can limit the ability of the rescue effect to ensure locally extinct populations become recolonized and can drive metapopulations down in size so that extinction by mechanisms other than disease may become more likely. It further highlights that, in the context of environmental transmission, the environmental persistence time of pathogens and the probability of acquiring infection by environmental transmission can affect host metapopulations both qualitatively and quantitatively. Additional spillover sources of infection from alternate reservoir hosts are also included in the model and a synthesis of all three types of transmission, acting alone or in combination, is performed revealing that movement-based transmission is the only necessary condition for a decline in the proportion of occupied sites with increasing movement rate, but that the presence of other types of transmission can reverse this qualitative result. By including the previously neglected role of environmental transmission, this work contributes to the general discussion of when dispersal by wild animals is beneficial or detrimental to populations experiencing infectious disease. PMID:22957148

  6. Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease.

    Asakawa, Tetsuya; Fang, Huan; Sugiyama, Kenji; Nozaki, Takao; Hong, Zhen; Yang, Yilin; Hua, Fei; Ding, Guanghong; Chao, Dongman; Fenoy, Albert J; Villarreal, Sebastian J; Onoe, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Namba, Hiroki; Xia, Ying


    Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research. PMID:27026638

  7. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Nabeela Nathoo


    Full Text Available There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future research. Although gadolinium-enhancing and T2 lesions on MRI have been useful for detecting MS pathology, they are not correlative of disability. Therefore, new MRI methods are needed. Such methods require validation in animal models. The increasing necessity for MRI of animal models makes it critical and timely to understand what research has been conducted in this area and what potential there is for use of MRI in preclinical models of MS. Here, we provide a review of MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS studies that have been carried out in animal models of MS that focus on pathology. We compare the MRI phenotypes of animals and patients and provide advice on how best to use animal MR studies to increase our understanding of the linkages between MR and pathology in patients. This review describes how MRI studies of animal models have been, and will continue to be, used in the ongoing effort to understand MS.

  8. Infectious disease surveillance in animal movement networks: An approach based on the friendship paradox.

    Amaku, Marcos; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique de Hildebrand; Negreiros, Rísia Lopes; Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Cipullo, Rafael Ishibashi; Marques, Fernando Silveira; Ossada, Raul


    The network of animal movements among livestock premises is an important topological structure for the spread of infectious diseases. The central focus of this study was to analyze strategies for selecting premises based on the friendship paradox ("your friends have more friends than you do") - in which premises that neighbor randomly selected premises are sampled for surveillance or control - to determine whether these strategies are viable alternatives for the surveillance and control of diseases in scenarios with insufficient data on animal movement. To test the effectiveness of these strategies, we performed three sets of simulations. In the first set, we examined the risk of spreading an infectious disease using the cattle movement network of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All tested strategies based on the friendship paradox have comparable performance to the hub control strategy (controlling premises that sold more animals) and superior performance to random sampling in terms of both reducing the risk of purchasing infected animals and the number of premises that need to be controlled. In the second and third sets of simulations, we observed that the friendship paradox strategies were more sensitive than the random sampling strategy to detect cases and disease, respectively. The survey of the entire animal movement network to identify animal premises with a key role in trade is not always possible, either because the data are insufficient or because informal trade is significant. If surveying the network is not possible, all approaches based on knowledge of the network become useless. As an alternative, knowing that there is a hidden movement network that follows rules inherent to all networks, such as the friendship paradox, can be used to our advantage. Strategies based on the friendship paradox do not assume knowledge of the animal movement network and therefore may be viable alternatives for the surveillance or control of infectious diseases in the

  9. MeCP2-Related Diseases and Animal Models

    Chinelo D. Ezeonwuka


    Full Text Available The role of epigenetics in human disease has become an area of increased research interest. Collaborative efforts from scientists and clinicians have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which epigenetic regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Several neurological and non-neurological disorders are associated with mutations in genes that encode for epigenetic factors. One of the most studied proteins that impacts human disease and is associated with deregulation of epigenetic processes is Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2. MeCP2 is an epigenetic regulator that modulates gene expression by translating epigenetic DNA methylation marks into appropriate cellular responses. In order to highlight the importance of epigenetics to development and disease, we will discuss how MeCP2 emerges as a key epigenetic player in human neurodevelopmental, neurological, and non-neurological disorders. We will review our current knowledge on MeCP2-related diseases, including Rett Syndrome, Angelman Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Hirschsprung disease, and Cancer. Additionally, we will briefly discuss about the existing MeCP2 animal models that have been generated for a better understanding of how MeCP2 impacts certain human diseases.

  10. Infectious Disease Detection with Private Information

    Alexander E. Saak


    In this paper we study incentives to report clinically suspect situations in a simple model of an infectious animal disease with limited diagnostic resource. We characterize a transfer scheme that sustains credible reporting and implements an efficient test allocation. In a game without monetary transfers, credible reporting and first-best targeted testing are achievable in both laissez-faire and efficient disease control regimes when the disease occurrence among few well-informed producers i...

  11. Antisense treatment of caliciviridae: an emerging disease agent of animals and humans.

    Smith, Alvin W; Matson, David O; Stein, David A; Skilling, Douglas E; Kroeker, Andrew D; Berke, Tamas; Iversen, Patrick L


    The Earth's oceans are the primary reservoir for an emerging family of RNA viruses, the Caliciviridae, which can cause a spectrum of diseases in marine animals, wildlife, farm animals, pets and humans. Certain members of this family have unusually broad host ranges, and some are zoonotic (transmissible from animals to humans). The RNA virus replicative processes lack effective genetic repair mechanisms, and, therefore, virtually every calicivirus replicate is a mutant. Hence, traditional therapeutics dependent on specific nucleic acid sequences or protein epitopes lack the required diversity of sequence or conformational specificity that would be required to reliably detect, prevent or treat infections from these mutant clusters (quasi-species) of RNA viruses, including the Caliciviridae. Antisense technology using phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers shows promise in overcoming these current diagnostic and therapeutic problems inherent with newly emerging viral diseases. PMID:12044040


    I.G. P. Suweta


    Full Text Available Helminthic diseases are widely spread throughout the world. In Indonesia, the cases in animals are primarily associated with the condition of the field, although the intensity of the infestations are also affected by various factors inside the body of the host. In general, the tropical and humid conditions in Indonesia, optimally support the development and spreading of the parasites, so that the prevalence of the infestations are usually high except in the very dry areas. In Indonesia, important helminthic diseases found in livestock are mostly caused by nematodes and trematodes, and there is a lack of information regarding cestode infestations, except infestation by immature stages of the worm such as cysticercosis in ruminants and swine. On the other hand, dogs and cats are usually infested by cestodes and nematodes. Here, the negative influence of helminthic infestation on live stock is mostiy shown by failure of growth, decrease of body weight and body resistance, damage of organs infested by the parasites, but it is not rare that the disease cause death of the infested animals such as haemonchiasis in sheep, ascariasis in young swine and calves, etc. The integrated system of farming combined with periodic anthelminthic treatments were favourable in the effort of controlling the disease.

  13. Animal genomics and infectious disease resistance in poultry.

    Smith, J; Gheyas, A; Burt, D W


    Avian pathogens are responsible for major costs to society, both in terms of huge economic losses to the poultry industry and their implications for human health. The health and welfare of millions of birds is under continued threat from many infectious diseases, some of which are increasing in virulence and thus becoming harder to control, such as Marek's disease virus and avian influenza viruses. The current era in animal genomics has seen huge developments in both technologies and resources, which means that researchers have never been in a better position to investigate the genetics of disease resistance and determine the underlying genes/mutations which make birds susceptible or resistant to infection. Avian genomics has reached a point where the biological mechanisms of infectious diseases can be investigated and understood in poultry and other avian species. Knowledge of genes conferring disease resistance can be used in selective breeding programmes or to develop vaccines which help to control the effects of these pathogens, which have such a major impact on birds and humans alike. PMID:27217172

  14. Defective membrane remodeling in neuromuscular diseases: insights from animal models.

    Belinda S Cowling

    Full Text Available Proteins involved in membrane remodeling play an essential role in a plethora of cell functions including endocytosis and intracellular transport. Defects in several of them lead to human diseases. Myotubularins, amphiphysins, and dynamins are all proteins implicated in membrane trafficking and/or remodeling. Mutations in myotubularin, amphiphysin 2 (BIN1, and dynamin 2 lead to different forms of centronuclear myopathy, while mutations in myotubularin-related proteins cause Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies. In addition to centronuclear myopathy, dynamin 2 is also mutated in a dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. While several proteins from these different families are implicated in similar diseases, mutations in close homologues or in the same protein in the case of dynamin 2 lead to diseases affecting different tissues. This suggests (1 a common molecular pathway underlying these different neuromuscular diseases, and (2 tissue-specific regulation of these proteins. This review discusses the pathophysiology of the related neuromuscular diseases on the basis of animal models developed for proteins of the myotubularin, amphiphysin, and dynamin families. A better understanding of the common mechanisms between these neuromuscular disorders will lead to more specific health care and therapeutic approaches.

  15. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals

    Mpoki Mwabukusi


    Full Text Available A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara, Burundi (Muyinga and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke. Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server–client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6, and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing

  16. To Your Health: NLM update transcript - Preventing disease spillover from animals to humans

    ... Health: NLM update Transcript Preventing disease spillover from animals to humans : 07/11/2016 To use the ... weekly topics. The prevention of disease transmission from animals to humans begins by careful surveillance of the ...

  17. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Shin Hisahara


    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these toxins could contribute to the progression of PD. While most cases of PD are sporadic, specific mutations in genes that cause familial forms of PD have led to provide new insights into its pathogenesis. This paper focuses on animal models of both toxin-induced and genetically determined PD that have provided significant insight for understanding this disease. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and limitations of representative models.

  18. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America

    Support for scientists and their endeavours in developing countries by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is provided through FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects (TCPs). Using these mechanisms the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agricultural aims to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in developing countries to identify and resolve problems connected with improving livestock productivity and health. In 1986, the Section introduced and animal health component into its Project. The initial support was for five years but in 1991 this was extended for a further three years and linked with the support available from the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Project through national and regional TCPs and ARCAL activities in Latin America dealing with diagnosis of animal diseases. Central to this overall project ws the use of ELISA for the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases. FAO/IAEA CRPs are developed around a well defined research topic on which between 15 and 20 national institutes collaborate - the topic itself being defined through consultation with national authorities in developing and developed countries and international agricultural research centers and organizations. The primary role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in such programmes is to ensure that the inputs and efforts under these programmes are co-ordinated and that the results are published. The studies being reported in this IAEA TECDOC were initiated in 1991 and whilst the focus was on three major disease affecting livestock in the region (foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), brucellosis and babesiosis) the approach taken by individual Research Control holders was different and thus in some cases research concentrated on assay validation whilst in other cases the focus was on the

  19. 9 CFR 80.3 - Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test.


    ... positive to an official Johne's disease test. 80.3 Section 80.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.3 Movement of domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease test. (a) Movement of domestic animals...

  20. Disease risk assessments involving companion animals: an overview for 15 selected pathogens taking a European perspective

    Rijks, J. M.; Cito, F.; Cunningham, A. A.; Rantsios, A. T.; Givannini, A.


    Prioritization of companion animal transmissible diseases was performed by the Companion Animals multisectoriaL interprofessionaL Interdisciplinary Strategic Think tank On zoonoses (CALLISTO) project. The project considered diseases occurring in domesticated species commonly kept as pets, such as dogs and cats, but also included diseases occurring in captive wild animals and production animal species. The prioritization process led to the selection of 15 diseases of prime public health releva...

  1. Humans, Other Animals and Disease: a comparative approach towards the development of a standardised recording protocol for animal palaeopathology

    Stephanie Vann


    Full Text Available In recent years the impact of animal disease on human societies has had an extremely high profile, with the spread of diseases such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE and foot and mouth among animal populations, as well as the transmission of diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Ebola and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS from animal to human populations. The social and economic impact of such illnesses has been profound. However, studies on the effect of animal disease in past human populations have been widely neglected. This is partly due to the inconsistent manner in which instances of animal disease (palaeopathology are recorded, diagnosed and interpreted which, together with the typically low incidence of specimens per site, has precluded detailed studies of regional or temporal trends. This article outlines the archaeological rationale behind developing a generic methodology to enable the consistent recognition, recording and description of animal palaeopathological data. Furthermore, the experience of palaeopathologists concerned with human populations has been drawn upon to develop a downloadable, stand-alone recording system to facilitate the recording of animal palaeopathological data and enable questions concerning past animal health and disease to be better explored in future.

  2. Biomedical sensors for disease detection made simple

    Veldhuis, Djuke


    Researchers in Korea have succeeded in making a new protein detection platform, using low-cost plastic and paper substrates. Their work could help reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of infectious disease diagnosis....

  3. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.4 Segregation...

  4. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun


    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a

  5. Use of DNA probes in animal disease diagnosis

    Conventional approaches for detecting aetiological agents of infectious diseases include the isolation of microorganisms and their direct detection in pathological samples by microscopy and immunoassays. Although the availability of monoclonal antibodies has improved some of these techniques, none of them alone is completely reliable. The advent of genetic engineering has opened a new approach to the diagnosis of infectious diseases by permitting detection of the genetic blueprint of the causal agent. Since each pathogen has its own unique genetic material and because nucleic acid hybridization is based on the ability of DNA or RNA probes to hybridize to their complementary sequences, genomic DNA or RNA is an ideal target for specific diagnostic tests. This new technique will allow the detection of some organisms which are difficult to culture and can broaden the spectrum of diseases which can be diagnosed. In veterinary medicine, many infectious agents are now identified by nucleic acid hybridization and some examples are given in the review. However, the use of this technique is still limited to research laboratories. Indeed there are some drawbacks to the routine use of nucleic acid technology for diagnostic tests. Firstly, radiolabelled probes have a short half-life; they are hazardous and their handling requires special equipment. Secondly, nonradioactive probes are less sensitive than radiolabelled ones. Their use on crude samples can give rise to significant non-specific background reactions, which makes them less attractive for routine diagnosis. Improvements in their sensitivity and in the signal/background ratio may allow their wider application in the future. (author). 44 refs

  6. Animal models of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. Animal models of infant short bowel syndrome

    Sangild, Per Torp; Ney, Denise M; Sigalet, David L;


    enterocolitis, atresia, gastroschisis, volvulus and aganglionosis. Patient outcomes have improved, but there is a need to develop new therapies for SBS and to understand intestinal adaptation after different diseases, resection types, nutritional interventions and growth factor therapies. Animal studies may...... hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, keratinocyte growth factor). The greater size of rats, and especially young pigs, is an advantage for testing surgical procedures and nutritional interventions (e.g. PN, milk diets, long/short chain lipids, pre- and probiotics). Conversely......, newborn pigs and weanling rats represent a translational advantage for infant SBS due to their immature intestine. A balance among practical, economical, experimental and ethical constraints determines the choice of SBS model for each clinical or basic research question....

