Sample records for ancient greek temples

  1. Greek Temples and Rituals

    Boutsikas, Efrosyni

    Whether the positioning of ancient Greek temples was deliberate and facilitated astronomical observations has been a concern for scholars since the nineteenth century. Twenty-first-century research on Greek archaeoastronomy has identified the shortcomings of earlier approaches and has built on a new methodology which integrates archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence on the astronomical observations, in order to create interpretations that improve our narrative, understanding, and reconstruction of the role of astronomy in ancient Greek cult practice.


    Ahmet Deniz; Ayhan Yardimciel; Özlem TOY


    Religion and belief concepts accompanied human in the adventure that they lived throughout history. The religion phenomenon within the culture, which was transferred to future generations by developing and accumulating, is quite important. Humankind built their first religious buildings in coordination with the need to shelter. These sanctuaries, which were generally defined as temples until the emergence of divine religions, were turned into central economic Powers with the compensations gra...

  3. Were Greek temples oriented towards aurorae?

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen


    Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.

  4. An analysis of astronomical alignments of Greek Sicilian Temples

    Salt, Alun


    In the eighth century BC something peculiar seems to happen on Sicily. The archaeological record starts to show the arrival of Greek material culture. By the fifth century BC the island is effectively 'Hellenised' and ancient historians record the political and military action of poleis, Greek city-states. Each polis has traditionally been seen as the offshoot of a city elsewhere. Genealogies of cities ultimately end in cities found in the cities of the Peloponnese and the Aegean. The 'Greek' identity of the Sicilian cities is part of a wider debate on the concept of Identity in the ancient world. This paper considers if there is a contribution archaeoastronomers can make to such discussions by considering the alignments of Greek temples. Greek religion was intimately related to notions of civic identity and what it meant to be 'Greek'. I propose a method of studying small samples of temples, which combines both alignment analysis and historical context. Therefore it may be possible that a study of the temple...

  5. At the Dawn of Greek Astronomy: The Temple of Zagora on Andros

    Coucouzeli, A.; Avghouli, O.


    In this paper we present briefly the main results of our archaeoastronomical study of the temple of Zagora on Andros. This study has shown that the temple was designed for use as an astronomical observatory in the framework of the cult of the Dioskouroi and probably also for time reckoning and calendric purposes around 757 B.C. As the earliest and hitherto the only known observatory from ancient Greece, the temple of Zagora offers new insights into the beginnings of Greek astronomy.

  6. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    Spalva, Rita


    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  7. Understanding the meaning of Greek temples' orientations. Akragas Valley of the Temples as a case study

    Hannah, Robert; Orlando, Andrea


    The issue of the orientation of Greek Temples has been the subject of several debates since the end of the 19 century. In fact, although a general tendency to orientation within the arc of the rising sun is undeniable, specific patterns and true meaning remain obscure. With the aim of shedding light on this problem we present here a new complete, high precision survey of the temples of Akragas, the so called Valley of the Temples UNESCO site. Our results include a important temple which was essentially yet unpublished, and most of all show that very different reasons influenced the orientation choices, some symbolical, but others by far more practical, besides the general rule of orienting to the rising sun. In particular, the existence of temples orientated in accordance with the towns grid, as well as to the cardinal points irrespectively from the sun's declination associated to true east at the uneven horizon, is evidenced. Finally, for two temples having anomalous orientations a stellar and a lunar propos...

  8. An analysis of astronomical alignments of Greek Sicilian Temples

    Salt, Alun


    In the eighth century BC something peculiar seems to happen on Sicily. The archaeological record starts to show the arrival of Greek material culture. By the fifth century BC the island is effectively 'Hellenised' and ancient historians record the political and military action of poleis, Greek city-states. Each polis has traditionally been seen as the offshoot of a city elsewhere. Genealogies of cities ultimately end in cities found in the cities of the Peloponnese and the Aegean. The 'Greek'...

  9. The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts

    Brigita Kukjalko


    Annotation to the Doctoral Thesis by Brigita Aleksejeva: The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts An Ancient Greek philological text often combined the research of various language-related issues, which are nowadays studied by separate branches of linguistics – such as orthography, phonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax, and stylistics. The language of these texts differs from that of the fictional and non-theoretical texts of the period: since they represent the origins of the ...

  10. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy



    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  11. Parallel OCR for Ancient Greek Critical Editions

    Del Grosso, Angelo; Boschetti, Federico


    This project is focused on the parallelization of OCR processes applied to Ancient Greek critical editions. Two experiments have been performed. The first experiment is related to parameters differently tuned on the nodes of the grid, in order to identify the best combination that improves the accuracy of the recognition. The second experiment concerns the application of OCR with the best parameters on sample pages by a divide et impera strategy. Results related to the performances of the par...

  12. Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S


    Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use. PMID:9657298

  13. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Vasiliki Ζafiri


    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  14. Ancient Greek lead findings in Ukraine

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for archaeological lead with low levels of 210Pb was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration on the shelf of the Black Sea, near the Crimean Peninsula. The first samples with ∼0.2 ton of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century BC. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses. The radiopurity of the lead was tested using low-level and ultra-low-level γ-spectrometry at a surface laboratory in Kyiv, at the Solotvina Underground Laboratory (Ukraine), and deep underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). The samples have been assessed at the LNGS also by means of α-spectroscopy. For all investigated radionuclides, only upper limits could be obtained. Limits on activities of radionuclides in the lead after melting were set at the level of -1 (60Co), -1 (137Cs), -1 (226Ra), -1 (228Th), -1 (40K), -1 (210Po), and -1 (210Pb). Any 210Pb present in the lead after it was produced ca. 2000 years ago has decayed away. Assuming secular equilibrium in the 238U chain in the lead, the activity of 210Pb due to 238U can be restricted to -1 before melting, and -1 after melting.

  15. Did the ancient Greeks know of collective tyranny?

    Jordović Ivan


    The significance of the question as to whether the ancient Greeks had the notion of collective tyranny results not only from the fact that the answer may help us understand the evolution of Greek political thought, but also from the fact that the study of the oppressive regimes whose exact nature was open to controversy should not consider them only in terms of oligarchy or tyranny, since contemporary attitudes to such regimes were often powerfully influenced by stereotypes. For that reason t...

  16. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios


    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector. PMID:26394486

  17. Balancing Acts Between Ancient and Modern Cities: The Ancient Greek Cities Project of C. A. Doxiadis

    Zarmakoupi, Mantha


    This paper examines the inception and development of the Ancient Greek Cities (AGC) research project (1963–77) of Constantinos A. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodologica...

  18. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    Wang, Yuhwen


    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  19. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto


    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed. PMID:19045647

  20. Empirical Foundations of Atomism in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.


    Describes how ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atoms at a time when the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. Concludes that similar experiences can be used in teaching the concept today. (JRH)

  1. The Change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek.

    Taylor, Ann


    Examines the distribution of clause types in ancient Greek during the Homeric (pre-800 B.C.) and Hellenistic (ca. 100 A.D.) periods, as well as an intermediate period (ca. 450 B.C.), delineating the evolution from a subject-object-verb (SOV) to a subject-verb-object (SVO) structure. (49 references) (MDM)

  2. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology.

    Lurie, Samuel


    The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice. PMID:26203550

  3. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E


    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period. PMID:19891848

  4. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos


    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project, extensive measurement data have been collected from three well-preserved theatres, which represent three different stages of enclosing the audience in an open-air environment: (1) the Epidaurus Th...

  5. Heroesx: The Ancient Greek Hero: Spring 2013 Course Report

    Reich, Blair Justin Fire; Emanuel, Jeffrey Paul; Nesterko, Sergiy O; Seaton, Daniel Thomas; Mullaney, Tommy Philip; Waldo, James H.; Chuang, Isaac; Ho, Andrew Dean


    CB22x: The Ancient Greek Hero, was offered as a HarvardX course in Spring 2013 on edX, a platform for massive open online courses (MOOCs). It was taught by Professor Greg Nagy. The report was prepared by researchers external to the course team, based on examination of the courseware, analyses of the data collected by the edX platform, and interviews and consultations with the course faculty and team members.

  6. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul


    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and...... swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms of...

  7. Empirical foundations of atomism in ancient Greek philosophy

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.


    The way by which ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atom is presented. The concept of atom, a great creation of the human mind, gave a direct, modern-like explanation of the world, at times in which the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. This lack proved not an impossible obstacle for ancient Greek atomistic philosophers. The continuous regeneration, which makes Nature seem eternal, the physiology of nourishment, the orderly growth and decay of humans, animals and plants, the spreading of a sent, the evaporation and condensation of water, the wearing out of a pavement by the steps of passers-by etc., led philosophers to the concept of atoms. Similar experiences can be appealed to in teaching the concept today. Nevertheless, the concept of atom was not conceived in the same way in all ancient philosophical schools. The struggle to understand Nature, brought forth brilliant ideas and intuitions, which are directly connected to modern aspects of atomic theory, like the atomicity of time and the symmetries of the world of elementary particles. Teachers today can, with benefit to their students, retrace the ancient steps to atomic theory.

  8. The Erotic Conception of Ancient Greek Landscapes and the Heterotopia of the Symposium

    Heirman, Jo


    In his article "The Erotic Conception of Ancient Greek Landscapes and the Heterotopia of the Symposium" Jo Heirman discusses the conception of natural landscapes in ancient Greek lyric poetry from the seventh until the fifth century BC and its ideological background. Heirman analyzes lyric poems by Sappho, Ibycus, and Theognis in which landscapes of fields, gardens, and meadows are presented. Heirman's analysis reveals a recurrent erotic pattern in the conception of ancient Greek landscapes c...

  9. 75 FR 41274 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Art of Ancient Greek...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Art of Ancient Greek Theater... Ancient Greek Theater,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  10. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    Clementi Nicoletta; Fornaro Michele; Fornaro Pantaleo


    Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most an...

  11. Shaping the pain: Ancient Greek lament and its therapeutic aspect?

    Šijaković Đurđina


    Full Text Available In this paper, which is the first part of a wider research, I focus on different aspects of ancient Greek lament. One of its most important aspects is the therapeutic aspect: by verbalizing, revealing the pain and by sharing it with others, the pain itself is becoming more bearable both for the woman that laments and for the bereaved family. Related to this therapeutic is the creative aspect of lament: the woman that mourns has to lament in order to make it easier for herself and others; but while lamenting, she is creating something. In spite of this constructive, let us call it creative-therapeutic potential, the lament carries in itself a different, rather dark and gloomy potential, if it calls for vengeance, not reconciling with the fact of someone dear’s death. Deeply rooted in funeral ritual, a lament respects certain ritual rules, and yet it is a spontaneous expression of pain. Examining these mutually dependent aspects of lament, I will turn attention to the position of lament in Greek rites and tragedy, that summit Greek art and literature. Ritual lament within ancient tragedy is, as always when it comes to Greek culture, an inexhaustible topic. Although tragedy belongs to literary tradition, it is a trustworthy source for ancient Greek ritual practice; lament within tragedy is thus a ritual lament, and not only a literary one. Characters of many tragedies will mention the therapeutic aspect of lament, examined in this paper: they consider tears, wails and words directed to the deceased as joyful service, enjoyment, music, song precious and indispensable. This paper has its supplement, shaping the pain in few case studies. Inspired by laments of Montenegrin women, those that I have heard or read, I am re-reading Euripides’ Electra and Electra by Danilo Kiš (in which both Euripides’ drama and Montenegrin folklore is reflected, I am watching the Michalis Kakojannis’ movie Electra. Electra’s pain for loss, the one that through

  12. The Greeks and the Utopia: an overview through ancient Greek Literature

    Rosanna Lauriola


    term has an ancient Greek root but it does not exist in the vocabulary of ancient Greek language. Although ancient Greeks did not have a conscious concept of utopia, they, however, dreamt, wrote, proposed – with different aims - what we would call now ( paradoxically using a ‘modern’ term ‘utopic’ worlds. From the archaic to the post-classic period, we find literary expressions of utopic thought in ancient Greek culture. Such expressions constitute the basis of the modern Utopia and Utopianism with their positive and negative implications. This essay takes a more detailed look at the work of Aristophanes, considered one of the greatest Greek playwrights, and inquires whether his comedies can be considered utopias.

  13. Of the Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Jesus, and Teaching Personal Economics in Grades K-12.

    Lucey, Thomas A.

    Through this review of literature, the economic attitudes and patterns in ancient Egypt are interpreted. The paper also explains the economic ideas of the ancient Greek philosophers and of Jesus of Nazareth. It observes that societal deterioration, prompted by economic-focused pursuits and different societal interpretations, may occur based on…


    Vasiljeva A. S.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of representations of hierarchical structure of the universe in ancient Greek mythic-epic tradition. In the research there was shown that the myth reflects the main program of interpretation of main principles of the universe by a man in its structure; the Chaos in itself possesses the generative power and forms an order from itself but the hierarchy appears together with the formation of the order-outer space. The first deities – Gaea and born from her Uranus, mountains, Pontus, - possess the great power and in the first place, the power of generation. From works of Gomer and Gesiodus we ascertained that the history of gods was connected with the fight of children with the father-sovereign. One generation of gods became that support on which the other stands. The third generation of gods is sovereigns in greater extent than another one. The generation of Titans is implacable but lives according to unlimited forces of nature. Titans are unbridled. Gods-Olympians, on contrary, have the relation to conscious restriction. Gods of the third generation possess passions: love, hate. However, Olympians as well as humans must submit to transcendental law of the universe. Gods of the third generation join to the rationale. The order of the universe submitted to the law – Destiny is disseminated in human community. Power as an accidental of initial hierarchy gives itself in hands of that who can submit its will to absolute power of Destiny. The legitimacy of power is determined by initial hierarchy of the universe

  15. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna


    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  16. Morphology of the heart associated with its function as conceived by ancient Greeks.

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George


    According to their writings, ancient Greek physicians had explored the anatomy of the heart. Although pre-Hippocratic medicine, which relied on religion and mysticism, has nothing more to present than implausible theories and speculations, younger physicians thanks to their animal dissections were able to depict the heart with detail. Hippocratic "On the Heart", Aristotle's, Herophilus', Erasistratus' and Galen's writings provide us with the necessary data to take a look at the anatomy of the heart as it was described back then. Despite of some confusing passages in their writings and some erroneous notions, the heart was described with relative accuracy. In the years after antiquity and in the Middle Age the only information about the anatomy of the heart could be derived from the ancient Greek works and only anatomists of the Renaissance managed to displace them. In this paper we present the knowledge of all known ancient Greek physicians about the heart, with emphasis on its anatomy. PMID:24447741

  17. [A review of the principle mythical gods in ancient greek medicine].

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina


    Like their prehistoric ancestors, the people of early civilizations lived related to the supernatural. Facing life-threatening situations, such as illness and death, people of ancient civilizations resorted to divination, prophecy, or the oracle. Regarding the curative activities of the ancient Greek civilization, there was a period in which these processes were exclusively linked to a supernatural perspective of the origin of disease. This stage of development of Greek healing practices corresponds to what might be called pre-Hippocratic Greek medicine. In ancient Greek civilization, myths exerted a strong influence on the concepts of disease and the healing processes. Although the first divine figure of Greek mythology related to medicine was Paeon, healing cults related to Apollo and Asclepius had a higher importance in tradition and Greek mythology. The Apollonian divine healing consisted in the ability to eliminate chaos and keep away evil, while in the Asclepian perspective, the role of healer was linked to specific procedures. Personal and medical skills allowed Asclepius to surpass his father and achieve his final consecration as a god of medicine. PMID:25643892


    Rajakumar S.; Dr.Subbiah Bharathi V.


    Recognition of any ancient Tamil characters with respect to any language is complicated, since the ancient Tamil characters differ in written format, intensity, scale, style, and orientation, from person to person. Researchers for the recognition of ancient Tamil languages and scripts are comparatively less with other languages, this is a result of the lack of utilities such as Tamil text databases, dictionaries etc. The problem of ancient Tamil character recognition is the technical challeng...

  19. The Modern Intercultural Persona and "Civitas": Tracing the Path Back to the Ancient Greek Demoi

    Palaiologou, Nektaria


    This conceptual paper represents an attempt to reflect on the notion of the "ancient Greek polis"--a subject of study and sometimes heated debate for many philosophers and historians worldwide--as a paradigm of a city that can offer some insight into modern states, in an era of globalisation and tense multiculturalism. By providing a synthesis of…

  20. After Auerbach: Ancient Greek literature as a test case of European Literary historiography

    I.J.F. de Jong


    In the first chapter of his celebrated Mimesis (1946) Auerbach discussed a specimen of Ancient Greek literature (Homer) both as the starting point of a European literary history of realism and as a comparandum to biblical storytelling. Both lines of approach have recently been given new impetuses. O

  1. Were the ancient Greeks right that space is continuous material plenum?

    Bulyzhenkov, I. E.


    All visible bodies are bound dense vertices of overlapping astroparticles with extremely weak r^{-4} radial densities of elementary (and summary) matter beyond human perception and instrumental resolutions. The non-empty material space of the ancient Greeks have mathematical grounds in the self-consistent reading of Maxwell's phenomenology and Einstein's gravitation through continuous radial sources of classical fields.

  2. Sailors and sanctuaries of the ancient Greek world

    Alan Johnston


    Full Text Available The many small maritime sanctuaries where Greek sailors left offerings to the gods are much less well known than such great cult centres as Delphi and Olympia on the mainland. UCL archaeologists have been contributing to the study of these widely scattered but significant sites for over a century, a tradition that continues today.

