Sample records for analysis increases power

  1. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    Roffel, Brian; Boer, de Wouter W.


    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. Fi

  2. Analysis of power and frequency control requirements in view of increased decentralized production and market liberalization

    This paper presents a systematic approach of the analysis of the minimum control requirements that are imposed on power producing units in the Netherlands, especially in the case when decentralized production increases. Also some effects of the liberalization on the control behavior are analyzed. First an overview is given of the amount and type of power production in the Netherlands, followed by a review of the control requirements. Next models are described, including a simplified model for the UCTE power system. The model was tested against frequency and power measurements after failure of a 558 MW production unit in the Netherlands. Agreement between measurements and model predictions proved to be good. The model was subsequently used to analyze the primary and secondary control requirements and the impact of an increase in decentralized power production on the fault restoration capabilities of the power system. Since the latter production units are not actively participating in primary and secondary control, fault restoration takes longer and becomes unacceptable when only 35% of the power producing units participate in secondary control. Finally, the model was used to study the impact of deregulation, especially the effect of 'block scheduling', on additional control actions of the secondary control. (Author)

  3. Economic Analysis of Cikaso Mini Hydro Power Plant as a CDM Project for Increasing IRR

    Irhan Febijanto


    Full Text Available Renewable energy fueled power generations are few developed by private sector in Indonesia. High-cost investment and low electricity selling price to PT PLN as a single buyer is main barriers for private sector to involve in the development of renewable energy fueled power generations. In this project, the economic feasibility of Mini Hydro Power Plant of Cikaso with capacity of 5.3 MW, located at Sukabumi Regency, West Java province was assessed. This project utilized revenue generated from carbon market to increase the economic feasibility. Procedure to register the project to United Nation for Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC as a Clean Development Mechanism project was explained in detail. Approved Consolidation Methodology (ACM 0002 Version 12.3.0 was used to calculate grid emission factor in Jawa-Bali-Madura the grid electricity system. It was calculated that the grid emission factor is 0.833 (t-CO2/MWh, and the carbon emission reduction generated for this project is 21,982 ton/year. From the analysis result, it can be proven that the additional revenue from carbon credit could increase the project IRR from 10.28% to 13.52%.

  4. GeneMarker® Genotyping Software: Tools to Increase the Statistical Power of DNA Fragment Analysis

    Hulce, D.; Li, X.; Snyder-Leiby, T.; Johathan Liu, C.S.


    The discriminatory power of post-genotyping analyses, such as kinship or clustering analysis, is dependent on the amount of genetic information obtained from the DNA fragment/genotyping analysis. The number of microsatellite loci amplified in one multiplex is limited by the number of dyes and overlapping loci boundaries; requiring researchers to amplify replicate samples with 2 or more multiplexes in order to obtain a genotype for 12–15 loci. AFLP is another method that is limited by the number of dyes, often requiring multiple amplifications of replicate samples to obtain more complete results. Traditionally, researchers export the genotyping results into a spread sheet, manually combine the results for each individual and then import into a third software package for post-genotyping analysis. GeneMarker is highly accurate, user-friendly genotyping software that allows all of these steps to be done in one software package, avoiding potential errors from data transfer to different programs and decreasing the amount of time needed to process the results. The Merge Project tool automatically combines the results from replicate samples processed with different primer sets. Replicate animal (diploid) DNA samples were amplified with three different multiplexes, each multiplex provided information on 4–6 loci. The kinship analysis using the merged results provided a 1017 increase in statistical power with a range of 108 when 5 loci were used versus 1025 when 15 loci were used to determine potential relationship levels with identity by descent calculations. These same sample sets were used in clustering analysis to diagram dendrograms. The dendrogram based on a single multiplex resulted in three branches at a given Euclidian distance. In comparison, the dendrogram that was constructed using the merged results had eight branches at the same Euclidian distance.

  5. Integrated system analysis method to increase performance in operation of power plants

    The necessity to develop more reliable power systems needs several iterative studies. These studies are rather complex and imply specific methods of analysis. To assess system evaluation based on some adequate techniques, specific models that could be deterministic and probabilistic should be developed. A complete modelling means to use both deterministic and probabilistic approach and models processing methods as well. The model developed for a nuclear facility, implies events modelling associated to the structures, systems and components (SSCs). The modelling and model processing studies assumes specific tasks that are familiar to safety evaluation analysts. Computer codes are today used in solving several tasks related to systems' analyses. The paper presents the specific methods of an integrating approach and use deterministic and probabilistic methods, in order to analyze and improve the operation of power systems. Also, in the paper are given the applications of probabilistic and deterministic modelling to perform on-line and off-line monitoring of the analysed system concerning the processes, reliability, unavailability, safety or risks. (authors)

  6. Increase of power plant efficiency

    The increase of power plant efficiency has always been the aim of power plant manufacturers and operators. Today, after the re-orientation of the worldwide market situation, it is necessary to newly assess the power plant efficiency in the field of competition and environment. The average efficiency of power plants presently ranges worldwide at about 30%, yet the status of available technology in the year 2000 permits efficiencies between 45 an 58% depending on the fuels used. VGB PowerTech has been monitoring the technical development of power generation for 80 years up to now. From our point of view, power plant technology still has a great development potential at its disposal. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of liquid relief valves opening demand during pressure increase abnormal scenarios at Embalse nuclear power plant

    Two hypothetical scenarios have been analyzed where, after an initiating event, Embalse nuclear power plant primary heat transport system could undergo a pressure increase. These abnormal events are a loss of feedwater to the steam generators and a loss of Class IV power supply with Class III restoration. This analysis focuses on primary system liquid relief valves action, specially on their opening demand. Calculation results show that even when these valves are expected to open during the transient, primary system maximum allowable pressure would not be exceeded if they failed to open. System response was also studied in case that one of these relief valves did not close once primary system pressure decreases. For the scenario of loss of feedwater to steam generators, if the degasser-condenser could not be bottled-up, Emergency Cooling Injection conditions would be reached due to a continuos loss of coolant. In case of loss of Class IV -and assuming degasser-condenser bottling-up as service water would not be available- it was observed that primary system should remain pressurized, and with core cooled by thermo siphoning mechanism. (author)

  8. Analysis of current state of transformer equipment, its role and place in affording safety, increasing power- and ecological effectiveness operation of units of nuclear power stations of Ukraine

    Analysis of technical state, life service and reliability of modern transformer equipment of power generating units of nuclear power stations (NPS) was conducted. Cause-and-effect factors of pre-emergency and emergency faults of transformers have been analyzed. Technical offers aimed at improvement of efficiency and reliability parameters of transformer equipment operation on NPS units were developed.

  9. Social Power Increases Implicit Prejudice

    Guinote, Ana; Willis, Guillermo B.; Martellotta, Cristiana


    Abstract The effects of power on implicit and explicit attitudes towards racial groups were examined. In Study 1, participants who had power showed a stronger facilitation of positive words after exposure to White faces, and negative words after exposure to Black faces, compared to participants who did not have power. In Study 2, powerful participants, compared to controls and powerless participants, showed more positive affective responses to Chinese pictographs that followed Whit...

  10. Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness

    The results achieved within the project of national task 'Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness' are presented in the document. The project was aimed to extend and deepen activities relating to safety increase of nuclear power units WWER-440 which play significant part in electricity production in the Slovak Republic. The application of advanced foreign calculating programs and calculation of radionuclide spreading in environment and techniques will influence the increase of extent, quality and international acceptance of safety analysis of nuclear power plant blocks WWER-440 and the risk valuation from operating nuclear power plants. Methodic resources for coping in emergency situation in nuclear energetics will be used for support in decision making in real time during radiation emergency on nuclear plant, region and state level. A long-term strategy in dealing with burnt fuel and radioactive substance formatting during nuclear power plant liquidation particularly with waste which is un acceptable in regional dump, has developed into a theoretical and practical preparation of solvable group for operating the converting centre Bohunice and in inactivating the nuclear power plant A-1. The diagnostic activities in nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic have been elaborated into a project of norm documents in accordance with international norms for diagnostic systems. Presentation of new technologies and materials for repairs and reconstructions of components and nuclear power plant knots qualify increase in their reliability, safety and life. New objective methods and criterions for valuation and monitoring of the residual life and safety of fixed nuclear power plants. Results of problem solving linked with connecting the blocks of nuclear power plants to frequency regulation in electric network in the Slovak Republic are also presented in the document

  11. Power production increasingly more profitable

    The 2005 economic results for Norwegian power companies are the best recorded, since the magazine 'Energi' started monitoring the economic developments of this industry in 1992. The background for the economic growth is the coinciding high level of production and high spot market price

  12. RETRAN safety analysis to increase the over-pressure safety margin for OPR1000 nuclear power plant

    Park, Jong Woon [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear and Energy Engineering Dept.


    A need to enlarge the pressurizer set point tolerances is desirable to prevent unnecessary tests. The increase of test tolerances needs verification by safety analyses. Existing safety analysis method are too conservative to accommodate the expanded tolerance. To overcome this insufficient margin, two approaches are taken: First one is to increase valve discharge flow rate, reactor coolant pump coast down delay time and trip delay time retaining the analysis code, CESEC. The second one is changing a computer code to a realistic code such as RETRAN.

  13. RETRAN safety analysis to increase the over-pressure safety margin for OPR1000 nuclear power plant

    A need to enlarge the pressurizer set point tolerances is desirable to prevent unnecessary tests. The increase of test tolerances needs verification by safety analyses. Existing safety analysis method are too conservative to accommodate the expanded tolerance. To overcome this insufficient margin, two approaches are taken: First one is to increase valve discharge flow rate, reactor coolant pump coast down delay time and trip delay time retaining the analysis code, CESEC. The second one is changing a computer code to a realistic code such as RETRAN.

  14. Combining evidence of selection with association analysis increases power to detect regions influencing complex traits in dairy cattle

    Schwarzenbacher Hermann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitchhiking mapping and association studies are two popular approaches to map genotypes to phenotypes. In this study we combine both approaches to complement their specific strengths and weaknesses, resulting in a method with higher statistical power and fewer false positive signals. We applied our approach to dairy cattle as they underwent extremely successful selection for milk production traits and since an excellent phenotypic record is available. We performed whole genome association tests with a new mixed model approach to account for stratification, which we validated via Monte Carlo simulations. Selection signatures were inferred with the integrated haplotype score and a locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score that works with a folded frequency spectrum and provides a formal test of signifance to identify selection signatures. Results About 1,600 out of 34,851 SNPs showed signatures of selection and the locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score showed overall good accordance with the whole genome association study. Each approach provides distinct information about the genomic regions that influence complex traits. Combining whole genome association with hitchhiking mapping yielded two significant loci for the trait protein yield. These regions agree well with previous results from other selection signature scans and whole genome association studies in cattle. Conclusion We show that the combination of whole genome association and selection signature mapping based on the same SNPs increases the power to detect loci influencing complex traits. The locus specific permutation based integrated haplotype score provides a formal test of significance in selection signature mapping. Importantly it does not rely on knowledge of ancestral and derived allele states.

  15. Alternative analysis to increase the power in combined-cycle power plants; Analisis de alternativas para el incremento de potencia en plantas termoelectricas de Ciclo Combinado

    Pacheco Cruz, Hector; Arriola Medellin, Alejandro M. [Gerencia de Procesos Termicos, Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:;


    The electricity industry traditionally had two thermodynamic cycles for power generation: conventional steam turbine (Rankine cycle) used to supply a base load during the day, and gas turbines (Brayton cycle), for its speed response, normally used to cover peak loads. However, to provide variable peak loads, the gas turbine, as a volumetric machine is affected by the change in air density by changing the combustion temperature. This paper shows the scheme of integration of both systems, that it's known as combined cycle and the different options that would have these power plants, to maintain or increase their power in variable ambient conditions. It analyzes different options, such as: 1. Supplementary fire in the stove. 2. Air cooling intake in the gas turbine (evaporation system or mechanical system). 3. Steam injection in the combustion chamber. [Spanish] La industria electrica tradicionalmente a contado con dos ciclos termodinamicos para generacion electrica: las turbinas convencionales de vapor (ciclo de Rankine) se utilizan para suministrar una carga base durante el dia, y las turbinas de gas (ciclo de Brayton), por su rapidez de respuesta, se utilizan normalmente para cubrir las cargas pico. Sin embargo, para suministrar las cargas variables pico, la turbina a gas, por ser una maquina volumetrica, se ve afectada por el cambio de la densidad del aire de combustion al cambiar la temperatura ambiente. En este trabajo se muestra el esquema de integracion de ambos sistemas, en lo que se conoce como ciclo combinado y las diferentes opciones que tendrian estas plantas de generacion electrica para mantener o incrementar su potencia en condiciones ambiente variable. Para ello se analizan diferentes opciones, tales como: 1.- Combustion suplementaria en el recuperador de calor. 2.- Enfriamiento del aire de admision a la turbina de gas (mediante un sistema de evaporacion o mediante un sistema mecanico). 3.- Inyeccion de vapor a la camara de combustion. Palabras

  16. Licensing process for the power increase

    The licensing process for the power increase of a nuclear power station is presented, this includes the description of the effective normative framework, the attributions of the one Mexican regulator organism in nuclear matter, the definition and importance of the power level of a nuclear reactor for the safety studies. Also, the types of power increase according to its magnitude, and the regulator process that it includes the scope and the detail of the required information that it should be evaluated by the one regulator organism are discussed. Finally it offers a summary of the experience that one has in Mexico for this type of processes. (Author)



    Nepal and India may increase the quantity of power exchanged between the two nations to meet shortages in bordering areas. Technical paneles from the two countries have recommended that the power exchange be raised from 50MW to 150MW, according to Bholanath Chalise, chief of the state-run Nepal Electricity Authority(NEA).

  18. Power system analysis

    Murty, PSR


    Power system analysis is a pre-requisite course for electrical engineering students. This book introduces concepts of a power system, network model faults and analysis and the primitive network stability. It also deals with graph theory relevant to various incidence matrices, building of network matrices and power flow studies. It further discusses with short circuit analysis, unbalanced fault analysis and power system stability problems, such as, steady state stability, transient stability and dynamic stability. Salient Features: Number of worked examples are followed after explaining theory

  19. Wind Power Ramping Product for Increasing Power System Flexibility

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang


    With increasing penetrations of wind power, system operators are concerned about a potential lack of system flexibility and ramping capacity in real-time dispatch stages. In this paper, a modified dispatch formulation is proposed considering the wind power ramping product (WPRP). A swinging door algorithm (SDA) and dynamic programming are combined and used to detect WPRPs in the next scheduling periods. The detected WPRPs are included in the unit commitment (UC) formulation considering ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. The modified formulation is solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulations on a modified PJM 5-bus System show the effectiveness of the model considering WPRP, which not only reduces the production cost but also does not affect the generation schedules of thermal units.

  20. Combined analysis of data from two granddaughter designs: A simple strategy for QTL confirmation and increasing experimental power in dairy cattle

    Blümel Jürgen


    Full Text Available Abstract A joint analysis of five paternal half-sib Holstein families that were part of two different granddaughter designs (ADR- or Inra-design was carried out for five milk production traits and somatic cell score in order to conduct a QTL confirmation study and to increase the experimental power. Data were exchanged in a coded and standardised form. The combined data set (JOINT-design consisted of on average 231 sires per grandsire. Genetic maps were calculated for 133 markers distributed over nine chromosomes. QTL analyses were performed separately for each design and each trait. The results revealed QTL for milk production on chromosome 14, for milk yield on chromosome 5, and for fat content on chromosome 19 in both the ADR- and the Inra-design (confirmed within this study. Some QTL could only be mapped in either the ADR- or in the Inra-design (not confirmed within this study. Additional QTL previously undetected in the single designs were mapped in the JOINT-design for fat yield (chromosome 19 and 26, protein yield (chromosome 26, protein content (chromosome 5, and somatic cell score (chromosome 2 and 19 with genomewide significance. This study demonstrated the potential benefits of a combined analysis of data from different granddaughter designs.

  1. Nuclear power ecology: comparative analysis

    Ecological effects of different energy sources are compared. Main actions for further nuclear power development - safety increase and waste management, are noted. Reasons of restrained public position to nuclear power and role of social and political factors in it are analyzed. An attempt is undertaken to separate real difficulties of nuclear power from imaginary ones that appear in some mass media. International actions of environment protection are noted. Risk factors at different energy source using are compared. The results of analysis indicate that ecological influence and risk for nuclear power are of minimum

  2. Nuclear power regional analysis

    In this study, a regional analysis of the Argentine electricity market was carried out considering the effects of regional cooperation, national and international interconnections; additionally, the possibilities of insertion of new nuclear power plants in different regions were evaluated, indicating the most suitable areas for these facilities to increase the penetration of nuclear energy in national energy matrix. The interconnection of electricity markets and natural gas due to the linkage between both energy forms was also studied. With this purpose, MESSAGE program was used (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts), promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This model performs a country-level economic optimization, resulting in the minimum cost for the modelling system. Regionalization executed by the Wholesale Electricity Market Management Company (CAMMESA, by its Spanish acronym) that divides the country into eight regions. The characteristics and the needs of each region, their respective demands and supplies of electricity and natural gas, as well as existing and planned interconnections, consisting of power lines and pipelines were taken into account. According to the results obtained through the model, nuclear is a competitive option. (author)

  3. Structural Power: The limits of neorealist power analysis

    GUZZINI, Stefano


    (The article is an earlier version of Chapters 5 and 6 of the author's EUI PhD Thesis, 1994.) Realism explains the ruling of the international system through the underlying distribution of power among states. Increasingly, analysts have found this power analysis inadequate, and they have developed new concepts, most prominently structural power. The usage of structural power actually entails three different meanings, namely indirect institutional power, ...

  4. Development of two-phase flow analysis system for increasing thermal efficiency of power plant. (1) 3D analysis for evaluating the thermal-hydraulic behavior in secondary side of the steam generator

    For upgrades of nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor, it is one of the effective mean to improve the steam generator (SG) secondary flow. To evaluate thermal-fluid dynamics in secondary system of SG, boiling two-phase phenomenon is needed to analyze. In this study, new numerical analysis system is developing for PWR secondary system including SG and turbine system. Firstly three dimensional two-phase flow analysis model of SG secondary-side is developed with two-fluid model, and we confirm that our model can estimate steam pressure of feeding type SG. Secondary present model is applied to preheat type SG and evaluate the effect of increasing of steam pressure in secondary-side. From this result, we succeeded in predicting the steam pressure increase with improving the method of feedwater supply. (author)

  5. Increased nuclear safety and reliability through power beaming

    Space satellites and platforms currently include self-contained power systems to supply the energy necessary to accomplish mission objectives. With power beaming, the power system is separate from the satellite and the two are connected by an energy beam. This approach is analogous to earth-based central station power generation and distribution over transmission lines to various customers. In space, power is produced by power satellites (central power generating stations) and transmitted via energy beams to individual users. Power beaming has the ability to provide an order of magnitude increase in power availability over solar-based power systems with less mass on orbit. The technologies needed for power beaming are being developed today under existing programs directed by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the US Department of Energy. A space power architecture based on power beaming would greatly increase the safety and reliability of employing nuclear power in space

  6. Valka to increase biofuel power capacity


    Eesti Energia omandas enamusosaluse Valka soojusettevõttes Host Energo. Eesti Energiale kuulub nüüd 90% ettevõttest ja linnale 10%. Ettevõte uus nimi on Enefit Heat&Power Valka ja viimane rajab aastaks 2012 Valka uue biokütusel koostootmisjaama

  7. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley


    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  8. Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics

    Qi Li; Qian Lewei; Woodruff Stephen; Cartes David


    Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics ...

  9. Power system analysis

    Kumar, Narenkumarsanjiv


    This book has been written for B. Tech/B.Sc (Engg.)/B.E. students. It consists of seven chapters in all, covering the complete topics systematically and exhaustively. The book is designed as a complete course text of 'Power System Analysis' for undergraduate students of electrical engineering in accordance with the syllabi of Delhi Technological University, Indraprastha University, and Other India Universities/Institutions. This book is to meet the needs of Third Year (6th Semester) students of B.Tech. (Electrical Engineering and Electrical & Electronics Engineering) studying in Engineering co

  10. Experience in increasing power at Grohnde nuclear power station

    Steps to improve performance were taken at Grohnde nuclear power station in the years 1986-1990. These are described, together with details of operation since. Also covered are the main factors in calculating plant data as part of monitoring performance. 4 tabs

  11. Increasing power supply from land to offshore installations

    The report analyses how increasing the amount of power supplied from land to the offshore petroleum installations will affect the emissions of carbon dioxide from power production on land. At first, such power transmission will increase the emission of carbon dioxide from the existing power stations outside Norway. Since the price of the power also increases, the growth in consumption will be dampened. This means that the total emission will not increase as much as it would if the power supply to the offshore platforms had been based solely on the production in the existing coal power works. If in the long term new conventional gas power works can be built commercially, then increased power transmission to the offshore installations will cause the emissions from Norwegian onshore power production to increase. If conventional gas power plants are not granted concession, then the effect will be increased production in existing plants in other countries and reduced growth in consumption. The net increase in consumption implies increased emission of carbon dioxide from production in coal, oil or gas power stations in Denmark, Finland, Germany or Poland

  12. Increasing the power of the high temperature reactor module

    To alleviate the economic problems of the modular pebble bed high temperature reactor, its design was modified in such a way that the power output was increased from 200 to 350 MWth. The core geometry was changed from cylindrical to annular, and the pressure vessel diameter was increased to 6.7 m. Control rods are placed in both the outer reflector and the graphite central column. In a safety analysis, loss of heat sink, loss of coolant and water ingress accident were examined. Reactor shutdown and decay heat removal take place passively, and the maximum fuel temperature stays theoretically below 1600 C, implying full retention of the fission products in the fuel elements. The central column has a diminishing effect on the positive reactivity effect of water ingress. A cost analysis shows that the specific investment costs of a four-module plant would decrease by 26% and the electricity generating costs would reduce by 19%. ((orig.))