  7. Transgenic animals modelling polyamine metabolism-related diseases.

    Alhonen, Leena; Uimari, Anne; Pietilä, Marko; Hyvönen, Mervi T; Pirinen, Eija; Keinänen, Tuomo A


    Cloning of genes related to polyamine metabolism has enabled the generation of genetically modified mice and rats overproducing or devoid of proteins encoded by these genes. Our first transgenic mice overexpressing ODC (ornithine decarboxylase) were generated in 1991 and, thereafter, most genes involved in polyamine metabolism have been used for overproduction of the respective proteins, either ubiquitously or in a tissue-specific fashion in transgenic animals. Phenotypic characterization of these animals has revealed a multitude of changes, many of which could not have been predicted based on the previous knowledge of the polyamine requirements and functions. Animals that overexpress the genes encoding the inducible key enzymes of biosynthesis and catabolism, ODC and SSAT (spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase) respectively, appear to possess the most pleiotropic phenotypes. Mice overexpressing ODC have particularly been used as cancer research models. Transgenic mice and rats with enhanced polyamine catabolism have revealed an association of rapidly depleted polyamine pools and accelerated metabolic cycle with development of acute pancreatitis and a fatless phenotype respectively. The latter phenotype with improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity is useful in uncovering the mechanisms that lead to the opposite phenotype in humans, Type 2 diabetes. Disruption of the ODC or AdoMetDC [AdoMet (S-adenosylmethionine) decarboxylase] gene is not compatible with mouse embryogenesis, whereas mice with a disrupted SSAT gene are viable and show no harmful phenotypic changes, except insulin resistance at a late age. Ultimately, the mice with genetically altered polyamine metabolism can be used to develop targeted means to treat human disease conditions that they relevantly model. PMID:20095974

  8. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease


    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  9. New diagnostics for the detection of animal Trypanosomoses - A short review

    The detection of infections with the pathogenic animal Trypanosomoses depends mainly on three criteria: clinical signs and symptoms of disease; detection of the parasites in body fluids and detection of parasite products in body fluids. These diagnostic criteria apply commonly in respect of all parasitic or infectious diseases and the degree to which one or other becomes the chosen diagnostic method depends on the particular disease. Factors that will determine choice include diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, ease of use and cost, but most important in ensuring that a technique is adopted is the demand from the clinician to be provided with a convenient and efficient way of diagnosis. The past hundred years has seen the regular introduction of new technologies for disease diagnosis. Many of these initiatives derive from laboratory-based scientists whose interest in perfecting a test may differ from the field investigator. In the field, the clinician requires a test that will provide evidence of current infection so that decisions can be made on measures required for treatment and control. The laboratory scientist may opt for tests with high analytical sensitivity and specificity without due consideration of their diagnostic attributes. (author)


    Sharma Manisha


    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited autosomal, progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with involuntary abnormal movements (chorea, cognitive impairments and psychiatric disturbances. HD is caused by an abnormal expansion of a CAG region located in exon 1 of the gene encoding the huntingtin protein (Htt and is the causative factor in the pathogenesis of HD Animal models of HD have provided insight into disease pathology and the outcomes of thera- peutic strategies. Earlier studies of HD most often used toxin-induced models to study mitochondrial impairment and excitotoxicity-induced cell death, which are both mechanisms of degeneration seen in the HD brain. These models, based on 3-nitropropionic acid and quinolinic acid, respectively, are still often used in HD studies. The discovery in 1993 of the huntingtin mutation led to the creation of newer models that incorporate a similar genetic defect. These models, which include transgenic and knock-in rodents, are more representative of the HD progression and pathology. An even more recent model that uses a ovine transgenic model (sheep model,fly models ,cell cultures models for better understanding of gene mutation in and in mammalian and nonhuman primates, as it is difficult to produce genetic models in these species. This article examines the aforementioned models and describes their use in HD research, including aspects of the creation, de- livery, pathology, and tested therapies for each model.

  11. Defect and disease detection in potato tubers

    Muir, Andrew Y.; Ross, David W.; Dewar, Calum J.; Kennedy, Duncan D.


    To produce consistent products, graded to predetermined size and inspected for disease and defects such as bruising and common scab is important for the final quality presented to the consumer. A project funded by the British Potato Council, the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food, and RJ Herbert Engineering is aimed at developing spectrophotometric methods of disease detection previously investigated by SAC through to commercialization.

  12. Rapid Detection of Visually Provocative Animals by Preschool Children and Adults

    Penkunas, Michael J.; Coss, Richard G.


    The ability to detect dangerous animals rapidly in complex landscapes has been historically important during human evolution. Previous research has shown that snake images are more readily detected than images of benign animals. To provide a stringent test of superior snake detection in preschool children and adults, Experiment 1 consisted of two…

  13. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study

    ... find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found ... translatable to humans. Multiple studies on resveratrol in animal models, however, have presented ample evidence to support ...

  14. Cattle trade and the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Dopfer, D.D.V.


    This study examines the risk of importing animal diseases into the Netherlands through livestock trade. It presents projections of Dutch cattle imports until 2010, and applies quantitative epidemiology to estimate the related probabilities of importing three animal diseases (foot and mouth disease,

  15. Imaging of Small Animal Peripheral Artery Disease Models: Recent Advancements and Translational Potential

    Jenny B. Lin


    Full Text Available Peripheral artery disease (PAD is a broad disorder encompassing multiple forms of arterial disease outside of the heart. As such, PAD development is a multifactorial process with a variety of manifestations. For example, aneurysms are pathological expansions of an artery that can lead to rupture, while ischemic atherosclerosis reduces blood flow, increasing the risk of claudication, poor wound healing, limb amputation, and stroke. Current PAD treatment is often ineffective or associated with serious risks, largely because these disorders are commonly undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Active areas of research are focused on detecting and characterizing deleterious arterial changes at early stages using non-invasive imaging strategies, such as ultrasound, as well as emerging technologies like photoacoustic imaging. Earlier disease detection and characterization could improve interventional strategies, leading to better prognosis in PAD patients. While rodents are being used to investigate PAD pathophysiology, imaging of these animal models has been underutilized. This review focuses on structural and molecular information and disease progression revealed by recent imaging efforts of aortic, cerebral, and peripheral vascular disease models in mice, rats, and rabbits. Effective translation to humans involves better understanding of underlying PAD pathophysiology to develop novel therapeutics and apply non-invasive imaging techniques in the clinic.

  16. Early synaptic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: Insights from animal models.

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Madeo, Graziella; Martella, Giuseppina; Maltese, Marta; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo; Pisani, Antonio


    The appearance of motor manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD) is invariably linked to degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. Traditional views on PD neuropathology have been grounded in the assumption that the prime event of neurodegeneration involves neuronal cell bodies with the accumulation of metabolic products. However, this view has recently been challenged by both clinical and experimental evidence. Neuropathological studies in human brain samples and both in vivo and in vitro models support the hypothesis that nigrostriatal synapses may indeed be affected at the earliest stages of the neurodegenerative process. The mechanisms leading to either structural or functional synaptic dysfunction are starting to be elucidated and include dysregulation of axonal transport, impairment of the exocytosis and endocytosis machinery, altered intracellular trafficking, and loss of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity. The aim of this review is to try to integrate different lines of evidence from both pathogenic and genetic animal models that, to different extents, suggest that early synaptic impairment may represent the key event in PD pathogenesis. Understanding the molecular and cellular events underlying such synaptopathy is a fundamental step toward developing specific biomarkers of early dopaminergic dysfunction and, more importantly, designing novel therapies targeting the synaptic apparatus of selective, vulnerable synapses. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27193205

  17. Large animal models of rare genetic disorders: sheep as phenotypically relevant models of human genetic disease

    Pinnapureddy, Ashish R.; Stayner, Cherie; McEwan, John; Baddeley, Olivia; Forman, John; Eccles, Michael R


    Animals that accurately model human disease are invaluable in medical research, allowing a critical understanding of disease mechanisms, and the opportunity to evaluate the effect of therapeutic compounds in pre-clinical studies. Many types of animal models are used world-wide, with the most common being small laboratory animals, such as mice. However, rodents often do not faithfully replicate human disease, despite their predominant use in research. This discordancy is due in part to physiol...

  18. A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state

    Yu Shuhao; Zheng Lulu; Li Yun; Li Chunyan; Ma Chenchen; Li Yixue; Li Xuan; Hao Pei


    Abstract Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible an...

  19. Advances in genetic detection of kidney disease

    The Human Genome Project has provided a vast amount of molecular genetic information for the analysis of normal and diseased genes. This new information provides new opportunities for precise diagnosis, assessment of predisposition and risk factors and novel therapeutic strategies. At the same time, this constantly expanding knowledge base represents on e of the most difficult challenges in molecular medicine. For monogenic disease nearly 2000 human disease genes have thus for been identified. Most of these conditions are characterized by large mutational variation and even greater phenotypic variation. In nephrology, several genetic diseases have been elucidated that provide new insight into the structure, function and developmental biology of the glomerulus, tubules and urogenital tracts, as well as renal cell tumors. Great improvements in the diagnostic resolution of genetic diseases have been achieved, such that single base pair mutations can be readily detected. Because of accurate diagnosis and risk assessment, genetic testing may be valuable in improving disease management and preventive care when genotype-specific therapies are available. Moreover, such testing may identify de novo mutations and potentially aid in understanding the disease process. This review summarizes recent advances in the renal genetic database and methods for genetic testing of renal diseases. (author)

  20. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M


    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  1. Analysing animal behaviour in wildlife videos using face detection and tracking

    Burghardt, T.; Calic, J.


    An algorithm that categorises animal locomotive behaviour by combining detection and tracking of animal faces in wildlife videos is presented. As an example, the algorithm is applied to lion faces. The detection algorithm is based on a human face detection method, utilising Haar-like features and AdaBoost classifiers. The face tracking is implemented by applying a specific interest model that combines low-level feature tracking with the detection algorithm. By combining the two methods in a s...

  2. Animal Models of Helicobacter-Induced Disease: Methods to Successfully Infect the Mouse [chapter

    James G Fox


    Animal models of microbial diseases in humans are an essential component for determining fulfillment of Koch’s postulates and determining how the organism causes disease, host response(s), disease prevention, and treatment. In the case of Helicobacter pylori, establishing an animal model to fulfill Koch’s postulates initially proved so challenging that out of frustration a human volunteer undertook an experiment to become infected with H. pylori and to monitor disease progression in order to ...

  3. The present status of infectious diseases of laboratory animals in Bangladesh

    Abdul; Awal


    The commonlaboratory animals in Bangladesh are rabbit,guinea pig,rat&mice.Commoninfectious diseases of rabbitare pasteurellosis,infectious myxomatosis,pneumonia,tyzzer’s disease,nasal catarrh,Conjunctivitis(weepy eye)&abscess formation.Amongthem,laterthree diseases are most commonin most of the animal housesin Bangladesh.Ente-rotoxaemia,primarilya diarrhoeal disease of rabbit caused by Clostridiumspiroformoccurs during4-8weeks of age show-ing clinical signslikelassitude,rough hair coat,perianal regioncovere...

  4. A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models

    Martone, Maryann E.; Mungall, Christopher J.


    Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have expl...

  5. Strengthening research on animal reproduction and disease diagnosis in Asia through the application of immunoassay techniques

    This publication contains the results presented by participants of a final Research Co-ordination Meeting which was held from 1 to 5 February 1993 at the University of Chulalongkorn, Bangkok, Thailand, as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Strengthening Research on Animal Reproduction and Disease Diagnosis in Asia through the Application of Immunoassay Techniques. The purpose of this Programme was essentially to encourage national livestock production and veterinary institutes in Asia to conduct on-farm research into existing constraints on animal productivity and ways of reducing or removing these through low cost changes in management. Emphasis was given to defining existing levels of reproductive efficiency in indigeneous livestock and examining responses to nutritional or other interventions, and to exploring possibilities for using new approaches for diagnosing and controlling some diseases considered to impact adversely on Asian livestock production. Within the framework of all studies, immunoassay (radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) were employed for measuring levels of reproductive hormones or detecting antibodies to a variety of disease causing agents, the aim being to gain better insight into the underlying nature of the problems being encountered and reasons for the success or otherwise of approaches taken for their resolution. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Animals

    The radionuclides of most concern with respect to contamination of animals after a nuclear accident are radioiodine, radiocaesium and radiostrontium (ICRP 30, 1979). Of the other significant anthropogenic radionuclides likely to be released in most accidents, only small proportions of that ingested will be absorbed in an animals gut, and the main animal products, milk and meat, will not normally be contaminated to a significant extent. Animal products will mostly be contaminated as a result of ingestion of contaminated feed and possibly, but to a much lesser extent, from inhalation (for radioiodine only). Direct external contamination of animals is of little or no consequence in human food production. Radioiodine and radiostrontium are important with respect to contamination of milk; radiocaesium contaminates both milk and meat. The physical and chemical form of a radionuclide can influence its absorption in the animal gut. For example, following the Chernobyl accident radiocaesium incorporated into vegetation by root uptake was more readily absorbed than that associated with the original deposit. The transfer of radiocaesium and radiostrontium to animals will be presented both as transfer coefficients and aggregated transfer coefficients. For most animal meat products, only radiocaesium is important as other radionuclides do not significantly contaminate muscle. Farm animal products are the most important foodstuff determining radiocaesium intake by the average consumer in the Nordic countries. The major potential source of radioiodine and radiostrontium to humans is milk and milk products. Of the different species, the smaller animals have the highest transfer of radiocaesium from fodder to meat and milk. (EG)

  7. WAHIS-Wild and its interface: the OIE worldwide monitoring system for wild animal diseases.

    Jebara, Karim Ben


    Wild animal diseases are a global growing concern, given the threat that they pose to animal health and their zoonotic potential. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) was among the first organisations to recognise the importance of having a comprehensive knowledge of the disease situation in wild animals, collecting information on wildlife diseases worldwide since 1993, when for the first time an annual questionnaire was distribute by OIE to members Countries in order to collect qualitative and quantitative data on selected diseases in wild animals. Starting with 2008 until 2012 an updated version of questionnaire was circulated to allow for identifying wildlife species by their Latin name and by their common names in the 3 OIE official languages (English, French, and Spanish). This specific functionality was then implemented in the World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS) in 2012, when this information was made available to the public through WAHIS-Wild Interface. PMID:27393871

  8. Regional network for Latin America on animal disease diagnosis using immunoassay and labelled DNA probe techniques

    After an introduction describing the co-ordinated research program the proceedings contain the contributions presented at the final Research Co-ordination Meeting. The papers are in four sections: general aspects of immunoassays in animal disease diagnosis; viral and chlamydial diseases; bacterial diseases; and parasitic diseases. The individual contributions have been indexed separately for inclusion in INIS. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. A Web Based Cardiovascular Disease Detection System.