  3. Influences of ancient Greek spirit on music romanticism as exemplifies in Richard Wagner's Gesamtkunstwerk

    Siopsi Anastasia


    Full Text Available The romantics' ideal of the arts' collaboration (Mischgedichte finds its most substantial equivalent in Richard Wagner's (1813-1883 "total work of art" (Gesamtkunstwerk. This theory for the restoration of the 'lost' unity of arts was elaborated in many theoretical essays of Wagner and 'applied' in his music dramas. Unity of arts, as well as unity of arts with nature existed according to Wagner in Ancient Greece while drama was the epitome of all expressive elements of nature. This "new art of the future", which Wagner envisaged, would restore the 'wholeness' of ancient Greek drama. It is the purpose, therefore, of this study to analyze mainly from an aesthetic point of view the influences of ancient Greek spirit on romantic thought, by focusing on Wagner's work.

  4. Immortal Temple of South Sea-The Witness of Ancient Marine Trade in Guangzhou%广州古代海路贸易的见证者——南海神庙


    @@ Immortal Temple of South Sea was the biggest, most integrated and unique architecture group of ancient sea Immortal temple. Located in Miaotou village, Huangpu,Guangzhou city, it is magnificent, simple and unsophisticated. The major building is a five-layer hall, from south to north lying Head Door, Yi Door, Double Roofed Corridor, Li Pavilion, Great Hall and Zhaoling Palace.


    Nelly Ramzy


    Full Text Available Archaeologists have long wondered about the Temple of Abu Simbel: its location within the Nubian territory far from major Egyptian cities, and its unique design. Utilizing the hermeneutic process of understanding the whole from the parts and then situating the whole within a bigger whole (context, this study is a trial to arrive at a better interpretation of this monument. Drawing on the characteristic analysis of the temple's Genius Loci as developed by Norberg-Schulz, as well as on Heidegger's anticipatory fore-structures, the study goes on to show that both of the location and the unique structure of the temple were the outcome of political and conceptual aspects of the period, more than being a religious tradition. Reaching this conclusion, another goal had been achieved, where the validity of hermeneutic analyses as a useful tool for discovering new dimensions about historical monuments and archaeological sites had been attested.


    Rajakumar S.


    Full Text Available Recognition of any ancient Tamil characters with respect to any language is complicated, since the ancient Tamil characters differ in written format, intensity, scale, style, and orientation, from person to person. Researchers for the recognition of ancient Tamil languages and scripts are comparatively less with other languages, this is a result of the lack of utilities such as Tamil text databases, dictionaries etc. The problem of ancient Tamil character recognition is the technical challenge than other languages in respects to the similarity and complexity of characters that are composed of circles, holes, loops and curves. Hence ancient Tamil recognition requires more research to reach the ultimate goal of machine simulation of human reading. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize ancient Tamil characters by using SIFT features and presented anew and efficient approach based on bag-of key points representation. Collection of SIFT features are first extracted from local patches on the pre-processed images, and they are then quantized by K-means algorithm to form the bag-of-key points representation of the original images. These fixed-length feature vectors are used toclassify the characters. A recognition system consists of the activities, namely, digitization, pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. This system achieves a maximum recognition accuracy of 84% using SIFT features.

  7. Important Results From Shallow Seismic Observations at the Ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town Site in Upper Egypt

    Alexander, S. S.; Walters, E.; Cakir, R.


    A number of shallow seismic profiles were run within the walled 200x300m perimeter of the ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town site in Upper Egypt as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the progressive rise in the water table caused by nearby irrigation practices. Each of these lines provided a profile of water table depth that is accurate to within approximately 10-15 cm when compared to point measurements on a piezometer array. Water table depths currently range from approximately 0.6m to 1.5m mainly because of buried structures and there is a seasonal variation modulating a steady shallowing trend. Prominent continuous high-velocity, high-frequency (200-300Hz)signals from very shallow depths above the water table were observed along some of these profiles and additional crossing lines were run to map these anomalies; this high-velocity layer is imbedded in the upper layer of unconsolidated, air-filled sediments that have extremely low velocities and very low Q. Subsequent shallow excavations (2001, 2005-2010) at several locations on the site have revealed that the cause of this shallow high-velocity layer is the presence of a zone of closely spaced artifacts (dense in potsherds and stone fragments) above the water table that reveal new, previously-unknown evidence of occupation in the ancient town as early as Dynasty I, c. 3200 BCE. In the northwest excavation an 'in situ' deposit of special pottery lies next to a bench, a large block of dressed limestone. Further to the north, layered occupation suggests a secular context with pottery of Dynasty II, 2900 BCE and a new early date, terminus ante quem, for the accompanying figurines, thus far exclusive to two temple sites in southern Egypt. Of key significance is the discovery of the first reported ebony artifacts (leg of a statue and eyes) found in the region, and rare anywhere in Egypt. To date only a fraction of these anomalous areas have been excavated, so important additional new archaeological finds

  8. Panic and Culture: Hysterike Pnix in the Ancient Greek World.

    Mattern, Susan P


    Starting perhaps in the second century BCE, and with Hippocratic precedent, ancient medical writers described a condition they called hysterike pnix or "uterine suffocation." This paper argues that uterine suffocation was, in modern terms, a functional somatic syndrome characterized by chronic anxiety and panic attacks. Transcultural psychiatrists have identified and described a number of similar panic-type syndromes in modern populations, and a plausible theory of how they work has been advanced. These insights, applied to the ancient disease of hysterike pnix, demystify the condition and illuminate the experience of the women who suffered from it. PMID:25471069

  9. Worlds full of signs. Ancient Greek divination in context

    Beerden, Kim


    This dissertation compares divination in ancient Greece to divinatory practices in Republican Rome and Neo-Assyrian Mesopotamia. Divination is the human production and interpretation of signs which were thought to have come from the supernatural – the signs could be concerned with past, present or f

  10. Ancient Greek mythology mediated by Latin culture: On Vlastimir Trajković’s arion and Zephyrus returns

    Milin Melita


    Vlastimir Trajković (b. 1947) is a prominent Serbian composer with a strong inclination towards subjects from ancient Greek mythology. Among his most important achievements may be counted Arion - le nuove musiche per chitarra ed archi (1979) and Zephyrus returns for flute, viola and piano (2003). Two important aspects of those works are discussed in the present article: 1. the line that connects them to ancient Greek culture via French Modernism (Debussy, R...

  11. Tracing the roots of European bioethics back to the Ancient Greek philosophersphysicians

    Kalokairinou, Eleni M.


    Contrary to the usual claim that Bioethics is a contemporary discipline, I argue that its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Greek philosophers-healers. In classical antiquity philosophy was almost inseparable from medicine not only in the sense that philosophers like Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle contributed to its development, but also in that later philosophers conceived of moral principles and rules in order to prevent the physicians’ malpractice and the patients’ harassment. Fro...

  12. The Topos of the Ephemeral in the Ancient Greek Tragedy

    Ioana PETCU


    Full Text Available Fragment of the human condition, the ephemeral which lives within us. Trying to see how much the ephemeral ‘topos’ can be transfered to the performance level, particularly in the staging of the ancient tragedy. An intrusion in the history of this cause gives us the possibility to review in raccourcis its multiple semnifications. The second part of the article draws Hecuba’s portrait into a double mirror, the story of the Troy queen represents the myth of unstable happiness of the ancient world. Ambivalent picture of the character-ephemeris is built between the text of Euripides and modern perfomances on the stages of English, American, Australian and Romanian theatres.We also analyzed a few texts less approached from the directorial point of view, one the one hand in order to nuance the ephemerality topos and, on the other hand, in order to let them out of their shadow corner. The Aeschylian writings, The Seven against Thebes, The Persians and Euripides’ two tragedies Phoenician Women and The Suppliants have been our fundament to discovering new valences of the perishable and to showing the way that this motif can take from reading to scenic practice.

  13. Archaeometrical studies on ancient greek silver coins at Bucharest cyclotron

    The analysis of archaeological objects requires simultaneously non destructive, fast, versatile, sensitive and multielemental methods. Romania has a lot of interesting archaeological sites: Greek on the Black Sea coast, Roman in Transylvania and Dobroudja, Byzantine on the Danube border. Our purpose was to help Romanian archaeologists to identify objects provenance (workshops, technologies, mines) and to explain commercial, military and political aspects. Two methods were used: in air 3 MeV protons PIXE and 241Am source based XRF. For in air PIXE, we used a 3 4 MeV proton beam obtained from the 6.5 MeV Cyclotron nominal regime protons extracted through a 20 mm aluminium foil into the air, striking the sample after 8 10 cm. X rays were detected through reflection, using a horizontal Si(Li) detector. XRF measurements were done with a spectrometer consisting of a 30 mCi 241Am annular gamma source, a Si(Li) detector and a conventional electronic chain. The high number of relevant samples (10 20) and the associated dispersion of concentration values, allow us to consider as acceptable for such experiments obtained sensitivities down to 2 5 ppm for PIXE and down to 20 30 ppm for XRF and accuracy of 15 20% (PIXE), 10 15% (XRF). We obtain the composition of silver coins and comparing the quantities of Ag, Cu, Sn, Pb, and Au, we can find which coins are originals and which are local castled

  14. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS.

    Prokopakis, E P; Hellings, P W; Velegrakis, G A; Kawauchi, H


    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is intriguing. Most of this meticulous knowledge was developed through time, beginning mainly from Hippocrates and the Hellenistic period. Thereafter, medicine developed through Roman and Byzantium times to finally influence European medicine and later the rest of the Western world. History of medicine reflects the history of mankind itself, and otorhinolaryngology follows closely this path. Our goal is to slim down and illuminate the most challenging of the vast amount of information on rhinological issues contained in the original Greek text of Hippocrates, and mainly in the hagiographical texts of Byzantine medical writers. In particular, we focus on rhinological diseases from antiquity till the time being, following the journey of evolution of topical and nebulizer therapy for sinonasal inflammatory diseases in Greece, from "milothris" to modern nasal sprays, leading to an understanding of the philosophy of our predecessors and the roots of modern rhinology. PMID:21038014

  15. Greek Death-Cult, Modern and Ancient: A Comparison of a Mediterranean and Balkan Cultural Pattern

    E.J. Håland


    Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.

  16. PIXE analysis of ancient Greek copper coins minted in Epirus, Illyria, Macedonia and Thessaly

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Katsanos, A. A.; Potiriadis, C.; Oeconomidou, M.; Touratsoglou, J.


    Ancient copper coins from Greek cities and confederacies such as Amphipolis, Veroia, Dion, Edessa, Magnetes, Stobi, Apollonia, Kerkyra, Pella, Philippoi, Phoenike, and the Macedonian and Thessalian Koina, were analyzed non-destructively by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after removal of the patina. The copper coins were minted during Roman Imperial times (31 B.C.-268 A.D.). Eleven elements were determined quantitatively. The correlation between the composition and the minting time is examined. The results are compared with those of a previous study for coins from the cities of Nikopolis in Epirus and Thessaloniki in Macedonia, in the same period.

  17. The ERATO project and its contribution to our understanding of the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theatres

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Nielsen, Martin Lisa


    The ancient Greek and Roman theatres are famous for the excellent acoustics. However, it is not generally well known that different kinds of theatres were built, for different purposes and with different acoustical conditions. One of the aims in the ERATO project has been to investigate the acoustics of the open air theatres and compare to the smaller, originally roofed theatres, also called odea (from Greek: Odeion, a hall for song and declamation with music). The method has been to make com...

  18. Views on ocular cancer in Arabo-Islamic medicine and the leading influence of the ancient Greek medicine.

    Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Nikolopoulos, Thomas; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George


    In the ophthalmological treatises of the medieval Arabo-Islamic physicians such as al-Mawsili (9th-10th century), al-Kahhal (ca. 940-1010), Haly Abbas (10th century) and al Sadili (14th century) we may find references about ocular cancer, focusing on eyelid tumors and cancerous ulcers of the cornea. These references are similar to the analogous ones of ancient Greek physicians as these are preserved in the medical texts of the most famous Byzantine doctors, indicating the influence of ancient Greek medicine in the Arabo-Islamic one. PMID:27061559

  19. Eclipse prediction on the ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine known as the Antikythera Mechanism.

    Freeth, Tony


    The ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, predicted eclipses, based on the 223-lunar month Saros cycle. Eclipses are indicated on a four-turn spiral Saros Dial by glyphs, which describe type and time of eclipse and include alphabetical index letters, referring to solar eclipse inscriptions. These include Index Letter Groups, describing shared eclipse characteristics. The grouping and ordering of the index letters, the organization of the inscriptions and the eclipse times have previously been unsolved. A new reading and interpretation of data from the back plate of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the glyphs, the index letters and the eclipse inscriptions, has resulted in substantial changes to previously published work. Based on these new readings, two arithmetical models are presented here that explain the complete eclipse prediction scheme. The first model solves the glyph distribution, the grouping and anomalous ordering of the index letters and the structure of the inscriptions. It also implies the existence of lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. The second model closely matches the glyph times and explains the four-turn spiral of the Saros Dial. Together, these models imply a surprisingly early epoch for the Antikythera Mechanism. The ancient Greeks built a machine that can predict, for many years ahead, not only eclipses but also a remarkable array of their characteristics, such as directions of obscuration, magnitude, colour, angular diameter of the Moon, relationship with the Moon's node and eclipse time. It was not entirely accurate, but it was an astonishing achievement for its era. PMID:25075747

  20. Sirius in Ancient Greek and Roman Literature: From the Orphic Argonautics to the Astronomical Tables of Georgios Chrysococca

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Peter Z.


    The brightest star of the night sky, is Sirius, Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). Due to its intense brightness, Sirius had one of the dominant positions in ancient mythology, legends and traditions. In this paper the references of the many ancient classical Greek and Roman authors and poets who wrote about Sirius are examined, and the problem of its 'red' color reported in some of these references is discussed.

  1. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Vázquez, Daniel


    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  2. Characterization of ancient Greek coins using non-destructive TOF neutron diffraction

    The characterization of ten ancient Greek silver coins from the Treasure collection of Gazoros (CH IX 61) found in Serres- North Greece; as well as two silver coin replicas, has been carried out using a polychromatic neutron beam of large cross-section to obtain diffraction patterns from the entire objects. The diffraction profiles indicate that there are three distinct categories of coins. The first one is a set of three coins consisting mainly of silver and copper alloy phases with high quantities of Cu2O and CuCl . The second group is formed of coins with high silver/ copper alloy ratio and the third is a collection of five coins consisting of very high purity silver. The comparison between the diffraction profiles of the original coins to those of the replicas present distinct variations that may be used to differentiate the different groups.

  3. Non-destructive characterization of minerals in ancient Greek ceramics using monochromatic neutrons

    A collection of ancient Greek ceramic pieces originating from different excavations from Neos Scopos, Serres, in the North East of Greece has been studied at room temperature by means of non-destructive neutron diffraction using a monochromatic beam. Quantitative phase analyses revealed different compositions of the mineral fractions present, but a general similarity of the main materials is still recognizable. It is shown that the observed variations are partly due to the experimental set-up and they can be remedied by taking a sufficient number of measurements for different sample orientations while bathing the entire object in the beam. An additional reason for the observed anomaly in the mineral phase compositions may be the different heat treatments to which the mixtures of clays/pastes was subjected as well as the postproduction environmental conditions for the selected samples. The firing temperatures were estimated to be in the range of 850-1000 deg. C

  4. History of carotid surgery: from ancient greeks to the modern era.

    Tallarita, Tiziano; Gerbino, Maurizio; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Lanzino, Giuseppe


    A relationship between decreased carotid arterial flow and apoplectic manifestations was already suspected by the ancient Greeks. Early attempts at carotid surgery, however, were limited to emergency arterial ligation in patients with neck trauma. Attempts to suture arterial stumps together to restore blood flow paved the way for Carrel's revolutionary idea of reconstructing the resected or injured arterial segment with an interposition vein graft. DeBakey and Eastcott were the first to perform carotid endarterectomy in North America and the United Kingdom, respectively. In 1959, DeBakey proposed a cooperative study to assess the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in the treatment and prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The study was officially designated the Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion and represented the first trial in the United States in which large numbers of patients were randomly allocated to surgical or nonsurgical therapy. PMID:24357636

  5. 卡夫卡与古希腊文化%Kafka and Ancient Greek Culture



    Kafka' s thoughts and writings might come from three cultural sources: Western culture, Jewish culture and Chinese culture. The relationship between Kafka and the latter two has been much studied before, but the relationship between Kafka and Western culture, especially ancient Greek culture, has been neglected. Kafka referred to Greek culture broadly and profoundly: borrowing, applying, deconstructing and even rewriting Greek myths. He took in the ideas of absurdity and labyrinth, and the image of Sisyphus, to deduce and develop them into images and structures of paradox and conundrum, as well as a series of characters like "K", who have a fate similar to that Sisyphus.%卡夫卡思想与创作的文化渊源应该包括三个方面:西方文化、犹太文化和中国文化,但以往我们对卡夫卡与后二者的关系的研究往往较多,反而忽略了卡夫卡与西方文化,尤其是与古希腊文化的关系的研究。卡夫卡广泛而深入地涉猎希腊文化,借用、利用、消解,甚至改写希腊神话。他从古希腊文化中吸纳了有关荒诞、迷宫的观念,以及西西弗斯的形象,然后演绎、发展成了他笔下的悖谬、谜语意象和结构,以及一系列的与西西弗斯同命运的"K们"形象。

  6. Time in Ancient Greek Mythology%古希腊神话中的时间

    杨丽娟; 章紫薇


    The representation of time is a key to understanding Greek myths. Chronos in Orpheus religion is the principle of the cosmos. The myth of five races reveals the evolution of human history in some senses. Nyx and Hemera express man‟s fear of the dark and the love for the light. Horae corresponds to the order of social life. Time in ancient Greek mythology presents a complex cyclic property.%对时间的认识和表现是古希腊神话的一个重要且丰富的内容。古老的时间之神克罗诺斯在俄耳甫斯教神话中具有宇宙本原的属性。赫西俄德的五个种族的神话在某种意义上揭示了人类历史的演进过程。夜神和白昼神表达了人类对黑暗的恐惧和对光明的热爱。有关时序规律的神话与社会生活秩序形成对应关系。整体上,时间在古希腊神话中具有依赖内在否定而运转的复杂的循环属性。

  7. Gaia, Helios, Selene and Ouranos: the three principal celestial bodies and the sky in the ancient Greek cosmogony

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    In this article we consider the role of the three principal celestial bodies, the Earth (Gaia), the Sun (Helios) and the Moon (Selene), as well as the Sky (Ouranos) in the ancient Greek cosmogony. This is done by the analysis of antique Greek texts like Orphic Hymns and the literary remains of the writers and philosophers like Aeschylus, (Pseudo) Apollodorus, Apollonius Rhodius, Aristotle, Euripides, Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus, Nonnus, Pausanias, Pindar and Sophocles, as well as by the analysis of texts of Roman writers like Cicero, Ovid and Pliny.