  13. About the operation efficiency increase of high-power shunt reactors

    Жорняк, Людмила Борисовна; Осинская, Валентина Ивановна; Пальцун, Андрей Сергеевич


    Ways to increase the voltage quality in energy-intensive customers’ networks are investigated. Presence of the reactive power in transmission networks decreases essentially quality of electric energy input that results in power losses, voltage subsidences and drops in power transmission lines, enforced increase of power transformers’ power and cable sections in such networks. An engineering solution to decrease additional losses of a shunt reactor is proposed, analysis of different types of w...

  14. Investigating power control in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    Margaris, Ioannis D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Electric Energy Systems Lab.; Hansen, Anca D.; Sorensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.; Hatziargyriou, Nikos D. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Electric Energy Systems Lab.; Public Power Corporation S.A., Athens (Greece)


    Increasing levels of wind penetration in autonomous power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Special features of non-interconnected power systems make security issues rather critical, as the operation of large wind farms like conventional power plants is becoming a necessity. This paper includes the study case of Rhodos island, in Greece, where rapidly increasing wind penetration has started to impose serious security issues for the immediate future. The scenarios studied here correspond to reference year of study 2012 and include wind farms with three different wind turbine technologies - namely Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and Active Stall Induction Generator (ASIG) based wind turbines. Aggregated models of the wind farms are being used and results for different load cases are being analyzed and discussed. The ability of wind farms to assist in some of the power system control services traditionally carried out by conventional synchronous generation is being investigated and discussed. The power grid of the island, including speed governors and automatic voltage regulators, is simulated in the dedicated power system simulation program Power Factory from DIgSILENT. (orig.)

  15. Prospects of increasing the power of a two-circuit geothermal power plant

    The results of analysis of the thermodynamical cycle of the geothermal NPPs secondary circuit with various versions of the geothermal circulation system are presented. It is shown, that the technological scheme with horizontal well is the optimal one. The conclusion is made that by further assimilation of thermal power with application of the experience, accumulated by petroleum specialist, it is necessary to built up geothermal circulation systems with horizontal wells. This will sharply increase the indices of the geothermal branch, its efficiency and competivity as compared to the traditional power engineering

  16. Increasing the output of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary

    Some issues related to the increased power output of PNPP are discussed. The circumstances are presented that make possible higher performance of existing reactors. The programs and plants for increased performance of the PNPP are described. (R.P.)

  17. Power and death: Mortality salience increases power seeking while feeling powerful reduces death anxiety.

    Belmi, Peter; Pfeffer, Jeffrey


    According to Terror Management Theory, people respond to reminders of mortality by seeking psychological security and bolstering their self-esteem. Because previous research suggests that having power can provide individuals a sense of security and self-worth, we hypothesize that mortality salience leads to an increased motivation to acquire power, especially among men. Study 1 found that men (but not women) who wrote about their death reported more interest in acquiring power. Study 2A and Study 2B demonstrated that when primed with reminders of death, men (but not women) reported behaving more dominantly during the subsequent week, while both men and women reported behaving more prosocially during that week. Thus, mortality salience prompts people to respond in ways that help them manage their death anxiety but in ways consistent with normative gender expectations. Furthermore, Studies 3-5 showed that feeling powerful reduces anxiety when mortality is salient. Specifically, we found that when primed to feel more powerful, both men and women experienced less mortality anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26867106

  18. Advanced Power System Analysis Capabilities


    As a continuing effort to assist in the design and characterization of space power systems, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power and Propulsion Office developed a powerful computerized analysis tool called System Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE). This year, SPACE was used extensively in analyzing detailed operational timelines for the International Space Station (ISS) program. SPACE was developed to analyze the performance of space-based photovoltaic power systems such as that being developed for the ISS. It is a highly integrated tool that combines numerous factors in a single analysis, providing a comprehensive assessment of the power system's capability. Factors particularly critical to the ISS include the orientation of the solar arrays toward the Sun and the shadowing of the arrays by other portions of the station.

  19. Analysis of the maximal possible grid relief from PV-peak-power impacts by using storage systems for increased self-consumption

    Highlights: • Presentation of a MATLAB battery storage model. • Development of a controlled persistence forecast management strategy. • Perfect forecast in comparison to an easy feasible persistence forecast. • More grid relief with forecast than with strategies to maximize self-consumption. - Abstract: For future energy supply systems the effects and benefits of battery storage systems in households with photovoltaic (PV) generators and the effects on distribution and transmission grids need to be identified and analyzed. The development of grid relieving management strategies for the storage system in due consideration of self-consumption is a necessary step forward in order to analyze the potential of private home battery storage systems to reduce stress on the power supply system. A MATLAB-based model of a lithium-ion storage system has been developed. The model is applicable for a wide range of PV generator sizes, different battery storage systems and diverse management strategies. In order to identify the potential of grid relieving forecast strategies, without discharging the storage into the grid, a management strategy based on persistence forecasts of solar radiation and household load demand has been implemented and analyzed. To minimize forecast uncertainties a proportional plus integral controller has been developed. The persistence forecast management strategy is applicable in real-life PV-battery-systems and due to the simple forecast it is easy to equip existing systems with such a management system with only low effort. As a result it will be shown that a storage system management based on forecasts has a significantly higher potential to relieve the grid than a system that only maximizes self-consumption as it is usually used nowadays. Besides, such a management strategy is able to unload the grid more than a static power reduction to 70% of the nominal power rating according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). At the

  20. RF Power Amplifier Analysis

    M. Lokay; K. Pelikan


    The special program is presented for the demonstration of RF power transistor amplifiers for the purposes of the high-school education in courses of radio transmitters. The program is written in Turbo Pascal 6. 0 and enables to study the waveforms in selected points of the amplifier and to draw the trajectories of the working point in a plot of output transistor characteristics.

  1. Increased Power for the Analysis of Label-free LC-MS/MS Proteomics Data by Combining Spectral Counts and Peptide Peak Attributes*

    Dicker, Lee; Lin, Xihong; Ivanov, Alexander R.


    Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics provides a wealth of information about proteins present in biological samples. In bottom-up LC-MS/MS-based proteomics, proteins are enzymatically digested into peptides prior to query by LC-MS/MS. Thus, the information directly available from the LC-MS/MS data is at the peptide level. If a protein-level analysis is desired, the peptide-level information must be rolled up into protein-level information. We propose a pri...

  2. RF Power Amplifier Analysis

    M. Lokay


    Full Text Available The special program is presented for the demonstration of RF power transistor amplifiers for the purposes of the high-school education in courses of radio transmitters. The program is written in Turbo Pascal 6. 0 and enables to study the waveforms in selected points of the amplifier and to draw the trajectories of the working point in a plot of output transistor characteristics.

  3. Thermal Analysis of Power Transformer

    Kravchenko E.V.; Ivleva D. Yu.


    A new approach for predicting the reliability indices based on the numerical analysis of nonuniform temperature fields of power transformer is reported. The failure rates of a power transformer in a real thermal mode of device under natural convection were compared with statistical data.. The necessity of unsteady temperature field consideration was shown to enchance the reliability prediction

  4. Empirical analysis of buyer power

    Beckert, Walter


    This paper provides a comprehensive econometric framework for the empirical analysis of buyer power. It encompasses the two main features of pricing schemes in business-to-business relationships: nonlinear price schedules and bargaining over rents. Disentangling them is critical to the empirical identification of buyer power. Testable predictions from the theoretical analysis are delineated, and a pragmatic empirical methodology is presented. It is readily implementable on the basis of transa...

  5. Reversing pathologically increased EEG power by acoustic coordinated reset neuromodulation.

    Adamchic, Ilya; Toth, Timea; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.


    Acoustic Coordinated Reset (CR) neuromodulation is a patterned stimulation with tones adjusted to the patient's dominant tinnitus frequency, which aims at desynchronizing pathological neuronal synchronization. In a recent proof-of-concept study, CR therapy, delivered 4–6 h/day more than 12 weeks, induced a significant clinical improvement along with a significant long-lasting decrease of pathological oscillatory power in the low frequency as well as γ band and an increase of the α power in a ...

  6. Green certificates will lead to increased electric power production

    The implementation of green certificates will lead to increased electricity production from renewable energy sources and less risk of price crises. For the time being, a common market for green certificates will be established with Sweden from January 1, 2006. It is possible to realise a ''compulsory total quota'' of 20 TWh by 2016. Green certificates will imply a premium on the electricity bill. However, the quota system will imply increased power generation, which in turn tends to lower the price. Norway should in principle follow Sweden's definition of renewable energy: all new hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, wave and tidal power, biomass energy, and energy recovery. The certificate regime will apply to new investments in renewable power production. However, it would be natural to include the established renewable power production that is currently receiving support. Some critics fear that the consumers rather than the authorities will subsidize the production of green power. The point is being made that central EU countries may save great sums by investing in renewable energy in Norway

  7. Increasing Wind Power Penetration in Autonomous Power Systems through No-Flow Operation of Pelton Turbines

    Platero, Carlos Antonio; Nicolet, Christophe; Sánchez José, A.; Kawkabani, Basile


    The integration of wind power in power systems results in a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, it has a positive environmental impact. However, the operation of these power systems becomes increasingly complex, owing mainly to random behaviour of the wind.

  8. Does green consumerism increase the acceptance of wind power?

    In this paper, we discuss what might be termed an action-based learning approach to promoting important pro-environmental actions, such as support for or acceptance of environmental policy. Such an approach involves promoting simple and easy behaviours as entry points for more radical steps towards sustainability, referred to as “catalytic” or “wedge” behaviours. Despite the obvious need for innovative approaches to promote important pro-environmental behaviour, and sound theoretical backing for such concepts, there is a lack of research testing the key propositions of this approach. In a survey study based on a random sample of residents of the state of Maine, USA, we find that both everyday “green” behaviour and the acceptance of an expansion of wind power are rooted in environmental concern and that everyday “green” behaviour gives a significant contribution to predicting acceptance of wind power when controlling for environmental concern. Hence, the promotion of everyday “green” behaviours may prepare the grounds for increasing acceptance of more far-reaching changes in the population, such as an expansion of wind power. - Highlights: ► Acceptance of wind power increases with environmental concern. ► So does everyday “green” consumerism. ► Green consumerism further increases acceptance of wind power. ► The effect of environmental concern on acceptance is partly mediated through green consumerism. ► Participants in the study are a random sample of residents of Maine, USA.

  9. Configuration for sudden power increase in steam turbines

    For a sudden increase of the power of a steam turbine without impairing feedwater supply to the boiler, the patent proposes to install another heat transfer element, separately heated, in the feedwater circuit. This heat transfer element starts operation when the flow of extraction steam to the feedwater heaters is cut off. The configuration is described in detail. (HP)

  10. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis


    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  11. Increased power density from a spiral wound microbial fuel cell.

    Jia, Boyang; Hu, Dawei; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Kun; Liu, Hong


    Using Microbial fuel cell (MFC) to convert organic and inorganic matter into electricity is of great interest for powering portable devices, which is now still limited by the output of MFC. In this study, a spiral wound MFC (SWMFC) with relatively large volume normalized surface area of separator (4.2 cm(2)/ml) was fabricated to enhance power generation. Compared with double-membrane MFC (DMMFC) and conventional double chamber MFC (DCMFC), the power density of SWMFC increased by 42% and 99% resulted from its lower internal resistance. Besides larger separator area, the better performance of SWMFC benefited from its structure sandwiching the cathodes between two separators. This point was proved again by a comparison of another DCMFC and a triple chamber MFC (TCMFC) as well as a simulation using finite element method. Moreover, the feature of SWMFC was more convenient and compact to scale up. Therefore, SWMFC provides a promising configuration for high power output as a portable power source. PMID:23116542

  12. Aspects on Dynamic Power Flow Controllers and Related Devices for Increased Flexibility in Electric Power Systems

    Johansson, Nicklas


    This thesis studies different aspects of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices which are used to improve the power transfer capability and increase the controllability in electric power systems. In the thesis, different aspects on the usage and control of Dynamic Power Flow Controllers (DPFC) and related FACTS devices are studied. The DPFC is a combination of a Phase Shifting Transformer (PST) and a Thyristor Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC)/Thyristor Switched Series Reactor (TSSR)....

  13. Optical Gravitational Wave Antenna with Increased Power Handling Capability

    Matsko, Andrey B; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Vyatchanin, Sergey P


    Fundamental sensitivity of an optical interferometric gravitational wave detector increases with increase of the optical power which, in turn, limited because of the opto-mechanical parametric instabilities of the interferometer. We propose to optimize geometrical shape of the mirrors of the detector to reduce the diffraction-limited finesse of unessential optical modes of the interferometer resulting in increase of the threshold of the opto-mechanical instabilities and subsequent increase of the measurement sensitivity. Utilizing parameters of the LIGO interferometer we found that the proposed technique allows constructing a Fabry-Perot interferometer with round trip diffraction loss of the fundamental mode not exceeding $5$~ppm, whereas the loss of the first dipole as well as the other high order modes exceed $1,000$~ppm and $8,000$~ppm, respectively. The optimization comes at the price of tighter tolerances on the mirror tilt stability, but does not result in a significant modification of the optical beam ...

  14. Power electronic systems Walsh analysis with Matlab

    Deb, Anish


    A Totally Different Outlook on Power Electronic System AnalysisPower Electronic Systems: Walsh Analysis with MATLAB® builds a case for Walsh analysis as a powerful tool in the study of power electronic systems. It considers the application of Walsh functions in analyzing power electronic systems, and the advantages offered by Walsh domain analysis of power electronic systems. Solves Power Electronic Systems in an Unconventional WayThis book successfully integrates power electronics as well as systems and control. Incorporating a complete orthonormal function set very much unlike the sine-cosin

  15. Power Quality Analysis in Off-Grid Power Platform

    Stanislav Misak


    Full Text Available Research projects in the field of electrical distribution systems are moving to a new philosophy of Smart Grids, where the effort is to use the maximum possible share of power from renewable energy potential. Under this philosophy the emphasis is on energy independence, reliability and safety of operation of energy distribution system. Research in this area leads for example to developing of autonomous local microgrids with the several specific requirements. However, the problem of parameters keeping of quality of electric energy can arise together with increased penetration of distributed generation in microgrids. This problem is caused by decreased short-circuit power of local renewable energy sources, stochastic supply of electric energy from renewable energy sources and operating of active distribution grid in autonomous mode without connection to the external distribution system. General introduction to the power quality evaluation in off-grid power system is introduced in this paper. Initial results from power quality analysis from small off-grids system is presented in this text too.

  16. Application of Interline Power Flow Controller to Increase Transient Stability of Power System

    Prechanon Kumkratug


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC is a novel device which can increase transient stability of power system. To verify the capability of the effect of IPFC on stability improvement of power system, the suitable mathematical model and control strategy of IPFC are needed to be presented. Approach: This study presented the mathematical model and control strategy of IPFC. The multi-series converters of IPFC are represented by multi-series voltage sources with associate transformer leakage reactance. The parameters of IPFC are modeled into power flow equation and thus it is used to determine control strategy. This study used Bang-Bang control strategy. The swing curves of the three phase faulted power system without and with an IPFC are tested and compared in various cases. Results: The swing curve of system without an IPFC get increased monotonically and thus the system can be considered as unstable whereas the swing curves of system with an IPFC can return to stable equilibrium point. Conclusion: The presented model of IPFC can help us to comprehend the effect of IPFC on transient stability improvement of power system. From simulation results, the IPFC can increase transient stability of power system.

  17. Research and Design Problems Introduced by Increased Power Output

    Kurtz, Oskar


    In what follows the question of the number and geometrical arrangement of the cylinders so important in the design of high performance power units will be considered from various points of view. A discussion will be given of the possibilities of the various working processes and an investigation will be made of possible means for improving the continuous operation and take-off performance, particularly the methods of supercharging, increasing the r.p.m., and employing the two-stroke-cycle engine. Finally, the question of lowered fuel consumption will be gone over briefly. The subject will be treated under four headings: I) Considerations on the engine layout; II) Increase in output per given swept volume; III) Improvement in the take-off performance; IV) Lowering of the fuel consumption.

  18. Effects of increased impeller power in a production-scale Aspergillus oryzae fermentation.

    Li, Zheng Jian; Shukla, Vivek; Wenger, Kevin S; Fordyce, Andrew P; Pedersen, Annemarie Gade; Marten, Mark R


    The goal in this study was to determine how increased impeller power affects enzyme expression in large-scale (80 m(3)), fed-batch Aspergillus oryzae fermentations. An approximate 50% increase in average impeller power was achieved by increasing impeller diameter approximately 10%, while operating at slightly reduced speed. Measured decreases in terminal (95%) mixing time show increased power improved bulk mixing. However, batches operated at increased power had lower recombinant enzyme productivity. Biomass assays and image analysis tests showed no significant difference between "high power" and control batches, suggesting that slower growth, altered morphology, or increased hyphal fragmentation were not the cause of reduced productivity. Off-line tests on the shear-thinning, highly viscous broth show oxygen limitation occurred after transport through the air-liquid interface and imply the limitation may involve bulk mixing. Specifically, oxygen transfer may be limited to a small zone surrounding each impeller. When this is the case, oxygen mass transfer will be determined by both impeller shear and fluid circulation, which have been characterized with the energy dissipation/circulation function (EDCF). EDCF values during control fermentations were approximately constant at 25 kW m (-3) s(-1), while EDCF values during "high power" batches fell linearly from 40 to 15 kW m (-3) s(-1). The point at which "high power" EDCF values drop below those in control fermentations corresponds almost exactly with the point at which product titer stops increasing. Thus, our findings suggest oxygen mass transfer was less efficient during the latter half of "high power" fermentations because of reductions in impeller speed and subsequent decreases in EDCF values. This observation has clear implications during the scale-up of viscous fungal fermentations, implying that not only is the level of impeller power important, but also relevant is how this power is applied. PMID:12052056

  19. Increasing Power of Groupwise Association Test with Likelihood Ratio Test

    Sul, Jae Hoon; Han, Buhm; Eskin, Eleazar

    Sequencing studies have been discovering a numerous number of rare variants, allowing the identification of the effects of rare variants on disease susceptibility. As a method to increase the statistical power of studies on rare variants, several groupwise association tests that group rare variants in genes and detect associations between groups and diseases have been proposed. One major challenge in these methods is to determine which variants are causal in a group, and to overcome this challenge, previous methods used prior information that specifies how likely each variant is causal. Another source of information that can be used to determine causal variants is observation data because case individuals are likely to have more causal variants than control individuals. In this paper, we introduce a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that uses both data and prior information to infer which variants are causal and uses this finding to determine whether a group of variants is involved in a disease. We demonstrate through simulations that LRT achieves higher power than previous methods. We also evaluate our method on mutation screening data of the susceptibility gene for ataxia telangiectasia, and show that LRT can detect an association in real data. To increase the computational speed of our method, we show how we can decompose the computation of LRT, and propose an efficient permutation test. With this optimization, we can efficiently compute an LRT statistic and its significance at a genome-wide level. The software for our method is publicly available at

  20. TRIGA Reactor Power Upgrading Analysis

    Reactor physics safety analysis supporting the power upgrading from 1MW to 2MW of a typical TRIGA Mark II reactor is presented for steady state and pulse operation. The analysis is performed for mixed core configuration consisting of two types of fuel elements: standard 8,5% or 12% stainless-steel clad fuel elements and LEU fuel elements (20% uranium concentration). The following reactor physics codes are applied: WIMS, TRIGAC, EXTERMINATOR, PULSTRI and TRISTAN. Results of the calculations are compared to experiments for steady state operation at 1 MW. The analysis shows that besides technical modifications of the core (installation of an additional control rod) also some strict administrative limitations have to be imposed on operational parameters (excess reactivity, pulse reactivity, core composition) to assure safe operation within design limits. (author)

  1. Power analysis of trials with multilevel data

    Moerbeek, Mirjam


    Power Analysis of Trials with Multilevel Data covers using power and sample size calculations to design trials that involve nested data structures. The book gives a thorough overview of power analysis that details terminology and notation, outlines key concepts of statistical power and power analysis, and explains why they are necessary in trial design. It guides you in performing power calculations with hierarchical data, which enables more effective trial design.The authors are leading experts in the field who recognize that power analysis has attracted attention from applied statisticians i

  2. Cree criticize HQ power analysis

    Response of the Grand Council of the Crees in Quebec to the development of hydro-electric resources on the Great Whale River in the James Bay region and its impact on Quebec's Cree population was discussed. The Cree have condemned the generation market power analysis which Hydro-Quebec Energy Services submitted to the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) in support of an application for a FERC power marketer license. The Cree argued that the license would result in the flooding of Cree hunting lands and the destruction of prime wildlife habitat. Hydro-Quebec argued that the utility would not act without the agreement of the Cree, and would not do anything that is not acceptable to the people living in the area

  3. Fuel design with low peak of local power for BWR reactors with increased nominal power

    The Federal Commission of Electricity recently announcement the beginning of the works related with the increase of the power to 120% of the original nominal one in the Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) of the Laguna Verde Central (CLV): In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies of the impact on the design of the recharge of derived fuel of this increase. One of the main effects of the power increase type that it is promoting, is the increment of the flow of generated vapor, what takes, to a bigger fraction of vacuum in the core presenting increased values of the maximum fraction to the limit, so much of the ratio of lineal heat generation (XFLPD) as of the ratio of critic power (MFLCPR). In the made studies, it is found that these fractions rise lineally with the increase of the nominal power. Considering that the reactors of the CLV at the moment operate to 105% of the original nominal power, it would imply an increment of the order of 13.35% in the XFLPD and in the MFLCPR operating to a nominal power of 120% of the original one. This would propitiate bigger problems to design appropriately the fuel cycle and the necessity, almost unavoidable, of to resort to a fuel assembly type more advanced for the recharges of the cores. As option, in the ININ the feasibility of continuing using the same type of it fuel assembles that one has come using recently in the CLV, the type GE12 is analyzed. To achieve it was outlined to diminish the peak factor of local power (LPPF) of the power cells that compose the fuel recharge in 13.35%. It was started of a fuel design previously used in the recharge of the unit 1 cycle 12 and it was re-design to use it in the recharge design of the cycle 13 of the unit 1, considering an increase to 120% of the original power and the same requirements of cycle extension. For the re-design of the fuel assembly cell it was used the PreDiCeldas computer program developed in the ININ. It was able to diminish the LPPF

  4. Impact of Production from Photovoltaic Power Plants on Increase of Ancillary Services in the Czech Republic

    Martin Smocek


    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources represent a noticeable part of the overall energetic concept development. New integration of renewable energy resources into power grids has a significant impact on the reliability and quality of power supply. The major problem of the photovoltaic and wind power plants is their dependency on weather conditions, since it has a direct effect on their immediate output produced that shows stochastic behaviour. These stochastic outputs result in very adverse impacts on the power grid. Further development of these resources could lead to exceeding of the control and absorption abilities of the power grid. The power grid must be set in balance with respect to the production and consumption of electric power at any time. The operation of photovoltaic power plants impair keeping this balance. That has an adverse impact on the very operation and maintenance of network parameters within the extent required. This survey deals with analysis focused on operation of the photovoltaic power plants with respect to the increase of reserve power in ancillary services in the Czech Republic.