    Alshraideh, Hussam; Otoom, Mwaffaq; Al-Araida, Aseel; Bawaneh, Haneen; Bravo, José


    Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is one of the most catastrophic and life threatening health issue nowadays. Early detection of CVD is an important solution to reduce its devastating effects on health. In this paper, an efficient CVD detection algorithm is identified. The algorithm uses patient demographic data as inputs, along with several ECG signal features extracted automatically through signal processing techniques. Cross-validation results show a 98.29 % accuracy for the decision tree classification algorithm. The algorithm has been integrated into a web based system that can be used at anytime by patients to check their heart health status. At one end of the system is the ECG sensor attached to the patient's body, while at the other end is the detection algorithm. Communication between the two ends is done through an Android application. PMID:26293754

  10. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases

    Buza, Teresia M.; Jack, Sherman W.; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L.; Lawrence, Mark L.; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G.


    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provide...

  11. Agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biowarfare targeting animal agriculture. The clinical, pathologic, diagnostic, and epidemiologic features of some important animal diseases.

    Wilson, T M; Gregg, D A; King, D J; Noah, D L; Perkins, L E; Swayne, D E; Inskeep, W


    In the past 100 years, to our knowledge there have been approximately 12 events involving the intentional introduction of microbiologic agents into livestock and animal populations worldwide, of which three were World War I events in the United States. To the best of the authors' knowledge, there has been no recent intentional introduction of microbiologic agents (viruses or bacteria) into livestock and animal populations in the United States. The criminal or terrorist use of chemicals against animals and agriculture products have been more common. With the political, economic, and military new world order, however, the United States must maintain a vigilant posture. The framework for this vigilance must be an intelligence system sensitive to the needs of agriculture and a first-class animal disease diagnostic surveillance and response system. PMID:11572141

  12. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K.; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M.; Petroff, Brian K.; Petroff, Margaret G.


    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in associ...

  13. Listeria Monocytogenes as Contaminant of Food Derived from Animal (Foodborne Disease)

    Tati Ariyanti


    Listeria monocytogenes often contaminates food derived from animal and serves as pathogenic bacteria for animals and human. The outbreaks were related with the consumption of food derived from animals such as meat, milk, egg, seafood and its product that poorly cooked. Human listeriosis could be transmitted by direct contact with infected animal. The disease often is asymtomatic and widely distributes in the world. The mortality rate reaches to 30%. The bacteria is important because of the w...

  14. Detection of Different DNA Animal Species in Commercial Candy Products.

    Muñoz-Colmenero, Marta; Martínez, Jose Luis; Roca, Agustín; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva


    Candy products are consumed all across the world, but there is not much information about their composition. In this study we have used a DNA-based approach for determining the animal species occurring in 40 commercial candies of different types. We extracted DNA and performed PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing for obtaining species-informative DNA sequences. Eight species were identified including fish (hake and anchovy) in 22% of the products analyzed. Bovine and porcine were the most abundant appearing in 27 samples each one. Most products contained a mixture of species. Marshmallows (7), jelly-types, and gummies (20) contained a significantly higher number of species than hard candies (9). We demonstrated the presence of DNA animal species in candy product which allow consumers to make choices and prevent allergic reaction. PMID:26807698

  15. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel


    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field. PMID:26656286

  16. Animal Models of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Illuminating the Pathogenesis of Colitis, Ileitis and Cancer

    Neurath, Markus F


    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases of unknown origin. In spite of improved options for therapy, many patients with IBD have an impaired quality of life and require hospitalization or surgery. Animal models of IBD might help to obtain new insights into the pathogenesis of these diseases and may be used to test innovative approaches for therapy. Methods: Review of the literature using PubMed. Results: Numerous new animal mod...


    Soeprapto Soekardono


    Full Text Available An account on important protozoan diseases mostiy with obvious clinical symptoms are emphasized and their current status reviewed. Those diseases are surra, trichomonosis in catde, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, theileriosis, leucocyto-zoonosis in chicken, and coccidiosis. Toxoplasmosis, histomonosis, chicken malaria, balantidiosis and diseases caused by Giardia, Haemoproteus and Sarcocystis are not reviewed because significant problems caused by these parasites considered important economically do not appear in Indonesia.

  18. Prioritization of Companion Animal Transmissible Diseases for Policy Intervention in Europe

    Cito, F.; Rijks, J.; Rantsios, A.T.;


    A number of papers have been published on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in farm animals and wildlife, based either on semiquantitative or truly quantitative methods, but there is no published literature on the prioritization of transmissible diseases in companion animals....... In this study, available epidemiological data for diseases transmissible from companion animals to man were analysed with the aim of developing a procedure suitable for their prioritization within a European framework. A new method and its associated questionnaire and scoring system were designed based...... on methods described by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Modifications were applied to allow for the paucity of specific information on companion animal transmissible diseases. The OIE method was also adapted to the subject and to the regional scope of the interprofessional network addressing...

  19. Detection of Blinking Part from Animated Videos / Pictures

    Amit Pal


    The aim of this thesis is to execute a technique and the region detection of blinking part in gif images, to find out the new method which is capable for it. It is a very difficult task in image mining examines area for extract a blinking part into variations of any size or type of natural blinking image. The intend of this research is to explain this problem by introduce a new technique called Morphology based technique for Extraction and Detection of blinking Region from gif ...

  20. Coffee and Alzheimer’s disease - animal & cellular evidences

    Increases in lifespan in modern times have put significant social and academic emphasis on age-related pathologies. Of the many chronic, non-acquired diseases, dementias are among the most fiscally and psychologically burdensome to society. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent and well kno...

  1. Mechanisms underlying disease transmission between spatially separated animals

    Bunnik, van B.A.D.


      Transmission of infections between spatially separated hosts is a common problem, not only during major outbreaks of livestock diseases, but also in many other settings such as the transmission of infectious diseases between plants and crops or in healthcare settings. During the last major e

  2. Clostridium perfringens in animal disease: a review of current knowledge.

    Niilo, L


    The diseases caused by various types of Clostridium perfringens are critically reviewed in the light of current knowledge. Particular emphasis is placed on information concerning these diseases in Canadian livestock. There are two etiologically clearly-defined acute C. perfringens diseases recognized in Canada: hemorrhagic enteritis of the new born calf, caused by C. perfringens type C, and enterotoxemia of sheep, caused by type D. Clostridium perfringens type A may play a role as a secondary pathological agent in various disease conditions, such as necrotic enteritis of chickens. It may also cause wound infections and may provide a source for human food poisoning outbreaks. There appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge regarding the distribution of C. perfringens types, their pathogenesis, diagnosis and the incidence of diseases caused by this organism. PMID:6253040

  3. The Impact of Mad Cow Disease in Quebec: What to Do with Animal Carcasses?

    Bergeron, Nancy; Gagnon, Marie-France


    In recent years, after the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease) crisis in Europe, and after the first case of BSE was found in Alberta, both regulation and producers’ initiatives have lead to an ever smaller demand for meat meal and animal fat used in animal feed. Meat meal and animal fat were produced in great part from the rendering of carcasses, i.e., animals that died on the farm due to disease or accident. In Quebec, agricultural producers used to sell the carcasses...

  4. The Importance of Copper Mineral in Animal Body Relating to Animal Disease

    Zainal Arifin


    Copper is one of the micro elements that has very important roles in the process of body metabolism. Some enzymes are bound with copper and iron in the formation of blood haemoglobin. Copper deficiency in animal body will cause inappropriate function of the enzyme system, so that metabolism and physiological systems of the body will not work normally and if copper is in excess, it will cause toxicity which then destroys body tissues causes troubles in blood formation, Therefore, it is clear t...

  5. TSUNAMI: an antisense method to phenocopy splicing-associated diseases in animals

    Sahashi, Kentaro; Hua, Yimin; Ling, Karen K Y; Hung, Gene; Rigo, Frank; Horev, Guy; Katsuno, Masahisa; Sobue, Gen; Ko, Chien-Ping; Bennett, C. Frank; Krainer, Adrian R.


    This study presents an antisense oligonucleotide methodology to phenocopy a disease—in this case, the motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy in mice. Sahashi et al. show that it is possible to fine-tune disease severity through dose-dependent effects on RNA splicing, making this a novel animal model for monitoring disease onset and progression as well as testing candidate therapeutics.

  6. Detection of Locomotive Behavior in Aquatic Animals by the Use of Infra-red Light

    YONEMORI, Tooru; ヨネモリ, トオル; 米盛, 亨


    To promote catching efficiency of shrimp pots, infra-red light was applied to the detection of animal movements. A sensing unit was composed of a LED (light emittingdiode) and a photo-transister. At two sections in the entrance funnel of the pot, one each unit was fixed as a check point. By reading the time lag between transit signalsfrom each gate, the direction of animal locomotion was recognized, furthermore, thenumber of individuals both entering and escaping animal was counted.

  7. Detection of preclinical Parkinson's disease with PET

    Putamen 18F-dopa uptake of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is reduced by at least 35% at onset of symptoms; therefore, positron-emission tomography (PET) can be used to detect preclinical disease in clinically unaffected twins and relatives of patients with PD. Three out of 6 monozygotic and 2 out of 3 dizygotic unaffected PD co-twins have shown reduced putamen 18F-dopa uptake to date. In addition, an intact sibling and a daughter of 1 of 4 siblings with PD both had low putamen 18F-dopa uptake. These preliminary findings suggest there may be a familial component to the etiology of PD. PET can also be used to detect underlying nigral pathology in patients with isolated tremor and patients who become rigid taking dopamine-receptor blocking agents (DRBAs). Patients with familial essential tremor have normal, and those with isolated rest tremor have consistently low, putamen 18F-dopa uptake. Drug-induced parkinsonism is infrequently associated with underlying nigral pathology

  8. Is Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, the cause of Johne's disease in animals, a good candidate for Crohn's disease in man?

    Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S


    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease or paratuberculosis, a gastro intestinal inflammatory condition in ruminants and other animals, which is similar to Crohn's disease (CD) that occurs in man. The role of MAP in the causation of CD has been under intense investigation in the last few decades. This review summarizes the status of MAP in animals and the food chain and its association with CD in man. PMID:20443099

  9. Therapeutic study of proton beam in vascular disease animal models

    Proton beam radiation therapy is difficult to apply to animal model. When the cells with DNA damage in the irradiated zebrafish were stained with acridine orange, green fluorescent cell death spots were increased in trunk regions compared to non-irradiated control embryos. From this study, we found that proton radiation therapy can inhibit the blood vessel growth, which is probably induced in vivo in zebrafish embryos, and vascular endothelial cell proliferation.

  10. Global capacity for emerging infectious disease detection.

    Chan, Emily H; Brewer, Timothy F; Madoff, Lawrence C; Pollack, Marjorie P; Sonricker, Amy L; Keller, Mikaela; Freifeld, Clark C; Blench, Michael; Mawudeku, Abla; Brownstein, John S


    The increasing number of emerging infectious disease events that have spread internationally, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1, highlight the need for improvements in global outbreak surveillance. It is expected that the proliferation of Internet-based reports has resulted in greater communication and improved surveillance and reporting frameworks, especially with the revision of the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Health Regulations (IHR 2005), which went into force in 2007. However, there has been no global quantitative assessment of whether and how outbreak detection and communication processes have actually changed over time. In this study, we analyzed the entire WHO public record of Disease Outbreak News reports from 1996 to 2009 to characterize spatial-temporal trends in the timeliness of outbreak discovery and public communication about the outbreak relative to the estimated outbreak start date. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses show that overall, the timeliness of outbreak discovery improved by 7.3% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.073, 95% CI (1.038; 1.110)] per year, and public communication improved by 6.2% [HR = 1.062, 95% CI (1.028; 1.096)] per year. However, the degree of improvement varied by geographic region; the only WHO region with statistically significant (α = 0.05) improvement in outbreak discovery was the Western Pacific region [HR = 1.102 per year, 95% CI (1.008; 1.205)], whereas the Eastern Mediterranean [HR = 1.201 per year, 95% CI (1.066; 1.353)] and Western Pacific regions [HR = 1.119 per year, 95% CI (1.025; 1.221)] showed improvement in public communication. These findings provide quantitative historical assessment of timeliness in infectious disease detection and public reporting of outbreaks. PMID:21115835

  11. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  12. A Flexible Spatial Framework for Modeling Spread of Pathogens in Animals with Biosurveillance and Disease Control Applications

    Montiago X. LaBute


    Full Text Available Biosurveillance activities focus on acquiring and analyzing epidemiological and biological data to interpret unfolding events and predict outcomes in infectious disease outbreaks. We describe a mathematical modeling framework based on geographically aligned data sources and with appropriate flexibility that partitions the modeling of disease spread into two distinct but coupled levels. A top-level stochastic simulation is defined on a network with nodes representing user-configurable geospatial “patches”. Intra-patch disease spread is treated with differential equations that assume uniform mixing within the patch. We use U.S. county-level aggregated data on animal populations and parameters from the literature to simulate epidemic spread of two strikingly different animal diseases agents: foot-and-mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza. Results demonstrate the capability of this framework to leverage low-fidelity data while producing meaningful output to inform biosurveillance and disease control measures. For example, we show that the possible magnitude of an outbreak is sensitive to the starting location of the outbreak, highlighting the strong geographic dependence of livestock and poultry infectious disease epidemics and the usefulness of effective biosurveillance policy. The ability to compare different diseases and host populations across the geographic landscape is important for decision support applications and for assessing the impact of surveillance, detection, and mitigation protocols.

  13. Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation.

    Chomel, B B; Marano, N


    A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery and prevention must be developed to respond to natural or intentionally induced emerging diseases and zoonoses. Training programmes in applied epidemiology, zoonoses and foreign animal diseases are crucial for the development of a strong workforce to deal with microbial threats. Students should learn the reporting pathways for reportable diseases in their countries or states. Knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired during pre-veterinary studies. Elective classes on wildlife diseases, emphasising wildlife zoonotic diseases, should be offered during the veterinary curriculum, as well as a course on risk communication, since veterinarians are frequently in the position of having to convey complex information under adverse circumstances. PMID:20128464

  14. Animals



    The largest animal ever to live on the earth is the blue whale(蓝鲸)It weighs about 80 tons--more than 24 elephants. It is more than 30 metres long. A newborn baby whale weighs as much as a big elephant.

  15. Correlated Inflammatory Responses and Neurodegeneration in Peptide-Injected Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    McLarnon, James G


    Animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) which emphasize activation of microglia may have particular utility in correlating proinflammatory activity with neurodegeneration. This paper reviews injection of amyloid- β (A β ) into rat brain as an alternative AD animal model to the use of transgenic animals. In particular, intrahippocampal injection of Aβ 1-42 peptide demonstrates prominent microglial mobilization and activation accompanied by a significant loss of granule cell neurons. Furtherm...

  16. Bovine blood biomarkers as a way of processed animal proteins detection in feedingstuffs

    Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline; Marbaix, Hélène; Veys, Pascal; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Berben, Gilbert; Saegerman, Claude; Baeten, Vincent


    The prohibition of using animal by-products in feedingstuffs depends on two factors: their nature defined by the tissue/cell type and the species of origin, and on their destination (pets, fur animals or other farmed animals). Proteomics is particularly well-suited to the purpose of PAPs detection as it is a tissue and species-specific method. The aim of this study was the identification and the selection of specific peptide biomarkers using tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of b...