  8. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us: A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Teacher's Guide-Level Alpha.

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    A humanistic approach to the study of classical Greek and Greek culture at the secondary school level is detailed in this guide. References to the student programed text and other multisensory instructional materials used in the system focus on instructional objectives geared to students who are not necessarily college-bound. The standard Attic…

  9. Eesti antiigitõlke traditsioonid / Traditions of Estonian Translation from Ancient Greek and Latin

    Janika Päll


    Full Text Available The tradition of translating ancient Greek and Roman authors into Estonian is short, beginning with first attempts at the end of the 18 th century and the close adaptations of two Anacreontic poems (21 and 24 by the first Estonian poet Kristjan Jaak Peterson (in 1818, which remained in manuscript for a long time. The continuous history of printed translations began in 1878 with the translations from Homer by Jaan Bergmann. At present, a new, extensive and regularly updated bibliography with a database of earlier translations is being created (EAB 2012, which also includes the translations in the journals and more extensive citations in articles, as printing separate books with ancient literature started very late (1908 and was very rare in the beginning.  The periods in Estonian translation reflect the history of the country. Almost every period has its own specific trends, beginning with the focus on Greek and the role of periodicals in the first, resembling the patchwork-model of translation that has been described by Karl Eimermacher. Alongside the wish to entertain and educate, we see a strong tendency to use these translations for the development of Estonian national identity by comparing the Estonian epic “Kalevipoeg” to Homer’s epics and translating pieces from Tacitus’ “Germania” as early references to Estonia and thereby extending Estonia’s written history.  The 1920s and 1930s bring first attempts to create a canon, with a stress on Latin and the translations made for school, as well as the development of verse translation. However, all this was disrupted by the almost total abandonment of the classical tradition during the war and the Stalinist period. The comeback in the 1960s brought the translation of central authors from the classical canon (Homer, Vergil, Sophocles, supported by other activities of canon-building (anticipated partly in the 1920s and 1930s: the composition of anthologies and histories of literature

  10. Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda; W. G. M. Edirisinghe; Ranil P. Nanayakkara; Nilantha Vishvanath


    Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Tapho...

  11. Ancient Greek mythology mediated by Latin culture: On Vlastimir Trajković’s arion and Zephyrus returns

    Milin Melita


    Full Text Available Vlastimir Trajković (b. 1947 is a prominent Serbian composer with a strong inclination towards subjects from ancient Greek mythology. Among his most important achievements may be counted Arion - le nuove musiche per chitarra ed archi (1979 and Zephyrus returns for flute, viola and piano (2003. Two important aspects of those works are discussed in the present article: 1. the line that connects them to ancient Greek culture via French Modernism (Debussy, Ravel, Messiaen and Renaissance poetry and music (Petrarch, Caccini, Monteverdi; 2. modality, which has proved its vitality through long periods of the history of European music, beginning with ancient Greek modes, reaching its high point in the 16th century, and re-emerging at the beginning of the 20th century in different hybrid forms. Trajković is seen as a composer who has shaped his creative identity by exploring the rich musical heritage of the Latin European nations, especially the contributions of Debussy and Ravel.

  12. Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda


    Full Text Available Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus beddomei, Rhinolophus rouxii, Hipposideros galeritus, Hipposideros speoris and Megaderma spasma were recorded with the following conservation status, four in Vulnerable and two in Least Concerned. Taphozous melanopogon was the most abundant, and had the largest population with the widest distribution at the study site. A Natural predator of bats, Paradoxurus hermaphoditus was recorded in one roosting site.

  13. Reflection of Ancient Greek Tradition in the 13th c. Premyslid Celestial Globe Saved in Bernkastel-Kues

    Hadravová, Alena; Hadrava, Petr

    Athens : Institute of Historical Research/National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2012 - (Katsiampoura, G.) ISBN 978-960-9538-13-8. [International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science, Scientific Cosmopolitanism and Local Cultures: Religions, Ideologies, Societies /5./. 01.11.2012-03.11.2012, Atény] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/11/0034 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 ; RVO:67985815 Keywords : ancient Greek astronomical tradition * celestial globes * Ptolemaic constellations Subject RIV: AB - History; BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics (ASU-R)

  14. The City-state Civilization Embodied in Ancient Greek Mythology%浅析古希腊神话中的城邦文明



    古希腊神话具有的人本主义、民主精神、自由思想、享乐主义等特点,体现出城邦文明的特征。本文分析了古希腊神话的特点及其表现出的城邦文明,并对比了东西方文化视野中的古希腊神话和中国神话。%Features like humanism, democracy, liberal thoughts and hedonism in ancient Greek mythology reflect the characteristics of city-state civilization. This paper analyzes the features of ancient Greek mythology and the city-state civilization it embodied, also compares the ancient Greek and Chinese mythology in the view of the Western and Oriental cultures.

  15. Recenzja książki: Eleanor Dickey, Ancient Greek scholarship: a guide to finding, reading and understanding scholia, commentaries. lexica and grammatical treatises, from their beginnings to the Byzantine period, Oxford University Press, New York 2007, s. 362.

    Chiżyńska, Katarzyna


    In this volume are included two flattering reviews, first of Eleanor Dickey, Ancient Greek scholarship: a guide to finding, reading and understanding scholia, commentaries, lexica and grammatical treatises, from their beginnings to the Byzantine period (New York 2007) and the second of René Nünlist, The ancient critic at work. Terms and concepts of literary criticism in Greek scholia (New York 2009). Both reviewed works focuses on Greek scholarship and are very helpful for modern scholars wit...

  16. The Concept of Law in the Ancient Greek Political Thought: From θεσμός to νόμος

    I Azarfaza


    Full Text Available Law is one of the key concepts in ancient Greek political thought. Two different legal-political terms were used for the concept of law in ancient Athens -although not simultaneously. Before putting an end to the tyranny of the Pisistratidae at the end of the sixth century, θεσμός was used in the sense of state law whilst after the Cleisthenes democratic reforms at the beginning of the fifth century, νόμος was the official legal-political term. This study reveals that such terminological change from θεσμός to νόμος reflects a profound change in Athenian political thought. Considering the fact that language mirrors thinking, this change in terminology may reflect a change in Athenian thinking. Hence, through philological analysis, this article aims to expound how ancient Greek political thought altered. Attempting to redefine the unit of Greek political life, πόλις, according to new meaning of the law, this paper is a contribution to the ancient Greek political philosophy.

  17. The Mythology of the Night Sky An Amateur Astronomer's Guide to the Ancient Greek and Roman Legends

    Falkner, David E


    Every amateur astronomer can easily recognize most of the constellations, but how many of us know the story behind them? What myths did the Ancient Greeks weave around the mighty hunter Orion that places him so prominently in the sky? Did you know that this mythical being was said to have been killed by Diana, herself a hunter, while he was exhausted by his fight with Scorpius? The constellation of Scorpius, the giant scorpion, is dominated by the red supergiant Antares and hangs in the sky opposite Orion. Yet there is no constellation of Diana to be found! The Mythology of the Night Sky strikes a balance between backyard astronomy and ancient mythology. Organized by seasons, this book describes Ptolemy's 48 constellations with location and description in detail, while also telling the mythological tales in full. Along with the named constellations, this title also incorporates the lore behind the christening of the planets and their satellites. Readers discover the importance of the ancient characters, why...

  18. The Influence of Ancient Greek Culture on Macedonian Literature of the 19th Century

    Vitomir Mitevski


    Full Text Available The Influence of Ancient Greek Culture on Macedonian Literature of the 19th CenturyIn Macedonia under the Ottoman rule during the nineteenth century, the Macedonian people-the nation is subject to political pressure and the cultural influence of Turkey and other countries. Under the influence of propaganda leading by Athens and education politics in the area of contemporary Republic of Macedonia, some Macedonian militant intellectuals embraced, at the same time, were influenced by romanticism and the Old-Greek culture, which strongly affect their literary works. In this context, two authors are viewed as the most significant-Jordan Hadji Murad Konstantinov Džinot and Grigor Prlichev. Džinot is the author of dramatized dialogue inspired by the classic Greek mythology, at the school, where he is a teacher. On the pages of the press he announces the publication of its ancient-themed dramas, however, for unknown reasons, none of them does not appear in print. Prlichev well knew the Old-Greek and is an admirer of the works of Homer. Influenced by the poetry of Homer writes in an epic poem in the archaized Greek. Wpływ starogreckiej kultury na literaturę macedońską w XIX wiekuW ramach imperium osmańskiego, którego częścią jest Macedonia w ciągu XIX wieku, macedoński lud-naród podlega politycznej presji i wpływom kulturowym ze strony Turcji i innych państw. Pod wpływem propagandy, którą prowadzą Ateny i która wyraża się w zakładaniu swoich szkół w Macedonii, niektórzy macedońscy intelektualiści, ogarnięci w tym samym czasie wpływami romantyzmu poznają kulturę starogrecką, co silnie wpłynie na ich twórczość literacką. W tym kontekście wybijają się dwie najbardziej znaczące postaci – Jordan Hadži Konstantinov-Džinot i Grigor Prličev. Džinot jest autorem dramatyzowanych dialogów inspirowanych klasyczną, starogrecką mitologią, wystawianych w szkole, w której sam jest nauczycielem. Na

  19. A Troubling Double-Body: Roland Barthes' Relationship with Ancient Greek Mythology and Bunraku

    Madeleine Scherer


    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of Roland Barthes' conception of the ideal acting body within different forms of theatre through a consideration of his theories on semiotics. It comparatively discusses his writings on Greek tragedy and Japanese Bunraku in order to outline his ideas about the body's ‘ideal function’ in dramatic performance and its role as signifier to an underlying signified. His reading of the performing body of Greek tragedy within the tradition of doubling and masking leads him to view its meaning as fragmented and its mythology as lacking clear signification. Barthes’ views on Greek tragedy are compared to his views on the Japanese puppet theatre Bunraku. In his article ‘On Bunraku’ Barthes describes how the body is turned into a surface producing endless signifiers that can relate to a clear signified without being disturbed by an actor’s inherent corporeality. The article demonstrates how the two strands of his work, performance and semiotics, are inevitably linked. It shows how using the vocabulary of signifier and signified to distinguish the ‘natural’ from the ‘performing’ body, led Barthes to reject Greek tragedy in favour of Japanese Bunraku.

  20. Synnøve Des Bouvrie (éd.), Myth and Symbol II. Symbolic phenomena in ancient Greek culture

    Van Keer, Ellen


    Ce volume présente une série de papiers présentés lors de deux colloques organisés à l’Institut norvégien d’Athènes. Un colloque sur le même thème, organisé à Tromsø, avait été publié en 2002. Avec son sous-titre, « Symbolic Phenomena in Ancient Greek Culture », il entendait guider l’étude du mythe grec vers les questions générales du symbolisme, dont les fondements méthodologiques étaient éclaircis dans une copieuse introduction de l’éditrice. Les contributions du présent volume puisent donc...

  1. Using Ancient Chinese and Greek Astronomical Data: A Training Sequence in Elementary Astronomy for Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    de Hosson, Cécile; Décamp, Nicolas


    A great amount of research has been carried out world-wide to promote history of science as a powerful science teaching tool. Because the ways of choosing and using historical elements depend on teachers' or researchers' educational purpose, any attempt to support a single model-to-use seems difficult and probably irrelevant. However, specific purposes may reflect specific and prescriptive terms for using historical materials. Our work aims to show up this aspect. It is an attempt to make elements of the history of astronomy involved in the elaboration of a training session for future primary school teachers. Here, ancients' Greek and Chinese historical elements are chosen and organized according to specific educational and conceptual constraints that include the construction of the quasi-parallelism of solar rays reaching Earths' surface, and the spontaneous modeling of the propagation of Sunlight leaning on divergent rays. This leads to an original teaching sequence were historical elements are mixed with non historical ones. This organization forms the support of a pre-service training session developed for future primary school teachers. This session aims to provide future teachers with elementary cosmological knowledge (parallelism of Sunrays, shape and size of the Earth, Sun-Earth distance…), to provide some reference marks of history of ancient cosmologies (spherical and flat Earth) resulting from two distinct contexts, and to approach some aspects associated with Nature of Science (NOS).

  2. 岳西高腔"变"中求存%Study on the influence of Ancient Greek culture on modern design



    From the philosophy, esthetics and the science, The article discussed the far-reaching influence of ancient Greek culture on modem design. In the aspect of philosophy, the article explored the origin relations between humanism tendency, rationalism thought of ancient Greece and user-friendly design, functionalism, rational design of modem design. In the aesthetics, the article introduced the influence of the ancient Greek harmonious aesthetic on the modem design aesthetic. In the science, the article elaborated the penetration of modem design science thinking by the ancient Greek mathematics, geometry and other scientific achievements.%在多元化碰撞的当今社会,随着高科技和互联网的迅猛发展,人们的生活方式和思想观念也发生了翻天覆地的变化。由于当代人对传统剧种在认识上的差异,岳西高腔该如何发展才能既符合当代审美的口味,又不失经典风采而经久不衰是非常值得深思的一个问题。文章以此为切入点,提出只有在传承与发展中不断增强思“变”意识,才能使岳西高腔焕发生机。

  3. Study on the influence of Ancient Greek culture on modern design%论古希腊文明对现代设计的影响

    郭会娟; 汪海波


    文章从哲学、美学和科学三个方面论述了古希腊文明对现代设计的深远影响。在哲学方面,探讨了古希腊人本主义倾向和理性主义思想与现代设计人性化设计和功能主义、理性设计的渊源关系;在美学方面,主要介绍了古希腊和谐美学观对现代设计审美的影响;在科学方面,重点论述了古希腊数学、几何学等科学成就对现代设计科学思维的渗透和影响。%From the philosophy, esthetics and the science, The article discussed the far-reaching influence of ancient Greek culture on modem design. In the aspect of philosophy, the article explored the origin relations between humanism tendency, rationalism thought of ancient Greece and user-friendly design, functionalism, rational design of modem design. In the aesthetics, the article introduced the influence of the ancient Greek harmonious aesthetic on the modem design aesthetic. In the science, the article elaborated the penetration of modem design science thinking by the ancient Greek mathematics, geometry and other scientific achievements.

  4. A sustained survival: elements and mythical motifs in ancient Greek philosophy

    Julio López Saco


    Full Text Available Other aspects of historical nature, the distinction between nomos-physis, operated in the archaic Greek world, meant that socio-cultural structures will be intrinsic to the world, to be conventional and imposed to the natural order, a fact which broke the traditional mythical discourse (nature and culture correlations, and began to distinguish between humanity and the world. Despite this twist, the myth did not disappear nor was it entirely overcome or forgotten. In this sense, the proposal offered in this work is theoretical observation of the conduct and influence of the myth in what has conceptualized as «philosophical» in Greece antiquity.

  5. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya


    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  6. The Concept of Law in the Ancient Greek Political Thought: From θεσμός to νόμος

    I Azarfaza; M Ghavam Safary


    Law is one of the key concepts in ancient Greek political thought. Two different legal-political terms were used for the concept of law in ancient Athens -although not simultaneously. Before putting an end to the tyranny of the Pisistratidae at the end of the sixth century, θεσμός was used in the sense of state law whilst after the Cleisthenes democratic reforms at the beginning of the fifth century, νόμος was the official legal-political term. This study reveals that such terminological chan...