  5. How fast increasing powers of a continuous random variable converge to Benford's law

    Wójcik, Michał Ryszard


    It is known that increasing powers of a continuous random variable converge in distribution to Benford's law as the exponent approaches infinity. The rate of convergence has been estimated using Fourier analysis, but we present an elementary method, which is easier to apply and provides a better estimation in the widely studied case of a uniformly distributed random variable.

  6. PowerFactory applications for power system analysis

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco


    This book presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and applications of DIgSILENT PowerFactory, an advanced power system simulation software package, for different types of power systems studies. Written by specialists in the field, it combines expertise and years of experience in the use of DIgSILENT PowerFactory with a deep understanding of power systems analysis. These complementary approaches therefore provide a fresh perspective on how to model, simulate and analyse power systems. It presents methodological approaches for modelling of system components, including both classical and non-

  7. Focus: Increasing profitability from powerful assets. Annual report for 1998

    Report on operations at the end of fiscal year 1998 and on the year-end financial position of PanCanadian Petroleum Limited is provided. By all accounts the company had a successful year: increased production by seven percent to 796 mmcf/day, making the company the largest publicly traded gas producer in Canada; ranked as one of lowest-cost producers in western Canada with average operating costs of $ 0.37/mcf; drilled 1,081 new wells at a success rate of 85 per cent and increased royalty interest production five per cent to an average of 26,700 barrels of oil equivalent per day. Other achievements included drilling in Nova Scotia, land and license aquisition in the Gulf of Mexico and in the North Sea respectively, acquisition of a 15 per cent interest in two exploration blocks off the Ivory Coast in West Africa, refining of proprietory seismic technologies developed in recent years, reduction of average well costs by 10 per cent by using new drill bit technology, consolidation of Canadian and American natural gas marketing groups to increase market access across North America, and management reorganization of the Heavy Oil Business Unit. In addition to details of these and other achievements, the report also contains management analysis of key business results, the consolidated financial statements and various operating and financial statistics and results

  8. Magnetic Metamaterial Superlens for Increased Range Wireless Power Transfer

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Da Huang(Chongqing University of Posts & Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 China); Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Matthew S. Reynolds; Smith, David R.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav


    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the “long range” regime – referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest ...

  9. Power Consumption Analysis of a Modern Smartphone

    Malik, Muhammad Yasir


    This paper presents observations about power consumption of a latest smartphone. Modern smartphones are powerful devices with different choices of data connections and other functional modes. This paper provides analysis of power utilization for these different operation modes. Also, we present power consumption by vital operating system (OS) components.

  10. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity

    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  11. Expertise about the request of the nuclear power plant Leibstadt for increasing the power to 3600 MWth

    . In the case of design incidents too, all safety-relevant limits and the maximal tolerable dose rates in the environment must be respected. In the context of design incidents, the 'transitory' group also constitutes the limiting case with the higher power. For the complete judgement of the safety of a nuclear power plant it is not sufficient to estimate the effects of a design incident through deterministic methods. The evaluation of the effects of out-of-design accidents needs a probabilistic safety analysis which determines the frequency as well as the consequences of an accident. The results show that KKL represents a very small risk for the environment. In KKL the measures necessary for safe operation and protection of mankind and environment at a thermal power of 3600 MW have already been taken or will be taken shortly. According to its examination, HSK concludes that there are no safety-relevant reasons speaking against an operational license for the increased thermal power. The increase will, however, have to be carried out in 4 steps of 1 year each in order to gain operational experience

  12. Analysis of a solar powered absorption system

    Highlights: • Conventional absorption system modified to increase COP. • Results indicated increase of 10% in COP due to dephlegmator heat recovery. • Results indicated increase of 8% in COP due to refrigerant storage unit. • Results indicated increase of 18% in COP due to combined effect of modifications. • Simulation results indicated a very good agreement with the measured results. - Abstract: Today, fossil fuel is the primary extensively used source of energy. However, its negative impact on the environment have forced the energy research continuity to seriously consider renewable sources of energy. Solar energy, in particular, has been the main focus in this regard because it is a source of clean energy and naturally available. This study presents the design and analysis of a solar powered absorption refrigeration system modified to increase its coefficient of performance (COP). The modifications include recovering of waste heat from a dephlegmator and utilization of a refrigerant storage unit. The simulation results indicate an increase of 10% in the COP of the conventional design using dephlegmator heat recovery and an increase of 8% in the COP of the conventional design due to the use of a refrigerant storage. The analysis for the combined effect of modifications indicates an increase of 18% in the COP compared to conventional design. Calculated values of coefficient of performance indicate a very good agreement with the ones obtained based on measurement

  13. Increasing power generation in horizontal axis wind turbines using optimized flow control

    Cooney, John A., Jr.

    In order to effectively realize future goals for wind energy, the efficiency of wind turbines must increase beyond existing technology. One direct method for achieving increased efficiency is by improving the individual power generation characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines. The potential for additional improvement by traditional approaches is diminishing rapidly however. As a result, a research program was undertaken to assess the potential of using distributed flow control to increase power generation. The overall objective was the development of validated aerodynamic simulations and flow control approaches to improve wind turbine power generation characteristics. BEM analysis was conducted for a general set of wind turbine models encompassing last, current, and next generation designs. This analysis indicated that rotor lift control applied in Region II of the turbine power curve would produce a notable increase in annual power generated. This was achieved by optimizing induction factors along the rotor blade for maximum power generation. In order to demonstrate this approach and other advanced concepts, the University of Notre Dame established the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design (eWiND). This initiative includes a fully instrumented meteorological tower and two pitch-controlled wind turbines. The wind turbines are representative in their design and operation to larger multi-megawatt turbines, but of a scale that allows rotors to be easily instrumented and replaced to explore new design concepts. Baseline data detailing typical site conditions and turbine operation is presented. To realize optimized performance, lift control systems were designed and evaluated in CFD simulations coupled with shape optimization tools. These were integrated into a systematic design methodology involving BEM simulations, CFD simulations and shape optimization, and selected experimental validation. To refine and illustrate the proposed design methodology, a

  14. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…


    Zikriya Abrar; Quazi Aamer; Jathar Rajashree; Supute Trupti


    A lot of scientific and technological advancements have been made in the drug delivery research in the recent years. Physiological problems like short Gastric Residence Time (GRT) and the unpredictable Gastric Emptying Time (GET) were overcome with the use of gas powered mucoadhesive dosage forms which provide opportunity for both local and systemic drug action. Several approaches are currently being used in the prolongation of GRT, which includes the Gas Powered Drug Delivery Systems (GPDDS)...

  16. Magnetic Metamaterial Superlens for Increased Range Wireless Power Transfer

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; da Huang; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S.; Smith, David R.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav


    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the ``long range'' regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)6; power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A ``superlens'', however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system.


    Grigorash O. V.


    Full Text Available The level of technical development today requires the creation of highly effective, including reliable, uninter-rupted power supply systems. We have shown modern requirements and design features of modern systems of uninterruptible power supply, which should be built on a modular principle. It is shown that the problem of synthesis of systems in a modular approach is addressing three issues: development of the structure of the system subject to the requirements of consumers to quality of power and the allowable time of power outage; determining the required level redundancy of major functional units (blocks, elements to ensure the required reliability of the system; - ensuring the most effective interconnection of modules, including electromagnetic compatibility, and the rational use during normal and emergency operation of the system. We have proposed new structural solution of the main functional units and uninterrupted power supply systems in modular design. To reduce EMI and improve efficiency uninterruptible power supply systems in the design of static converters we need to use a transformer with a rotating magnetic field. In addition, the prospective current is to be used as a source of renewable energy. Another promising approach is the use of direct frequency converters as voltage stabilizers and frequency of the current

  18. Magnetic metamaterial superlens for increased range wireless power transfer.

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Huang, Da; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S; Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav


    The ability to wirelessly power electrical devices is becoming of greater urgency as a component of energy conservation and sustainability efforts. Due to health and safety concerns, most wireless power transfer (WPT) schemes utilize very low frequency, quasi-static, magnetic fields; power transfer occurs via magneto-inductive (MI) coupling between conducting loops serving as transmitter and receiver. At the "long range" regime - referring to distances larger than the diameter of the largest loop - WPT efficiency in free space falls off as (1/d)(6); power loss quickly approaches 100% and limits practical implementations of WPT to relatively tight distances between power source and device. A "superlens", however, can concentrate the magnetic near fields of a source. Here, we demonstrate the impact of a magnetic metamaterial (MM) superlens on long-range near-field WPT, quantitatively confirming in simulation and measurement at 13-16 MHz the conditions under which the superlens can enhance power transfer efficiency compared to the lens-less free-space system. PMID:24407490

  19. Financial analysis of wind power projects

    In this work a financial assessment of the economic competitiveness of wind power projects in Argentina compared with other no CO2 emission sources, such as nuclear, was developed. Argentina has a market driven electrical grid system, and no greenhouse gas emissions penalty taxes, together with a very low natural gas cost and a sustained nuclear development program. For the financial analysis an average wind velocity source of 8 m/s, on several wind farms (from 2 machines to 60) built with new technology wind generators (750 kilowatts power, 900 dollar/kilowatt cost) operating over 20 years, was considered. The leveled cost obtained is decreasing while the number of machines is increasing, from 0,130 dollar/kilowatt-hour to 0,090 dollar/kilowatts-hour. This poor performance can be partially explained considering the higher interest rates in the argentine financial market (15%) than the ones in developed countries

  20. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)


    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  1. Impact of increasing MHTGR power on passive heat removal

    In 1990 a cost reduction study recommended that the reference US MHTGR module design be changed to an 84-column, 450 MW(t) annular reactor core to attain improved economics with the same high level of safety as the previous reference 66-column, 350 MW(t) MHTGR module. The objective of this paper is to report on a recently completed core configuration trade study that reviewed the basis for that recommendation with more detailed assessments. The trade study examined alternate core configurations in terms of the size, shape, and power level. Core configurations at 450 MW(t), an alterative at higher power, and one at lower power were considered. These alternatives represented the maximum achievable power for fuel element for two different reactor vessel sizes. Fuel, reactor internal and vessel temperatures during pressurized and depressurized conduction cooldown transients are presented and compared to limits. Based on the need to improve economics without sacrificing the MHTGR's high level of safety, the trade study confirmed that the previously selected 84-column, 450 MW(t) annular design remains the preferable configuration

  2. Does green consumerism increase the acceptance of wind power?

    Thøgersen, John; Noblet, Caroline


    based on a random sample of residents of the state of Maine, USA, we find that both everyday ‘‘ green ’’ behaviour and the acceptance of an expansion of wind power are rooted in environmental concern and that everyday ‘‘green’’ behaviour gives a significant contribution to predicting acceptance of wind...

  3. Probabilistic analysis of power assignments

    Graaf, de Maurits; Manthey, Bodo


    A fundamental problem for wireless ad hoc networks is the assignment of suitable transmission powers to the wireless devices such that the resulting communication graph is connected. The goal is to minimize the total transmit power in order to maximize the life-time of the network. Our aim is a prob

  4. Mandatory direct marketing of wind power increases financing costs

    Grau, Thilo; Neuhoff, Karsten; Tisdale, Matthew


    The 2014 reform of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare-Energien- Gesetz, or EEG) entailed that a mandatory direct marketing of green electricity be introduced. According to this law, operators of larger wind turbines must sell their electricity production on the electricity market. In addition to the wholesale price they receive a floating market premium, which is based on the average market value of all wind power in Germany. The mandatory direct marketing affects both the costs in...

  5. Mandatory Direct Marketing of Wind Power Increases Financing Costs

    Thilo Grau; Karsten Neuhoff; Matthew Tisdale


    The 2014 reform of the Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbare-Energien- Gesetz, or EEG) entailed that a mandatory direct marketing of green electricity be introduced. According to this law, operators of larger wind turbines must sell their electricity production on the electricity market. In addition to the wholesale price they receive a floating market premium, which is based on the average market value of all wind power in Germany. The mandatory direct marketing affects both the costs in...

  6. Power Analysis Software for Educational Researchers

    Peng, Chao-Ying Joanne; Long, Haiying; Abaci, Serdar


    Given the importance of statistical power analysis in quantitative research and the repeated emphasis on it by American Educational Research Association/American Psychological Association journals, the authors examined the reporting practice of power analysis by the quantitative studies published in 12 education/psychology journals between 2005…

  7. Supplement analysis, Southpoint power project



    The Calpine Corporation applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) Parker-Davis project in western Arizona. Western, as a major electric transmission system owner is required by existing policies and regulations, to provide access to its transmission system, when requested by an eligible organization. The proposed interconnection would integrate a major source of new generation into the Parker-Davis system which would allow Calpine to supply its power to the electric wholesale market. Based on this application, Western`s proposed action is to enter into an interconnection agreement with Calpine.

  8. Modelling of electrical power systems for power flow analysis

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    The industry systems in Brazil are responsible for a consumption of over 50% (fifty per cent) of the total electrical power generated: therefore, they are import loads in power flow studies, and their modeling should be as much the best. Usually, in power flow studies, the industry systems are modeled by taking the influence of the power (active and reactive) and of the current on the voltage into account. Since the inducting motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversize, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristic of power on shaft versus voltage into account. Since the induction motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversized, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristics of power on shaft versus voltage for the analysis of power systems, aiming a load flow study. Thereafter, a model of an equivalent motor which has a basis the typical performance curve of an induction motor is present. This model is obtained from empirical parameters, surveyed from a population of over 1000 motors. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Increasing role of nuclear power to tackle climate change

    Cho, Byung-Oke; Baek, Hun; Nam, Yung-Suk


    The global community is faced with challenges about both environmental and resource risks represented by climate change. In order to address and fight global warming and to be better prepared for the possible depletion of such fossil fuels, it is urgent for the global community to significantly lower its excessive dependency on fossil fuels. This paper attempts to make a prediction on global energy consumption and GHG emissions. It also analyzes the role of nuclear power in reducing GHG emissions in order to highlight the competitiveness of nuclear energy from the economic and environmental perspectives.

  10. Safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    A study about the safety analysis of nuclear power plant, giving emphasis to how and why to do is presented. The utilization of the safety analysis aiming to perform the licensing requirements is discussed, and an example of the Angra 2 and 3 safety analysis is shown. Some presented tendency of the safety analysis are presented and examples are shown.(E.G.)

  11. Failure analysis on China power grid based on power law

    Xiaofeng WENG; Yiguang HONG; Ancheng XUE; Shengwei MEI


    This paper is concerned with the mechanism of blackouts in China power system from the viewpoint of self-organized criticality. By using two estimation algorithms of scaled window variance (SWV) and rescaled rangestatistics (R/S), this paper studies the blackout data in China power system during 1988-1997. The result of analysis shows that the blackout data of 1994-1997 coincides well with the autocorrelation. Furthermore, it is found that the function of blackout probability vs. blackout size exhibits power law distribution.

  12. An Effective Distributed Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis

    MUTHU, B. M.


    Full Text Available The modern power systems consist of many interconnected synchronous generators having different inertia constants, connected with large transmission network and ever increasing demand for power exchange. The size of the power system grows exponentially due to increase in power demand. The data required for various power system applications have been stored in different formats in a heterogeneous environment. The power system applications themselves have been developed and deployed in different platforms and language paradigms. Interoperability between power system applications becomes a major issue because of the heterogeneous nature. The main aim of the paper is to develop a generalized distributed model for carrying out power system stability analysis. The more flexible and loosely coupled JAX-RPC model has been developed for representing transient stability analysis in large interconnected power systems. The proposed model includes Pre-Fault, During-Fault, Post-Fault and Swing Curve services which are accessible to the remote power system clients when the system is subjected to large disturbances. A generalized XML based model for data representation has also been proposed for exchanging data in order to enhance the interoperability between legacy power system applications. The performance measure, Round Trip Time (RTT is estimated for different power systems using the proposed JAX-RPC model and compared with the results obtained using traditional client-server and Java RMI models.

  13. Power flow analysis of a power system in the presence of interline power flow controller (IPFC)

    T. Ramana; Ch. Padmanabharaju; S.Sivanagaraju; A. V. Naresh Babu


    One of the latest generation flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controllers is interline power flow controller (IPFC). In general, it is connected in multiple transmission lines of a power system network. This paper presents power injection model (PIM) of IPFC. This model is incorporated in Newton-Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm to study the effect of IPFC parameters in power flow analysis. A program in MATLAB has been written in order to extend conventional NR algorithm based on this...

  14. Power System Transients Analysis by Wavelet Transforms

    陈维荣; 宋永华; 赵蔚


    In contrast to Fourier transform, wavelet transform is especially suitable for transient analysis because of its time-frequency characteristics with automatically-adjusted window lengths. Research shows that wavelet transform is one of the most powerful tools for power system transient analysis. The basic ideas of wavelet transform are presented in the paper together with several power system applications. It is clear that wavelet transform has some clear advantages over other transforms in detecting, analyzing, and identifying various types of power system transients.

  15. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    Kusic, George


    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  16. Dynamic security issues in autonomous power systems with increasing wind power penetration

    Margaris, I.D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;


    Technical requirements set by the network operators nowadays include various aspects, such as fault ride-through capability of wind turbines during faults, voltage-reactive power control and overall control of the wind farms as conventional power plants. Detailed models for the power system as well...... as for the wind farms are therefore essential for power system studies related to these issues, especially when applied to non interconnected systems with high wind power penetration. Detailed generic models for three different wind turbine technologies – Active Stall Induction Generator (ASIG), Doubly Fed...... Asynchronous Generator (DFAG) and Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) – are applied and issues regarding interaction with the power system are investigated. This paper provides conclusions about the dynamic security of non-interconnected power systems with high wind power penetration based...