  17. Taking the Lab into the Field. Nuclear Applications Rapidly Diagnose Animal Disease

    Livestock supports the livelihoods and food security of almost a billion people worldwide. As populations increase, countries not only need to increase livestock production, but also need more efficient tools for the prevention, diagnosis and control of animal diseases. Nuclear and nuclear-related technologies have an essential role to play in maintaining animal health and protecting vulnerable communities.

  18. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Shun Shimohama; Shin Hisahara


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs), but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these tox...

  19. How To Become a Top Model: Impact of Animal Experimentation on Human Salmonella Disease Research ▿

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J.


    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sus...

  20. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren


    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are proba...

  1. Accelerating drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease: best practices for preclinical animal studies

    Shineman, Diana W; Basi, Guriqbal S.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Colton, Carol A.; Greenberg, Barry D.; Hollister, Beth A; Lincecum, John; Leblanc, Gabrielle G.; Lee, Linda H; Luo, Feng; Morgan, Dave; Morse, Iva; Refolo, Lorenzo M; Riddell, David R; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly


    Animal models have contributed significantly to our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As a result, over 300 interventions have been investigated and reported to mitigate pathological phenotypes or improve behavior in AD animal models or both. To date, however, very few of these findings have resulted in target validation in humans or successful translation to disease-modifying therapies. Challenges in translating preclinical studies to clinical...

  2. MicroRNAs are potential therapeutic targets in fibrosing kidney disease: lessons from animal models

    Duffield, Jeremy S.; Grafals, Monica; Portilla, Didier


    Chronic disease of the kidneys has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized nations. New therapies are urgently sought. Using a combination of animal models of kidney disease and human biopsy samples, a pattern of dysregulated microRNA expression has emerged which is common to chronic diseases. A number of these dysregulated microRNA have recently been shown to have functional consequences for the disease process and therefore may be potential therapeutic targets. We highlight microRNA-...


    Rich, Karl M.; Winter-Nelson, Alex


    This paper presents a multi-market model of animal disease control that extends the current literature by accounting for spatial and inter-temporal relations in both epidemiological and economic variables. The model is applied to Foot and Mouth Disease control in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, but it is broadly generalizable.

  4. Risk of parasite transmission influences perceived vulnerability to disease and perceived danger of disease-relevant animals.

    Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet; Fancovicová, Jana


    Adaptationist view proposes that emotions were shaped by natural selection and their primary function is to protect humans against predators and/or disease threat. This study examined cross-cultural and inter-personal differences in behavioural immune system measured by disgust, fear and perceived danger in participants from high (Turkey) and low (Slovakia) pathogen prevalence areas. We found that behavioural immune system in Turkish participants was activated more than those of Slovakian participants when exposed to photographs depicting disease-relevant cues, but not when exposed to disease-irrelevant cues. However, participants from Slovakia, where human to human disease transmission is expected to be more prevalent than in Turkey, showed lower aversion in Germ Aversion subscale supporting hypersensitiveness of the behavioural immune system. Having animals at home was less frequent both in Turkey and in participants who perceived higher danger about disease relevant animals. Participants more vulnerable to diseases reported higher incidence of illness last year and considered perceived disease-relevant animals more dangerous than others. Females showed greater fear, disgust and danger about disease-relevant animals than males. Our results further support the finding that cultural and inter-personal differences in human personality are influenced by parasite threat. PMID:20558257

  5. Epidemiological models to support animal disease surveillance activities

    Willeberg, Preben; Paisley, Larry; Lind, Peter


    the risk of future cases, detected and undetected, of a waning infection of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Both studies were successful in advancing European policy changes to reduce the cost of surveillance to appropriate levels given the magnitude of the respective hazards....



    Mammals(哺乳动物)Mammals are the world's most dominant(最占优势的)animal.They are extremely(非常)diverse(多种多样的)creatures(生物,动物)that include(包括)the biggest ever animal (the blue whale鲸,which eats up to 6 tons every day),the smallest(leaf-nosed bat小蹄蝠) and the laziest(sloth树獭,who spends 80% of their time sleeping).There are over 4,600 kinds of mammals and they live in very different environments(环境)—oceans(海洋),rivers,the jungle(丛林),deserts,and plains(平原).

  7. Influence of Species Differences on the Neuropathology of Transgenic Huntington's Disease Animal Models

    Xiao-Jiang Li; Shihua Li


    Transgenic animal models have revealed much about the pathogenesis of age-dependent neurodegenerative diseases and proved to be a useful tool for uncovering therapeutic targets.Huntington's disease is a well-characterized neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat,which results in expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (HTT).Similar CAG/glutamine expansions are also found to cause eight other neurodegenerative diseases that affect distinct brain regions in an agedependent manner.Identification of this CAG/glutamine expansion has led to the generation of a variety of transgenic animal models.Of these different animal models,transgenic mice have been investigated extensively,and they show similar neuropathology and phenotypes as seen in their respective diseases.The common pathological hallmark of age-dependent neurodegeneration is the formation of aggregates or inclusions consisting of misfolded proteins in the affected brain regions; however,overt or striking neurodegeneration and apoptosis have not been reported in most transgenic mouse models for age-dependent diseases,including HD.By comparing the neuropathology of transgenic HD mouse,pig,and monkey models,we found that mutant HTT is more toxic to larger animals than mice,and larger animals also show neuropathology that has not been uncovered by transgenic mouse models.This review will discuss the importancc of transgenic large animal models for analyzing the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and developing effective treatments.

  8. Use of radioisotopes in the assessment of immune status of animals in health and disease

    The effector immune function in human and animals can be measured using various radioisotopic techniques. Radioactive isotopes play a major role in evaluation, quantification and detection of specific changes of bio-diversified nature of immunological molecules

  9. Ocular Manifestations of Alzheimer's Disease in Animal Models

    Francesca Cordeiro, M.; Mohamed Abdi; Miles Parnell; Li Guo


    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, and the pathological changes of senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in AD brains are well described. Clinically, a diagnosis remains a postmortem one, hampering both accurate and early diagnosis as well as research into potential new treatments. Visual deficits have long been noted in AD patients, and it is becoming increasingly apparent that histopathological changes already noted in the brain also occur in an ...

  10. Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy: insight from animal models

    Scharfman, Helen E.


    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and epilepsy are separated in the medical community, but seizures occur in some patients with AD, and AD is a risk factor for epilepsy. Furthermore, memory impairment is common in patients with epilepsy. The relationship between AD and epilepsy remains an important question because ideas for therapeutic approaches could be shared between AD and epilepsy research laboratories if AD and epilepsy were related. Here we focus on one of the many types of epilepsy, temporal ...


    Javier Blesa


    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects about 1.5% of the global population over 65 years of age. A hallmark feature of PD is the degeneration of the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the consequent striatal DA deficiency. Yet, the pathogenesis of PD remains unclear. Despite tremendous growth in recent years in our knowledge of the molecular basis of PD and the molecular pathways of cell death, important questions remain, such ...

  12. Biomarker Discovery in Animal Health and Disease: The Application of Post-Genomic Technologies

    Rowan E. Moore


    Full Text Available The causes of many important diseases in animals are complex and multifactorial, which present unique challenges. Biomarkers indicate the presence or extent of a biological process, which is directly linked to the clinical manifestations and outcome of a particular disease. Identifying biomarkers or biomarker profiles will be an important step towards disease characterization and management of disease in animals. The emergence of post-genomic technologies has led to the development of strategies aimed at identifying specific and sensitive biomarkers from the thousands of molecules present in a tissue or biological fluid. This review will summarize the current developments in biomarker discovery and will focus on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in biomarker discovery for animal health and disease.

  13. An Experimental Approach to Detecting Dementia in Down Syndrome: A Paradigm for Alzheimer's Disease

    Nelson, Linda D.; Scheibel, Kevin E.; Ringman, John M.; Sayre, James W.


    Measures developed from animal models of aging may detect dementia of the Alzheimer's type in a population at-risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although, by middle age, individuals with Down syndrome (DS) show an extraordinarily high prevalence of AD-type pathology, their severe idiopathic cognitive deficits tend to confound the "clinical"…

  14. Detection of Bacillus anthracis in the air, soil and animal tissue

    Kušar D.; Pate M.; Hubad B.; Avberšek J.; Logar K.; Lapanje A.; Zrimec A.; Ocepek M.


    The objective of the present work was to establish effective and rapid diagnostic methods for the detection of Bacillus anthracis, a highly virulent zoonotic pathogen, in the air, soil and animal (or human) tissue samples. Liquid culture of B. anthracis was aerosolized and four air sampling procedures were employed. Detection of B. anthracis in the air samples was successful with RCS High Flow sampler (culturebased detection) and when sampling through the a...

  15. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. National training course on ELISA for seradiagnosis of animal diseases (5)

    This report describes the content of a three-week national training course for 16 participants from regional Disease Investigation Centres and other agencies in Indonesia. The subject of the course was the use of ELISA for the diagnosis of animal diseases in Indonesia, with particular emphasis placed on bovine brucellosis

  16. Progress of GAITRite testing in different large animal models of neurodegenerative diseases

    Hölzner, E.; Marcegaglia, M.; Skillings, L.; Baxa, Monika; Morton, J.; Reilmann, R.

    Mělník: IAPG, 2013. [Large Animal Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases /2./. 17.11.2013-19.11.2013, Liblice] Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : GAITRite * phenotyping * Huntington´s disease * minipig Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  17. Mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of inflammatoryand autoimmune diseases in experimental animal models

    Matthew W Klinker; Cheng-Hong Wei


    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also known asmesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are currently beingstudied as a cell-based treatment for inflammatorydisorders. Experimental animal models of humanimmune-mediated diseases have been instrumental inestablishing their immunosuppressive properties. Inthis review, we summarize recent studies examiningthe effectiveness of MSCs as immunotherapy in severalwidely-studied animal models, including type 1 diabetes,experimental autoimmune arthritis, experimentalautoimmune encephalomyelitis, inflammatory boweldisease, graft-vs -host disease, and systemic lupuserythematosus. In addition, we discuss mechanismsidentified by which MSCs mediate immune suppressionin specific disease models, and potential sources offunctional variability of MSCs between studies.

  18. Review on prion diseases in animals with emphasis to Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Rajender P. Gupta

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are known as Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE. These are degenerative brain disorders characterized by tiny microscopic holes that give the brain 'spongy' appearance. The causative agent is proteinaceous infective particle called prion. Prion diseases affect a variety of mammals including humans. The disease is transmitted by contaminated food or feed containing prion protein. In animals the diseases caused by prions are Scrapie, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Transmissible Mink Encephalopathy (TME, Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD, Feline Spongiform Encephalopathy (FSE and exotic Engulate Encephalopathy (EUE. Currently the only reliable test is histo-pathological examination of tissues. Control measures are surveillance, culling sick animals and banning specified risk materials. In India no case of BSE has been reported so far but the disease warrants constant monitoring and surveillance if once introduced or imported would be a herculean task to eradicate it. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 443-448

  19. Ex-ante economic analysis of animal disease surveillance.

    Tambi, E N; Maina, O W; Mariner, J C


    This paper provides an ex-ante economic analysis comparing four alternative intervention strategies for the control and eradication of rinderpest against a scenario of no intervention in a cattle population similar in size to that of Ethiopia. The interventions were three different coverage levels of mass vaccination and one surveillance-based programme where vaccination targeted infected sub-populations. For each scenario, the disease impact was estimated using an open-population, state-transition SEIR ('susceptible', 'exposed', 'infectious', 'recovered') disease transmission model with parameter estimates developed for lineage 1 rinderpest virus. Projected economic surplus gains and costs estimated from the rinderpest eradication programme in Ethiopia were analysed using benefit-cost methods. Social net present values (NPVs) and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) were calculated. Although the economic model found that BCRs were greater than one for all interventions examined, the scenarios of intensive mass vaccination (75% vaccination coverage) and surveillance with targeted vaccination were economically preferable. The BCRs for these strategies were 5.08 and 3.68, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that an increase in market prices for beef and milk increased the value of economic loss, the economic surplus and returns to investments in terms of NPVs and BCRs. An increase in demand and supply elasticities for beef and milk decreased the value of economic losses. This also had a negative effect on economic surplus and NPVs. The effect of an increase in the discount rate reduced returns to investments, with lower NPVs and BCRs. The authors note that 75% mass vaccination coverage was attempted in Ethiopia in the early 1990s, but failed to eradicate rinderpest because the approach was logistically too difficult to implement in practice. Subsequently, an effective surveillance and epidemiologically targeted vaccination programme was developed and has apparently

  20. Testing alternative designs for a roadside animal detection system using a driving simulator

    Molly K. Grace; Smith, Daniel J; Reed F Noss


    Objectives: A Roadside Animal Detection System (RADS) was installed in January 2012 along Highway 41 through Big Cypress National Preserve in Florida, USA in an attempt to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions. The system uses flashing warning signs to alert drivers when a large animal is near the road. However, we suspected that the RADS warning signs could be ignored by drivers because they resemble other conventional signs. We hypothesized that word-based warning signs (current design) are le...