  7. 古希腊体育文化本原初探%A Probe Into The Origin Of Ancient Greek's Sports Culture

    董立兵; 汲智勇


    Culture origin is the foundation of the existence of a nation, and it is true with Ancient Greek. The paper, from the perspective of philosophy, tends to analyze the sports culture origin through the analysis of culture origin of Ancient Greek with the purpose of better knowing the cultural attribute of Ancient Greek Sports.%文化本原是一个民族存在的根基;同样,古希腊体育文化本原是古希腊体育的精神内涵,主要尝试从哲学的角度入手,通过对古希腊文化本原的分析,从本体论、认识论、方法论等几个方面,对古希腊体育文化的本原加以分析,从而能更好的了解古希腊方体育项目的内在文化属性。

  8. Jeremiah's Temple Sermon Revisited

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    -called Temple Sermon in Jer 26 in the light of the parallel in Jer 7. Apart from the obvious narrative connection, the relation between these two chapters is marked by two elements, first the understanding of relation between the destoyed temple in Shilo and the temple in Jerusalem,  secondly by the so...

  9. Neutron activation analysis on ancient Greek silver coins and related materials

    66 archaic Greek silver coins have been analyzed for the minor elements Cu, Au, Bi and Pb, and for the trace elements Na, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Sn, Sb and Ir. Instrumental neutron activation has been used for the determination of Cu and Au and atomic absorption spectroscopy for Pb and Bi. For measurements and evaluation of γ-spectra a PDP 11/40-system is used. Measurements are carried out by means of commercial software programs. The γ-spectra stored on magtapes may be evaluated off-line on a CDC 3300 with the multi-purpose program JANE, or the evaluation is done online with the PDP 11/40-system. The trace elements could be detected only after a separation of the interfering matrix activities by an extraction with a diethyl-dithio-carbamate complex. The homogeneity of Au and Cu in the coins and the significance of the trace elements are discussed. The statistical evaluation of the analytical data reveals distinct groups for coins of some provenances. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  10. Transition from the Temple of Jupiter to the Great Mosque of Damascus in Architecture and Design

    Sobczak, Kamil


    Great Mosque of Damascus was built between 705 and 715 by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walid I. However, the origins of this building dates to the distant past. At first it was a location of an ancient Aramaean temple dedicated to the god Hadad. With Hellenization the temple was dedicated to Zeus and in the first century BC the Romans transformation it into the Temple of Jupiter Damascenus. In 391 Emperor Theodosius converted the temple into Christian Cathedral of Saint John. Erection ...

  11. The Dikpālas of ancient Java revisited: A new identification for the 24 directional deities on the Śiva temple of the Loro Jonggrang complex

    Andrea Acri


    Full Text Available Caṇḍi Śiva, sacred centre of the famous ninth-century Loro Jonggrang temple complex at Prambanan, Central Java, is decorated with numerous iconic and narrative reliefs. Starting from the eastern staircase and traversing the perambulatory in a clockwise direction, we find the narrative reliefs of the Rāmāyaṇa on the balustrade wall on our left, and the iconic reliefs of twenty-four seated male deities, each flanked by several attendants – collectively referred to in the accompanying iconographic plan as ‘Lokapālas with attendants’– on our right, that is, on the temple body proper. The prime objective of the present inquiry is propose a new identification of this set of twenty-four deities forming Śiva’s entourage, which remains an unresolved issue in the art history of Central Java. Our findings will have implications for our understanding of the iconographical master plan of Loro Jonggrang, and, in a wider sense, of certain developments in Indo-Javanese and Balinese iconography.

  12. On the Relation between Ancient Greek Philosophy and Medicine%古代希腊哲学与医学关系探究



    从起源上来看,古希腊的医学与哲学都是脱胎于原始宗教和神话。早期自然哲学虽然与原始宗教和神话研究内容相似,但它却是用理性、从自然本身解释自然现象。古代希腊哲学家们用诸如水、不定、数等来解释万物的本原,以及此后苏格拉底所开创的从个别现象中归纳出普遍性的定义法都影响了古代医学对人体和疾病现象的解释。古希腊医学兴起之后,又反过来对哲学产生影响。无论是柏拉图还是亚里士多德的哲学都深受医学观念的影响,希腊化时期的伊壁鸠鲁和斯多亚学派则更甚。%Originally ,ancient Greek medicine and philosophy were born of the primitive religion and myth .Although the Greek natural philosophy in early period was alike to the primitive religion and myth in contents ,it based on nature itself to explain natural phenomena with reason .The ancient philosophers interpreted the origin of all things in concepts such as water ,apeiron ,number ,and then Socrates advocated a universal definition method from individual phenomenon which impacted on ancient Greek medicine to interpret human body and disease .When the Greek medicine developed vigorously , it effect the Greek philosophy in turn .Whether Plato or Aristotle ,their philosophy were effected by the ideas of medicine , even more so from the Epicurus and Stoic School .

  13. The Academic Profession in the Ancient Greek Directed by Theoretical Reason%理论理性规定的古希腊大学学术职业



    古希腊哲学家以求知为本性,执着于探索真知,用渊博的知识和高尚的品质教化城邦。为此古希腊哲学家扮演着大学教师的社会角色。作为哲学家的古希腊大学教师不仅学识渊博,而且善于通过多种教学方法引导学生学习。为了更好地追求普遍知识和价值,他们在年轻时跟随一名或者多名著名的哲学家学习知识,并自发地建立了学园。由此,古希腊学术职业打上了理论理性的烙印。%Ancient Greek philosophers were of for the sake of knowledge, so they dedicated to seek truth, educate citizens by virtue of cyclopedia knowledge and noble qualities. For this reason, they played the roles of university teachers. As the philosophers, the ancient Greek faculties were not only well-learned, but also good at guiding the students to learn through a variety of teaching methods. In order to pursue common knowledge and value in a better way, they followed one or more philosophers to learn at very young ages, and established academies spontaneously. It is clear that the ancient Greeks academic profession was regulated by the theoretical reason.

  14. 古希腊哲学中关于思维方法的问题%Problems of Thought Method in Ancient Greek Philosophy



    Ancient Greek philosophers considered thinking method to be a kind of mental function with the most obvious usage of language organization and behavior planning,only grasping its laws to reveal the thought method.A conclusion of "induction and deduction being the human thought method in ancient Greek philosophy" had been introduced in ancient-Greek philosophy works two thousands years ago,for an example,Aristotle used induction and deduction as the effective way to discuss language in his Rhetoric,so did deductive reasoning as the basic for choices on the move in Ethics.%古希腊哲学家认为人的思维是人大脑的一种机能;思维最为明显的用途是语言的组织和行为的策划。因此,把握有效的组织语言和行为的策划规律,是揭示思维方法的唯一途径,"归纳和演绎是古希腊哲学中人的思维方法",这个结论在两千多年前的古希腊哲学著作中就做过介绍,如亚里士多德在他的《修辞术》中对语言的讨论使用的有效方法是归纳和演绎,以及他在《伦理学》中讨论了人们做事选择所依据的方法仍然是演绎推理。

  15. Feasibility of different cleaning methods for silver-copper alloys by X-ray fluorescence: Application to ancient Greek silver coins

    Moreno-Suárez, A. I.; Ager, F. J.; Rodríquez-Segovia, C.; Gómez-Morón, A.; Chaves, F.; Scrivano, S.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Pliego, R.; Respaldiza, M. A.


    Archeological pieces with high Ag concentrations often have a surface enrichment of Ag. Usually, researchers in this field do not agree on the causes of these enrichments, one of which could be the cleaning procedures. In this work, a set of 18 ancient Greek silver coins was selected to study the effects of different cleaning procedures in terms of producing a surface Ag enrichment. The aim of this study is to find and select the less aggressive one in terms of the lower modification of Ag concentrations and visual aspect. These coins were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) before and after each cleaning procedure.


    潘明霞; 曹萍


    Based on the analysis of the narrative form,the framework of Gods and the developing way in ancient Greek myth and ancient Chinese myth,we find that the differences between them are not reflected by types and numbers but by their respective features.One is civilized while the other is still primitive.%通过对古希腊和中国先秦神话的叙事形式、神祗构形和发展路径的对比分析,我们发现造成二者独特的民族特色和相异性的原因,并不在于神话的种类或数量大小等方面,主要表现为古希腊神话的文明性和中国先秦神话的原始性。

  17. Humanity Connotation in Ancient Greek Mythology%神人遇合:古希腊神话人性内涵解读



    古希腊神话呈现出张扬个性、放纵原欲、肯定人的世俗生活和个体生命价值的特征。神具有人性,符合人性发展规律。神人拥有共同的本性,神人的遇合体现出神话系统具有体系性、开放性和自由独立性,反映了古希腊人高尚的精神追求和民主自由的艺术创造精神,符合席勒所强调的用精神的完满来实现人生存的意义,对现代人健全精神的提升具有现实指导意义。%Ancient Greek mythology presents advocating personality, indulging original desire, affirming the human' s secular life and the value of individual life. God and human share common nature, which shows that mythology is systematic, open and independent and reveals the ancient Greeks' artistic creation of noble and democratic spirit. This relates with Schiller' s idea to realize the meaning of human existence with the spirit of perfect and has a realistic significance for modern people.

  18. A tale of two analogues: learning at a distance from the ancient greeks and maya and the problem of deciphering extraterrestrial radio transmissions

    Finney, Ben; Bentley, Jerry

    The transmission of ancient Greek learning and science to medieval western Europe via the translation of Greek and Arab texts is often cited as a terrestrial example of "learning at a distance" that could occur by means of the decipherment of radio messages from advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. However, the translation between such closely related languages as Greek, Latin and Arabic and the decipherment of radio messages from an extraterrestrial civilization to the point where humans could understand them are only nominally analogous tasks. A terrestrial example of such "learning at a distance" from an ancient civilization that perhaps better prepares us for thinking about the immense task inherent in any interstellar knowledge transmission is provided by the lengthy and troubled efforts of western scholars to decipher the inscriptions left by the ancient Maya and to learn from them about this ancient civilization. Only recently, with the rejection of the ideographic fallacy that Maya glyphs symbolized ideas directly without the mediation of language and with the application of linguistic knowledge of Maya languages has it been possible to decipher the Maya inscriptions and learn from them about their science and culture. This experience suggests that without any knowledge of languages in which extraterrestrial messages might be composed, their decipherment could be most problematic. The Maya case is also relevant to the common suggestion that advanced extraterrestrials would deliberately compose messages not in their own natural languages but in artificial ones using logic, numbers, and scientific constants presumably shared among all intelligent civilizations, or at least those in their radio-communicative phases. Numbers and calendrical dating system were the first parts of the Mayan inscriptions to be translated, albeit with the aid of partial "Rosetta stones" left by the Spanish conquerors. This success served, however, to reinforce the ideographic

  19. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja


    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  20. Saving Thailand's Temple: How much are people willing to pay?

    Udomsak Seenprachawong


    Ancient temples are among Southeast Asia's most important cultural artifacts. They are priceless in terms of their historical and religious importance. They are also vital foreign currency earners as key destinations for tourists. Unfortunately, many temples are in poor condition and deteriorating. One of the key challenges across the region is how to finance the conservation of this cultural heritage. This study from Thailand has looked at how much Thais would be willing to pay (WTP) to cons...

  1. The Temple San Ignacio de Loyola In Pátzcuaro

    Carlos Alfonso Ledesma Ibarra


    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the architectural characteristics of the Temple of the Company of Jesus in Patzcuaro. The Temple of San Ignacio de Loyola was tion to an intention to join the Jesuits of the visual and urban discourse in this city-ancient bishopric founded by Don Vasco de Quiroga. With this intention a study is done based on some concepts from the Jesuit architecture and some of the elements of this temple compared to other buildings in the town. 

  2. 略论古希腊的自然观及其生态意蕴%On Ancient Greek View of Nature and its Ecological Implication

    李笑春; 王东


    With a very complex form, ancient Greek view of nature opened various possibilities. We should treat the transcendence of the Greek philosophers carefully (they were firstly embedded in the cultural traditions individually) , and keep a healthy skepticism to the logical conclusion, that to kwon Greek view of nature is not the materialized beginning of viewing nature. It did provided possibility for human to look beyond the nature, but on the other hand it also deceived people by supporting religious beliefs. Ancient Greek view of nature was not a systematic one, and the rich theoretical differences shown by its diverse theories, was where the numerous ecological concepts bred from. The extreme plasticity of Greek view of nature, rooted in the natural philosophers' effort of trying to explore the secret of nature, but they did not interrogate the na- ture as an object of study. They took the experiential phenomena as the basis and starting point, hut always went back to the metaphysics of being. All in all, from the perspective of history of ecological ideas, we will find that, with infinite possibilities, ancient Greek view of nature was the initial framework from where the ecological thought expanded, and the either way through which ecological thought could grow up.%古希腊的自然观呈现出极为复杂的形态,它开启了各种可能。在此我们要审慎地看待希腊哲人的超越性(他们也同样首先是内嵌于文化传统的个人),要对逻辑化的结论保持健康的怀疑:古希腊自然观并非物化地看待自然的开端,它为人类超越地审视自然提供可能,但同时也为人类蒙蔽于自然之内的宗教信念提供支持;古希腊自然观并不系统,在不同理论之中所表现出的丰富差异,是孕育此后诸多生态观念的温床。古希腊自然观所表现出的极强的可塑性,根源于自然哲学家们尝试性地探求自然的秘密,但并不对象性地究诘自然

  3. 酒神祭祀狂欢的审美体验与古希腊悲剧的文学品格%Aesthetic Experience of Dionysian Ritual Carnival and Literary Character of Ancient Greek Tragedy



    酒神祭祀仪式,因其原始的狂欢场景与审美体验而孕育了古希腊悲剧。古希腊悲剧,就其表演特质的剧场性而言,始于酒神祭祀仪式的空间场景,而就其内在本质的文学性而言,则肇自祭祀狂欢独特的审美体验,即古希腊人精神本体对象化的神灵敬仰和英雄崇拜。%The primitive carnival scenes and the aesthetic experience in Dionysian sacrificial ceremony had bred ancient Greek tragedies. In terms of its performance characteristics at the theatre, ancient Greek tragedies began in the space scenes of Dionysian sacrificial ceremony, but in terms of its inherent nature of literature, ancient Greek tragedies began in the unique aesthetic experience of Dionysian ritual carnival, namely, ancient Greeks' worship of God and hero.

  4. Temples of Malta

    Ventura, Frank; Hoskin, Michael

    The unique Neolithic temples of Malta have a distinctive orientation toward the range SE-SSW (except for the Mnajdra South Temple which faces E). However, the motive for this preferred direction is not clear. If the motive was astronomical, then the builders could have targeted the bright stars of the Southern Cross and Centaurus. If the opposite direction is taken, then the target could have been the temple builders' ancestral home in Sicily and the surrounding islands. The orientation of the Mnajdra South Temple is remarkable and suggests an alignment with either sunrise midway between the solstices or the heliacal rising of the Pleiades around 3000 BC. The evidence for these alternatives is discussed.

  5. Evolution of the knowledge of electricity and electrotherapeutics with special reference to X-rays and cancer. Part 1. Ancient Greeks to Luigi Galvani

    We present a chronological review of the growth points in the knowledge of electricity, especially as applied to medicine. Commencing with the ancient Greeks and ending with cancer electrotherapeutics at the turn of the 20th century, our history is arranged in chronological order by years of the investigators. William Gilbert (1540-1603) initiated the era of scientific investigation, followed by advances in later centuries by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Abbe Nollet (1700-1770), Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) among others. Although electrotherapy was infrequently used to treatment malignancy, it was to make a major contribution to cancer therapy because the experience gained in electrotherapeutics paved the way for the rapid adoption of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Within a year of rontge's discovery, more than a thousand books, pamphlets and papers about X-rays were published. (author)

  6. 论《麦克白》中“两希”文化的融合%Amalgamation between Ancient Greek Culture and Hebraism in Macbeth



    As the renowned representative personage in the late period of Renaissance,Shakespeare became more mature in the thought of consideration and critical acceptation towards Ancient Greek culture as well as Hebraism on the basis of humanistic.Macbeth makes Shakespeare's thought incisively and vividly.This text will see the confliction and amalgamation between Ancient Greek culture and Hebraism through the perspective of heroic image,inward contradiction and temptation of Macbeth's wife,by analyzing the mutual confrontation and dependence between rationality of pursuing nature desire and necessity of reasoning for restricting the desire.%作为文艺复兴后期的代表人物,莎士比亚的思想在人文主义基础上进一步成熟,表现在对"两希"文化的思考和批判的接受。《麦克白》作为其后期作品,将作者的思想淋漓尽致地展现了出来。从麦克白的英雄形象,麦克白的内心矛盾斗争及麦克白夫人引诱唆使麦克白弑君犯罪的三个角度,通过分析追寻自然欲望(野心或者恶)的合理性以及理性(神性或者善)制约欲望的必要性之间相互对抗又相互依赖关系,可了解其"两希"文化的碰撞和融合。

  7. 希腊神话中女性美的政治学阐释%A Political Interpretation to the Feminine Charm in Ancient Greek Mythology



    Feminine charm is an essential quality endued with females by the Nature , and a social attribute entrusted to them by male politics . As an important aspect of female issues in ancient Greek mythology , feminine charm condenses the complicated aesthetic outlook and aesthetic appeal of male politics in ancient Greek society . It demonstrates a cultural confidence that the mythology puts to feminine quality and value of this time . It is the key for us to interpret correctly the female issues in the mythology to unearth the cultural connotation and to reveal the political implication of the female charm in the mythology .%女性美是自然赋予女性的一种本质属性,也是男性政治赋予女性的一种社会属性。女性美作为希腊神话中女性问题的一个重要方面,凝聚着古希腊社会中男性政治复杂的审美观念与审美诉求,表现了神话对这一时期女性品质与价值的文化自信。深入挖掘神话中女性美的文化内涵,揭示神话中女性美的政治意蕴,是我们正确解读神话中众多女性问题的关键。

  8. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in theX-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    Turner, Manisha; /Norfolk State U.