  17. Study on development system of increasing gearbox for high-performance wind-power generator

    Xu, Hongbin; Yan, Kejun; Zhao, Junyu


    Based on the analysis of the development potentiality of wind-power generator and domestic manufacture of its key parts in China, an independent development system of the Increasing Gearbox for High-performance Wind-power Generator (IGHPWG) was introduced. The main elements of the system were studied, including the procedure design, design analysis system, manufacturing technology and detecting system, and the relative important technologies were analyzed such as mixed optimal joint transmission structure of the first planetary drive with two grade parallel axle drive based on equal strength, tooth root round cutting technology before milling hard tooth surface, high-precise tooth grinding technology, heat treatment optimal technology and complex surface technique, and rig test and detection technique of IGHPWG. The development conception was advanced the data share and quality assurance system through all the elements of the development system. The increasing Gearboxes for 600KW and 1MW Wind-power Generator have been successfully developed through the application of the development system.

  18. Analysis of Increased Information Technology Outsourcing Factors

    Brcar Franc


    Full Text Available The study explores the field of IT outsourcing. The narrow field of research is to build a model of IT outsourcing based on influential factors. The purpose of this research is to determine the influential factors on IT outsourcing expansion. A survey was conducted with 141 large-sized Slovenian companies. Data were statistically analyzed using binary logistic regression. The final model contains five factors: (1 management’s support; (2 knowledge on IT outsourcing; (3 improvement of efficiency and effectiveness; (4 quality improvement of IT services; and (5 innovation improvement of IT. Managers immediately can use the results of this research in their decision-making. Increased performance of each individual organization is to the benefit of the entire society. The examination of IT outsourcing with the methods used is the first such research in Slovenia.

  19. Safety Analysis for Power Reactor Protection System

    The main function of a Reactor Protection System (RPS) is to safely shutdown the reactor and prevents the release of radioactive materials. The purpose of this paper is to present a technique and its application for used in the analysis of safety system of the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). A more advanced technique has been presented to accurately study such problems as the plant availability assessments and Technical Specifications evaluations that are becoming increasingly important. The paper provides the Markov model for the Reactor Protection System of the NPP and presents results of model evaluations for two testing policies in technical specifications. The quantification of the Markov model provides the probability values that the system will occupy each of the possible states as a function of time.

  20. Power System Transient Stability Analysis Using SIMULINK

    Ekinci, Serdar


    SIMULINK is one of the most widely used software in academia and industry for modelling, analysis and simulating dynamical systems. Using SIMULINK, the simulation model can be established systematically beginning from easy sub-models. This paper covers modelling, simulation and transient stability analysis of a multi-machine power system using SIMULINK for educational and research purposes. The detailed model is developed for power system transient stability simulation and its implementation ...

  1. Computational methods in power system analysis

    Idema, Reijer


    This book treats state-of-the-art computational methods for power flow studies and contingency analysis. In the first part the authors present the relevant computational methods and mathematical concepts. In the second part, power flow and contingency analysis are treated. Furthermore, traditional methods to solve such problems are compared to modern solvers, developed using the knowledge of the first part of the book. Finally, these solvers are analyzed both theoretically and experimentally, clearly showing the benefits of the modern approach.

  2. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 2

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.


    The orbit-to-ground laser power conversion system analysis investigated the feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting solar energy into laser energy in space, and transmitting the laser energy to earth for conversion to electrical energy. The analysis included space laser systems with electrical outputs on the ground ranging from 100 to 10,000 MW. The space laser power system was shown to be feasible and a viable alternate to the microwave solar power satellite. The narrow laser beam provides many options and alternatives not attainable with a microwave beam.

  3. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes

  4. Analysis on Resources Utilization of Thermal Power Industry

    Mi Jianhua


    Based on the analysis and comparison of coal, oil and water consumptions in thermal power plants, thispaper introduces the present state of resources utilization in thermal power industry, and points out that the poten-tial of resources saving lies mainly in cutting down coal consumption and increasing the ratio of large-sized thermalunits. Measures and suggestions for upgrading resources utilization are put forward, such as to optimize coal-firedthermal power structure, develop cogeneration, clean coal combustion techniques and gas-steam combined cycletechniques. The existing thermal power plants shall execute technical retrofits and popularize water saving techniques.

  5. Nigerian Power Sector: Comparative Analysis of Productivity

    Iwuamadi ObiomaChidiebere


    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, power instability in the Nigerian Power Sector despite several mitigative measures by the government has created some chocks in the national socio-economic wheel of development. Unfortunately, the conceptual objective of the power reforms to remedy inadequate power generation capacity, inefficient usage of capacity, ineffective regulation and high technical losses is tardily being achieved. This research comparatively analyzed the rate of productivity change in Nigeria’s power sector from 2005 – 2013. The analysis reveals that privatization improved the productivity index by 89%. It is expected that this work may assist the power policy makers and regulators to come up with abetter framework for the full realization of the noble goals envisaged in this reform act.

  6. Development of Standardized Power Electronic Components, Subsystems, and Systems for Increased Modularity and Scalability

    Chakraborty, S.; Pink, C.; Price, J.; Kroposki, B.; Kern, G.


    Power electronics devices hold substantial promise for making distributed energy applications more efficient and cost effective. This project is motivated towards developing and testing inverters that will allow distributed energy systems to provide ancillary services such as voltage and VAR regulation, and increased grid reliability by seamlessly transitioning between grid-tied and stand-alone operation modes. The objectives of this project are to identify system integration and optimization issues and technologies and to provide solutions through research, analysis, and testing of power electronic interfaces for distributed energy applications that are cost-competitive and have substantially faster response times than conventional technologies. In addition, the testing of power electronics interfaces will develop a technical basis for performance assessment for distributed energy systems, subsystems, and components that will finally create a foundation for standardized measurements and test procedures. The ultimate goal for this research is to advance the potential benefits of distributed energy to provide ancillary services, enhance power system reliability, and allow customer choice.

  7. Research on prevention of the abnormal increase of thermal power in HANARO

    Since the power operation of the HANARO started in 1995, the reactor trip occurred many times during startup and power operation due to abnormal increase of thermal power. For the resolution of this problem, the reactor trip records were analyzed and, several countermeasures were taken. As result, the number of reactor trip due to N/T mismatch decreased remarkably

  8. Probability analysis of nuclear power plant hazards

    The probability analysis of risk is described used for quantifying the risk of complex technological systems, especially of nuclear power plants. Risk is defined as the product of the probability of the occurrence of a dangerous event and the significance of its consequences. The process of the analysis may be divided into the stage of power plant analysis to the point of release of harmful material into the environment (reliability analysis) and the stage of the analysis of the consequences of this release and the assessment of the risk. The sequence of operations is characterized in the individual stages. The tasks are listed which Czechoslovakia faces in the development of the probability analysis of risk, and the composition is recommended of the work team for coping with the task. (J.C.)

  9. Influence of the fluctuating increasing wind and solar power input into the electrical power grid onto the thermal power plant operation

    Hassel, E.; Meinke, S.; Nocke, J.; Huebel, M. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Technical Thermodynamics; Ziems, C.; Weber, H. [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Electrical Power Engineering


    In this paper, a way to investigate the influence of increasing wind and solar energy on thermal power plants is presented, reaching from a top level model for the electrical grid down to models for specific power plants including a detailed analysis of particular components of these plants. The global model structure and the simulation procedure consist of several steps. First, history data for wind, solar and conventional electricity production in Germany for the year 2010 is collected. With the predicted buildup of wind and solar energy we project a number of future scenarios. Using this data we estimate the operation schedule for different types of plants in Germany and we prescribe these schedules for our example power plants Rostock and Mainz-Wiesbaden, taking into account the merit order caused by the cost structure of the different plants. This operation schedule is the input into the detailed transient thermodynamic models. These plant models are able to capture the temporal behavior of all important parts of these fossil plants. Therefore physical equations and material properties as well as geometrical information for thousands of components are implemented in each model. Based on the thermodynamic properties calculated for every part, thermal and mechanical stress in critical components is computed and quantitative lifetime assessment is done, using different structural mechanical approaches. Then control loop modifications, repowering strategies and requirements for new power plants are developed. Also optimization strategies can be examined regarding parameters like efficiency, CO{sub 2} emissions, lifetime and operation costs. (orig.)

  10. Safety analysis for non-power reactors

    Non-power reactors have been operating in Canada since 1945, with NRU (National Research Universal, 1957) being the oldest operating non-power reactor. Presently, there are five generic 'types' of non-power reactors: NRU, ZED-2, SLOWPOKE, MNR and MAPLE, the latter undergoing commissioning as the MDS Medical Isotope Reactor. These reactors range in thermal power from 200 Watts to more than 100 MW. Other non-power reactors are likely to be built for new applications and to replace older reactors. The uniqueness of each reactor, the wide range of power levels and the evolution of safety philosophy over time have lead to non-uniform practices for safety analysis. This non-uniformity may be a problem for the preparation by the licensee and review by the regulator of the safety analysis report required for licensing of the reactor facility. Clearly, there is no universally applicable practice, while at the same time, expectations for safety analyses have evolved in order to demonstrate higher levels of overall safety. This paper examines a new 'graded approach' to preparing the safety analysis report for reactors of diverse features but with a common standard of safety. It discusses necessary content, methods and the training and qualification of the safety analyst. (author)

  11. Joint Operation of Several Types of Power Plants to Increasing Net Profit in Deregulated Power Market

    S. Sajedi


    Full Text Available This study proposes joint operation of power plant and electric energy storage plant in order to maximizing overall profit in a restructured electricity market. The goal is investigating the coupling efficiency on profit increment considering various intensities of power plant’s fuel constraint. In order to reach this goal, the amount of overall profits of fuel-constrained power plant, battery plant and their coupling are first calculated in a specific time interval. Then, the coupling efficiency is determined using incremental profit rate. Having an appropriate strategy to calculate this parameter is essential. Hence, a comprehensive approach to selfschedule of individual and coupled plants is developed. This comprehensive self-scheduling approach is therefore formulated and solved as a Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed.

  12. Operating the Irish power system with increased levels of wind power

    Tuohy, A.; Denny, E.; Meibom, Peter;


    This paper summarises some of the main impacts of large amounts of wind power installed in the island of Ireland. Using results from various studies performed on this system, it is shown that wind power will impact on all time frames, from seconds to daily planning of the system operation. Results...... from studies examining operation of the system with up to approximately 40% of electricity provided by wind show that some of the most important aspects to be considered include the type of wind turbine technology, the provision of reserve to accommodate wind forecasting error and the method used...

  13. Performance analysis of OTEC power plant

    The energy is the basis for almost all industrial activities and domestic needs. But recently there are increasing concerns internationally over environmental problems and consequent climate changes caused by the excessive use of fossil fuels. Furthermore the price of crude oil is increasing steadily with unstable supplies. In order to solve these national energy problems, the utilization of ocean energy is introduced as one of the best alternative technologies for the future. OTEC power plant has been installed at the west Inchon power plant site. Temperature differences of 20∼25 deg. C have been utilized for plant operations, where R22 is used as a working fluid. The system is composed of low pressure turbine, plate type heat exchanger, and pumps. In the present investigation the experimental results, such as gross power, net power and objective function, are analysed when temperature differences change from the reference design point

  14. Power and performance software analysis and optimization

    Kukunas, Jim


    Power and Performance: Software Analysis and Optimization is a guide to solving performance problems in modern Linux systems. Power-efficient chips are no help if the software those chips run on is inefficient. Starting with the necessary architectural background as a foundation, the book demonstrates the proper usage of performance analysis tools in order to pinpoint the cause of performance problems, and includes best practices for handling common performance issues those tools identify. Provides expert perspective from a key member of Intel's optimization team on how processors and memory

  15. Increase of pulse power of power supply systems of induction linacs with current pulse magnettic compression

    A powerful three section magnetic pulse generator of a nanosecond range designed for supply of a small-sectioned sccelerating structure up to GW units is developed. The pumping generator is mounted using the TTI2500/50 pulsed hydrogen thyratron according to the sections of magnetic compression. 2 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  16. The risk of low investments in new electric power plants for increased power failures

    The liberalization of the market for electricity changed the decision making process for investment in new electric power plants. The question is whether a free energy market can take care of a reliable energy supply against acceptable prices. Or is a strict governmental policy required to secure a reliable supply of electricity

  17. Warm weather conditions moderated the increase of power consumption in Finland in 2000

    Year 2000 was exceptionally warm in Finland. The amount of rainfalls in Northern Finland was larger than in 1999. This is shown clearly in the production of hydroelectric power. The wind conditions were also better, so the wind power generation doubled in 2000. The increase in power consumption in 2000 was only 1.7%. The power consumption rate was slightly over 79 TWh. The power consumption of household and agricultural sectors decreased by nearly 2% and in the public sector by 0.2%. The industrial power consumption increased by nearly 3%. Year 2000 was excellent for the industrial sector. The industrial production increased by 11%. The increment of power demand in heavy metal industry, chemical industry and forest industry was 5-7%. Power demand of process industry in 2000 exceeded 43.4 TWh, of which the share of building industry was more than 200 GWh. Process industry use about 55% of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000. The power demand of forest industry was 26.3 TWh, which is about 2% higher than in 1999. The corresponding figures for metal industry were 7.1 TWh and growth rate 3%. Chemical industry used in 2000 about 5.9 TWh of electric power. The growth rate was more that 4% higher in 2000 than in 1999. Power consumption of other industrial sectors in 2000 increased about 3% being now about 3.9 TWh. Hydroelectric power generation in 2000 was nearly 14.4 TWh, which is nearly 14.4 % higher than in 1999. The share of hydroelectric power generation of the total power consumption in Finland in 2000 was 18%. The wind power generation in 2000 was nearly 80 GWh, which are about 60% higher than in 1999. The number of wind power plants is 63, and the capacity of them 38 MW. The production of nuclear power in 2000 decreased by about 2% because of the longer and more thorough maintenance stoppages in the Loviisa 1 reactor. The utilisation rates of Finnish nuclear power plants in 2000 were high, Loviisa 1 by nearly 85%, Loviisa 2 by 91%, Olkiluoto 1 by 96

  18. Statistical Analysis of the Impact of Wind Power on Market Quantities and Power Flows

    Pinson, Pierre; Jónsson, Tryggvi; Zugno, Marco;


    In view of the increasing penetration of wind power in a number of power systems and markets worldwide, we discuss some of the impacts that wind energy may have on market quantities and cross-border power flows. These impacts are uncovered through statistical analyses of actual market and flow data...... in Europe. Due to the dimensionality and nonlinearity of these effects, the necessary concepts of dimension reduction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), as well as nonlinear regression are described. Example application results are given for European cross-border flows, as well as for the...

  19. Power Estimation in Multivariate Analysis of Variance

    Jean François Allaire


    Full Text Available Power is often overlooked in designing multivariate studies for the simple reason that it is believed to be too complicated. In this paper, it is shown that power estimation in multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA can be approximated using a F distribution for the three popular statistics (Hotelling-Lawley trace, Pillai-Bartlett trace, Wilk`s likelihood ratio. Consequently, the same procedure, as in any statistical test, can be used: computation of the critical F value, computation of the noncentral parameter (as a function of the effect size and finally estimation of power using a noncentral F distribution. Various numerical examples are provided which help to understand and to apply the method. Problems related to post hoc power estimation are discussed.

  20. Market Based Analysis of Power System Interconnections

    Obuševs, A; Turcik, M; Oļeiņikova, I; Junghāns, G


    Analysis in this Article is focused on usage of transmission grid under liberalized market with implicit transmission capacity allocation method, e.g. Nordic market. Attention is paid on fundamental changes in transmission utilization and its economical effective operation. For interconnection and power flow analysis and losses calculation model of Nordic grid was developed and transmission losses calculation method was created. Given approach will improve economical efficiency of system oper...

  1. Power analysis attacks revealing the secrets of smart cards

    Mangard, Stefan; Popp, Thomas


    A comprehensive treatment of power analysis attacks and countermeasures. Based on the principle that the only way to defend against power analysis attacks is to understand them, this book explains how power analysis attacks work. It discusses simple and differential power analysis as well as advanced techniques like template attacks.

  2. Energy and exergy analysis of solar power tower plants

    Establishing the renewable electricity contribution from solar thermal power systems based on energy analysis alone cannot legitimately be complete unless the exergy concept becomes a part of that analysis. This paper presents a theoretical framework for the energy analysis and exergy analysis of the solar power tower system using molten salt as the heat transfer fluid. Both the energy losses and exergy losses in each component and in the overall system are evaluated to identify the causes and locations of the thermodynamic imperfection. Several design parameters including the direct normal irradiation (DNI), the concentration ratio, and the type of power cycle are also tested to evaluate their effects on the energy and exergy performance. The results show that the maximum exergy loss occurs in the receiver system, followed by the heliostat field system, although main energy loss occurs in the power cycle system. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the receiver and the overall system can be increased by increasing the DNI and the concentration ratio, but that increment in the efficiencies varies with the values of DNI and the concentration ratio. It is also found that the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the solar tower system can be increased to some extent by integrating advanced power cycles including reheat Rankine cycles and supercritical Rankine cycles. - Highlights: →We presented a theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the solar tower system. →We tested the effects of several design parameters on the energy and exergy performance. →The maximum exergy loss occurs in the receiver system, followed by the heliostat field system. →Integrating advanced power cycles leads to increases in the overall energy and exergy efficiencies.

  3. Improve your word power a concise way to increase your word power

    Sawhney, Clifford


    English is a unique language which has innumerable great poets and authors from the past as well as the present, who have contributed profusely to its rich heritage. Nonetheless, we can not ignore the complexities of the English language which sometimes perplex a reader or even a scholar of this language. Improve your word power by Clifford Sawhney simplifies all these complexities of the language by providing answers to the many nagging grammatical queries, syntax, style, choice of words, spellings, etc. This book serves as a complete guide and elaborately explains the different usages of no

  4. Steamline break analysis for 1000 MWe Kudankulam nuclear power plant

    Full text: Thermal hydraulic analysis has been carried out for the steamline break outside the containment of VVER-1000 reactor. 1000 MWe VVER is a light water moderated, light water-cooled pressurised water reactor with four primary coolant loops. The double-ended break in the non-isolable steamline was considered, as it will result in higher heat removal by the secondary circuit. This analysis has been carried out using thermal hydraulic code RELAP5/MOD 3.2. As a result of steam generator steamline rupture the steam begins out flowing from the secondary circuit, the secondary pressure decreases. Consequently the coolant temperature, coolant pressures in the primary circuit decrease. Due to negative coolant temperature reactivity, the increase of the reactor power can take place. The end of refuelling cycle is considered in the present analysis since the coolant feedbacks are the most negative and increase of reactor power is maximum. Also loss of power is not considered in the analysis as it results more coolant temperature and great rise in power takes place. The analysis predicts thermal hydraulic conditions following steamline break. Thermal hydraulic conditions like pressure, temperature, and flow at different locations in the PHT as well as in secondary side in the steam generator have been estimated during the transient. The analysis results have been discussed and compared with the acceptance criteriam

  5. Comparative analysis of existing models for power-grid synchronization

    Nishikawa, Takashi


    The dynamics of power-grid networks is becoming an increasingly active area of research within the physics and network science communities. The results from such studies are typically insightful and illustrative, but are often based on simplifying assumptions that can be either difficult to assess or not fully justified for realistic applications. Here we perform a comprehensive comparative analysis of three leading models recently used to study synchronization dynamics in power-grid networks -- a fundamental problem of practical significance given that frequency synchronization of all power generators in the same interconnection is a necessary condition for a power grid to operate. We show that each of these models can be derived from first principles within a common framework based on the classical model of a generator, thereby clarifying all assumptions involved. This framework allows us to view power grids as complex networks of coupled second-order phase oscillators with both forcing and damping terms. U...

  6. DENINT power plant cost benefit analysis code: Analysis of methane fuelled power plant/district heating system

    The DENINT power plant cost benefit analysis code takes into consideration, not only power production costs at the generator terminals, but also, in the case of cogeneration, the costs of the fuel supply and heat and power distribution systems which depend greatly on the location of the plant. The code is able to allow comparisons of alternatives with varying annual operation hours, fuel cost increases, and different types of fossil fuels and production systems. For illustrative purposes, this paper examines two methane fired cogeneration plant/district heating alternatives

  7. Energy analysis of nuclear power plants and their fuel cycle

    Energy analysis has become an increasingly feasible and practical additional method for evaluating the engineering, economic and environmental aspects of power-producing systems. It compares total direct and indirect energy investment into construction and operation of power plants with their lifetime energy output. This method was applied to nuclear power-producing systems and their fuel cycles. Results were adapted to countries with various levels of industrialization and resources. With dynamic energy analysis different scenarios were investigated. For comparison purposes fossil-fuelled and solar power plants were analysed. The global results of static evaluation analysis were specifically modified according to the economic situations of countries with various levels of industrialization. The influence of energy imports upon energy analysis is also discussed. By dynamic energy analyses the cumulative energy requirements for specific power plant construction programmes have been compared with their total energy output. Investigations of this sort are extremely valuable not only for economic reasons, but especially for their usefulness in showing the advantages and disadvantages of a specific power programme with respect to its alternatives. Naturally the impact of these investigations on the fuel requirements is of importance, especially because of the frequently cited ''valuable cumulated fossil fuel savings''. (author)

  8. Principles for Soft-Hardware Complex Development to Increase Efficiency of Power Transformers

    A. L. Trushnikov


    The paper reveals principles for development and operation of soft-hardware complex which is designed to control transformer substations of industrial enterprisers. Purpose of soft-hardware components of the complex is considered in the paper.Development and application of such complex allow to increase an efficiency of power transformer resource and decrease electric power losses in the elements of power-supply system at industrial enterprisers.

