Sample records for amphibolitised mafic dykes

  1. Geochemistry of Late Mesozoic mafic dykes in western Fujian Province of China:Sr-Nd isotope and trace element constraints


    The Bancun diabase dyke and the Bali hornblende gabbro dyke in western Fuiian Province were emplaced in the Early and Late Cretaceous periods,respectively;the former is designated to calc-alkaline series and the latter to K-high-calc-alkaline rock series.Both the dykes are characterized by such geochemical characteristics as high Al and Na2O>K2O.As for the Bancun dyke,A12O3=16.32%-17.54%and K2O/Na2O=0.65-0.77;as for the Bali dyke,A12O3=16.89%-17.81%and K2O,Na2O=O.93-O.99.Both the Bancun and Bali mafic dykes are relatively endched in LILE and LREE,but depleted in HSFE, displaying the geochemical characteristics of continental marginal arc,with high initial Sr isotopic ratios and low εNd values,The (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of the Bancun diabase dyke are within the range of 0.708556-0.70903 and their εNd(t)values vary between-6.8 and-6.3;those of the Bali hornblende dyke are within the range of 0.708556-0.710746 and their εNd(t) values are -4.7--4.7,showing the characteristics of enriched mantle EM Ⅱ.The isotope and trace element data showed that the mafic dykes have not experienced obvious crustal contamination,and metasomatism caused by subduction fluids is the main factor leading to LILE and UREE enrichments.The enriched mantle is the source region for the mafic dykes,and mixing of subduction fluid metasomatized enriched mantle and EM Ⅱ-type mantle constituted the mantle source region of both the Bancun and Bali mafic dykes.Upwelling of the asthenosphere mantle provided sufficient heat energy for the generation of magmas.In accordance with the discrimination diagram of their tectonic settings as well as their trace element geochemical characteristics,it is considered that the dykes both at Bancun and Bali possess the characteristics of continental marginal arc,revealing the tectonic environment of formation of the mafic dykes,the continental dynamic background as an intraplate tensional belt in which the mafic dykes were emplaced.Meanwhile,it is also indicated

  2. Magnetic and plagioclase fabrics in Early Cretaceous mafic dykes from Namibia

    Wiegand, M.; Greiling, R. O.; Kontny, A. M.; Trumbull, R. B.


    Mafic dyke swarms are major components of the South Atlantic Large Igneous Province, which originated during the Cretaceous break up of Africa and South America. We present data from the major Henties Bay-Outjo dyke swarm (HOD) in coastal and inland NW Namibia where dykes have been emplaced into the Neoproterozoic Damara mobile belt. Most of the dykes strike at a high angle to the coast (NE-SW), but minor proportions are coast-parallel (NNW-SSE), N-S or NNE-SSW. Depending on dyke thickness (ca. 0.1 m to >100 m), the rocks are variably fine- to medium grained with chilled margins. With few exceptions the dyke compositions are tholeiitic basalt to basaltic andesite. Main minerals are plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine, Fe-Ti oxides, and accessory apatite and sulphides. For the magnetic study, we investigated 1140 standard cylinders from 41 dykes. The samples were studied microscopically and the following magnetic properties were determined: bulk susceptibility, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (P'), field dependence, hysteresis, Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) and Anisotropy of Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetization (AARM). Magnetic susceptibilities vary between 0.16 and 151*10-3 SI units. Microscopic studies and measurements of the temperature-dependent susceptibility identify magnetite and titanomagnetite as the dominant magnetic minerals. Hysteresis loops show that the magnetic domain states of titanomagnetite are pseudo-single or a mixture of single and multi-domain. Anisotropy is mostly low, with P' values between 1.01 and 1.15. Rare values of up to 1.33 reflect a strong magmatic flow fabric. The shapes of the AMS ellipsoids range from prolate to neutral and oblate. Two main fabric types (normal and inverse) can be recognized. We used the normal fabric type samples to interpret magmatic flow fabrics and attribute steep magnetic lineations of normal fabrics to vertical magma flow and shallow magnetic lineations to horizontal flow along the dyke planes. In

  3. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms from the south of Devarakonda area, Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India: Implications for their relative ages

    Amiya K Samal; Rajesh K Srivastava; Lokesh K Sinha


    Google Earth Image and cross-cutting field relationships of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from south of Devarakonda area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton has been studied to establish relative emplacement ages. The Devarakonda, covering an area of ∼700 km2, shows spectacular cross-cutting field relationships between different generations of mafic dykes, and is therefore selected for the present study. Although some recent radiometric age data are available for distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from the Eastern Dharwar Craton, there is no analogous age data available for the study area. Therefore, relative age relationships of distinct mafic dykes have been established for the study area using cross-cutting field relationships and GIS techniques, which shows slightly different picture than other parts of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. It is suggested that NE–SW trending mafic dykes are youngest in age (probably belong to ∼1.89 Ga dyke swarm), whereas NNW–SSE trending mafic dykes have oldest emplacement age. Further, the NNW–SSE mafic dykes are older to the other two identified mafic dyke swarms, i.e., WNW–ESE (∼2.18 Ga) and N–S trending (∼2.21 Ga) mafic dyke swarms, as dykes of these two swarms cross-cut a NNW–SSE dyke. It provides an evidence for existence of a new set of mafic dykes that is older to the ∼2.21 Ga and probably younger to the ∼2.37 Ga swarm. Present study also supports existence of two mafic dyke swarms having similar trend (ENE–WSW to NE–SW) but emplaced in two different ages (one is ∼2.37 Ga and other ∼1.89 Ga).

  4. The discovery of the Neoarchean mafic dyke swarm in Hengshan and reinterpretation of the previous "Wutai greenstone belt"


    The structural mapping and section study indicate that the "greenstone belts" in the southern to central parts of Hengshan were intensively sheared and transposed mafic dyke swarm,which originally intruded into the Neoarchean grey gneiss and high-pressure granulite terrain(HPGT).The HPGT is characterized by flat-dipping structures,to the south it became steep and was cut by the Dianmen mafic dyke swarm.After high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphic event,the mafic dyke swarm occurred,and was associated with the extensional setting and reworked by the late strike-slip shearing.The zircon age dating proves that the Dianmen mafic dyke swarm was emplaced during the period between 2499±4 Ma and 2512±3 Ma,followed by late tectonothermal reworking.The Dianmen mafic dyke swarm further documents the extensional episode in the central to northern parts of North China Craton(NCC),providing the important constraint for the limit between Archean and Proterozoic and correlation between NCC and other cratonic blocks of the world.

  5. Geochemistry and petrology of mafic Proterozoic and Permian dykes on Bornholm, Denmark:

    Holm, Paul Martin; Pedersen, Lise E.; Højsteeen, Birte


    More than 250 dykes cut the mid Proterozoic basement gneisses and granites of Bornholm. Most trend between NNW and NNE, whereas a few trend NE and NW. Field, geochemical and petrological evidence suggest that the dyke intrusions occurred as four distinct events at around 1326 Ma (Kelseaa dyke...

  6. Gridino melange zone of the Belomorian eclogite province: Succession of tectonic events and structural position of mafic dyke swarms

    Babarina, I. I.; Sibelev, O. S.; Stepanova, A. V.


    Based on relationships between Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes, lithotectonic complexes, and tectonic structures of the Gridino Zone in the Belomorian eclogite province of the Fennoscandian Shield, deformations have been divided into groups differing in age and the succession of tectonic events has been reconstructed. The formation of Neoarchean eclogite-bearing melange was related to disintegration of large eclogite sheets in the course of near-horizontal ductile flow accompanied by syntectonic granitoid magmatism, multiple migmatization, and granulite-to amphibolite-facies metamorphism. The exotic blocks, including eclogites, were incorporated into TTG gneisses as sheets and lenses up to a few hundreds of meters in thickness and oriented conformably with gneissic banding. As a result of ductile flow, the lithotectonic complexes were transported at the level of discrete brittle-ductile deformations expressed as strike-slip faults and associated folds. Under conditions of a relatively rigid medium, individual structural elements underwent rotation approximately through 90° in plan view. Under the extension regime in the Early Paleoproterozoic, several swarms of mafic dykes were injected into the already cold framework rocks, as is evident from dyke morphology. The dykes crosscut all predated structures, included turned blocks, and are therefore important reference points for subdivision of Neoarchean and Paleoproterozoic processes. The Svecofennian postdyke tectonic activity was accompanied by local shearing and boudinage of metabasic rocks, development of quartz and pegmatite veins along tension cracks, disharmonic folding, and discrete retrograde metamorphism up to amphibolite-facies conditions. The postdyke deformations did not exert a substantial effect on the previously formed regional structure.

  7. Mafic dykes at the southwestern margin of Eastern Ghats belt: Evidence of rifting and collision

    S Bhattacharya; A K Chaudhary; W Teixeira


    The southwestern margin of the Eastern Ghats Belt characteristically exposes ma fic dykes intruding massif-type charnockites. Dykes of olivine basalt of alkaline composition have characteristic trace element signatures comparable with Ocean Island Basalt (OIB). Most importantly strong positive Nb anomaly and low values of Zr/Nb ratio are consistent with OIB source of the mafic dykes. K –Ar isotopic data indicate two cooling ages at 740 and 530 Ma. The Pan-African thermal event could be related to reactivation of major shear zones and represented by leuco-granite vein along minor shear bands. And 740 Ma cooling age may indicate the low grade metamorphic imprints, noted in some of the dykes. Although no intrusion age could be determined from the present dataset, it could be constrained by some age data of the host charnockite gneiss and Alkaline rocks of the adjacent Prakasam Province. Assuming an intrusion age of ∼1 .3 Ga, Sr –Nd isotopic composition of the dykes indicate that they preserved time-integrated LREE enrichment. In view of the chemical signatures of OIB source, the ma fic dykes could as well be related to continental rifting, around 1.3 Ga, which may have been initiated by intra-plate volcanism.

  8. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoproterozoic Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China

    Yang, Yi-Jin; Zhu, Wei-Guang; Bai, Zhong-Jie; Zhong, Hong; Ye, Xian-Tao; Fan, Hong-Peng


    Mafic-ultramafic dykes are important geological markers that can punctuate the onset of crustal extension during the breakup of a continent and provide valuable information on the mantle source. This study reports secondary ion mass spectroscopy zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb ages, elemental and Nd isotopic data for the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area, western Yangtze Block, SW China. Two kinds of rocks are confirmed: the picritic rock and the dolerite. Based on petrographic and geochemical features, the dolerite dykes are further subdivided into two groups: Group I mafic and Group II mafic dykes, which emplaced at ~760 Ma (zircon U-Pb) and ~800 Ma (zircon and baddeleyite U-Pb), respectively. All samples from the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks show the features of high-Ti and alkaline basaltic magma in composition as well as "humped" trace element patterns, which are similar to those of typical alkaline basalts associated with continental rifts except for the slightly negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The Group II mafic rocks display the features of low-Ti and tholeiitic magma, moderately enriched in LILE and LREE, and characterized by distinctively negative Nb-Ta anomalies. The primary magmas of the picritic rocks and the Group I mafic rocks were generated from ca 25 % partial melting of an OIB-like, Nd isotopically depleted but incompatible elements relatively enriched mantle source within a garnet stable field. The Group II mafic rocks crystallized from crustal contaminated mafic magmas that were derived from a spinel-bearing sub-continental lithospheric mantle source, because of low ratios of La/Yb, Ti/Y and Sm/Yb. Geochemical features suggest that these groups of mafic-ultramafic dykes were formed in a continental rift setting, but derived from different mantle sources. In combination with other Neoproterozoic igneous rocks in the western margin of Yangtze Block, it is suggested that the Datian mafic-ultramafic dykes in the Panzhihua area

  9. Nature of mantle source contributions and the role of contamination and in situ crystallisation in the petrogenesis of Proterozoic mafic dykes and flood basalts Labrador

    Cadman, A. C.; Tarney, J.; Baragar, W. R. A.


    Proterozoic tholeiitic dyke swarms share many compositional features with, and pose similar petrogenetic problems to, Phanerozoic continental flood basalts, but there are few extrusive equivalents of such swarms. The Mesoproterozoic (1.27 Ga) Harp dyke swarm in Labrador is one where possible extrusive equivalents exist in the Seal Lake group, but are slightly displaced in space and time, and can probably be related by models of progressive crustal extension. Here we try to evaluate the roles of crystal differentiation, in situ crystallisation, crustal assimilation and the relative contributions of asthenosphere- and lithosphere-derived melts in the petrogenesis of the mafic magmas. Modelling of the major and trace element variations both within individual dykes and between dykes, and within the lava sequence, does not suggest an important role for continental crust involvement. While in situ crystallisation processes could account for some of the compositional variations, the most successful models invoke mixing or contamination of asthenospheric magmas with/by veined material in the lower lithosphere / upper asthenosphere which carries the ‘continental’ characteristics. The results imply an important role for hydrous phases such as phlogopite and hornblende in the sub-lithosphere mantle. Much of the low-MgO character of mafic dykes may result from significant removal of mafic phases during in situ crystallisation within the lithosphere.

  10. Fluid Inclusion Study of Quartz Xenocrysts in Mafic Dykes from Kawant Area, Chhota Udaipur District, Gujarat, India

    Randive Kirtikumar


    Full Text Available Unusual mafic dykes occur in the proximity of the Ambadongar Carbonatite Complex, Lower Narmada Valley, Gujarat, India. The dykes contain dense population of quartz xenocrysts within the basaltic matrix metasomatised by carbonate-rich fluids. Plagioclase feldspars, relict pyroxenes, chlorite, barite, rutile, magnetite, Fe-Ti oxides and glass were identified in the basaltic matrix. Quartz xenocrysts occur in various shapes and sizes and form an intricate growth pattern with carbonates. The xenocrysts are fractured and contain several types of primary and secondary, single phase and two-phase fluid inclusions. The two-phase inclusions are dominated by aqueous liquid, whereas the monophase inclusions are composed of carbonic gas and the aqueous inclusions homogenize to liquid between 226°C and 361°C. Majority of the inclusions are secondary in origin and are therefore unrelated to the crystallization of quartz. Moreover, the inclusions have mixed carbonic-aqueous compositions that inhibit their direct correlation with the crustal or mantle fluids. The composition of dilute CO2-rich fluids observed in the quartz xenocrysts appear similar to those exsolved during the final stages of evolution of the Amba Dongar carbonatites. However, the carbonates are devoid of fluid inclusions and therefore their genetic relation with the quartz xenocrysts cannot be established.