    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation.

  9. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in the X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation

  10. Improving the Raster Scanning Methods used with X-ray Fluorescence to See the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes (SULI Paper)

    Griffin, Isabella B.; /Norfolk State U. /SLAC, SSRL


    X-ray fluorescence is being used to detect the ancient Greek copy of Archimedes work. The copy of Archimedes text was erased with a weak acid and written over to make a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ancient parchment, made of goat skin, has on it some of Archimedes most valuable writings. The ink in the text contains iron which will fluoresce under x-ray radiation. My research project deals with the scanning and imaging process. The palimpsest is put in a stage that moves in a raster format. As the beam hits the parchment, a germanium detector detects the iron atoms and discriminates against other elements. Since the computer scans in both forwards and backwards directions, it is imperative that each row of data lines up exactly on top of the next row. There are several parameters to consider when scanning the parchment. These parameters include: speed, count time, shutter time, x-number of points, and acceleration. Formulas were made to relate these parameters together. During the actual beam time of this project, the scanning was very slow going; it took 30 hours to scan 1/2 of a page. Using the formulas, the scientists doubled distance and speed to scan the parchment faster; however, the grey scaled data was not lined up properly causing the images to look blurred. My project was is to find out why doubling the parameters caused blurred images, and to fix the problem if it is fixable.

  11. 古希腊和古罗马剧场的声学研究%Acoustics of Ancient Greek and Roman Theatres

    Robeao Pompoli; Andrea Farnetani; Nicola Prodi


    This paper deals with the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theatres as it merges from an extensive investigation carried out within the ERATO project ( Identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical Heritage of Ancient Theatres and Odea) financed by the European Commission. In the paper, a deep analysis was devoted to analyze and understand the typical structure of the impulse responses measured in some of the best preserved examples of ancient Roman theatres, namely Aspendos theatre in Turkey and the South Theatre in Jerash, Jordan. Specific acoustical measurements were also carried out on a 1: 20 scale model of the Siracusa theatre.%论述了古希腊与古罗马的剧场音质.该研究是由欧共体资助的ERATO项目"古代剧场和表演场所声学遗产的鉴定、评价与振兴"的一部分.该项目对古希腊与古罗马剧场进行了较详尽的调研.文中通过对若干保存得最好的古罗马剧场,如土耳其阿斯彭多斯剧场以及约旦杰拉斯南方剧场测量的脉冲响应进行深入的分析,探讨了其典型构造.同时对西塔库萨剧场建立了1:20的模型,进行了专门的声学测量.

  12. The sundials of Changzhou Tianning Temple in Qing Dynasty and the design of their restoration.

    Guo, Shengchi

    The situation of two large size sundials of Changzhou Tianning Temple in Qing Dynasty is described. Their structures and principles were explored. The comparison between them and the traditional equatorial sundials in ancient China was made.

  13. A submerged temple complex off Pindara, on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Pindara has been an important religious centre since the early historical period as it has been recorded in several ancient texts. An onshore exploration on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra brought to light the remains of a temple complex...

  14. Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.

  15. 略论中希神话的差异%Brief Comments on Ancient Chinese and Greek Myths



    Myths have great influence on both Chinese and Greek literature. However, they differ fromeach other for reasons of different location, natural environment, culture and national characteristics. Greek myths reflect personality, power and humanity while Chinese myths advocate general characteristics, virtue and divinity. This paper will probe into the differences between these two kinds of myths so as to facilitate readers' understanding of both Chinese and western cultures.%神话对中国和希腊两国文学皆产生了巨大影响。但由于中希两国地域、自然条件、文化传统及民族个性等各方面的不同,使得两国的古代神话呈现出不同的艺术风貌。希腊神话体现的是个性、力量和人性,中国的神话则崇尚共性、德行和神性。本文将从这三方面简要探讨中国神话和希腊神话之间的差异,以便更深刻地了解中希两国文化。

  16. The use of the kidneys in secular and ritual practices according to ancient Greek and Byzantine texts.

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios; Skarpelos, Andreas; Tsiros, Georgios


    The use of kidneys in secular and spiritual practices was very common for centuries. In this article we present some references on their employment as sacrificial offers, as plain food or as a source for medicaments. Our material derives from Greek texts of the Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras. Relevant extracts from the Old Testament are also included, as they have become part of a common cultural heritage in that period of syncretism, when Jews were Hellenized and Greeks orientized. From the fragments cited in this article, it is obvious that the practical use of kidneys by priests, doctors, and lay persons in the periods under discussion was widespread. The sacrificial offering was based on the religious significance of the organ. The dietary consumption of the kidneys was limited by their function as urine producers. Their medicinal use was dictated first, by the abundance of the adipose tissue surrounding them, which was an ideal warming and binding substance. Second, it may be explained by the deeply rooted conviction that eating a particular organ led to the incorporation of its strength, thus protecting the corresponding eater's organs. Those practices should not surprise us in view of their corresponding modern use. Currently, kidney donors offer their organs in a sacrificial gesture, kidneys are consumed as a delicacy worldwide, and renal tissue is therapeutically used in transplantations and, until very recently, as a source for hormonal substances. PMID:15954932

  17. Orientation of Phoenician Temples

    Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

    The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  18. Rebuilding the Temple

    Allen, Charlotte


    The author believes that any effort to promote a curriculum focused on traditional values in today's academic culture will be promptly and thoroughly sabotaged by those assigned to teach it--which is why she thinks the best bet for traditionalists is to refocus on the Enlightenment inspired "temple of science" vision of a university, which at…

  19. Greek theories on eugenics.

    Galanakis, E.


    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works...

  20. 尤金·奥尼尔戏剧中的古希腊悲剧文化根源%The Cultural Roots of the Ancient Greek Tragedy in Eugene O’Neill’s Dramas



      Eugene O’Neill’s dramas are a kind of criticism and inheritance of the ancient Greek tragedy. Ancient Greek tragedy is cultural roots in Eugene O’Neill’s tragedies from an analysis of its tragic figures, tragedy themes and its roots. It helps us appreciate Eugene O’Neill’s dramas better and learn more of his cultural features of ancient Greek tragedy.%  尤金·奥尼尔的戏剧是对古希腊悲剧的批判与继承。文章从奥尼尔作品中的悲剧人物、悲剧主题和悲剧题材的根源出发,研究了尤金·奥尼尔作品中的悲剧文化根源——古希腊的悲剧文化。这为我们更好地欣赏尤金·奥尼尔作品,了解尤金·奥尼尔的古希腊悲剧文化特色奠定了基础。

  1. 北京静福寺侧柏古树林鸟类群落多样性研究%Avian community diversity in Platycladus orientalis ancient trees at the Jingfu Temple in Beijing

    范宗骥; 董大颖; 郑然; 王敏增; 王奇峰; 关文彬


    During the period from April 2011 to April 2012,the bird community was surveyed at the Jingfu Temple in Beijing with fixed strip method for arborvitae ancient forest,deciduous broadleaved forest and mixed broad-conifer forest.A total of 65 species of birds,belonging to 8 orders and 27 families,were recorded,among which there were 28 species of permanent residents,23 summer breeders,5 winter visitors and 9 travelers,and 4 Class Ⅱ protected wildlife of China ; the avifauna was mainly composed of paratactic birds of 44 species (accounted for 67.69%),9 oriental (accounted for 13.85%) and 12widespread species(accounted for 18.46%).The dominant species were great tit (Parus major),blackbilled magpie (Pica pica),aure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyana),large-billed crow (Covus macrorhynchosw),and red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha).According to the survey results,the species,quantity,diversity index of birds had different changes,the species and quantity were the smallest,the diversity index and evenness index were the lowest,the dominance index was the highest in arborvitae ancient forest; the species and quantity were the largest,the diversity index was the highest in deciduous broadleaved forest; while the evenness index was the highest in mixed broad-conifer forest,reflecting the most uniform distribution and the most obvious advantage phenomenon of birds in arborvitae ancient forest.The bird functional food group had different composition in different forest types,4 functional food groups in arborvitae ancient forest of the birds,5 functional food groups in mixed broad-conifer forest,6 functional food groups in deciduous broadleaved forest,reflecting the adaptability of different forest habitat for birds.%2011年4月至2012年4月,采用固定样带法对北京静福寺侧柏古树林区的侧柏古树林、针阔混交林和落叶阔叶林3种林型进行鸟类群落调查.共记录到鸟类65种,隶属8目27科,留鸟28种,夏候鸟23种,冬候鸟5

  2. 古希腊神话的美育思想探析%Exploration and Analysis on the Thought of Aesthetic Education in Ancient-Greek Mythology

    杨运来; 邹丹


      Ancient-Greek mythology has rich spiritual and cultural connotations, and bears the important significance to our contemporary aesthetic education. The Gods and heroes in them have a sound personality and perfect humanity. They not only emphasized publicizing the human nature and original lust, but also attached importance to the statute of rational wisdom being in line with the principle of healthy life and integrating both of them harmoniously and the pursuit of freedom at the same time, all of which are precisely the ideological content of our contemporary aesthetic education reqirements.%  古希腊神话有着丰富的精神文化内涵,它对于我们当代的审美教育具有重要的意义。其中诸神和英雄们有着健全的人格和完美的人性,他们既强调对人的自然本性与原始欲望的张扬,也重视理性智慧合乎生命健康原则的规约,同时,还注重两者的和谐协调及对自由的追求,而这些正是我们当代审美教育的思想内涵所要求的。

  3. City of One Thousand Temples

    Stein, Emma Natalya


    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  4. Ancient Greek Illustrated Dioscoridean Herbals: Origins and Impact of the Juliana Anicia Codex and the Codex Neopolitanus

    Jules JANICK


    Full Text Available The pharmacopeia of Pedanius Dioscorides (20-70 ce, entitled Peri Ylis Ialikis (latinized as De Materia Medica, On Medical Matterswas written in Greek about the year 65. It was destined to be one of the most famous books on pharmacology and medicine but is also richin horticulture and plant ecology. An illustrated alphabetical version of Dioscorides’ manuscript was completed in Constantinople about 512. This magnificent volume was prepared and presented to the imperial Princess Juliana Anicia (462-527, daughter of the Emperor Anicius Olybrius, Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The bound manuscript stored in Ōsterreichische National bibliothek in Vienna is available in facsimile and is now referred to as the Juliana Anicia Codex (JAC or the Codex Vindobonensis Dioscorides. The JAC contains 383 paintings of plants including many horticultural crops, many of which can still be recognized in modern day examples. Ananalys is of the illustrations indicates that they were made by numerous artists of varying skills and it is probable that some were derived from an earlier lost version. The Codex Neapolitanus (NAP (late 6th or early 7th century which now contains 406 plant images on 172folios resides in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Naples is closely related to JAC, and is also available in facsimile editions. A comparison ofthe 352 common illustrations contained in both NAP and JAC suggests that many of the illustrations derived from a common source,perhaps an illustrated collection owned by Theodosius II, but the possibility also exists that some of the NAP images are direct copies of JAC images. There are 31 images in JAC which do not appear in NAP, 1 is a 13th century addition, 4 are images that can be assigned to2 torn pages. and 26 can be assigned to 11 missing leaves of the NAP. Of the 54 images in NAP which do not appear in JAC, 2 are likely to have been Mandragora included in lost folios in JAC, but the other 52 may include other images that

  5. Impact of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology on the Etymology of Medical Terminology%探索古希腊罗马神话对医学英语术语的影响



    Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology is the origin of western civilization, which has an important influence on every field of western culture especially on medicine. Language is the carrier of culture and vocabulary is the basic unit of language. Therefore, vocabulary is the most direct tool to support culture. The title, image, name, and story of the Gods of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology are directly used to name the medical terminology or indirectly deduced the roots, prefixes and suffixes to form the medical terminology. By exploring the origin of medical terms in ancient Greek and Roman mythology, it is helpful to understand the deep meaning of words, grasp the connotation of the words, and stimulate the students’ learning interest.%古希腊罗马神话是西方文明的起源,对西方文化的各个领域,尤其是医学方面影响颇深。语言是文化的载体,词语是语言的基本组成单位,因而词语是承载文化最直接的工具。古希腊罗马神话中神的职能、形象、称谓和典故往往被直接用来命名医学术语或者从中衍生出词根和词缀来构成医学术语。通过古希腊罗马神话探索医学英语术语词源的由来,有助于理解词语的深层意义,准确把握词语的内涵,激发学生的学习兴趣。

  6. Characterization of magnetic spherical fractions in sand deposits for interpretation of environmental change around the El- Zayyan temple, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki


    Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the

  7. From the World’s Fair to Disneyland: Pavilions as Temples

    Jaimee K. Comstock-Skipp


    Full Text Available This paper explores the visual culture of recreated temple structures in the entertainment settings of international exhibitions and Disneyland. It examines the material and conceptual construction of temple mythology in world’s fairs and amusement parks through the reproduction – or rather, simulation – of Egyptian, Mayan, Aztec, Cambodian, and Hindu structures. Disneyland in southern California has been interpreted as the hybrid descendent of world’s fairs and colonial expositions, the result of continuities and ruptures within the exhibitionary and entertainment traditions of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Given this well-established link, some of the architecture in the Adventureland section of the park can be likened to the pavilions of the colonies in French and British expositions, especially those from the late nineteenth century through to 1939. The creators of the Temple of the Forbidden Eye in Disneyland’s Indiana Jones Adventure ride from 1995 have claimed they were directly inspired by images of temples found within National Geographic magazines of the 1930s. A skim through these attributed sources of information turns up period photographs from world’s fair temple-pavilions. This paper posits that the Disney temple, then, exists as a simulacrum: a copy for which there is no original. However, the author traces its overlooked formal and conceptual precedents in American, French, and British reproductions of Aztec and Mayan temples and palaces, ancient Egyptian temples, and the Cambodian Angkor Wat temple compound. In the colonial villages of expositions, the pavilions of Mexico, Egypt, and Indochina were rendered as regional temples with archaeological displays inside them. This paper goes some way toward addressing the question: what is a pavilion when it takes the form of a temple?

  8. 从古希腊-罗马文化角度正解《嘉莉妹妹》中嘉莉的形象%Illustration of the Rationality in Carrie from the Perspective of Ancient Greek -Rome Culture



    Ancient Greek and Rome culture and the ancient Hebraic and Christian culture are the two sources for the western literature.In the ancient Hebraic and Christian culture,Carrie,in the Sister Carrie of Dreiser,is an enchantress,who should be severely criticized.Since the novel’s publication,the image of Carrie is controver-sial.By the aid of the myth in Greece and Rome,this paper is to illustrate the rationality of Carrie’s image from the perspective of ancient Greek and Rome culture,then to analyze the reasons for her strong desires in material things,and finally to show the limitations in her search for meaning.%古希腊-罗马文化同古希伯来-基督教文化是西方文学创作的两大源头。在古希伯来-基督教文化中,《嘉莉妹妹》中嘉莉的形象是会受到批判的。该小说自出版以来,嘉利它一直是颇有争议的人物形象。本文借助古希腊神话中的形象,从古希腊-罗马传统文化的角度出发,阐释了嘉莉形象的合理性,并分析了造成她强烈欲望形成的原因,指出嘉莉人生追求的局限性。

  9. The Influence of Cultural Anthropology on Zhou Zuo-ren’s Translation of Ancient Greek Literature%文化人类学对周作人译介古希腊文学的影响



    As an important thinker during the May the Fourth Movement,Zhou Zuo-ren was greatly influenced by the concepts of cultural anthropology which,at that time,was unfolding itself in the west.Cultural anthropology exerts profound influences upon Zhou’s humane thoughts and translations,especially in the terms of translation from ancient Greek literature.This paper starts off from the aspect of Zhou’s reception of cultural anthropology,and proceeds to analyze Zhou’s purpose,accomplishments and features in translating ancient Greek literature.%作为"五四"时期重要的思想家,周作人深受当时西方方兴未艾的文化人类学的影响。文化人类学理论对周作人的人文思想和翻译活动,尤其是对古希腊文学的翻译发挥着深远的影响。他全景式地译介了希腊的神话、诗歌、戏剧,力图全面展示古希腊人的生活、思想、艺术、人生观、世界观,借以开启民众、教化大众。

  10. Alma, corpo e a antiga civilização grega: as primeiras observações do funcionamento cerebral e das atividades mentais Soul, body and the ancient greek civilization: the first observations of brain functioning and mental activities

    Fabiano S. Castro


    Full Text Available Muitos dos conceitos existentes na neurociência moderna possuem suas origens nas especulações elaboradas pelos antigos filósofos e médicos gregos. Questões centrais sobre a fonte dos pensamentos humanos, o mecanismo da atividade cognitiva, e a natureza das emoções, percepção e movimento voluntário, por exemplo, foram levantadas pelos pensadores gregos. É a partir desta civilização que surgem as observações mais sistemáticas sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento do corpo, da mente e a relação entre estas duas entidades. Assim, o presente trabalho pretende observar as principais tentativas iniciais gregas em vincular estruturas do corpo (tais como o cérebro ou o coração e atividades mentais, ao longo das diversas especulações gregas sobre a natureza, a filosofia, a psicologia e a medicina.Many of the existing concepts in modern neuroscience have their origins in the speculations made by ancient Greek philosophers and physicians. Core questions about the source of human thought, the mechanism of cognitive activity as well as the nature of emotions, perceptions and voluntary movements, for example, were raised by Greek thinkers. It is from this civilization that arise more systematic observations on the structure and functioning of body, mind and relationship between these two entities. The present paper intends to adhere to the first Greek attempts to link structures of the body (such as the brain or the heart and mental activities regarding various Greek speculations about the nature, philosophy, psychology and medicine.