  9. Towards optimal cluster power spectrum analysis

    Smith, Robert E.; Marian, Laura


    The power spectrum of galaxy clusters is an important probe of the cosmological model. In this paper, we develop a formalism to compute the optimal weights for the estimation of the matter power spectrum from cluster power spectrum measurements. We find a closed-form analytic expression for the optimal weights, which takes into account: the cluster mass, finite survey volume effects, survey masking, and a flux limit. The optimal weights are w(M,χ ) ∝ b(M,χ )/[1+bar{n}_h(χ ) overline{b^2}(χ )overline{P}(k)], where b(M, χ) is the bias of clusters of mass M at radial position χ(z), bar{n}_h(χ ) and overline{b^2}(χ ) are the expected space density and bias squared of all clusters, and overline{P}(k) is the matter power spectrum at wavenumber k. This result is analogous to that of Percival et al. We compare our optimal weighting scheme with mass weighting and also with the original power spectrum scheme of Feldman et al. We show that our optimal weighting scheme outperforms these approaches for both volume- and flux-limited cluster surveys. Finally, we present a new expression for the Fisher information matrix for cluster power spectrum analysis. Our expression shows that for an optimally weighted cluster survey the cosmological information content is boosted, relative to the standard approach of Tegmark.

  10. Simulations of the design basis accident at conditions of power increase and the o transient of MSIV at overpressure conditions of the Laguna Verde Power Station

    This document presents the analysis of the simulation of the loss of coolant accident at uprate power conditions, that is 2027 MWt (105% of the current rated power of 1931MWt). This power was reached allowing an increase in the turbine steam flow rate without changing the steam dome pressure value at its rated conditions (1020 psiaJ. There are also presented the results of the simulation of the main steam isolation va/ve transient at overpressure conditions 1065 psia and 1067 MWt), for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station. Both simulations were performed with the best estimate computer code TRA C BF1. The results obtained in the loss of coolant accident show that the emergency core coolant systems can recover the water level in the core before fuel temperature increases excessively, and that the peak pressure reached in the drywell is always below its design pressure. Therefore it is concluded that the integrity of the containment is not challenged during a loss of coolant accident at uprate power conditions.The analysis of the main steam isolation valve transients at overpressure conditions, and the analysis of the particular cases of the failure of one to six safety relief valves to open, show that the vessel peak pressures are below the design pressure and have no significant effect on vessel integrity. (Author)

  11. Power Systems Life Cycle Analysis Tool (Power L-CAT).

    Andruski, Joel; Drennen, Thomas E.


    The Power Systems L-CAT is a high-level dynamic model that calculates levelized production costs and tracks environmental performance for a range of electricity generation technologies: natural gas combined cycle (using either imported (LNGCC) or domestic natural gas (NGCC)), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC), existing pulverized coal (EXPC), nuclear, and wind. All of the fossil fuel technologies also include an option for including carbon capture and sequestration technologies (CCS). The model allows for quick sensitivity analysis on key technical and financial assumptions, such as: capital, O&M, and fuel costs; interest rates; construction time; heat rates; taxes; depreciation; and capacity factors. The fossil fuel options are based on detailed life cycle analysis reports conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). For each of these technologies, NETL's detailed LCAs include consideration of five stages associated with energy production: raw material acquisition (RMA), raw material transport (RMT), energy conversion facility (ECF), product transportation and distribution (PT&D), and end user electricity consumption. The goal of the NETL studies is to compare existing and future fossil fuel technology options using a cradle-to-grave analysis. The NETL reports consider constant dollar levelized cost of delivered electricity, total plant costs, greenhouse gas emissions, criteria air pollutants, mercury (Hg) and ammonia (NH3) emissions, water withdrawal and consumption, and land use (acreage).

  12. Electric power wheeling and dealing: Technological considerations for increasing competition. Volume 2. Contractor documents, Part B


    The report reviews the technologies for electric power transmission and how it is employed by utilities. Contents: Case studies on increasing transmission access; Case studies of transmission bottlenecks; Technological considerations in proposed scenarios for increasing competition in the electric utility industry; Technical background and considerations in proposed increased wheeling, transmission access and non-utility generation.

  13. Multi Megawatt Power System Analysis Report

    Longhurst, Glen Reed; Harvego, Edwin Allan; Schnitzler, Bruce Gordon; Seifert, Gary Dean; Sharpe, John Phillip; Verrill, Donald Alan; Watts, Kenneth Donald; Parks, Benjamin Travis


    Missions to the outer planets or to near-by planets requiring short times and/or increased payload carrying capability will benefit from nuclear power. A concept study was undertaken to evaluate options for a multi-megawatt power source for nuclear electric propulsion. The nominal electric power requirement was set at 15 MWe with an assumed mission profile of 120 days at full power, 60 days in hot standby, and another 120 days of full power, repeated several times for 7 years of service. Of the numerous options considered, two that appeared to have the greatest promise were a gas-cooled reactor based on the NERVA Derivative design, operating a closed cycle Brayton power conversion system; and a molten lithium-cooled reactor based on SP-100 technology, driving a boiling potassium Rankine power conversion system. This study examined the relative merits of these two systems, seeking to optimize the specific mass. Conclusions were that either concept appeared capable of approaching the specific mass goal of 3-5 kg/kWe estimated to be needed for this class of mission, though neither could be realized without substantial development in reactor fuels technology, thermal radiator mass efficiency, and power conversion and distribution electronics and systems capable of operating at high temperatures. Though the gas-Brayton systems showed an apparent advantage in specific mass, differences in the degree of conservatism inherent in the models used suggests expectations for the two approaches may be similar. Brayton systems eliminate the need to deal with two-phase flows in the microgravity environment of space.

  14. Exergy analysis of a cogeneration power plant

    In the following study exergetic evaluation of a cogeneration power plant in operation with installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW it is performed. The main objective of the research was to determine the influence of the increase in power generation capacity, raising the superheated steam parameters and the number of regenerative heaters on the second law efficiency and irreversibilities in the different components of the plant. To study the power plant was divided into subsystems: steam generator blowdown expander, main steam pipe, steam turbine regenerative heaters, reduction system, deaerator and pumps. The study results show that exergy losses and irreversibilities differ widely from one subsystem to another. In general, the total irreversibility accounted for 70.7% of primary fuel availability. The steam generator subsystem had the highest contribution to the irreversibility of the plant by 54%. It was determined that the increased steam parameters helps reduce the irreversibility and increase the exergetic efficiency of installation. The suppression of the reduction and incorporation of extraction-condensing turbine produce the same effect and helps to reduce power consumption from the national grid. Based on the results recommendations for improving plant efficiency are made. (full text)

  15. Increasing power output from Francis turbines : Effektøkning i vannkraftverk med Francis turbiner

    Brunes, Bente Taraldsten


    The main objective in this thesis was to investigate a potential increase of power output from the existing turbines at Ruacana Hydropower Station. This was restricted to only consider a runner replacement, and only technical aspects of a rehabilitation project has been evaluated. This involved an investigation of hydraulic condtions, limited to surge oscilliation and water hammer calculations. The results was thereafter used in a calculation model to estimate potential increase in power outp...

  16. Sarcomere length dependence of power output is increased after PKA treatment in rat cardiac myocytes

    Hanft, Laurin M.; McDonald, Kerry S.


    The Frank-Starling relationship of the heart yields increased stroke volume with greater end-diastolic volume, and this relationship is steeper after β-adrenergic stimulation. The underlying basis for the Frank-Starling mechanism involves length-dependent changes in both Ca2+ sensitivity of myofibrillar force and power output. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PKA-induced phosphorylation of myofibrillar proteins would increase the length dependence of myofibrillar power output, whi...

  17. Perspectives of power increasing of arc cesium-oxygen thermoemission converters with tungsten electrodes at increased emitter temperatures

    Characteristics of experimental thermoemission converters with emitters made of oxygen-containing monocrystal tungsten produced by chloride gas-phase technology were studied. The emitters, besides their main function in the operating converters, played the role of inner source of oxygen. An attempt was made to expand the range of the emitter temperatures towards increase for attaining the maximum output power of the converter using the new emitter material. Efficiency of using the monocrystal oxygen-free tungsten collector compared to collectors made of polycrystal tungsten and niobium alloy Cb-1 was studied

  18. Energy system, electricity market and economic studies on increasing nuclear power capacity; Ydinvoimahankkeiden periaatepaeaetoekseen liittyvaet energia- ja kansantaloudelliset selvitykset

    Forsstrom, J.; Pursiheimo, E.; Kekkonen, V.; Honkatukia, J.


    Objective of this research project is to examine effects of addition of nuclear capacity from three different angles by using energy system, electricity market and economic analysis. In each area the analysis is based on computational methods. Finland is a member of Nordic electricity market which is further connected to networks of Continental Europe and Russia. Due to the foreign connections Finland has been able to import inexpensive electricity from its neighboring countries and this state is expected to continue. Addition of nuclear capacity lowers electricity import demand, affects level of electricity price decreasingly and decreases shortfall of installed production capacity. Substantial additions of nuclear power capacity and generous import supply have disadvantageous effect on profitability of combined heat and power production. The development of import possibilities depends on progression of difficult-to-estimate balance between electricity consumption and production in the neighboring countries. Investments on nuclear power increase national product during the construction phase. Growth of employment is also rather significant, especially during the construction phase. In the long term permanent jobs will be created too. Increase of employment is held back by increasing real wages, but it is though evident that consumer purchasing power is improved due to these nuclear power developments. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of boron at Koeberg Power Station

    Soluble reactivity poisons, also called chemical shim, produce spatially uniform neutron absorption when dissolved in reactor coolant water. The boron-10 isotope having a high neutron absorption coefficient is used in commercial pressurised water reactors (PWR) to limit and control reactivity. This is achieved at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) and the majority of commercial PWR's worldwide by the addition of natural boric acid to the reactor coolant. The boric acid dissolved in the coolant decreases the thermal utilisation factor, causing a decrease in reactivity. By varying the concentration of boric acid (and hence also the B-10 concentration) in the coolant, a process referred to as boration and dilution, the reactivity of the core can be easily managed. An increase in boron concentration (boration) creates negative reactivity and if the boron concentration is reduced (dilution), positive reactivity is added. The changing of boron concentration in a PWR is used primarily to compensate for fuel burn-up or poison build-up. The variation in boron concentration allows control rod use to be minimised, which results in a flatter flux profile over the core than can be produced by control rod manipulation. Accurate laboratory and on-line chemical analysis of boron concentration is important because of its operational implications associated with reactivity control and also for nuclear safety. In a normal fuel cycle, as the nuclear fuel is being consumed, the reactor coolant boric acid (B-10) concentration must be reduced by dilution with purified water to maintain the reactor at constant power. Besides in the reactor coolant water, boric acid concentration is also important in the chemical and volume control system and reactor make-up system for operation. For nuclear safety, boric acid concentrations are technical specification parameters, maintained and monitored in the spent fuel system and safety injection systems. Boron concentration determination is

  20. Analysis of higher power research reactors' parameters

    The objective of this monograph was to analyze and compare parameters of different types of research reactors having higher power. This analysis could be used for decision making and choice of a reactor which could possibly replace the existing ageing RA reactor in Vinca. Present experimental and irradiation needs are taken into account together with the existing reactors operated in our country, RB and TRIGA reactor

  1. Dynamic analysis of Leningrad nuclear power plant

    Within the scope of this study a preliminary dynamic analysis for the detonation explosion and earthquake load cases was carried out for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant. A soil model was added to the three-dimensional shell model which was taken over from IVO (Finland). During this Research Program the model was translated into the STARDYNE program and was investigated by means of time history modal analysis. Since the status quo of the documentation available at that time had to be completed through useful technical assumptions this report only considers exemplary selected results

  2. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    Chandrasekharan, N.; Thompson, L. L.


    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation.

  3. Balance of the LVC plant with increase in 15 % of power

    One of the tendencies in many power reactors has been to modify some operation conditions, in order to increasing the electricity generation. The Laguna Verde Nuclear power plant (CNLV) it has not been the exception and in the recent past an increment of 5% was made in the original nominal thermal power. In the face of the possibility of carrying out more modifications, a study was made in the one that one simulates an eventual increment of the power of the reactor in 15% of the original value. With this increment one carries out the balance of the plant and the thermodynamic properties were determined. With this purpose it was developed a computer tool to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the plant in several points of the power cycle, as well as to carry out energy and mass balances to determine the flows in the different extractions of steam of the turbines. The program is compared with the results to 100% and 105% of increase of power obtaining good results, for what it is concluded that the extrapolation to 115% of power increase is acceptable. (Author)

  4. A coherency-based method to increase dynamic security in power systems

    De Tuglie, E. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Ambiente e per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile - DIASS, Politecnico di Bari, Viale del Turismo 8, 74100 Taranto (Italy); Iannone, S.M.; Torelli, F. [Dipartimento di Elettrotecnica ed Elettronica - DEE, Politecnico di Bari, Via Re David 200, 70125 Bari (Italy)


    Dynamic security analysis is the evaluation of the ability of a system to withstand contingencies by surviving transient conditions to acceptable steady-state operative states. When potential instability due to contingency is detected, preventive action may be desired to improve the system security. This is very important in the on-line operation of a power system, especially when the system is stability-limited. The method proposed in this paper is based on the idea that increasing coherency between generators in the transient behaviour following a system perturbation gives rise to a more stable system. In this paper, we suggest the use of the ''input-output feedback-linearization'' with a reference trajectory obtained using a system dynamic equivalent based on the centre of inertia. To quantify coherency levels a new coherency indicator has been assumed for the given reference trajectory. The result is an increasing level in coherency, critical clearing time and system stability. The method is tested on the IEEE 30 bus test system. (author)

  5. Hydropower: a vital asset in a power system with increased need for flexibility and firm capacity

    In a power system with increased need for flexibility, wind and solar power are characterised by considerable volatility across different scales and their output cannot be predicted with certainty. In order to deal with the resulting variations and forecast errors, system operators as well as electricity markets will need to have access to increasing volumes of flexibility as the penetration of wind and solar power grows. Due to their flexibility and size, hydropower plants are perfectly suited for supplying these capabilities to current and future electricity markets and power systems. Storage as well as pump storage plants can be quickly started within a few minutes and adjust their output within seconds. Consequently, hydropower plants are able to follow even major variations in real time. (author)

  6. Stability analysis of large electric power systems

    Elwood, D.M.


    Modern electric power systems are large and complicated, and, in many regions of the world, the generation and transmission systems are operating near their limits. Ensuring the reliable operation of the power system requires engineers to study the response of the system to various disturbances. The responses to large disturbances are examined by numerically solving the nonlinear differential-algebraic equations describing the power system. The response to small disturbances is typically studied via eigenanalysis. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) recently developed the Extended Transient/Mid-term Stability Program (ETMSP) to study large disturbance stability and the Small Signal Stability Program Package (SSSP) to study small signal stability. The primary objectives of the work described in this report were to (1) explore ways of speeding up ETMSP, especially on mid-term voltage stability problems, (2) explore ways of speeding up the Multi-Area Small-Signal Stability program (MASS), one of the codes in SSSP, and (3) explore ways of increasing the size of problem that can be solved by the Cray version of MASS.

  7. Advanced Wireless Power Transfer Vehicle and Infrastructure Analysis (Presentation)

    Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.; Burton, E.; Wang, J.; Konan, A.


    This presentation discusses current research at NREL on advanced wireless power transfer vehicle and infrastructure analysis. The potential benefits of E-roadway include more electrified driving miles from battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, or even properly equipped hybrid electric vehicles (i.e., more electrified miles could be obtained from a given battery size, or electrified driving miles could be maintained while using smaller and less expensive batteries, thereby increasing cost competitiveness and potential market penetration). The system optimization aspect is key given the potential impact of this technology on the vehicles, the power grid and the road infrastructure.

  8. Comparison and analysis of performance using Low Temperature Power Cycles

    Low Temperature Power Cycles have become increasingly interesting means of increasing energy efficiency of processes as well as for base load power generation from solar, and geothermal, heat. Theoretical understanding of the various processes, components and limitations is constantly increasing through extensive research. Practical utilisation of this knowledge is also increasing steadily though properly published field data is scarce. In this article a number of different solutions for power generation from low temperature heat sources have been gathered and analysed. Some of the studied units have not previously been described. A method for general evaluation of LTPC's is proposed and the outcome of the analysis is discussed as well as how to use it for practical purposes. By separating thermodynamic potential from irreversibilities the analysis indicates that the irreversibilities show limited dependency on temperature, size, thermodynamic cycle or working fluid. Instead performance of the studied units follows a relatively simple correlation with utilisation of the thermal potential. This correlation is defined and discussed. One conclusion is that the correlation allows for a possibility to express the maximum expected real power generation with knowledge of the characteristics of the heat source and heat sink only. -- Highlights: ► We present field data from power generating units using low temperature heat. ► We explain how data from fundamentally different units can be compared. ► We describe a correlation between performance and utilisation of a heat source. ► We demonstrate a simplified method to estimate total power generation with information on heat source and sink only

  9. Complex Evaluation of Light Sources in Case of Electric Power Cost Increase

    Y. N. Kolesnik; A. V. Ivaneychik


    The paper gives complex evaluation of efficiency of incandescent lamps, luminescent and light-emitting-diode (LED) light sources in case of electric power price increase. On the basis of experimental table lamp electric power indices of light-emitting-diode (LED) light sources with equivalent luminous flux have been determined. Dependences of main indices of economic efficiency of various light sources on their operational regimes have been obtained and rate of influence on these indices of e...

  10. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    Cheng, Shaoan


    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    The major contents in this study are as follows : 1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. 2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. 3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs

  12. Analysis and NN-based control of doubly fed induction generator in wind power generation

    Soares, Orlando; Gonçalves, Henrique; Martins, António; Carvalho, Adriano


    With the increasing size of wind power generation it is required to perform power system stability analysis that uses dynamic wind generator models. In this paper are presented all the wind power system components, including the turbine, the generator, the power electronic converter and controllers. The aim is to study the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operation and its connection to the power system, either during normal operation or during transient grid faul...

  13. A Novel Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication Algorithm against Power Analysis

    Hongming Liu; Yujie Zhou; Nianhao Zhu


    Nowadays, power analysis attacks are becoming more and more sophisticated. Through power analysis attacks, an attacker can obtain sensitive data stored in smart cards or other embedded devices more efficiently than with any other kind of physical attacks. Among power analysis, simple power analysis (SPA) is probably the most effective against elliptic curve cryptosystem, because an attacker can easily distinguish between point addition and point doubling in a single execution of scalar multip...

  14. An Effective Distributed Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis



    The modern power systems consist of many interconnected synchronous generators having different inertia constants, connected with large transmission network and ever increasing demand for power exchange. The size of the power system grows exponentially due to increase in power demand. The data required for various power system applications have been stored in different formats in a heterogeneous environment. The power system applications themselves have been developed and deployed in diff...

  15. Transient analysis following an increase in coolant inventory for AHWR

    The proposed Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is a 750 MWth vertical pressure tube type boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated reactor. Passive design features of this reactor is that the heat removal is achieved through natural circulation of primary coolant at all power levels with no primary coolant pumps. This paper highlights the transient scenario and evolution of acceptance criteria is also made along with design implications. Increase in set point of steam drum, level controller results in increase in feed water flow. This leads to addition of positive reactivity, due to void collapse resulting in reactor power increase. Consequences depend upon the duration for which the feed flow remains high, which is decided by the steam drum, level controller characteristics. Consequences in terms of clad temperature change also depend upon channel behavior in terms of pressure, flow and quality. In this paper, the set point for the steam drum level is driven up from 1.1m collapsed level (corresponding to 1.5 m swell level) to 1.5 m, to study the system response following change (an increase) in the feed water flow, using a two-fluid code RELAP5/MOD3.2 [1 ]. Three-element level controller is included in the transient

  16. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.