  11. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and geochemistry of the Central Saurashtra mafic dyke swarm: insights into magmatic evolution, magma transport, and dyke-flow relationships in the northwestern Deccan Traps

    Cucciniello, Ciro; Demonterova, Elena I.; Sheth, Hetu; Pande, Kanchan; Vijayan, Anjali


    The Central Saurashtra mafic dyke swarm in the northwestern Deccan Traps contains a few picrites, several subalkalic basalts and basaltic andesites, and an andesite. We have obtained precise 40Ar/39Ar ages of 65.6 ± 0.2 Ma, 66.6 ± 0.3, and 62.4 ± 0.3 Ma (2σ errors) for three of the dykes, indicating the emplacement of the swarm over several million years. Mineral chemical and whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data show that fractional crystallization and crystal accumulation were important processes. Except for two dykes (with ɛNd t values of -8.2 and -12.3), the magmas were only moderately contaminated by continental crust. The late-emplaced (62.4 Ma) basalt dyke has compositional characteristics (low La/Sm and Th/Nb, high ɛNd t of +4.3) suggesting little or no crustal contamination. Most dykes are low-Ti and a few high-Ti, and these contrasting Ti types cannot be produced by fractional crystallization processes but require distinct parental magmas. Some dykes are compositionally homogeneous over tens of kilometers, whereas others are heterogeneous, partly because they were formed by multiple magma injections. The combined field and geochemical data establish the Sardhar dyke as ≥62 km long and the longest in Saurashtra, but this and the other Central Saurasthra dykes cannot have fed any of the hitherto studied lava-flow sequences in Saurashtra, given their very distinct Sr-Nd isotopic compositions. As observed previously, high-Ti lavas and dykes only outcrop east-northeast of a line joining Rajkot and Palitana, probably because of underlying enriched mantle at ~65 Ma.

  12. The mafic dyke swarm of Uaua (Brazil): geological and petrographical aspects

    The Uaua mafic dike swarm stands out as one of the most extensive swarms in the Sao Francisco craton. These dikes crop out around the town of Uaua (State of Bahia) and to the east near the Rio Capim greenstone belt. The dikes intrude the Archean basement which is composed of medium-to high-grade gneisses and migmatites. Table 1 shows the geochronological results for basement rocks, which have yielded ages between 2,730-3,016 m.y. (Tb-Sr,whole rock isochron) indicating a Late Archean evolution for these rocks. On the other hand, available 40 Ar-39 Ar (biotite) and K-Ar (amphibole) determinations for basement rocks yield Early Proterozoic ages, the result of overprinting of the Transamazonico orogenic cycle. (author)

  13. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age,geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotope of Neoproterozoic mafic dyke swarms in western Sichuan:Petrogenesis and tectonic significance


    Neoproterozoic magmatic rocks are widespread in the western margin of the Yangtze block, and their origin and genesis have significant implications for understanding the evolution of the Rodinia super- continent. However, there are currently two opposing interpretations for their petrogenesis and tectonic setting: mantle plume-related and island arc origin. To further verify these two competing models, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age determinations and geochemical and Nd-Hf isotopic analyses are conducted on the mafic dykes in the Kangdian Rift, western Sichuan. U-Pb dating suggests that these mafic dykes were emplaced at 780―760 Ma, spatially and temporally coeval with the Kangding granitoid complex. The parental magmas of these dykes were derived from a depleted asthenosphere mantle source likely triggered by an anomalously-hot mantle plume. Despite some arc-geochemical features caused by variable degrees of contamination of young island arc crust during magma ascending and emplace- ment, they show general geochemical and Nd-Hf isotopic features similar to those of the intraplate basalts. Our results support the reconstruction model of Rodinia in which the South China block was located between Australia and Laurentia.

  14. Petrological and geochemical constraints on the origin of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc, NE Turkey

    Aydin, Faruk; Oguz, Simge; Baser, Rasim; Uysal, Ibrahim; Sen, Cüneyt; Karsli, Orhan; Kandemir, Raif


    Geological, petrographical and geochemical data of mafic dykes intruding the composite Kaçkar Pluton from the eastern Blacksea magmatic arc (EBMA), NE Turkey, provide new insights into the nature of the metasomatizing agents in subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the region during the late Mesozoic-early Tertiary. Mafic dykes from the Çaykara and Hayrat (Trabzon), and also Ikizdere (Rize) areas from the northern margin of the EBMA consist of basalts, dolerites, lamprophyres (basic member) and lesser basaltic andesites and trachyandesites (evolved member). All dykes have no deformation and metamorphism. The outcrops of these dykes vary, with thickness from 0.2 to 10 m. and visible length from 3 to 20 m. In general, the mafic dykes dip steeply and cut directly across the Kaçkar Pluton, and show NW- and NE-trending, roughly parallel to the orientations of the EBMA main faults. Most of the dyke samples display subaphyric to porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of plagioclase (up to 10%), clinopyroxene (5-20%), amphibole (5-15%), and some contain variable amount of biotite (5-20%), lesser quartz (1-2%), and minor euhedral zircon, apatite and Fe-Ti oxides. The basic members of the mafic dykes have SiO2 of 44.1-51.9%, MgO of 4.5-12.1%, and TiO2 >mostly 0.8% (up to 2.3%) with K2O+Na2O of 1.3-6.6% with mostly subalkaline character. They are relatively high in mg-number (0.45-0.73) and transition metals (V=171-376 ppm, Co=22-45 ppm, Ni=3-148 ppm, and Sc=21-49 ppm). The evolved members of the dykes exhibit relatively higher SiO2 (57.1-60.2%) and K2O+Na2O (5.6-9.0%), and lower MgO (2.2-5.9%) and TiO2 (0.5-0.8%) contents than those from the basic dykes. Also, these samples have slightly low mg-number (0.41-0.65) and transition metals (V=99-172 ppm, Co=9-22 ppm, Ni=1-43 ppm, and Sc=9-20 ppm). In the Harker diagrams, all samples of the mafic dykes form a continuous array, and exhibit similar geochemical characteristics. In general, SiO2 inversely correlates with MgO, Fe

  15. K-Ar geochronology of mafic dyke swarms from the meridional part of Sao Francisco craton and implications on tectonic context

    The southern region of the Sao Francisco Craton is made up of gneissic-granitoid terranes (mainly of amphibolite facies) associated with supracrustals, which can be separed into two crustal provinces, the oldest formed during the Archean (3-2-2.6 Ga.), and the youngest in the Early Proterozoic (2.4-2.0 Ga.). Mafic dyke swarms inject the basement complexes in the area west of Belo Horizonte city, but not the Late proterozoic Bambui sedimentary cover. These dykes show NNW, NW, WNW, NNE and ENE trends and are of anorogenic character. Most dykes are tholeiitic in composition. Metamorphic recrystallization at greenschist to amphibolite facies as well as minor hidrothermal and/or deuteric transformations are characteristics in the majority of the these dykes. About sixty K/Ar determinations have been performed on plagioclases, amphiboles and whole rocks. They are interpretated combining the use of K/Ar diagrams and histogram, and according to the crustal evolution proposed for the craton. The available radiometric data suggest that the main period of mafic intrusions took place in the Early proterozoic as supported by the apparent ages on amphiboles. However, the beginning of the Middle Proterozoic (1.7-1.5 Ga.) probably corresponds to a period of tensional tectonics as well. On the other hand, most ages obtained on plagioclases and whole rocks, can be associated with Late Proterozoic processes of argon gain or loss. The results are tectonicaly associated with crustal rifting of the continental mass. This two radiometric groupings are characteristic for the evolution of the Early proterozoic crustal provine and of the Mid-Proterozoic intracratonic Espinhaco System respectively. The youngest Late Proterozoic apparent ages associated with the reflections of the contemporaneous evolution of the Braziliano marginal mobile belt which is also suggested by the partial resetting of the K/Ar ages of basement rocks within the eastern part of the Sao Francisco Craton. (author)

  16. Composition of the ultramafic-mafic contact interval of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe at Ngezi mine: Comparisons to the Bushveld Complex and implications for the origin of the PGE reefs

    Maier, W. D.; Määttää, S.; Yang, S.; Oberthür, T.; Lahaye, Y.; Huhma, H.; Barnes, S.-J.


    The Great Dyke contains the world's second largest platinum resource after the Bushveld Complex. Isotopic and trace element data from the interval straddling the contact between the Ultramafic and Mafic Sequences of the Great Dyke indicate a less enriched composition than in the Bushveld Complex (Great Dyke: Sri 0.7024-0.7028, εNd mostly - 1 to + 1, Ce/Sm 2-6; Bushveld: Sri 705-0.709, εNd - 5 to - 7, Ce/Sm 5-15). These data are interpreted to reflect relatively moderate amounts of contamination of the Great Dyke parent magma. All analyzed isotopes show little variation across the Main Sulfide Zone and the ultramafic-mafic contact. This corroborates earlier work by other researchers that the Great Dyke crystallized from a single magma type. Mixing of compositionally distinct magmas, proposed to have caused sulfide melt saturation in the Bushveld Complex, seemingly played little or no role in the formation of the PGE mineralization in the Main Sulfide Zone, and neither did enhanced crustal contamination of specific magma batches. Instead, sulfide melt saturation of the magma was likely triggered by silicate fractionation. The mechanism of concentration of the sulfide melt remains uncertain, but theoretical considerations suggest that phase sorting in response to slumping of crystal mushes, possibly caused by chamber subsidence, played an important role. This model is consistent with the highly irregular, undulating nature of the contact between the mafic and ultramafic zones of the intrusion, in the hanging wall of the Main Sulfide Zone.

  17. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of early Cretaceous sub-alkaline mafic dykes from Swangkre-Rongmil, East Garo Hills, Shillong plateau, northeast India

    Rajesh K Srivastava; Anup K Sinha


    Numerous early Cretaceous mafic and alkaline dykes, mostly trending in N-S direction, are emplaced in the Archaean gneissic complex of the Shillong plateau, northeastern India. These dykes are spatially associated with the N-S trending deep-seated Nongchram fault and well exposed around the Swangkre-Rongmil region. The petrological and geochemical characteristics of mafic dykes from this area are presented. These mafic dykes show very sharp contact with the host rocks and do not show any signature of assimilation with them. Petrographically these mafic dykes vary from fine-grained basalt (samples from the dyke margin) to medium-grained dolerite (samples from the middle of the dyke) having very similar chemical compositions, which may be classified as basaltic-andesite/andesite. The geochemical characteristics of these mafic dykes suggest that these are genetically related to each other and probably derived from the same parental magma. Although, the high-field strength element (+rare-earth elements) compositions disallow the possibility of any crustal involvement in the genesis of these rocks, but Nb/La, La/Ta, and Ba/Ta ratios, and similarities of geochemical characteristics of present samples with the Elan Bank basalts and Rajmahal (Group II) mafic dyke samples, suggest minor contamination by assimilation with a small amount of upper crustal material. Chemistry, particularly REE, hints at an alkaline basaltic nature of melt. Trace element modelling suggests that the melt responsible for these mafic dykes had undergone extreme differentiation (∼50%) before its emplacement. The basaltic-andesite nature of these rocks may be attributed to this differentiation. Chemistry of these rocks also indicates ∼10–15% melting of the mantle source. The mafic dyke samples of the present investigation show very close geochemical similarities with the mafic rocks derived from the Kerguelen mantle plume. Perhaps the Swangkre-Rongmil mafic dykes are also derived

  18. Evidence for non-coaxiality of ferrimagnetic and paramagnetic fabrics, developed during magma flow and cooling in a thick mafic dyke

    Silva, P. F.; Marques, F. O.; Machek, Matěj; Henry, B.; Hirt, A. M.; Roxerová, Zuzana; Madureira, P.; Vratislav, S.


    Roč. 629, August (2014), s. 155-164. ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : paramagnetic * ferrimagnetic * fabrics * microstructures * dyke emplacement * stress field Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  19. Country rock contamination of marginal mafic granulites bordering the Nain Plutonic Suite : implications for mobilization of Sr during high-grade contact metamorphism

    Royse, Katherine; Noble, Stephen; Tarney, John; Cadman, Andy


    The marginal mafic granulites that locally border the Nain Plutonic Suite (NPS) have a range of initial Nd-isotope ratios that overlap with that of the NPS anorthosites and associated Nain dykes. The similarity in Nd-isotope data suggests that gneissic Archaean country rocks have contaminated all the anorthosites, marginal mafic granulites, and dykes. Sr-isotope data for the mafic granulites and dykes support a country rock contamination scenario but preclude wholesale assimilation of rocks s...

  20. Betty Van Dyke: The Van Dyke Ranch

    Rabkin, Sarah


    Born in 1932 to Croatian American farmers in the Santa Clara Valley town of Cupertino, Betty Van Dyke saw her fertile home ground transformed, in a few decades, from seemingly endless orchards to unrelenting urban sprawl. As the energetic matriarch of a popular family-run fruit-growing business, she has since participated in the region’s organic agricultural renaissance, overseeing one of the first California operations to grow and dry fruit organically (becoming certified in 1986), and playi...

  1. Dyke Swarms of the Paraná Triple Junction, Southern Brazil

    José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho


    Full Text Available This work intends primarily to survey the field, mineralogical and petrographic characters of the mafic dykes which occuron a stretch of 650 km along the Southeastern coast of Brazil, between the city of São Sebastião, and the island of SantaCatarina. New chemical and geochronological data are also presented. The coastal dyke swarms are envisaged as the northernand southern arms of a plume-generated triple junction system centered on the Paraná State coast, and related to the initialopening of the South Atlantic. Mafic magma intruded as dyke swarms along three directions: N-S (the southern arm, along theParaná-Santa Catarina coast, NW-SE (Ponta Grossa arch and NE-SW (the northern arm along the São Paulo coast. Fiftytwo dykes, almost all tholeiitic diabases, were mapped and sampled along the south arm coast. The Ponta Grossa arch dykes are chiefly composed of tholeiitic diabases and lesser intrusions of andesitic to rhyolitic composition. Over 240 dykes were sampled and identified along the north arm west of São Sebastião. Lamprophyres are here abundant, followed by diabases, microdiorite porphyries and lesser amounts of trachy-andesite, carbonatite and Precambrian dykes. Special attention was given to the study of lamprophyres, their field appearance relative abundance, mineral and chemical composition, enclaves and relations to neighboring alkaline intrusions.

  2. Finding General Dyke.

    Dyke, Charles William; Dyke, Ann Bisconti


    A hemorrhagic stroke and aphasia suddenly changed the life of Charles William (Bill) Dyke, Army Lt. General (Retired), Ranger strong with 2 silver stars and 3 bronze stars among his many decorations and founder and CEO of a Washington, DC, consulting firm. Gen. Dyke and his wife Ann provide their personal perspectives on the path to his remarkable recovery and return to full-time work. They found that the most effective therapy linked to who he was and is. Standard therapy tools and impersonal approaches frequently created barriers. Instead, when health professionals related the therapy objectives to his interests and involved him in the process of setting objectives to meet the challenges, they gained his trust, cooperation, participation, and focus on learning. PMID:21447463

  3. Dyke emplacement at the incipient Namibian margin - structural and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) studies in the Henties Bay - Outjo Dyke Swarm

    Wiegand, Miriam; Trumbull, Robert; Greiling, Reinhard O.


