Full Text Available Introduction: Blood transfusion is a fundamental and requisite part of any National Health Service for optimum management of emergency conditions like severe trauma shock and resuscitation with the optimum stock of its different components. The objective of the present study was to analyze the factors of knowledge of prospective blood donors that may influence their perception and awareness about blood donation. Materials and Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted at Gangtok in the state of Sikkim, India, on 300 subjects of the adult population selected by two-stage cluster sampling. The main outcome variables were the socioeconomic and demographic variables of knowledge of blood donation. By interview technique, using the pre-tested structured close-ended questionnaire, the principal investigator collected the data. Results: In our study population, 46% of the study population was found to have a high knowledge score. The knowledge about blood donation was found to be statistically significant with the occupational status and the education levels, both in the bivariate and in the multivariate analyses. Knowledge about blood donation was not significantly related to age, sex, marital status, religion, community status and per capita monthly family income. Conclusion: The study suggested that the perceptions toward voluntary blood donation could be influenced to a large extent by sociodemographic variables of knowledge among the general population.
Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Landeen Janet
Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemog...
Barua Ankur; Ghosh M; Kar N; Basilio M
Background: Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%. Objective: To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population. Materials and Methods: A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America,...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this
Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Rohani Matzin, Salwa Mahalle, Malai Hayati Hamid, Ratna Suriani Osman Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Abstract: We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years, employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. Keywords: crimes, prisoner, sociodemographic, recidivism, interventions, Brunei
Mundia, Lawrence; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Hamid, Malai Hayati; Osman, Ratna Suriani
We explored the extent to which prisoner sociodemographic variables (age, education, marital status, employment, and whether their parents were married or not) influenced offending in 64 randomly selected Brunei inmates, comprising both sexes. A quantitative field survey design ideal for the type of participants used in a prison context was employed to investigate the problem. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis with backward elimination identified prisoner marital status and age groups as significantly related to offending. Furthermore, hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analysis with backward elimination indicated that prisoners’ age, primary level education, marital status, employment status, and parental marital status as significantly related to stealing offenses with high odds ratios. All 29 nonrecidivists were false negatives and predicted to reoffend upon release. Similarly, all 33 recidivists were projected to reoffend after release. Hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis revealed age groups (24–29 years and 30–35 years), employed prisoner, and primary level education as variables with high likelihood trends for reoffending. The results suggested that prisoner interventions (educational, counseling, and psychotherapy) in Brunei should treat not only antisocial personality, psychopathy, and mental health problems but also sociodemographic factors. The study generated offending patterns, trends, and norms that may inform subsequent investigations on Brunei prisoners. PMID:27382342
Man Sing Wong
Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested that some disadvantaged socio-demographic groups face serious environmental-related inequities in Hong Kong due to the rising ambient urban temperatures. Identifying heat-vulnerable groups and locating areas of Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI inequities is thus important for prioritizing interventions to mitigate death/illness rates from heat. This study addresses this problem by integrating methods of remote sensing retrieval, logistic regression modelling, and spatial autocorrelation. In this process, the SUHI effect was first estimated from the Land Surface Temperature (LST derived from a Landsat image. With the scale assimilated to the SUHI and socio-demographic data, a logistic regression model was consequently adopted to ascertain their relationships based on Hong Kong Tertiary Planning Units (TPUs. Lastly, inequity “hotspots” were derived using spatial autocorrelation methods. Results show that disadvantaged socio-demographic groups were significantly more prone to be exposed to an intense SUHI effect: over half of 287 TPUs characterized by age groups of 60+ years, secondary and matriculation education attainment, widowed, divorced and separated, low and middle incomes, and certain occupation groups of workers, have significant Odds Ratios (ORs larger than 1.2. It can be concluded that a clustering analysis stratified by age, income, educational attainment, marital status, and occupation is an effective way to detect the inequity hotspots of SUHI exposure. Additionally, inequities explored using income, marital status and occupation factors were more significant than the age and educational attainment in these areas. The derived maps and model can be further analyzed in urban/city planning, in order to mitigate the physical and social causes of the SUHI effect.
Abdoul Hossain Madani
Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.
Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B
Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715
Objective To examine the association between postpartum psychosis and the sociodemographic factors age, education, marital status and year of delivery (study 1). To examine the association between neighbourhood socioeconomic characteristics and postpartum psychosis (study 2). To examine the association between postpartum psychosis and obstetric factors (study 3). To examine the association between non-puerperal readmission and years of follow-up among women with postpartum p...
Akeredolu Patricia; Olusile Adeyemi; Esan Temitope; Esan Ayodeji
Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demograp...
Tajinder Kaur; Shaveta Garg; Sunita Mor
Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In India, cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women followed by breast cancer. A numbers of risk factors reproductive as well as sociodemographic have been widely studied for cervical cancer. The countries where universal screening is restricted because of various reasons economical, lack of resources etcetera, a modified screening procedure which is targeted on the high risk population can help solve the pro...
Johnson, R K; Guthrie, H; Smiciklas-Wright, H; Wang, M. Q.
Data from 1,392 children ages 1 to 10, who were participants in the U.S. Department of Agriculture 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, were examined to determine how their diets compared with current dietary recommendations and to identify those sociodemographic factors associated with the greatest risk for not meeting the recommendations. Vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and zinc were the nutrients most often consumed below recommended levels. Percentage of calories fr...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. Several reports have shown that non-disease factors such as attitude, behavior, dental attendance, characteristics of health care systems and socio-demographic factors play important roles in the aetiopathogenesis of edentulism. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. Methods A total of 152 patients made up of 80 (52.6% males and 72 (47.4% females who presented in two prosthetic clinics located in an urban and a rural area were included in the study. The relationship between gender, age, socio-economic status and edentulism in this study population was established. Results No significant relationship between gender and denture demand was noted in the study. The demand for complete dentures increased with age while the demand for removable partial dentures also increased with age until the 3rd decade and then started to decline. A significant relationship was found between denture demand and the level of education with a higher demand in lower educational groups (p Conclusions The findings in this study revealed a significant relationship between socio-demographic variables and edentulism with age, educational level and socio-economic status playing vital roles in edentulism and denture demand.
Sonia Betzabeth Ticona Benavente
Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the influence of stress factors and socio-demographic characteristics on the sleep quality of nursing students. Method: An analytical cross-sectional and quantitative study, conducted with 151 nursing students in São Paulo between March and April of 2012. A form for socio-demographic characteristics, the Instrument to Evaluate Stress in Nursing Students and the Pittsburgh Sleep Index were applied. Results: High levels of stress was predominant for Time Management (27.8% and Professional Training (30.5% and low sleep quality (78.8%. The Professional Communication, Professional Training and Theoretical Activity are positively correlated to sleep quality. Work activity, academic year and time for daily studies contributed to a low quality of sleep. Conclusion: Few stress factors from the academic environment and some socio-demographic characteristics contributed to the reduction of sleep quality in students.
Tuohy, P G; Counsell, A M; Geddis, D C
Recent research has implicated infant sleeping body position and bed sharing as risk factors in the sudden infant death syndrome. The sociodemographic associations of infant sleeping body position and location were examined in this study. This showed that the majority (86.4%) of New Zealand parents now place their infants to sleep on their sides. The remainder place their infants supine (1.3%), prone (4.8%), or no particular way (7.5%). In the waking position, 57.9% were usually found on thei...
Gazala; Aruna; Bharti,
AIM: This study aimed to find out the incidence of teenage pregnancy and to analyze the sociodemographic factors of teenage pregnancies. METHOD: A Hospital based prospective study of all teenage pregnant females admitted to Sultania Zanana Hospital , Gandhi Med ical College , Bhopal. Data was collected by detailed history taking and following up the patient from admission till delivery by using a proforma devised for the study. RESULT: Teenage preg...
Full Text Available The emergence of risky behavior is characteristic in adolescence. Of all forms of risky behavior in adolescence, the use of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances particularly stand out, because of the frequency and degree of prevalence of use, and because of the impact that they have on youth development in this sensitive stage of growing up. Unfortunately, today we are witnessing the fact that such behavior in adolescents has gained an increasingly epidemic character mainly due to the characteristics of the social context in which young people are growing up. The main objective of this research, conducted in the framework of the doctoral dissertation of the author, was determining relations between relevant sociodemographic factors: gender, age, school success, financial status and place of residence of respondents, with the appearance and intensity of use of three types of psychoactive substances - cigarettes, alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances among the general population of adolescents. The sample represents non-clinical young population, and it consists of 529 adolescents, students of the 2nd and 4th class of secondary school (17 and 18 years old. The data was collected by using Scale use of PAS (psychoactive substances in adolescents, which was designed for the purpose of this research, as well as using a set of questions intended for the registration of socio-demographic variables. Respondents filled in questionnaires in groups, during the school lessons. The data show a relationship between the three studied socio-demographic variables with the occurrence and degree of use of psychoactive substances in the adolescence period, such as gender, age and school success of the respondents. As regards gender of respondents associated with the occurrence and degree of alcohol and illegal substance use in adolescents, male adolescents more likely use alcohol and illegal psychoactive substances
Bharti T Talreja
Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric illness consisting primarily of positive and negative symptoms. However, cognitive deficits in various domains have been consistently replicated in patients with schizophrenia. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and to correlate the same with sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods: Cognitive function in 100 patients with schizophrenia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM IV-TR criteria attending the psychiatry outpatient department (OPD of Department of Psychiatry, SBKS MIRC was assessed using Addenbrooke′s Cognitive Examination Revised (ACER rating scale and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and sociodemographic details was obtained using semistructured proforma. Data was analyzed by Chi-square and t-test. Results: About 70% patients of schizophrenia were found to have cognitive dysfunction for attention, concentration, memory, language, and executive function. Positive symptoms were associated with memory (P2 years and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with impairment in two domains of ACER: Language and memory. Conclusion: The study findings depict that persistent cognitive deficits are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Its correlation with sociodemographic factors showed that patients with >2 years of illness and belonging to urban habitat showed more cognitive dysfunction. Male patients were associated with language and memory impairment. Our study recommends that the neurocognitive impairment should be included in the DSM-V diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia.
Clara Mockdece NEVES
Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas in adolescents who practice artistic gymnastic in elite and non-elite levels, and to analyze the influence of sociodemographic, anthropometric and maturational factors on body dissatisfaction. The research is characterized as transversal, quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample consisted of 285 adolescents, of both sexes, practicing gymnastics. They were divided into two groups: 245 non-elite athletes and 40 elite athletes. The participants were aged between 10 and 18 years (mean 12.86 ± 1.80 and were resident of the city of Três Rios-RJ. The assessment instruments were: Body Shape Questionnaire, Body Areas Scale, Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil and socio-demographic questionnaire. Anthropometric and somatic maturation data were collected. The results showed that 24.9% of the non-elite athletes and 15% of elite athletes were dissatisfied with their body as a whole. For specific body areas, nonelite athletes were significantly more dissatisfied with their body area “weight” than the elite athletes. Sociodemographic and economic factors had no influence on overall body dissatisfaction. For non-elite athletes, only the body percentage of fat and somatic maturation were predictors for the overall body dissatisfaction and in specific areas, respectively. It was concluded that the non-elite athletes were more dissatisfied with their body and weight than the elite athletes.
Seva Oner; Gulcin Yapici; Ahmet Oner Kurt; Tayyar Sasmaz; Resul Bugdayci
Objective:The adolescent pregnancy is one of the most important problems in the21st century. The adolescent pregnancies pose more health risks to both mothers and babies when compared with the adult pregnancies.Of all the births in the world,11% are given by the adolescents.The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic factors concerning with the adolescent pregnancy.Methods:This study was conducted at18 primary health care centers inMersin, Turkey.The adolescent group was comprised of pregnant women younger than19 years, the adult group was comprised of pregnants aged between20-29 years.The questionnaire was conducted with face-to-face interviews.Results:Respondents included107 pregnant adolescents and 110 pregnant adults.The median age of adolescent group and adult group was18 and26 years, respectively.About61.7% of the pregnant adolescents and94.5% of the pregnant adults were officially married.In the adolescent group, the family frequency without social security was more than that in the adult group.In the adult group, the frequency of opposing the adolescent pregnancy for their families was more than that in the adolescent group.The adolescent pregnancy among sisters and friends of the adolescent pregnants was more frequent compared with that in the adult group.Conclusions:The family frequency without social security was more in the adolescent group.This situation is certain to cause more problems for the adolescents in benefiting from the health care services.We are absolutely think that efforts should be made so as to improve the society in terms of social and cultural aspects.
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren;
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...
Laursen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Jeppe W
BACKGROUND: While social differences in childhood injuries are recognized, less is known about how social and demographic differences relate to injury mechanism. The purpose of the study was to reveal how sociodemographic factors affect the incidence of unintentional home injuries in Danish......-income group was 2.4(1.8-3.2). Living in a one- or two-parent family and size of the dwelling had little or no effect on risk. CONCLUSION: Childhood injury incidence depended on sociodemographic factors. The effect of the sociodemographic factors varied between injury mechanisms and products involved in the...
Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Tabatabaee, Sayed Mosa; Tosi, Jalileh
Background: Substance abuse is a serious global problem that is affected by multiple psychosocial and socio-demographic factors. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the leading factors in positive attitude and tendency toward substance abuse in terms of personality, socio-economic, and socio-demographic factors. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 200 college students (105 females and 95 males) residing in Damghan University dormitory in northeast of Iran were recruited ...
Wulff, Hagen; Wagner, Petra
To meet the challenge of obesity, effective therapeutic concepts for adolescents focusing on lifestyle changes are necessary. Particularly relevant are nutrition and physical activity patterns associated with media use, which can be influenced by sociodemographic factors. For the optimization of obesity therapy approaches, it is essential to analyze these sociodemographic factors to adjust the aims, content, and methods of interventions, and to use the potential of media in treatment concepts. Thus, the research question is: what are the media and physical activity patterns of 11- to 17-year-old participants in obesity therapy, depending on sociodemographic factors? The national multicenter study was conducted from 2012 to 2013. A questionnaire was administered to 564 participants aged 13.4 ± 1.6 (mean ± standard deviation) years. Standardized instruments were used to assess the variables physical activity, media use, and sociodemographic factors. Participants were physically active for 1 h on 3.3 ± 1.8 days per week, 8.5 % daily. Televisions, mobile phones, and computers were available in all sociodemographic groups and were used for 2 h per day. Sociodemographic differences can be seen in the extent of media usage (h/day). These differences can be found between girls and boys concerning their usage of mobile phones (2.49 vs. 1.90; p < 0.001), between 11- to 13- and 14- to 17-year-old children concerning their usage of game consoles (0.55 vs. 1.65; p = 0.007), and in the correlation analysis of media usage and physical activity. Compared with existing literature, the survey results reveal reduced activity and increased media use, which vary among the groups. Thus, differentiated therapy approaches appear to be reasonable. Future research needs to evaluate to what extent media, despite the risks, can contribute to the methodological support of therapy, training, and aftercare concepts. PMID:26689417
Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module), and public bicycle use were obta...
Valdivia, Juan A.; Martha Frías; José Moral; Cirilo H. García; Héctor L. Díaz
A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92) and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor...
Andreia Pelegrini; Raildo da Silva Coqueiro; Carmem Cristina Beck; Karoliny Debiasi Ghedin; Adair da Silva Lopes; Edio Luiz Petroski
This article seeks to determine the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and its association with socio-demographic factors and nutritional status among adolescents. The following socio-demographic data, anthropometric variables, and perception of body image (n = 660) were collected. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 71.4%. Girls wished to reduce the size of their body silhouette, whereas boys wished to increase it. The desire to reduce body size was positively as...
Latiffah Latiff; Hanachi Parichehr
Objective: The objective of this research was to study the sexual perception and practices among people aged 45 years and above and the associated socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was done on 473 middle aged and elderly people living in Klang Valley in 2005. They were married and literate. Data were collected by means of face to face interview using structured questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS software. Logistic regression was used a...
Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise
Background and objective Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors experienced by elderly South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol, physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight or obesity, and hypertension) in each individual. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics, namely, age, gender, education, wealth status, population group, marital status, and residence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and multiple NCD risk factors. Results The mean number of NCD risk factors among all participants was three (95% confidence interval: 2.81–3.10). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that being female, being in the age group of 60–69 years, and being from the Coloured and Black African race were associated with a higher number of NCD risk factors. Marital status, educational level, wealth, and residence were not significantly associated with the number of NCD risk factors experienced. Conclusions The co-existence of multiple lifestyle NCD risk factors among the elderly is a public health concern. Comprehensive health-promotion interventions addressing the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors tailored for specific sociodemographic groups are needed. PMID:24044582
Eckert, G.J.; R. Jackson; Fontana, M
Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnair...
G. J. Eckert
Full Text Available Objectives. Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, with numerous identified risk factors. Risk factor differences could indicate the need to target caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies based on population and/or individual characteristics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate caries risk factors differences by race/ethnicity, income, and education. Methods. We enrolled 396 caregiver-toddler pairs and administered a 105-item questionnaire addressing demographics, access to care, oral bacteria transmission, caregiver's/toddler's dental and medical health practices, caregiver's dental beliefs, and caregiver's/toddler's snacking/drinking habits. Logistic regressions and ANOVAs were used to evaluate the associations of questionnaire responses with caregiver's race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results. Caregivers self-identified as Non-Hispanic African-American (44%, Non-Hispanic White (36%, Hispanic (19%, and other” (1%. Differences related to race/ethnicity, income, and education were found in all risk factor categories. Conclusions. Planning of caregiver/patient education/preventive care intervention strategies should be undertaken with these caries risk factor differences kept in mind.
Lechanteur, Y.T.; Ven, J.P. van de; Smailhodzic, D.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Fauser, S.; Groenewoud, J.M.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.
PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the correlation of genetic, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors with second eye progression to end-stage AMD. METHODS: One hundred and eight patients with end-stage AMD in one or both eyes were included in a retrospective time-to-event analy
Freire, MDCM; Sheiham, A.; Bino, Y. A.
Objective: To investigate the oral hygiene habits of Brazilian adolescents and their relation with gender and socioeconomic status. Methods: Secondary data analyzed were from a cross-sectional study using self-completion questionnaires among 664 15-year-old schoolchildren randomly selected from public and private schools and their mothers, in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Results: 51.8% of the sample comprised girls and 48.2% boys; 48.9% were from a high social class and 51.1% from a low social class. ...
Maria Helena Barbosa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to characterize chronic pain in institutionalized elderly and verify the associated factors.METHOD: observational, cross-sectional and non-experimental study with a quantitative approach. The study participants were 124 elderly living in Long-Term Care Institutions for the Elderly (LTCIs in a city in Minas Gerais (Brazil. Approval for the project was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee. The elderly's clinical and sociodemographic variables and pain-related aspects were assessed. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis (chi-squared.RESULTS: the prevalence of chronic pain corresponded to 58.1%; for more than 10 years (26.4%; in lower limbs (31.9%; characterized as "twinges" (33.3%; 33.3% adopted medication treatment; the pain did not improve (41.7 %; or worsen (34.7 %. It was evidenced that elderly aged 60├ 70 old had 70% less chances of chronic pain than those aged 80 years and older (p=0.018.CONCLUSION: institutionalized elderly have a high prevalence of chronic pain, mainly in the lower limbs. No factors of pain improvement or worsening were identified and medication was evidenced as the preferred treatment. Age showed to be associated with the presence of pain. It is considered important to accomplish multiprofessional actions at the LTCIs to guide prevention and rehabilitation actions of the pain episodes in these elderly.
Rezende, Leandro Fornias Machado de; Azeredo, Catarina Machado; Canella, Daniela Silva; Claro, Rafael Moreira; de Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo
Background Physical activity in adolescents is associated with short- and long-term health benefits. Physical activity can occur in various domains and is influenced by a complex network of factors. The aims of this study are 1) to describe the physical activity of Brazilian adolescents in physical education classes, during leisure time, and during active commuting and 2) to investigate the socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical activity. Methods The representative ...
Leite, Andreia; Machado, Ausenda; Dias, Carlos Matias
Background: Smoking is a significant risk factor for several diseases. Social inequalities have been described for tobacco consumption and though to a lesser extend for tobacco cessation. Objectives: Describe sociodemographic factors associated with tobacco consumption and cessation. Methods: Data from the 2005/2006 Portuguese National Health Interview Survey was analysed. A multinomial log-linear model was fitted considering 3 groups: present smokers, former smokers and ...