    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  17. The causes of local hardness increasing in power plant rotors and its modification by tempering

    Local hardness increasing on the surface of the power plant rotor may result in severe damages. One major solution for rapid repairing of the rotors is the adaptive tempering heat treatment. For this purpose, after identification of the damaged rotor, initial investigations and tests (such as visual inspection, chemical analysis, nondestructive hardness measurements and replica or on-site metallographic tests) were performed on the rotor journal. The results showed that, the occurrence of local phase transformation (i.e. tempered bainite to austenite and finally martensite) is the main factor. Finally, based on the aforementioned results, tempering heat treatment method was selected as a modifying solution for the following purposes: 1. Decreasing hardness in embrittled places (i.e. 400-690 HV) and, 2. invariable or admissible decrease of hardness in undamaged areas (250-300 HV). Experiments showed that by choosing the 680degC/4 hours as an optimum condition for tempering heat treatment, the two mentioned objectives can be met

  18. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi


    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  19. Power excursion analysis for high burnup cores

    A study was undertaken of power excursions in high burnup cores. There were three objectives in this study. One was to identify boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) transients in which there is significant energy deposition in the fuel. Another was to analyze the response of BWRs to the rod drop accident (RDA) and other transients in which there is a power excursion. The last objective was to investigate the sources of uncertainty in the RDA analysis. In a boiling water reactor, the events identified as having significant energy deposition in the fuel were a rod drop accident, a recirculation flow control failure, and the overpressure events; in a pressurized water reactor, they were a rod ejection accident and boron dilution events. The RDA analysis was done with RAMONA-4B, a computer code that models the space- dependent neutron kinetics throughout the core along with the thermal hydraulics in the core, vessel, and steamline. The results showed that the calculated maximum fuel enthalpy in high burnup fuel will be affected by core design, initial conditions, and modeling assumptions. The important uncertainties in each of these categories are discussed in the report

  20. Attacking Embedded Systems through Power Analysis

    Dr. Sastry JKR


    Full Text Available Embedded Systems are being used for the development and implementation of Safety and Mission Critical Systems. Malfunctions of such type of embedded systems will lead to disasters at times. The embedded systems must be fully secured from outside intervention in order to have effective functioning as well as to provide protective environment to these mission critical systems. There are several attacking systems discussed in the literature each requiring a kind of counter attacking system. Power Analysis and variations of power analysis are the significant attacking mechanisms discussed in the literature. Crypto servers are the main areas of attacking as they deal with securing the data that flow in-between several components of the embedded systems. Most of the attacking systems suggested in the litterer suffer from lack of experimental models to emulate the attacking system. An attacking system could be amply proved when several samples of data are used for attacking and the samples of data provides for knowledge base. In this paper an experimental setup is proposed which is an embedded system itself for creation of a Knowledgebase which shall form the basis for attacking. The experimental setup required for undertaking the actual attacking with the usage of the knowledgebase is also presented. Further the proposed attacking system is applied for mission critical system and the experimental results obtained through the simulation are also presented.

  1. A Study on Increasing The Capacity Factor of Nuclear Power Plant in Korea

    Our estimate on generating costs of nuclear power compared with coal-fired thermal power shows that nuclear power is more economical when capacity factor exceeds 60 percent. Upgrading the plant performance in terms of capacity factor is believed most essential so as to achieve lower energy costs and to diversify the energy sources in Korea, as well. A detailed implementation plan for improving the plant capacity factor is now being developed with the plant betterment projects, considering the situation of each unit. In case of 5 percent increase of capacity factor for 9 operating plants in 1991, our preliminary estimate shows 4.68 million barrels of oil could be saved each year. It will also contribute a great deal to the economy of nation's electric power generation

  2. Increasing reliability of nuclear energy equipment and at nuclear power plants

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy at the Technical University in Brno cooperates with nuclear power plants in increasing their reliability. The teaching programme is briefly described. The scientific research programme of the Department of Heat and Nuclear Power Energy Equipment in the field of reliability is based on a complex systematic concept securing a high level of reliability. In 1996 the Department prepared a study dealing with the evaluation of the maintenance system in a nuclear power plant. The proposed techniques make it possible to evaluate the reliability and maintenance characteristics of any individual component in a nuclear power plant, and to monitor, record and evaluate data at any given time intervals. (M.D.)

  3. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  4. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Batool Hasani


    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  5. Conceptual Design of Solar-micro Hydro Power Plant to Increase Conversion Efficiency for Supporting Remote Tribal Community of Bangladesh

    Anmona Shabnam Pranti


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is endowed with people along with limited primary energy sources and low electrification rate. Most of the hilly areas are out of the coverage of national grid where tribal people, a significant part of the country, are dwelling. The economic development of the whole country depends upon their advancement which is related to the electrification rate. Available micro hydro potential in hilly region could be a solution for this crisis if modified design is used. This paper deals with a new design of water power potential conversion efficiency increment of a micro hydro power plant to 95% from about 50% by using solar power for heating the water. In this proposed hybrid design, a parabolic reflector is considered to be used after comparative solar intensity analysis on different micro hydro power sites in Bangladesh to increase the velocity as well as the flow rate through penstock by heating the water to increase power production and efficiency. The main purpose of this concept is to supply electricity to more people, especially, remote tribal community by available renewable energy sources for economic development.

  6. New Mersenne Number Transform Diffusion Power Analysis

    M. F. Al-Gailani


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Due to significant developments in the processing power and parallel processing technologies, the existing encryption algorithms are increasingly susceptible to attacks, such as side-channel attacks, for example. Designing new encryption algorithms that work efficiently on different platforms and security levels to protect the transmitted data from any possible attacks is one of the most important issues in today’s information and network security. The aim is to find more secure, reliable and flexible systems that can run as a ratified standard, with reasonable computational complexity for a sufficient service time. To expand the longevity of the algorithm, it is important to be designed to work efficiently on a variety of block sizes and key lengths according to the security demand. A sensible solution is the suggested use of a parameter transform. Approach: The present study evaluates the appropriateness of the New Mersenne Number Transform for security applications by analyzing and estimating its avalanche and diffusion power. Results: The results confirm that the transform in general reflects good avalanche characteristics that are for most cases over 50% and can be up to 100%. The lower bound can be further improved by increasing the modulus and/or the transform length. Conclusion: This New Mersenne Number Transform is highly flexible and adaptable for this application. It can be involved in the design of a secure cryptosystem for the following reasons; changing a single input element makes drastic changes in the output elements and vice versa (sensitivity, provides variable block size and key length (parameterization. Has long transform length (power of two, is error free and its inverse is the same with a scale factor of (1/N which simplifies implementation of both encryption and decryption. Finally, it is appropriate for real time implementations such as fast algorithms, which can be applied to it, to speed up

  7. Harmonic analysis of nonlinear devices on spacecraft power systems

    Williamson, Frank; Sheble, Gerald B.


    A nonlinear device modeling algorithm (NOLID) has been developed for use in spacecraft power system analysis. This algorithm is designed to explore the effects of nonlinear devices and loads on a spacecraft power system. Application of this harmonic modeling algorithm in spacecraft power system management programs such as harmonic power flow analysis packages is discussed. It is shown that the NOLID algorithm can be applied in conjunction with a harmonic power flow to give a more accurate description of system state.

  8. Application of sorption heat pumps for increasing of new power sources efficiency

    Vasiliev, L.; Filatova, O.; Tsitovich, A.


    In the 21st century the way to increase the efficiency of new sources of energy is directly related with extended exploration of renewable energy. This modern tendency ensures the fuel economy needs to be realized with nature protection. The increasing of new power sources efficiency (cogeneration, trigeneration systems, fuel cells, photovoltaic systems) can be performed by application of solid sorption heat pumps, regrigerators, heat and cold accumulators, heat transformers, natural gas and hydrogen storage systems and efficient heat exchangers.

  9. Increased power of resting-state gamma oscillations in autism spectrum disorder detected by routine electroencephalography

    van Diessen, Eric; Senders, Joeky; Jansen, Floor E.; Boersma, Maria; Bruining, Hilgo


    Experimental studies suggest that increased resting-state power of gamma oscillations is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To extend the clinical applicability of this finding, we retrospectively investigated routine electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of 19 patients with ASD and 1


    Shiao-Hung Chiang; Guy Weismantel


    The objective of the project is to apply a unique ice thermal storage (ITS) technology to cooling the intake air to gas turbines used for power generation. In Phase I, the work includes theoretical analysis, computer simulation, engineering design and cost evaluation of this novel ITS technology. The study includes two typical gas turbines (an industrial and an aeroderivative type gas turbine) operated at two different geographic locations: Phoenix, AZ and Houston, TX. Simulation runs are performed to generate data for both power output (KW) and heat rate (Btu/KWh) as well as water recovery (acre ft/yr) in terms of intake air temperature and humidity based on weather data and turbine performance curves. Preliminary engineering design of a typical equipment arrangement for turbine inlet air-cooling operation using the ITS system is presented. A cost analysis has been performed to demonstrate the market viability of the ITS technology. When the ITS technology is applied to gas turbines, a net power gain up to 40% and a heat rate reduction as much as 7% can be achieved. In addition, a significant amount of water can be recovered (up to 200 acre-ft of water per year for a 50 MW turbine). The total cost saving is estimated to be $500,000/yr for a 50 MW gas turbine generator. These results have clearly demonstrated that the use of ITS technology to cool the intake-air to gas turbines is an efficient and cost effective means to improve the overall performance of its power generation capacity with an important added benefit of water recovery in power plant operation. Thus, further development of ITS technology for commercial applications in power generation, particularly in coal-based IGCC power plants is warranted.

  11. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    Newstadt, Gregory E.


    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  12. PPICA, Power Plant Investment Cost Analysis

    1 - Description of program or function: This software package contains two modules: - CAPITAL1 calculates investment costs from overnight costs, based on the capital structure of the utility (debt/equity ratio), return and interest rates according to the type of securities involved, and a standard-shaped curve of capital outlays during construction of a power plant. - FCRATE1 calculates the year-by-year revenue requirements to cover the capital-related charges incurred by the new investment and their economic equivalent: the levelled fixed-charge rate and capital contribution to the levelled unit power generation cost per kWh. They are proposed as an alternative to the corresponding modules CAPITAL and FCRATE, included in the LPGC (Levelled Power Generation Cost) suite of codes developed by ORNL and US-DOE. They perform the same type of analysis and provide the same results. 2 - Methods: Results output from CAPITAL1, in terms of the initial investment at startup and the fraction thereof that is allowable for tax depreciation, can be transferred automatically as data input to FCRATE1. Other user-defined data are: the project life, the time horizon of the economic analysis (which does not necessarily coincide with the project life), the plant load factor (lifetime average), the tax rate applicable to utility's income, the tax depreciation scheme and the tax charge accounting method (normalised or flow- through). The results of CAPITAL1 and FCRATE1 are expressed both in current money and in constant money of a reference year. Inflation rate and escalation rate of construction expenditures during construction period, and of fixed charges during service life are defined by the user. The discount rate is set automatically by the programme, equal to the weighted average tax-adjusted cost of money. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: CAPITAL1 and FCRATE1 are 'alternatives', not 'substitutes', to the corresponding programs CAPITAL and FCRATE of the LPGC

  13. Overview of methods to increase dryout power in CANDU fuel bundles

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ottawa (Canada); Leung, L.K.H. [Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, Chalk River (Canada); Park, J.H. [Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Small changes in bundle geometry can have noticeable effects on the bundle CHF. • Rod spacing devices can results in increases of over 200% in CHF. • CHF enhancement decays exponentially downstream from spacers. • CHF-enhancing bundle appendages also increase the post-CHF heat transfer. - Abstract: In CANDU reactors some degradation in the CCP (critical channel power, or power corresponding to the first occurrence of CHF in any fuel channel) will occur with time because of ageing effects such as pressure-tube diametral creep, increase in reactor inlet-header temperature, increased hydraulic resistance of feeders. To compensate for the ageing effects, various options for recovering the loss in CCP are described in this paper. They include: (i) increasing the bundle heated perimeter, (ii) optimizing the bundle configuration, (iii) optimizing core flow and flux distribution, (iv) reducing the bundle hydraulic resistance, (v) use of CHF-enhancing bundle appendages, (vi) more precise experimentation, and (vii) redefining CHF. The increase in CHF power has been quantified based on experiments on full-scale bundles and subchannel code predictions. The application of several of these CHF enhancement principles has been used in the development of the 43-rod CANFLEX bundle.

  14. Analysis of future nuclear power plants competitiveness with stochastic methods

    To satisfy the increased demand it is necessary to build new electrical power plants, which could in an optimal way meet, the imposed acceptability criteria. The main criteria are potential to supply the required energy, to supply this energy with minimal (or at least acceptable) costs, to satisfy licensing requirements and be acceptable to public. The main competitors for unlimited electricity production in next few decades are fossil power plants (coal and gas) and nuclear power plants. New renewable power plants (solar, wind, biomass) are also important but due to limited energy supply potential and high costs can be only supplement to the main generating units. Large hydropower plans would be competitive under condition of existence of suitable sites for construction of such plants. The paper describes the application of a stochastic method for comparing economic parameters of future electrical power generating systems including conventional and nuclear power plants. The method is applied to establish competitive specific investment costs of future nuclear power plants when compared with combined cycle gas fired units combined with wind electricity generators using best estimated and optimistic input data. The bases for economic comparison of potential options are plant life time levelized electricity generating costs. The purpose is to assess the uncertainty of several key performance and cost of electricity produced in coal fired power plant, gas fired power plant and nuclear power plant developing probability distribution of levelized price of electricity from different Power Plants, cumulative probability of levelized price of electricity for each technology and probability distribution of cost difference between the technologies. The key parameters evaluated include: levelized electrical energy cost USD/kWh,, discount rate, interest rate for credit repayment, rate of expected increase of fuel cost, plant investment cost , fuel cost , constant annual

  15. Nuclear power and sustainable development. Maintaining and increasing the overall assets available to future generations

    A central goal of sustainable development is to maintain or increase the overall assets available to future generations, while minimizing consumption of finite resources and not exceeding the carrying capacities of ecosystems. The development of nuclear power broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, increases human and man-made capital, and, when safely handled, has little impact on ecosystems. Energy is essential for sustainable development. With continuing population and economic growth, and increasing needs in the developing world, substantially greater energy demand is a given, even taking into account continuing and accelerated energy efficiency and intensity improvements. Today, nuclear power is mostly utilized in industrialized countries that have the necessary technological, institutional and financial resources. Many of the industrialized countries that are able and willing to use nuclear power are also large energy consumers. Nuclear power currently generates 16% of the world's electricity. It produces virtually no sulfur dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds or greenhouse gases. Globally, nuclear power currently avoids approximately 600 million tonnes of carbon emissions annually, about the same as hydropower. The 600 MtC avoided by nuclear power equals 8% of current global greenhouse gases emissions. In the OECD countries, nuclear power has for 35 years accounted for most of the reduction in the carbon intensity per unit of delivered energy. Existing operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) for which initial capital investments are largely depreciated are also often the most cost-effective way to reduce carbon emissions from electricity generation. In fact in the United States in 2000, NPPs were the most cost-effective way to generate electricity, irrespective of avoided carbon emissions. In other countries the advantages of existing nuclear generating stations are also increasingly recognized. Interest

  16. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V


    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  17. 76 FR 16394 - Analysis of Horizontal Market Power Under the Federal Power Act


    ...--and failure of either screen results in a rebuttable presumption of horizontal market power. The... Energy Regulatory Commission Analysis of Horizontal Market Power Under the Federal Power Act AGENCY... should revise its approach for examining horizontal ] market power concerns in transactions under...

  18. Effects of increased microwave heating power in the stellarator TJ-K

    Munoz, Alejandro; Koehn, Alf; Ali, Ahmed; Ramisch, Mirko [Institute of Interfacial Process Engineering and Plasma Technology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)


    One of the microwave heating systems at the stellarator TJ-K has been recently upgraded: a third klystron has been installed, increasing the heating power from 4 kW to 6 kW operating at 14 GHz. A phased-array antenna is used which allows to vary the injection angle by sweeping the microwave frequency in order control the coupling mechanism of the microwave to the plasma. With the two klystrons already installed, ionization degrees of α ≅ 1 have been reached. We expect that an increased heating power, by means of the third klystron put into operation, leads to an increase in the electron temperature T{sub e} only, rather than in electron density n{sub e}, and thus a decrease in the collision frequency ν{sub ei} ∝ n{sub e}T{sub e}{sup -3/2} which has an impact on heating flow damping and neoclassical properties. Parameter scans have been performed in order to characterize the new heating scenario. A radial movable Langmuir probe has been used to obtain radial profiles of the electron density and temperature. An arrangement of bolometers and an optical diode have been used to obtain the power losses by radiation. A particle and power balance model is used to obtain estimated densities and temperatures in order to compare with the experimental results.

  19. Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nanorods

    Highlights: → Nanoparticles enhance solar cell efficiency. → Solar cell power increase by nanorod coating. → Metal-oxide nanorods are prepared in flames. → Molybdenum oxide nanorods effectively scatter light on solar cell surface. → Scattering efficiency depends on coating density. -- Abstract: Photovoltaic cells produce electric current through interactions among photons from an ambient light source and electrons in the semiconductor layer of the cell. However, much of the light incident on the panel is reflected or absorbed without inducing the photovoltaic effect. Transition metal-oxide nanoparticles, an inexpensive product of a process called flame synthesis, can cause scattering of light. Scattering can redirect photon flux, increasing the fraction of light absorbed in the thin active layer of silicon solar cells. This research aims to demonstrate that the application of transition metal-oxide nanorods to the surface of silicon solar panels can enhance the power output of the panels. Several solar panels were coated with a nanoparticle-methanol suspension, and the power outputs of the panels before and after the treatment were compared. The results demonstrate an increase in power output of up to 5% after the treatment. The presence of metal-oxide nanorods on the surface of the coated solar cells is confirmed by electron microscopy.

  20. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  1. Analysis of nuclear-power construction costs

    This paper discusses the use of regression analysis for estimating construction costs. The estimate is based on an historical data base and quantification of key factors considered external to project management. This technique is not intended as a replacement for detailed cost estimates but can provide information useful to the cost-estimating process and to top management interested in evaluating project management. The focus of this paper is the nuclear-power construction industry but the technique is applicable beyond this example. The approach and critical assumptions are also useful in a public-policy situation where utility commissions are evaluating construction in prudence reviews and making comparisons to other nuclear projects. 13 references, 2 figures

  2. Counteracting Power Analysis Attacks by Masking

    Oswald, Elisabeth; Mangard, Stefan

    The publication of power analysis attacks [12] has triggered a lot of research activities. On the one hand these activities have been dedicated toward the development of secure and efficient countermeasures. On the other hand also new and improved attacks have been developed. In fact, there has been a continuous arms race between designers of countermeasures and attackers. This chapter provides a brief overview of the state-of-the art in the arms race in the context of a countermeasure called masking. Masking is a popular countermeasure that has been extensively discussed in the scientific community. Numerous articles have been published that explain different types of masking and that analyze weaknesses of this countermeasure.

  3. Modelling and stability analysis of aircraft power systems

    Areerak, Kongpan


    The more-electric aircraft concept is a major trend in aircraft electrical power system engineering and results in an increase in electrical loads based on power electronic converters and motor drive systems. Unfortunately, power electronic driven loads often behave as constant power loads having the small-signal negative impedance that can significantly degrade the power system stability margin. Therefore, the stability issue of aircraft power systems is of great importance. The research of ...

  4. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    Raghunathan, Anand


    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  5. Multiscale power analysis for heart rate variability

    Zeng, Peng; Liu, Hongxing; Ni, Huangjing; Zhou, Jing; Xia, Lan; Ning, Xinbao


    We first introduce multiscale power (MSP) method to assess the power distribution of physiological signals on multiple time scales. Simulation on synthetic data and experiments on heart rate variability (HRV) are tested to support the approach. Results show that both physical and psychological changes influence power distribution significantly. A quantitative parameter, termed power difference (PD), is introduced to evaluate the degree of power distribution alteration. We find that dynamical correlation of HRV will be destroyed completely when PD>0.7.

  6. Analysis for SG replacement and power uprating

    To document and license the increase of Krsko Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) power to 2000 MWt with replaced steam generator (RSG) , an exhaustive program of analyses has been conducted. It also covers operation in a range of reactor coolant temperatures, SG tube plugging level of up to 5% and cycles durations of 12 to 18 months. As far as feasible, the same methodologies/licensing basis, as existed before, have been followed. R.G. 1.70 rev.3 was observed for the accident analyses. A few changes in methodologies/licensing basis have however been introduced. They include Leak-Before- Break studies to exclude large break LOCA dynamic effects. Throughout the work, emphasis has consistently been placed on limiting plant modifications as far as feasible. Work has been documented along the project in work reports. Those have been reviewed by one or several authorized institutions and by SNSA. Work has been scrutinized by the reviewers to the minute detail, including non safety related parts. Results of the analyses being acceptable and, this acceptability being validated by a comprehensive licensing process, operation of Krsko NPP at 2000 MWt has been fully verified to be safe. (author)

  7. Generation increases at Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant based on accurate feedwater flow measurement

    This paper discusses the application of Caldon LEFM ultrasonic flow and temperature measurement systems at Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. Based on plant instrumentation, Cofrentes engineering personnel estimated an 8 to 10 MW electric shortfall in generation due to venturi nozzle fouling. An external LEFM ultrasonic flow measurement system installed in October 2000 showed a shortfall of about 9 MW electric, consistent with expectations. The plant has increased generation by using the more accurate ultrasonic system to correct for the venturi nozzle bias. Following the recovery of generation lost to venturi fouling, Cofrentes plans to upgrade the flow meter to Caldon's LEFM CheckPlus system. This system is sufficiently accurate to warrant re-licensing for a power up-rate of up to 1,7% based on improved thermal power measurement. (author)

  8. Power System Transient Stability Analysis through a Homotopy Analysis Method

    Wang, Shaobu; Du, Pengwei; Zhou, Ning


    As an important function of energy management systems (EMSs), online contingency analysis plays an important role in providing power system security warnings of instability. At present, N-1 contingency analysis still relies on time-consuming numerical integration. To save computational cost, the paper proposes a quasi-analytical method to evaluate transient stability through time domain periodic solutions’ frequency sensitivities against initial values. First, dynamic systems described in classical models are modified into damping free systems whose solutions are either periodic or expanded (non-convergent). Second, because the sensitivities experience sharp changes when periodic solutions vanish and turn into expanded solutions, transient stability is assessed using the sensitivity. Third, homotopy analysis is introduced to extract frequency information and evaluate the sensitivities only from initial values so that time consuming numerical integration is avoided. Finally, a simple case is presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method, and simulation results show that the proposed method is promising.