  1. New developments in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Janus, C; Phinney, A L; Chishti, M A; Westaway, D


    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by deterioration in mental function leading to dementia, deposition of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and neuronal loss. The major component of plaques is the amyloid-beta peptide (A beta), whereas NFTs are assemblies of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Electron microscopy of NFTs reveals structures known as paired helical filaments (PHFs). In familial AD (FAD), mutations in three distinct genes drive A beta synthesis by favoring endoproteolytic secretase cleavages that liberate A beta from the Alzheimer beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This suggests that excess A beta initiates a pathogenic cascade in humans that culminates in all the pathologic and cellular hallmarks of AD. Building upon the knowledge of FAD mutations, incremental technical advances have now allowed reproduceable creation of APP transgenic mice that exhibit AD-like amyloid pathology and A beta burdens. These transgenic mouse lines also exhibit deficits in spatial reference and working memory, with immunization against A beta abrogating both AD-associated phenotypes. Besides establishing a proof of principle for A beta-directed therapies, these findings suggest a potential to identify individual elements in the pathogenic pathway that lead to cognitive dysfunction. Furthermore, transgenic APP mice with potent amyloid deposition will likely form a beach-head to capture the final elements of AD neuropathology--cell loss and NFTs composed of PHFs--that are missing from current transgenic models. PMID:11898556

  2. Integrative molecular phylogeography in the context of infectious diseases on the human-animal interface.

    Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco


    The rate of new emerging infectious diseases entering the human population has increased over the past century, with pathogens originating from animals or from products of animal origin accounting for the vast majority. Primary risk factors for the emergence and spread of emerging zoonoses include expansion and intensification of animal agriculture and long-distance live animal transport, live animal markets, bushmeat consumption and habitat destruction. Developing effective control strategies is contingent upon the ability to test causative hypotheses of disease transmission within a statistical framework. Broadly speaking, molecular phylogeography offers a framework in which specific hypotheses regarding pathogen gene flow and dispersal within an ecological context can be compared. A number of different methods has been developed for this application. Here, our intent is firstly to discuss the application of a wide variety of statistically based methods (including Bayesian reconstruction, network parsimony analysis and regression) to specific viruses (influenza, salmon anaemia virus, foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever) that have been associated with animal farming/movements; and secondly to place them in the larger framework of the threat of potential zoonotic events as well as the economic and biosecurity implications of pathogen outbreaks among our animal food sources. PMID:22931895

  3. ERAIZDA: a model for holistic annotation of animal infectious and zoonotic diseases.

    Buza, Teresia M; Jack, Sherman W; Kirunda, Halid; Khaitsa, Margaret L; Lawrence, Mark L; Pruett, Stephen; Peterson, Daniel G


    There is an urgent need for a unified resource that integrates trans-disciplinary annotations of emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic diseases. Such data integration will provide wonderful opportunity for epidemiologists, researchers and health policy makers to make data-driven decisions designed to improve animal health. Integrating emerging and reemerging animal infectious and zoonotic disease data from a large variety of sources into a unified open-access resource provides more plausible arguments to achieve better understanding of infectious and zoonotic diseases. We have developed a model for interlinking annotations of these diseases. These diseases are of particular interest because of the threats they pose to animal health, human health and global health security. We demonstrated the application of this model using brucellosis, an infectious and zoonotic disease. Preliminary annotations were deposited into VetBioBase database ( This database is associated with user-friendly tools to facilitate searching, retrieving and downloading of disease-related information. Database URL: PMID:26581408

  4. Generalized cerebral atrophy seen on MRI in a naturally exposed animal model for creutzfeldt-jakob disease

    Dasanu Constantin A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging has been used in the diagnosis of human prion diseases such as sCJD and vCJD, but patients are scanned only when clinical signs appear, often at the late stage of disease. This study attempts to answer the questions "Could MRI detect prion diseases before clinical symptoms appear?, and if so, with what confidence?" Methods Scrapie, the prion disease of sheep, was chosen for the study because sheep can fit into a human sized MRI scanner (and there were no large animal MRI scanners at the time of this study, and because the USDA had, at the time of the study, a sizeable sample of scrapie exposed sheep, which we were able to use for this purpose. 111 genetically susceptible sheep that were naturally exposed to scrapie were used in this study. Results Our MRI findings revealed no clear, consistent hyperintense or hypointense signal changes in the brain on either clinically affected or asymptomatic positive animals on any sequence. However, in all 37 PrPSc positive sheep (28 asymptomatic and 9 symptomatic, there was a greater ventricle to cerebrum area ratio on MRI compared to 74 PrPSc negative sheep from the scrapie exposed flock and 6 control sheep from certified scrapie free flocks as defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Conclusions Our findings indicate that MRI imaging can detect diffuse cerebral atrophy in asymptomatic and symptomatic sheep infected with scrapie. Nine of these 37 positive sheep, including 2 one-year old animals, were PrPSc positive only in lymph tissues but PrPSc negative in the brain. This suggests either 1 that the cerebral atrophy/neuronal loss is not directly related to the accumulation of PrPSc within the brain or 2 that the amount of PrPSc in the brain is below the detectable limits of the utilized immunohistochemistry assay. The significance of these findings remains to be confirmed in human subjects with CJD.

  5. Detection of Locomotive Behavior in Aquatic Animals by the Use of Infra-red Light

    YONEMORI, Tooru; ヨネモリ, トオル; 米盛, 亨


    To promote catching efficiency of shrimp pots, infra-red light was applied to the detection of animal movements. A sensing unit was composed of a LED (light emitting diode) and a photo-transister. At two sections in the entrance funnel of the pot, one each unit was fixed as a check point. By reading the time lag between transit signals from each gate, the direction of animal locomotion was recognized, furthermore, the number of individuals both entering and escaping animal was counted.

  6. Sleep disturbances in the rotenone animal model of Parkinson disease.

    García-García, Fabio; Ponce, Sonia; Brown, Richard; Cussen, Victoria; Krueger, James M


    Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the presence of intracytoplasmatic inclusions known as Lewy bodies. Chronic administration of rotenone (RT) produces Parkinson's-like symptoms in rats. Because PD patients have disrupted sleep patterns, we determined if chronic RT administration produces similar changes in rat sleep. RT was administered for 28 days to rats. Basal and vehicle (VH) rats received saline or dimethyl sulfoxide and polyethylene glycol (1:1), respectively. VH infusion induced a progressive decrease in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the 4-week period of VH infusion and REMS was reduced in the third and fourth week of VH infusion. VH infusion did not induce dopaminergic cell degeneration. Rats receiving RT infusion also showed decreased NREMS during the treatment. REMS was dramatically reduced on day 7 although subsequently on days 13 and 20 REMS was similar to basal values. After 4 weeks of RT infusion, time in REMS was decreased again. In RT-treated rats, progressive dopaminergic cell degeneration occurred in the SNc. After 4 weeks of daily injections of L-dopa in RT-infused rats, NREMS values remained similar to those values obtained after RT alone. L-dopa therapy did, however, induce a recovery of REMS in weeks 3 and 4 of RT infusion. Dopaminergic cell damage persisted in the L-dopa-RT-infused rats. We conclude that the RT-PD rat model is associated with large long-term sleep disruption, however, the vehicle, DMSO/PEG had as large an effect as RT on sleep, thus changes in sleep cannot be ascribed to loss of dopaminergic cells. Such results question the validity of the RT-PD rat model. PMID:15854587

  7. The animal-human interface and infectious disease in industrial food animal production: rethinking biosecurity and biocontainment.

    Graham, Jay P; Leibler, Jessica H; Price, Lance B; Otte, Joachim M; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Tiensin, T; Silbergeld, Ellen K


    Understanding interactions between animals and humans is critical in preventing outbreaks of zoonotic disease. This is particularly important for avian influenza. Food animal production has been transformed since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Poultry and swine production have changed from small-scale methods to industrial-scale operations. There is substantial evidence of pathogen movement between and among these industrial facilities, release to the external environment, and exposure to farm workers, which challenges the assumption that modern poultry production is more biosecure and biocontained as compared with backyard or small holder operations in preventing introduction and release of pathogens. An analysis of data from the Thai government investigation in 2004 indicates that the odds of H5N1 outbreaks and infections were significantly higher in large-scale commercial poultry operations as compared with backyard flocks. These data suggest that successful strategies to prevent or mitigate the emergence of pandemic avian influenza must consider risk factors specific to modern industrialized food animal production. PMID:19006971

  8. Anticipating the Emerging of Some Strategical Infectious Animal Diseases in Indonesia Related to The Effect of Global Warming and Climate Change

    Sjamsul Bahri


    Full Text Available The effect of global warming and climate change is changing the season, included flooding in one area and very dry in other area, changing the temperature and humidity. These changes will trigger changing of the life of biological agent (virus, bacteria, parasites and so on, variety of animal species, variety of vectors as reservoir host of animal with the role of transmitting the disease to other animal species, This condition will trigger the new animal disease (emerging disease or old disease will be re-emerged (re-emerging diseases. This paper will discuss the effect of global warming and climate change on animal diseases in Indonesia such as Bluetongue (BT, Nipah, Japanese encephalitis (JE, West Nile (WN, and Rift Valley fever (RVF. The climate changes such as increasing the earth temperature and rainfall will cause extremely increase of vector population for BT, JE, WN and RVF. In addition, animal transportation and bird migration from one country to others or region will cause changing of ecological system and will open the chance to distribute the diseases. Hence, anticipation on those disease outbreaks should be taken by conducting the surveilance and early detection to those diseases. The possibility of entering Nipah disease in Indonesia should be anticipated because the avaibility of Nipah virus and the reservoir host (Pteropus spp and also pigs as amplifier host in the surrounding area. Other diseases such as, leptospirosis, anthrax and avian influenza (H5N1 are also have a wider potential to distributing the disease related to the climate change in Indonesia.

  9. MTADM: The new Joint Master Programme in Transboundary Animal Disease Management for Eastern Africa

    Full text: New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) flagship Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). Focus is on livestock for trade and export. Better policies, institutions, regulatory framework and technologies are sought for livestock production and management and delivery of veterinary services and disease control. The disease status of African countries places the pivotal constraints on trade possibilities. Animal health standards imposed by importing countries for international, regional or bi-lateral trade, and through the World Trade Organisation's (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) agreement must be met. 12 of the 15 most important transboundary animal diseases persist in Africa. Disease control under SPS, entailing new standards, regulations and technologies, can and is not be covered by conventional veterinary training. This specialist area of its own has to be addressed in a specialised postgraduate course for young personnel already involved and responsible for public, private and hybrid animal disease control services. Ambitious visions of a new African livestock sector with changed focus on production, disease, trade, marketing, organisation, delivery and internationality are only realistic with newly trained animal disease control personnel. To target these issues at the academic level the Addis Ababa University / Ethiopia with universities of 3 regional partner countries (Kenya, Uganda, Sudan) and the Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany, successfully applied for a grant to establish a Joint Master Course in Transboundary Animal Disease Management (MTADM) for Africa. The 3-year project is funded under the EU - EDULINK Programme of the 9th European Development Funds (EDF) as from 2008 to 2010. Currently, preparatory work is ongoing on the final technical details of the MTADM Course. The overall objective of the programme is to strengthen the capacity of national veterinary services in Africa to control and manage

  10. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    Amann, R.P.


    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  11. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Analysis For Disease Detection: Proof Of Principle For Field Studies Detecting Paratuberculosis And Brucellosis

    Knobloch, Henri; Köhler, Heike; Nicola, Commander; Reinhold, Petra; Turner, Claire; Chambers, Mark


    A proof of concept investigation was performed to demonstrate that two independent infectious diseases of cattle result in different patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the headspace of serum samples detectable using an electronic nose (e-nose). A total of 117 sera from cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (paraTB, n = 43) or Brucella sp. (n = 26) and sera from corresponding control animals (n = 48) were randomly and analysed blind to infection status using a ST214 e-nose (Scensive Ltd, Leeds, UK). Samples were collected under non-standardised conditions on different farms from the UK (brucellosis) and Germany (paraTB). The e-nose could differentiate the sera from brucellosis infected, paraTB infected and healthy animals at the population level, but the technology used was not suitable for determination of the disease status of individual animals. Nevertheless, the data indicate that there are differences in the sensor responses depending on the disease status, and therefore, it shows the potential of VOC analysis from serum headspace samples for disease detection.

  12. Field disease investigation-A differentiating and integrative approach to problems in animal populations.

    Gay, Clive C


    The economically important diseases of agricultural animals are those that affect groups of animals to result in impaired productivity or mortality. Herd and flock disease result from complex interactions between inciting agents (or other etiologies), and factors such as management systems, nutrition, environment and other contributory causes. For these reasons herd and flock disease problems must be addressed, researched, and taught, in the areas where they occur-on the farm and in the field. For political and educational reasons this needs to be on farms throughout the state or region represented by a veterinary school. Like most studies, this type of study needs to have a multidisciplinary input but these inputs often involve disciplines that are different from those that address clinical disease in individual animals in the veterinary teaching hospital setting. Clinical departments in veterinary schools have not traditionally found funds to support this approach to agricultural animal disease. This talk will discuss the establishment of a conjoint program between the College of Veterinary Medicine and the College of Agriculture at Washington State University (Field Disease Investigation Unit) to address these requirements and its activities over the past 25 years. PMID:18937988

  13. A framework for evaluating animals as sentinels for infectious disease surveillance

    Halliday, Jo E.B; Meredith, Anna L.; Darryn L Knobel; Darren J Shaw; de C. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Cleaveland, Sarah


    The dynamics of infectious diseases are highly variable. Host ranges, host responses to pathogens and the relationships between hosts are heterogeneous. Here, we argue that the use of animal sentinels has the potential to use this variation and enable the exploitation of a wide range of pathogen hosts for surveillance purposes. Animal sentinels may be used to address many surveillance questions, but they may currently be underused as a surveillance tool and there is a need for improved interd...

  14. Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease

    Jordan R Plews; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T.; Joseph C. Wu


    Abstract The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinica...

  15. Life Cycle Heterogeneity in Animal Models of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Disease

    Peh, Woei Ling; Middleton, Kate; Christensen, Neil; Nicholls, Philip; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Sotlar, Karl; Brandsma, Janet; Percival, Alan; Lewis, Jon; Liu, Wen Jun; Doorbar, John


    Animal papillomaviruses are widely used as models to study papillomavirus infection in humans despite differences in genome organization and tissue tropism. Here, we have investigated the extent to which animal models of papillomavirus infection resemble human disease by comparing the life cycles of 10 different papillomavirus types. Three phases in the life cycles of all viruses were apparent using antibodies that distinguish between early events, the onset of viral genome amplification, and...

  16. Evaluation and validation of new animal and behavioural models for the study of Alzheimer's disease

    Goricanec, Irena


    The incidence of suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases steadily with augmenting life expectancy in humans, generating an enormous burden for patients, their families and the national health system. Models used in previous publications covered only parts of the AD pathology. The work presented here combines transgenic technology and selective invasive methods to identify an improved animal model for the study of AD. The suitability of animals to acquire task demands of behaviour...

  17. Reduced animal use in efficacy testing in disease models with use of sequential experimental designs.

    Waterton JC, Middleton BJ, Pickford R, Allott CP, Checkley D, Keith RA.


    Although the use of animals in efficacy tests has declined substantially, there remains a small number of well-documented disease models which provide essential information about the efficacy of new compounds. Such models are typically used after extensive in vitro testing, to evaluate small numbers of compounds and to select the most promising agents for clinical trial in humans. The aim of this study was to reduce the number of animals required to achieve valid results, without compromising...

  18. Viral Metagenomics on Animals as a Tool for the Detection of Zoonoses Prior to Human Infection?

    Sarah Temmam


    Full Text Available Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases.

  19. 36 CFR 222.8 - Cooperation in control of estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and...


    ... estray or unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. 222.8 Section... unbranded livestock, animal diseases, noxious farm weeds, and use of pesticides. (a) Insofar as it involves... farm weeds. (2) The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other Federal or State agencies...

  20. Listeria Monocytogenes as Contaminant of Food Derived from Animal (Foodborne Disease

    Tati Ariyanti


    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes often contaminates food derived from animal and serves as pathogenic bacteria for animals and human. The outbreaks were related with the consumption of food derived from animals such as meat, milk, egg, seafood and its product that poorly cooked. Human listeriosis could be transmitted by direct contact with infected animal. The disease often is asymtomatic and widely distributes in the world. The mortality rate reaches to 30%. The bacteria is important because of the widespread in the environment, tolerant to acid, hot or salt environments, forms a biofilm layer and produces virulent factor (listeriolisin O/LLO. The bacteria can grow at 4°C or in the frozen food. Appropriate handlings of animals and their products are important to prevent from L. monocytogenes contamination.