  11. Exemplarity and narrative in the Greek tradition

    Cairns, Douglas


    This discussion starts from the encounter between Achilles and Priam in Iliad 24, and especially Achilles' remarks on the jars of Zeus (525-35), the seminal expression of a characteristic Greek attitude towards the mutability of fortune and the instability of happiness. Such ideas can be readily paralleled in other cultures, literatures and narrative forms, both ancient and more recent, Greek and non-Greek. Their expression in language, symbol, and art (both verbal and visual) illustrates the...

  12. In Search of Excellence: Historical Roots of Greek Culture.

    Makedon, Alexander

    This paper seeks to discover conditions that motivate people to achieve excellence and uses the Greek culture as an example of excellence. The document addresses the basic questions: (1) What were the social conditions that resulted in what is widely known as the "Greek Miracle"?; (2) What motivated the ancient Greeks to excel, especially their…

  13. 中国先秦与古希腊体育的差异性及美学品格探究%On Differences and Aesthetic Character between Chinese Pre-Qin Sport and the Ancient Greek Sporty

    王芳; 邹丹


    中国体育与西方体育从文化根源上就呈现出巨大的差异性。中国先秦体育具有礼仪性、养生性、实用性的特征,古希腊体育体现出宗教性、军事性、娱乐性的特点。中国春秋时期的体育在“礼、乐”中彰显德性的教化,具中庸和合与顺应自然的审美意趣,体现出重视技巧和谋略,偏重于以柔克刚的阴柔之美;古希腊体育则在娱乐性的竞技活动中重人格的培养,具崇尚崇高与不受文明礼仪束缚的自然天成的审美倾向,表现出强调力量和速度,偏重于竞技取胜的阳刚之美。%Chinese sports and western sports show huge differences in their culture roots. Chinese Pre- Qin sports has characteristics of etiquette , nourishing of life , practicability,while the ancient Greek sports shows characteristics of religiousness, military ,entertainment. In the period of the spring and autumn, Chinese sports reveals moral education through "the ritual and music", with the doctrine of the mean and aesthetic interest going with the nature, which attaches importance to skills and strategy, and prefers to the feminine beauty with its softer approach to power. On the other hand ,the ancient Greek sports gives priorities to personality training in the entertaining competitive activities, with the aesthetics tendency out of the etiquette rules bound ,which emphasizes on strength and speed, preferring the competitive masculinity.

  14. 古希腊体育中的教育思想与实践%Educational Thought and Practice in Ancient Greek Sports

    刘欣然; 李孟华; 陈安顺


    From historical perspective of Greek sports, the paper, depending on literature method, discusses the so-cial background of educational thoughts and the specific factors in educational practice. Starting from the P. E. reality in Greek social ideal, the paper believes that P. E. is a means to cultivate qualified citizens of physical reality, which considered that physical education is not only the way to cultivate qualified citizens, but also the act of kindness and norms of behavior of collective justice which has always leading the direction of Greek histo-ry. In sports, the Greek thought of education is to promote general social values and code of conduct, while in city-state education, from the sports practice of Grete, Mycenae, Sparta and Athens, we know the differences and connection between them- - -P. E. is an important basis for the city-state education. The objective of this research is looking for the unique connotation of Greek educational thought and practice from Greek sports history so as to understand of the real significance and value of P. E. through the same national spirit.%采用文献资料法,立足于希腊体育的历史视野,探讨教育思想产生的社会背景,以及教育实践中的特定因素。从希腊社会理想中的体育现实出发,认为体育是培养合格公民的手段,也是集体正义的善举和行为规范,引领着希腊历史前进的方向。在体育中,希腊的教育思想是为了推行普遍的社会价值和行为准则。在城邦教育中,从克里特、迈锡尼、斯巴达和雅典的体育实践,我们了解到它们之间的差异与联系,体育是支撑城邦教育行为的重要依据。本研究目的在于从希腊体育史中,寻找到希腊教育思想与实践的独特内涵,透过民族精神的同一性,认识体育存在的真正意义和价值所在。

  15. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.


    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  16. Greek classicism in living structure? Some deductive pathways in animal morphology.

    Zweers, G A


    Classical temples in ancient Greece show two deterministic illusionistic principles of architecture, which govern their functional design: geometric proportionalism and a set of illusion-strengthening rules in the proportionalism's "stochastic margin". Animal morphology, in its mechanistic-deductive revival, applies just one architectural principle, which is not always satisfactory. Whether a "Greek Classical" situation occurs in the architecture of living structure is to be investigated by extreme testing with deductive methods. Three deductive methods for explanation of living structure in animal morphology are proposed: the parts, the compromise, and the transformation deduction. The methods are based upon the systems concept for an organism, the flow chart for a functionalistic picture, and the network chart for a structuralistic picture, whereas the "optimal design" serves as the architectural principle for living structure. These methods show clearly the high explanatory power of deductive methods in morphology, but they also make one open end most explicit: neutral issues do exist. Full explanation of living structure asks for three entries: functional design within architectural and transformational constraints. The transformational constraint brings necessarily in a stochastic component: an at random variation being a sort of "free management space". This variation must be a variation from the deterministic principle of the optimal design, since any transformation requires space for plasticity in structure and action, and flexibility in role fulfilling. Nevertheless, finally the question comes up whether for animal structure a similar situation exists as in Greek Classical temples. This means that the at random variation, that is found when the optimal design is used to explain structure, comprises apart from a stochastic part also real deviations being yet another deterministic part. This deterministic part could be a set of rules that governs

  17. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  18. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J


    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture. PMID:18794562

  19. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter


    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  20. Overseas Temples and Tamil Migratory Space

    Trouillet, Pierre-Yves


    Temples have been places of major importance for Tamil societies for more than fifteen centuries. Following the migration of Tamilians from South India, the perpetuation overseas of their tradition as temple builders and the creation of a Tamil diaspora, they can now be found on the five continents. They are indicative of the exportation of Tamil Hinduism on a global scale and prompt us to ponder the relationships linking these overseas temples and the Tamil migratory space. This paper examin...

  1. Greek astronomy

    Heath, Sir Thomas L


    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  2. Fair at the Temple of Earth


    WITH all of its fun and games, the Spring Festival fair at the Temple of Earth in Beijing is a good place to spend the holidays. Ever since 1985, when the temple first resumed the practice of holding the fair during the Spring Festival, the annual event has attracted more and more people every year. In fact, the temple fair has gradually developed into a holiday exhibition of traditional local culture as well as an influential mass cultural activity. The opening ceremony is a major part of the temple fair. All who attend are impressed by its magnificence and liveliness. The arch tower at the entrance

  3. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient coins: The case of Greek silver drachmae from the Emporion site in Spain

    Greek colonizers arrived at the Iberian Peninsula at the beginning of the sixth century B.C. and founded a small colony known as Emporion in north-east Spain. By the fifth century B.C., this colony became a small polis with a well-organized administrative structure. In this context, the necessity of coinage was a fact and the first coins were minted. Some of these coins were characterized by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment. The analytical study focused on the elemental characterization of the coins minted from the fourth century to the first century B.C. and their compositional evolution during this period. The investigation has pointed out a very high fineness of the alloys throughout the time, with an average silver content around 98.32%, and the feasibility of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a screening tool for the characterization of the alloys.

  4. Greek Religion

    Jan N. Bremmer


    Students of Greek religion are fortunate in having at their disposal the best recent study of a 'dead' religion: Walter Burkert's Greek Religion (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985). Since the English edition is not essentially different from the German original of 1977, my survey will concentrate on developments since approximately that date. Although Burkert's handbook will be quoted only incidentally, its influence is pervasive, and is always to be presupposed. In the survey I shall offer a synthesis...

  5. Adoption in ancient times

    Bisha Eugena


    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  6. Radiocarbon Dating on Jabung Temple Sites one of the Temples in East Java

    Radiocarbon dating of organic materials (charcoal) around Jabung templein Jabung temple village, Paiton, Probolinggo district, East Java provincehas been carried out. Excavation archaeologically in different location incertain distance has been done which is considered relevant to the temple'sage and the location of the excavation boxes are the test holes (TH=LU) i.e :LU 1, LU 2, LU 3, LU 4, LU 5, LU 6, LU 7, and LU 8. From those test holes wecan find out that only LU 4 and LU 3 which contain significant charcoal. Thepretreatment (acid, base, acid washing) followed by continued preparationwith carbon contained charcoal burning process, burn to be acetylene gas (C2H2). 14C contained in acetylene is counted by gas proportional counter.After being processed charcoal from LU 3 is not qualified in volumerequirement which is needed for the next analysis. The result for 3000minutes, for background counting = 1.1 ± 0.21 cpm, counting of standard14.51 ± 0.52 cpm, while counting from charcoal sample only from LU 4location is 13.51 ± 0.12 cpm. From data of LU 4 charcoal counting above,we can count the date (age) of the sample that is 510 ± 80 BP. If we usetree ring correction for the data, result will be between 1306-1456 AD onlevel of confidence 68.3% while on level of confidence 95.4% result will bebetween 1281-1624 AD. Relative dating base on ancient inscription show 1354AD. From the data, relative dating is in the range of to absolute dating(radiocarbon dating). (author)

  7. Marae o te Rangi, Temples of the Heavens: Explorations in Polynesian Archaeoastronomy

    Kirch, Patrick V.


    It is well established that the ancient Polynesians possessed sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, applying their understanding of the movements of heavenly bodies among other things to long-distance navigation and to their calendrical systems. Nonetheless, Polynesian archaeologists have been reticent to apply the methods of archaeoastronomy to the interpretation of prehistoric monumental sites, especially temples (marae and heiau). This presentation draws upon examples from the Mangareva and Hawaiian archipelagoes to demonstrate that Polynesian ritual architecture frequently exhibits regular patterns of orientation, suggesting that these temples were aligned with particular astronomical phenomena, such as solstice, equinox, and Pleiades rising positions. The argument is advanced that Polynesian temples were not only places of offering and sacrifice to the gods, but also locations for formal astronomical observation. In part, such observation was presumably crucial to keeping the Polynesian lunar calendar synchronized with the solar year.


    Сандра Вуксан


    The subject of this work are the etymological and lexical-semantic aspects of phraseologisms originating from greek mythology and ancient greek history. Fifty seven phraseologisms are included. It is noted that in this group of phraseological units etymological component specifically reflects on lexical and semantic. It is possible to divide all the phraseologisms in two groups. First group includes phraseologisms with specified lexical structure, which includes the names of mythological and ...

  9. The ‘enigma of Jesus’’ temple intervention: Four essential keys

    William Domeris


    Full Text Available The emerging consensus, on the intervention of Jesus into the commercial operations of the Jerusalem Temple, speaks in terms of an enacted parable aimed at the temple hierarchy, against the backdrop of the ongoing economic and social oppression of the time. In this article, I consider four essential scholarly insights (keys: The possibility that Caiaphas introduced trade in sacrifices in the Jerusalem Temple; the link between the money changers and Greek-style bankers; the Jewish witness to the extent of high-priestly corruption in the 1st century CE; and finally the presence of the image of Baal-Melkart on the Tyrian Shekel. In the light of the fourth key, in particular, we discover Jesus, like the prophets of old (Jeremiah and Elijah, standing against the greed of the High priests and their abuse of the poor and marginalised, by defending the honour of God, and pronouncing judgement on the temple hierarchy as ‘bandits’ (Jr 7:11 and, like their ancestors, encouragers of ‘Baal worship’ (Jr 7:9.

  10. Opsis: the visuality of Greek drama

    Meineck, Peter


    How were Greek plays viewed in the fifth century BCE and by deepening our understanding of their visual dimension might we increase our knowledge of the plays themselves? The aim of this study is to set out the importance of the visual (opsis) when considering ancient Greek drama and provide a basis for constructing a form of “visual dramaturgy” that can be effectively applied to the texts. To that end, this work is divided into five sections, which follow a “top-down” analysis of ancient dra...

  11. A Sound Mind in a Sound Body: That's the Philosophy behind This Classical Greek Magnet School.

    Natale, Jo Anna


    Central City High School, Kansas City, Missouri, has found its identity in the past. As part of comprehensive desegregation program, this magnet school offers its students classical Greek program that, like ancient Greek civilization, calls for as much attention to body as to mind. The costly Olympic athletic program and classical Greek curriculum…

  12. Studies in Continuity and Change: A Comparative Study of the Mother Goddess in Ancient India and Ancient Egypt.

    Hardiman, W. J.

    Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…

  13. The first medical ethics and deontology in Europe as derived from Greek mythology.

    Konstantinidou, Meropi K; Pavlides, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki


    Medical ethics and deontology are mentioned in Greek myths long before 700 B.C. We collected and present information derived from ancient Greek mythology and related to (how) ancient physicians took care of the sick or injured and how they were rewarded for their services. PMID:27331210

  14. Civil Disobedience at the Mormon Temple.

    Kocol, Cleo Fellers


    This article chronicles events surrounding the pro-ERA/anti-Mormon civil involvement demonstration by 21 feminists in Bellevue, Washington, on the occasion of the dedication of the Bellevue Mormon Temple. (DB)

  15. Andronikos I Komnenos: A Greek Tragedy

    MAGOULIAS, Harry J.


    The Annals of Niketas Choniates depict Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) in certain aspects of his lifestyle as a mirror image of his first cousin, Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1143-1180). The life and death of Andronikos I Komnenos provide us with a window into the aesthetic, moral, intellectual, religious, economic and emotional world of Byzantine society in the 12th century. It was thanks to the Byzantine empire that the ancient texts were preserved and transmitted. Ancient Greek cul...

  16. Building science of indian temple architecture

    Vardia, Shweta


    Master’s Thesis Structural Analysis of Monuments and Historical Constructions Every style of building construction reflects a clearly distinctive basic principle that represents a particular culture and era. In this context the Indian Hindu temple architecture are not only the abode of God and place of worship, but they are also the cradle of knowledge, art, architecture and culture. The practices and traditions of temples exist not only in history but also in present time which g...

  17. Head of all years astronomy and calendars at Qumran in their ancient context

    Ben-Dov, Jonathan


    Covering a wide array of sources from ancient Mesopotamia to the Dead Sea Scrolls, this volume offers a different perspective on Jewish apocalyptic time-reckoning during the Second Temple period, based on a calendar year of 364 days.

  18. The Crematorium Temple in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan

    Annalisa Boi


    Full Text Available The Crematorium Temple of Milan, first in Italy and among the first in Europe, has played a key role in the revival of cremation, already used by the ancient classical civilizations, becoming a model soon imitated by other cities. Its construction is due to the generosity of the industrialist Albert Keller who worked to introduce the practice of cremation in Milan as an alternative to burial and as solution to the unrelenting settlement expansion of cemeteries, too close to the cities. In 1876 the crematorium was inaugurated with the first implementation of a design by Carlo Maciachini, author of the Monumental Cemetery where the crematorium is located, presented in grecian Doric style in memory of the purifying rituals of classical ideas.

  19. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  20. Greek Americanism, "New Greece," and Greek Orthodoxy.

    Athens, Lonnie


    Argues that Greek Americanism is neither based upon the wholesale assimilation of American culture nor the futile copying of Greek culture. Instead, an amalgamation of both cultures, a blending together of Greek and American cultures in a manner that produces a unique culture all its own is presented. (GR)

  1. The Salpinx in Greek Cult

    Gullög Nordquist


    Full Text Available The salpinx is not often treated by scholars of ancient Greek music, because it was mainly a military instrument. The instrument was usually not used for musical purposes, only for giving signals. In Greece the salpinx is known from the 8th century onwards. The Greek salpinx was an aerophone, usually made of bronze, and consisted of an 80 to 120 cm long, straight, tube with cylindrical bore, and with a conical or more often bell-shaped final, kodon, which could be made of bone. The bone had to be fired in order to get the right acoustic qualities, according to Aristotle. Salpinx is usually translated as "trumpet", but the type of sound generator it may have had has been discussed.

  2. From Alfred Street to Temple Street, Detroit

    Brown, Chloe


    'From Alfred Street to Temple Street, Detroit’, a 9-metre long ink drawing of a single street in Detroit using Google Map Street View to virtually ‘walk’ down the street, recording what is seen. This drawing charts a journey through Brush Park, Detroit, an area famous for its once grand, now derelict houses, ending at the world’s largest Masonic Temple. This arose from Chloë Brown's involvement in a significant international research project ‘Topographies of the Obsolete' initiated by Ber...