    During the Cretaceous breakup of western Gondwana, the conjugate Namibian and South American margins were the site of flood basalts, mafic dyke swarms and subvolcanic intrusive complexes which make up the South Atlantic Large Igneous Province and the volcanic margin of northwestern Namibia. This contribution presents data on internal fabrics in mafic dykes (mostly subalkaline tholeiitic dolerites) from the major Henties Bay-Outjo dyke swarm (HOD) in coastal and inland NW Namibia, which are discussed in terms of magma emplacement. The HOD is some 100 km wide and extends at least 500 km from the continental margin. The dykes were emplaced in Neoproterozoic (Panafrican) Damara mobile belt, which is bounded by the Angola/Congo craton on the north and the Kalahari craton on the south. Field relations and radiometric dates indicate Early Cretaceous emplacement ages for the dykes. In coastal exposures north of the HOD, dolerite dykes are mainly coast-parallel (NNW-SSE) and syn-tectonic with normal faults that offset Etendeka lavas. Coast-parallel dykes are also common within the HOD, but the great majority of dykes strike NE-SW. We observed the latter dykes to crosscut coast-parallel ones. But the opposite relationship is also found locally. The dominant NE-SW strike of HOD indicates the influence of the Damara Belt structural grain at a regional scale, but locally the dykes commonly crosscut basement foliations and lithologic contacts. Depending on dyke thickness, which varies in the HOD from a few cm to about 50 m), the dykes are variably fine grained with chilled margins. Vesiculation is seldom observed. Typical textures are intersertal to subophitic, with plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine being the main mineral phases. Common minor minerals include opaque oxides and acicular apatite. Linear dykes are composed of segments, 10 m to some km in length, which are connected by transfer zones. Often a minor horizontal displacement can be observed between these segments

  4. The application aeromagnetic data for dyke swarm mapping (an example the Ladoga region, Russia)

    Vasilieva, T.; Frank-Kamenetsky, D.


    Vasilieva T.I., Frank-Kamenetsky D.A., Zayonchek A.V. The main factor of the Fennoscandian evolution in Late Proterozoic was inter- and intracratonic rifting. However, products of magmatic activity were removed by erosion. Thus, only plutonic bodies and dyke swarms allow us to reconstruct the Fennoscandian shield tectono-magmatic evolution in Late Proterozoic. The rifting processes in southeastern Fennoscandia took place in Riphean. The earlier are several massifs of rapakivi-granite accompanied by mafic dyke swarms with age about 1.64 to 1.51 Ga were formed. The Middle Riphean is characterized by rift structure forming. They are known in Russia (White Sea rift system, northern Kola, Ladoga Lake, probably, Onega Lake), Finland (Muhos, Satakunta) and central Sweden. The age of mafic magmatic complexes, corresponding with these rift systems, is 1.24 Ga (Suominen, 1991). There are at least two stages of Riphean evolution and magmatic complexes in Ladoga Lake region. They are the Salminski and Vyborg rapakivi-granites at first, Salminski volcano-sedimentary suite, Valaam sill, Hopunvaara intrusion and several dolerites dykes at second. Our detailed studies based on magnetic geophysical data. A combination of geophysical methods and GIS provided effective mapping of dyke swarms in NW Ladoga. It has shown that the Fe-enriched olivine dolerite dykes, it was described on the NW coast of Ladoga Lake, are very locally developed forming narrow zone, which runs through Sortavala town and several islands. The dykes were clearly observed, because of their extremely high magnetic susceptibility. The dykes strike toward NW corresponding to the longest axis of the graben. Chemical identity of the dykes and Salminski lavas allows considering the age of this rifting about 1.35 Ga. The other dyke complexes were being described in North-West Ladoga region. It is dykes of fresh clinopyroxene dolerites. Probably, the dykes are accompanying by rapakivi-granites. Unfortunately, very

  5. Tectonic setting of the Great Dyke, Chembadzi, Chewore and Atchiza layered complexes in Zimbabwe and Mozambique

    The Great Dyke of Zimbabwe is one of the largest ultramafic-mafic layered igneous complexexs in the world. Because of the economic importance of large layered intrusions like the Great Dyke, their tectonic setting is of great interest. The Chembadzi complex is a 14 km long, dyke-like layered intrusion up to 800m wide. The Chewore complex, which was thought to have the structure of an irregular lopolith, outcrops over an area of about 200 km in horst blocks in the lower Zambezi Valley in northern Zimbabwe. The Atchiza complex is situated just north of the Cahora Bassa lake and the Zambezi River valley in Mozambique. In considering the tectonic setting of the Great Dyke and its correlatives, most attention has been focussed on events in the Limpopo Mobile Belt, which were responsible for producing the fractures in the Zimbabwe craton that is occupied by the intrusives. 39 refs

  6. Geochemical characteristics of Mesoproterozoic metabasite dykes from the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Terrain, eastern India: Implications for their emplacement in a plate margin tectonic environment

    Rajesh K Srivastava; Anup K Sinha; Suresh Kumar


    A number of mafic intrusive bodies (mostly dykes) are exposed in the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Terrain (CGT). Most dykes trend in ENE–WSW to E–W following major structural trends of the region. These metabasite dykes show granoblastic to grano-nematoblastic textures and contain hornblende, plagioclase, chlorite, quartz and epidote which suggest their metamorphism under amphibolite grade P–T conditions. Although no radiometric age is available for the metabasite dykes, field relationships with host rock and available geochronology on granitoids suggest their emplacement during Mesoproterozoic. Geochemical characteristics of these dykes classify them as low-K tholeiite to medium-K calcalkaline type. At least two types of metabasite dykes are recognized on the basis of their HFSE contents; one group shows entirely calc-alkaline nature, whereas the other group has rocks of tholeiite-calc-alkaline series. High Mg#observed in a number of samples indicates their derivation from primary melt. Multielement spidergrams and rare-earth element patterns observed in these samples also corroborate their derivation from different magma batches. Trace element patterns observed for Nb–Ta, Hf–Zr, Sr and Y suggesting involvement of subduction related processes in the genesis of CGT metabasite dykes. Perceived geochemical characteristics suggest that metamorphism did not affect much on the chemistry of metabasites but source region, responsible for the generation of CGT metabasites, was possibly modified during subduction process. This study suggests that magma generated in a destructive plate setting fed the Mesoproterozoic mafic dykes of the CGT.

  7. Geochemistry of the Palitana flood basalt sequence and the Eastern Saurashtra dykes, Deccan Traps: clues to petrogenesis, dyke-flow relationships, and regional lava stratigraphy

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Zellmer, Georg F.; Kshirsagar, Pooja V.; Cucciniello, Ciro


    Recent studies of large mafic dyke swarms in the Deccan Traps flood basalt province, India, indicate that some of the correlative lava flows reached several hundred kilometers in length. Here we present field, petrographic, mineral chemical, and whole-rock geochemical (including Sr-Nd isotopic) data on the Palitana lava sequence and nearby dykes in the Saurashtra region of the northwestern Deccan Traps. These rocks are moderately evolved, many with low-Ti-Nb characteristics. We infer that most dykes are notably (and systematically) less contaminated by ancient continental crust than the Palitana flows, but four dykes are equally or significantly more contaminated, with some of the most extreme Sr-Nd isotopic compositions seen in the entire Deccan Traps (initial ɛNd is as low as -18.0). A Bhimashankar-type and a Poladpur-type dyke are present several hundred kilometers from the type section of these magma types in the Western Ghats escarpment. We find no geochemical correlations between the Palitana sequence and three subsurface sequences in NE Saurashtra containing abundant picritic rocks, surface lavas previously studied from Saurashtra, or the Western Ghats sequence. Intriguingly, the Eastern Saurashtra dykes cannot have been feeders to any of these lava sequences. Feeder dykes of these sequences may be located in southwestern or central Saurashtra, or in the Dhule-Nandurbar-Dediapada areas across the Gulf of Cambay, 200-300 km east of Palitana. Our results indicate polycentric flood basalt eruptions not only on the scale of the Deccan Traps province, but also within the Saurashtra region itself.

  8. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome

    Manas R Behera


    Full Text Available A 14-month-old male child presented with recurrent generalized seizures, spastic hemiplegia, microcephaly and had developmental delay in motor and speech domains. CT of the brain revealed characteristic features diagnostic of infantile type of cerebral hemiatrophy or Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome.

  9. Dyke Swarms in Southeastern British Columbia: Mineralogical and Geochemical Evidence for Emplacement of Multiple Magma Types During Orogenic Collapse

    Freeman, M.; Owen, J. P.; Hoskin, P. W.


    Eocene dyke swarms in southeastern British Columbia provide an important record of the tectonic and magmatic history of the Cordillera following orogenic collapse. New field mapping, petrographic, and geochemical data is presented for a swarm of more than thirty dykes located near the mining town of Trail, B.C. Detailed field mapping revealed that individual dykes are highly diverse, both in composition and morphology. As a group, the dykes trend northwest (average strike of 338 degrees) and dip steeply to the southwest. Their average thickness is approximately 1.5m, with a range from 4.5m to less than 1cm. Three sub-parallel dykes were mapped for a length of 2km, and exhibit irregularities in their form such as branching and offshoots that follow fractures in the country rock. Thin-section analysis shows a wide variety of rock types within the swarm, including: micro-quartz syenite, micro-syenite, micro-monzonite, latite, basalt, basaltic andesite, and lamprophyre. Texturally, these samples are consistently porphyritic and partially altered to chlorite and sericite. This alteration commonly occurs in concentric rims around phenocrysts. The samples are typically intergranular, although some display trachytic texture. Whole-rock geochemistry shows that the dykes have a wide range in composition, with SiO2 between 76.45 wt.% and 45.15 wt.% and MgO between 0.13 wt.% and 13.16 wt.%. The results also revealed that one dyke has very high values of Ni (430 ppm), Cr (1420 ppm), and Co (50 ppm), giving it a fairly primitive composition. Harker diagrams and trace element plots show three distinct groups: mafic calc-alkaline dykes, felsic calc- alkaline dykes, and minette lamprophyres. The felsic dykes are characterized by negative Eu and Sr anomalies suggesting fractionation of plagioclase feldspar, as well as pronounced negative P and Ti anomalies. The minettes are enriched in LILE and depleted in HSFE relative to the mafic dykes. The three groups do not appear to be

  10. Mafic magmatism in the Eastern Cordillera and Putumayo Basin, Colombia : causes and consequences

    Vásquez Parra, Mónica Fernanda


    The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is mainly composed of sedimentary rocks deposited since early Mesozoic times. Magmatic rocks are scarce. They are represented only by a few locally restricted occurrences of dykes and sills of mafic composition presumably emplaced in the Cretaceous and of volcanic rocks of Neogene age. This work is focused on the study of the Cretaceous magmatism with the intention to understand the processes causing the genesis of these rocks and their significance in the r...

  11. Magma deformation and emplacement in rhyolitic dykes

    McGowan, Ellen; Tuffen, Hugh; James, Mike; Wynn, Peter


    Silicic eruption mechanisms are determined by the rheological and degassing behaviour of highly-viscous magma ascending within shallow dykes and conduits. However, we have little knowledge of how magmatic behaviour shifts during eruptions as dykes and conduits evolve. To address this we have analysed the micro- to macro-scale textures in shallow, dissected rhyolitic dykes at the Tertiary Húsafell central volcano in west Iceland. Dyke intrusion at ~3 Ma was associated with the emplacement of subaerial rhyolitic pyroclastic deposits following caldera formation[1]. The dykes are dissected to ~500 m depth, 2-3 m wide, and crop out in two stream valleys with 5-30 m-long exposures. Dykes intrude diverse country rock types, including a welded ignimbrite, basaltic lavas, and glacial conglomerate. Each of the six studied dykes is broadly similar, exhibiting obsidian margins and microcrystalline cores. Dykes within pre-fractured lava are surrounded by external tuffisite vein networks, which are absent from dykes within conglomerate, whereas dykes failed to penetrate the ignimbrite. Obsidian at dyke margins comprises layers of discrete colour. These display dramatic thickness variations and collapsed bubble structures, and are locally separated by zones of welded, brecciated and flow-banded obsidian. We use textural associations to present a detailed model of dyke emplacement and evolution. Dykes initially propagated with the passage of fragmented, gas-charged magma and generation of external tuffisite veins, whose distribution was strongly influenced by pre-existing fractures in the country rock. External tuffisites retained permeability throughout dyke emplacement due to their high lithic content. The geochemically homogenous dykes then evolved via incremental magma emplacement, with shear deformation localised along emplacement boundary layers. Shear zones migrated between different boundary layers, and bubble deformation promoted magma mobility. Brittle

  12. New U-Pb ages from dykes cross-cutting the Demirci metamorphics, NW Turkey: Implications for multiple orogenic events

    Sen, Fatih; Koral, Hayrettin; Peytcheva, Irena


    A high-grade metamorphic sequence in the Sünnice Mountains, Bolu, NW Turkey, is represented by migmatitic quartzo-feldspathic gneisses in amphibolite facies called the Demirci metamorphics/paragneisses, and a sequence of low-grade meta-volcanics containing meta-andesites with minor meta-rhyolites and meta-sedimentary rocks called the Yellice meta-volcanics. They are intruded by the Dirgine granite with an age of Upper Ediacaran (576-565 Ma) and are considered a part of the İstanbul-Zonguldak Tectonic Unit. The Demirci paragneisses are also intruded by a number of dykes in various directions, traditionally considered without radiometric dating to have been emplaced in a single magmatic phase in the Eocene related to post-collision regime of the Anatolide-Tauride platform. Mafic-intermediate-felsic dykes cross-cutting the Demirci paragneisses have been investigated in maps of 1/1000 scale, and their U-Pb zircon age, major-trace element and kinematic data have been obtained. The mafics dykes cross-cutting the Yellice meta-volcanics, equivalents of those in the Demirci paragneisses, occur in N400-500E orientations and have calc-alkaline basalt compositions with a subduction signature. The intermediate dykes occur in N650W, N800W orientations and have calc-alkaline basaltic andesite to andesitic compositions with a subduction signature. Some felsics occur in N150W and N800E orientations and have calc-alkaline dacitic compositions with a collisional tectonic setting. Other calc-alkaline granitic dykes occur in N750E orientation and calc-alkaline granitic compositions with a subduction signature. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of zircons yield ages from 485.7±3.6 Ma (i.e. Cambro-Ordovician) for N800E trending dacite dykes; 443.0±5.4 Ma (i.e. Ordovician-Silurian) for N150W trending dacite dykes; 301.0±1.6 Ma (i.e. Upper Pennsylvanian-Carboniferous) for N650W trending basaltic andesite dykes; 268.2±2.4 Ma (i.e. Guadalupian-Permian) for N40-500E trending basalt dykes; 262.9±3

  13. Mineralogical and chemical character- istics of newer Dolerite Dyke around Keonjhar, Orissa: Implication for hydrothermal activity in subduction zone setting

    Piyali Sengupta; Arijit Ray; Sayantani Pramanik


    The newer dolerite dykes around Keonjhar within the Singbhum Granite occur in NE–SW, NW–SE and NNE–SSW trends. The mafic dykes of the present study exhibit several mineralogical changes like clouding of plagioclase feldspars, bastitisation of orthopyroxene, and development of fibrous amphibole (tremolite–actinolite) from clinopyroxene, which are all considered products of hydrothermal alterations. This alteration involves addition and subtraction of certain elements. Graphical analyses with alteration index and elemental abundances show that elements like Rb, Ba, Th, La and K have been added during the alteration process, whereas elements like Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Si, Al, Fe, Mg and Ca have been removed. It is observed that in spite of such chemical alteration, correlation between major and trace elements, characteristic of petrogenetic process, is still preserved. This might reflect systematic alteration (addition or subtraction) of elements without disturbing the original element to element correlation. It has also been established by earlier workers that the evolution of newer dolerite had occurred in an arc-back arc setting which may also be true for newer dolerites of the present study. This is evident from plots of pyroxene composition and whole rock composition of newer dolerite samples in different tectonic discrimination diagrams using immobile elements. The newer dolerite dykes of the Keonjhar area may thus be considered to represent an example of hydrothermal activity on mafic rocks in an arc setting.