Taylor, Laura C; Burke, Brendan; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C; Ohye, Richard G; Goldberg, Caren S
Interstage mortality remains significant for patients undergoing staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other related single right ventricle malformations (HLV). The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to demographics, socioeconomic position, and perioperative course associated with post-Norwood hospital discharge, pre-stage 2, interstage mortality (ISM). Medical record review was conducted for patients with HLV, born from 1/2000 to 7/2009 and discharged alive following the Norwood procedure. Sociodemographic and perioperative factors were reviewed. Patients were determined to have ISM if they died between Norwood procedure hospital discharge and stage 2 palliation. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors associated with ISM. A total of 273 patients were included in the analysis; ISM occurred in 32 patients (12%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors for interstage mortality included teen mothers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-22.5], single adult caregivers (AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-14.4), postoperative dysrhythmia (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.4), and longer ICU stay (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Anatomic and surgical course variables were not associated with ISM in multivariable analysis. Patients with HLV are at increased risk of ISM if born to a teen mother, if they lived in a home with only one adult caregiver, suffered a postoperative dysrhythmia, or experienced a prolonged ICU stay. These risk factors are identifiable, and thus these infants may be targeted for interventions to reduce ISM. PMID:26260093
BARAN, İlgi; Ergün, Gülfem; Semiz, Mustafa
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between the socio-demographic and economic factors of patients and the reasons of admission, usage periods of the two types of clinics, frequencies of denture changes, satisfaction levels and preferences of prosthetic dental treatment. Materials and Methods 510 partially and/or totally edentulous patients were studied using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions; age, gender, education level, income status, prob...
Purpose - evaluate 1) whether child's externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child's externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach' participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) ...
Purpose: evaluate 1) whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2) the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3) which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months) with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990) a...
Hyland, Philip; Shevlin, Mark; Adamson, Gary; Boduszek, Daniel
Posttraumatic stress responses have been linked to a range of social-cognitive and sociodemographic factors. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy suggests that responding to a traumatic life event with a set of irrational beliefs should play a crucial role in predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD: Ellis, 2001). The current study assessed the role of trauma-specific irrational beliefs in the prediction of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress responses, while contr...
Saligheh, Maryam; Rooney, Rosanna M.; McNamara, Beverley; Kane, Robert T.
Background: postnatal depression (PND) is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within 6 weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother's health as well as the family's functioning and the child's development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability ...
Abdoul Hossain Madani; Madhurima Dikshit; Debanshu Bhaduri; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi; Teamur Aghamolaei
The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and...
CHEAH, Yong Kang; Chor Foon TANG
This study examines the role of socio-demographic determinants on individual’s level of happiness. Primary survey data on Penang, Malaysia is used for analysis. Based on the findings, being married and Malay are associated with higher probability of feeling very happy or happy. Nevertheless, individuals who suffer from chronic diseases are more likely to have unhappy or very unhappy feelings. The rest of the factors such as income, education, age, gender, and employment status are found to ha...
Mansour, Marianne; Martin, Andrew J.; Anderson, Michael; Gibson, Robyn; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Sudmalis, David
This study explored the role of student (e.g., age, language background, gender), home (e.g., parent/caregiver education), and school (e.g., school type, size) socio-demographic factors in students' school (e.g., in-school arts tuition, arts engagement), home (e.g., parent/caregiver-child arts interaction), and community (e.g., arts attendance,…
Watt, T.; Groenvold, M.; Bjorner, J. B.; Noerholm, V.; Rasmussen, N; P. Bech
OBJECTIVE—To measure the levels of fatigue in the general population, and to examine how disease and sociodemographic factors influence fatigue. DESIGN—Cross sectional questionnaire study in the Danish general population. SUBJECTS—A random, age stratified sample of 1608 people aged 20-77 with an equal gender distribution (response rate 67%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Five fatigue scales from the questionnaire Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory: General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Activity,...
Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel
All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths
Oswald, William E; Stewart, Aisha E P; Flanders, W Dana; Kramer, Michael R; Endeshaw, Tekola; Zerihun, Mulat; Melaku, Birhanu; Sata, Eshetu; Gessesse, Demelash; Teferi, Tesfaye; Tadesse, Zerihun; Guadie, Birhan; King, Jonathan D; Emerson, Paul M; Callahan, Elizabeth K; Moe, Christine L; Clasen, Thomas F
This study developed and validated a model for predicting the probability that communities in Amhara Region, Ethiopia, have low sanitation coverage, based on environmental and sociodemographic conditions. Community sanitation coverage was measured between 2011 and 2014 through trachoma control program evaluation surveys. Information on environmental and sociodemographic conditions was obtained from available data sources and linked with community data using a geographic information system. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of low community sanitation coverage (< 20% versus ≥ 20%). The selected model was geographically and temporally validated. Model-predicted probabilities of low community sanitation coverage were mapped. Among 1,502 communities, 344 (22.90%) had coverage below 20%. The selected model included measures for high topsoil gravel content, an indicator for low-lying land, population density, altitude, and rainfall and had reasonable predictive discrimination (area under the curve = 0.75, 95% confidence interval = 0.72, 0.78). Measures of soil stability were strongly associated with low community sanitation coverage, controlling for community wealth, and other factors. A model using available environmental and sociodemographic data predicted low community sanitation coverage for areas across Amhara Region with fair discrimination. This approach could assist sanitation programs and trachoma control programs, scaling up or in hyperendemic areas, to target vulnerable areas with additional activities or alternate technologies. PMID:27430547
Full Text Available Context: India has the highest tuberculosis (TB burden in the world in terms of the absolute number of cases that occur each year. The directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS strategy is the most systematic and cost-effective approach to controlling this disease. Furthermore, understanding the specific reasons for treatment outcomes is important for the improvement of treatment systems. Aims: This study aimed to determine certain sociodemographic factors that contribute to TB treatment outcome. Settings and Design: A prospective study was conducted among 302 TB patients at four designated microscopy centers (DMCs of Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh from April 2012 to June 2013. Materials and Methods: Study subjects were followed up from the initiation to the end of treatment. Baseline data were collected using a pretested questionnaire. The subjects were interviewed at least 3 times each during their treatment. Outcomes were considered as per the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP standard definition. "Cured" and "treatment completed" were considered good outcomes, while "default," "failure," and "death" were considered poor outcomes. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed in SPSS 17 using the chi-square test and univariate logistic regression to determine the association. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated in logistic regression. Results: The majority of the subjects were male (72.2% and in the age group of 15-30 years. Among the subjects, 53% resided in urban areas; 63.6% were literate; and 45% had a high standard of living index (SLI. Age group, literacy status, and SLI were found to be significantly associated with outcome (P < 0.05. On logistic regression, the 31-45-years age group, literacy, and high SLI were found to be significantly associated with good outcome.
Baltica Cabieses; Pickett, Kate E.; Helena Tunstall
This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marita...
Full Text Available Background: postnatal depression (PND is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and ability to cope with responsibilities. The primary aim of this study was to determine which of these factors predicted PND in postpartum women. A secondary aim was to identify the socio-demographic and psycho-social predictors of physical activity in postpartum women . Methods: The study used a cross-sectional correlational design. A sample of 150 postpartum women was sent a package of six standardised questionnaires. Results: There was no association between physical activity and PND; however, older mothers, mothers of younger children, mothers who are less reluctant to ask for help, and mothers who are more satisfied with the help they get experience lower levels of PND. Mothers of older babies, mothers with more children, and less educated mothers are more likely to engage in caregiving activities, whereas mothers with fewer children and higher levels of partner support are more likely to engage in occupational activities. None of the socio-demographic factors or any of the parenting factors predicted levels of sporting activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life among these populations, which is again one of the main factors determining the alcohol consumption among university students. The aim of our study was to assess the association of selected sociodemographic factors with different patterns of alcohol use among university students in Slovakia. Methods A sample of 813 young adults (mean age 21.1 years, 63.8% females; response rate of 71% from four universities in Kosice answered questions about their sociodemographic background and about alcohol use. To obtain a detailed picture of different aspects, alcohol use was measured by four variables: frequency of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness and problem drinking. Four separate logistic regression models were used to assess the association between sociodemographic and alcohol-related variables. To assess the potentially different effects in both genders, all two-way interactions with gender were tested. Results While 41% of the students drank alcohol once a week or more often, 77% reported heavy episodic drinking and 49% had been drunk more than once in the last month. Problem drinking existed in 23.3% of the sample. Gender was consistently associated with all four alcohol-related variables, with males being at higher risk. A higher study year was associated only with lower levels of heavy episodic drinking, but displayed no association with the other studied variables. Living with parents during the semester was consistently associated with less frequent heavy episodic drinking, drunkenness episodes, and problem drinking while having an intimate relationship was associated with less problem drinking only. Conclusions
Background: postnatal depression (PND) is defined as a psychological mood disorder that occurs in a mother within six weeks of her giving birth. It refers to an episode that causes mood disturbance and it could begin in, or extend into, the postpartum period. It is thought to have a high impact upon the mother’s health as well as the family’s functioning and the child’s development. Socio-demographic, psych-social, and physical activity factors may all contribute to postpartum mood and abilit...
Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao
To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13–22 years in Xi’an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be...
Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Aghamolaei, Teamur
The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7-7.6), working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7-3.7), and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2-2.3) were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females. PMID:20838608
Abdoul Hossain Madani
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the sociodemographic and perceived environmental factors associated with public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults. Methods: A random-digit-dialing telephone-based cross-sectional survey was administered to Taiwanese urban adults aged 20–64 years in 2015. Data on sociodemographic variables, perceived environmental factors (for attributes identified in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Environmental Module, and public bicycle use were obtained from 1002 adults in three cities. Adjusted logistic regression was used. Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, the results showed that adults aged 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR = 4.42 with a university degree or higher (OR = 2.03 were more likely to use public bicycles. In addition, adults living in Kaohsiung City were less likely to use public bicycles (OR = 0.24. Adults who saw people being active (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.05–2.86 and had positive aesthetic experiences of their environment (OR = 1.69 were more likely to use public bicycles. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that seeing physically active people and positive aesthetic perceptions of the environment are key factors for developing transportation policies and intervention strategies for promoting public bicycle use among Taiwanese urban adults.
Naugler, Christopher; Zhang, Jianguo; Henne, Dan; Woods, Paul; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.
Background Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are a global health problem with northern countries such as Canada at particular risk. A number of sociodemographic factors have been reported to be associated with low vitamin D levels but prior studies have been limited by the ability of the researchers to gather this data directly from clinical trial participants. The purpose of this study was to use a novel methodology of inferring sociodemographic variables to evaluate the correlates of vitamin D...
Juan A. Valdivia
Full Text Available A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92 and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a model showing a negative association between psychopathy and age at which the person stopped living with his family of origin, age of first incarceration, severity of delinquent acts, length of prison sentence, and length of time spent in prison. (χ2/df = 1.40, FD = 1.34, PNI = 0.38, RMSEA =.04, IFI = .94, CFI = .94 and TLI = .93. Furthermore, the model sustained a positive association of psychopathy with income and frequency of incarceration. Level of education and age were eliminated from the model given that no significant associations were found among these variables and psychopathy. The validation of this model enables to interpret research findings in relation with attachment theory.
Caban-Martinez Alberto J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has suggested that adults 40 years old and over are not following eye care visit recommendations. In the United States, the proportion of older adults is expected to increase drastically in the coming years. This has important implications for population ocular disease burden, given the relationship between older age and the development of many ocular diseases and conditions. Understanding individual level determinants of vision health could support the development of tailored vision health campaigns and interventions among our growing older population. Thus, we assessed correlates of eye care visits among participants of the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS survey. We pooled and analyzed 2006–2009 BRFSS data from 16 States (N = 118,075. We assessed for the proportion of survey respondents 40 years of age and older reporting having visited an eye care provider within the past two years, two or more years ago, or never by socio-demographic characteristics. Results Nearly 80% of respondents reported an eye care visit within the previous two years. Using the ‘never visits’ as the referent category, the groups with greater odds of having an ocular visit within the past two years included those: greater than 70 years of age (OR = 6.8 [95% confidence interval = 3.7–12.6], with college degree (5.2[3.0–8.8], reporting an eye disease, (4.74[1.1–21.2], diagnosed with diabetes (3.5[1.7–7.5], of female gender (2.9[2.1–3.9], with general health insurance (2.7[1.8–3.9], with eye provider insurance coverage (2.1[1.5–3.0], with high blood pressure (1.5[1.1–2.2], and with moderate to extreme near vision difficulties (1.42[1.11–2.08]. Conclusion We found significant variation by socio-demographic characteristics and some variation in state-level estimates in this study. The present findings suggest that there remains compliance gaps of screening guidelines among select socio-demographic
Adanikin, A I; Awoleke, J O
Late patronage of antenatal care by women in low-resource areas makes timely intervention at correcting anaemia difficult. This study aimed to identify modifiable sociodemographic factors that predict anaemia before commencing antenatal care and make appropriate recommendation. A survey of sociodemographic features and haemoglobin concentrations of 232 women booking for antenatal care was conducted. Anaemia was diagnosed in 119 (51.3%), of which 87 (37.5%) had mild anaemia and 32 (13.8%) were moderately anaemic. There was no severe anaemia. Anaemia was highest among respondents who were 35 years of age, Muslims, of Igbo ethnicity (64.3%), single (55.0%), student/unemployed (58.8%), nulliparous (57.3%) and those who registered at 21 weeks' gestation (54.2%). Only occupation of the woman showed association with anaemia before antenatal care (p 0.007). A personal source of income may reduce anaemia in pregnancy; and it is advisable to have a social welfare package for unemployed pregnant women. PMID:26214716
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes
Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to analyse the influence of psychological, anthropometric and sociodemographic factors on the risk behaviours for eating disorders (ED in young athletes. Participants were 580 adolescents of both sexes. We used the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Commitment Exercise Scale to assess the risk behaviours for ED, body image dissatisfaction (BD and the degree of psychological commitment to exercise (DPCE, respectively. Participants’ weight, height and skinfold thickness were measured. A multiple regression indicated that BD and percentage of fat significantly modulated ( p < .05 the variance of females’ EAT-26 scores, whereas BD, DPCE, fat percentage, age, ethnicity and competitive level significantly explained ( p < .05 the variance of risk behaviours for males’ ED. Thus, only BD influenced risk behaviours for ED in both sexes.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.
Robinson, Kirstine Magtengaard; Christensen, K B; Ottesen, B; Krasnik, A
This study investigates the association between socio-demographic factors, comorbidity and diagnostic delay among gynaecological cancer patients. A questionnaire was sent to 1052 women diagnosed with cervical, endometrial or ovarian cancer between October 2006 and December 2007 in Denmark. Long...... women diagnosed with cervical and endometrial cancer as opposed to ovarian cancer, and with working as opposed to being retired. In conclusion, this study found that socio-demographic factors and comorbidity play a role in the probability of experiencing long delays. If delays in diagnosis are to be...
Arnildo A. Hackenhaar
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: tthis study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. METHODS: this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight > 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. RESULTS: of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94, with lower level of schooling (PR = 2.43, age > 29 years (PR = 2.49, and smokers (PR = 2.04. It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR = 1.68 and preterm labor, (PR = 3.40. There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.
Alexsandro Silva Coura; Bertha Cruz Enders; Inacia Satiro Xavier de Franca; Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira; Dandara Nayara Azevedo Dantas; Dayane Jessyca Cunha de Menezes
This study aimed to verify the association between self-care ability and sociodemographic factors of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, in all 58 Basic Health Units of Natal/RN, Brazil. Seventy-three subjects completed a sociodemographic form andSelf-Care Agency Scale. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS,including Cronbach’s Alpha, Chi-square, Fisher’s and contingency coefficient tests. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.788. The result...
Our objective was to examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyl...
Desjardins, Richard; Ederer, Peer
This article explores the relative importance of different socio-demographic and practice-oriented factors that are related to proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTREs) and by extension may be related to complex problem solving (CPS). The empirical analysis focuses on the proficiency measurements of PSTRE made…
Full Text Available Background: Anaemia is the most common nutritional deficiency observed globally. Anaemia worsens during pregnancy leading to adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Dibrugarh district has the highest maternal mortality in the country, one of the major factor being anaemia during pregnancy. Aims & Objectives: To assess the prevalence and socio-demographic determinants of anaemia in pregnant women of Dibrugarh District. Material & Methods: A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in a block selected randomly. Study period was for the period from May’2015 to February’2016. Study sample included 290 participants. Results: Prevalence of anaemia among study participants was found to be 73.1%. (Mild 10%, moderate 43.1 % and severe 20%. Mean haemoglobin of study subjects was 9.07±2.26 g/dl. Average age of the study subjects was 23.24±4. Majority (27.2% had their education upto primary school level and belong to class IV socioeconomic status. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis shows educational qualification, socioeconomic status and type of housing are statistically associated with anaemia during pregnancy. Conclusion: Anaemia is rampant in the community needing urgent action to prevent morbidity amongst both mother and child
Cristina de Sousa e Silva Araujo, Ellen; Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida
Objective. Analysis of bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly and its associated factors according to sex. Methods. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, with a random sample of 132 noninstitutionalized elderly people. Individuals who did not use diuretics were excluded. BMD was obtained from examination of total body densitometry and its association with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, anthropometric, and body composition was verified. Results. Mean BMD for men was 1.17 ± 0.12 g/cm2 and for women was 1.04 ± 0.11 g/cm2. Higher education was associated with higher BMD values in men (p < 0.05). There was a reduction in BMD in the age group 75–79 years of age in women and over 80 years of age in men (p < 0.05). Underweight was associated with significantly low BMD for both sexes (p < 0.01), while normal weight was associated with low BMD in women (p < 0.001). Discussion. The elderly with low schooling and in older age groups are more probable to also present low BMD. Lower levels of body mass index also indicated towards low BMD. PMID:27127504
Yoshida, Yilin Xu; Simonsen, Neal; Chen, Liwei; Zhang, L U; Scribner, Richard; Tseng, Tung-Sung
This study aimed to examine whether sociodemographic factors and acculturation affect achievement of selected American Diabetes Association (ADA) nutrition therapy recommendations among Hispanics with diabetes. Cross-sectional data for Hispanics with diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2010 were used. Achievements of the ADA recommendation for five nutrition components were examined (i.e., daily intake of saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, and fiber, and daily servings of alcohol). Acculturation measurement derived from language use, country of birth, and length of residence in the U.S. Logistic regressions were performed. Only 49% of Hispanics with diabetes met three or more recommended criteria. Male gender and younger age (≤45) predicted poor recommendation adherence. More acculturated individuals had around 50% lower odds to achieve saturated fat [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.7], fiber [OR 0.5, CI 0.2-0.9], sodium [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9] and cholesterol intake [OR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.8] recommendations than their less acculturated counterparts. PMID:27524787
Full Text Available Taking care of older adults is among the major challenges currently faced by ageing populations. Researchers, designers, and engineers have proposed socially assistive robots as one way of helping elderly people stay in their homes longer. In a systematic literature review, this paper wants to investigate if and how evaluations of the acceptance of socially assistive robots by older people take into account sociodemographic factors. The results indicate that this only holds true for a few studies. Research that incorporates age, gender, education, and so forth; clearly shows that these key factors have a significant impact. However, the relations are complex and experience with technology mitigates the influence of sociodemographic factors on acceptance. Assistive devices should be adaptable to individual needs to be able to consider all these factors.
Bishwas Acharya; Hoshiar Singh Chauhan; Surya Bahadur Thapa; Hari Prasad Kaphle; Dipendra Malla
Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski dist...
Chiu Herng-Chia; Chen Chun-Min; Lan Tsuo-Hung; Wu Ming-Shiang; Lan Tzuo-Yun
Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years...
Full Text Available Background: India is the second most populous country in the world. A decline in its population growth rate has been shown amounting to during the last decades. The decline in the family size is important step towards population stabilization for our country. The status of family size is related to various demographic, socio-economic, cultural factors and attitude towards use of family planning methods. Objective: To assess the relationship of family size with socio-economic factors and effect of contraceptive use. Methodology: A cross sectional house to house survey to know the family size and socio-demographic was conducted in the adopted villages of field practice area. The study subjects are the married women of reproductive age group (15-49 years. Results: About half (44.9% of respondents were aged more than 35 years and only (0.9% were < 19 years. The family size in our study was 2.55. About 54.5% of respondents have family size d" 2. About two-third of families (65% with size less than or equals to two were of nuclear type. Education level of family has significant relationship with small family size. About 90% of the respondents and their spouse of family size two or less were literate. A significant association was found between occupation of the spouse and family size. The spouses of the respondents with family size more than two were mainly engaged in agriculture (29.7% and as labourer (38.5%. Among the families with family size of more than two, majority were from middle (81% and lower (14.9% class. There is no significant effect of use of contraceptives on the family size.