  1. Amperometric cell for subcutaneous detection of hydrogen sulfide in anesthetized experimental animals

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic gas. It has been recognized that H2S evolving in biochemical reactions in living organisms has an important role in different physiologic processes. Nowadays, H2S is known as an endogenous messenger molecule. Natural sulfurous spring water has been proved beneficial in the therapy of diseases of the skin and other organs (Boros et al 2013). In vivo real-time detection of local H2S concentration is an important but challenging task. We developed a two-electrode amperometric cell for selective subcutaneous detection of H2S in anesthetized mice. The cell is a small size implantable gas sensor containing a platinum disc anode and a silver cathode. The selectivity is provided by a membrane permeable only by gases. There is a buffered reversible electrochemical mediator solution in an oxidized form inside the cell. As gaseous H2S penetrates into the cell the mediator is reduced, and +0.4 V versus the reference is employed on the platinum working electrode. The reduced mediator is oxidized on the anode surface. The current provides an analytical signal representing the concentration of H2S. Appropriate shape, size and membrane material were selected, and optimal working parameters—such as mediator concentration, pH and cell voltage—were determined in vitro. The lower limit of detection in the stirred sample solution at pH = 5.5 was as small as 9.4  ×  10−7 M and a dynamic concentration range of 0–6  ×  10–4 M could be achieved. The detecting surfaces of the cell were covered with freshly dissected mouse skin to test dermal H2S permeability. In other experiments, the cell was implanted subcutaneously in an anesthetized mouse and the animal was submerged in a buffer solution containing different concentrations of H2S so that the skin surface over the sensor was covered by the solution. Measurements of subcutaneous H2S concentration were taken. The experiments clearly proved that H2S diffuses through the skin

  2. Turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to airborne disease transmission between laboratory animals

    Halloran, Siobhan; Wexler, Anthony; Ristenpart, William


    Virologists and other researchers who test pathogens for airborne disease transmissibility often place a test animal downstream from an inoculated animal and later determine whether the test animal became infected. Despite the crucial role of the airflow in modulating the pathogen transmission, to date the infectious disease community has paid little attention to the effect of airspeed or turbulence intensity on the probability of transmission. Here we present measurements of the turbulent dispersivity under conditions relevant to experimental tests of airborne disease transmissibility between laboratory animals. We used time lapse photography to visualize the downstream transport and turbulent dispersion of smoke particulates released from a point source downstream of a standard axial fan, thus mimicking the release and transport of expiratory aerosols exhaled by an inoculated animal. We demonstrate that the fan speed counterintuitively has no effect on the downstream plume width, a result replicated with a variety of different fan types and configurations. The results point toward a useful simplification in modeling of airborne disease transmission via fan-generated flows.

  3. Foot and mouth disease eradication policy: social impact and animal welfare

    Barbara Marins Pettres


    Full Text Available Santa Catarina is the only Brazilian state that does not immunize the bovine herd against foot and mouth disease. This article discusses the policy adopted for the foot and mouth disease in Santa Catarina, especially the non-vaccination, and relates this policy with ethical, human and animal welfare issues. Nine representatives of agricultural institutions in the state were interviewed, as well as, in a case study, seven families of farmers in Jóia - Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where foot and mouth disease occurred in 2000, leading to the sacrifice of 11,067 animals, most of them dairy animals. The majority of the agricultural institutions in Santa Catarina are contrary to vaccination, in order to keep and extend pig and poultry export markets. Concerns on social repercussions tended to concentrate on the effects on the income of the affected families. The case study in Jóia demonstrated that the life styles of the affected farmers were deeply harmed due to effects on human mental health, loss of income and changes in the local economy. The study concludes that the experience of a foot and mouth disease outbreak results in traumatic and long term consequences and that there is a need for policies that include social, ethical and environmental provisions, once animal welfare aspects and impacts on other areas of the economy are not contemplated in the public policy of animal sanitary defense.

  4. A Human-Animal-Robot Cooperative System for Anti-Personal Mine Detection

    Nanayakkara, Thrishantha; Dissanayake, Tharindu; Mahipala, Prasanna; Sanjaya, K. A. Gayan


    To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first time a human-robot-animal integrated system is tested for antipersonnel landmine detection. The proposed system tries to integrate distinct capabilities of three different systems to improve the effectiveness of landmine detection in a cluttered environment. The mongoose is found to be a rodent with extremely sensitive olfactory capabilities, dexterous navigation capabilities in a cluttered environment, and small enough to burrow throug...

  5. [Food safety and animal diseases. The French Food Safety Agency, from mad cow disease to bird flu].

    Keck, Frédéric


    Why has the French food safety agency been particularly mobilized on zoonoses like bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") or highly pathogenic avian influenza ("bird flu") ? Because sanitary crisis make explicit an ambivalent relationship between humans and animals (animals being perceived alternatively as providers of goods and as bearers of threats), and to the circulation of life in general (the contaminated blood crises being due to the rapprochement of blood giving and blood receiving). The sociology of risks needs therefore to reintegrate the idea of an intention of the risk bearer (risk with enemy), and the sociology of alimentation needs to reintegrate the analysis of the conditions of production. Mad cow disease is the paradigmatic food safety crisis because it brings together the poles of production and consumption, of animals and humans. It therefore belongs to anthropology. PMID:18198116

  6. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M


    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  7. Continuity of Business Plans for Animal Disease Outbreaks: Using a Logic Model Approach to Protect Animal Health, Public Health, and Our Food Supply

    Heather Allen


    Full Text Available Foreign animal diseases can have a devastating impact on the American economy and agriculture system, while significantly disrupting the food supply chain, and affecting animal health and public health. Continuity of business during an animal disease outbreak aims to mitigate these agriculture-related losses by facilitating normal business operations through the managed movement of non-infected animals and non-contaminated animal products. During a foreign animal disease outbreak, there are competing objectives of trying to control and contain the outbreak while allowing non-infected premises to continue normal business operations to the greatest extent possible. Using a logic model approach, this article discusses the importance of continuity of business planning during an animal disease outbreak, providing a detailed and transparent theoretical framework for continuity of business planning for animal agriculture stakeholders. The logic model provides a basis for continuity of business planning, which is rapidly gaining focus and interest in the animal emergency management community. This unique logic model offers a framework for effective planning and subsequent evaluation of continuity of business plans and processes, by identifying explicit stakeholders, inputs, and activities, alongside the desired outputs and outcomes of such planning.

  8. Comparison of alternatives to passive surveillance to detect foot and mouth disease incursions in Victoria, Australia.

    Garner, M G; East, I J; Kompas, T; Ha, P V; Roche, S E; Nguyen, H T M


    This study aimed to evaluate strategies to enhance the early detection of foot and mouth disease incursions in Australia. Two strategies were considered. First, improving the performance of the current passive surveillance system. Second, supplementing the current passive system with active surveillance strategies based on testing animals at saleyards or through bulk milk testing of dairy herds. Simulation modelling estimated the impact of producer education and awareness by either increasing the daily probability that a farmer will report the presence of diseased animals or by reducing the proportion of the herd showing clinical signs required to trigger a disease report. Both increasing the probability of reporting and reducing the proportion of animals showing clinical signs resulted in incremental decreases in the time to detection, the size and the duration of the outbreak. A gold standard system in which all producers reported the presence of disease once 10% of the herd showed clinical signs reduced the median time to detection of the outbreak from 20 to 15days, the duration of the subsequent outbreak from 53 to 42days and the number of infected farms from 46 to 32. Bulk milk testing reduced the median time to detection by two days and the number of infected farms by six but had no impact on the duration of the outbreak. Screening of animals at saleyards provided no improvement over the current passive surveillance system alone while having significant resource issues. It is concluded that the most effective way to achieve early detection of incursions of foot and mouth disease into Victoria, Australia is to invest in improving producer reporting. PMID:27237393

  9. Microbial screening methods for detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals

    Pikkemaat, M.G.


    Monitoring of food products from animal origin for the presence of antimicrobial residues is preferably done using microbial screening methods because of their high cost-effectiveness. Traditionally applied methods fail to detect the maximum residue limits which were established when EU Council Regu

  10. Detecting hepatic steatosis using ultrasound-induced thermal strain imaging: an ex vivo animal study

    Hepatic steatosis or fatty liver disease occurs when lipids accumulate within the liver and can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer and eventual liver failure requiring liver transplant. Conventional brightness mode (B-mode) ultrasound (US) is the most common noninvasive diagnostic imaging modality used to diagnose hepatic steatosis in clinics. However, it is mostly subjective or requires a reference organ such as the kidney or spleen with which to compare. This comparison can be problematic when the reference organ is diseased or absent. The current work presents an alternative approach to noninvasively detecting liver fat content using US-induced thermal strain imaging (US-TSI). This technique is based on the difference in the change in the speed of sound as a function of temperature between water- and lipid-based tissues. US-TSI was conducted using two system configurations including a mid-frequency scanner with a single linear array transducer (5–14 MHz) for both imaging and heating and a high-frequency (13–24 MHz) small animal imaging system combined with a separate custom-designed US heating transducer array. Fatty livers (n = 10) with high fat content (45.6 ± 11.7%) from an obese mouse model and control livers (n = 10) with low fat content (4.8 ± 2.9%) from wild-type mice were embedded in gelatin. Then, US imaging was performed before and after US induced heating. Heating time periods of ∼3 s and ∼9.2 s were used for the mid-frequency imaging and high-frequency imaging systems, respectively, to induce temperature changes of approximately 1.5 °C. The apparent echo shifts that were induced as a result of sound speed change were estimated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking. Following US-TSI, histology was performed to stain lipids and measure percentage fat in the mouse livers. Thermal strain measurements in fatty livers (−0.065 ± 0.079%) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those measured in control livers (−0.124

  11. The Y-Box Binding Protein 1 Suppresses Alzheimer's Disease Progression in Two Animal Models.

    N V Bobkova

    Full Text Available The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1 is a member of the family of DNA- and RNA binding proteins. It is involved in a wide variety of DNA/RNA-dependent events including cell proliferation and differentiation, stress response, and malignant cell transformation. Previously, YB-1 was detected in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus, but its precise role in the brain remains undefined. Here we show that subchronic intranasal injections of recombinant YB-1, as well as its fragment YB-11-219, suppress impairment of spatial memory in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX mice with Alzheimer's type degeneration and improve learning in transgenic 5XFAD mice used as a model of cerebral amyloidosis. YB-1-treated OBX and 5XFAD mice showed a decreased level of brain β-amyloid. In OBX animals, an improved morphological state of neurons was revealed in the neocortex and hippocampus; in 5XFAD mice, a delay in amyloid plaque progression was observed. Intranasally administered YB-1 penetrated into the brain and could enter neurons. In vitro co-incubation of YB-1 with monomeric β-amyloid (1-42 inhibited formation of β-amyloid fibrils, as confirmed by electron microscopy. This suggests that YB-1 interaction with β-amyloid prevents formation of filaments that are responsible for neurotoxicity and neuronal death. Our data are the first evidence for a potential therapeutic benefit of YB-1 for treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. a Simplified Bayesian Network Model Applied in Crop or Animal Disease Diagnosis

    Yu, Helong; Chen, Guifen; Liu, Dayou

    Bayesian network is a powerful tool to represent and deal with uncertain knowledge. There exists much uncertainty in crop or animal disease. The construction of Bayesian network need much data and knowledge. But when data is scarce, some methods should be adopted to construct an effective Bayesian network. This paper introduces a disease diagnosis model based on Bayesian network, which is two-layered and obeys noisy-or assumption. Based on the two-layered structure, the relationship between nodes is obtained by domain knowledge. Based on the noisy-model, the conditional probability table is elicited by three methods, which are parameter learning, domain expert and the existing certainty factor model. In order to implement this model, a Bayesian network tool is developed. Finally, an example about cow disease diagnosis was implemented, which proved that the model discussed in this paper is an effective tool for some simple disease diagnosis in crop or animal field.

  13. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strains Isolated from Crohn's Disease Patients and Animal Species Exhibit Similar Polymorphic Locus Patterns

    Ghadiali, Alifiya H.; Strother, Megan; Naser, Saleh A.; Manning, Elizabeth J. B.; Sreevatsan, Srinand


    Analysis of short sequence repeats of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolated from Crohn's disease patients identified two alleles, both of which clustered with strains derived from animals with Johne's disease. Identification of a limited number of genotypes among human strains implies the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals.

  14. A branching model for the spread of infectious animal diseases in varying environments

    Trapman, Pieter; Meester, R; Heesterbeek, J A P


    This paper is concerned with a stochastic model, describing outbreaks of infectious diseases that have potentially great animal or human health consequences, and which can result in such severe economic losses that immediate sets of measures need to be taken to curb the spread. During an outbreak of such a disease, the environment that the infectious agent experiences is therefore changing due to the subsequent control measures taken. In our model, we introduce a general branching process in ...

  15. Conditional dependence between tests affects the diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases

    Gardner, I.A.; Stryhn, Henrik; Lind, Peter;


    Dependence between the sensitivities or specificities of pairs of tests affects the sensitivity and specificity of tests when used in combination. Compared with values expected if tests are conditionally independent, a positive dependence in test sensitivity reduces the sensitivity of parallel te...... for toxoplasmosis and brucellosis in swine, and Johne's disease in cattle to illustrate calculation methods and to indicate the likely magnitude of the dependence between serologic tests used for diagnosis and surveillance of animal diseases....

  16. Understanding disease processes in multiple sclerosis through magnetic resonance imaging studies in animal models

    Nabeela Nathoo; V Wee Yong; Dunn, Jeff F.


    There are exciting new advances in multiple sclerosis (MS) resulting in a growing understanding of both the complexity of the disorder and the relative involvement of grey matter, white matter and inflammation. Increasing need for preclinical imaging is anticipated, as animal models provide insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the key imaging tool used to diagnose and to monitor disease progression in MS, and thus will be a cornerstone for future resear...

  17. Grunting in genetically modified minipig animal model for Huntington ´s disease - a pilot experiment

    Tykalová, T.; Hlavnička, J.; Mačáková, Monika; Baxa, Monika; Cmejla, R.; Motlík, Jan; Klempíř, J.; Rusz, J.


    Roč. 78, Suppl 2 (2015), s. 12-13. ISSN 1210-7859. [Conference on Animal Models for neurodegenerative Diseases /3./. 08.11.2015-10.11.2015, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14308 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Huntington´s disease * mitochondria * DNA damage Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  18. Hepatobiliary diseases in small animals: a comparison of ultrasonography and multidetector-row computed tomography

    Borsetto, Antonella


    Ultrasonography (US) is an essential imaging tool for identifying abnormalities of the liver parenchyma, biliary tract and vascular system. US has replaced radiography as the initial imaging procedure in screening for liver disease in small animals. There are few reports of the use of conventional and helical computed tomography (CT) to assess canine or feline parenchymal and neoplastic liver disease and biliary disorders. In human medicine the development of multidetector- row helical comput...