  14. Postmagmatic magnetite-apatite assemblage in mafic intrusions: a case study of dolerite at Olympic Dam, South Australia

    Apukhtina, Olga B.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; McPhie, Jocelyn; Maas, Roland; Meffre, Sebastien; Goemann, Karsten; Rodemann, Thomas; Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.


    An assemblage of magnetite and apatite is common worldwide in different ore deposit types, including disparate members of the iron-oxide copper-gold (IOCG) clan. The Kiruna-type iron oxide-apatite deposits, a subtype of the IOCG family, are recognized as economic targets as well. A wide range of competing genetic models exists for magnetite-apatite deposits, including magmatic, magmatic-hydrothermal, hydrothermal(-metasomatic), and sedimentary(-exhalative). The sources and mechanisms of transport and deposition of Fe and P remain highly debatable. This study reports petrographic and geochemical features of the magnetite-apatite-rich vein assemblages in the dolerite dykes of the Gairdner Dyke Swarm (~0.82 Ga) that intruded the Roxby Downs Granite (~0.59 Ga), the host of the supergiant Olympic Dam IOCG deposit. These symmetrical, only few mm narrow veins are prevalent in such dykes and comprise besides usually colloform magnetite and prismatic apatite also further minerals (e.g., calcite, quartz). The genetic relationships between the veins and host dolerite are implied based on alteration in the immediate vicinity (~4 mm) of the veins. In particular, Ti-magnetite-ilmenite is partially to completely transformed to titanite and magmatic apatite disappears. We conclude that the mafic dykes were a local source of Fe and P re-concentrated in the magnetite-apatite veins. Uranium-Pb ages for vein apatite and titanite associated with the vein in this case study suggest that alteration of the dolerite and healing of the fractures occurred shortly after dyke emplacement. We propose that in this particular case the origin of the magnetite-apatite assemblage is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration of the host mafic magmatic rocks.

  15. Flowage differentiation in an andesitic dyke of the Motru Dyke Swarm (Southern Carpathians, Romania) inferred from AMS, CSD and geochemistry

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Berza, Tudor; Demaiffe, Daniel


    Two dykes of different thickness (5.5 m for TJ31 and 23 m for TJ34) from the late Pan-African calc-alkaline Motru Dyke Swarm (S. Carpathians, Romania) have been studied by electron microprobe (mineral chemistry), crystal size distribution (CSD), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and whole-rock geochemistry. All the physical and chemical variations observed across the dyke's width point to concordant results and show that the variations of both modal abundance and size of the amphibole and biotite microphenocrysts inside the dykes (deduced from the classical CSD measurements) are the result of a mechanical segregation of suspended crystals during magmatic transport. Despite a pene-contemporaneous regional tectonic, the flow-induced differentiation in the thicker dyke is characterized by the concentration of pre-existing Ti-rich pargasite-tschermakite, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystals in the core of the dyke and of the extracted differentiated liquid near the walls. This mechanical differentiation induces a chemical differentiation with a basaltic andesite composition for the core of the dyke whereas the margins are andesitic. Thus the chilled margins appear as a slightly more evolved liquid with a Newtonian behaviour when compared to the average composition of the dyke. The localization of the liquid on both sides of the dyke has certainly facilitated the ascent of the central part of the dyke that behaved as a Binghamian mush.

  16. Three Paleoproterozoic A-type granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, East Finland

    Hannu Huhma


    Full Text Available Mafic and felsic intrusive rocks aged 2.5–2.4 Ga have been observed over a large area in eastern and northern Finland, as well as in adjacent northwestern Russia. We describe three granite intrusions and associated dykes from Kainuu, Finland, that belong to this bimodal magmatic event. All these three granites show clear A2-type chemical affinities with high Y/Nb, HREE, Fe/Mg, Ga and Nb. Two of the intrusions, Rasinkylä and Pussisvaara, were dated at 2425±3 and 2427±3 Ma, respectively, using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry utilizing the chemical abrasion method (CA-TIMS. CA-TIMS ages are supported by single-grain age determinations obtained by using Laser Ablation Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-MC-ICPMS. New data on the previously described Rasimäki granite from southern Kainuu is presented, including an age of 2389±5 Ma obtained with LA-MC-ICPMS. The variable magnetite content of the granites is proposed to reflect the differences in the oxidation state of the source, which in our interpretation is the local Archean lower crust. Partial melting and the emplacement of the granites occurred in an extensional environment. Heat for the partial melting was provided by mafic magmas under and intraplating the extended crust.

  17. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome in Two Children

    MD, Mete ÖZDİKİCİ; MD, Volkan TANI; MD, Suat EREN; MD, Çetin ÇELENK


    A three year old boy and a 12 year old girl with uniateral cerebral atrophy were diagnosed as Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome using cranial computed tomography. Magnetic resonance imaging was also done in the second case. The findings were compared with the relevant literature. Key words: Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, unilateral cerebral atrophy, radiology

  18. Petrological, geochemical and isotopic investigations on a carbonate-dyke and enclosed pyroxenite xenoliths from Val Mastallone (Ivrea-Verbano Zone): evidence of a cumulate carbonatite in the lower crust?

    Galli, Andrea; Grassi, Daniele; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Schwab, Leo; Rickli, Jörg; Gianola, Omar


    The Ivrea-Verbano Zone (Italy/Switzerland) represents one of the best exposed mantle-crust sections worldwide. Its geological evolution has been governed by the Permian underplating of mantle-derived basic magmas („Mafic Complex") into the high-grade basement of the Southern Alps. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, marbles occur as concordant bodies or partly discordant carbonate-dykes. Generally, these dykes are constituted of calcite, diopside, scapolite, contain enclave of the host rocks and display sharp contacts to the host lithologies without evidences of alteration zones. In Val Mastallone, an up to 40 m thick carbonate-dyke with different characteristics occurs within mafic granulites. This dyke is composed of calcite, clinopyroxene and subordinate allanite and zircon. No scapolite is observed. The contacts to the host granulites are characterized by alteration zones composed of actinolite, chlorite, clinozoisite, plagioclase and calcite. The carbonate-dyke bears enclave of phlogopite-amphibole-apatite-rutile-ilmenite ± garnet or spinel clinopyroxenites. These rock type is not outcropping elsewhere in the proximity of the dyke, suggesting a significant transport. Host mafic granulite enclave are found exclusively at the margin of the dyke. Calcite dykelets rich in zircon, baddeleyite and other Ba, U, Th, REE-rich phases cut across the enclave. The carbonate-dyke shows an enrichment of LREE over HREE ((La/Yb)N = 14), with a Σ REE = 338 and Y/Ho = 27. On the chondrite-normalized REE abundances diagram, no Eu anomaly is observed. Mantle-normalized pattern shows strong negative anomalies at Cs, Rb, K, Pb, P, Zr, Hf, Ti and positive Ba, Th, Sr, Nd anomalies, similarly to the "world average carbonatites". Measured absolute trace element concentrations are lower than average carbonatites but significantly higher than typical limestones and similar to cumulate carbonatites found elsewhere in the world (e.g. India, China, Brazil). Grt-bearing clinopyroxenite enclave

  19. Mesozoic dyke swarms of the Falkland Islands (South Atlantic)

    Stone, P


    An aeromagnetic survey that allowed an improved discrimination of the principal dyke swarms of the Falkland Islands has been augmented by additional radiometric dates and geochemical analyses of representative specimens. Most of the dykes previously described as forming a “north-south” swarm of Jurassic age are associated with a set of NE-SW linear magnetic anomalies that are entirely separate from another set of N-S to NNW-SSE anomalies, The NE-SW Jurassic dyke swarm occurs mostly in West Fa...

  20. Paleomagnetism of Devonian dykes in the northern Kola Peninsula and its bearing on the apparent polar wander path of Baltica in the Precambrian

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.


    Mafic dykes and large alkaline and carbonatite intrusions of Middle-Late Devonian age are widespread on the Kola Peninsula in NE Fennoscandia. These magmatic rocks are well characterized with petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data but no paleomagnetic results have been reported yet. We studied dolerite dykes from the northern part of the Peninsula and isolated three paleomagnetic components in these rocks. A low-temperature component is aligned along the present-day field, while a major constituent of natural remanent magnetization is an intermediate-temperature component (Decl. = 79.6°, Inc. = 78.5°, α95 = 5,9°, N = 17 sites) that is present in most Devonian dykes but is found in some baked metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic dykes too. Finally, a primary Devonian component could be reliably isolated from two dykes only. Rock-magnetic studies point to presumably primary low-Ti titanomagnetite and/or pure magnetite as the main remanence carriers but also reveal alteration of the primary minerals and the formation of new magnetic phases. The directions of a major component differ from the Middle Paleozoic reference data for Baltica but closely match those for the 190 ± 10 Ma interval recalculated from the apparent polar wander path of the craton. We assume that this Early Jurassic component is a low-temperature overprint of chemical origin. The main impact of the new results is not to mid-Paleozoic or Early Mesozoic times but to much older epochs. Analysis of paleomagnetic data shows that the directionally similar remanences are present in objects with the ages ranging from 500 Ma to ~ 2 Ga over entire Fennoscandia. Hence we argue that an Early Jurassic remagnetization is of regional extent but cannot link it to a certain process and a certain tectonic event. If true, this hypothesis necessitates a major revision of the APWP for Baltica over a wide time interval.

  1. Seismic footprints of shallow dyke propagation at Etna, Italy

    Susanna Falsaperla; Marco Neri


    One of the key issues in forecasting volcanic eruptions is to detect signals that can track the propagation of dykes towards the surface. Continuous monitoring of active volcanoes helps significantly in achieving this goal. The seismic data presented here are unique, as they document surface faulting processes close (tens to a few hundred meters) to their source, namely the dyke tip. They originated nearby - and under - a seismic station that was subsequently destroyed by lava flows during er...

  2. Mafic-silicic magma interaction in the layered 1.87 Ga Soukkio Complex in Mäntsälä, southern Finland

    Toni T. Eerola


    Full Text Available The Svecofennian layered Soukkio Complex (1.87 Ga in Mäntsälä, southern Finland, consists of layered tholeiitic gabbro and porphyritic calc-alkaline monzonite, quartz monzonite and granite, mingled together. The gabbro belongs to a group of ten mafic-ultramafic intrusions of Mäntsälä, part of the 150 km long and 20 km wide, linear, E-W trending Hyvinkää–Mäntsälä Gabbroic Belt(HMGB, representing syn-collisional magmatism. Structures and textures related to magma mingling and mixing occur in a 1–2 km wide zone around Lake Kilpijärvi, located at the center of the Soukkio Complex. The complex is compositionally stratified and consists of four zones:its base, found at the Western Zone, is a dynamically layered gabbro. The followingtonalite is probably a result of magma mixing. Felsic amoeboid layers and pipes, alternating with or cutting the fine-grained gabbro in the Central-Western Zone, resemble those of mafic-silicic layered intrusions in general. Mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs and pillows form the South-Central Zone and disrupted synplutonic mafic dykes or sheets intruded the granite in the Eastern Zone. The MMEs and disrupted synplutonic mafic dykes or sheets show cuspate and chilled margins against the felsic host, quartz ocelli, corroded K-feldspar xenocrysts with or without plagioclase mantles, and acicular apatite, all typical features of magma mingling and mixing. Mixing is suggested by intermediate composition of MMEs between granitoid and gabbro, as well as by their partly linear trends in some Harker diagrams. REE composition of the MMEs is similar to that of the Soukkio Gabbro, as expected for granite hosted MMEs. The model proposed for evolution of the Soukkio Complex involves intrusion of mafic magma into the crust, causing its partial melting. This generated granitic magma above the mafic chamber. Injections of mafic magma invaded the felsic chamber and those magmas interacted mainly by intermingling. Mingling and

  3. Evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula lithosphere: Evidence from Mesozoic mafic rocks

    Riley, T. R.; Curtis, M. L.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.


    New geochronology from a thick (> 800 m) basaltic succession along the eastern margin of the Antarctic Peninsula confirm a Middle Jurassic age (178 ± 1 Ma). This marginally postdates the adjacent Ferrar large igneous province of the Transantarctic Mountains and predates the extensive silicic volcanism of the Mapple Formation (~ 170 Ma) of the Antarctic Peninsula. The geochemistry of other rare, but broadly contemporaneous, basaltic successions of the Antarctic Peninsula, along with Cretaceous-age mafic dykes, are used to interpret the influences of lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle sources during the Mesozoic. Two significant high magmatic addition rate events occurred along the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin at 170 and 110 Ma and can be correlated to events along the South American Cordillera. These 'flare-up' events are characterised by extensive silicic (mostly ignimbrite) volcanism of the Chon Aike Province (V2 event: 170 Ma) and significant granitoid batholith emplacement of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite (110 Ma). The 170 Ma event is exposed across large parts of the northern Antarctic Peninsula, whilst the 110 Ma event is more widespread across the southern Antarctic Peninsula. The basaltic volcanism described here precedes the 'flare-up' event at 170 Ma and has geochemical characteristics that indicate a thickened lithosphere prevailed. A major dyke swarm that followed the 170 Ma event indicates that extensive lithospheric thinning had occurred, which allowed the ascent of depleted mafic melts. The thinning was the direct result of widespread lower crustal/upper lithospheric melting associated with the silicic volcanism. In the southern Antarctic Peninsula, the lithosphere remained over thickened until the emplacement of the major batholiths of the Lassiter Coast intrusive suite at 110 Ma and was then immediately followed by the emplacement of more asthenosphere-like melts indicating extensive lithospheric thinning.

  4. Link between extension, dyking and subsidence as the reconstruction tool of intraplate rifting mechanism (backstripping data, modelling and geochronology)

    Polyansky, Oleg P.; Reverdatto, Vladimir V.; Babichev, Alexey V.


    predicted over a range of γ = 0.01-0.12 (average value 0.06, i.e., ~6%). This value seems acceptable if we consider cumulative sills and dykes thicknesses in the outcrops and borehole sections in the Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous sediments. For better rifting age resolution we sampled dolerites from the western, eastern and central dyke swarms, which were then analyzed by stepwise 40Ar/39Ar heating. The determined ages of the monomineral plagioclase and pyroxene fractions from the dyke samples (345-378 Ma) coincide well with fast subsidence and sedimentation phase in the Devonian defined by backstripping data. Dating of dyke intrusions shows following succession of rifting episodes: extension by dyking starts near the central axes (364-378 Ma), extending to the periphery areas on the opposite sides of the rift through (345-362 Ma). The established sequence of dyke intrusions is alternative to the oceanic crust spreading, at which the age of intrusions is increased from the spreading center in rift-perpendicular direction. Results of thermo-mechanical modelling of formation of the Vilyui rift basin are presented. The goal of 2D finite elements modelling is to demonstrate that the deep troughs can form in the continental crust under its limited extension. The 2D numerical simulation shows the possibility of considerable localized subsidence near the rift axis and explains why mafic dike swarms are concentrated on the basin periphery. Thus, the mechanism of the Vilyui basin formation by means of magmatic rifting is corroborated [Polyansky at al., 2013]. RFBR grant no. 14-05-00188.