Ko, Y C; Chiang, T A; Chang, S J; Hsieh, S F
The prevalence of betel quid chewing habit in Taiwan was surveyed in a group of Chinese people from Kaohsiung city and in a second group from the aboriginal inhabitants of South Taiwan. In all 1299 participants constituted Group 1 (85.2% response rate) and 827 Group 2 (70.1% response rate). People were interviewed in their homes in house-to-house survey, according to a structured questionnaire developed and evaluated by the authors. Of the Kaohsiung inhabitants covering all ages and both sexes, 6% was a current betel chewer and 4% was an ex-chewer, whereas 42% of the aborigines aged over 15 yr was a current chewer and 1% an ex-chewer. Lifetime prevalence was 10%. Betel chewing enjoys islandwide popularity among the 20 million inhabitants of Taiwan; the number of current and ex-users was estimated at 2.0 million (95% CI 1.6-2.4 million). The betel quid was prepared in two different ways. In one, used mainly by aborigines, fresh areca nut was simply wrapped with betel leaf and in another, popular mainly among Chinese, a lengthwise piece of betel fruit and lime paste was sandwiched between two halves of an areca nut. A high proportion of chewers was also a smoker and drinker, but tobacco was not found to be chewed together with betel quid. Consumption varied between 14 to 23 portions per day, with individual frequencies ranging widely from 1 to over 200 portions a day. A statistical analysis of sociodemographic factors showed that lesser educated older men, blue collar workers, smokers and drinkers were the likeliest betel chewers. PMID:1501158
Full Text Available Purpose: evaluate 1 whether child’s externalizing problems increase or decrease within 12 months period; 2 the change of externalizing problems with respect to child gender and age, and 3 which maternal parenting stress factors and family sociodemographic characteristics can predict the increase and decrease of child’s externalizing problems. Design/methodology/approach: participants were evaluated 2 times (with the interval of 12 months with the Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1990 and Child Behavior Checklist 1.5−5 years (Achenbach, Rescorla, 2000 questionnaires. Findings: Child’s externalizing problems decreased within 12 months period. There were no effects of child’s age, gender and age*gender interaction on externalizing problems change within 12 months period. Higher initial level and more negative change within 12 months period of maternal parenting stress related to child characteristics, more stressful events in family life predicted the increase of child’s externalizing problems. Research limitations/implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s externalizing problems are related and may influence each other simultaneously. Child’s externalizing problems decrease within one year period in overall 2−5 years old children group. The change of child’s aggressive behavior and hyperactivity, distractibility should be evaluated individually, separately from each other. Practical implications: maternal parenting stress and child’s behavior problems are closely related to each other, it may be meaningful organize intervention for mothers in order to prevent child’s externalizing problems increase. Keywords: maternal parenting stress, externalizing problems, childhood, toddlerhood, longitudinal research. Research type: research paper.
Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Lawrenson, Ross; Harvey, Vernon; Ramsaroop, Reena; Elwood, Mark; Scott, Nina; Sarfati, Diana; Campbell, Ian
Background Examination of factors associated with late stage diagnosis of breast cancer is useful to identify areas which are amenable to intervention. This study analyses trends in cancer stage at diagnosis and impact of socio-demographic, cancer biological and screening characteristics on cancer stage in a population-based series of women with invasive breast cancer in New Zealand. Methods All women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 were identified from two regiona...
Wall, Clare R; Cheryl S. Gammon; Dinusha K. Bandara; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and mult...
Yılmaz Zengin; Ercan Gündüz; Mustafa İçer; Recep Dursun; Hasan Mansur Durgun; Hüseyin Gürbüz; Süleyman Demir; Mahir Kuyumcu
Objective: The ratio of elderly people in Turkey is rapidly growing. Accordingly, psychiatric problems and suicidality among elderly people are growing concerns. In this study, we aimed to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of older people who attempted suicide by drug and to identify risk factors affecting mortality.Methods: Patients who were over 65 years old and admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital due to drug-related suicide attempt between January ...
Eisner, Mark D.; Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H; Shiboski, Stephen C.; Blanc, Paul D
Background The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial. Methods In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern California to identify risk factors for subsequent hospitalization. Results Thirty-nine subjects (16%) reported hospitaliz...
Eisner Mark D; Katz Patricia P; Yelin Edward H; Shiboski Stephen C; Blanc Paul D
Abstract Background The morbidity and mortality from asthma have markedly increased since the late 1970s. The hospitalization rate, an important marker of asthma severity, remains substantial. Methods In adults with health care access, we prospectively studied 242 with asthma, aged 18–50 years, recruited from a random sample of allergy and pulmonary physician practices in Northern California to identify risk factors for subsequent hospitalization. Results T...
Full Text Available This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants. Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes. Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population, material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality and migration related (country of origin and length of stay. Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%, visual (1.00% and physical disability (0.38%. Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.
Black, Jennifer L; Carpiano, Richard M; Fleming, Stuart; Lauster, Nathanael
Several studies have identified disparities in access to food retailers among urban neighbourhoods with varied socio-demographic characteristics; but few studies have examined whether key zoning and siting mechanisms described in the urban planning literature explain differences in food store access. This study assessed associations between socio-demographic and urban planning variables with the availability of large supermarkets and stores selling fresh food within one kilometre buffers from residential addresses and the proximity to the closest food stores across 630 census tracts in British Columbia, Canada. Multivariate regression results indicated that neighbourhoods with higher median household income had significantly decreased access to food stores. Inclusion of urban planning factors in multivariate models, particularly housing and transportation considerations, explained much of the relation between area income and food store access, and were significant predictors of food store availability and proximity. Public health research and practice addressing food availability would benefit by incorporating theoretical perspectives from urban planning theory. PMID:21565544
Alexsandro Silva Coura
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the association between self-care ability and sociodemographic factors of people with spinal cord injury (SCI. It was a cross-sectional study, conducted in 2012, in all 58 Basic Health Units of Natal/RN, Brazil. Seventy-three subjects completed a sociodemographic form andSelf-Care Agency Scale. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS,including Cronbach’s Alpha, Chi-square, Fisher’s and contingency coefficient tests. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.788. The result verified that sex (p = 0.028, religion (p <0.001, education (p = 0.046, current age (p = 0.027, SCI time (p = 0.020 and the SCI type (p = 0.012 were variables associated with self-care ability of the subjects. It was concluded that sociodemographic factors may interfere with the self-care ability of persons with SCI, and nurses should consider this aspect during the execution of the nursing process.
Pedro T. Pisa
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and describe the diversity of nutrient patterns and how they associate with socio-demographic and lifestyle factors including body mass index in rural black South African adolescents. Nutrient patterns were identified from quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ in 388 rural South African adolescents between the ages of 11–15 years from the Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System (AHDSS. Principle Component Analysis (PCA was applied to 25 nutrients derived from QFFQs. Multiple linear regression and partial R2 models were fitted and computed respectively for each of the retained principal component (PC scores on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics including body mass index (BMI for age Z scores. Four nutrient patterns explaining 79% of the total variance were identified: PCI (26% was characterized by animal derived nutrients; PC2 (21% by vitamins, fibre and vegetable oil nutrients; PC3 (19% by both animal and plant derived nutrients (mixed diet driven nutrients; and PC4 (13% by starch and folate. A positive and significant association was observed with BMI for age Z scores per 1 standard deviation (SD increase in PC1 (0.13 (0.02; 0.24; p = 0.02 and PC4 (0.10 (−0.01; 0.21; p = 0.05 scores only. We confirmed variability in nutrient patterns that were significantly associated with various lifestyle factors including obesity.
Letice Ericeira Valente
Full Text Available Caring for a demented family member has been associated with burden. Studies concerning health self-perception of family caregivers are still scarce. OBJECTIVE: To investigate caregivers perceived health and to look into relationships with patients and caregivers' sociodemographic and clinical data. METHOD: Dyads of dementia outpatients and family caregivers (n=137 were assessed with Mini Mental State Examination, Functional Activities Questionnaire, Neuropsychiatric Inventory and Clinical Dementia Rating. Caregivers answered Sociodemographic Questionnaire, Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories, Zarit Burden Interview and Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Caregivers poor perceived health was associated with emotional exhaustion, burden, depression and anxiety. Logistic regression analyses revealed caregivers' age, anxiety and physical problem as the main predictors of health self-perception. CONCLUSION: Aged family caregivers with anxiety who also report physical problem characterize a group at risk for poor self-perceived health. Evaluation of health self-perception may be useful for designing interventions to improve anxiety and physical health.
Hasselback, P; Lee, K I; Mao, Y; Nichol, R; Wigle, D T
The correlates of suicide rates were determined by conducting a multivariate study of sociodemographic indicators and suicide rates of 261 Canadian census divisions. Twenty-one sociodemographic variables were entered into a stepwise multiple linear regression to develop a model for suicide rates. The important variables were mortality rate for all causes of death, the age of the population, average family income, population density, proportion with no religious affiliation, proportion of Francophones, unemployment, immigration, proportion of Native people, a regional effect for British Columbia and the north, and growth by mobility, explaining 62% of the observed variation. This spatial ecologic analysis highlights the importance of cultural differences in explaining the variation of suicide rates. The analysis supports the previously found negative relationship between income and suicide while contrasting from previous studies in determining a inverse relationship with unemployment and an inverse relationship with the age distribution. PMID:1773401
Milena Sia Perin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the relationship between the behaviors of salt consumption and socio-demographic and clinical variables. METHOD: sodium consumption was evaluated using the methods: self-reporting (considering 3 different behaviors related to salt consumption, 24- hr dietary recall, discretionary salt, food frequency questionnaire, estimation of total sodium intake and 24-hr urinary excretion of sodium (n=108. RESULTS: elevated salt intake according to the different measurements of consumption of the nutrient was associated with the variables: male sex, low level of schooling and monthly income, being Caucasian, and being professionally inactive; and with the clinical variables: elevated Body Mass Index, tensional levels, ventricular hypertrophy and the number of medications used. CONCLUSION: the data obtained shows a heterogenous association between the different behaviors related to salt consumption and the socio-demographic and clinical variables. This data can be used to optimize the directing of educational activities with a view to reducing salt consumption among hypertensives.
Jameel M. Al-Khayri; Magda I. Hassan
Consumers awareness and attitude towards GM food vary among different nations and thought to be affected by socio-demographic attributes. The present study was conducted to assess the consumer knowledge about GM food and to determine the level of acceptance of GM products in Saudi Arabia. A consumer questionnaire was designed to generate a demographic profile for participating consumers and assess their perception. Data were collected in Al-Hassa, Eastern Province, based on 420 randomly selec...
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study has been to determine if sociodemographic factors: age, sex and duration of employment as well as the presence of chronic comorbidities exert significant effect on subjective assessment of psychosocial working conditions of nurses. Moreover, we analyzed whether the abovementioned variables influenced the level of absenteeism at work during a year preceding the study. Material and Methods: The study, conducted between December 2012 and January 2013, included 789 nurses employed at public and private healthcare institutions in Białystok. The participants were surveyed by means of the “Psychosocial Working Conditions” questionnaire. Results: Women accounted for significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Well-being Scale as compared to men. Respondents’ age and duration of employment correlated significantly with the scores of the Demands and Desired Changes Scales. Moreover, we documented significant inverse correlations between the age and tenure and the scores of the Social Support and Well-being Scales. Furthermore, duration of employment was inversely correlated with the results of the Control Scale. The respondents with chronic conditions showed significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Control and Well-being Scales. We found an inverse correlation between the number of sick leave days and the value of the Well-being Scale, which was also the case with a subset of nurses without chronic conditions. Conclusions: Similar to other professional groups, a nursing team management requires the use of human resources management techniques and identification of a person being responsible for coordination of the group and diagnosis of its psychosocial needs. Med. Pr. 2015;66(5:615–624
Mattheus, Deborah; Shannon, Maureen; Lim, Eunjung; Gandhi, Krupa
Periodontal disease during pregnancy has the potential to increase the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes including preterm labor (PTL), prematurity, and low birth weight (LBW). Despite professional recommendations on the importance and safety of dental assessments and treatments, the rate of dental care utilization during pregnancy remains low. The purpose of this study was to document the utilization of dental services and explore the relationships among socio-demographic factors, dental problems, and PTL in pregnant women residing in Hawai'i. Hawai'i Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey results were analyzed from 4,309 women who experienced live births between the years 2009-2011. Results revealed that 2 in 5 women in Hawai'i had their teeth cleaned during pregnancy, while 1 in 5 reported seeing a dentist for a dental problem. Women who reported having a dental problem during pregnancy were more likely to experience PTL (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.10-1.94, P=.008) compared to women without a dental problem. In addition, Native Hawaiian and Part-Hawaiian women were more likely to experience PTL (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.22-2.46, P=.002) compared to Caucasian women. These findings document the underutilization of dental services in pregnant women in Hawai'i and reveal an association between poor dental care and PTL. Identification of groups at risk for maternal complications may assist in the development of programs that are sensitive to the diverse cultures and variability of community resources that exist throughout Hawai'i. PMID:27563498
Full Text Available Objective: The ratio of elderly people in Turkey is rapidly growing. Accordingly, psychiatric problems and suicidality among elderly people are growing concerns. In this study, we aimed to investigate the socio-demographic characteristics of older people who attempted suicide by drug and to identify risk factors affecting mortality. Methods: Patients who were over 65 years old and admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital due to drug-related suicide attempt between January 1, 2004 and December 30, 2014, were included into this retrospective cross-sectional study. Relationship between suicide attempt and mortality was investigated in regard to socio-demographic and clinical factors. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they survived or died. Results: Of the 107 patients included in the study, 68.2% were female and 31.8% were male; 34.6% were married. Common reasons for suicide attempt were depression (34.6% and domestic violence (30.8%. Analgesics (33.6% were the most common drugs used in suicide attempts. The analysis of the factors related to suicide attempt and mortality revealed that significant factors were loneliness, being widowed, being retired, having adjustment disorder and anxiety disorder. Conclusion: Loneliness, being widowed, being retired, adjustment disorder, and anxiety disorder were found as the risk factors affecting mortality in geriatric suicide attempts.
Hossain, Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K. C.; Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Hayati, K. S.; Rahman, A K M Fazlur
Background Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and...
Szynkiewicz, Ewa; Filanowicz, Małgorzata; Graczyk, Małgorzata; Cegła, Bernadeta; Jabłońska, Renata; Napiórkowska-Baran, Katarzyna; Bartuzi, Zbigniew
Aim To evaluate the influence of selected socio-demographic factors on quality of life of patients with different degrees of asthma severity. Material and methods The study was conducted in 2009–2010 in the Clinic of Allergology, Clinical Immunology and Internal Diseases in Dr J. Biziel University Hospital No. 2 in Bydgoszcz. Patients were divided into a tested group (126) and a control group (86). The criterion for the division was the degree of asthma control according to GINA 2006. The fol...
Li, Xianqiang; Jiang, Xin; Yaoi, Takuro
Transcription factors are a group of proteins that modulate the expression of genes involved in many biological processes, such as cell growth and differentiation. Alterations in transcription factor function are associated with many human diseases, and therefore these proteins are attractive potential drug targets. A key issue in the development of such therapeutics is the generation of effective tools that can be used for high throughput discovery of the critical transcription factors involved in human diseases, and the measurement of their activities in a variety of disease or compound-treated samples. Here, a number of innovative arrays and 96-well format assays for profiling and measuring the activities of transcription factors will be discussed. PMID:16834538
Full Text Available Background: Although intellectual disability (ID is a common disability in Iran, there is no investigation on the spatial distribution pattern of these patients in national level and the spatial maps for recognition the areas with higher prevalence of IDs and local neighborhoods of these regions or effect of socio-demographic factor on this scattering is not still available. This proposition motivated us to assess the population with ID in our country. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we applied Moran′s Index (Moran′s I which includes information about the strength of the neighboring association between counties, as global univariate distribution assessment. A geographically weighted regression was used to explore relation between ID patient′s prevalence and some socio-demographic factors (migration and illiteracy rate, physician number (PN/10,000 people and health-care centers (HCCs/10,000 people. Results: We found that spatial clusters of ID patients exist among Iran counties (Moran′s I = 0.36, P 0.3. Conclusions: According to the results, our Initial hypothesis about the existence of spatial clusters in distribution of people with ID in Iran was proven. Spatial autocorrelation between migration and illiteracy rate and prevalence of patients with ID was shown and was in agreement with our hypothesis. However, our supposition that the prevalence should have inverse relationship with PN and HCC was rejected.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrepancies between parents and children in their assessment of children's mental health affect the evaluation of need for services and must be taken seriously. This article presents the differences between parents' and children's reports of the children's symptoms and social impairment, based on the results of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The interrelationship between relational aspects and socio-demographic factors with patterns of disagreement are explored. Methods Differences in the prevalence and means of SDQ symptom and impact scores were obtained from 8,154 primary school children, aged between 10 and 13 years, and their parents. Agreement between matched pairs was measured using Pearson's and Spearman's rho correlations. Socio-demographic variables, communication patterns and parental engagement were analysed as possible correlates of informant discrepancies using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models. Results In general, although children reported more symptoms, they reported less impact of perceived difficulties than parents. The parents were more consistent in their evaluation of symptoms and impact than were the children. Exploration of highly discrepant subgroups showed that, when children reported the most symptoms and impact, qualitative aspects of the parent-child relationship and family structure seemed to be more powerful predictors of disagreement than were gender of the child and socio-demographic variables. When parents reported the most symptoms and impact, low parental educational level, low income and male gender of the child played an additional role. Conclusions Our findings underline the importance of paying attention to child reports of emotional-behavioural difficulties, particularly when parents do not identify these problems. Considerations on what meaning parent-child discrepancy might have in the context of the parent-child relationship or the family
Full Text Available Analysis of preference of educational styles is highly relevant, since it points out both to the more general underlying value orientations and the expected or desired effects of socialization process. This paper deals with the level of acceptance and factors of valuing the autonomous and conformist educational styles among Serbian citizens, operationalised through estimation of importance of qualities that children should learn at home. Based on the three waves of World Values Survey, the analysis of data from Serbia was performed in longitudinal perspective in the period from 1996 to 2006 (total N=3700, as well as in comparative perspective, when the data obtained in Serbia were compared with the data collected in the European countries that participated in the last, fifth wave of World Values Survey (total N=23941. The results indicate that, in the observed period, on the average two thirds of citizens (64% are characterized by preference of autonomous educational style, while respondents' education and population size of settlement figure as the most important factors of preference. However, according to the level of acceptance of autonomy, Serbia is placed 16th out of 21 analyzed European countries, and therefore, in comparative perspective, valuing of autonomy in the country is on a relatively low level. The results imply that by a non-selective encouragement of autonomy in all students, by cooperation with parents or a more general promotion of knowledge, school may play an important role in this process.
Wall, Clare R; Gammon, Cheryl S; Bandara, Dinusha K; Grant, Cameron C; Atatoa Carr, Polly E; Morton, Susan M B
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, 'Junk' and 'Traditional/White bread', were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, 'Health conscious' and 'Fusion/Protein', were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on 'Junk' and 'Health conscious' were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on 'Fusion/Protein' was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the 'Health conscious' dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438
Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe
The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual’s sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability. PMID:27068099
Wall, Clare R.; Gammon, Cheryl S.; Bandara, Dinusha K.; Grant, Cameron C.; Atatoa Carr, Polly E.; Morton, Susan M. B.
Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ), whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines. PMID:27213438
Albanita Gomes da Costa de Ceballos
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most frequent complaints among teachers, compromising their health and quality of life.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among teachers, assessing their occurrence according to sociodemographic characteristics, general health and well-being at work.METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study conducted with 525 teachers. During activities of continuing education, the teachers completed a self-administered questionnaire containing questions about sociodemographic factors, general health, well-being at work and musculoskeletal pain.RESULTS: The overall prevalence of musculoskeletal pain was equal to 73.5%. The most common musculoskeletal pains were localized in the shoulders (31.6%, upper back (27.8%, neck (27.2% and ankles and/or feet (24.0%. Circulatory and respiratory problems and Common Mental Disorders were associated with pain in the shoulders, upper back, neck and ankles and/or feet. Well- being at work is associated with pain in the shoulders, neck and ankles and/or feet.CONCLUSION: It is necessary to deepen the knowledge about musculoskeletal pain among teachers, exploring the biological, ergonomic, occupational and psychosocial mechanisms of teaching, as well as invest in practices that improve the relationship of coexistence between workers and activities that enhance the comfort and reduce referred pain.