  19. Development of disease preventive method using radiated pathogenic microorganisms, cell lines and animals

    A radiated bone marrow chimera mouse has been constructed by grafting. This chimera mouse was thought useful for analyzing gene specific functions in vivo. This study aimed to construct a vector available for a study on the functions of various genes that were cloned from animals through their constitutive expressions. Construction of a retroviral vector was attempted using spleen focus forming virus (SFFV), a mouse leukemia virus. The virus thus obtained was demonstrated to be able to express the gene when infected to NIH3T3, a mouse fibroblast cell line. Furthermore, packaging cells were constructed by transfecting the retroviral vector into the fibroblast cell. Bone marrow cells were incubated with the packaging cells for several days to make gene transfection into the bone marrow cells. After radiation exposure at a lethal dose, the mouse was grafted with the bone marrow cells. Thus, it became possible to investigate in vivo functions of a cloned gene through its expression in the cells. Then, development of a retroviral vector was attempted to use for transfection into bone marrow cells. Aujeszky's disease virus, a large size DNA virus was exposed to Co radiation at -78degC, but the infectivity of the irradiated virus was not detectable. Since viral RNA was demonstrated to be already broken 24 hours after the exposure to β-ray, the effects of β-radiation were examined with swine vesicular disease virus, a small RNA virus. This virus was exposed to α-32dATP (37MBq) as a β-ray source for 1 hour to 96 hours. However, there were no significant differences in the infectivity titer between the virus exposed for any of the durations and the control, non-radiated virus. This suggested that the virus was not inactivated under the present conditions. Further investigation to determine exposure conditions is under way. (M.N.)

  20. Epidemiology and Economics Support Decisions about Freedom from Aquatic Animal Disease.

    Peeler, E J; Otte, M J


    In this study, we review the application of epidemiology and economics to decision-making about freedom from aquatic animal disease, at national and regional level, and recent examples from Europe. Epidemiological data (e.g. pathogen prevalence and distribution) determine the technical feasibility and cost of eradication. The eradication of pathogens which exist in wild populations, or in a latent state, is technically difficult, uncertain and expensive. Notably, the eradication of diseases of molluscs is rarely attempted because host populations (farmed and wild) cannot be completely removed from open water systems. Doubt about the success of eradication translates into uncertain ex-ante cost estimates. Additionally, the benefits of an official disease-free status cannot be estimated with any accuracy. For example, in Europe, official freedom from epizootic ulcerative syndrome and white spot syndrome virus has not been pursued, arguably because the evidence does not exist for the benefits (reduced risk of disease in wild populations) to be estimated and thus weighed against the costs of maintaining disease freedom (e.g. restriction on imports). Economic analysis must assess not only whether the benefits of disease freedom outweigh costs, but whether it is the economically optimal disease control option. Government may also want to compare investment in aquatic animal health with other opportunities. As resources become scarce, governments have sought to share costs of disease control with industry, and thus to ensure equity, the distribution benefits must be known so costs can be borne by those who benefit. The economic principles to support decisions about disease freedom are well established, but their application is constrained by lack of epidemiological data, which may explain the lack of economic analysis in support of aquatic animal management in Europe. The integration of epidemiology and economics in disease control planning will identify research aimed at

  1. Detection and classification of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in animals of an endemic area of Chile

    Blood samples from 200 sylvatic and peridomestic animals from an endemic area of Chile were subjected to PCR amplification of Trypanosoma cruzi minicircle sequences. This method enabled to detect parasite DNA in animals of the species. (Thylamis elegans, Octodon degus, Phyllotis darwini, and Abrothrix olivaceuss) as representatives of sylvatic animals, and Capra hircus as representative of the peridomestic one. Altogether, 51% of the sylvatic and 36% of the peridomestic animals were infected with T.cruzi Amplified DNA products obtained in this study were then studied by Southern analysis with a panel of four radioactive probes prepared from genotyped T.cruzi clones in the endemic areas of Chile and pertaining to T.cruzi lineages I and II. Most of the animal are infected at a rate of 35% with T.cruzi I, however other 85% are infected with T.cruzi II. This method is able to detect mixed infections with two or more different genotypes this figure raise to approximately 40% in this sample. (author)

  2. Management of Ocular Diseases Using Lutein and Zeaxanthin: What Have We Learned from Experimental Animal Studies?

    Chunyan Xue


    Full Text Available Zeaxanthin and lutein are two carotenoid pigments that concentrated in the retina, especially in the macula. The effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on the prevention and treatment of various eye diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and cataract, ischemic/hypoxia induced retinopathy, light damage of the retina, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal detachment, and uveitis, have been studied in different experimental animal models. In these animal models, lutein and zeaxanthin have been reported to have beneficial effects in protecting ocular tissues and cells (especially the retinal neurons against damage caused by different etiological factors. The mechanisms responsible for these effects of lutein and zeaxanthin include prevention of phototoxic damage by absorption of blue light, reduction of oxidative stress through antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, and their anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. The results of these experimental animal studies may provide new preventive and therapeutic procedures for clinical management of various vision-threatening diseases.

  3. Outline for an integrated modelling approach concerning risks and economic consequences of contagious animal diseases.

    Horst, H.S.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.


    Management decisions on control of major infectious animal diseases may have a large impact, but are usually based on scarce and unreliable information. An integrated model which combines the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with economic consequences has yet to be developed. A flexible model

  4. Monitoring for the management of disease risk in animal translocation programmes

    Nichols, James D.; Hollmen, Tuula E.; Grand, James B.


    Monitoring is best viewed as a component of some larger programme focused on science or conservation. The value of monitoring is determined by the extent to which it informs the parent process. Animal translocation programmes are typically designed to augment or establish viable animal populations without changing the local community in any detrimental way. Such programmes seek to minimize disease risk to local wild animals, to translocated animals, and in some cases to humans. Disease monitoring can inform translocation decisions by (1) providing information for state-dependent decisions, (2) assessing progress towards programme objectives, and (3) permitting learning in order to make better decisions in the future. Here we discuss specific decisions that can be informed by both pre-release and post-release disease monitoring programmes. We specify state variables and vital rates needed to inform these decisions. We then discuss monitoring data and analytic methods that can be used to estimate these state variables and vital rates. Our discussion is necessarily general, but hopefully provides a basis for tailoring disease monitoring approaches to specific translocation programmes.

  5. Methods of detection, species identification and quantification of processed animal proteins in feedingstuffs

    Fumière O.


    Full Text Available The ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs in feed for farmed animals led to a significant reduction of the number of bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. Presently, optical microscopy remains the only reference method for the detection of PAPs to be applied for official control as required by Commission Directive 2003/126/EC. The legislation also foresees that other methods may be applied in addition to classical microscopy, if – for instance – they provide more information about the origin of the animal constituents. Therefore, alternative and complementary techniques were developed as such or in combination. The most promising ones seem to be PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, near infrared microscopy and imaging, as well as immunology. Within the framework of a PAP ban regardless of its species origin (total feed ban, most of the studies were mainly focused on the ability of the techniques to detect the presence of PAPs at 0.1% (mass percentage of constituents of animal origin in feed as indicated as limit of detection in the official method protocol. A possible modification of the legislation requires that the techniques are also able to determine their species origin and to quantify them. The present paper gives a state of the art of the different methods.

  6. Animal viral diseases and global change: Bluetongue and West Nile fever as paradigms

    Miguel Angel eJimenez-Clavero


    Full Text Available Environmental changes have an undoubted influence on the appearance, distribution and evolution of infectious diseases, and notably on those transmitted by vectors. Global change refers to environmental changes arising from human activities affecting the fundamental mechanisms operating in the biosphere. This paper discusses the changes observed in recent times with regard to some important arboviral (arthropod-borne viral diseases of animals, and the role global change could have played in these variations. Two of the most important arboviral diseases of animals, bluetongue and West Nile fever/encephalitis, have been selected as models. In both cases, in the last 15 years an important leap forward has been observed, which has lead to considering them emerging diseases in different parts of the world. Bluetongue, affecting domestic ruminants, has recently afflicted livestock in Europe in an unprecedented epizootic, causing enormous economic losses. West Nile fever/encephalitis affects wildlife (birds, domestic animals (equines and humans, thus, beyond the economic consequences of its occurrence, as a zoonotic disease, it poses an important public health threat. West Nile virus has expanded in the last 12 years worldwide, and particularly in the Americas, where it first occurred in 1999, extending throughout the Americas relentlessly since then, causing a severe epidemic of disastrous consequences for public health, wildlife and livestock. In Europe, West Nile virus is known long time ago, but it is since the last years of the XXth century that its incidence has risen substantially. Circumstances such as global warming, changes in land use and water management, increase in travel, trade of animals, and others, can have an important influence in the observed changes in both diseases. The following question is raised: What is the contribution of global changes to the current increase of these diseases in the world?

  7. From animal models to human disease: a genetic approach for personalized medicine in ALS.

    Picher-Martel, Vincent; Valdmanis, Paul N; Gould, Peter V; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Dupré, Nicolas


    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent motor neuron disease in adults. Classical ALS is characterized by the death of upper and lower motor neurons leading to progressive paralysis. Approximately 10 % of ALS patients have familial form of the disease. Numerous different gene mutations have been found in familial cases of ALS, such as mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), C9ORF72, ubiquilin-2 (UBQLN2), optineurin (OPTN) and others. Multiple animal models were generated to mimic the disease and to test future treatments. However, no animal model fully replicates the spectrum of phenotypes in the human disease and it is difficult to assess how a therapeutic effect in disease models can predict efficacy in humans. Importantly, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of ALS leads to a variety of responses to similar treatment regimens. From this has emerged the concept of personalized medicine (PM), which is a medical scheme that combines study of genetic, environmental and clinical diagnostic testing, including biomarkers, to individualized patient care. In this perspective, we used subgroups of specific ALS-linked gene mutations to go through existing animal models and to provide a comprehensive profile of the differences and similarities between animal models of disease and human disease. Finally, we reviewed application of biomarkers and gene therapies relevant in personalized medicine approach. For instance, this includes viral delivering of antisense oligonucleotide and small interfering RNA in SOD1, TDP-43 and C9orf72 mice models. Promising gene therapies raised possibilities for treating differently the major mutations in familial ALS cases. PMID:27400686

  8. Correlated Inflammatory Responses and Neurodegeneration in Peptide-Injected Animal Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    James G. McLarnon


    Full Text Available Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD which emphasize activation of microglia may have particular utility in correlating proinflammatory activity with neurodegeneration. This paper reviews injection of amyloid-β (Aβ into rat brain as an alternative AD animal model to the use of transgenic animals. In particular, intrahippocampal injection of Aβ1-42 peptide demonstrates prominent microglial mobilization and activation accompanied by a significant loss of granule cell neurons. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of inflammatory reactivity is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of drugs with a common endpoint in conferring neuroprotection in peptide-injected animals. Peptide-injection models provide a focus on glial cell responses to direct peptide injection in rat brain and offer advantages in the study of the mechanisms underlying neuroinflammation in AD brain.

  9. Transgenic animal models for study of the pathogenesis of Huntington’s disease and therapy

    Chang RB


    Full Text Available Renbao Chang,1 Xudong Liu,1 Shihua Li,2 Xiao-Jiang Li1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Huntington’s disease (HD is caused by a genetic mutation that results in polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal regions of huntingtin. As a result, this polyQ expansion leads to the misfolding and aggregation of mutant huntingtin as well as age-dependent neurodegeneration. The genetic mutation in HD allows for generating a variety of animal models that express different forms of mutant huntingtin and show differential pathology. Studies of these animal models have provided an important insight into the pathogenesis of HD. Mouse models of HD include transgenic mice, which express N-terminal or full-length mutant huntingtin ubiquitously or selectively in different cell types, and knock-in mice that express full-length mutant Htt at the endogenous level. Large animals, such as pig, sheep, and monkeys, have also been used to generate animal HD models. This review focuses on the different features of commonly used transgenic HD mouse models as well as transgenic large animal models of HD, and also discusses how to use them to identify potential therapeutics. Since HD shares many pathological features with other neurodegenerative diseases, identification of therapies for HD would also help to develop effective treatment for different neurodegenerative diseases that are also caused by protein misfolding and occur in an age-dependent manner. Keywords: transgenic animal models, Huntington’s disease, pathogenesis, therapy

  10. Computational Prediction of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease MicroRNAs in Domestic Animals.

    Wang, Hai Yang; Lin, Zi Li; Yu, Xian Feng; Bao, Yuan; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung


    As the most common neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are two of the main health concerns for the elderly population. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as biomarkers of infectious, genetic, and metabolic diseases in humans but they have not been well studied in domestic animals. Here we describe a computational biology study in which human AD- and PD-associated miRNAs (ADM and PDM) were utilized to predict orthologous miRNAs in the following domestic animal species: dog, cow, pig, horse, and chicken. In this study, a total of 121 and 70 published human ADM and PDM were identified, respectively. Thirty-seven miRNAs were co-regulated in AD and PD. We identified a total of 105 unrepeated human ADM and PDM that had at least one 100% identical animal homolog, among which 81 and 54 showed 100% sequence identity with 241 and 161 domestic animal miRNAs, respectively. Over 20% of the total mature horse miRNAs (92) showed perfect matches to AD/PD-associated miRNAs. Pigs, dogs, and cows have similar numbers of AD/PD-associated miRNAs (63, 62, and 59). Chickens had the least number of perfect matches (34). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses suggested that humans and dogs are relatively similar in the functional pathways of the five selected highly conserved miRNAs. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence for better understanding the miRNA-AD/PD associations in domestic animals, and provides guidance to generate domestic animal models of AD/PD to replace the current rodent models. PMID:26954182

  11. Currently important animal disease management issues in sub-Saharan Africa : policy and trade issues

    G.R. Thomson


    Full Text Available The present international approach to management of transboundary animal diseases (TADs is based on the assumption that most can be eradicated ; consequently, that is the usual objective adopted by international organizations concerned with animal health. However, for sub-Saharan Africa and southern Africa more particularly, eradication of most TADs is impossible for the foreseeable future for a variety of technical, financial and logistical reasons. Compounding this, the present basis for access to international markets for products derived from animals requires that the area of origin (country or zone is free from trade-influencing TADs. The ongoing development of transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs, extending across huge areas of southern Africa, therefore presents a development conundrum because it makes creation of geographic areas free from TADs more difficult and brings development based on wildlife conservation on the one hand and that based on livestock production on the other into sharp conflict. Sub-Saharan Africa is consequently confronted by a complex problem that contributes significantly to retarded rural development which, in turn, impedes poverty alleviation. In southern Africa specifically, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD presents the greatest problem in relation to access to international markets for animal products. However, it is argued that this problem could be overcome by a combination between (1 implementation of a commodity-based approach to trade in products derived from animals and (2 amendment of the international standards for FMD specifically (i.e. the FMD chapter in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE] so that occurrence of SAT serotype viruses in free-living African buffalo need not necessarily mean exclusion of areas where buffalo occur from international markets for animal products. This would overcome a presently intractable constraint to market access for

  12. The rat as an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease

    Benedikz, Eirikur; Kloskowska, Ewa; Winblad, Bengt


    As a disease model, the laboratory rat has contributed enormously to neuroscience research over the years. It has also been a popular animal model for Alzheimer’s disease but its popularity has diminished during the last decade, as techniques for genetic manipulation in rats have lagged behind that of mice. In recent years, the rat has been making a comeback as an Alzheimer’s disease model and the appearance of increasing numbers of transgenic rats will be a welcome and valuable complement to...