  5. Geochemistry and geochronology of mafic rocks from the Luobusa ophiolite, South Tibet

    Zhang, Chang; Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Zhang, Liang-Liang; Ji, Wei-Qiang


    This study presents geochemical compositions of mafic rocks outcropped in the Luobusa ophiolite that locates at the eastern part of the Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (YZSZ). The studied mafic rocks include gabbroic/diabase dykes cutting the peridotites and foliated amphibolites embedded within the subophiolitic mélange. The diabases have low K2O contents and display N-MORB-like geochemical characteristics, i.e., with flat REE patterns and weak enrichment in LILE (e.g., Rb, Ba, Th and U). The gabbros show LREE-depleted patterns and variable enrichment in Rb and Ba. Foliated amphibolites mainly consist of hornblendes and plagioclases, with minor titanites. They commonly show LREE-depleted patterns, with strong enrichment in LILE. Three diabases have depleted Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, with initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.703009-0.703502, εNd(t) of + 5.0 to + 8.5 and εHf (t) of ca + 14. Two gabbros have similar Nd-Hf isotopes with the diabases, but slightly higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (i.e., 0.704820 and 0.704550). Compared to both diabases and gabbros, the amphibolites have higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (i.e., 0.705131-0.705825), but more depleted Nd-Hf isotope compositions, with εNd(t) of + 9.1 to + 11.6 and εHf(t) of + 18.2 to + 21.9. Geochemical compositions of the diabase dykes indicate that they were formed in a mid-ocean ridge setting. Zircon SIMS U-Pb dating of the gabbroic dyke cutting the serpentinites yields an age of 128.4 ± 0.9 Ma, which is identical within uncertainty to the zircon U-Pb age of the amphibolite (i.e., 131.0 ± 1.2 Ma). Low U and Th contents of zircons in the amphibolite support their metamorphic origin. Titanites in the amphibolites have been dated by LA-ICPMS and give U-Pb ages of ~ 131-134 Ma, which are similar to the zircon U-Pb ages of the dated gabbro and amphibolite. Therefore, we suggest that the Luobusa ophiolite was generated at the Early Cretaceous and underwent the intra-oceanic emplacement immediately after its

  6. U-Pb geochronology and paleomagnetism of the Neoproterozoic St Simeon dolerite dykes, Quebec: an eastern Laurentian perspective of Ediacaran Rodinia breakup

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Murphy, Brendan; Hamilton, Mike; Söderlund, Ulf; Hodych, Joseph


    The St Simeon (SS) mafic dykes (150 km NE of Quebec City) are now dated at 548 ± 1 Ma (U-Pb; baddeleyite). This age is similar to a published LA-ICPMS zircon age of 550 ± 7 Ma for the Mt. St-Anselme (MS) basalts, which supports previous inferences of (i) a genetic relationship between them, (ii) the pene-contemporaneity of OIB-type mafic magmatism in East Laurentia and (iii) the existence of two late Ediacaran plumes that attended the final breakup of Rodinia and opening of the Iapetus Ocean and Tornquist Sea. Both the SS dykes and the MS basalts were sampled for paleomagnetic study. The paleomagnetic pole for SS is similar to the previously published pole for coeval basalts (Skinner Cove, SC) from Newfoundland. Unlike SC, the St Simeon pole represents rocks which are unambiguously coherent tectonically with the Laurentian Craton. This new pole is also coeval with high quality poles from the Winter Coast (Baltica) and provides paleomagnetic constraints on the history of the final breakup of Rodinia and opening of Eastern Iapetus and Tornquist Sea.

  7. Geochronological Significance of the Post-Orogenic Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks in the Hongqiling Area of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Zhang Guangliang; Wu Fuyuan


    Mafic-ultramafic complexes are widespread in Hongqiling in central Jinlin Province, NE China. The Hongqiling complex comprises pyroxenite, olivine websterite, lherzolite, gabbro and leucogabbro. Based on the latest geochronological results, these intrusions yield a zircon U-Pb age of about 216 Ma, implying that they emplaced in the late Triassic period and that the mafic-ultramafic complexes are post-orogenic in origin. These ages are coeval with the emplacement of A-type granites in the area, but slightly younger than syn-orogenic granitic magmatism. The composition of the parent magma during the equilibration of the accumulated olivine crystallizing is basaltic with high MgO, and it comes from depleted or juvenile lithospheric mantle, according to the results of trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes. Amount of crustal material contaminated the magmatic source, implying that the mafic-ultramafic rocks originate from the mixing product of crust- and mantle-derived magma. Therefore, the magmatic source was contaminated by an amount of crustal material, and the subsequent crystal fractionation resulted in the Cu-Ni mineralization. Dynamic analyses indicate that, after the collision of the North China Craton and Jiamusi Massif, the lithospheric delamination during post-orogeny resulted in the upwelling of asthenosphere and the intruding of the mass and underplating of the mantle-derived magma, which led to the formation of the primary mafic-ultramafic magma due to the mantle-derived magma and partial melting of the lower crust. This result suggests that the mafic-ultramafic complexes belong to a typically important magmatic suite that evolved during post-orogenic processes, and they were exposed as maficultramafic dyke swarms that existed in the post-orogenic extension environment. It also implies that the orogenic process finished ultimately in this regional geological setting. The widespread occurrence of mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt

  8. Petrology, geochemistry of hornblende gabbro and associated dolerite dyke of Paharpur, Puruliya, West Bengal: Implication for petrogenetic process and tectonic setting

    Aditi Mandal; Arijit Ray; Mayukhee Debnath; Sankar Prasad Paul


    Paharpur gabbroic intrusive is an arcuate body running east–west paralleling the foliation of Chhotanagpur Granite Gneiss which acts as country rock. The main gabbroic body is intruded by a number of dolerite dykes running north–south. It is composed of clinopyroxene (Wo48En40Fs12–Wo51En40Fs09, mg no. 72–82), plagioclase (An52–An90), hornblende (magnesian hornblende to ferro-tschermackite), orthopyroxene (En76–En79) and ilmenite. Hornblende occurs as large poikilitic grain and constitutes around 60% of the rock. Both gabbro and associated dolerite dykes, show relatively primitive character (mg no. 65–73). Primitive mantle-normalized and MORB-normalized spider diagrams indicate enrichment in Rb, Ba, Th, La, Sr and depletion in Nb, Zr, Y, Ti and Nd. The LILE enrichment and Nb, Ti, Zr, Y depletion suggest arc like geochemical signature for the gabbroic and doleritic rocks of Paharpur. Flat to slightly LREE fractionated pattern and variable degree of REE enrichment is observed. An early stage fractionation of clinopyroxene, plagioclase, orthopyroxene, ilmenite and late stage reaction of cumulate pile and evolved melt/hydrous fluid is suggested for magmatic evolution of gabbro. Associated dolerite dykes, which are geochemically similar to the gabbro, have tholeiitic with boninitic character. The mineralogical and chemical compositions of intrusive rocks also have some similarity with mafic rocks of ophiolite complex of subduction zone.

  9. Local stresses, dyke arrest and surface deformation in volcanic edificesand rift zones

    L. S. Brenner


    Full Text Available Field studies indicate that nearly all eruptions in volcanic edifices and rift zones are supplied with magma through fractures (dykes that are opened by magmatic overpressure. While (inferred dyke injections are frequent during unrest periods, volcanic eruptions are, in comparison, infrequent, suggesting that most dykes become arrested at certain depths in the crust, in agreement with field studies. The frequency of dyke arrest can be partly explained by the numerical models presented here which indicate that volcanic edifices and rift zones consisting of rocks of contrasting mechanical properties, such as soft pyroclastic layers and stiff lava flows, commonly develop local stress fields that encourage dyke arrest. During unrest, surface deformation studies are routinely used to infer the geometries of arrested dykes, and some models (using homogeneous, isotropic half-spaces infer large grabens to be induced by such dykes. Our results, however, show that the dyke-tip tensile stresses are normally much greater than the induced surface stresses, making it difficult to explain how a dyke can induce surface stresses in excess of the tensile (or shear strength while the same strength is not exceeded at the (arrested dyke tip. Also, arrested dyke tips in eroded or active rift zones are normally not associated with dyke-induced grabens or normal faults, and some dykes arrested within a few metres of the surface do not generate faults or grabens. The numerical models show that abrupt changes in Young's moduli(stiffnesses, layers with relatively high dyke-normal compressive stresses (stress barriers, and weak horizontal contacts may make the dyke-induced surface tensile stresses too small for significant fault or graben formation to occur in rift zones or volcanic edifices. Also, these small surface stresses may have no simple relation to the dyke geometry or the depth to its tip. Thus, for a layered crust with weak contacts, straightforward

  10. Explosive mafic volcanism on Earth and Mars

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Williams, Stanley N.


    Deposits within Amazonia Planitia, Mars, have been interpreted as ignimbrite plains on the basis of their erosional characteristics. The western flank of Hecates Tholus appears to be mantled by an airfall deposit, which was produced through magma-water interactions or exsolution of magmatic volatiles. Morphologic studies, along with numerical and analytical modeling of Martian plinian columns and pyroclastic flows, suggest that shield materials of Tyrrhena and Hadriaca paterae are composed of welded pyroclastic flows. Terrestrial pyroclastic flows, ignimbrites, and airfall deposits are typically associated with silicic volcanism. Because it is unlikely that large volumes of silicic lavas have been produced on Mars, we seek terrestrial analogs of explosives, mafic volcanism. Plinian basaltic airfall deposits have been well-documented at Masaya, Nicaragua, and basaltic ignimbrite and surge deposits also have been recognized there. Ambrym and Yasour, both in Vanuatu, are mafic stratovolcanioes with large central calderas, and are composed of interbedded basaltic pyrocalstic deposits and lava flows. Zavaritzki, a mafic stratovolcano in the Kurile Islands, may have also produced pyroclastic deposits, although the exact nature of these deposits in unknown. Masaya, Ambrym and Yasour are known to be located above tensional zones. Hadriaca and Tyrrhena Paterae may also be located above zones of tension, resulting from the formation and evolution of Hellas basin, and, thus, may be directly analogous to these terrestrial mafic, explosive volcanoes.

  11. Dyke Foundation Classification%关于堤基的分段分类

    ZHANG; Jia-fa


    Main factors, which should be considered in the classification of dyke foundation, are discussed in this paper. Engineering conditions should be taken into accoun t when the levee safety is appraised based on engineering geologic appraisement and classificatio n. On the basis of safety appraisement, dyke foundation may be classified with regard of suitable r einforcement measures. Examples are presented to illustrate the instructive significance of dyke foundation cla ssification to dyke reinforcement design.

  12. Late Archaean mantle metasomatism below eastern Indian craton: Evidence from trace elements, REE geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotope systematics of ultramafic dykes

    Abhijit Roy; A Sarkar; S Jeyakumar; S K Aggrawal; M Ebihara; H Satoh


    Trace, rare earth elements (REE), Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and O isotope studies have been carried out on ultramafic (harzburgite and lherzolite) dykes belonging to the newer dolerite dyke swarms of eastern Indian craton. The dyke swarms were earlier considered to be the youngest mafic magmatic activity in this region having ages not older than middle to late Proterozoic. The study indicates that the ultramafic members of these swarms are in fact of late Archaean age (Rb-Sr isochron age 2613 ± 177 Ma, Sri ∼0.702 ± 0.004) which attests that out of all the cratonic blocks of India, eastern Indian craton experienced earliest stabilization event. Primitive mantle normalized trace element plots of these dykes display enrichment in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), pronounced Ba, Nb and Sr depletions but very high concentrations of Cr and Ni. Chondrite normalised REE plots exhibit light REE (LREE) enrichment with nearly flat heavy REE (HREE; ( HREE)N ∼ 2-3 times chondrite, (Gd/Yb)N∼1). The Nd(t) values vary from +1.23 to −3.27 whereas 18O values vary from +3.16‰ to +5.29‰ (average +3.97‰ ± 0.75‰) which is lighter than the average mantle value. Isotopic, trace and REE data together indicate that during 2.6 Ga the nearly primitive mantle below the eastern Indian Craton was metasomatised by the fluid (±silicate melt) coming out from the subducting early crust resulting in LILE and LREE enriched, Nb depleted, variable Nd, low Sri(0.702) and low 18O bearing EMI type mantle. Magmatic blobs of this metasomatised mantle were subsequently emplaced in deeper levels of the granitic crust which possibly originated due to the same thermal pulse.

  13. Temporal geoelectric behaviour of dyke aquifers in northern Deccan Volcanic Province, India

    Gautam Gupta; Vinit C Erram; Suyash Kumar


    Vertical electrical resistivity soundings (VES) were carried out over four major dykes of Nandurbar district in the northern Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP) of Maharashtra to investigate the subsurface geological conditions, with an aim of identifying zones with groundwater resource potential. Dykes can act as pathways or barrier to the groundwater flow depending upon the intensity of fracturing in the dyke rock. Whether the dykes act as water conduits or as barriers depends on their structure, location and orientation with respect to the groundwater flow. The Nandurbar district is known for occurrence of dykes and dyke swarms. A total of 33 dykes were demarcated in the study region and four major dykes (D4, D5, D6, and D7) from these were chosen for detailed VES studies. Data were acquired over these four dykes during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods to observe the seasonal variation in groundwater movement. These studies revealed changes in field characters, their attitudes, thickness and structure of the dykes. Longitudinal geoelectrical sections along these dykes demonstrated carrier as well as barrier stretches which identified potential aquifers up to depths of 25–30m below which hard and compact rock exists. These studies also indicated that dykes with sufficient width, length and favourable hydrogeological structure form potential aquifers for the occurrence and movement of groundwater in the study area.

  14. Remobilization of granitoid rocks through mafic recharge: evidence from basalt-trachyte mingling and hybridization in the Manori-Gorai area, Mumbai, Deccan Traps

    Zellmer, Georg F.; Sheth, Hetu C.; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki; Lai, Yi-Jen


    Products of contrasting mingled magmas are widespread in volcanoes and intrusions. Subvolcanic trachyte intrusions hosting mafic enclaves crop out in the Manori-Gorai area of Mumbai in the Deccan Traps. The petrogenetic processes that produced these rocks are investigated here with field data, petrography, mineral chemistry, and whole rock major, trace, and Pb isotope chemistry. Local hybridization has occurred and has produced intermediate rocks such as a trachyandesitic dyke. Feldspar crystals have complex textures and an unusually wide range in chemical composition. Crystals from the trachytes cover the alkali feldspar compositional range and include plagioclase crystals with anorthite contents up to An47. Crystals from the mafic enclaves are dominated by plagioclase An72-90, but contain inclusions of orthoclase and other feldspars covering the entire compositional range sampled in the trachytes. Feldspars from the hybridized trachyandesitic dyke yield mineral compositions of An80-86, An47-54, Ab94-99, Or45-60, and Or96-98, all sampled within individual phenocrysts. We show that these compositional features are consistent with partial melting of granitoid rocks by influx of mafic magmas, followed by magma mixing and hybridization of the partial melts with the mafic melts, which broadly explains the observed bulk rock major and trace element variations. However, heterogeneities in Pb isotopic compositions of trachytes are observed on the scale of individual outcrops, likely reflecting initial variations in the isotopic compositions of the involved source rocks. The combined data point to one or more shallow-level trachytic magma chambers disturbed by multiple injections of trachytic, porphyritic alkali basaltic, and variably hybridized magmas.