Bonierbale, Mireille; Baumstarck, Karine; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Boyer, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe
The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual's sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals from a large sample of French individuals and whether these differed by sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a French public university hospital. The inclusion criteria were 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and eligibility for a standardized sex reassignment procedure. Personality characteristics were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2). A total of 108 individuals provided a valid MMPI-2 between January 2007 and December 2010. The final sample had a median age of 31 years and included 54 (50%) Female-to-Male individuals. In multivariate models, hormonal therapy status was significantly related to the scales of MMPI-2 (Psychasthenia and Masculinity/Femininity). Personality assessment can help a multidisciplinary gender dysphoria team detect potential psychopathological factors of vulnerability. PMID:27068099
Full Text Available The emergence and pandemic spread of a new strain of influenza A (H1N1 virus in 2009 resulted in a serious alarm in clinical and public health services all over the world. One distinguishing feature of this new influenza pandemic was the different profile of hospitalized patients compared to those from traditional seasonal influenza infections. Our goal was to analyze sociodemographic and clinical factors associated to hospitalization following infection by influenza A(H1N1 virus. We report the results of a Spanish nationwide study with laboratory confirmed infection by the new pandemic virus in a case-control design based on hospitalized patients. The main risk factors for hospitalization of influenza A (H1N1 2009 were determined to be obesity (BMI≥40, with an odds-ratio [OR] 14.27, hematological neoplasia (OR 10.71, chronic heart disease, COPD (OR 5.16 and neurological disease, among the clinical conditions, whereas low education level and some ethnic backgrounds (Gypsies and Amerinds were the sociodemographic variables found associated to hospitalization. The presence of any clinical condition of moderate risk almost triples the risk of hospitalization (OR 2.88 and high risk conditions raise this value markedly (OR 6.43. The risk of hospitalization increased proportionally when for two (OR 2.08 or for three or more (OR 4.86 risk factors were simultaneously present in the same patient. These findings should be considered when a new influenza virus appears in the human population.
Full Text Available Context: Diabetes affects 9.2% of adults in India. About 8-16% of its population also suffer from depression. Both diseases pose a serious health challenge at individual and system level. The prevalence of depression in diabetes is much higher than in the general population. Undiagnosed and untreated depression puts people at higher morbidity and mortality risk. Aim: To study the prevalence of depression in diabetes and to identify associated risk factors. Settings and Design: Case control study carried out in an outpatient setting of a tertiary hospital in central India. Materials and Methods: One hundred and nine type 2 diabetes patients and 91 healthy controls formed the subjects of the study. Sociodemographic data were obtained on seven parameters. Comprehensive clinical data were obtained by means of standard procedures. Blood sugar levels and glycosylated hemoglobin levels were measured to assess glycemic control. Data of diabetic patients and controls as well as that of depressed and nondepressed diabetics were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: About 42.2% of diabetes patients and only 4.39% of controls had depression. About 19% of diabetics had peripheral neuropathy but had much higher neuropathic symptoms. Depression was not related to any sociodemographic or clinical factors but was strongly associated with poor glycemic control. Conclusion: Depression is highly prevalent in diabetes. Physical symptoms mask depression. Special attention needs to be paid to diagnose depression in diabetes and treat it appropriately along with effective glycemic control. Diabetes patients need to be treated collaboratively by physicians and psychiatrists.
Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis B virus (HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections are two of the world's most important infectious diseases. Our objective was to determine the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc prevalences among adult HIV-infected patients and identify the associations between socio-demographic variables and these HBV infection markers. Methods This study was performed from October 2012 to March 2013. Three hundred HIV-seropositive patients were monitored by the Clinical Analysis Laboratory of Professor Polydoro Ernani de São Thiago University Hospital, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The blood tests included HBsAg, anti-HBc immunoglobulin M (IgM and total anti-HBc. Patients reported their HIV viral loads and CD4+ T-cell counts using a questionnaire designed to collect sociodemographic data. Results The mean patient age was 44.6 years, the mean CD4 T-cell count was 525/mm3, the mean time since beginning antiretroviral therapy was 7.6 years, and the mean time since HIV diagnosis was 9.6 years. The overall prevalences of HBsAg and total anti-HBc were 2.3% and 29.3%, respectively. Among the individuals analyzed, 0.3% were positive for HBsAg, 27.3% were positive for total anti-HBc, and 2.0% were positive either for HBsAg or total anti-HBc and were classified as chronically HBV-infected. Furthermore, 70.3% of the patients were classified as never having been infected. Male gender, age >40 years and Caucasian ethnicity were associated with an anti-HBc positive test. Conclusions The results showed an intermediate prevalence of HBsAg among the studied patients. Moreover, the associations between the anti-HBc marker and socio-demographic factors suggest a need for HBV immunization among these HIV-positive individuals, who are likely to have HIV/HBV coinfection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is an age-related condition as the rate of cognitive decline rapidly increases with aging. It is especially important to better understand factors involving in cognitive decline for the countries where the older population is growing rapidly. The aim of this study was to examine the association between socio-demographic and health-related factors and cognitive impairment in the elderly in Taiwan. Methods We analysed data from 2119 persons aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Cognitive impairment was defined as having the score of the Mini Mental State Examination lower than 24. The χ2 test and multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between cognitive impairment and variables of socio-demography, chronic diseases, geriatric conditions, lifestyle, and dietary factors. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 22.2%. Results of multivariate analysis indicated that low education, being single, low social support, lower lipid level, history of stroke, physical inactivity, non-coffee drinking and poor physical function were associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion Most of the characteristics in relation to cognitive impairment identified in our analysis are potentially modifiable. These results suggest that improving lifestyle behaviours such as regular exercise and increased social participation could help prevent or decrease the risk of cognitive impairment. Further investigations using longitudinal data are needed to clarify our findings.
Sebena, Rene; Orosova, Olga; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: Alcohol use and misuse and their relation to sociodemograhic factors are well studied among university students in Western European countries and the USA, but less is known about students in Eastern Europe. The historical past as communistic countries might have affected the social life
Watt, T; Groenvold, M; Bjorner, J B;
analysis showed that respondents of low social status and respondents with a depression had high fatigue scores on all scales, independent of other factors. Chronic somatic disease had an independent direct effect on Mental Fatigue, but for the rest of the scales, the effect of somatic disease depended on...
Full Text Available In theory made a case the necessity of modeling economic and demographic indicators. The influences of economic, social and environmental indicators on social and demographic factors of development country are researeched. Given statistical evaluation of relationships based on correlation and regression analysis method.
Amanda de Carvalho Mello
Full Text Available Frailty is a syndrome that leads to practical harm in the lives of elders, since it is related to increased risk of dependency, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and death. The objective of this systematic review was to identify the socio-demographic, psycho-behavioral, health-related, nutritional, and lifestyle factors associated with frailty in the elderly. A total of 4,183 studies published from 2001 to 2013 were detected in the databases, and 182 complete articles were selected. After a comprehensive reading and application of selection criteria, 35 eligible articles remained for analysis. The main factors associated with frailty were: age, female gender, black race/color, schooling, income, cardiovascular diseases, number of comorbidities/diseases, functional incapacity, poor self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive function, body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Knowledge of the complexity of determinants of frailty can assist the formulation of measures for prevention and early intervention, thereby contributing to better quality of life for the elderly.
Pule Ishmael Pule; Boitshwarelo Rachaba; Mgaywa Gilbert Mjungu Damas Magafu; Dereje Habte
Background and Objectives. This study was conducted to assess the level of intention of the general public towards blood donation and the factors associated with it. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in South-East Botswana amongst participants aged 21–65 years. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was completed for 384 participants. Results. Of the 384 participants, 104 (27.1%) reported that they had donated blood in the past and 269 (70.1%) stated that they were...
Full Text Available Adequate birth intervals are considered a positive factor in the health of mothers and their children. One of the objectives of this study is to compare the birth interval between Nicaraguan immigrant women and local mothers in Costa Rica. Birth intervals among Nicaraguan women are significantly shorter than the local ones (p 0.05. Nicaraguan women are 30% more likely to recur in the following pregnancy as compared with local women. The study of population minorities permits the preparation of public policies on international migration issues.
Vermeulen, Erik; Spronk, Jaap; Wijst, Nico
textabstractIn this paper, we present a new model to analyze the risk and the expected level of firm performance. This model is based on the multi-factor approach to risk, in which unexpected performance is explained through sensitivities to unexpected changes of risk factors. Instead of using the multi-factor approach for the analysis of security portfolios, it is used to analyze performance measures of firms. In this paper the multi-factor approach is not only used to analyze risk, but also...
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (author)
Pule, Pule Ishmael; Rachaba, Boitshwarelo; Magafu, Mgaywa Gilbert Mjungu Damas; Habte, Dereje
Background and Objectives. This study was conducted to assess the level of intention of the general public towards blood donation and the factors associated with it. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in South-East Botswana amongst participants aged 21-65 years. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was completed for 384 participants. Results. Of the 384 participants, 104 (27.1%) reported that they had donated blood in the past and 269 (70.1%) stated that they were willing to donate blood in the future. Thirteen out of the 104 past donors (12.5%) reported that they had donated blood in the 12 months preceding the survey and only 10 (9.6%) participants reported that they have been regular donors. In the backward logistic regression analysis, the variables that remained significant predictors of the intention to donate blood were secondary education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 2.92 (1.48, 5.77)), tertiary education (AOR (95% CI): 3.83 (1.52, 9.62)), and knowing a family member who had ever donated blood (AOR (95% CI): 2.84 (1.58, 5.12)). Conclusion. Being informed about blood transfusion and its life-saving benefits through either the education system or the experience made people more likely to intend to donate blood. Evidence-based interventions to retain blood donors as regular donors are recommended. PMID:25431742
Pule Ishmael Pule
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. This study was conducted to assess the level of intention of the general public towards blood donation and the factors associated with it. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in South-East Botswana amongst participants aged 21–65 years. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was completed for 384 participants. Results. Of the 384 participants, 104 (27.1% reported that they had donated blood in the past and 269 (70.1% stated that they were willing to donate blood in the future. Thirteen out of the 104 past donors (12.5% reported that they had donated blood in the 12 months preceding the survey and only 10 (9.6% participants reported that they have been regular donors. In the backward logistic regression analysis, the variables that remained significant predictors of the intention to donate blood were secondary education (adjusted odds ratio (AOR (95% confidence interval (CI: 2.92 (1.48, 5.77, tertiary education (AOR (95% CI: 3.83 (1.52, 9.62, and knowing a family member who had ever donated blood (AOR (95% CI: 2.84 (1.58, 5.12. Conclusion. Being informed about blood transfusion and its life-saving benefits through either the education system or the experience made people more likely to intend to donate blood. Evidence-based interventions to retain blood donors as regular donors are recommended.
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).
Full Text Available Introduction: The pattern of skin diseases in any community is influenced by genetic constitution, climate, socioeconomic status, occupation, education, hygienic standards, customs and quality of medical care. The burden of skin disease also has an impact on the Quality of Life of adolescents. This study aims to investigate the level of awareness and assess the prevalence of different types of skin diseases among adolescents in Mauritius. Material and Methods: 500 adolescents and young adults of both sexes and aged between 11-23 years were recruited. A questionnaire was used to elicit information and to assess the knowledge status of skin diseases and to determine possible risk factors. In addition, a validated questionnaire based on Quality of Life Index was used to determine the psychosocial effect of adolescents suffering from skin diseases. Data was analysed using IBM Statistics SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Excel 2007. Results: Incidence of skin diseases was 22.9% in males and 24.7% females respectively. Acne was the most common skin problems in both gender followed by fungal infection (2.9% in males and eczema (2.4% in females. Climatic conditions (e.g summer, consumption of oily and spicy foods, sports practice and familial history were correlated positively with prevalence of skin diseases. Conclusion: Acne, eczema and fungal infection were the most common skin diseases identified. The findings also indicate that more respondents between 15-19 years old were more prone to skin diseases.
Miguel Ángel Salinero-Fort
Full Text Available This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed.A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691 and Spanish-born (n = 903 outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected.Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable "exposure to political violence" was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014.The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on social inclusion in the host
Murray, Joseph; Maughan, Barbara; Ana M. B. Menezes; Hickman, Matthew; MacLeod, John; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gon?alves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika A G; Fernando C. Barros
Background Many low- and middle-income countries have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries shows that risk factors in the perinatal period are significant precursors of conduct problems which can develop into violence. It is not known whether the same early influences are important in lower income settings with higher rates of violence. This study compared perinatal and sociodemographic risk factors between Brazil and Britain, and their role in explaining higher rate...
Drieling, Rebecca Lucia; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Ma, Jun; Stafford, Randall Scott
Low-socioeconomic-status (SES) Latinos are disproportionately represented among the 78 million obese Americans. Tailored behavioral weight-loss interventions show promise, but there is limited adaptation to lower-SES Latino immigrants. This study provides guidance for tailoring obesity-reduction strategies for this population by evaluating food security, educational community resource utilization, education level, depression, sex, and length of US residence as predictors of diet and physical activity. The cross-sectional study used baseline data collected in July 2009 through September 2010 for a weight-loss trial among lower-SES obese (body mass index 30 to 55) Latino immigrants who were enrolled at a community health clinic (n=207). Physical activity was measured using 7-day pedometer recording. Dietary intake was measured using an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Factors assessed by questionnaire included education community resource use (nutrition and physical activity classes), education level, US residence (years), food security, and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using multivariate-adjusted linear regression models. More than one third of participants were sedentary (fast-food intake (P=0.04). Fewer depressive symptoms were associated with lower sweet-beverage intake (P=0.05). In conclusion, obesity-reduction strategies among low-SES Latino immigrants might effectively emphasize educational community resource use and interventions tailored for psychosocial and sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:24119533
Full Text Available Background: The occurrence of overweight and obesity is at increasing level in low income and developing countries and is not limited to high income countries only. Adolescent is at high risk for its development. Rationale: To find out the prevalence and associated socio-demographic factors responsible for overweight and obesity which are unrecognized health problems and are risk factors for non-communicable disease. To date no study has been done focusing overweight and obesity in Kaski district, Nepal and very few in context of Nepal. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their association with socio demographic factors among higher secondary school level adolescents in Kaski district, Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kaski district among 838 adolescents randomly selected from 12 schools using multistage cluster sampling from 24th October to 4th December, 2013 using self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. BMI for age was calculated using WHO Anthroplus software v.1.0.4 using cut off value of 85th percentile and 95th percentile for overweight and obesity respectively. Statistical analysis was done using SPSSv. 16. Results: The study revealed 8.1% prevalence of overweight and obesity of among higher secondary level school adolescents with 5.8% overweight and 2.3% obese. Urban respondents were found significantly more overweight/obese than village respondents (p=0.001, OR=2.360. Adolescents of ethnic/indigenous group (p<0.001, OR=2.56, fathers’ with government job (p=0.011, OR=2.08, mothers’ with teaching job (p=0.038, OR=2.57 and average monthly family income more than or equal to NRs.25, 000 (p=0.007, OR=1.97 were found significantly more overweight and obese. But, other socio demographic factors like gender (p=0.26, birth order (p=0.404 and parents’ education (p=0.121 for fathers’ and p=0.282 for mothers’ education weren’t significantly associated
Neal, R D; Allgar, V L
This paper aims to explore the relationship between sociodemographic factors and the components of diagnostic delay (total, patient and primary care, referral, secondary care) for these six cancers (breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, prostate, or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma). Secondary analysis of patient-reported data from the ‘National Survey of NHS patients: Cancer' was undertaken (65 192 patients). Data were analysed using univariate analysis and Generalised Linear Modelling. With regard to to...
Hallströma, Lena; Gómez Martínez, Sonia; Sjöström, Michael
Objective To describe breakfast habits at food group level in European adolescents and to investigate the associations between these habits and sociodemographic factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Secondary schools from nine European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Breakfast habits were assessed twice using a computer-based 24 h dietary recall. Adolescents who consumed breakfast on at least one recall day were clas...
Chrisman, Matthew; Daniel, Carrie R; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wu, Xifeng; Hua ZHAO
Objectives Being physically active is important for health, and few Mexican-Americans meet national US physical activity recommendations. The aim of this study was to investigate sociodemographic, acculturation and lifestyle factors that were associated with meeting physical activity recommendations in this group. Design and setting A cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based cohort study in southern Texas, USA. Participants Between 2001 and 2011, 21 551 adult members of the Mexica...
Boyer, CB; Greenberg, L.; Chutuape, K; Walker, B; Monte, D; Kirk, J.; Ellen, JM
The goal of this research was to examine associations among sociodemographic factors, HIV risk, and community context (e.g., economic insecurity, job training, housing instability, crime victimization, and perceived community norms) in adolescents and young adults who ever exchanged sex for drugs or money. Anonymous survey data were collected using ACASIs at community venues where adolescents and young adults congregate in resource-challenged, STI prevalent, urban, US neighborhoods. Conventio...
Paul, Bobby; Basu, Mausumi; Dutta, Sinjita; Chattopadhyay, Sita; Sinha, Debasis; Misra, Raghunath
Background: Periodontal diseases, dental caries, malocclusion, and oral cancer are the most prevalent dental diseases affecting people in the Indian community. Objective: The study was conducted to assess the awareness and practices on oral hygiene and its association with the sociodemographic factors among patients attending the general Outpatient Department (OPD). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 224 patients attending the general OPD of the SSKM Hospital, ...
Full Text Available Introduction: Though adolescence is recognised as a critical period for smoking prevention, there is a lack of research focused on this issue in Kosovo. The aim of this study has been to examine the gender-specific factors of influence (predictors for smoking among adolescents in Pristina, Kosovo. Material and Methods: The study sample comprised 1002 adolescents at the age of 17–18 (366 boys, 636 girls, all of whom were in the school’s 12th grade. The predictors included sociodemographic variables, familial (i.e., parental monitoring, parents’ educational background, and sport-related factors. The Chi2 and forward stepwise logistic regression analyses with a dichotomous criterion (smoking vs. non-smoking were applied. Results: The incidence of smoking was high (31% and 40% smokers, including 7% and 12% daily smokers for girls and boys, respectively. The regression model revealed more frequent absence from school (odds ratio (OR: 1.544; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.063–2.243, more unexcused school absences (OR: 1.360; 95% CI: 1.029–1.796, and frequent parental questioning (OR: 1.530; 95% CI: 1.020–2.295 to be significant predictors of smoking among boys. For girls, a higher risk of smoking was associated with lower scholastic achievement (OR: 1.467; 95% CI: 1.089–1.977, more frequent absence from school (OR: 1.565; 95% CI: 1.137–2.155, increased conflict with parents (OR: 1.979; 95% CI: 1.405–2.789, and a self-declared perception of less parental care (OR: 0.602; 95% CI: 0.377–0.962. Sports were not found to be strongly related to smoking. However, a high risk of daily smoking was found among boys who participated in team sports and subsequently quit. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for gender- and culture-specific approaches to studying the factors that influence smoking among adolescents. Med Pr 2015;66(2:153–163
This study examined four major psycho-social variables, health belief, social influence, health locus of control, and self efficacy in rural lower Mississippi Delta residents. Socio-demographic variables of race, education and income were used to measure differences in perception of attitudes of imp...
Abrahamse, Wokje; Steg, Linda
This study explored the relationships between household energy use and householders' intention to reduce their energy use on the one hand, and psychological variables and socio-demographic variables on the other More specifically, the study examined whether the explanation of household energy use an
Subedi, Sanjeena; PUNZO, ANTONIO; Ingrassia, Salvatore; McNicholas, Paul D.
In model-based clustering and classification, the cluster-weighted model constitutes a convenient approach when the random vector of interest constitutes a response variable Y and a set p of explanatory variables X. However, its applicability may be limited when p is high. To overcome this problem, this paper assumes a latent factor structure for X in each mixture component. This leads to the cluster-weighted factor analyzers (CWFA) model. By imposing constraints on the variance of Y and the ...
Albanita Gomes da Costa de Ceballos; Gustavo Barreto Santos
INTRODUCTION: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the most frequent complaints among teachers, compromising their health and quality of life.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among teachers, assessing their occurrence according to sociodemographic characteristics, general health and well-being at work.METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study conducted with 525 teachers. During activities of continuing education, the teachers completed a self-administered questionna...
Mireille Bonierbale; Karine Baumstarck; Aurélie Maquigneau; Audrey Gorin-Lazard; Laurent Boyer; Anderson Loundou; Pascal Auquier; Christophe Lançon
The assessment of co-existing psychological and psychiatric disorders is advocated in the Standards of Care for the health of transsexual people. This study aimed to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsexuals based on a large sample of French individuals and to identify whether these characteristics differed according to the individual’s sociodemographic or clinical characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the psychopathological characteristics of transsex...
Santosh Ramdurg; Shrigopal Goyal; Prashant Goyal; Rajesh Sagar; Pratap Sharan
Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the cr...
Sayed Mohammad Taghavi; Hamidreza Mokarami; Morteza Nazifi; Alireza Choobineh; Hossein Marioryad; Mehdi Faraji Kujerdi
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been investigated among Iranian industrial workers. The present paper aimed to study the influence of the socio-demographic, health and work-related factors on HRQOL among Iranian industrial workers. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 280 workers of two factories. The Persian version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) was used to assess the HRQOL. A questionnaire was developed to assess the socio-demogr...
Madhav P. Bhatta; Lori Assad; Sunita Shakya
Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary f...