  13. Metallothionein-I and -III expression in animal models of Alzheimer disease

    Carrasco, J; Adlard, P; Cotman, C;


    Previous studies have described altered expression of metallothioneins (MTs) in neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS), Down syndrome, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to gain insight into the possible role of MTs in neurodegenerative processes and especially in human...... diseases, the use of animal models is a valuable tool. Several transgenic mouse models of AD amyloid deposits are currently available. These models express human beta-amyloid precursor protein (AbetaPP) carrying different mutations that subsequently result in a varied pattern of beta-amyloid (Abeta...

  14. Relationship of trade patterns of the Danish swine industry animal movements network to potential disease spread

    Bigras-Poulin, Michel; Barfod, Kristen; Mortensen, Sten; Greiner, Matthias

    can be randomly generated on the basis of farm density of the surrounding area of any farm is not correct since the patterns of animal movements have the topology of a scale-free network with a large degree of heterogeneity. This supported the opinion that the disease spread software assuming...... providing network knowledge to the local veterinarian in charge of controlling disease spread, should also be evaluated as a potential tool to manage epidemics during the crisis. Geographic information systems could also be linked in the approach to produce knowledge about local transmission of disease....

  15. Tuberculosis at the human-animal interface: an emerging disease of elephants.

    Mikota, Susan K; Maslow, Joel N


    Over the past 15 years, cases of infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have been diagnosed among captive elephants in the United States and worldwide. Outbreak investigations have documented that among staff employed at facilities housing infected animals, skin test conversion to purified protein derivative have been documented. Clonal spread among animals in close contact and even inter-species spread between elephant and human has been documented. Detection of actively infected animals relies on samples obtained by trunk wash. Diagnosis has been augmented by the development of a multi-antigen serologic assay with excellent specificity and sensitivity. Treatment regimens are still in development with efficacy largely unknown due to a paucity of both premortem follow-up and necropsy data of treated animals. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants require additional careful study of clinical data. PMID:21397564

  16. Radiologically- detectable sacroiliac involvement in behcet's disease

    Background: The association of Behcet's disease and ankylosing spondylitis is still a matter of debate. Objective: As the presence of sacroiliac joint involvement is an essential criterion in diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis . We decided to determined the prevalence of sacroiliac joint involvement in Behcet's disease and compare it with that of a control group. Patients and Methods: We randomly selected two groups of 199 Behcet's disease patients and 168 non- Behcet's disease cases (the controls). All cases were over 20 years of ages. Standard anteroposterior radiographs of the sacroiliac joint were obtained and interpreted by two rheumatologists and a radiologists blinded to the diagnosis. To determined the severity of the condition, the following 5-point scale was employed: Normal (O), pseudo-widening (1), sclerosis (2), erosion (3), and bony fusion (4). The eliminate any doubt, only grades 3 and 4 were considered as sacroiliitis. Both group were separately evaluated for age (≤ 30, and ≥ 30), and gender. Results were compared using Chi square test. Results: The groups were matched for age and sex: There were 98 (49.2%) females in Behcet's disease vs. 91 (54.2%) in the control group (p=O.35). The mean ±SD age was 35±8.3 years in Behcet's disease and 35 ±10 in control group (p=1). The sacroiliac joint was involved in 9 (4.6%) patients in Behcet's disease and 7 (4.2%) patients in control group (p=O.93). Comparisons between the results of the unisexual cohorts revealed to significance either (p=O.68 for males, and p=O.64 for females). The age subdivisions (under- and over-30) again showed no significant difference (p=O.96 and p=O.69 for under- and over -30 patients, respectively). Conclusion: The presence of radiographic signs of sacroiliac joint involvement is not mandatory for the diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis

  17. Rapid detection of self-biting disease of mink by specific sequence-characterized amplified regions

    LIU Zong-yue; NING Fang-yong; YANG Hong-yan; WEI Lai; BAI Xiu-juan


    Self-biting disease occurred in most farmed fur animals in the world. The mechanism and rapid detection method of this disease has not been reported. We applied bulked sergeant analysis (BSA) in combination with RAPD method to analyze a molecular genetic marker linked with self-biting trait in mink group. The molecular marker was converted into sequence-characterized amplified regions (SCAR) marker for rapid detection of this disease. A single RAPD marker A8 amplified a specific band of 263bp in self-biting minks, which was designated as SRA8-250,and non-specific band of 315bp in both self-biting and healthy minks.The sequences of the bands exhibited 75% and 88% similarity to Canis familiarizes major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ⅱ region and Macaca mulatta MHC class Ⅰ region, respectively. A SCAR marker SCAR-A8 was designed for the specific fragment SRA8-250 and validated in 30 self-biting minks and 30 healthy minks. Positive amplification of SCAR-A8 was detected in 24 self-biting minks and 12 healthy minks. x2 test showed significant difference (p<0.01) in the detection rate between the two groups. This indicated that SRA8-250 can be used as a positive marker to detect self-biting disease in minks. Furthermore, the finding that self-biting disease links with MHC genes has significant implications for the mechanism of the disease.

  18. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence


    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  19. Longevity of animals under reactive oxygen species stress and disease susceptibility due to global warming.

    Paital, Biswaranjan; Panda, Sumana Kumari; Hati, Akshaya Kumar; Mohanty, Bobllina; Mohapatra, Manoj Kumar; Kanungo, Shyama; Chainy, Gagan Bihari Nityananda


    The world is projected to experience an approximate doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration in the next decades. Rise in atmospheric CO2 level as one of the most important reasons is expected to contribute to raise the mean global temperature 1.4 °C-5.8 °C by that time. A survey from 128 countries speculates that global warming is primarily due to increase in atmospheric CO2 level that is produced mainly by anthropogenic activities. Exposure of animals to high environmental temperatures is mostly accompanied by unwanted acceleration of certain biochemical pathways in their cells. One of such examples is augmentation in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent increase in oxidation of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids by ROS. Increase in oxidation of biomolecules leads to a state called as oxidative stress (OS). Finally, the increase in OS condition induces abnormality in physiology of animals under elevated temperature. Exposure of animals to rise in habitat temperature is found to boost the metabolism of animals and a very strong and positive correlation exists between metabolism and levels of ROS and OS. Continuous induction of OS is negatively correlated with survivability and longevity and positively correlated with ageing in animals. Thus, it can be predicted that continuous exposure of animals to acute or gradual rise in habitat temperature due to global warming may induce OS, reduced survivability and longevity in animals in general and poikilotherms in particular. A positive correlation between metabolism and temperature in general and altered O2 consumption at elevated temperature in particular could also increase the risk of experiencing OS in homeotherms. Effects of global warming on longevity of animals through increased risk of protein misfolding and disease susceptibility due to OS as the cause or effects or both also cannot be ignored. Therefore, understanding the physiological impacts of global warming in relation to

  20. Challenges in animal modelling of mesenchymal stromal cell therapy for inflammatory bowel disease

    Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Ng, Spencer; Velu, Vijayakumar; Galipeau, Jacques


    Utilization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for the treatment of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis is of translational interest. Safety of MSC therapy has been well demonstrated in early phase clinical trials but efficacy in randomized clinical trials needs to be demonstrated. Understanding MSC mechanisms of action to reduce gut injury and inflammation is necessary to improve current ongoing and future clinical trials. However, two major hurdles impede the direct translation of data derived from animal experiments to the clinical situation: (1) limitations of the currently available animal models of colitis that reflect human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The etiology and progression of human IBD are multifactorial and hence a challenge to mimic in animal models; and (2) Species specific differences in the functionality of MSCs derived from mice versus humans. MSCs derived from mice and humans are not identical in their mechanisms of action in suppressing inflammation. Thus, preclinical animal studies with murine derived MSCs cannot be considered as an exact replica of human MSC based clinical trials. In the present review, we discuss the therapeutic properties of MSCs in preclinical and clinical studies of IBD. We also discuss the challenges and approaches of using appropriate animal models of colitis, not only to study putative MSC therapeutic efficacy and their mechanisms of action, but also the suitability of translating findings derived from such studies to the clinic. PMID:25944991

  1. The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska


    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  2. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    Hollenbeck, James E


    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic. PMID:26656834

  3. Porcine models of digestive disease: the future of large animal translational research.

    Gonzalez, Liara M; Moeser, Adam J; Blikslager, Anthony T


    There is increasing interest in nonrodent translational models for the study of human disease. The pig, in particular, serves as a useful animal model for the study of pathophysiological conditions relevant to the human intestine. This review assesses currently used porcine models of gastrointestinal physiology and disease and provides a rationale for the use of these models for future translational studies. The pig has proven its utility for the study of fundamental disease conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, stress-induced intestinal dysfunction, and short bowel syndrome. Pigs have also shown great promise for the study of intestinal barrier function, surgical tissue manipulation and intervention, as well as biomaterial implantation and tissue transplantation. Advantages of pig models highlighted by these studies include the physiological similarity to human intestine and mechanisms of human disease. Emerging future directions for porcine models of human disease include the fields of transgenics and stem cell biology, with exciting implications for regenerative medicine. PMID:25655839

  4. Detection of arousals in Parkinson's disease patients

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Kempfner, Jacob; Jennum, Poul;


    suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). The proposed algorithm uses features from EEG, EMG and the manual sleep stage scoring as input to a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). The performance of the algorithm has been assessed using polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a total of 8 patients...

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against troponin I for the detection of rendered muscle tissues in animal feedstuffs.

    Chen, Fur-Chi; Hsieh, Y-H Peggy; Bridgman, Roger C


    Regulatory controls to prevent the spread of BSE have prohibited the use of certain animal proteins in feed in several countries. Accurate analytical methods for detecting prohibited material in feedstuffs are needed to ensure compliance with the new regulations. Six IgG class monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against troponin I (TnI), a thermostable marker protein, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of rendered muscle tissue in animal feed. MAbs 1F9, 2G3 and 7F7 reacted to TnI of all species, including mammalian, poultry and fish, while MAbs 7A12 and 8A12 recognized only mammalian TnI (porcine, bovine, ovine, equine, and deer). MAb 2A8 was able to differentiate TnI of ruminant origin (bovine, ovine and deer) from other species. Three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) employing these MAbs were developed for the determination of animal muscle, mammalian muscle or ruminant muscle in animal feeds. PMID:22061747

  6. Validation of qPCR Methods for the Detection of Mycobacterium in New World Animal Reservoirs.

    Housman, Genevieve; Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Grativol, Adriana D; Pereira, Luiz Cezar M; Silva, Ita de Oliveira; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Truman, Richard; Stone, Anne C


    Zoonotic pathogens that cause leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) and tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, MTBC) continue to impact modern human populations. Therefore, methods able to survey mycobacterial infection in potential animal hosts are necessary for proper evaluation of human exposure threats. Here we tested for mycobacterial-specific single- and multi-copy loci using qPCR. In a trial study in which armadillos were artificially infected with M. leprae, these techniques were specific and sensitive to pathogen detection, while more traditional ELISAs were only specific. These assays were then employed in a case study to detect M. leprae as well as MTBC in wild marmosets. All marmosets were negative for M. leprae DNA, but 14 were positive for the mycobacterial rpoB gene assay. Targeted capture and sequencing of rpoB and other MTBC genes validated the presence of mycobacterial DNA in these samples and revealed that qPCR is useful for identifying mycobacterial-infected animal hosts. PMID:26571269

  7. Study in Parkinson Disease of Exercise (SPARX): Translating high-intensity exercise from animals to humans

    Moore, Charity G.; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Delitto, Anthony; Hall, Deborah A.; Corcos, Daniel


    A burgeoning literature suggests that exercise has a therapeutic benefit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and in animal models of PD, especially when animals exercise at high intensity. If exercise is to be prescribed as “first-line” or “add-on” therapy in patients with PD, we must demonstrate its efficacy and dose-response effects through testing phases similar to those used in the testing of pharmacologic agents. The SPARX Trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded...

  8. Use of a multi-criteria analysis framework to inform the design of risk based general surveillance systems for animal disease in Australia.

    East, I J; Wicks, R M; Martin, P A J; Sergeant, E S G; Randall, L A; Garner, M G


    Australia is a major exporter of livestock and livestock products; a trade assisted by a favourable animal health status. However, increasing international travel and trade, land use changes and climatic change increase the risks of exotic and emerging diseases. At the same time, public sector resources for managing these risks are static or declining. Animal health authorities in Australia identified the need to develop a consistent national approach to surveillance that allocates resources according to risk. A study was undertaken to assess the relative likelihood of occurrence of eight significant diseases of concern to animal health authorities with the aim of producing risk maps to better manage animal disease surveillance. The likelihood of disease occurrence was considered in terms of the likelihood that a disease is introduced and the likelihood that the disease establishes and spreads. Pathways for introduction and exposure and for establishment and spread were identified and data layers representing the factors contributing to each pathway produced as raster maps. A multi-criteria analysis process was used to combine data layers into pathways and pathways into likelihood maps using weightings that reflect the relative importance of each layer and pathway. The likelihood maps for introduction and exposure and for establishment and spread were combined to generate national likelihood maps for each disease. To inform Australia's general surveillance system that exists to detect any disease of importance, the spatial profiles of the eight diseases were subsequently combined using weightings to reflect their relative consequences. The result was a map of relative likelihood of occurrence of any significant disease. Current surveillance activity was assessed by combining data layers for government disease investigations, proximity to vets and wildlife disease investigations. Comparison of the overall risk and current surveillance maps showed that the

  9. Gamma Radiation for Sterilizing the Carcasses of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Animals

    Experiments on sterilization by means of gamma rays of the carcasses of animals experimentally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) have been carried out. In the first part the author studied the presence and survival of FMDV in the carcasses and in the organs of infected slaughtered animals. The results obtained are sufficient to underline the problem of the sterilization of carcasses of animals infected by FMDV. The experiments on the inactivation of the FMDV by gamma irradiation in vitro showed the same radiation sensitivity of the three types, O, A and C, of FMDV inaqueous solutions and showed that the fraction of surviving virus is an exponential function of the gamma-ray dose. The results obtained confirm the remarkable resistance of viruses to the effect of radiation. As far as the dry virus is concerned special tests indicated the necessity of greater doses for inactivating the same virus in the dry as opposed to the liquid state. In the third part the author studied the possibility of utilizing gamma rays for the sterilization of carcasses of infected (or suspected of being infected) FMDV animals using some tissues of infected animals (pigs) (blood, bone marrow, vertebrae, lymph nodes). The results obtained show that the inactivation of FMDV types O, A and C in the carcasses of infected animals can be made by treatment with gamma rays. (author)

  10. Animal Detection in Natural Images: Effects of Color and Image Database

    Zhu, Weina; Drewes, Jan; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.


    The visual system has a remarkable ability to extract categorical information from complex natural scenes. In order to elucidate the role of low-level image features for the recognition of objects in natural scenes, we recorded saccadic eye movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments, in which human subjects had to detect animals in previously unseen natural images. We used a new natural image database (ANID) that is free of some of the potential artifacts that have plagu...