  9. Safety analysis program for steam generators replacement and power uprate at Tihange 2 nuclear power plant

    The Belgian Tihange 2 nuclear power plant went into commercial operation in 1983 producing a thermal power of 2785 MW. Since the commissioning of the plant the steam generators U-tubes have been affected by primary stress corrosion cracking. In order to avoid further degradation of the performance and an increase in repair costs, Electrabel, the owner of the plant, decided in 1997 to replace the 3 steam generators. This decision was supported by the feasibility study performed by Tractebel Energy Engineering which demonstrated that an increase of 10% of the initial power together with a fuel cycle length of 18 months was achieved. Tractebel Energy Engineering was entrusted by Electrabel as the owner's engineer to manage the project. This paper presents the role of Tractebel Energy Engineering in this project and the safety analysis program necessary to justify the new operation point and the fuel cycle extension to 18 months re-analysis of FSAR chapter 15 accidents and verification of the capacity of the safety and auxiliary systems. The FSAR chapter 15 accidents were reanalyzed jointly by Framatome and Tractebel Energy Engineering while the systems verifications were carried out by Tractebel Energy Engineering. (author)

  10. Multiple Sclerosis Increases Fracture Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    Guixian Dong


    Full Text Available Purpose. The association between multiple sclerosis (MS and fracture risk has been reported, but results of previous studies remain controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MS and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Method. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MS and fracture risk. The pooled risk ratios (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Results. A significant association between MS and fracture risk was found. This result remained statistically significant when the adjusted RRs were combined. Subgroup analysis stratified by the site of fracture suggested significant associations between MS and tibia fracture risk, femur fracture risk, hip fracture risk, pelvis fracture risk, vertebrae fracture risk, and humerus fracture risk. In the subgroup analysis by gender, female MS patients had increased fracture risk. When stratified by history of drug use, use of antidepressants, hypnotics/anxiolytics, anticonvulsants, and glucocorticoids increased the risk of fracture risk in MS patients. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrated that MS was significantly associated with fracture risk.

  11. Post-calculation of power increase transient for NHR-5 heating reactor with ATHLET code

    Integral nuclear heating reactor with natural circulation is one of innovative type of nuclear reactors to expend peaceful application of nuclear energy in near future. The small unit of integral type of PWR, such as IRAS proposed by Westinghouse, has been addressed importance recently for the changing electric market. China is among the countries to develop integral type of reactors emphasized on improving safety standard by passive safety characteristics, especially for urban district heating and sea water desalination purpose. This paper reports a study on a power increase transient procedure of the NHR-5, a pilot test heating reactor with 5MW thermal power, at the institute of nuclear energy technology (INET) of Tsinghua University of China, with ATHLET code simulation. The test operation data of the NHR-5 has been used to assess the result from the code simulation. The results show that ATHLET code can produce reasonable solutions, and may somehow demonstrate that the design of NHR-5 is sound with respect to self power following capability in power increase transient. (author)

  12. Modeling and analysis of harmonic resonance in a power electronics based AC power system

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Weimin


    The dynamic interactions among the interconnected power converters may bring in harmonic resonance in a power electronics based power system. This paper addresses this issue in a power system dominated by multiple current- and voltage-controlled inverters with LCL- and LC-filters. The impedance-based analysis approach is adopted and expanded to a meshed and balanced three-phase power network. An impedance ratio derivation method is proposed based on the nodal admittance matrix. By this means,...

  13. Probabilistic Analysis of an Automatic Power Factor Controller with variation in Power Factor



    In the present study, the probabilistic analysis of an automatic power factor controller (APFC) system working in industry/factory is investigated. The power factor correction of electrical loads and energy losses due to poor power factor are the problems common to all industrial companies. Therefore, the study of APFC unit is of greatimportance. Initially, the system is operative with controlled power factor. Then it may transit to state with power factor not controlled. On the failure of th...

  14. Power Assigning Method for Increasing the Number of Users in Time-spreading Optical CDMA Systems

    Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Abiri, Ebrahim; Kazemi, Keyvan; Dezfouli, Mehran


    In this paper, a method for increasing the number of supportable users in a time-spreading Optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed. In the presented technique, a unique codeword is assigned to a couple of users instead of just one. Different optical powers are employed for such users in order to distinguish them from each other. Other methods use the frequency or the polarization of the optical signals as an additional coding dimension to increase the number of codewords and hence the number of users in the network. It is proposed to employ nonlinear optical regenerators for separating optical pulses with different powers. A comprehensive design algorithm for such regenerators is presented. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed regenerators a TS-OCDMA system is simulated using OptiSystem software. Results indicate an error free transmission in the system employing the proposed technique.

  15. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency: Preprint

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng


    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  16. Future Generation Adequacy of the Hungarian Power System with Increasing Share of Res

    Agnes Gerse


    Full Text Available Power generation sector is expected to undergo substantial changes in Hungary in the next years due to the decommissioning of several large units reaching the end of their lifetimes in parallel to the projected increase of renewable electricity generating capacity. In addition to the traditionally widely used deterministic adequacy assessment methods, a probabilistic approach has a great importance in case of technologies with different capacity credits. An analytical country-specific adequacy assessment model enabling the probabilistic modelling of wind power plants was developed and applied to generating capacity forecasts for Hungary. Model parameters were estimated using multi-annual production, plant availability, and hourly system demand data. Adequacy indicators obtained from the model clearly show increasing reliance on imported electricity in the absence of investments in new generating capacity.

  17. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs

    This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of nonfuel operating costs for nuclear power plants. Most studies of the economic costs of nuclear power have focused on the rapid escalation in the cost of constructing a nuclear power plant. The present analysis found that there has also been substantial escalation in real (inflation-adjusted) nonfuel operating costs. It is important to determine the factors contributing to the escalation in operating costs, not only to understand what has occurred but also to gain insights about future trends in operating costs. There are two types of nonfuel operating costs. The first is routine operating and maintenance expenditures (O and M costs), and the second is large postoperational capital expenditures, or what is typically called ''capital additions.'' O and M costs consist mainly of expenditures on labor, and according to one recently completed study, the majoriy of employees at a nuclear power plant perform maintenance activities. It is generally thought that capital additions costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep the plants operational, and to make plant modifications (backfits) required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Many discussions of nuclear power plant operating costs have not considered these capital additions costs, and a major finding of the present study is that these costs are substantial. The objective of this study was to determine why nonfuel operating costs have increased over the past decade. The statistical analysis examined a number of factors that have influenced the escalation in real nonfuel operating costs and these are discussed in this report. 4 figs, 19 tabs

  18. New trends in design and fabrication of signal and power cables to increase nuclear safety

    contained halogens that lead to formation of fluorine chlorine, bromine, and iodine salts. The fluorine and chlorine were important for old types of cables and wires as atoms in plastic molecules; bromine was a component of flame protection additives. During burning, behavior of cables is very important for installation in buildings and also in power and control systems of the plants. When such cables are under flame influence they allow propagation of flame and produce smoke and fire and also corrosive and toxic gases. They develop smoke with high density (endangering the use of emergency exits) and make difficult the fire extinguishing. A disadvantage of these types of cables is that the isolation is not mechanically too resistant. The new type of cables with halogen free jackets are composed of polymers based on pure hydrocarbons. Polymers like polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP) are halogen-free. This paper presents the behavior of halogen-free cables during accelerated ageing generated by thermal, abnormal conditions and nuclear environment conditions. The effect on availability of an electrical system as well as the reliability parameters of both types of cables are compared and presented in the paper. Aging mechanism, effects, and simulation were studied and the analysis of the test results is given as well. In conclusions, we evaluated the aging degradation after accelerated aging of polyethylene jacket and under continuous and intermittent heating condition. Contrary to general expectation, we found that intermittent heating to polyethylene cable jacket showed low aging degradation as compared with continuous heating. We also had evaluated accelerated aging degradation in radiation flux conditions similar to those in rooms 303 and 304 in Cernavoda NPP and we found an increase of rigidity of PVC jackets. This can be an inconvenient for cables laid on cable transporter

  19. Power Quality Analysis in Off-Grid Power Platform

    Stanislav Misak; Jindrich Stuchly; Jakub Vramba; Lukas Prokop; Marian Uher


    Research projects in the field of electrical distribution systems are moving to a new philosophy of Smart Grids, where the effort is to use the maximum possible share of power from renewable energy potential. Under this philosophy the emphasis is on energy independence, reliability and safety of operation of energy distribution system. Research in this area leads for example to developing of autonomous local microgrids with the several specific requirements. However, the problem of parameters...

  20. Power enhancement by increasing the initial array radius and wire number of tungsten Z pinches

    Tungsten wire array implosions on the 7- to 8-MA Saturn generator have been optimized using wire number and array diameter variations to produce 75±10TW of x rays with total energy outputs of 450±50kJ. By increasing the number of wires in a 12.5-mm-diam array from 24 to 70 and simultaneously decreasing the individual wire diameter from 13 to 7.5 μm, the total radiated power increased from 20±3 to 40±6TW and the x-ray pulse width decreased from 18 to 8.5 ns. In addition, a diameter scan at an implosion time of 50±5ns showed that the pulse width has a strong dependence on collapse velocity and wire thickness. For the largest diameter load of 17.5 mm with 120 5-μm-diam wires, a 4-ns pulse width with a peak power of 75±10TW was achieved: four times power gain over the 20-TW electrical power generated by the pulsed power system. Time-resolved pinhole photography confirms that the power enhancement with increased wire number is associated with the plasma achieving a tighter compression and better axial uniformity. For the higher-velocity implosions, we infer from two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic calculations that the plasma becomes hotter and hence radiates at a higher brightness temperature. Zero- and two-dimensional load models coupled with a detailed circuit model have shown expected radial kinetic energies in the range of 100 endash 200 kJ. The total radiated energy of >400kJ in a 4 endash 20-ns FWHM pulse exceeds the total kinetic energy by more than a factor of 2. Two-dimensional, three-temperature simulations reproduce the observed trends in powers and pulse widths by using a variable initial random density perturbation. These calculations also indicate that the radiated energy is accounted for by the total work done on the plasma by the magnetic field. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Electric power systems analysis and control

    Saccomanno, Fabio


    "Highly relevant and timely in scope, the book is essential reading for anyone associated with electric power systems, including students and teachers of power engineering courses, professionals in the industry, consultants, and researchers."--Jacket.

  2. Increasing voltage of high power electric pulses by means of a pulse transformer

    Vdovin, S.S.


    The production of megavolt and terawatt electric pulses is difficult and complex. A component part of this problem is increasing the voltage of power pulses of the primary generators used. The problem of increasing the voltage of these pulses can be solved by the use of pulse transformers. However, due to the great voltages and power involved, it is necessary to establish the possibility in principle of increasing voltages to several megavolts, as well as the suitability of the technical and economic characteristics of pulse transformers designed for these purposes. Calculations performed in this article indicate that with pulse lengths of over 1 microsecond, pulse transformers can yield sufficiently high voltages with very slight distortions of transformed pulse shape and power losses. The use of pulse transformers is therefore effective and expedient at pulse lengths of over 1 microsecond. At lengths of less than 0.02 microsecond, pulse transformers apparently became undesirable due to low pulse voltages, great peak distortions and low efficiency.

  3. Atucha I nuclear power plant transients analysis

    A program for the transients simulation thermohydraulic calculation without loss of coolant (KWU-ENACE development) to evaluate Atucha I nuclear power plant behaviour is used. The program includes systems simulation and nuclear power plants control bonds with real parameters. The calculation results show a good agreement with the output 'protocol' of various transients of the nuclear power plant, keeping the error, in general, lesser than ± 10% from the variation of the nuclear power plant's state variables. (Author)

  4. Small break LOCA analysis for Maanshan nuclear power plant

    Jer-Cherng Kang; Shou-Chuan Chiang; Lang-Chen Wang [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China)


    Since 1990, Taiwan Power Company has conducted a LWR LOCA technology transfer program on RELAP5YA computer code from Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC). One objective of this program is to acquire the RELAP5YA computer code from YAEC for Taipower in-house licensing analysis. The RELAP5YA is a computer program developed at YAEC for analysing the dynamic behaviour of thermal-hydraulic systems, and it can cover most of the postulated accidents and transients in light water reactor systems. In this paper, Taipower`s engineers have performed a small break loss of coolant accidents analysis for Maanshan nuclear power plant. Thais action is used to perform the licensing actions for increasing the operation margin on the steam generator tube plugging. The result is shown that the steam generator tube can be plugged slightly without a reduction in safety margins. This analysis covers a spectrum of break size for a small break LOCA. For a complete spectrum of the transient and accident analysis, the large break LOCA and the non-LOCA analysis were performed by the fuel vendor for the reload safety evaluation.

  5. Informed conditioning on clinical covariates increases power in case-control association studies.

    Noah Zaitlen

    Full Text Available Genetic case-control association studies often include data on clinical covariates, such as body mass index (BMI, smoking status, or age, that may modify the underlying genetic risk of case or control samples. For example, in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios for established variants estimated from low-BMI cases are larger than those estimated from high-BMI cases. An unanswered question is how to use this information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals on the basis of phenotype (case-control ascertainment or phenotype and clinical covariates (case-control-covariate ascertainment. While current approaches improve power in studies with random ascertainment, they often lose power under case-control ascertainment and fail to capture available power increases under case-control-covariate ascertainment. We show that an informed conditioning approach, based on the liability threshold model with parameters informed by external epidemiological information, fully accounts for disease prevalence and non-random ascertainment of phenotype as well as covariates and provides a substantial increase in power while maintaining a properly controlled false-positive rate. Our method outperforms standard case-control association tests with or without covariates, tests of gene x covariate interaction, and previously proposed tests for dealing with covariates in ascertained data, with especially large improvements in the case of case-control-covariate ascertainment. We investigate empirical case-control studies of type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, age-related macular degeneration, and end-stage kidney disease over a total of 89,726 samples. In these datasets, informed conditioning outperforms logistic regression for 115 of the 157 known associated variants investigated (P-value = 1 × 10(-9. The improvement varied across diseases with a 16% median increase in χ(2 test statistics

  6. Transient analysis models for nuclear power plants

    The modelling used for the simulation of the Angra-1 start-up reactor tests, using the RETRAN computer code is presented. Three tests are simulated: a)nuclear power plant trip from 100% of power; b)great power excursions tests and c)'load swing' tests.(E.G.)

  7. Optimal rate of power increase in nuclear fuel. Pellet behaviour under dynamic conditions

    A mathematical model has been worked out for the determination of the optium power escalation rate for nuclear power plants from the view-pint of fuel integrity. The model calculates the stress and strain transients in the pellet-cladding system with rapid power increase. No burnup effects are included due to the short time scale involved. An elastic solution has been transposed to a linear viscoelastic one using the correspondence principle. The cladding has however been treated under the programme assumptions as purely elastic. The fuel material has been assumed to be completely relaxed prior to the power transient. Radial cracking is included. The UO2-material distortion has been assumed to be linear viscoelastic, while the dilation is assumed as elastic. The system has been treated assuming plane strain since friction between the pellet and the cladding is large with practical burnsups, and the pellet column can be regarded as infinitely long, compared to the diameter of the pellet. The results of the calculations made show that under the above assumptions the clad stress is independent of the rate of power increase in the pellet. Scince this result is in opposition to general opinion an experimental programme was performed in order to test the results of the model. These results were confirmed. The occurance of clad failures in practice is not determined purely by clad straining. Current thought pays attention to the influence of e.g. stress-corrosion phenomena as significant. The programme reported here pays no attention such-like effects, or the effects of clad creep which could be of considerable significance with local deformations. These later effects are receiving attention in work now being initiated at the Department.(author)

  8. Performance Prediction of Wind Power Turbine by CAD Analysis

    The performance of a vertical-type wind power generator system was predicted by CAD analysis. In the analysis, the reaction torque was calculated for a given rotational speed of the blades. The blade torque of a wind power system was obtained for various rotational speeds, and the generation power was calculated using the obtained torque and the rotational speed. The optimum generator specification, therefore, could be decided using the relationship between the generated power and the rotational speeds. The effects of the number of blades and blade shapes on the generation power were also investigated. Finally, the analysis results were compared with the experimental results

  9. Increased installation in existing hydro power plants. Potentials and costs; Oekt installasjon i eksisterende kraftverk. Potensial og kostnader

    Stensby, Kjell Erik (ed.)


    This report seeks to highlight the costs associated with increased installed capacity of existing hydropower plants. Five selected power plant is further studied. Furthermore, given an overview of the technical possibilities of power expansions in Norway. (AG)

  10. Fault analysis of multichannel spacecraft power systems

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Lollar, Louis F.


    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center proposes to implement computer-controlled fault injection into an electrical power system breadboard to study the reactions of the various control elements of this breadboard. Elements under study include the remote power controllers, the algorithms in the control computers, and the artificially intelligent control programs resident in this breadboard. To this end, a study of electrical power system faults is being performed to yield a list of the most common power system faults. The results of this study will be applied to a multichannel high-voltage DC spacecraft power system called the large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS) breadboard. The results of the power system fault study and the planned implementation of these faults into the LASEPS breadboard are described.

  11. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures


    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  12. Detection of Wind Turbine Power Performance Abnormalities Using Eigenvalue Analysis

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun Saptohartyadi; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Holbøll, Joachim


    commercially available and functioning successfully in fixed speed and vari- able speed turbines. Power performance analysis is a method specifically applicable to wind turbines for the detection of power generation changes due to external factors, such as ic- ing, internal factors, such as controller...... malfunction, or delib- erate actions, such as power de-rating. In this paper, power performance analysis is performed by sliding a time-power window and calculating the two eigenvalues corresponding to the two dimensional wind speed - power generation dis- tribution. The power is classified into five bins in...... order to achieve better resolution and thus identify the most proba- ble root cause of the power deviation. An important aspect of the proposed technique is its independence of the power curve provided by the turbine manufacturer. It is shown that by detecting any changes of the two eigenvalues trends...

  13. A New Method for Increasing Output Power of a Three-Cavity Transit-Time Oscillator

    HE Jun-Tao; ZHONG Hui-Huang; QIAN Bao-Liang; LIU Yong-Gui


    We propose a new method to increase the output power of a three-cavity transit-time oscillator (TC-TTO).Conventional transit-time effect oscillators, such as the split-cavity oscillator (SCO), super-Reltron, and TC-TTO (or double-foil SCO), etc., have a common feature that the span of any modulating cavity is uniform. The new method is to vary the three-cavity spans from uniform to nonuniform. Its configuration is called the nonuniform three-cavity transit-time oscillator (NTC-TTO). Numerical simulations show that the electron-beam is modulated more deeply in certain NTC-TTOs than that in the TC-TTO with the same whole modulating length, and the output microwave power in certain NTC-TTOs is higher than that in the TC-TTO. The experimental results are in agreement with those of the numerical simulations. The results show that the new method can increase the output power of a microwave tube based on the TC-TTO.

  14. Power flow analysis for DC voltage droop controlled DC microgrids

    Li, Chendan; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Dragicevic, Tomislav;


    carried out by comparing the calculation results with detailed time domain simulation results. With the droop parameters as variables in the power flow analysis, their effects on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation can now be analytically studied, and specialized optimization in the upper level......This paper proposes a new algorithm for power flow analysis in droop controlled DC microgrids. By considering the droop control in the power flow analysis for the DC microgrid, when compared with traditional methods, more accurate analysis results can be obtained. The algorithm verification is...... control can also be made accordingly. Case studies on power sharing and secondary voltage regulation are carried out using proposed power flow analysis....