Fonseca, Emilio Prado; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Palmier, Andréa Clemente; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte
The scope of this study is to correlate the gingival condition and sociodemographic status of adolescents living in an economically disadvantaged Brazilian region. The survey was conducted with a random sample of 450 adolescents in 13 cities selected in the Jequitinhonha Valley (State of Minas Gerais). The gingival condition was evaluated using a calibrated examiner (Kappa ≥ 0.85). The oral exam was based on the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). The frequencies of individuals were calculated and sextants subsequently assessed using Multiple Correspondence Analysis (ANACOR) to reveal the relationship between CPI and sociodemographic characteristics. The results showed that: 16 (3.6%) were healthy; 235 (52.2%) had gingival bleeding; 36 (8%) had dental calculus and 163 (36.2%) had both bleeding and calculus. ANACOR identified two groups with similarities in relation to periodontal disease. Group one featured 19-year-olds with healthy CPI who work and have higher family income. Group two included 15- and 16-year-olds of both sexes with CPI and gingival bleeding in elementary school with lower family income, who declared themselves to be of mixed or Afro-descendant race. The presence of gingivitis was related to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescents in the region. PMID:26602715
Full Text Available Background: Renal failure is a chronic disease that can have serious effects on patients’ quality of life (QoL.Objective: Gender, age, education and marital status were investigated in end-stage renal disease patients. Specifically, the relationship of QoL and mental health to sociodemographic variables was examined.Methodology: 144 patients in-centre haemodialysis (HD and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD were administered the World Health Organization QoL instrument (WHOQOLBREF, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, the depression CES-D scale, the State-TraitAnxiety Inventory (STAI and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLC.Results: Female patients reported lower scores in the psychological and environmental QoL domains and higher scores in the Trait Anxiety measure. Elder patients reported higher scores in the GHQ-28 sub-scale of social dysfunction and in the CES-D depression scale, while less educated patients presented higher scores in the GHQ-28 sub-scales of anxiety/insomnia and severe depression. Divorced/widowed patients presented lower scores in the physical, social and environmental QoL domains and higher scores in the severe depression sub-scale. Regarding health locus of control, females and less educated patients reported higher scores in the attitudinal dimension of chance, while younger patients in the dimension of internal.Conclusions: Findings provide evidence that sociodemographic variables, like being female, older, less educated and divorced/widowed, relate to a more compromised QoL.
Baek, Jungho; Koo, Won W.
Since the summer of 2007, U.S. food price has increased dramatically. Given public anxiety over fast-rising food prices in recent years, this paper attempts to analyze the effects of market factors ─ prices of energy and agricultural commodities and exchange rate ─ on U.S. food prices using a co-integration analysis. Results show that the agricultural commodity price and exchange rate play key roles in determining the short- and long-run movement of U.S. food prices. It is also found that in ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many countries, HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and hepatitis C virus (HCV infected individuals may face discrimination and mistreatment from coworkers. Effective interventions to reduce workplace discrimination are therefore needed to protect these vulnerable populations. The current study investigated potential associations between sociodemographic factors and prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues within a Japanese working population. METHODS: An online anonymous, nationwide internet survey was administered to a cross-section of approximately 3,000 individuals in Japan. The survey comprised 14 questions focusing on demographics (five items, basic HIV or HBV/HCV knowledge (eight items, and potential prejudice toward HIV or HBV/HCV infected colleagues (one item. The sociodemographic characteristics evaluated were sex, age, educational level, employment status, and individual income; with multiple logistic regression used for the analysis. RESULTS: In total, 3,055 individuals were recruited for the HIV related survey and 3,129 for the HBV/HCV related survey. Older age was significantly and positively associated with prejudice toward HIV infected colleagues (p<0.01 and negatively associated with prejudice toward HBV/HCV infected colleagues (p<0.01. Statistically significant associations were not observed between other sociodemographic characteristics and potential prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected coworkers. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study suggests that age may be associated with prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected colleagues among the working age population of Japan. As such, policy makers should consider the age of participants when formulating efforts to reduce prejudice toward HIV and HBV/HCV infected workers.
Full Text Available Association between common mental disorders (CMDs, equity, poverty and socio-economic functioning are relatively well explored in high income countries, but there have been fewer studies in low and middle income countries, despite the considerable burden posed by mental disorders, especially in Africa, and their potential impact on development. This paper reports a population-based epidemiological survey of a rural area in Kenya. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in private households in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza Province, Kenya (50,000 population, were studied. The Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R was used to determine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs. Associations with socio-demographic and economic characteristics were explored. A CMD prevalence of 10.8% was found, with no gender difference. Higher rates of illness were found in those who were of older age and those in poor physical health. We conclude that CMDs are common in Kenya and rates are elevated among people who are older, and those in poor health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To plan long-term prevention strategies and develop tailored intervention activities, it is important to understand the socio-demographic characteristics of the subpopulations at high risk of developing chronic diseases. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with multiple lifestyle risk factors and their clustering. Methods We conducted a simple random sampling survey to assess lifestyle risk factors in three districts of Hangzhou, China between 2008 and 2009. A two-step cluster analysis was used to identify different health-related lifestyle clusters based on tobacco use, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and out-of-home eating. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the association between socio-demographic factors and lifestyle clusters. Results A total of 2016 eligible people (977 men and 1039 women, ages 18-64 years completed the survey. Three distinct clusters were identified from the cluster analysis: an unhealthy (UH group (25.7%, moderately healthy (MH group (31.1%, and healthy (H group (43.1%. UH group was characterised by a high prevalence of current daily smoking, a moderate or low level of PA, low FV consumption with regard to the frequency or servings, and more occurrences of eating out. H group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a moderate level of PA, high FV consumption, and the fewest times of eating out. MH group was characterised by no current daily smoking, a low or high level of PA, and an intermediate level of FV consumption and frequency of eating out. Men were more likely than women to have unhealthy lifestyles. Adults aged 50-64 years were more likely to live healthy lifestyles. Adults aged 40-49 years were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults whose highest level of education was junior high school or below were more likely to be in the UH group. Adults with a high asset index were more likely to be in the MH group
Sayed Mohammad Taghavi
Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL has not been investigated among Iranian industrial workers. The present paper aimed to study the influence of the socio-demographic, health and work-related factors on HRQOL among Iranian industrial workers. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 280 workers of two factories. The Persian version of World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-BREF was used to assess the HRQOL. A questionnaire was developed to assess the socio-demographic, health and work-related factors. Results showed that the means (SD of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment domains of HRQOL were 13.2 (2.7, 13.3 (2.6, 14.2 (3.5 and 12.6 (2.5, respectively. A multiple linear regression showed that types of job, exercise activity, working schedule, sleep quality, smoking, and conflict between work and social life were significantly associated with physical health domain; whereas, working schedule, marital status, working demand, sleep quality, BMI, and conflict between work and individual life were significantly associated with psychological health domain. Working schedule, working demand, sleep quality, conflict between work and individual life, and having children over two years were significantly associated with social relationship domain; however, working demand, working schedule, smoking, sleep quality, working hour, job satisfaction, marital status and exercise activity were significantly associated with environment domain. Collectively, work-related factors including unhealthy working conditions, unsafe working environments, long working hours, irregular working schedules, and the lack of occupational training may negatively influence the HRQOL of workers. To improve workers’ HRQOL, intervention programs should focus on improving work environment, working schedule, occupational training and restricting working hours.
Beck, Tove K; Jensen, Sidsel; Simmelsgaard, Sonni Hansen; Kjeldsen, Chris; Kidmose, Ulla
Vegetable intake seems to play a protective role against major lifestyle diseases. Despite this, the Danish population usually eats far less than the recommended daily intake. The present study focused on the intake of 17 coarse vegetables and the potential barriers limiting their intake. The present study drew upon a large Danish survey (n = 1079) to study the intake of coarse vegetables among Danish consumers. Four population clusters were identified based on their intake of 17 different coarse vegetables, and profiled according to hedonics, socio-demographic, health, and food lifestyle factors. The four clusters were characterized by a very low intake frequency of coarse vegetables ('low frequency'), a low intake frequency of coarse vegetables; but high intake frequency of carrots ('carrot eaters'), a moderate coarse vegetable intake frequency and high intake frequency of beetroot ('beetroot eaters'), and a high intake frequency of all coarse vegetables ('high frequency'). There was a relationship between reported liking and reported intake frequency for all tested vegetables. Preference for foods with a sweet, salty or bitter taste, in general, was also identified to be decisive for the reported vegetable intake, as these differed across the clusters. Each cluster had distinct socio-demographic, health and food lifestyle profiles. 'Low frequency' was characterized by uninvolved consumers with lack of interest in food, 'carrot eaters' vegetable intake was driven by health aspects, 'beetroot eaters' were characterized as traditional food consumers, and 'high frequency' were individuals with a strong food engagement and high vegetable liking. 'Low frequency' identified more barriers than other consumer clusters and specifically regarded low availability of pre-cut/prepared coarse vegetables on the market as a barrier. Across all clusters a low culinary knowledge was identified as the main barrier. PMID:25916624
Clement Ibi Mboto
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The epidemiology and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in developing countries where intravenous drug use (IDU is uncommon its poorly understood. This study therefore aims to determine the prevalence of HCV and its associated risk factors among pregnant women in Calabar municipality. Methods: A total of 506 out of 716 antenatal care (ANC patients seen at the General Hospital, Mary Slessor Avenue, Calabar between August and November 2005 and the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH between October and November 2005 were evaluated for their HCV status using the One Step HCV Test kit (Binomial diagnostics, UK, with reference to the subjects' demographic and behavioural risk factors. Results: HCV prevalence was determined to be 0.4% (2/506 and was only seen in women aged 38 years and over. Histories of blood transfusion, surgery, involvement in polygamous marriage, sharing of a toothbrush and female circumcision were all non-significant risk factors for the infection.Conclusions: This study reveals a low HCV prevalence among pregnant women in Calabar municipality with no identifiable risk factor. The study calls for a re-evaluation of the transmission modes of HCV especially in developing countries where intravenous drug use is rare.
Scientific communication depends primarily on publishing in journals. The most important indicator to determine the influence of a journal is the Impact Factor. Since this factor only measures the average number of citations per article in a certain time window, it can be argued that it does not reflect the actual value of a periodical. This book defines five dimensions, which build a framework for a multidimensional method of journal evaluation. The author is winner of the Eugene Garfield Doctoral Dissertation Scholarship 2011.
Tucker, Tameka M.
Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…
Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Stewart, Donald; Shum, David; Farquhar, Lynette
Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of smoking amongst university students in Brisbane, Australia and associated risk factors. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional design was used for the study. A sample of 2,414 university students aged 18-30 was examined to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use. Smoking was measured by…
Bhatta, Madhav P; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita
Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18-65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04-1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14-14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209
Madhav P. Bhatta
Full Text Available Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2 years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9 months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16 and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14. Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60 was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences.
The project consists of four key stages as follows : based on the review of various literature, human factors design principles and processes are identified, the literature reviewed in the project includes NUREG-0700, research papers for MMI, human factors handbooks, and laboratory reports, after the design principles and processes are determined, a design checklist is developed to evaluate the user interface of NPA, the design checklist consists of seven different categories such as display screen, menu interface, form-fillin, alphanumeric characters, symbols, color, and highlighting, NPA was tested with the design checklist for conformance to the human factors design principles, the expert reviews are performed to evaluate a graphic user interface of NPA, the application of the design checklist and the subjective opinion of the expert identify the design included in the user interface of NPA, based on the thorough analysis of design defects, design guidelines are recommended to improve the user interface of NPA
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore which factors influence group learning content, and content analysis is chosen as the research method. The sample for this study is the literature of group learning. 35 books and 1 paper was examined. The coding system for the content analysis is an opened and a self-expanded system in this study, which means that the original coding system can be updated if the new coding item is developed during the data collection. A total of 62 influencing factors are identified in terms of the content analysis. In order to organise them systematically, we categorised them into four aggregations according to one model of the group learning processes:planning, organising, learning process, and evaluation. The result of this study may be used to design a questionnaire and to model group learning process in our further research.
Carla V.V. Rollemberg
Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.
Makokha, A E
To identify the most significant determinants of maternal mortality in Kenya, a prospective study involving 49,335 deliveries occurring at Kenyatta National Hospital from January 1978-87 was conducted. There were 156 maternal deaths in this series, for a maternal mortality rate of 3.2/1000 deliveries. The 5 most frequent causes of death were abortion (24%), hypertensive disease of pregnancy (13%), sepsis (13%), anemia (10%), and cardiac disease (7%). 24% of women who died were age 19 years or under, 27% were 20-24 years, 23% were 25-29 years, and 11% were 30-34 years. The largest percentage (24%) of deaths involved nulliparous women; 16% were to women of parity 5 and above. 28% of the women who died were single, and single women contributed the majority of deaths from abortion. 66% of the women who died had received no prenatal care. The proportion of avoidable deaths was 19% among clinic attenders compared to 29% among non-attenders. Overall, age, parity, and marital status--traditionally regarded as the key factors associated with maternal mortality--vary in their impact, given the cause of death and medical services received. The assumption that high parity is associated with maternal mortality was not confirmed in this study due to the significant number of deaths from abortion that involved single, nulliparous women. In addition, many women who died were in the optimum age group for childbearing, but were more prone to suffer from anemia, hypertension, ectopic pregnancy, and cardiac disease than women over 30 years old. Overall, 126 deaths were considered avoidable. Contributory factors were slowness of surgical management of emergencies, prolonged confinement of women with cardiac disease, and a lack of emergency supplies of blood and drugs for complicated deliveries. PMID:12316813
Friis, Karina; Ekholm, Ola; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen
prematurely which causes a problem not only for the disabled nurses but also because it can affect the morale and productivity among the remaining personnel while new staff members are hired and trained. AIM: The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between lifestyle, working environment, socio-demographic...... higher risks of DP than nurses who worked daytime exclusively (HR 1.51 and HR 1.45). Smoking, obesity and having a sedentary lifestyle were also risk indicators for DP (HR 1.42, HR 1.63 and HR 1.50). Furthermore, low influence and high physical demands at work increased the probability of entering DP (HR...... 1.39 and HR 1.22). CONCLUSION: DP among nurses is influenced by a number of factors. Nurses who have poor working environments and/or unhealthy lifestyles have higher risks of becoming disability pensioners. Also, nurses who are singles and/or have low gross incomes have higher probability of...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta thalassemia is the most frequent genetic disorder of haemoglobin synthesis in Pakistan. Recurrent transfusions lead to iron-overload manifested by increased serum Ferritin levels, for which chelation therapy is required. Findings The study was conducted in the Pediatric Emergency unit of Civil Hospital Karachi after ethical approval by the Institutional Review Board of Dow University of Health Sciences. Seventy nine cases of beta thalassemia major were included after a written consent. The care takers were interviewed for the socio-demographic variables and the use of Desferrioxamine therapy, after which a blood sample was drawn to assess the serum Ferritin level. SPSS 15.0 was employed for data entry and analysis. Of the seventy-nine patients included in the study, 46 (58.2% were males while 33 (41.8% were females. The mean age was 10.8 (± 4.5 years with the dominant age group (46.2% being 10 to 14 years. In 62 (78.8% cases, the care taker education was below the tenth grade. The mean serum Ferritin level in our study were 4236.5 ng/ml and showed a directly proportional relationship with age. Desferrioxamine was used by patients in 46 (58.2% cases with monthly house hold income significant factor to the use of therapy. Conclusions The mean serum Ferritin levels are approximately ten times higher than the normal recommended levels for normal individuals, with two-fifths of the patients not receiving iron chelation therapy at all. Use of iron chelation therapy and titrating the dose according to the need can significantly lower the iron load reducing the risk of iron-overload related complications leading to a better quality of life and improving survival in Pakistani beta thalassemia major patients. Conflicts of Interest: None
What explains the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety and poor quality of life after intensive care? An investigation of clinical, psychological and sociodemographic risk factors
Although many lives are saved in intensive care, patients frequently fail to make a good recovery. In addition to physical weakness and cognitive impairment, patients suffer from clinical anxiety, depression and PTSD. The aim of this PhD was to establish the prevalence of poor mental health after intensive care and identify clinical, psychological and socio-demographic risk factors. First I carried out a systematic review of post-ICU psycho-social outcomes but found the quality...
Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Hevia, Henar; Palazuelos, Marta; Ledesma, Francisco
The Perfil-es study demonstrated that, while non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) is more frequently used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected naïve patients, ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r)-based regimens are the preferred option in patients with advanced infectious stages or high baseline viral load. The present analysis focused on the second phase of the Perfil-es study, where sociodemographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients starting NNRTI- or PI/r-based regimens in order to identify factors that could influence the choice of initial ART. Patients' characteristics were compared by both bivariate and multivariate analyses. A total of 642 patients were evaluated. The main transmission group was men who have sex with men (MSM) (48%), and 24% of patients were coinfected with hepatitis B or C. Patients with cardiovascular risk accounted for 56%, and 15% had a neuropsychiatric history. Anxiolytics (29%), antidepressants (18%) and methadone (18%) were the most frequent concomitant medications. The use of PI/r-based regimens was more frequent in older patients, childbearing potential women patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C, and those with cardiovascular risk and a neuropsychiatric history. The presence of a neuropsychiatric disorder (OR: 1.912; CI 95%: 1.146-3.191; p < .05) and the use of concomitant medication (OR: 1.736; CI 95%: 1.204-2.502; p < .01) were identified as independent factors associated with the selection of PI/r-based regimens. MSM sexual conduct was the only independent factor related to the selection of NNRTI-based ART (OR: 0.699; CI 95%: 0.504-0.970; p < .05). Neither the physicians' characteristics nor the geographical area where HIV patients were attended influenced the choice of ART. In conclusion, patients' comorbidity, pregnancy potential and lifestyle seem to influence the choice of ART. Neuropsychiatric
Porchea, Sameano F.; Allen, Jeff; Robbins, Steve; Phelps, Richard P.
We examined the effects of student (academic preparation, psychosocial, socio-demographic, and situational) and institutional characteristics on long-term enrollment outcomes. We tracked enrollments and degrees awarded for students who originally enrolled at two-year institutions across five years. Our findings have implications for identifying…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening rates in Korea for five cancer types have increased steadily since 2002. With regard to the life-time cancer screening rates in 2009 according to cancer sites, the second highest was breast cancer (78.1% and the third highest was cervical cancer (76.1%. Despite overall increases in the screening rate, disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening, based on sociodemographic characteristics, still exist. Methods Data from 4,139 women aged 40 to74 years from the 2005 to 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey were used to analyze the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and receiving mammograms and Pap smears. The main outcome measures were ever having had a mammogram and ever having had a Pap smear. Using these items of information, we classified women into those who had had both types of screening, only one screening type, and neither screening type. We used logistic regression to investigate relationships between screening history and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Results Being married, having a higher education, a rural residence, and private health insurance were significantly associated with higher rates of breast and cervical cancer screening after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Household income was not significantly associated with mammograms or Pap smears after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Conclusions Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening associated with low sociodemographic status persist in Korea.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB.Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12-18 from grade 6th-10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adoles-cents PA (PAQ-A. Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates.Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275, 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the ma-jority (43.4% of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2% revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005 for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004 than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001 decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls.Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents.
KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat
Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093
Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD) are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver's sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:26787574
Full Text Available Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender, educational level, relationship to the patients, length of care time and weekly hours of caregiving were analyzed using the t-test, analysis of variance and least-significant difference post hoc test. Of the eight coping strategies investigated, seven were significantly related to at least one of the analyzed sociodemographic variables; these were confrontive coping, distancing, self-controlling, seeking social support, accepting responsibility, planful problem solving and positive reappraisal. The findings of the present study may be useful for administering dialysis by nurses for identifying coping strategies among caregivers and for establishing plans of care that would promote coping strategies in relation to the caregiver′s sociodemographic characteristics.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Three different burnout types have been described: The "frenetic" type describes involved and ambitious subjects who sacrifice their health and personal lives for their jobs; the "underchallenged" type describes indifferent and bored workers who fail to find personal development in their jobs and the "worn-out" in type describes neglectful subjects who feel they have little control over results and whose efforts go unacknowledged. The study aimed to describe the possible associations between burnout types and general sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on a multi-occupational sample of randomly selected university employees (n = 409. The presence of burnout types was assessed by means of the "Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36", and the degree of association between variables was assessed using an adjusted odds ratio (OR obtained from multivariate logistic regression models. Results Individuals working more than 40 hours per week presented with the greatest risk for "frenetic" burnout compared to those working fewer than 35 hours (adjusted OR = 5.69; 95% CI = 2.52-12.82; p p = 0.023. Employees with more than sixteen years of service in the organisation presented the greatest risk of "worn-out" burnout compared to those with less than four years of service (adjusted OR = 4.56; 95% CI = 1.47-14.16; p = 0.009. Conclusions This study is the first to our knowledge that suggests the existence of associations between the different burnout subtypes (classified according to the degree of dedication to work and the different sociodemographic and occupational characteristics that are congruent with the definition of each of the subtypes. These results are consistent with the clinical profile definitions of burnout syndrome. In addition, they assist the recognition of distinct profiles and reinforce the idea of differential characterisation of the syndrome for
Duišin, Dragana; NIkolić-Balkoski, Gordana; Batinić, Borjanka
Background: Gender identity disorder is a rare entity in psychiatry which affects deep instincts and personal identity. A review of the recent literature has shown that research of socio-demographic characteristics of transsexual patients is sporadic. There are very few investigations which consider the socio-demographic characteristics in individuals with disharmonized sex and gender identity. This kind of research has not been done in Serbia until now. The objective of this research was ...
Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC cross-sectional study
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154 in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous, sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36 for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88 for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84 for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA; and 0.71 (0.59-0.86 for vigorous physical activity (VPA. Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable
DeBastiani, Summer D; Strine, Tara W; Vagi, Sara J; Barnett, Daniel J; Kahn, Emily B
Our objective was to inform state and community interventions focused on increasing household preparedness by examining the association between self-reported possession of household disaster preparedness items (ie, a 3-day supply of food and water, a written evacuation plan, and a working radio and flashlight) and perceptions of household preparedness on a 3-point scale from "well prepared" to "not at all prepared." Data were analyzed from 14 states participating in a large state-based telephone survey: the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n = 104,654). Only 25.3% of the population felt they were well prepared, and only 12.3% had all 5 of the recommended items. Fewer than half the households surveyed had 4 or more of the recommended preparedness items (34.1%). Respondents were more likely to report their households were well prepared as the number of preparedness items possessed by their household increased. Risk factors for having no preparedness items were: younger age, being female, lower levels of education, and requesting the survey to be conducted in Spanish. To increase household disaster preparedness, more community-based preparedness education campaigns targeting vulnerable populations, such as those with limited English abilities and lower reading levels, are needed. PMID:26348094
S.E. Seydaei; A. Shapoorabady
Extended abstract1- Introduction Rural settlements can be studied based on their shape and type, the natural factors such as climate, soil and water, social and cultural factors influencing the texture and morphology and the spatial-social patterns originating from them and even based on the degree of their development. Therefore, in order to plan for sustainable development of rural settlements and for realization of national development goals, it is important to identify and analyze the spa...
abdolhamid ebrahimi; mehdi jafarzadeh; saber bozorgi
One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit p...
Kamakura, WA; Wedel, M; de Rosa, F; Mazzon, JA
An important aspect of the new orientation on customer relationship marketing is the use of customer transaction databases for the cross-selling of new services and products. In this study, we propose a mixed data factor analyzer that combines information from a survey with data from the customer da
Sumadhya D Fernando
Full Text Available Introduction: Trichomoniasis is a relatively neglected area of research in Sri Lanka. Given the number of infections observed, an analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of patients would be valuable in prevention. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 359 newly registered women at a tertiary level sexually transmitted diseases clinic over a period of 18 months. Trichomoniasis was diagnosed by culture of vaginal swabs collected from the posterior fornix. Results: The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the sample was 7.2%. Of those who tested positive for trichomoniasis, 76% were in the age group of 21-45 years, 68% were married and living with a spouse and 60% were unemployed. A diagnosis of Trichomoniasis was associated with being married (OR, 1.6; CI, 0.56-4.41, age over 33 years (OR=1.3, CI, 0.55-2.9, being employed (OR, 1.3; CI, 0.56 - 2.94, having an education of less than ten years at school (OR, 3.0; CI 1.28-7.26 and not using condoms during the last sexual act (OR 2.0, CI 0.84-4.86. The risk was less among commercial sex workers (OR, 0.3, CI: 0.14-0.85, those with multiple sexual partners (OR, 0.2; CI; 0.073-0.408 and women reporting extramarital sexual relationships (OR, 0.3; CI, 0.128-0.733. Conclusions: Education on safe sex and recognition of symptoms is currently targeted at high risk groups such as commercial sex workers. Extending these programmes to the rest of the community will further reduce the risk of transmission of trichomonas.
Schertz, Mitchell; Karni-Visel, Yael; Tamir, Ada; Genizi, Jacob; Roth, Dana
We aimed to examine family quality of life (FQOL) of Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability and its relation to socio-demographics. The cohort included caregivers of 70 children ages (mean±standard deviation) 5.36±3.53 years. Families were two-parent (85.7%), lived in the periphery (67.1%) and included Jews (60%), Muslims (18.6%), Druze (14.3%) and Christians (7.1%). Religiosity included: secular (38.6%), traditional (31.4%), religious (30%). Children's diagnosis included autistic spectrum disorder (41.4%), intellectual disability (21.4%), cerebral palsy (17.1%), genetic syndromes (17.1%) and sensorineural hearing loss (2.9%). Degree of support (1-minimal,5-greatest) required by the child was 3.67±1.28 for physical and 3.49±1.36 for communication. Primary caregivers completed the FQOL Survey. Domain scores were highest for family relations and lowest for financial well-being. Dimension scores were highest for importance and lowest for opportunities. Overall FQOL approximated average. Jewish families and residents of a major urban area reported higher and more religious families reported lower overall FQOL. Regression analysis found ethnicity contributing to overall FQOL and domain scores with residence contributing to support from services. Ethnicity and child dependence contributed to dimension scores. Northern Israeli families having a child with a severe neurodevelopmental disability report average FQOL scores. However, family and child dependence characteristics affect FQOL scores. Professionals working with these families should consider FQOL information when making recommendations. PMID:26871463
Even in the relatively small region of space that is the Earth's magnetosphere, ion and electron fluxes can vary by several orders of magnitude. Top-hat electrostatic analyzers currently do not possess the dynamic range required to sample plasma under all conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare, through computer simulation, three new electrostatic methods that would allow the sensitivity of a sensor to be varied through control of its geometric factor (GF) (much like an aperture on a camera). The methods studied were inner filter plates, split hemispherical analyzer (SHA) and top-cap electrode. This is the first discussion of the filter plate concept and also the first study where all three systems are studied within a common analyzer design, so that their relative merits could be fairly compared. Filter plates were found to have the important advantage that they facilitate the reduction in instrument sensitivity whilst keeping all other instrument parameters constant. However, it was discovered that filter plates have numerous disadvantages that make such a system impracticable for a top-hat electrostatic analyzer. It was found that both the top-cap electrode and SHA are promising variable geometric factor system (VGFS) concepts for implementation into a top-hat electrostatic analyzer, each with distinct advantages over the other
Kataria, Dhiren O.; Collinson, Glyn A.
Even in the relatively small region of space that is the Earth's magnetosphere, ion and electron fluxes can vary by several orders of magnitude. Top-hat electrostatic analyzers currently do not possess the dynamic range required to sample plasma under all conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare, through computer simulation, three new electrostatic methods that would allow the sensitivity of a sensor to be varied through control of its geometric factor (GF) (much like an aperture on a camera). The methods studied were inner filter plates, split hemispherical analyzer (SHA) and top-cap electrode. This is the first discussion of the filter plate concept and also the first study where all three systems are studied within a common analyzer design, so that their relative merits could be fairly compared. Filter plates were found to have the important advantage that they facilitate the reduction in instrument sensitivity whilst keeping all other instrument parameters constant. However, it was discovered that filter plates have numerous disadvantages that make such a system impracticable for a top-hat electrostatic analyzer. It was found that both the top-cap electrode and SHA are promising variable geometric factor system (VGFS) concepts for implementation into a top-hat electrostatic analyzer, each with distinct advantages over the other.
Lallukka Tea; Sares-Jäske Laura; Kronholm Erkki; Sääksjärvi Katri; Lundqvist Annamari; Partonen Timo; Rahkonen Ossi; Knekt Paul
Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insom...
Conclusions: Overweight and obesity is associated to socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors. The analyzes reveals that children with a low economic status and/or from certain countries are more likely to be overweight or obese than Swiss children. There is an urgent need for action to prevent further increase in overweight or obesity among children.
Hamid, A. H. A.; Rozan, M. Z. A.; Deris, S.; Ibrahim, R.; Abdullah, W. S. W.; Rahman, A. A.; Yunus, M. N. M.
The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder's tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the "sense making theory" and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.
The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder’s tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the “sense making theory” and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value <0.05). This paper suggested these human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation
Hamid, A. H. A., E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Rozan, M. Z. A., E-mail: email@example.com; Ibrahim, R. [Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Deris, S. [Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), Pengkalan Chepa, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Abdullah, W. S. W.; Yunus, M. N. M. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM), Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, A. A. [Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)
The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder’s tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the “sense making theory” and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value <0.05). This paper suggested these human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.
Hamid, A. H. A.; Rozan, M. Z. A.; Deris, S.; Ibrahim, R.; Abdullah, W. S. W.; Rahman, A. A.; Yunus, M. N. M.
The evolution of current Radiation and Nuclear Emergency Planning Framework (RANEPF) simulator emphasizes on the human factors to be analyzed and interpreted according to the stakeholder's tacit and explicit knowledge. These human factor criteria are analyzed and interpreted according to the "sense making theory" and Disaster Emergency Response Management Information System (DERMIS) design premises. These criteria are corroborated by the statistical criteria. In recent findings, there were no differences of distributions among the stakeholders according to gender and organizational expertise. These criteria are incrementally accepted and agreed the research elements indicated in the respective emergency planning frameworks and simulator (i.e. 78.18 to 84.32, p-value <0.05). This paper suggested these human factors criteria in the associated analyses and theoretical perspectives to be further acomodated in the future simulator development. This development is in conjunction with the proposed hypothesis building of the process factors and responses diagram. We proposed that future work which implies the additional functionality of the simulator, as strategized, condensed and concise, comprehensive public disaster preparedness and intervention guidelines, to be a useful and efficient computer simulation.
Subcontracting is a long-standing practice in the construction industry. This form of project organization, if manage properly, could provide the better quality, reduction in project time and costs. Subcontractors selection is a multi-criterion problem and can be determined by many factors. Identifying the importance of each of them as well as the direction of cause-effect relations between various types of factors can improve the management process. Their values could be evaluated on the basis of the available expert opinions with the application of a fuzzy multi-stage grading scale. In this paper it is recommended to use fuzzy DEMATEL method to analyze the relationship between factors affecting subcontractors selection.
Berendrecht, W. L.; van Geer, F. C.
In this paper we present an approach in which we combine a dynamic factor model (DFM) and predefined response functions to analyze a set of groundwater head series simultaneously. Each groundwater head series is decomposed into: (a) one or more deterministic components as a response to known driving forces, (b) one or more common dynamic factors, representing spatial patterns not related to any of the input series and (c) one specific dynamic factor for each groundwater head series, describing unique variation for that series. The approach reduces the degrees of freedom for each response function, enables the application to irregular observed data, and exploits the correlation between residual series of a set of groundwater head series. The common dynamic factors may be interpreted as spatial patterns due to e.g. limitations in the model specification or concept, spatially correlated errors in input variables, or driving forces which have not been included in the model. In the latter case the model can be applied in the context of an alarming system, e.g. to monitor regional trends. The specific dynamic factor depicts the variation of a particular groundwater head series that cannot be related to any other time series of the set nor to any input series. Therefore the specific dynamic factor is suitable for analyzing local variations and detecting incidental measurement errors, for example in a quality control procedure. The DFM framework is illustrated with a set of 8 groundwater head series and applied for filling gaps in time series, reconstructing high-frequency data, and detecting outliers.
Madadi, Mahboubeh; Zhang, Shengfan; Yeary, Karen H Kim; Henderson, Louise M
We examined the factors associated with screening mammography adherence behaviors and influencing factors on women's attitudes toward mammography in non-adherent women. Design-based logistic regression models were developed to characterize the influencing factors, including socio-demographic, health related, behavioral characteristics, and knowledge of breast cancer/mammography, on women's compliance with and attitudes toward mammography using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey data. Findings indicate significant associations among adherence to mammography and marital status, income, health coverage, being advised by a doctor to have a mammogram, having had Pap smear before, perception of chance of getting breast cancer, and knowledge of mammography (frequency of doing mammogram) in both women younger than 65 and women aged 65 and older. However, number of visits to a healthcare provider per year and lifetime number of smoked cigarettes are only significant for women younger than 65. Factors significantly associated with attitudes toward mammography in non-adherent women are age, being advised by a doctor to have a mammogram, and seeking cancer information. To enhance adherence to mammography programs, physicians need to continue to advise their patients to obtain mammograms. In addition, increasing women's knowledge about the frequency and starting age for screening mammography may improve women's adherence. Financially related factors such as income and insurance are also shown to be significant factors. Hence, healthcare policies aimed at providing breast cancer screening services to underserved women will likely enhance mammography participation. PMID:24510010
Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the
Full Text Available One of the world trends growing alarmingly is Producing, distributing & Consuming counterfeit goods of Credible & luxury brands & one of the industries facing this crisis increasingly is clothing industry. Based on this, the present study aims to analyze & identify factors influencing Consumers’ attitude toward counterfeit products & intention to purchase such products in clothing industry that has been done in Sari, Mazandaran. And in it, these Factors effect on attitude toward counterfeit products & then the impact of attitude toward counterfeit products on intention to buy such products have been measured. The study method is a Survey type & in order to collect study data, a questionnaire designed with a combination of different available resources in literature has been used. To achieve the study goals, 384 individuals who purchased counterfeit products intentionally were chosen from Sari. To analyze data & test hypotheses, Study model & questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficient tests, Structural Equations Modeling (SEM, Confirmatory Factorial Analysis (CFA & one-way Variance analysis (ANONA have been applied & two Software Packages SPSS & LISREL were used. Through reviewing the literature available & analyzing experts’ views, generally, 11 variables have been identified: Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Ethical Issues, Risk averseness, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, as the influencing factors on attitude toward counterfeit products. Study Findings have indicated that the factors as Personal gratification, Value consciousness, Price–quality inference, Social Effect, Ethical Issues, Subjective norm, perceived risk, Brand consciousness, have meaningful effect on attitude to counterfeit products & the impact of Brand prestige, Brand Loyalty, Risk averseness, was not meaningfull on view about counterfeit products. Besides, the
Costa, Elsa; Gonçalves, Luzia; Oliveira, Luisa; Dias, Carlos Matias
Introduction: Self-rated health (SRH) is a health measure related to mortality, healthcare services utilization and quality of life. Given that behaviour related risk factors do not occur in isolation, rather they cluster together it is important to examine their patterns in a population with diabetes to inform a more holistic approach in both health promotion and illness prevention strategies. This study explores the association between the patterns of behaviour risk factors in a Portuguese ...
Tri Juni Angkasawati
Full Text Available The changing of disease patterns from infectious diseases to heart, cancer, and degenerative diseases needs advanced technologies to support diagnosis and to give therapies. The Automatic Clinical Analyzer (ACA is one of modem laboratory equipments which continuously developed to enhance patient service outcomes. Previous researches showed its utilization rates varied 20-46.6% from total capacities per year. It indicated low utilization problems. So this research aimed patient characteristics and physician factors determining the utilization of the ACA. This was a descriptive study with a to-cross sectional design. Data were collected by interview to patients visited laboratories and physicians who referred patients for determine laboratory examinations using the ACA. The study was conducted in 2 (two public hospital laboratories and 4(four private clinical laboratories in Surabaya and Malang, East Java Province. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results showed that the patient characteristics who used ACA were higher proportion of those with older aged, women and senior high school to above education levels. Access to the services was also a determining factor of the ACA use because further distance increased transportation cost to reach the facilities. It also showed that the higher patient income received more services from the ACA and likely to visit private laboratories. From the physician view points, the factor determining the ACA use were that exmination results supported diagnosis, quickly be knew or received and easy to get. The study recommends to conduct further ACA studies associated with feasibility and effective cost to respond equity problems and the efficiency of ACA use. Key words: utilization, Automatic Clinical Analyzer, patients, physicians
Kalantari, Naser; Doaei, Saeid
This paper aimed to investigate the association of social factors and feeding practices with the diet in 3- 6 years old children. A cross-sectional study of 208 parents with children aged 3-6 years was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht, Iran in 2011. Measures included social factors, aspects of parental control practices and the child's diet. Mothers reported both their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of child feeding practices were assessed by using Comprehensive Feeding...
Parr John D; Lindeboom Wietze; Khanam Masuma A; Pérez Koehlmoos Tracey L
Abstract Background Bangladesh suffers from a lack of healthcare providers. The growing chronic disease epidemic's demand for healthcare resources will further strain Bangladesh's limited healthcare workforce. Little is known about how Bangladeshis with chronic disease seek care. This study describes chronic disease patients' care seeking behavior by analyzing which providers diagnose these diseases. Methods During 2 month periods in 2009, a cross-sectional survey collected descriptive data o...
Brusque, C.; ALAUZET, A
In France, as in many other countries, phoning while driving is legally restricted because of its negative impact on driving performance which increases accident risk. Nevertheless, it is still a frequently observed practice and one which has not been analyzed in detail. This study attempts to identify the profiles of those who use mobile phones while at the wheel and determine the forms taken by this use. A representative sample of 1973 French people was interviewed by phone on their driving...
Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technology. Thus the detailed assessment of the importance of individual elements determining road safety is difficult. The starting point is to organize the factors by grouping them into categories which are components of the DVE system (driver - vehicle - environment. In this work, to analyze the importance of individual factors affecting road safety, the use of analytic hierarchy process method (AHP was proposed. It is one of the multi-criteria methods which allows us to perform hierarchical analysis of the decision process, by means of experts’ opinions. Usage of AHP method enabled us to evaluate and rank the factors affecting road safety. This work attempts to link the statistical data and surveys in significance analysis of the elements determining road safety.
Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of gene transcriptional regulation through analysis of high-throughput postgenomic data is one of the central problems of computational systems biology. Various approaches have been proposed, but most of them fail to address at least one of the following objectives: (1 allow for the fact that transcription factors are potentially subject to posttranscriptional regulation; (2 allow for the fact that transcription factors cooperate as a functional complex in regulating gene expression, and (3 provide a model and a learning algorithm with manageable computational complexity. The objective of the present study is to propose and test a method that addresses these three issues. The model we employ is a mixture of factor analyzers, in which the latent variables correspond to different transcription factors, grouped into complexes or modules. We pursue inference in a Bayesian framework, using the Variational Bayesian Expectation Maximization (VBEM algorithm for approximate inference of the posterior distributions of the model parameters, and estimation of a lower bound on the marginal likelihood for model selection. We have evaluated the performance of the proposed method on three criteria: activity profile reconstruction, gene clustering, and network inference.
Ryu, So Yeon; Park, Jong; Choi, Seong Woo; Han, Mi Ah
Objectives Several previous studies have found that healthy behaviors substantially reduce non-communicable disease incidence and mortality. The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of four modifiable healthy behaviors and a healthy lifestyle among Korean adults according to socio-demographic and regional factors. Methods We analyzed data from 199 400 Korean adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2010 Korean Community Health Survey. We defined a healthy lifes...
van Schuur, Wyijbrandt H.; Kiers, Henk A.L.
Factor analysis of data that conform to the unfolding model often results in an extra factor. This artificial extra factor is particularly important when data that conform to a bipolar unidimensional unfolding scale are factor analyzed. One bipolar dimension is expected, but two factors are found an
Full Text Available Abstract Background This population-based study investigated the different forms, magnitude and risk factors of men's violence against women in intimate relationships in a rural part of northern Vietnam and whether a difference in risk factors were at hand for the different forms of violence. Vietnam has undergone a rapid transition in the last 20 years, moving towards a more equal situation for men and women however, Confucian doctrine is still strong and little is known about men's violence against women within the Vietnamese family. Methods This is a cross-sectional population-based study that used a questionnaire developed by the World Health Organisation for investigating women's health and violence against women in different settings. Face-to face structured interviewing was performed and 883 married women, aged 17 to 60 participated. Bi- and multivariate analyses was used for risk factor assessment. Results The lifetime prevalence of physical violence was 30.9 percent and past year prevalence was 8.3 per cent, while the corresponding figures for physical and sexual violence combined was 32.7 and 9.2 percent. The lifetime prevalence was highest for psychological abuse (27.9 percent as a single entity. In most cases the violence was of a severe nature and exercised as repeated acts over time. Woman's low educational level, husband's low education, low household income and the husband having more than one wife/partner were risk factors for lifetime and past year physical/sexual violence. The pattern of factors associated with psychological abuse alone was however different. Husband's low professional status and women's intermediate level of education appeared as risk factors. Conclusion Men's violence against women in intimate relationships is commonly occurring in rural Vietnam. There is an obvious need of preventive and treatment activities. Our findings point at that pure psychological abuse is different from physical/sexual violence in
Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C
Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class). 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression ...