  15. Origin of mafic and ultramafic cumulates from the Ditrău Alkaline Massif, Romania

    Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Batki, Anikó; Almási, Enikő; Kiss, Balázs; Upton, Brian G. J.; Markl, Gregor; Odling, Nicholas; Harangi, Szabolcs


    Mafic-ultramafic cumulates enclosed in gabbroic-dioritic rocks form part of the Mesozoic Ditrău Alkaline Massif in the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. The poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich and nearly mono mineralic hornblendite rocks display typical cumulate textures with early crystallised olivine (Fo75-73), diopside and augite. In the early stages of their genesis the amphibole was intercumulus whilst in later stages it acquired cumulus status as the fractionating magma evolved. Using major and trace element compositions of minerals and whole-rock samples the origin of these cumulates is determined and the parental magma composition and depth of emplacement are calculated. Cumulus clinopyroxene has more primitive composition than intercumulus amphibole suggesting closed system fractionation for the evolution of poikilitic olivine- and pyroxene-rich cumulates. The evolution of the amphibole-rich mesocumulates is more clearly the result of closed system crystallisation dominated by the precipitation of clinopyroxene and amphibole cumulus crystals. Lamprophyre dykes of the Ditrău Alkaline Massif are proposed to reflect multiple basanitic parental magma batches from which the cumulus olivine and clinopyroxene crystallised. Relative to these dykes the calculated equilibrium melts for intercumulus amphibole in the cumulates was more primitive whilst that for the cumulus amphibole was more evolved. The calculated crystallisation temperature and pressure of ~ 1000-1050 °C and ~ 0.7 GPa, based on the composition of the amphiboles, indicate crystallisation at lower crustal depths. Rare earth element compositions are consistent with an intra-plate tectonic setting.

  16. New paleomagnetic data from 1.80-1.75 Ga mafic intrusions of Fennoscandia and Sarmatia: implications for the late Paleoproterozoic paleogeography of Baltica and Laurentia

    Pisarevsky, Sergei; Lubnina, Natalia; Sokolov, Svetoslav; Bogdanova, Svetlana


    A series of recently dated 1.78-1.75 Ga lamprophyre and shoshonite intrusions are exposed north of Ladoga Lake in southern Karelia (Fennoscandia). We carried out a paleomagnetic study of these intrusions and an additional study of the coeval gabbro-dolerite Ropruchey sill near the Onega Lake. All studied rocks carry a stable primary remanence supported by positive contact tests. We also studied 14 mafic dykes and 1 mafic sill from Ukrainian shield (Sarmatia). Most of these intrusions have been dated or re-dated recently by U-Pb (baddeleyite) method at 1.80-1.75 Ga. Ukrainian dykes also carry a consistent stable bipolar remanence. Two positive contact tests suggest that this remanence is primary. A comparison of new and previously published paleomagnetic data shows a significant difference between Fennoscandian and Sarmatian 1.80-1.75 Ga paleopoles. This implies that the final assemble of Baltica by docking of Volgo-Sarmatia and Fennoscandia occurred after 1.75 Ga. Consequently these two parts of Baltica should be considered as independent blocks in pre-1.75 Ga paleogeographic reconstructions. Using late Paleoproterozoic paleomagnetic data from Laurentia together with geological constraints we have built a new kinematic paleogeographic model for Laurentia and Baltica in the Statherian.

  17. Dyke emplacement and propagation: a new laboratory approach

    Bakker, R.; Benson, P.; Vinciguerra, S.


    It is well known that magma ascends trough the crust by the process of dyking. During dyke movement crustal rocks, specifically the volcano's basement rocks, fracture due to the stress imposed by the ascending magma, thus providing conduits for magma transport. Dykes are frequently seen in the field and have been reproduced via numerical and analogue studies. However, a number of assumptions regarding rock mechanical behavior frequently has to be made as such data are very hard to directly measure at the pressure/temperature conditions of interest: high temperatures at relatively shallow depths. Such data are key to simulating the magma intrusion dynamics through the lithologies that underlie the volcanic edifice. To bridge this gap, we have performed a suite of rock deformation experiments in both compressive and tensile regimes, using a Paterson-type triaxial apparatus on representative lithologies present in the basement of Mt. Etna. In the compressive regime, we find that sedimentary rocks present at a depth of aproximately 2 km show a B/D transition at around 300 degC and significant weakening with temperatures exceeding 400 degC. Volcanic rocks (basalt) shows a significant change in deformation behavior only at temperatures exceeding 800 degC. Such a large contrast in mechanical properties could be favorable for dyke deflection or dyke arrest. However, in the tensile regime, it remains a significant technical challenge to precisely reproduce the conditions of dyking in the lab. As a starting point, we are now testing an analogue material to replace the magma to avoid such high temperatures, relying of maintaining similar temperature/viscosity ratios between magma/country rock in the laboratory and the field. We chose PMMA (a.k.a. plexiglass) for this task as it displays a large range in viscosities (log(visc)range = 10 - 1) with temperatures between 100 and 300 degC, making it an excellent analogue material. In addition PMMA solidifies after the sample cools

  18. Permanent groundwater storage in basaltic dyke fractures and termite mound viability

    Mège, Daniel; Rango, Tewodros


    Many basaltic dykes of the Ethiopian flood basalt province are observed in the northwestern Ethiopian lowlands. In this area, the termites preferentially build their epigeous mounds on the top of dolerite dykes. The relationship between termite mounds and dykes is investigated from the analysis of their distribution along one of these dykes, of thickness 2-5 m, that we could follow over 2000 m. Termite mounds are periodically spaced (mean distance 63 m, R2 = 0.995), and located exclusively where the topographic relief of the dyke is not more than 2 m above the surrounding area. From these observations and from the geological context, a hydrological circuit model is proposed in which (1) dykes are preferential conduits for groundwater drainage during the rainy season due to pervasive jointing, (2) during the dry season, the portion of the dyke forming a local topographic relief area dries up more quickly than the surroundings, the elevation difference between the dyke summit and the surroundings being a factor restricting termite mound development. For dyke topographic relief >2 m, drying is an obstacle for maintaining the appropriate humidity for the termite colony life. Periodic termite mound spacing is unlikely to be related to dyke or other geological properties. It is more likely related to termite population behaviour, perhaps to clay shortage, which restricts termite population growth by limiting the quantity of building material available for mound extension, and triggers exploration for a new colonization site that will be located along the dyke at a distance from the former colony that may be controlled by the extent of the zone covered by its trail pheromones. This work brings out the importance of dykes in channelling and storing groundwater in semiarid regions, and shows that dykes can store groundwater permanently in such settings even though the dry season is half the year long. It contributes also to shedding light on water supply conditions

  19. Rb-Sr ages of lamprophyre dykes from Schirmacher Oasis, Queen Maud Land, east Antarctica

    Lamprophyre dykes intrude the late proterozoic metamorphic terrain of Schirmacher Oasis, Queen Maud Land, east Antarctica. Rb-Sr whole-rock/mineral isochron ages of two lamprophyre dykes are 455± 12 Ma (Sri=0.70886 ± 5) and 458±6 Ma (Sri=0.71388 ± 98). This lamprophyre dyke activity of Schirmacher Oasis, may be interpreted as a manifestation of post orogenic alkaline magmatism related to the Ross orogeny of the Transantarctic mountains. (author)

  20. Rotation of the Falklands microplate reassessed after recognition of discrete Jurassic and Cretaceous dyke swarms

    Stone, P; G. S. Kimbell; Richards, P.C.


    Recently acquired aeromagnetic data for the Falkland Islands have shown that previous interpretations of the dolerite dyke swarms are inadequate. In particular, most of the dykes previously described from West Falkland as forming a ‘north–south’ swarm of Jurassic age are associated with a set of NE–SW linear magnetic anomalies that are entirely separate from another set of truly N–S anomalies. Very few dykes had been previously reported from East Falkland, but the aeromagnetic survey demonstr...

  1. Petrology and geochemistry of dolerite dykes of Dharmapuri and Salem districts of Tamil Nadu

    Dolerite dyke sets occur distributed in the Dharmapuri and Salem districts of northern Tamil nadu. These dykes have been emplaced in the older basement composed of granulite and gneissic rocks and cut across the later formed lineament controlled alkaline complexes. They are composed of medium to coarse calcic plagioclase and clinopyroxene with biotite, amphibole, uralite, olivine, orthopyroxene, and anhedral quartz as accessories. Based on geochemical characters, the olivine bearing dykes are classed as Type I and the quartz bearing dykes as Type II. The Type I dykes resemble basalt and the Type II dykes, basaltic andesite. They display LILE> HFSE in terms of abundance. The REE values indicate enrichment of LREE relative to MREE and HREE and an E-MORB or Plume MORB signature. The geochemistry of the sampled dykes suggests derivation from a mantle plume. This plume was emplaced into the garnet lherzolite layer and subsequently into the shallower spinel lherzolite layer in the mantle. Polybaric melting of lherzolite protoliths with varying proportions of garnet and spinel occurred with subsequent fractionation to produce a source melts with E-MORB characteristics. Emplacement of these dykes was aided by crustal extension and associated fracturing to develop a dyke swarm. (author)

  2. Cretaceous dykes discovered in the Falkland Islands : implications for regional tectonics in the South Atlantic

    Stone, P; Richards, P.C.; G. S. Kimbell; Esser, R. P.; Reeves, D.


    New aeromagnetic data resolve the dykes of the Falkland Islands into three swarms. A hitherto unrecognized suite of north–south dykes is established as early Cretaceous by an Ar–Ar date of about 121 Ma. Swarms of NE–SW and east–west dykes are both early Jurassic: the former gives an Ar–Ar age of about 178 Ma, whereas the latter has been previously dated to about 190 Ma. The intrusion of the Cretaceous dykes marks the onset of oceanic crust generation in the South Atlantic and so restricts to ...


    Biswadev Basu


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Dyke – Davidoff – Masson Syndrome (DDMS, is a rare clinical condition characterized by clinical triad of seizures, contralateral spastic hemiplegia or hemiparesis, with or without mental retardation. Diagnosis requires presence of cerebral hemiatrophy with homolateral hypertrophy of the skull and sinuses on brain imaging. Here we report a case of DDMS in a 16 year old girl who presented with seizures and hemiparesis.MRI of her brain showed hemiatrophy involving the left cerebral hemisphere with enlargement of ipsilateral sinuses and ventricles

  4. Paleomagnetism of diabase dykes, pegmatitic granites and TGG gneisses in the Olkiluoto area

    Mertanen, S. (Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland))


    Paleomagnetic studies in the Olkiluoto area were carried out on two diabase dykes, on four sites of pegmatitic granites and on three sites of TGG gneisses. Remanent magnetizations in the diabase dykes are strong, and two remanence components were isolated. The other component is regarded as primary, formed during cooling of the dykes. Based on comparison to previously known Fennoscandian paleomagnetic data, the pole position of the primary component shows that the dykes are ca. 1560 Ma in age. The pole position of the poorly defined secondary component of the diabase dyke gives an age of ca. 250 Ma. Pegmatitic granites are weakly magnetized, but one pegmatitic granite site gave a rather consistent remanence direction which points to a remagnetization at ca. 1570 Ma, probably due to emplacement of the nearby rapakivi granites. The TGG gneisses do not carry any stable remanent magnetization. (orig.)

  5. Sr-Nd isotopic composition of lamprophyre dykes from Queen Maud Land, East Antarctica

    Alkali basaltic-lamprophyric dykes intrude precambrian gneisses in the Schirmacher oasis, Queen Maud land, East Antarctica. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic data on two lamprophyre dykes are reported from the Schirmacher oasis. The lamprophyre dykes have given Rb-Sr biotite/whole rock isochron age of 439 ± 10 Ma (2σ). Large variations in εSr and εNd indicate higher degree of crustal assimilation. Higher εSr (+54 to +72) and lower εNd (-7 to -13) of these dykes also suggest that the source was contaminated by older crust. Biotite/whole rock Rb-Sr isotope data on lamprophyre dykes show that the terrain was affected by thermal event during early paleozoic which is correlated with the end of Pan-African orogeny. (author)

  6. Dyke Propagation Through a Partially Submerged Volcanic Edifice

    Tait, S.; Taisne, B.; Limare, A.; Manga, M.; Pasquet, E.


    We have studied using analogue experiments the ascent of magma through a volcanic edifice. The edifice is simulated using a cone of gelatine and the magma is an aqueous solution. The latter is injected at the base of the cone and propagates through the edifice in hydraulic fractures that represent dykes. The buoyancy of the magma with respect to the edifice is varied by adjusting salt concentration in the aqueous solution and/or sugar concentration in the gelatine. The system is axisymmetric. After the gelatin is released from its mold, it is partially submerged in a layer of water that represents the surrounding ocean. Because the gelatin is denser than water, its weight generates an axisymmetric stress field in the edifice whose amplitude depends, for a given edifice density, on the depth of the water which represents ''sea-level''. We derive the geometry and amplitude of this stress field by using birefringence in the gelatin that results from its photoelasticity. We document the geometry of the dykes as they propagate and the elevation of eruptive fissures on the edifice as a function of the dimensionless parameters governing the system. Positive buoyancy of the magma tends to favour summit eruptions and increasing weight of the edifice (lower sea-level with respect to edifice height) tends to favour flank eruptions. We compare the experimental results with a dataset from Piton de la Fournaise, Reunion Island and draw some general conclusions about expected changes in eruptive behaviour as a volcanic island grows to greater and greater altitude above sea-level.

  7. Palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic studies on the dykes of Goa, west coast of Indian Precambrian Shield

    Patil, S. K.; Rao, D. R. K.