  3. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich


    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  4. 吴头楚尾的萍乡寺庙文化研究%Analysis of Influence of "Wu" and "Chu" Dynasty on Pingxiang's Temple Culture

    曾萍; 梁贵华


    号称“吴头楚尾”的萍乡拥有极具特色的寺庙文化。本文将指出萍乡寺庙文化的三大特点:寺庙道观历史悠久;多佛道混杂性质的寺庙道观;含原始宗教气息的众多寺庙。%Pingxiang, influe temple culture. This paper need by the cuhure of "Wu" and "Chu" points out three features of Pingxiang's --Buddism and Taoism temple and pre--historical religion temple. Dynasty ; enjoys temples ; ancient characteristic temple ; muhi

  5. Between family and temple: Jesus and sacrifices

    Adriana Destro


    Full Text Available Sacrifice generally aims at obtaining from and by supernatural force the right to exercise control over life. As far as Jewish sacrifices are concerned, according to Leviticus, victims’ blood serves to purify the holy places of the temple and no sacrifices can expiate voluntary sins. In Mt  6:12 God’s forgiveness is obtained through a trilateral relationship between the sinner, the “debtor”, and  God, without any expiatory sacrificial act being required. Jesus did not, however, reject the  sacrificial rituals of the temple, those rituals that did not serve to expiate voluntary sins. In Jesus’ proposal, the forgiveness by one individual of another implies a social conception, which includes the absence of debt,  reconciliation, justice and equality. Jesus transforms and relocates two aspects of the religion of the Second  Temple. In his conception, the forgiveness of sins and  a new beginning of people’s lives brought about by the Jubilee can happen anywhere (not only in the temple  and at any time (not only once a year for Yom ha-kippurim.

  6. 福建福鼎市太姥山宋代国兴寺遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Guoxingsi Temple-site of the Song Period at Tailaoshan in Fuding City,Fujian

    福建博物院; 福鼎市文体局; 福鼎市旅游局; 太姥山风景区管理局


    In September-November 2001,the Fujian Provincial Museum and other institutions excavated the site of Guoxingsi Temple at Tailaoshan in Fuding City.They revealed the vestiges of pavilions,side rooms,passages,small yards and a stupa in this Song period temple and dug out large quantities of ceramic articles,structural members and inscribed steles.The excavation indicates that the temple was first built in the fourth year of the Qianfu reign,Tang Dynasty,and reached its prosperity atthe turn from the Northern Song to the Southern Song period.The unearthed material contributes to studying the history of architecture and Buddhism in ancient China.

  7. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.


    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  8. From Edessa To Urfa: Temples Transformed From Church To Mosque In Urfa

    Yilmaz, Evren; EROĞLU, Süreyya


    City of Urfa, or with it’s ancient name Edessa had been established at the late 4th century BC. Urfa had become a kind of home, even a cradle for different religions, such as pagan beliefs, christianity and Islam since then. Urfa has always been kind of blessed city, which deserves to be called “city of saints”. When we look at the history of religious architecture in Urfa, we see several buildings which had been transformed from church to the mosque, or originally builded as a pagan temple t...

  9. “孔庙世界”的存在本质%Essence of being of“Confucian temple world”



    Based on the academic issue about the root of “Confucian temple world”,this paper, explained ZHOU Lian-xi,ZHU Xi,and HUANG Gan’s questions about the sacrifices to ancient sages in Confucian temples and ancestral temples from “Confucius’s own sincerity in sacrificing”.It further put forward that reading the classics written by ancients sages can make one “communicate with”them in spirit,and the sacrifices to memorial tablets,portraits,or statues of sages in Confucian temples and ancestral temples is actually to use Confucian “orthodoxy”surpassing the limit of “blood relationship sacrifice”to realize the “mutual communication”and understanding with the sages in “spirit”.“Confucius’s own sincerity in sacrificing”existing in“Confucian temple world”is to regard the ancient sa-ges as the living ones to show one’s “respect”and “filial piety”to them,constructing the world of“co-existence”with ancient sages and later followers.%基于“孔庙世界”在根源的提问下成为一个学术上可以展开的议题,从孔子“祭如在”出发,通过诠释周濂溪、朱熹、黄干等对于孔庙与乡祠中祭祀先圣先贤的追问,认为对古圣先贤所书写的文本典籍的阅读,与圣贤在精神上“相通”,通过在孔庙、乡祠内对先儒圣贤牌位、画像或塑像的祭祀,用“道统”超越“血缘祭祀”的局限,实现与先圣先贤在“气”的“相感”。“孔庙世界”中的“祭如在”是将先圣先贤模仿为生者进行“致敬”“致孝”,将先圣与后学“共在”于“共在世界”。

  10. Women’s Voice and Religious Utterances in Ancient Greece

    Manuela Giordano


    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of women and religion through a particular looking glass: religious utterances such as curses, supplication, and prayer, as reflected in some passages from ancient Greek epic and tragedy—pivotal literary genres in the ideological discourse of the Greek polis.

  11. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne


    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  12. Greek Atomic Theory.

    Roller, Duane H. D.


    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  13. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    Bremmer, Jan


    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the suc

  14. Metaphor and emotion: Eros in the Greek novel

    Cummings, Michael


    The study of emotion is an interdisciplinary field. One key aspect of this field is the cultural variation of emotion. This thesis is a contribution to the above area by means of a specific analysis of the ancient Greek conception of the emotion ἔρως. The focus for this study is the Greek Novel, a collection of literary works emerging from the Greek speaking culture of the eastern Mediterranean during the Roman imperial period (1st to 4th cent C.E.). These novels are based upon...

  15. Tourism in China's Buddhist Temples


    In recent years along with the improvement of the livelihoods of Chinese people and the public needs in cultural life, a religious cultural tourism is booming in China. In order to meet the tourist demand, this book is designed as a guide book to introduce 211 famous Buddhist monasteries and temples in various places of China representing different Buddhist sects including Han-Chinese, Tibetan and Southern Buddhism with their rich cultural and historical resources, characteristics of architecture and famous personages.

  16. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat


    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the f...

  17. Ancient DNA

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan


    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  18. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate


    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  19. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Pahl, Ronald H.


    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  20. Greek Chorus: an Ageless Voice%希腊合唱团:永恒的声音


    @@ The chorus in an ancient Greek drama is typically composed of ten to fifteen men who rhythmically chant a dramatic refrain. They are viewed as one entity in the play as opposed to a group of people.

  1. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding......How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...

  2. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    Evans, James


    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  3. 从中西神话人物区别看中西文化差异的根源--以希腊神话和中国上古神话为例%On the Root of Chinese-Western Cultural Differences Based on the Differences between Chinese and Western Mythological Figures:A Case Study on Greek Mythology and Chinese Ancient Mythology



    中国古代神话和古希腊神话是中西神话的重要代表。通过比较可以发现,中希神话中的人物在外形和性格方面表现出种种不同。而从这种不同,我们可以看出中西文化所体现的差异,并进一步研究造成这种差异的根源是什么。%Chinese ancient mythology and Greek mythology are respectively the important representative of Chinese and Western mythology. Through comparing them, it can be found that there are a variety of differences in the appearances and characters of mythological figures between Chinese and Greek mythology. From the differences, we can find the differences between Chi-nese and Western culture, and further study the root of the differ-ences.

  4. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.


    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from

  5. An Analysis of the Tragic Fate in the Ancient Greek Mythology--Take Oedipus the King as an Example%浅析古希腊神话中的悲剧性命运--以俄狄浦斯王为例



    Tragic fate is an obvious feather of the ancient Greek mythology.Prometheus Bound,Oedipus the King and Medea are the most classical tragedies.Among them,Oedipus the King written by Sophocles tel s that Oedipus is trying to escape the fate of kil ing father and marrying mother.However,his attempt to escape pushes himself to the tragic fate.Through the tragic flaws of Oedipus,Sophocles reveals the arrogant,ignorant and impulsive aspects of human nature and implies the mysterious and irresistible power of fate.This paper takes Oedipus as an example to analyze the tragic fate of the ancient Greek mythology.%悲剧性命运是古希腊神话的一大特点。《被缚的普罗米修斯》、《俄狄浦斯王》、《美狄亚》被称为古希腊三大悲剧。其中古希腊悲剧作家索福克勒斯的俄狄浦斯王讲述了俄狄浦斯竭力逃避神谕所示的杀父娶母的命运,然而他的逃避却让自己更靠近既定的命运。戏剧表现的是人的意志和命运的冲突。通过俄狄浦斯的悲剧性缺陷,索福克勒斯揭示了人性自大,无知,冲动的一面,也暗示了命运神秘无可阻挡的力量。本文将以俄狄浦斯王为例,探究古希腊神话中的悲剧性命运。

  6. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    Dantzig, Tobias


    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  7. The 'Holy Family' of Shiva in a south Indian temple

    Fuller, C. J.


    In the myths and rituals of south Indian Hindu temples dedicated to the great god Shiva and his consort Devi, the goddess, the marital relationship between them is a central theme. In many temples, too, the wedding of the god and goddess is a highlight of the annual festival cycle, and nowhere is this more evident than in the city of Madurai in Tamilnadu, whose Great Temple is dedicated to the goddess Minakshi and her husband Sundareshwara, a form of Shiva. In the Minakshi temple (as it is po...

  8. Weathering behavior investigations and treatment of Kom Ombo temple sandstone, Egypt - Based on their sedimentological and petrogaphical information

    Temraz, Mostafa Gouda; Khallaf, Mohamed K.


    The Temple of Kom Ombo is a huge ancient Egyptian temple in Upper Egypt. It was built by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) and added to by subsequent Ptolemys. The structure of the temple is built of local sandstone attributed to the Quseir Formation of "Nubian Sandstone" group at Gebel el-Silsila. Sandstone samples from Kom Ombo temple were taken to verify the source rock of the quarried material. Optical Polarizing Microscope (OPM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the microstructure and physical properties of the sandstone. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out for the Sandstone samples to identify its mineralogical composition. The sandstone samples were treated with six polymeric products to determine changes in their physical and mechanical properties after penetration, consolidation of polymers within them. This sandstone is composed mainly of three quartz arenite microfacies (feldspathic, sublithic and calcareous) that are interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to fluvial-marine environment. Silane polymers is showing a good penetration and filling pores between grains and recommended for treatment and conservation of the sandstone. Acrylic polymer shows random penetration of polymer and formation of a film of polymer on the surface of sandstone. Silo11 gave the best result in consolidation of sandstone samples then primal AC33. Wacker BS29 gave the best result in isolating process of sandstone samples, then wacker BS 290.

  9. Russian Greeks / Greek Russians: Parameters of Identity

    Manuylov, Alexander


    This thesis investigates how the ex-Soviet Greek populations used the reforms in Russia and the re-patriation policy of Greece emerging in the 1990s in order to form a new discourse on Greek identity. This new understanding of the Greek identity was marked by the term “Pontians.” The populations (in a Foucauldian sense) known in Russia and the Soviet Union as Greki, “the Greeks”, were never presented as a unified group nor even as a conglomerate of interacting groups. The new identity discour...

  10. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  11. Characterization of yellow and colorless decorative glasses from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

    Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya


    Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.

  12. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Hughes, J Donald


    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

  13. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G


    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  14. Modern Greek enlightenment and 19th century Greek nationalism

    ÖNSOY, Murat


    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes modern Greek enlightenment and 19th century Greek Nationalism, in the light of nationalism theories. It confronts with the process of Modern Greek enlightenment which took place within the lands of the Ottoman Empire and the Greek nationalism which was the second phase of the modern Greek enlightenment. The thesis argues that the lands where today Greeks live had been invaded and settled by various ethnic groups. As...

  15. Greek and Roman Elements in His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman

    Kleczkowska, Katarzyna


    The article focuses on the topic of Greek and Roman influences on His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman. The author presents the ancient origins of several motifs of the trilogy, for example compares the daemon from His Dark Materials to the ancient daimon, Lyra’s dream in a cave to Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, the Pullman’s vision of the Underworld to Greek Hades, and the Subtle Knife to the golden bough. She also tries to understand the function of the Greek and Roman elements in the trilog...

  16. Image-Based and Range-Based 3d Modelling of Archaeological Cultural Heritage: the Telamon of the Temple of Olympian ZEUS in Agrigento (italy)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Spera, M. G.


    The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy) was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don't know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high) probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM) and Image-Based Modeling (IBM). The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.

  17. Sense the Grandeur of Greek Civifization in China


    @@ In this golden autumn, thousands of visitors from home and abroad swarmed into the Capital Museum for the ongoing classical Greek art exhibition - Treasures from the Louvre: Art from Ancient Greece, a joint effort of the Capital Museum in Beijing and Musée du Louvre in Paris.

  18. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method

  19. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.


    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  20. Piracy in the Ancient World: from Minos to Mohammed

    P.C. de Souza


    This thesis is an historical analysis of the phenomenon of piracy in the ancient world from the Bronze Age to the Arab conquests. It is based on detailed examination and discussion of the ancient sources. There is a short introduction (Part One) which establishes the scope of the enquiry, defines the subject and surveys modern scholarly literature. Part Two (The Image of Ancient Piracy) consists of a study of the Greek and Latin vocabulary for piracy, and six separate studie...

  1. Ancient anchorage systems in India with reference to the Gujarat coast

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    , Kindar Kheda near Mul Dwarka (Visawada) and Kanjetar and Kaj near Mul Dwarka (Kodinar). All the three Dwarka have ancient temples dated to the 10 th -12 th century AD. Nonetheless, these sites were ancient busy ports and perhaps temples were served... and anchoring points along the west coast of India from the protohistoric period (Ray, 2003, 2). The discovery of a large number of stone structures and anchors at Dwarka suggests that it was a busy port during the historical and the medieval times (Gaur, et...

  2. Greek Gods and Heroes

    Peter Schoon,; Sander Paarlberg,


    Many famous en less famous myths and historic events from Greek antiquity painted by Dutch and Flemish artists from the 16th and 17th century. For the first time a broad selection of paintings and prints with subjects from Greek mythology and history are exposed. Famous painters like Rembrandt, Rube


    Сандра Вуксан


    Full Text Available The subject of this work are the etymological and lexical-semantic aspects of phraseologisms originating from greek mythology and ancient greek history. Fifty seven phraseologisms are included. It is noted that in this group of phraseological units etymological component specifically reflects on lexical and semantic. It is possible to divide all the phraseologisms in two groups. First group includes phraseologisms with specified lexical structure, which includes the names of mythological and historical heroes, mythological creatures, etc. and adjectives derived from that names. They refer to a specific myth, and allow us to assume the meaning of the phraseologism, if we know the proper historical or mythological context. The second group  includes phraseologisms with unspecified lexical structure. Lexical structure of those phraseologisms is not refering to certain myth or story from history and it is harder to explain their meaning.

  4. Architectural Conservation of an Amun Temple in Sudan

    Tracey Sweek; Julie R Anderson; Satoko Tanimoto


    Excavation of a 2000 year old Amun Temple at Dangeil in Sudan. Under the directorship of Drs Salah Mohammed Ahmed of the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums, Khartoum and Julie R Anderson of the British Museum, London an excavation of the temple commenced in 2000. Dangeil is located to the south of the 5th Nile cataract in Sudan. In 2008, a preliminary visit was organised to intiate a conservation programme and trials to the architectural fabric of the temple. The materials used ...

  5. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    Stéphanie Leroy

    Full Text Available Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India. Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies

  6. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe


    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  7. Design of Information Collecting System Towards The Song Dynasty Wooden Hall of Baoguo Temple, Ningbo

    He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.


    Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system

  8. Architectural Conservation of an Amun Temple in Sudan

    Tracey Sweek


    Full Text Available Excavation of a 2000 year old Amun Temple at Dangeil in Sudan. Under the directorship of Drs Salah Mohammed Ahmed of the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums, Khartoum and Julie R Anderson of the British Museum, London an excavation of the temple commenced in 2000. Dangeil is located to the south of the 5th Nile cataract in Sudan. In 2008, a preliminary visit was organised to intiate a conservation programme and trials to the architectural fabric of the temple. The materials used in the temple's construction include mud brick, fired brick, lime plaster and sandstone. During the subsequent seasons following 2008 adjustments and evaluations of the previous year's completed trials have been assessed. This case study outlines the progress of the site to date.

  9. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    Vons, J


    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research. PMID:11944656

  10. Silver sources of archaic Greek coinage

    The authors report on new chemical and lead isotopic results and interpretations of archaic Greek silver coins from the Asyut hoard which was buried around 475 B.C. Aeginetan coins were of central interest in this study. Possible ancient silver mines were explored in the Aegean region in the course of several geologic expeditions, and chemically and isotopically investigated. Some of the silver sources in Greece were traced by combination of the analytical methods and questions of provenance were solved. In addition, processes of silver smelting and refining were studied. Results and implications of this work are summarized in the final section on Conclusions. (orig.)

  11. Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal

    Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A.; Heidrich, John; Chalise, Mukesh; Poudel, Narayan; Viscidi, Raphael; Peter A Barry; Allan, Jonathan S; Grant, Richard; Kyes, Randy


    The threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), si...

  12. 春秋战国与古希腊廉政思想之比较及其当代价值%Comparison of the Thought Against Corruption in Periods of Spring and Autumn and Warring States and Ancient Greek and Its Contemporary Value



    中国春秋战国时期和古希腊时代是人类史上的轴心时代,作为东西方文化的胚胎期,各有其独立的文化体系,其廉政思想亦具许多相似和相异之处。比较其异同,对于构建当今廉政文化体系,推进廉政文化建设,定会得到不少启示和借鉴。%Periods of Spring and Autumn and the Warring States and ancient Greek are both regarded as the axial era in hu-man history. As the embryonic phase of the eastern and western civilization, they possess respective and independent cultural systems. The thoughts against corruption in the two periods share many similarities and display many differences. When com-paring their similar and different points, we can surely obtain much enlightenment and reference so as to construct the contem-porary anti-corruption cultural system and promote the anti-corruption construction.