Tognazzo Federica; Forza Giovanni; Guarnieri Emanuela; Buja Alessandra; Sandonà Paolo; Zampieron Alessandra
Abstract Background The tobacco control community assumes that the most effective interventions are personalized. Nevertheless, little attention is paid to understanding differences between pregnant and non-pregnant European women in terms of the social factors that influence tobacco use and the processes of change used to quit smoking. Methods The study consecutively enrolled 177 pregnant women who acknowledged smoking the year before pregnancy and 177 non-pregnant women who acknowledged smo...
Orimadegun, Adebola E; Adepoju, Akinlolu A; Akinyinka, Olusegun O.
Background The low uptake of tetanus vaccine and its resultant high burden of tetanus in Nigeria suggest the need to improve routine and booster vaccination in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological evidence for vaccination in the adolescent age group needed for effective strategy and policy formulation is lacking. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of protective immunity against tetanus and to identify risk factors for non-protective immunity among schooling a...
Nataša Slak Valek
Full Text Available Background: Effective tourism management in the field of sports tourism requires an understanding of differences in socioeconomic characteristics both within and between different market segments. Objective: In the broad tourism market demographic characteristics have been extensively analyzed for differences in destination choices, however little is known about demographic factors affecting sport tourists' decisions. Methods: A sample of Slovenian sports tourists was analyzed using data from a comprehensive survey of local and outbound tourist activity conducted by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in 2008. After data weighting the information for 353,783 sports related trips were available for analysis. The research model adopted suggests that four socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, level of education and income significantly affect a tourist's choice of sports related travel either locally within Slovenia or to a foreign country. Furthermore the destination (local or foreign has an influence on the choice of the type of accommodation selected and the tourist's total expenditure for the trip. For testing the first part of our model (the socio-demographic characteristics effects a linear regression was used, and for the final part of the model (the selection of accommodation type and travel expenditure t-test were applied. Results: The result shows the standardized β regression coefficients are all statistically significant at the .001 level for the tested socio-demographic characteristics and also the overall regression model was statistically significant at .001 level. Conclusions: With these results the study confirmed that all the selected socio-demographic characteristics have a significant influence on the sport-active tourist when choosing between a domestic and foreign tourism destination which in turn affect the type of accommodation chosen and the level of expenditure while travelling.
Mary Sandra Carlotto
Full Text Available O estudo buscou identificar a prevalência e os fatores de risco sociodemográficos, laborais e psicossociais da adição ao trabalho em 471 trabalhadores de Porto Alegre e região metropolitana. Como instrumento, foi utilizado o "Dutch Work Addiction Scale" (DUWAS, versão reduzida. A escala avalia a adição ao trabalho em suas duas dimensões, o trabalho compulsivo e trabalho excessivo. Os resultados revelam que, dentre as variáveis sociodemográficas, somente a variável sexo assinalou diferença significativa, tendo as mulheres apresentado índices mais elevados em trabalho excessivo. Quanto às variáveis laborais, verificou-se associação positiva entre trabalho excessivo e carga horária contratual, e trabalho excessivo e carga horária efetivamente realizada. Houve associação negativa entre trabalho excessivo e percepção de estar saudável. O trabalho compulsivo se associou negativamente ao tempo de exercício profissional e de trabalho na empresa atual, bem como à percepção de estar saudável e à satisfação com a vida em geral.The goal of this study is to identify sociodemographic, laboral and psychosocial risk factors of workaholism in 471 workers in Porto Alegre and metropolitan area. The instrument used was the reduced version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS. The scale assesses workaholism in its two dimensions, excessive work and compulsive work. The results showed that from the sociodemographic variables, only the gender variable showed a significant difference, where women had higher rates of excessive work. As for the labor variables, excessive work had a positive association with contractual working hours and with working hours that were effectively carried out; and a negative association with the perception of being healthy. Compulsive work was negatively correlated to the time of professional practice and of work in the current company, to the perception of being healthy, and to satisfaction with life in
Full Text Available Objective: Given that Iran’s population is Migrant’s young, it is worthwhile (decent to study the quality of life (QOL of this stratum of society. The main objective of this study is to examine socio-demographic factors associated with QOL in a group of Adolescents (18-29 years old of emigrants. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from the structured questionnaire designed for 400 migrants, who were selected using systematic random sampling. Statistical methods of Cronbach’s alpha for assessment (tools reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient for testing hypotheses, analysis of variance to test statistical comparison and regression were used in this study. Results: According to research findings there is a significant relationship between the variables including: age (r = −0.241, housing status (t = 22.90, social class identity (f = 14.95, religious orientation (r = 0.41, social capital (r = 0.12, self-esteem (r = 0.34, and the QOL of migrants. Conclusion: Based on research findings, it can be concluded that the variable of QOL is affected by other variables including: Religious orientation, self-esteem, age, education, and changes in each of these variables will change the QOL of Migrant’s young.
B F Chukwu
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common cause of chronic kidney disease in children. It is second only to respiratory tract infection in developed countries as a cause of morbidity and mortality arising from microbial infections. It is also common in a developing country like Nigeria and is the commonest cause of renal disorders in Port Harcourt, South South, Nigeria. UTI can be symptomatic or asymptomatic (asymptomatic bacteriuria. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is said to be more common in school aged girls and children of low socio-economic class. It has also been documented to be more common in children with sickle cell anaemia. Objectives:To determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and age, sex and socio-economic status of children with sickle cell anaemia. Methods: One hundred children with sickle cell anaemia in stable state were screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria using midstream urine samples. The age, sex and social class of the children were obtained through a structured questionnaire administered to the parents/care-givers. The relationship between age, sex and social class with asymptomatic bacteriuria in these children was analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The age of the children ranged from 2-12 years. Six of the 100 children were noted to have asymptomatic bacteriuria and five of the six children were females (p=0.04.Five (83.3% of the six children were five years and above. There was a predominance of positive cases (66.7% in the higher socioeconomic class (p=0.03. Conclusion: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is commoner in school aged female sickle cell anaemia children of higher socioeconomic class. However, we suggest that further studies be done to confirm this finding especially with regards to the socioeconomic status of these children.
Shelke Umesh S, Kunkulol Rahul R, Phalke Vaishali D, Narwane Sandeep P, Patel Prashant C
Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is the most common psychiatric disorder that appears in adolescents. It has an adverse effect on physical as well as mental health. Many adolescents remain undiagnosed due to no accessibility to clinics. Objectives: To study demographic factors and their association with depression among adolescents of rural Maharashtra. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 300 students (30 of either sex from 8th to 12th class. 6 item KADS (Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale, BG Prasad’s modified socioeconomic scale and demographic data were collected from volunteers. Results: 6.66% of students were screened positive for depression by the scale. No statistical difference was found in number of students with depression with respect to sex, class and socioeconomic status. However the residence and type of family showed significant difference in number students of depression. Conclusion: the KADS is a good screening tool for depression and should be implemented for adolescents studying in rural areas for prevention and early treatment of depression.
Electronic banking is one of the electronic commerce tools that has been accepted by the banking industry. Development of electronic banking activities based on information and communication technology has caused the emergence of another type of bank, which is called virtual bank that performs its products and services through electronic distribution channels without branch. Due to the differences between virtual bank and electronic banking and the importance of virtual bank activities in the banking system, the aim of this study is to analyze factors influencing on acceptance of virtual bank in Iran. For this purpose, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM has been considered as the main model and in addition to perceived benefits and perceived ease of use, trust, government support and advertising have been also studied. An electronic questionnaire has been designed and the statistical population included Iranian electronic citizens that had received and completed the questionnaire via email in three months period. The results of analyzing 247 questionnaires imply that the perceived benefits, trust and government support have influence on acceptance of virtual bank. Also the effect of perceived ease of use on perceived benefits and trust is confirmed. Finally, some suggestions for future research have been presented.
Maria do Carmo Matias Freire
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os hábitos de higiene bucal de adolescentes e sua relação com o sexo e o nível socioeconômico. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados secundários de um estudo transversal utilizando questionários auto-aplicáveis em 664 escolares de 15 anos, selecionados aleatoriamente de escolas públicas e privadas e suas mães, em Goiânia-GO. RESULTADOS: 51,8% da amostra eram do sexo feminino e 48,2% do masculino, 325 (48,9% pertenciam ao grupo de nível socioeconômico alto e 339 (51,1% ao nível baixo. Todos os adolescentes afirmaram que limpavam os dentes. Os principais motivos foram relacionados à saúde (73,5% e limpeza (40,2%. Os motivos foram associados ao sexo (pOBJECTIVE: To investigate the oral hygiene habits of Brazilian adolescents and their relation with gender and socioeconomic status. METHODS: Secondary data analyzed were from a cross-sectional study using self-completion questionnaires among 664 15-year-old schoolchildren randomly selected from public and private schools and their mothers, in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. RESULTS: 51.8% of the sample comprised girls and 48.2% boys; 48.9% were from a high social class and 51.1% from a low social class. All adolescents said they cleaned their teeth. The main reasons were related to health (73.5% and cleanliness (40.2%. Reasons varied by gender (p<0.001 and socioeconomic status (p<0.05. Most adolescents said they brushed their teeth three times or more a day (77.7%. The most common oral hygiene aids were toothbrush (97.6%, toothpaste (90.5% and dental floss (69.1%. Females brushed their teeth with higher frequency than males (p=0.001. Main brushing times were after lunch (80.3%, before breakfast (73.5% and before going to sleep (62.5%. Most adolescents (82.7% said they did not need to be reminded to brush. Significantly, more males than females said they needed to be reminded (p=0.017. Mothers were the main person to remind them to brush (66.1% and the person who gave them their
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient choice and access to health care is compromised by many barriers including travel distance. Individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV can seek free specialist care in Britain, without a referral, providing flexible access to care services. Willingness to travel beyond local services for preferred care has funding and service implications. Data from an enhanced HIV surveillance system were used to explore geodemographic and clinical factors associated with accessing treatment services. Methods We extracted data on the location, type and frequency of care services utilized by HIV positive persons (n = 3983 accessing treatment in north west England between January 1st 2005 and June 30th 2006. Individuals were allocated a deprivation score and grouped by urban/rural residence, and distance to care services was calculated. Analysis identified independent predictors of distance travelled (general linear modelling and, for those bypassing their nearest clinic, the probability of accessing a specialist service (logistic regression, SPSS ver 14. Inter-relationships between variables and distance travelled were visualised using detrended correspondence analysis (PC-ORD ver 4.1. Results HIV infected persons travelled an average of 4.8 km (95% confidence intervals (CI 4.6–4.9 per trip and had on average 6 visits (95% CI 5.9–6.2 annually for care. Longer trips were made by males (4.8 km vs 4.5 km, white people (6.2 km, the young (>15 years, 6.8 km and elderly (60+ years, 6.3 km, those on multiple therapy (5.3 km vs 4.0 km, and the more affluent living in rural areas (16.1 km, P Conclusion Distance travelled, and type of HIV services used, were associated with socioeconomic status, even after accounting for ethnicity, route of infection and age. Thus despite offering an 'equitable' service, travel costs may advantage those with higher income.
Objective: To identify the application value of ultrasound in the screening of fetal cardiac abnormalities and to reduce its affecting factors, in order to maximally decrease the birth of oaf. Methods: Adopting the method of four chamber hearts cross-section and sound beam plane head laterodeviation, 3821 fetal hearts were screened by ultrasonocardiography in middle and late fetal period. The influencing factors were also analyzed. Screening results were compared with the autopsy following induced labor and the ultrasonocardiogram after borne. Results: Total 23 cases of the cardiac anomalies were confirmed by odinopoeia or after borned, 21 cases were diagnosed by antepartum ultrasonocardiography, the detectable rate were 91.3%(21/23). And the complex cardiac anomalies were 19 cases, accounted for 82.61%(19/23), the general malformation were 4 cases, accounted for 17.39%(4/23). In 19 cases of the complex anomalies, 17 cases were diagnosed by antepartum examination in the first time, 2 cases were diagnosed by reexamination, the total detectable rate were 100%(19/19). Conclusion: Ultrasonography is not only non-invasive but also unique method in detecting fetal heart defects. It will help to diagnose definitely the vast majority of congenital malformation in the fetal heart, especially complex malformation in the middle and later fetal period. There are some limitations and chronergy in ultrasonography for the screening of fetal heart defects, which should be followed-up when the fetal appeared 'normal' in the early screening. (authors)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were
Nieminen, Tarja; Martelin, Tuija; Koskinen, Seppo; Simpura, Jussi; Alanen, Erkki; Harkanen, Tommi; Aromaa, Arpo
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to describe the variation of individual social capital according to socio-demographic factors, and to develop a suitable way to measure social capital for this purpose. The similarity of socio-demographic variation between the genders was also assessed. Data and methods: The study applied…
Lenormand, Maxime; Cantu-Ros, Oliva G; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Arias, Juan Murillo; Barthelemy, Marc; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, Jose J
Human mobility has been traditionally studied using surveys that deliver snapshots of population displacement patterns. The growing accessibility to ICT information obtained from portable digital media has recently opened the possibility of going beyond such fixed pictures, exploring human behavior at high spatio-temporal resolutions. Mobile phone records, geolocated tweets, check-ins from Foursquare or geotagged photos, have contributed to this purpose at different scales from cities to countries and in different areas of the world. Many of these previous works have lacked, however, details on the attributes of the individuals. In this work, we analyze credit-card transaction records as mobility proxies and assess the influence of sociodemographic characteristics on the way people move and spend their money in cities. In particular, we focus on Barcelona and Madrid, the two most populated cities of Spain, and by examining the geolocated credit-card transactions of individuals living in the two provinces, we ...
This paper focuses on the pragmatic factors affecting the politeness of speech. Through the analysis of the importance of politeness in speech communication and the influence of socio-linguistic, psycho-linguistic, cultural linguistic and pragmatics on the language use, I discuss respectively three main pragmatic factors affecting the politeness of speech: 1. social factors; 2. cultural factors; 3. linguistic factors.
Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.
Biological-fishery indicators have been widely studied. As such the condition factor (CF) index, which interprets the fatness level of a certain species based on length and weight, has been investigated, too. However, CF has been studied without considering its temporal features and distribution. In this paper, we analyze the CF time series via skew-gaussian distributions that consider the asymmetry produced by extreme events. This index is characterized by a threshold autoregressive model and corresponds to a stationary process depending on the shape parameter of the skew-gaussian distribution. Then we use the Jensen-Shannon (JS) distance to compare CF by length classes. This distance has mathematical advantages over other divergences such as Kullback-Leibler and Jeffrey’s, and the triangular inequality property. Our results are applied to a biological catalogue of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) from the northern coast of Chile, for the period 1990-2010 that consider monthly CF time series by length classes and sex. We find that for high values of shape parameter, JS distance tends to be more sensible to detect discrepancies than Jeffrey’s divergence. In addition, the body condition of male anchovies with higher lengths coincides with the ending of the moderate-strong El Niño event 91-92 and for both males and females, the smaller lengths coincide with the beginning of the strong El Niño event 97-98.
Field, Matthew; Stirling, David; Pan, Zengxi; Naghdy, Fazel
This paper presents an approach for learning robust models of humanoid robot trajectories from demonstration. In this formulation, a model of the joint space trajectory is represented as a sequence of motion primitives where a nonlinear dynamical system is learned by constructing a hidden Markov model (HMM) predicting the probability of residing in each motion primitive. With a coordinated mixture of factor analyzers as the emission probability density of the HMM, we are able to synthesize motion from a dynamic system acting along a manifold shared by both demonstrator and robot. This provides significant advantages in model complexity for kinematically redundant robots and can reduce the number of corresponding observations required for further learning. A stability analysis shows that the system is robust to deviations from the expected trajectory as well as transitional motion between manifolds. This approach is demonstrated experimentally by recording human motion with inertial sensors, learning a motion primitive model and correspondence map between the human and robot, and synthesizing motion from the manifold to control a 19 degree-of-freedom humanoid robot. PMID:25826815
van Schuur, Wijbrandt H.; Kiers, Henk A. L.
The identification of two factors when one factor is expected is an artifact caused by using factor analysis on data that would be more appropriately analyzed with a unidimensional unfolding model. A numerical illustration is given, and ways to determine whether data conform to the unidimensional unfolding model are reviewed. (SLD)
Fatores de risco cardiovascular em adolescentes: prevalência e associação com fatores sociodemográficos Cardiovascular risk factors for adolescents: prevalence and association with sociodemographic factors
José Cazuza de Farias Júnior
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular (individual e co-ocorrência; e investigar a relação entre esses fatores e indicadores sociodemográficos em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: A amostra, selecionada por conglomerados em dois estágios (escolas, turmas, foi constituída de 782 adolescentes (14-17 anos de idade, 54,9% do sexo feminino do ensino médio no município de João Pessoa - PB, Brasil. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, idade e condição econômica. Os desfechos investigados foram: níveis insuficientes de atividade física, hábitos alimentares inadequados, pressão arterial elevada, etilismo, excesso de peso corporal e tabagismo. RESULTADOS: Níveis insuficientes de atividade física (59,5% e hábitos alimentares inadequados (49,5% foram os fatores de risco cardiovascular mais prevalentes. Pressão arterial elevada, etilismo e excesso de peso foram mais prevalentes no sexo masculino, e níveis insuficientes de atividade física no sexo feminino. Cerca de 10% dos adolescentes não apresentaram nenhum fator de risco, e 51,4% apresentaram dois ou mais fatores de forma simultânea. Os adolescentes do sexo masculino (OR = 1,89; 1,35 - 2,65 e aqueles que pertenciam aos estratos econômicos mais pobres tiveram maiores chances de apresentar um ou mais fatores de risco biológicos (OR = 1,69; IC95% = 1,16 - 2,47. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de fatores de risco cardiovascular foi elevada, com destaque para a exposição simultânea a múltiplos fatores de risco. Os adolescentes do sexo masculino e os mais pobres foram os subgrupos com maior exposição a fatores de risco biológicos de forma simultânea.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (individual and co-occurrence; and to analyze their relationship with demographic and socioeconomic variables in adolescents. METHODS: A two-stage cluster sampling process was used (school and class. The sample
Maria Belen Villace
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify alcohol consumption in young people between 18 and 24 years of age in the province of Córdoba who participated in the National Survey of Risk Factors, according to sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: a quantitative, analytic and cross-sectional study was undertaken in a sample of 240 young people. The alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using bivariate analysis, risk ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: the lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption corresponded to 79.17%, the one-year prevalence to 72.91% and the one-month prevalence to 57.08%, while episodic abuse and regular hazardous consumption corresponded to 25.55% and 24.19%. Consumption levels in the last month were higher among males (p=0.0028, single people (p=0.0001, with a secondary education degree (p=0.0306. CONCLUSION: in the province of Córdoba, drugs use, including alcohol, has not been an area of research interest in recent years, although alcohol abuse is associated with other risk factors, like accidents and violence, and is a factor of comorbidity and early mortality. Therefore, alcohol consumption in young people represents an area of concern and, once characterized, preventive actions should be adopted.
Auad, Sheyla Marcia
The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of caries in a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren, test associotions between caries, sociodemographics, and erosion, and investigate potential dietary factors common to both conditions.
Vjollca Visoka Hasani; Jusuf Zeqiri
The objective of this study is to determine the elements that play an important role on consumer’s buying behavior. The purpose of this research is to find out the main important factors related with the packaging effect. Companies in order to create the right packaging for their products, they must understand the consumer buying process and understand the role and the impact of packaging elements as variables that can influence the purchase decision. So, by understanding what factors influen...
Amini, Moharam; Fadaei, Amir Hosein; Gharib, Morteza
Neutron radiography is one of the main applications of research reactors. It is a powerful tool to conduct nondestructive testing of materials. The parameters that affect the quality of a radiographic image must be considered during the design of a neutron radiography system. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effect of geometric factors on the quality of the neutron radiography system. The results show that the performance of the mentioned system can be increased by regulating the geometric factors. PMID:26343340
José Caamaño-Alegre; Santiago Lago-Peñas
This article focuses on the impact of both incrementalism and exogenous factors in budgeting. The authors present a double-distinction-based proposal combining incrementalism and exogenous factors and then apply this model to the case of Spain. This approach enables the authors to avoid some of the shortcomings of the earlier Davis, Dempster, and Wildavsky's econometric method and its extensions, to examine both within-budget incrementalism (WBI) and budget-total incrementalism (BTI), and to ...