    Detailed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization techniques on 120 samples belonging to 10 dykes of the Goa region along the west coast of the Indian Precambrian Shield, have yielded characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions from 9 dykes of which 6 dykes exhibited a reverse magnetic polarity direction ( D=150°, I=44.30°, k=58, α95=5.8, N=6 dykes), while 3 dykes exhibited normal polarity D=351°, I=-50°, k=21, α95=14.9, N=3 dykes) direction. The remaining 1 dyke has shown stable direction, but with a strong overprint of the present earth field (PEF) direction, which could not be removed by either AF or thermal cleaning techniques. A Palaeomagnetic pole, computed by averaging the VGPs of 9 dykes is situated at 41.2°N 78.1°W ( N=9 dykes; A95=9.81°), which is close to that of the Deccan super pole (36.9°N, 78.8°W), suggesting that the dykes in the Goa region are related to the Deccan basaltic eruptions. Recently published 40Ar/ 39Ar dating on the normal polarity dykes of the studied area have assigned the ages as 62.8±0.2 Ma. These results demonstrate that the Deccan magnetism continued to affect western India for at least 1-2 Ma after the peak Deccan eruption during the K- T boundary. On the basis of published geological and geochemical information along with our Palaeomagnetic results, these intrusive bodies could be attributed as the feeders for the uppermost formations of Wai subgroup of the Western Ghat Deccan basalts, or to the major geodynamic events such as the opening of the Arabian Sea and the rifting of the Seychelles-Mascarene oceanic plateau, which occurred soon after the cessation of the Deccan volcanism. Rock magnetic experiments such as the Lowrie-Fuller test along with low-temperature magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) measurements have identified single domain (SD) type titano-magnetite as the major characteristic remanent magnetization carrying magnetic mineral in the dyke samples.

  8. Continental rift and oceanic protoliths of mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Kechros Complex, NE Rhodope (Greece): implications from petrography, major and trace-element systematics, and MELTS modeling

    Baziotis, I.; Mposkos, E.; Asimow, P. D.


    The whole-rock chemistry of eclogites, partially amphibolitized eclogites, and dyke amphibolites from the metamorphic Kechros complex in the eastern Rhodope Mountains preserves evidence of the geodynamic framework for the origin of their protoliths. Major and trace-element concentrations define two distinct protolith groups for the eclogites. The low-Fe-Ti (LFT) eclogites have low-TiO2 content (HFT) eclogites have small to moderate LILE enrichment and lack Nb anomalies. The REE patterns of the HFT eclogites are characterized by LREE depletion and relatively flat MREE-HREE patterns. The rock compositions and petrographic features of the LFT eclogites resemble gabbros formed in a continental rift environment with minor to moderate contamination of a mantle-derived mafic magma by continental crust, whereas the HFT eclogites resemble mafic rocks formed in extensional oceanic environments. We interpret the HFT suite to represent a later stage in an evolution from continental rift to open ocean, following the origin of the LFT suite. Dyke amphibolite compositions, except for probable SiO2 loss associated with metamorphic dehydration reactions, appear to represent liquid compositions quenched in conduits through the lower crust. MELTS modeling shows that dyke amphibolite compositions can be related to each other by fractional crystallization under strongly oxidizing conditions at ~0.5 GPa pressure, and all can be derived from a low-degree melt of modified fertile peridotite from around 1.7 GPa. Cumulates crystallized from the parental liquids of the amphibolites under oxidizing conditions may have yielded the protoliths of the HFT suite.

  9. A Geochemical Investigation of the Early Cretaceous Ultrapotassic Dykes in the Raniganj Coalfields in Damodar Valley, India

    Jude, T. A.


    The early Cretaceous ultrapotassic dyke rocks intruding the Permocarboniferous coal bearing Gondwana sediments of the Eastern Damodar Valley, Singhbum craton, are known for their petrographic and geochemical diversity. They remain a 'Pandora's box of petrological confusion' with a variety of exotic, and potentially diamondiferous, rocks such as lamprophyre, lamproite, orangeite and kimberlite being continuously reported from them for over one century or more. Intra-plate volcanism of this type discloses hidden information about the interior of the Earth. Samples from two dykes intruding Raniganj coalfield is studied here. The samples from Dyke1 are characterized by fine grained texture and phlogopite+apatite+K-feldspar+rutile+ankerite+dolomite+ chromite+chlorite+quartz assemblage while the samples from Dyke2 are characterized by coarse grained texture and phlogopite+ pseudomorphosed-olivine+apatite+ clinopyroxene +dolomite+ankerite+calcite+norsethite+talc+rutile+quartz+Ca-Mg-Fe-Zr silicate+K-feldspar+monazite+ perovskite assemblage. Based on the TiO2-Al2O3-FeO trends observed in phlogopites, the dykes seem to be a lamproite-orangeite transitional variety. The phlogopites observed in Dyke2 show two stages of crystallization defined by Ti-poor overgrowths on Ti-rich cores indicating that Dyke2 consolidated from a melt that fractionated from a magma which was initially emplaced at a different depth while the Dyke 1 phlogopites do not show any such sudden drop in Ti concentration in their rims indicating single stage crystallization. Ti-in-Quartz Thermometry yields temperatures between 769°C to 1115°C for Dyke1 and 779°C to 1019°C for Dyke2 which must corresponds to the emplacement and crystallization of these dykes. Trace element and isotopic ratios can be used to constrain particular mantle source characteristics of the dykes. Rb-Sr method can be used to determine the emplacement ages of these dykes.

  10. Triggered earthquakes suppressed by an evolving stress shadow from a propagating dyke

    Green, Robert G.; Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.


    Large earthquakes can generate small changes in static stress: increases that trigger aftershock swarms, or reductions that create a region of reduced seismicity--a stress shadow. However, seismic waves from large earthquakes also cause transient dynamic stresses that may trigger seismicity. This makes it difficult to separate the relative influence of static and dynamic stress changes on aftershocks. Dyke intrusions do not generate dynamic stresses, so provide an unambiguous test of the stress shadow hypothesis. Here we use GPS and seismic data to reconstruct the intrusion of an igneous dyke that is 46 km long and 5 m wide beneath Bárðarbunga Volcano, central Iceland, in August 2014. We find that during dyke emplacement, bursts of seismicity at a distance of 5 to 15 km were first triggered and then abruptly switched off as the dyke tip propagated away from the volcano. We calculate the evolving static stress changes during dyke propagation and show that the stressing rate controls both the triggering and then suppression of earthquake rates in three separate areas adjacent to the dyke. Our results imply that static stress changes help control earthquake clustering. Similar small static stress changes may be important for triggering seismicity near geothermal areas, regions being hydrofractured and deflating oil and gas fields.

  11. Mangrove forest against dyke-break-induced tsunami on rapidly subsiding coasts

    Takagi, Hiroshi; Mikami, Takahito; Fujii, Daisuke; Esteban, Miguel; Kurobe, Shota


    Thin coastal dykes typically found in developing countries may suddenly collapse due to rapid land subsidence, material ageing, sea-level rise, high wave attack, earthquakes, landslides, or a collision with vessels. Such a failure could trigger dam-break tsunami-type flooding, or "dyke-break-induced tsunami", a possibility which has so far been overlooked in the field of coastal disaster science and management. To analyse the potential consequences of one such flooding event caused by a dyke failure, a hydrodynamic model was constructed based on the authors' field surveys of a vulnerable coastal location in Jakarta, Indonesia. In a 2 m land subsidence scenario - which is expected to take place in the study area after only about 10-20 years - the model results show that the floodwaters rapidly rise to a height of nearly 3 m, resembling the flooding pattern of earthquake-induced tsunamis. The depth-velocity product criterion suggests that many of the narrow pedestrian paths behind the dyke could experience strong flows, which are far greater than the safe limits that would allow pedestrian evacuation. A couple of alternative scenarios were also considered to investigate how such flood impacts could be mitigated by creating a mangrove belt in front of the dyke as an additional safety measure. The dyke-break-induced tsunamis, which in many areas are far more likely than regular earthquake tsunamis, cannot be overlooked and thus should be considered in disaster management and urban planning along the coasts of many developing countries.

  12. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (cerebral hemiatrophy: Radiological findings

    Yaşar Bükte


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to present cross- sectional cranial imaging findings of cases with Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS. Methods: The findings of 16 cases in whom unilateral cerebral hemispheric atrophy was detected at computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging were retrospectively evaluated. The cases consisted of 8 females and 8 males, the ages ranged between 5 and 53 (mean:24. Six of the cases were children and 10 were males. Five of the patients had CT and 13 had MRI scan. The images were retrospectively evaluated and cerebral parenchymal findings and compensatory cranial findings were noted. Results: All cases had unilateral cerebral hemispheric atrophy, ipsilateral cortical sulcal and lateral ventricular dilatation. Together with hemispheric atrophy ipsilateral atrophy of corpus callosum in 6 cases (37.5%, ipsilateral thalamic atrophy in 13 cases (81%, ipsilateral parahippocampal atrophy in 8 cases (50%, ipsilateral cerebral pedincular atrophy in 7 cases (44% and ipsilateral pontine atrophy in 3 cases (19% were detected. Gliotic signal changes were observed in 13 cases (81%. Of compensatory findings, unilateral calvarial thickening was focal in 4 cases (25%, and diffuse in 12 cases (75%. There was expansion in ipsilateral half of frontal sinus in 15 cases (94% and expansion in temporal bone aeration in 5 cases (31%. Conclusion: DDMS is a syndrome presenting with findings of cerebral hemiatrophy and calvarial hypertrophy. Cross-sectional radiological imaging findings may be variable among cases.

  13. Compositions of Normal and Anomalous Eucrite-Type Mafic Achondrites

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Mertzman, S. A.


    The most common asteroidal igneous meteorites are eucrite-type mafic achondrites - basalts and gabbros composed of ferroan pigeonite, ferroan augite, calcic plagioclase, silica, ilmenite, troilite, Ca-phosphate, chromite and Fe-metal. These rocks are thought to have formed on a single asteroid along with howardites and diogenites. However, high precision O-isotopic analyses have shown that some mafic achondrites have small, well-resolved, non-mass-dependent differences that have been interpreted as indicating derivation from different asteroids. Some of these O-anomalous mafic achondrites also have anomalous petrologic characteristics, strengthening the case that they hail from distinct parent asteroids. We present the results of bulk compositional studies of a suite of normal and anomalous eucrite-type basalts and cumulate gabbros.

  14. Seepage investigation by using Isotope and Geophysical Techniques in Gumti Flood Embankment/Dyke, Comilla

    Gumti Flood Control Embankment/Dyke is vital for irrigation water supply and flood control. Water seepage/leakage and slope failures are the major issues in Gumti earthen dyke. The distinct seepage and slope failure zone were observed at three places (Farizpur, Kathalia and Ebdarpur) along the countryside of left dyke. The isotopic technique has been integrated in the conventional hydrologic investigations. The isotope methodology works essentially by developing a characteristics pattern of the isotopic composition to identify the sources and flow dynamics of seeping/leaking in the dykes. Two sampling campaigns were conducted; one was on October, 2002 and the other was on July, 2003; near the seepage/leakage site for chemical analysis and stable isotopic analysis (''2H and ''18O). Both samplings were done after recession of peak water level in the Gumti river. Interpretation of the hydrochemical data implies that the groundwater near the investigated seepage zones is Na-Ca-HCO3 type and the river water is Ca-Mg-HCO3 type. The chlorides content of both groundwater and river water are found mostly similar, indicating mixing between the two water system. The stable isotopes (''2H and ''18O) of groundwater fall on the Meteoric Water Line, ranging the oxygen-18 values from -4.98 to -5.46 per mil and deuterium values from -30.0 to -33.6 per mil. It indicates the recharge from the river water during peak water level in the river Gumti. On the other hand, the stable isotopes of the Gumti river show some evaporation effect, which might have occurred due to stagnation of flowing water in the river. The oxygen-18 and deuterium values for river water range from -3.61 to -4.43 per mil and from -22.30 to -28.48 per mil respectively. These isotope results reflect the hydraulic connectivity between the river water and groundwater through the base of dyke. The earth imaging resistivity survey was carried out in the dry period along the four above mentioned areas of the Gumti dyke

  15. Sedimentary dykes in the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area. A study of the mechanism of formation

    This study of the sedimentary dykes from the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area, near Aespoe and surrounding region, is aimed at understanding the mechanism of their formation. In particular it is important to establish whether or not they formed by the injection of high pressure fluidized sediments and if so what the likely effect of any future over pressured sediments will be on the stability of the fracture network in the basement rocks at Aespoe. This report is made up of a review of the literature on sedimentary dykes, a discussion of the various mechanical models for hydraulic fracturing and a description of the field and laboratory study carried out on the sedimentary dykes. The literature review indicates a remarkable consensus on the mode of formation of these structures based on their fabric (particularly layering generated in part by variation in clast size) and the composition of the infilling material. Two modes of origin have been recognised. These are the passive infilling of dykes where the dyke material has entered an open fracture under the influence of gravity, and active, i.e. forceful injection of a fluidized sediment under high pressure into a pre-existing fracture or into a fracture generated by the high pressure fluid. The discussion of the theory of fluid induced fracturing leads to the recognition of three systems which are the two end members and an intermediate form of a complete spectrum of materials ranging from unconsolidated and incohesive sediments, through cemented but porous rocks to crystalline rocks with no intrinsic porosity and whose only porosity relates to that imparted by the fracture network that the rock contains. The theory best suited to analyses this latter system is one based on fracture mechanics and is known as the theory of external hydraulic fracturing. From the point of view of the sedimentary dykes in the study area around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, where the dykes occur in the fractured granitic basement, this is

  16. Sedimentary dykes in the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area. A study of the mechanism of formation

    Roeshoff, Kennert [BBK AB, Solna (Sweden); Cosgrove, John [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences and Engineering


    This study of the sedimentary dykes from the Oskarshamn-Vaestervik area, near Aespoe and surrounding region, is aimed at understanding the mechanism of their formation. In particular it is important to establish whether or not they formed by the injection of high pressure fluidized sediments and if so what the likely effect of any future over pressured sediments will be on the stability of the fracture network in the basement rocks at Aespoe. This report is made up of a review of the literature on sedimentary dykes, a discussion of the various mechanical models for hydraulic fracturing and a description of the field and laboratory study carried out on the sedimentary dykes. The literature review indicates a remarkable consensus on the mode of formation of these structures based on their fabric (particularly layering generated in part by variation in clast size) and the composition of the infilling material. Two modes of origin have been recognised. These are the passive infilling of dykes where the dyke material has entered an open fracture under the influence of gravity, and active, i.e. forceful injection of a fluidized sediment under high pressure into a pre-existing fracture or into a fracture generated by the high pressure fluid. The discussion of the theory of fluid induced fracturing leads to the recognition of three systems which are the two end members and an intermediate form of a complete spectrum of materials ranging from unconsolidated and incohesive sediments, through cemented but porous rocks to crystalline rocks with no intrinsic porosity and whose only porosity relates to that imparted by the fracture network that the rock contains. The theory best suited to analyses this latter system is one based on fracture mechanics and is known as the theory of external hydraulic fracturing. From the point of view of the sedimentary dykes in the study area around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, where the dykes occur in the fractured granitic basement, this is

  17. Apollo 16 Mafic Glass: Geochemistry, Provenance, and Implications

    Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.; Floss, C.