  13. GIS tool to locate major Sikh temples in USA

    Sharma, Saumya

    This tool is a GIS based interactive and graphical user interface tool, which locates the major Sikh temples of USA on a map. This tool is using Java programming language along with MOJO (Map Object Java Object) provided by ESRI that is the organization that provides the GIS software. It also includes some of the integration with Google's API's like Google Translator API. This application will tell users about the origin of Sikhism in India and USA, the major Sikh temples in each state of USA, location, name and detail information through their website. The primary purpose of this application is to make people aware about this religion and culture. This tool will also measure the distance between two temple points in a map and display the result in miles and kilometers. Also, there is an added support to convert each temple's website language from English to Punjabi or any other language using a language convertor tool so that people from different nationalities can understand their culture. By clicking on each point on a map, a new window will pop up showing the picture of the temple and a hyperlink that will redirect to the website of that particular temple .It will also contain links to their dance, music, history, and also a help menu to guide the users to use the software efficiently.

  14. D Digital Simulation of Minnan Temple Architecture CAISSON'S Craft Techniques

    Lin, Y. C.; Wu, T. C.; Hsu, M. F.


    Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian) temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the years went by, the caisson design and craft techniques were not fully inherited, which has been a great loss of cultural assets. Accordingly, with the caisson of Fulong temple, a work by the well-known great carpenter in Tainan as an example, this study obtained the thinking principles of the original design and the design method at initial period of construction through interview records and the step of redrawing the "Tng-Ko" (traditional design, stakeout and construction tool). We obtained the 3D point cloud model of the caisson of Fulong temple using 3D laser scanning technology, and established the 3D digital model of each component of the caisson. Based on the caisson component procedure obtained from interview records, this study conducted the digital simulation of the caisson component to completely recode and present the caisson design, construction and completion procedure. This model of preserving the craft techniques for Minnan temple caisson by using digital technology makes specific contribution to the heritage of the craft techniques while providing an important reference for the digital preservation of human cultural assets.

  15. Greek architecture now

    Skousbøll, Karin Merete


    With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas....

  16. On the multipart singing in the religious practice of orthodox Greeks and Serbs: The theological-culturological discourse

    Peno Vesna


    In 1844, Serbian patriarch Josif Rajačić served two central annual Liturgies, at the feasts of Pasha and Penticost, in the Greek church of Holy Trinity in Vienna; these were accompanied by the four-part choral music. The appearance of new music in several orthodox temples in Habsburg Monarchy (including this one) during the first half of the nineteenth century, became an additional problem in a long chain of troubles that had disturbed the ever imperiled re...

  17. The Composition of New Music Inspired by Music Philosophy and Musical Theoretical Writings from Ancient Greece

    Morsink, Coreen


    This thesis consists of a portfolio of compositions linked to ancient Greece and a theoretical and historical explanation of the music of ancient Greece which led to the composing of each piece. Every composition explores an aspect of ancient Greek tuning systems or a tuning system that related to Ancient Greece. Compositions for solo violin, solo alto flute, solo quarter-tone alto flute and solo clarinet use monophony as well as harmonics from the overtone series and number series. A cham...

  18. A Review of Passionate Patron: The Life of Alexander Hardcastle and the Greek Temples of Agrigento

    Antonino Crisa


    Richardson’s 143-page book provides an interesting account on the life of Alexander Hardcastle (London, 1872 – Agrigento, 1933), a rich English patron and archaeologist, who operated in Sicily during the early twentieth century. Son of Hernt and Marie Sophie Hardcastle Herschel, Alexander took his military service in the Royal Navy, gaining a thorough technical knowledge, which he successfully used in Sicily. After he obtained a passport in December 1920, Hardcastle moved to Girgenti (now Agr...

  19. Ancient Egypt.

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  20. Ancient Egypt, Sacred Science, and Transatlantic Romanticism

    Redd, Marques Jerard


    Ancient Egyptian culture has been a powerful influence on a major tradition of English literature that runs from Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene (1596), one of whose major iconographic centers is the temple of Isis, to John Crowley's four-volume novel Ægypt (2007). My dissertation focuses on the Romantic period - the midpoint of this trajectory - because it is an extremely intense moment of this influence. In addition to the visions of Egypt presented in the Bible, Greco-Roman writers, a...


    Spartak Sh. Aytov


    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to study the impact of geographical, social and cultural context, mentality character-istics of historical process of society on the origin and characteristics of the development of intellectual achieve-ment, namely philosophy and science. The purpose of the article is to understand natural, historical, cultural, social and psychological aspects that led to the genesis of cognitive development peculiarities of ancient Greek philosophy of scientific knowledge. Methodology. Methodology of the work contains such cognitive approaches as systematic and structural ones, source study and post-positivist concepts, the theory of local civilizations. Theoretical basis and results: the novelty of this work is in studying the diverse factors that determined the emergence and dynamics of ancient Greek philosophical thought and science as a whole system of interrelated elements. The influence on the genesis of philosophy and science of ancient Hellas, its geographical conditions and geopolitical situation as well as the cultural dialogue with surrounding civilizations, the reception of historical and cultural experience of the previ-ous Hellenic civilization, historical process and mentality of ancient Greeks have been analyzed. Conclusions: the whole cluster of the above mentioned factors had a profound and multi-directional influence on the formation and development of Greek philosophy and science. In addition, each of the factors influenced the original intellectual achievements of Greeks. In particular, the influence of natural factors realized in the formation of skills in the men-tality of ancient Greeks has become a prerequisite for philosophizing and scientific knowledge. Geo-political, social and cultural factors have contributed to the geographical expansion of ancient Greeks and their information acquisi-tion about the world. Through the dialogue with other eastern and Mediterranean cultures Greeks mastered intellec

  2. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    Hughes, Stephen W.


    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  3. 古希腊神话和传说中历险精神的文化阐释%Cultural Interpretation of the Adventure Spirit in Ancient Greek Myths and Legends



    Greek myths and legends create a series of heroic images with adventure spirit,reflecting the cultural characteristics of the western people's zeal for adventure.Adventure spirit runs through the whole process of western civilization,and even becomes an important sign different from other heterogeneous cultures,guiding generations of adventurers to push forward into unknown areas.However,it should not be neglected that its cognitive mode—Separation of Heaven and Man—and secular humanism as well,have brought negative effect to human civilization.%古希腊的神话和传说塑造了一系列具有冒险精神的英雄形象,这些文学形象折射出了西方人热衷冒险的文化特质。在西方文明漫长的发展历程中,这股勇于探索、甘于冒险的历险精神始终贯穿其中,甚至成为有别于其他异质文化的重要标志。它引领着一代又一代的冒险家向未知领域挺进。当然,它内含的"天人相分"的认知模式和"世俗人本意识"对人类文明也产生了一定的消极影响,这一点不容忽视。

  4. A Genome-Wide Search for Greek and Jewish Admixture in the Kashmiri Population

    Tashi, Tsewang; Lorenzo, Felipe Ramos; Feusier, Julie Ellen; Mir, Hyder


    The Kashmiri population is an ethno-linguistic group that resides in the Kashmir Valley in northern India. A longstanding hypothesis is that this population derives ancestry from Jewish and/or Greek sources. There is historical and archaeological evidence of ancient Greek presence in India and Kashmir. Further, some historical accounts suggest ancient Hebrew ancestry as well. To date, it has not been determined whether signatures of Greek or Jewish admixture can be detected in the Kashmiri population. Using genome-wide genotyping and admixture detection methods, we determined there are no significant or substantial signs of Greek or Jewish admixture in modern-day Kashmiris. The ancestry of Kashmiri Tibetans was also determined, which showed signs of admixture with populations from northern India and west Eurasia. These results contribute to our understanding of the existing population structure in northern India and its surrounding geographical areas. PMID:27490348

  5. Greeks in America; Staff Development Module.

    Lereah, Lucy; And Others

    This module lists eight staff development objectives pertaining to various aspects of Greek-American culture. Topics dealt with include Greek emigration and immigration, Greek vocabulary, contributions made by prominent Greek-Americans, Greek family life and the changing role of family members, Greek values, and the growth of Atlanta's Greek…

  6. Ecocriticism and Persian and Greek Myths about the Origin of Fire

    Zekavat, Massih


    In his article "Ecocriticism and Persian and Greek Myths about the Origin of Fire" Massih Zekavat argues that some contemporary ecological biases are rooted in ancient thought. Further, Zekavat argues that the study of mythology is relevant to the understanding of culture and ecology thus assisting ecocriticism. The investigation of man/woman, culture/nature, and human/nature binary oppositions conveys that Greek and Persian myths are mostly anthropocentric and androcentric. Zekavat postulate...

  7. Material Girls : Humor and Female Professional Seduction in Greek Literature and Culture

    Foka, Anna


    Current scholarship typically views the ancient Greek prostitute/ courtesan figure as an artificially manipulated, sexualized body motivated by material profit. By examining fragments of Middle Comedy and their echoes in post-classical antiquity, this article proposes an alternative view of courtesans and prostitutes as professionals of emotional labor. Through narrative analysis, I show that the Greek comic portrayal of courtesans is multifaceted and not sufficiently illuminated by discussio...

  8. The Scandinavian Library of Athens is giving a model for Greek culture

    Kotka, Mari


    The Scandinavian Library of Athens concentrates on literature on Greek archaeology, on ancient Greek history, religion, art and history of culture. Since the library use in Greece is not as common as in Scandinavia, the Library provides a good example of the possibilities of a modern archaeological library. The Library is a reference library. It uses UNIMARC based ABEKT program for cataloguing. It participates in the ARGOS project, which aims to combine in one database all the collections of ...

  9. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    Hoch, Michael


    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  10. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E


    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology. PMID:18644217

  11. Ancient DNA

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan


    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of t...

  12. Greek mathematical thought and the origin of algebra

    Klein, Jacob


    Important study focuses on the revival and assimilation of ancient Greek mathematics in the 13th-16th centuries, via Arabic science, and the 16th-century development of symbolic algebra. This brought about the crucial change in the concept of number that made possible modern science - in which the symbolic ""form"" of a mathematical statement is completely inseparable from its ""content"" of physical meaning. Includes a translation of Vieta's Introduction to the Analytical Art. 1968 edition. Bibliography.

  13. The wedding song in Greek literature and culture

    Badnall, Toni Patricia


    This thesis examines the Greek wedding song and its function in literature and culture. The genre, hymenaios or epithalamium, has received little scholarly attention, particularly in English (cf. Muth, WS 1954; Tufte, Los Angeles 1970; Contiades-Tsitsoni, Stuttgart 1990, ZPE 1994; Swift, JHS 2006 & DPhil diss.). Yet an examination of the poetry of marriage, a crucial aspect in the study of the ancient world, contributes to our understanding of gender and social relations, as well as literatur...

  14. Towards Modern Greek Consciousness

    Loukia Droulia


    This paper deals with the subject of Modern Greek consciousness which can be said epigrammatically to have its starting point in the Provisional Constitution of Greece ratified by the Assembly of Epidaurus in January 1822. For it was then necessary that two crucial questions be answered, namely who were to be considered as citizens of the new state about to be created and what regions it covered. The attempt to find answers to these questions necessarily led to the re-examination of the Greek...

  15. Correlation of Radiocarbon Dating on Surowono Temple to Other Temples in Central Java and East of Java

    Radiocarbon dating on charcoal sample have been carried out from Surowono Temple sites, Canggu village, Pare district, Kediri East Java Province. Sampling carried out by excavation on a few location with 5 test holes, that is LU1, LU2, LU3. LU4, LU5. Laboratorium analysis on significant charcoal sample only gained from LU3 test hole. After being processed and prepared to be benzene by using Benzene Synthesizer and counted by Liquid Scintillation Counter Packard 2000CA/LL, was found that age of radiocarbon dating is 885 ± 51.46 BP or 1052.61 ± 51.46 BP. Correction result tree ring correction resulting confidence level 68.3 % : 1052 - 1245 AD while confidence level on 95.4 % : 1038 - 1262 AD. Compare to recent research shows that radiocarbon dating result on Surowono temple and other temples in East of Java around 13th - 15th century and other temples in Southern of Central Java around 10th century, while other temples in Northern of Central Java around 8'th century. (author)

  16. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.


    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  17. Musique mécanique et temple hindou

    Guillebaud, Christine


    L’article retrace la genèse du marché de l’automate à musique en Inde du Sud, de sa conception par un ingénieur de Madras à son utilisation dans le temple hindou, jusqu’à son retrait récent de la plupart des grands centres religieux de la région. Il s’agit de questionner le statut hybride de la musique mécanique par rapport aux autres dispositifs visuels et sonores du temple, comme les cloches manuelles de sanctuaire, les enregistrements sur CD ou encore les boîtes électroniques. L’auteur mon...

  18. Partners in Excellence: Development of the Temple College Clinical Simulation Center

    Coker, Neil


    Temple College (TC) is a comprehensive community college located in Temple, Texas. Temple also is home to Scott & White Hospital, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, King's Daughters Hospital, and Texas A&M University College of Medicine's clinical campus. In the summer of 2001, TC's health-sciences programs were scattered across three…

  19. Greek, computers and libraries

    Cornel, Evelyn


    Reviews the provision of classical and biblical texts on CD-ROM data bases and their use in King's College, London Library. Describes a project to catalogue by the Libertas system a collection of Modern Greek literature in collaboration with the University of Crete. Discusses cataloguing and transliteration problems.

  20. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth, Pandora's…

  1. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  2. Tomb, temple, machine and self: the social construction of the body.

    Synnott, A


    The body is socially constructed; and in this paper we explore the various and ever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self, from the Greeks to the present. The one word, body, may therefore signify very different realities and perceptions of reality; and we consider briefly how and why these meanings changed. Plato believed the body was a 'tomb', Paul said it was the 'temple' of the Holy Spirit, the Stoic philosopher Epictetus taught that it was a 'corpse'. Christians believed, and believe, that the body is not only physical, but also spiritual and mystical, and many believed it was an allegory of church, state and family. Some said it was cosmic: one with the planets and the constellations. Descartes wrote that the body is a 'machine', and this definition has underpinned biomedicine to this day; but Sartre said that the body is the self. In sum, the body has no intrinsic meaning. Populations create their own meanings, and thus their own bodies; but how they create, and then change them, and why, reflects the social body. PMID:1600447

  3. The TITUS Project : 25 years of corpus building in ancient languages

    Gippert, Jost


    The article summarizes the contents and the structurtal premises of the “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien” (TITUS), focussing on search functions and facilities and questions of the encoding of ancient languages written in various scripts. Examples are taken from Tocharian, Greek, Vedic Sanskrit, and other ancient Indo-European languages covered by TITUS.

  4. Ancient genomics

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;


    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence...... increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  5. The sunrise amplitude equation applied to an Egyptian temple

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    An equation, fundamental for solar energy applications, can be used to determine the sunrise amplitude at given latitude. It is therefore suitable for being applied to archaeoastronomical calculations concerning the orientation of towns, worship places and buildings. Here it is discussed the case of the Great Temple of Amarna, Egypt, oriented toward the sunrise on the winter solstice.

  6. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    D'Angour, Armand


    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development…

  7. Ancient Media in Literature: Golden Printers and Golden Authors.

    Mooradian, Karlen

    Seal printing is explored as a literary topic in 28 works dating from the third millennium B.C. to A.D. 1613 (from Sumerian times through Shakespeare's). This ancient printing method is mentioned in the literature of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Arabians. It occurs in the works of Herodotus, Plutarch, and Marco Polo, as well as Chaucer and…

  8. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.


    Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen state...

  9. Study on the Factors of Kunming Temple Garden in the Period of Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Qin; LIU; Yi; LIU


    Being based on preliminary study of Kunming famous temples during the Ming and Qing dynasties,field investigation was carried out about the framework of landscape,layout of waters,characteristic of structure and plant furnishing in Tanhua temple,Black Dragon Pool,Masijid of Shuncheng,Haiyuan temple and Golden Shrine which are famous temple garden in Kunming. A simple interpretation was drawn of artistic characteristics on temple garden in Kunming during the Ming and Qing dynasties via analytical investigation on many factors which influenced the development of garden of Dynasties of Ming and Qing. Then we have reviewed the elemental traits of temple garden built at that time,put forward some constructive suggestions on how to protect and develop those temple garden now still exist in Kunming.

  10. Possible Astronomical Intentionality in the Neolithic Mnajdra South Temple in Malta

    Lomsdalen, Tore


    Suggestions of astronomical consideration and intentionality behind the architecture of the Neolithic Mnajdra South Temple is conducted through field studies, observations and researching relevant literature and publications. The research is founded on the temple's orientation, on cross-jam view and off-set illumination of sunrise at equinox, summer and winter solstice. The question of sacred rituals related to specific times or seasonal periods by observing the suns annual path on the eastern horizon, is investigated as a possibility of intentionality for the temples orientation and structure. Demarcated areas of the temple are illuminated at sunrise throughout the year, and especially pronounced at the beginning of modern times' ingress to the cardinal seasons. Of the extant prehistoric temples on Malta, The Mnajdra South Temple is the only one with an evident orientation towards East which coincides with both the sunrise at Equinox and during the temple period, the heliacal rising of the Pleiades.