  15. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  16. Operating health analysis of electric power systems

    Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud

    The required level of operating reserve to be maintained by an electric power system can be determined using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. Despite the obvious disadvantages of deterministic approaches there is still considerable reluctance to apply probabilistic techniques due to the difficulty of interpreting a single numerical risk index and the lack of sufficient information provided by a single index. A practical way to overcome difficulties is to embed deterministic considerations in the probabilistic indices in order to monitor the system well-being. The system well-being can be designated as healthy, marginal and at risk. The concept of system well-being is examined and extended in this thesis to cover the overall area of operating reserve assessment. Operating reserve evaluation involves the two distinctly different aspects of unit commitment and the dispatch of the committed units. Unit commitment health analysis involves the determination of which unit should be committed to satisfy the operating criteria. The concepts developed for unit commitment health, margin and risk are extended in this thesis to evaluate the response well-being of a generating system. A procedure is presented to determine the optimum dispatch of the committed units to satisfy the response criteria. The impact on the response wellbeing being of variations in the margin time, required regulating margin and load forecast uncertainty are illustrated. The effects on the response well-being of rapid start units, interruptible loads and postponable outages are also illustrated. System well-being is, in general, greatly improved by interconnection with other power systems. The well-being concepts are extended to evaluate the spinning reserve requirements in interconnected systems. The interconnected system unit commitment problem is decomposed into two subproblems in which unit scheduling is performed in each isolated system followed by interconnected system evaluation

  17. Wireless Powered Communications: Performance Analysis and Optimization

    Zhong, Caijun; Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Karagiannidis, George


    This paper investigates the average throughput of a wireless powered communications system, where an energy constrained source, powered by a dedicated power beacon (PB), communicates with a destination. It is assumed that the PB is capable of performing channel estimation, digital beamforming, and spectrum sensing as a communication device. Considering a time splitting approach, the source first harvests energy from the PB equipped with multiple antennas, and then transmits information to the...

  18. Geometrical Methods for Power Network Analysis

    Bellucci, Stefano; Gupta, Neeraj


    This book is a short introduction to power system planning and operation using advanced geometrical methods. The approach is based on well-known insights and techniques developed in theoretical physics in the context of Riemannian manifolds. The proof of principle and robustness of this approach is examined in the context of the IEEE 5 bus system. This work addresses applied mathematicians, theoretical physicists and power engineers interested in novel mathematical approaches to power network theory.

  19. Analysis of power system collapse risk

    In this paper are analysed the initialization events with considering different scenarios and their impact on the power system transient stability. As an initialization event is considered a short circuit at various places of power line. In each scenario are considered protection failures (backup protection), circuit-breaker failures (breaker failure relay activation). The individual states are analysed and the power system collapse risk assessed based on the simulation experiments results (Authors)

  20. Analysis and determination of power purchase price

    Any agency proposing to connect a windfarm to the power grid must first arrange a power purchase contract involving a power purchase price (PPP). This paper reviews methods of determining the initial PPP and of establishing the mechanism for subsequent annual PPP reviews, both as two separate functions and as combined elements in an optimisation procedure. Various strategies for dealing with the PPP and its annual review are discussed. (Author)

  1. Investigation into the absorptivity change in Metals with increased laser Power

    Blidegn, Kristian; Olsen, Flemmming Ove


    At a first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG and CO2 lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However industrial inert gas cutting abilities demonstrates that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser...... interaction. An increase which can not be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing. The Drude free electron model or simplifications like the Hagen-Rubens relation has often been used to model the...... processes.This paper discuss the need to extend the Drude model taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect in order to describe in increase in absorptivity seen at high intensities. The absorption model will be used in a cut front simulation and results are compared with cutting...

  2. Investigation into the absorptivity change in metals with increased laser power

    Blidegn, Kristian; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    At a first glance the low absorptivity of metals in the infrared (IR) makes the use of YAG and CO2 lasers in metal processing very inefficient. However industrial inert gas cutting abilities demonstrates that the absorptivity can reach significantly higher levels during the high power laser...... interaction. An increase which can not be explained by the increase in temperature only. The interaction between laser light and metals is a major physical phenomena in laser material processing. The Drude free electron model or simplifications like the Hagen-Rubens relation has often been used to model the...... processes.This paper discuss the need to extend the Drude mode taking into account interband transitions and anormal skin effect in order to describe in increase in absorptivity seen at high intensities. The absorption model will be used in a cut front simulation and results are compared with cutting...

  3. Methods for Increasing Power Efficiency of Heating Furnaces Applied in Metallurgical and Mechanical Engineering Industries

    M. L. German


    Full Text Available  The paper analyzes experimental data and results of balance tests of two continuous heating furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries. Furnace power technological characteristics  and dependences of these characteristics on equipment productivity have been determined in the paper. The analysis has made it possible to reveal reasons of higher efficiency of a heating furnace used at BSW Rolling Mill-320 and formulate recommendations on reduction of fuel consumption in operating and designed combustion furnaces applied in mechanical engineering and metallurgical industries.

  4. Increasing biomass resource availability through supply chain analysis

    Increased inclusion of biomass in energy strategies all over the world means that greater mobilisation of biomass resources will be required to meet demand. Strategies of many EU countries assume the future use of non-EU sourced biomass. An increasing number of studies call for the UK to consider alternative options, principally to better utilise indigenous resources. This research identifies the indigenous biomass resources that demonstrate the greatest promise for the UK bioenergy sector and evaluates the extent that different supply chain drivers influence resource availability. The analysis finds that the UK's resources with greatest primary bioenergy potential are household wastes (>115 TWh by 2050), energy crops (>100 TWh by 2050) and agricultural residues (>80 TWh by 2050). The availability of biomass waste resources was found to demonstrate great promise for the bioenergy sector, although are highly susceptible to influences, most notably by the focus of adopted waste management strategies. Biomass residue resources were found to be the resource category least susceptible to influence, with relatively high near-term availability that is forecast to increase – therefore representing a potentially robust resource for the bioenergy sector. The near-term availability of UK energy crops was found to be much less significant compared to other resource categories. Energy crops represent long-term potential for the bioenergy sector, although achieving higher limits of availability will be dependent on the successful management of key influencing drivers. The research highlights that the availability of indigenous resources is largely influenced by a few key drivers, this contradicting areas of consensus of current UK bioenergy policy. - Highlights: • As global biomass demand increases, focus is placed indigenous resources. • A Biomass Resource Model is applied to analyse UK biomass supply chain dynamics. • Biomass availability is best increased

  5. Highly purified water control and analysis on power plants

    Recently, the quality control of water has become more and more important to secure the safety of instruments and various pipes in an atomic power station and also to increase their lifetimes. The control of trace ion impurities in pure water of the secondary system in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has become very strict year after year. Here, the present situations on the analysis and the control of the impurities were described in addition to the quality criteria of the water in atomic power stations. The analysis of trace ions in ultrapure water is carried out by on-line ionchromatography (IC). IC has been used since 1975 and now it became possible to determine the highly accurate concentrations of trace ions by various developments and improvements of the concerned makers. The control of water quality are considered in terms of make-up water system, thermal power plant, condensate and feed water, boiling water reactor and PWR secondary system. At present, determinations of Na+ and Cl- concentrations became necessary to reduce the incomes of impurities from the make-up water. However, it was confirmed that on-line IC developed for the measurement of ultrapure water is able to detect those ions at 0.01 ppb. (M.N.)


    I.V. Domansky


    A system analysis of external power supply circuits of railways traction substations over the period of 1993 through 2011 and power supply circuits projects up to 2016 in the market economy environment and under standard requirements of the power industry of Ukraine is conducted

  7. Systems analysis on laser beamed power

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.


    The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.

  8. Integrating several formalisms in order to increase Fault Trees' modeling power

    Codetta-Raiteri, Daniele, E-mail: raiteri@mfn.unipmn.i [Dipartimento di Informatica, Universita del Piemonte Orientale (Italy)


    The Fault Tree (FT) is a widespread model in the field of Reliability, but its modeling power is very limited. Therefore, several FT extensions have been proposed in the literature, each introducing particular modeling primitives, but in a separate way. In this paper, we integrate the primitives coming from three relevant FT extensions (parametric, dynamic, and repairable FT), into the formalism called generalized FT (GFT). We define each primitive in such a way that it can be combined with any other one. This allows to compactly represent redundancies and symmetries of the system structure, set several kinds of dependency among the events, and model repair processes, in the same model. The paper provides also the analysis process for GFT models, based on the modular approach. In particular, we provide the conditions to detect modules, considering the presence of all the primitives. Besides modules, we exploit the parametric form also at the solution level, with the aim of reducing the cost of analysis.

  9. Balance Sheet and Analysis of Reactive Power Demand in the Polish Power System

    Aleksander Kot


    The paper presents an analysis of the balance sheet and the reactive power demand of the Polish Power System. Reactive power balance sheets were made for the specific operating conditions of the system: the last winter peak, summer peak and summer off peak load. The basis of the study was load flow models and selected load flow calculation results. In addition, changes in demand for active and reactive power in recent years were presented.

  10. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita


    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  11. Increasing power distribution mains efficiency through new mains configurations; Effizienzsteigerung im Verteilnetz durch neue Netzkonfigurationen

    Hoeckel, M.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the findings of a study that sought to find new approaches to minimise distribution losses in medium and low voltage power grids. Options examined included the optimisation of distribution-station density, increasing the nominal voltage of the low-voltage grid and the implementation of decentralised energy production. Data from real-life grids were used together with simulations to analyse possible solutions. The conclusions of these analyses are presented and discussed. In addition, qualitative and detailed examinations were made concerning grid quality factors such as availability and voltage stability.

  12. Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems. [use of a digital computer for designing power plants

    Fegley, K. A.; Hayden, J. H.; Rehmann, D. W.


    The feasibility of formulating a methodology for the modeling and analysis of aerospace electrical power processing systems is investigated. It is shown that a digital computer may be used in an interactive mode for the design, modeling, analysis, and comparison of power processing systems.

  13. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity.

    Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E


    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related. PMID:26923210

  14. Rural Power System Load Forecast Based on Principal Component Analysis

    Fang Jun-long; Xing Yu; Fu Yu; Xu Yang; Liu Guo-liang


    Power load forecasting accuracy related to the development of the power system. There were so many factors influencing the power load, but their effects were not the same and what factors played a leading role could not be determined empirically. Based on the analysis of the principal component, the paper forecasted the demands of power load with the method of the multivariate linear regression model prediction. Took the rural power grid load for example, the paper analyzed the impacts of different factors on power load, selected the forecast methods which were appropriate for using in this area, forecasted its 2014-2018 electricity load, and provided a reliable basis for grid planning.

  15. Application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to mitigate operating and maintenance cost increases for nuclear power plants

    Operating nuclear power generation facilities face increased pressure from state utility commissions to improve the cost effectiveness of operations and maintenance programs. Some costs are not allowed for inclusion in the current rate base and represent an operating loss to the utility. State regulators seem more willing to use operating and maintenance cost comparisons of competing technologies, such as existing fossil and cogeneration facilities. In contrast to these pressures are the requirements applied by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to improve the ''quality'' of operations. The NRC, as a regulator, sometimes uses conflicting parameters to judge the effectiveness of operations, and often issues regulations that significantly impact operating costs. As Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) are completed and submitted to the NRC for review, numerous additional opportunities exist for application of PRA methodology and plant specific results to address the risk impact of recent regulations. Quadrex Corporation is currently performing research for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to investigate the application of risk analysis to improve the cost effectiveness of operations and maintenance programs for nuclear plants. The project is being performed with the cooperation of two participating utilities. The focus of the investigation is the use of the plant specific risk analysis to improve the cost effectiveness of efforts associated with utility response to NRC Generic Letter 89-10; a program that can significantly increase the requirements for motor-operated valve testing and surveillance programs. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  16. An analysis of space power system masses

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Cull, Ronald C.; Kankam, M. D.


    Various space electrical power system masses are analyzed with particular emphasis on the power management and distribution (PMAD) portion. The electrical power system (EPS) is divided into functional blocks: source, interconnection, storage, transmission, distribution, system control and load. The PMAD subsystem is defined as all the blocks between the source, storage and load, plus the power conditioning equipment required for the source, storage and load. The EPS mass of a wide range of spacecraft is then classified as source, storage or PMAD and tabulated in a database. The intent of the database is to serve as a reference source for PMAD masses of existing and in-design spacecraft. The PMAD masses in the database range from 40 kg/kW to 183 kg/kW across the spacecraft systems studied. Factors influencing the power system mass are identified. These include the total spacecraft power requirements, total amount of load capacity and physical size of the spacecraft. It is found that a new utility class of power systems, represented by Space Station Freedom, is evolving.

  17. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;


    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  18. Analysis of Switching Noise on Power Planes

    M. Ž. Stojilović


    Full Text Available Power delivery networks (PDNs in modern printed circuit boards (PCBs are usually realized using power planes. Since the planes have very low inductance, it is usually believed that such PDNs have the smallest amount of switching noise. However, in reality, the power planes can resonate. The noise at resonant frequencies can be significant and it deteriorates the PDN performance. One of the classical methods for decreasing the noise is bypassing. This paper investigates the behavior of a typical PDN and the effect that real SMD bypass capacitors produce when attached to it.

  19. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.


    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  20. Increases in the average power output of wave energy converters using quiescent period predictive control

    Belmont, M.R. [Exeter Marine Dynamics Group, School of Engineering, Mathematics, Computer Science and Physics, North Part Rd., Exeter, Devon EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)


    The potential of controlling wave energy converters, (WEC), by deterministic prediction of large damaging waves is introduced and shown to offer very substantial increases in the annual average power output of such devices. Results obtained for idealised WEC models show that the potential exists for this increase to be at least a factor of two. Numerical simulations of actual dynamical models for both point absorbers and directionally sensitive devices employing practical control strategies show that most of this potential can actually be realised. The control of large scale wave farms using quiescent period predictive control is likely to be most cost effective using master/slave WEC systems. To achieve the computational savings that will allow this strategy analytic approximations are required for the response of WECs with time varying coefficients, preliminary forms of these have also been introduced. (author)

  1. 5-week block periodization increases aerobic power in elite cross-country skiers.

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Thyli, V; Bakken, T A; Sandbakk, Ø


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in elite cross-country skiers approaching the competition period. During the 5-week intervention period, one group performed block periodization (BP; n = 10) with 5 and 3 high-intensity sessions (HIT) during the first and third training week. One HIT was performed during the remaining weeks in BP, while the group performing traditional training organization (TRAD, n = 9) performed two weekly HIT except during the third week where they performed three HIT. HIT were interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) and both groups performed similar total amount of both HIT and LIT during the intervention. BP achieved a larger relative increase in peak power output and power output at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/L than TRAD (4 ± 4 vs -3 ± 6% and 11 ± 10 vs 2 ± 4%, respectively, both P increased maximal oxygen uptake by 2 ± 2% (P < 0.05), while no changes occurred in TRAD. The effect sizes of the relative improvement in these measurements revealed moderate effects of BP vs TRAD training. The present study suggests that block periodization of endurance training have superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with traditional organization. PMID:25648345

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of a FBCC steam power plant

    This article presents the analysis of first and second laws of thermodynamics in a 7.7 MW steam power plant located in Torbali (Izmir, Turkey). It involves a fluidized bed, a waste heat boiler (WHB) and an economizer as subsystems. Fans, pumps, cyclone and chimney are also considered through the analysis as auxiliary systems in the thermal plant. The analysis is performed for the whole system and subsystems by considering the available energy balance. In this analysis which consists of a detailed fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC) model, the amount of irreversibilities occurring in the system is calculated at each location. Analysis results are compared with the test results obtained from the measurements at several locations in the system and good agreement is observed. These measured values are the temperatures at three levels in the FBCC and boiler, economizer exit temperatures as well as flue gas composition at the boiler exit and steam flow rate. The maximum error observed in temperature values and steam flow rate is about 3.03% and 4.03%, respectively. Through the developed and validated model, effects of excess air and ambient temperature on first and second law efficiency of the subsystems and overall system are investigated. The second-law analysis reveals that the FBCC has the largest irreversibility, with about 80.4% of the total system exergy loss. The FBCC temperature, first and second law efficiencies decrease 19.8%, 5.1% and 5.2%, respectively, as the excess air increases from 10% to 70%. Also steam flow rate decreases 5.1%. As the ambient temperature increases from 25 to 45 deg. C, the FBCC temperature, system first and second law efficiencies increase 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.3%, respectively.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of a FBCC steam power plant

    Eskin, Nurdil; Oezdemir, Koray [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Istanbul Technical Univ., 34437 Istanbul (Turkey); Gungor, Afsin [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Nigde Univ., 51100 Nigde (Turkey)


    This article presents the analysis of first and second laws of thermodynamics in a 7.7 MW steam power plant located in Torbali (Izmir, Turkey). It involves a fluidized bed, a waste heat boiler (WHB) and an economizer as subsystems. Fans, pumps, cyclone and chimney are also considered through the analysis as auxiliary systems in the thermal plant. The analysis is performed for the whole system and subsystems by considering the available energy balance. In this analysis which consists of a detailed fluidized bed coal combustor (FBCC) model, the amount of irreversibilities occurring in the system is calculated at each location. Analysis results are compared with the test results obtained from the measurements at several locations in the system and good agreement is observed. These measured values are the temperatures at three levels in the FBCC and boiler, economizer exit temperatures as well as flue gas composition at the boiler exit and steam flow rate. The maximum error observed in temperature values and steam flow rate is about 3.03% and 4.03%, respectively. Through the developed and validated model, effects of excess air and ambient temperature on first and second law efficiency of the subsystems and overall system are investigated. The second-law analysis reveals that the FBCC has the largest irreversibility, with about 80.4% of the total system exergy loss. The FBCC temperature, first and second law efficiencies decrease 19.8%, 5.1% and 5.2%, respectively, as the excess air increases from 10% to 70%. Also steam flow rate decreases 5.1%. As the ambient temperature increases from 25 to 45 C, the FBCC temperature, system first and second law efficiencies increase 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.3%, respectively. (author)

  4. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L


    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  5. Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Power Transformer with Metamaterial

    Lan Jian Yu


    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer technologies enable power transfer to loads through air. The contactless power transformer is a key element of it. In this work, a new transformer with metamaterial is proposed, through which the power transfer distance increases. The electromagnetic properties about metamaterial are discussed at first. Then, the finite element analyses of this transformer are presented as well. The magnetic field distributions and the computational results show that this type of transformer can enlarge the power transfer range of a wireless power transfer system.

  6. Security and Stability Analysis for Yunnan Power Grid with Wind Power Integration

    Yinghui Qiu


    Full Text Available Wind power is sustainable, renewable and clean energy. There are abundant wind resources in Yunnan province, China. In recent years, wind power integration has developed rapidly in Yunnan province. With the first batch of the wind farm being built and a part of them going into production in Yunnan, the wind power resources will be large-scale developed and utilized in the future. Based on the wind power planning of Yunnan, the impacts of security and stability after wind power are studied in this paper. The major researches are made on the capacity analysis for accessing high-capacity wind farm, the analysis for power system voltage stability and comparison of different wind-generator model structures, thus finding out the most suitable choice for fan selection in Yunnan Power Grid.

  7. Galena Electric Power A Situational Analysis

    Robert E. Chaney; Stephen G. Colt; Ronald A. Johnson; Richard W. Wiles; Gregory J. White


    The purpose of the investigation is to compare the economics of various electrical power generation options for the City of Galena. Options were assessed over a 30-year project period, beginning in 2010, and the final results were compared on the basis of residential customer electric rates ($/kWh). Galena's electric utility currently generates power using internal combustion diesel engines and generator sets. Nearby, there is an exposed coal seam, which might provide fuel for a power plant. Contributions to the energy mix might come from solar, municipal solid waste, or wood. The City has also been approached by Toshiba, Inc., as a demonstration site for a small (Model 4S) nuclear reactor power plant. The Yukon River is possibly a site for in-river turbines for hydroelectric power. This report summarizes the comparative economics of various energy supply options. This report covers: (1) thermal and electric load profiles for Galena; (2) technologies and resources available to meet or exceed those loads; (3) uses for any extra power produced by these options; (4) environmental and permitting issues and then; and (5) the overall economics of each of the primary energy options.

  8. Accounting experimental analysis method of functioning regimes of electrical power supply systems at the industrial enterprises

    Full text : Problems of analysis and control of electric power supply in corelation with requirements of the new interstate standards to the quality of energy supply are investigated. The methodology of analyzing the state of electric power supply system and sampling procedures in increasing efficiency of system functioning on the basis of using experimental and accountable methods of research is performed

  9. Analysis of the Spectral Resolving Power in Tomographic Imaging Spectrometry

    方俊永; 赵达尊; 蒋月娟


    From the point of view of design requirements, influence of the width of the output image of an imaging subsystem in a tomographic imaging spectrometer, namely width of the slit, the grating and the size of the CCD pixel are analyzed. For the tomographic imaging spectrometry, if the amplification ratio of the imaging subsystem is not high enough to make the whole object to be compressed within the slit, then either the slit width should be increased or the slit width kept unchanged but scanned to receive information of the object. While the width-increase method reduces the spectral resolving power and the SNR; the scanning method reduces the SNR. Analysis of the two cases and computer simulation results are given.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Power Transformer with Metamaterial

    Lan Jian Yu


    Wireless power transfer technologies enable power transfer to loads through air. The contactless power transformer is a key element of it. In this work, a new transformer with metamaterial is proposed, through which the power transfer distance increases. The electromagnetic properties about metamaterial are discussed at first. Then, the finite element analyses of this transformer are presented as well. The magnetic field distributions and the computational results show that this type of trans...