Hernández Sarmiento, José Mauricio; Correa, Nidia; Correa, Marta; Franco, José Gabriel; Alvarez, Matilde; Ramírez, Clara; Gómez, Lina M; Toro, Antonio Carlos; Londoño, Nora Helena; Martínez, Milton; Restrepo, Mary Alejandra; Zapata, Elsa; Mejía, Gloria Isabel; Robledo, Jaime
Homeless people are highly susceptible to tuberculosis. It has been suggested that this population have high rates of mental disorders associated with tuberculosis. We assessed tuberculosis incidence, its transmission patterns and association with socio-demographic factors and mental disorders in Colombian homeless people. Prospective study which socio-demographic characteristics and mental disorders were assessed through interviews. Sputa from patients with respiratory symptoms were processed and clinical isolates analyzed by IS6110-RFLP. Multivariate analysis performed by logistic regression model. From 426 homeless studied, tuberculosis incidence found was 7.9 %. 44 % of isolates were clustering. It was found high risk of having tuberculosis associated with income from drugs trade (OR: 3.40 [95 % CI: 1.28-9.05]), dysthymia (OR: 2.54 [95 % CI: 1.10-5.86]) and receiving food from other homeless (OR: 2.47 [95 % CI: 1.16-5.25]). Tuberculosis incidence and degree of transmission are high in homeless studied. Implementing programs to better control tuberculosis among homeless population must consider socio-demographic factors and mental disorders associated with the disease. PMID:23340806
Başakçı Çalık, Bilge; Telli Atalay, Orçin; Başkan, Emre; Gökçe, Birsen
Objective: This study was planed for analyzing the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) related with computer usage, work interference, personal and computer related risk factory.Method: Seventy nine office workers (51 women, 28 men) were included in this study. Turkish version of Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire was used as self assessment of Musculoskeletal Discomfort and Work Interference and Visual Analog Scale was used for the assessment of pain intensity. Perso...
Xi, Nuo; Browne, Michael W.
A promising "underlying bivariate normal" approach was proposed by Jöreskog and Moustaki for use in the factor analysis of ordinal data. This was a limited information approach that involved the maximization of a composite likelihood function. Its advantage over full-information maximum likelihood was that very much less computation was…
Over the past few years, steam generator (SG) thermal performance degradation has led to decreased plant efficiency and power output at numerous PWR nuclear power plants with recirculating-type SGs. The authors have developed and implemented methodologies for quantitatively evaluating the various sources of SG performance degradation, both internal and external to the SG pressure boundary. These methodologies include computation of the global fouling factor history, evaluation of secondary deposit thermal resistance using deposit characterization data, and consideration of pressure loss causes unrelated to the tube bundle, such as hot-leg temperature streaming and SG moisture separator fouling. In order to evaluate the utility of the global fouling factor methodology, the authors performed case studies for a number of PWR SG designs. Key results from two of these studies are presented here. In tandem with the fouling-factor analyses, a study evaluated for each plant the potential causes of pressure loss. The combined results of the global fouling factor calculations and the pressure-loss evaluations demonstrated two key points: (1) that the available thermal margin against fouling, which can vary substantially from plant to plant, has an important bearing on whether a given plant exhibits losses in electrical generating capacity, and (2) that a wide variety of causes can result in SG thermal performance degradation
The prevalence of excess adiposity is increasing in less developed countries. This study explored the associations of sociodemographic factors with increased BMI among Nigeria women aged 20-49 years using secondary data collected for the 2008 NDHS. Anthropometric and socio-demographic variables of interest were extracted from the data and analyzed with SPSS version 15.0. Chi(2) was used to compare categorical variables and multi-nominal logistic regression was used to examine for correlates. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25 to 29.9kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI 30kg/m(2) and above) in this population were 18.1% and 7.1% respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was highest among Igbo women. Multivariable logistic regression revealed increased frequency of watching television, belonging to a particular ethnic group, having a tertiary education and increased parity as risk factors for increased BMI. This study confirms a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women and identifies high risk groups for excessive weight gain. PMID:24558783
Over the past few years, steam generator (SG) thermal performance degradation has led to decreased plant efficiency and power output at numerous PWR nuclear power plants with recirculating-type SGs. The authors have developed and implemented methodologies for quantitatively evaluating the various sources of SG performance degradation, both internal and external to the SG pressure boundary. These methodologies include computation of the global fouling factor history, evaluation of secondary deposit thermal resistance using deposit characterization data, and consideration of pressure loss causes unrelated to the tube bundle, such as hot-leg temperature streaming and SG moisture separator performance. In order to evaluate the utility of the global fouling factor methodology, the authors performed case studies for a number of PWR SG designs. Key results from two of these studies are presented here. Uncertainty analyses were performed to determine whether the calculated fouling factor for each plant represented significant fouling or whether uncertainty in key variables (e.g., steam pressure or feedwater flow rate) could be responsible for calculated fouling. The methodology was validated using two methods: by predicting the SG pressure following chemical cleaning at San Onofre 2 and also by performing a sensitivity study with the industry-standard thermal-hydraulics code ATHOS to investigate the effects of spatially varying tube scale distributions. This study indicated that the average scale thickness has a greater impact on fouling than the spatial distribution, showing that the assumption of uniform resistance inherent to the global fouling factor is reasonable. In tandem with the fouling-factor analyses, a study evaluated for each plant the potential causes of pressure loss. The combined results of the global fouling factor calculations and the pressure loss evaluations demonstrated two key points: 1) that the available thermal margin against fouling, which can
Lenormand, Maxime; Louail, Thomas; Cantú-Ros, Oliva G.; Picornell, Miguel; Herranz, Ricardo; Arias, Juan Murillo; Barthelemy, Marc; Miguel, Maxi San; Ramasco, José J.
Human mobility has been traditionally studied using surveys that deliver snapshots of population displacement patterns. The growing accessibility to ICT information from portable digital media has recently opened the possibility of exploring human behavior at high spatio-temporal resolutions. Mobile phone records, geolocated tweets, check-ins from Foursquare or geotagged photos, have contributed to this purpose at different scales, from cities to countries, in different world areas. Many previous works lacked, however, details on the individuals’ attributes such as age or gender. In this work, we analyze credit-card records from Barcelona and Madrid and by examining the geolocated credit-card transactions of individuals living in the two provinces, we find that the mobility patterns vary according to gender, age and occupation. Differences in distance traveled and travel purpose are observed between younger and older people, but, curiously, either between males and females of similar age. While mobility displays some generic features, here we show that sociodemographic characteristics play a relevant role and must be taken into account for mobility and epidemiological modelization.
Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technol...
Peter E. Egbor
Full Text Available Background: Studies on anxiety in patients having intra-alveolar extraction as well as the effect of patient's sociodemographic characteristics influencing level of associated anxiety are few in our environment. The aim of this study was to statistically analyze the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients scheduled for intra-alveolar extraction. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 93 consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital for intra-alveolar extraction in the months of November and December 2013. An interview-based questionnaire, Corah Dental Anxiety Scale Revised (DAS-R, was administered to evaluate levels of dental anxiety. Sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Descriptive statistics and regression models were done with the independent variables (sociodemographic factors and the dependent variable being the DAS-R. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The internal consistency of the scale used as determined by Cronbach alpha was 0.76. Mean DAS score was 8.12±2.58. Dental anxiety and age of subjects showed significant inverse relationship. Females had a higher mean DAS score (8.76 than the males (7.37 (P=0.006. Residence (urban/rural was not statistically significant. Singles reported the highest DAS score (9.41 (P=0.006. The educational level attained was significantly related to dental anxiety (P=0.005. Those with secondary school education had the highest DAS score (9.26. Class V social status had the highest mean anxiety score (P=0.012. Stepwise linear regression showed that the best predictors for dental anxiety were sex (P=0.008 and marital status (P=0.026. Conclusion: This present study demonstrates that sex and marital status are the predictive factors for dental anxiety in the overall management of patients indicated for intra-alveolar extraction.
Sociodemographic and personal factors related to depressive symptomatology in the Mexican population aged 12 to 65 Fatores sociodemográficos e pessoais relacionados à sintomatologia depressiva na população mexicana entre 12 e 65 anos
Clara Fleiz Bautista
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the Mexican population, aged 12 to 65 years, by identifying the main related socio-demographic and personal factors. METHODS: Data are drawn from the National Survey on Addictions 2008 (ENA 2008, a random, probabilistic, multistage study. A randomly selected sub-sample of 22,962 persons answered the section on depressive symptomatology, measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. RESULTS: The total prevalence for depressive symptomatology was 5.1%; the prevalence was 7.5% for women and 2.5% for men. For women, more evidence of depressive symptoms was seen in the central region, whereas for men, symptoms were homogeneous across the country. Factors related to the presence of depressive symptoms include being divorced (in women or widowed (in men, having lower educational attainment, perceiving one's place of residence as unsafe, displaying alcohol abuse or dependence, being a regular drug consumer (in men and having been sexually abused (males and females. CONCLUSIONS: The regional distribution of depressive symptomatology in women indicates the need for region-specific prevention programs that take into account the different social problems that affect women's emotional well-being. More research is also needed to support the early identification and intervention of men suffering from depression.OBJETIVO: Conhecer a prevalência de sintomas depressivos a nível nacional na população de 12 a 65 anos e identificar os principais fatores sociodemográficos e pessoais associados. MÉTODO: Os dados foram obtidos da Pesquisa Nacional de Adições (ENA 2008, um estudo aleatório e probabilístico. Uma sub-amostra de 22.962 indivíduos responderam a seção de sintomas depressivos medida com a Escala de Depressão do Centro de Estudos Epidemiológicos (CES-D. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sintomas depressivos foi de 5,2%; 7,5% em mulheres e 2,5% em homens
Rose, R.; Aizenman, H.; Mei, E.; Choudhury, N.
High School students interested in the STEM fields benefit most when actively participating, so I created a series of learning modules on how to analyze complex systems using machine-learning that give automated feedback to students. The automated feedbacks give timely responses that will encourage the students to continue testing and enhancing their programs. I have designed my modules to take the tactical learning approach in conveying the concepts behind correlation, linear regression, and vector distance based classification and clustering. On successful completion of these modules, students will learn how to calculate linear regression, Pearson's correlation, and apply classification and clustering techniques to a dataset. Working on these modules will allow the students to take back to the classroom what they've learned and then apply it to the Earth Science curriculum. During my research this summer, we applied these lessons to analyzing river deltas; we looked at trends in the different variables over time, looked for similarities in NDVI, precipitation, inundation, runoff and discharge, and attempted to predict floods based on the precipitation, waves mean, area of discharge, NDVI, and inundation.
Tadeu Lessa da Costa; Denize Cristina de Oliveira; Antonio Marcos Tosoli Gomes; Gláucia Alexandre Formozo
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of sociodemographic and health dimensions with the quality of life of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus. METHOD: descriptive and quantitative study. The subjects were 131 seropositive people treated in a specialized center of the Norte-Fluminense municipality, Brazil. A form with sociodemographic and health data was applied, as well as the World Health Organization instrument for the assessment of the quality of life of people with the ...
Introduction: Exam stress is a set of responses that includes excessive worry, depression, nervousness and irrelevant thinking to a class of stimuli from an individualâ€™s experience of assessment and outcome. The rationale of this study is to assess the examination related stress among the first year MBBS students by measuring BMI (body mass index) and VAS (VisualÂ analogue scale) as to determine the factors contributing to exam stress among first year medical students. Methods: The study w...
Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Campos, Wagner de; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Souza, Evanice Avelino de
This study analyzed the prevalence and sociodemographic factors associated to the isolated and combined presence of elevated anthropometric indices among children. A cross-sectional study was performed with 2,035 children (aged 6-11 years, 50.1% of girls) who were randomly selected in schools from Colombo, Brazil. Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Circumference (WC) and Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) were classified using reference values. Age, gender, type of school, shift, and residence area were potential risk factors. Binary logistic regression was used (p rural areas were high-risk subgroup to the combined presence of elevated anthropometric indices. In conclusion, Public policies to combat childhood obesity may be more effective whether they targeted at children from public schools and rural areas. PMID:26816178
The aim of this study was to determine the cardiovascular (CV) risk factor response in Irish patients with type 1 diabetes following simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK), analyzing response based on mode of immunosuppression and surgical drainage in a uniquely homogenous population.
Cluster-based wireless sensor networks enable the efficient utilization of the limited energy resources of the deployed sensor nodes and hence prolong the node as well as network lifetime. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Leach) is one of the most promising clustering protocol proposed for wireless sensor networks. This paper provides the energy utilization and lifetime analysis for cluster-based wireless sensor networks based upon LEACH protocol. Simulation results identify some important factors that induce unbalanced energy utilization between the sensor nodes and hence affect the network lifetime in these types of networks. These results highlight the need for a standardized, adaptive and distributed clustering technique that can increase the network lifetime by further balancing the energy utilization among sensor nodes. (author)
Gorbunova, A V
The work was designed to study metabolism of motoneurons in anterior horns of the spinal cord and sensorimotor cortex of Wistar rats after flights on Earth's satellites for 22.5 days (Kosmos-605), 19.5 days (Kosmos-782), and 18.5 days (Kosmos-936). Control rats underwent simulated space-flight factors under laboratory conditions excepting weightlessness. Rats placed in Kosmos-936 were subjected to artificial gravity (AG). They showed complete recovery of motoneuronal metabolism 25 days after landing unlike animals that had experienced weightlessness in which enhanced functional activity of the genetic apparatus was manifest as increased RNA level, protein content, and nuclei size. These finding may reflect differences of neuronal metabolism in animals experiencing weightlessness and AG. We believe they may be due to reduced static load on the locomotor system during the space flight. PMID:20614516
Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.
This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This
Individuals who care for family members receiving chronic hemodialysis (HD) are likely to experience burdens that may adversely impact their patients. Effective coping strategies are shaped by various factors, including sociodemographic characteristics. To assess the relationship between caregivers and their patients, we studied 225 family-member caregivers of chronic HD patients through answering the Ways of Coping Questionnaire-Revised. Sociodemographic data, including caregiver age, gender...
Full Text Available Objective: To examine association of sociodemographic characteristics, personality traits, social skills, and work variables with anxiety, depression, and alcohol dependence in medical residents. Methods: A total of 270 medical residents completed the following self-report instruments: sociodemographic and work questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3 (AUDIT-3, Revised NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-R, and Social Skills Inventory (SSI-Del-Prette. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Multivariate analysis showed an association of neuroticism (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, p < 0.001, social skills (OR 0.41, p < 0.01, and number of shifts (OR 1.91, p = 0.03 with anxiety or depression, and of male sex (OR 3.14, p = 0.01, surgical residency (OR 4.40, p = 0.001, extraversion (OR 1.80, p < 0.01, and number of shifts (OR 2.32, p = 0.04 with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: The findings support a multidetermined nature of mental health problems in medical residents, in addition to providing data that may assist in the design of preventive measures to protect the mental health of this group.
Associations among socio-demographic and clinical factors and the quality of life of ostomized patients Asociación de los factores sociodemográficos y clínicos a la calidad de vida de los ostomizados Associação dos fatores sociodemográficos e clínicos à qualidade de vida dos estomizados
Adriana Pelegrini dos Santos Pereira
Full Text Available This study identifies the socio-demographic and clinical factors of patients with irreversible colostomy secondary to colorectal cancer and correlates them with quality of life (QOL. It is a cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected through interviews and the WHOQOL-bref to assess QOL. The sample comprised 60 patients. Most of the patients were male, elderly individuals, half were married and half did not have a sexual partner, with complete primary education, receiving up to two times the minimum wage, carried a stoma for three months on average, were instructed they would carry a stoma, but did not have their stoma marked prior to surgery. The average QOL score was 75.500, while the psychological, social and physical domains were the most affected. No statistically significant differences were found in QOL in relation to the following socio-demographic and clinical factors: female gender, low income, no sexual partners, and lack of instruction. The patients with an intestinal stoma presented a satisfactory QOL.El artículo tuvo por objetivo identificar los factores sociodemográficos y clínicos de pacientes con estoma intestinal definitivo secundario al cáncer colorrectal y correlacionarlos a la calidad de vida (CV. Se trata de un estudio transversal, que utilizó, para recolectar datos sociodemográficos y clínicos, la entrevista y para evaluar la CV el cuestionario WHOQOL-bref. La muestra abarcó 60 pacientes. La mayoría de los pacientes era del sexo masculino, anciano, casado, sin pareja sexual, con educación fundamental completa, recibía hasta dos salarios mínimos, con tiempo promedio de estoma de tres meses, informado que portaría una estoma, pero no programado para la cirugía. El promedio de CV fue 75,00, siendo que los dominios psicológico, social y físico fueron los más afectados. Los factores sociodemográficos y clínicos: sexo femenino, baja renta, no tener pareja sexual y falta de
Shafiee Shahram; Divband Milad; Alimardani Mohammad
Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n) and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed w...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Septic abortion is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Termination of pregnancy, although a safe and easy procedure in trained hands, can produce catastrophic outcomes when performed by unauthorized or untrained people and in improper settings. OBJECTIVE: To find out the association of various socio-demographic factors with septic abortion. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a longitudinal study, conducted in the indoor of obstetrics & gynaecology department of R.M.C.H & R.C, Ghaziabad district of Uttar Pradesh from the period of Feb-2013 to April-2013, after selecting 100 septic abortion cases by simple randomization, who were admitted during the study period. Information of all these cases regarding their age, marital status, socio-economic status, literacy, parity and gestational age was obtained, and their association with septic abortion was studied accordingly. OBSERVATION: Out of the 100 cases of septic abortion studied, maximum percentage (66% of the cases was seen from the age group of 26 to 35 years. Most of the cases (97% were married, maximum (40% were belonging from low socio-economic status group (Group-IV, maximum (60% number of cases were illiterate, maximum (53% number of cases belonged to women group having parity five and above, and maximum (86% number of women were in the 1st trimester of pregnancy at the time of abortion. CONCLUSION: Present study confirms that unsafe abortion is one of the greatest neglected healthcare problems in India and more so in rural India. So, there is the need to strengthen quality abortion services to reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality due to septic abortion
Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is fundamental for a country's economic development through its positive effect on innovation, productivity growth, and job creation. In entrepreneurial research, one of the most important problems is to define the factors that actually determine entrepreneurial action. This study analyzes that question in the case of Germany by taking an aggregated approach that focuses on socio-demographic and economic determinants of regional entrepreneurship. Based on a literature review of German and international regional-level research, six hypotheses are developed and empirically tested using the most recent available data on 385 German regions as units of analysis. The results are surprising. In the case of household income, unemployment, education and marital status the relationship is significant but contrary to earlier research. Only regional age structure seems to be a stable predictor of regional entrepreneurship. The results indicate that in recent years there was a major shift in the determinants and characteristics of entrepreneurship in Germany.
Factores institucionales, pedagógicos, psicosociales y sociodemográficos asociados al rendimiento académico en la Universidad de Costa Rica: un análisis multinivel. [Institutional, pedagogical, psychosocial and socio-demographic factors related to academic performance at the University of Costa Rica: a multilevel analysis
Montero Rojas, Eiliana
Full Text Available A multilevel analysis was conducted to predict final grades in courses from different majors for a sample, stratified by academic areas, of 848 students at the University of Costa Rica. A group of factors from institutional, socio-demographic, psychosocial and pedagogical aspects were employed as independent variables. The best predictor was the Admission Average, which combines grades from high school and an aptitude test score. Some non-cognitive variables were also explicative; the most important being the score on a scale of emotional intelligence. The methodology employed by the professor showed explicative power as well. Se realizó un análisis multinivel para predecir calificaciones finales en cursos de carrera, para una muestra estratificada, por áreas académicas, de 848 estudiantes de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se utilizaron como variables independientes un conjunto de factores en dimensiones institucionales, sociodemográficas, psicosociales y pedagógicas. El mejor predictor fue el Promedio de Admisión, medida que combina notas de secundaria y el puntaje en una prueba de habilidades de razonamiento. También variables no cognitivas resultaron explicativas, siendo la más importante el puntaje de una escala de inteligencia emocional. La metodología empleada por el (la docente mostró asimismo poder explicativo.
The underlying principle of factorial analysis is frequency distribution and description of reaction in between and through the element series in specific environmental samples. Application of this factor analysis was elaborated to interpret the variance and covariance of certain elements Si, Al, Ca. K, Fe, Ti and Mg in three different types of common materials in environmental sediments, soil, and rock. These evaluations were proceeded after x-ray fluorescence measurements. Results of applications of factorial statistical data analysis show that three factors cause relationship between the above elements in a certain type of environmental samples are mainly recognized. In such cases, these factors represent the main reason for findings and interpret all hidden relationship between the chemical analyzed data. Factor one, the effect of weathering type alteration and oxidation reaction processes as a main one in case of soil and rock where they are characterized by the close covariance of a group of metals, like iron and manganese, commonly derived from weathered and altered igneous rocks. Factor two and three represents other processes. In case of soil, formation of alumino-silicate is revealed in factor two due to the positive covariance of these elements and also the presence of aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and silicon dioxide together is explained by these positive values. The inverse relation between Ca, K, Fe and Mg while indicate the presence of mineral salts which may be due to fertilization and water of irrigation. In case of factor three in that soil, it is the weakest factor that can be used to explain the relationship between the above elements