    Although the Apollo 16 mission landed in the feldspathic lunar highlands, mass-balance models suggest that there is a 5-6% mare component in the mature soils collected at the site. Only one mare basalt greater than 1 cm was found and two surveys of 2-4 mm particles found that less than 1% of this size fraction is mare basalt. Similar surveys of the less than 1 mm size fraction of A16 soils found very little lithic mare basalt, but several percent of basaltic green, yellow, and orange glass. The green glass beads were identified as VLT picritic glass and the orange/yellow glass shards were a mix of high and low Ti mare-like glass, high-Al basaltic glass, and KREEPy glasses. Most previous studies of glasses in the A16 regolith were surveys that identified a high proportion of feldspathic glass because most of the glass is produced by local impacts. Because the number of mafic glasses found was low, few compositional groupings were identified. As part of our ongoing study of the mafic components of the Apollo 16 site, we specifically targeted mafic glasses from Apollo 16, selecting against the more feldspathic glasses. In this way we were able to identify over 300 mafic glasses (greater than 10 wt % FeO). We present here the major- and trace-element chemistry of the main glass groups and discuss the likely provenance of each group.

  18. Relamination of mafic subducting crust throughout Earth's history

    Maunder, Ben; van Hunen, Jeroen; Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre


    Earth has likely cooled by several hundred degrees over its history, which has probably affected subduction dynamics and associated magmatism. Today, the process of compositional buoyancy driven upwelling, and subsequent underplating, of subducted materials (commonly referred to as "relamination") is thought to play a role in the formation of continental crust. Given that Archean continental crust formation is best explained by the involvement of mafic material, we investigate the feasibility of mafic crust relamination under a wide range of conditions applicable to modern and early Earth subduction zones, to assess if such a process might have been viable in an early Earth setting. Our numerical parametric study illustrates that the hotter, thicker-crust conditions of the early Earth favour the upward relamination of mafic subducting crust. The amount of relaminating subducting crust is observed to vary significantly, with subduction convergence rate having the strongest control on the volume of relaminated material. Indeed, removal of the entire mafic crust from the subducting slab is possible for slow subduction (∼2 cm/yr) under Archean conditions. We also observe great variability in the depth at which this separation occurs (80-120 km), with events corresponding to shallower detachment being more voluminous, and that relaminating material has to remain metastably buoyant until this separation depth, which is supported by geological, geophysical and geodynamical observations. Furthermore, this relamination behaviour is commonly episodic with a typical repeat time of approximately 10 Myrs, similar to timescales of episodicity observed in the Archean rock record. We demonstrate that this relamination process can result in the heating of considerable quantities of mafic material (to temperatures in excess of 900 °C), which is then emplaced below the over-riding lithosphere. As such, our results have implications for Archean subduction zone magmatism, for

  19. Paleomagnetism, U-Pb geochronology, and geochemistry of Marathon dykes, Superior Province, and comparison with the Fort Frances swarm

    We report the first detailed study of the paleomagnetism, U - Pb geochronology and major element geochemistry of Paleoproterozoic north-trending Marathon dykes north of Lake Superior. The paleomagnetic and geochemical results demonstrate that Marathon dykes can be divided into two subsets, one of normal magnetic polarity, the other of reverse polarity. Normal and reverse Marathon paleomagnetic poles, at 43oN, 196oE (dm = 9o, dp = 7o, number of dykes N = 16) and 51oN, 175oE (dm = 9o, dp = 6o, N 12), respectively, are statistically distinct and may indicate different ages of normal and reverse dyke emplacement. A U-Pb baddeleyite age of 2121-7+14 Ma has been obtained at a normally magnetized Marathon paleomagnetic site. The reversely magnetized Marathon dykes are undated, but have a paleopole rather close to that of the reversely magnetized 2076-4+5 Ma Fort Frances dykes and major element geochemical signatures as portrayed on Jensen plots that are identical to those of the Fort Frances swarm. Therefore, reverse Marathon and Fort Frances dykes could define a giant radiating dyke swarm focused south of Lake Superior, supporting models that associate these dykes with Paleoproterozoic rifting along the southern margin of the Superior Province. The Marathon and Fort Frances paleopoles continue a northwesterly trend in southern Superior Province paleopoles, which has recently been defined by results for 2216-4+8 Ma Senneterre dykes and 2167 ± 2 Ma Biscotasing dykes. This trend contrasts with previous widely used polar wander paths for the same period that young in the opposite direction and illustrates the importance of collaborative studies of paleomagnetism and U - Pb geochronology. (author). 36 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs

  20. Experiment and Simulation of Turbulent Flow in Local Scour around a Spur Dyke

    Hao ZHANG; Hajime NAKAGAWA; Kenji KAWAIKE; Yasuyuki BABA


    The turbulent flow in the local scour hole around a single non-submerged spur dyke is investigated with both experimental and numerical methods.The experiments are conducted under clear-water scour regime with an impermeable spur dyke.The scour geometry and flow velocities are measured in details with a high-resolution laser displacement meter,electro-magnetic velocimetries and PIV (Particle image velocimetry).A 3D non-linear κ-ε model is developed to simulate the complex local flow field around the scour area.The numerical model is formulated using FVM (Finite volume method) on a collocated unstructured mesh,capable of resolving complex geometries and boundaries.It is found that the simulation results are reasonably consistent with those of the experimental measurements.Based on the study results,the nature of the flow structrue around a spur dyke with local scour hole is analyzed.

  1. Granitic pluton inner structural activities partition and its concomitant dykes mass activities of northern Guangdong province

    The granite mass inner structural activities distributed with agminate and the high frequency of directions and phases, in northern Guangdong province. The granite mass inner uranous mineralization are manipulatived with structure. Based on the geological characteristics of the Zhuguang and Guidong granite mass, interrelated information of numerous uranium field,and isotope ages, the text mark off ternary phases about the granite mass inner structural activities--the anterior, corresponding and posterior period of neutral-basic dykes activities. And go with these structural activities, it came into being activities about multi-phases dykess mass. The uranium ore brought at the volitant date of dykes and silicic dykesal mass, after the appearance of neutral-basic dykes. (authors)

  2. Rift magmatism on the Eurasia basin margin: U–Pb baddeleyite ages of alkaline dyke swarms in North Greenland

    Thórarinsson, Sigurjón B.; Söderlund, Ulf; Døssing, Arne; Holm, Paul M.; Ernst, Richard E.; Tegner, Christian


    The opening of the Arctic Ocean involved multiple stages of continental rifting and intrusion of extensive dyke swarms. To trace tectonomagmatic processes of the High Arctic, we present the first U–Pb ages for alkaline dyke swarms of North Greenland. Concordia ages of 80.8 ± 0.6 and 82.1 ± 1.5 Ma...

  3. Immiscible silicate-carbonate liquids as evidenced from ocellar diabase dykes, southeast Sinai

    Bogoch, R.; Magaritz, M.


    Diabase dykes containing spherical patches of carbonate intrude the Tarr albitite complex of SE Sinai. The morphology of these dykes indicates a highly gas-charged magma. Petrographic evidence points toward equilibrium during cooling of immiscible carbonate ocelli and silicate matrix. Dolomite is the main component of these ocelli, which are geochemically and isotopically similar to carbonatite. However, the low total REE content, and the presence of considerable marble in the country rock, suggest a process of stoping and melting of carbonate, followed by the “in situ” development of silicate-carbonate immiscibility.

  4. Traces of ancient mafic layers in the Tethys oceanic mantle

    Sergeev, Dmitry S.; Dijkstra, Arjan H.; Meisel, Thomas; Brügmann, Gerhard; Sergeev, Sergey A.


    Oceanic basalts are formed by melting of a chemically and isotopically heterogeneous mantle source. The oceanic mantle probably resembles a marble cake containing layers of mafic rock - perhaps recycled ocean crust - stored in the mantle for >1 billion years. Many questions about the nature and distribution of these mantle heterogeneities remain. Here we show that lithological and isotopic traces of ancient mafic layers can still be seen in mantle rocks that have melted to form oceanic crust at a spreading centre in the Tethys Ocean. We have found centimetre-scale heterogeneity in initial osmium isotope ratios in mantle rocks from the Pindos Ophiolite. Deformed pyroxenite layers have high 187Os/188Os ratios (0.14-0.20) compared to adjacent host peridotites (187Os/188Os: 0.12-0.13). These layers were formed by a reaction between mantle rock and melt derived from ancient rocks with high Re/Os ratios. We interpret the pyroxenite layers as the wall rocks of billion-year old mafic layers that melted and transformed adjacent mantle peridotite into pyroxenite by melt-rock reaction. The pyroxenite layers are the relics of ancient metre-scale basaltic veins in a kilometre-sized marble cake domain in the oceanic mantle that has withstood homogenization on a billion-year time scale.

  5. Dyke-path formation in relation to the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Bardarbunga-Holuhraun 2014

    Gudmundsson, Agust


    Dykes are extension fractures and form when the magmatic overpressure is high enough to rupture (break) the host rock. Their formation is entirely analogous to that of many joints and human-made hydraulic fractures, such as are used to increase permeability in reservoirs. When generating their paths, dykes use existing weaknesses (e.g., cooling joints) in the host rock. The maximum depth of large tension fractures below the surface of a rift zone, however, is mostly less than a few hundred metres. If the fractures extend to greater depths, they must change into closed normal faults which are generally not used as magma paths. There are thus no large tension fractures or wide-open faults at great depths ready to be filled with magma to form a dyke. While magma flow in dykes, as in other fluid-driven fractures, is at any point in various directions dyke segmentation may indicate the overall large-scale flow direction. Thus, dykes composed of large-spaced disconnected segments in lateral sections are primarily formed in vertical magma flow at segmentation depth whereas those composed of large-spaced disconnected segments in vertical sections are primarily formed in lateral magma flow. The far-field displacement and stress fields of segmented dykes are similar to those generated by single, continuous dykes of similar dimensions, particularly when the distances between the nearby tips of the segments become small in comparison with segment lengths. Most dykes become arrested and never supply magma to eruptions. Feeder-dykes normally reach the surface only along parts of their lengths (strike-dimensions). The volumetric flow or effusion rate of magma through a feeder-dyke or volcanic fissure depends on the aperture (opening) of the dyke or fissure in the 3rd power. All these theoretical and observational results are here applied to the dyke emplacements associated with the eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and Bardarbunga-Holuhraun 2014. The results make it possible to

  6. Formation conditions of leucogranite dykes and aplite-pegmatite dykes in the eastern Mt. Capanne plutonic complex (Elba, Italy): fluid inclusion studies in quartz, tourmaline, andalusite and plagioclase

    Bakker, Ronald J.; Schilli, Sebastian E.


    Leucogranite and aplite-pegmatite dykes are associated with the Mt. Capanne pluton (Elba) and partly occur in the thermally metamorphosed host rock (serpentinites). Crystallization conditions of these dykes in the late magmatic-hydrothermal stage are estimated from fluid inclusion studies and mineralogical characterisation, obtained from detailed microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microprobe analyses. Fluid inclusion assemblages are analysed in andalusite, quartz, and plagioclase from the leucogranite dykes, and in tourmaline and quartz from the aplite-pegmatite dykes. The fluid inclusion assemblages record multiple pulses of low salinity H2O-rich magmatic and reduced metamorphic fluid stages. Magmatic fluids are characterized by the presence of minor amounts of CO2 and H3BO3, whereas the metamorphic fluids contain CH4 and H2. The highly reduced conditions are also inferred from the presence of native arsenic in some fluid inclusions. Several fluid inclusion assemblages reveal fluid compositions that must have resulted from mixing of both fluid sources. In leucogranite dykes, magmatic andalusite contains a low-density magmatic CO2-rich gas mixture with minor amounts of CH4 and H2. Accidentally trapped crystals (mica) and step-daughters (quartz and diaspore) are detected in some inclusions in andalusite. The first generation of inclusions in quartz that crystallized after andalusite contains a highly reduced H2O-H2 mixture and micas. The second type of inclusions in quartz from the leucogranite is similar to the primary inclusion assemblage in tourmaline from the aplite-pegmatite, and contains up to 4.2 mass% H3BO3, present as a sassolite daughter crystal or dissolved ions, in addition to a CO2-CH4 gas mixture, with traces of H2, N2, H2S, and C2H6. H2O is the main component of all these fluids ( x = 0.91 to 0.96) with maximally 7 mass% NaCl. Some accidentally trapped arsenolite and native arsenic are also detected. These fluids were trapped in the

  7. Rb-Sr age of a basic dyke, Schirmacher oasis, east Antarctica

    In order to understand the crustal evolution in east Antartica, detailed geological, geochemical and isotopic studies of the various rocks in the area are necessary. This paper reports the Rb-Sr isotopic data on a gabbroic dyke in the Schirmacher oasis

  8. Dyke Intrusion and Arrest in Harrat Lunayyir, western Saudi Arabia, in April-July 2009

    Jónsson, Sigurjón; Pallister, John; McCausland, Wendy; El-Hadidy, Salah


    Dyke intrusion in Harrat Lunayyir (also known as Harrat Al-Shaqah), one of the volcanic provinces in Saudi Arabia, caused numerous small to moderate-sized earthquakes and extensive surface faulting in April-July 2009. The most intensive earthquake activity took place on 17-20 May when six magnitude 4.6-5.7 earthquakes occurred, resulting in some structural damage and prompting the Saudi civil protection authorities to evacuate more than 30000 people from the area. While the earthquake activity significantly decreased after 20 May, it continued throughout June and July with a few earthquakes as large as magnitude ~4, before quieting down in August. Much of what we have learned about the activity comes from interferometric satellite radar (InSAR) observations and from analysis of the seismic data collected by a broadband seismic network that was installed soon after the earthquake swarm started in April. The InSAR data show that large-scale (40 km × 40 km) east-west extension of over 1 m took place as well as broad uplift amounting to over 40 cm. The center of the uplifted area was transected by northwest-trending graben subsidence of over 50 cm, bounded by a single fault to the southwest showing up to ~1 m of faulting and by multiple smaller faults and cracks to the northeast. The observed deformation is well explained with a near-vertical dyke intrusion and graben-bounding normal faulting. The strike of the model dyke is NNW-SSE, parallel to the Red Sea rift, and its volume is about 0.13 km3. The modeling suggests that the shallowest part of the dyke reached within only 2 km of the surface, right below where the graben is the narrowest and under an area with a number of cinder cones from previous volcanic events. The main graben-bounding surface fault, to the southwest of the dyke, grew from ~3 km to ~8 km with the magnitude 5.7 earthquake on 19 May. Soon after this event the overall earthquake activity dramatically declined. The faulting appears to have

  9. Geophysical characteristics of Aswa shear, Nagasongola discontinuity and ring dyke complex in Uganda

    Ruotoistenmäki, Tapio


    During the years 2008-2012, the geology of most of Uganda was studied within the framework of the Sustainable Management of Mineral Resources Project (SMMRP). During the project, comprehensive airborne magnetic and radiometric surveys were flown over the entire country and geological, petrophysical, geochemical sampling, geological field studies and detailed geophysical field profiles were undertaken in selected sub-areas. This report concentrates on the geophysical properties of three major geophysical structures in the area considered during the project: the Pan-African (0.6-0.7 Ga) Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola discontinuity (suture), and the 1.36 Ga Uganda-Tanzania semi-circular ‘ring dyke' complex. The geophysical profiles across the Aswa shear indicate that the fault zone dips steeply, at about 60° to NE. The structure represents a magnetic, gravimetric (density), radiometric and topographic discontinuity, all diminishing from SW to NE across the zone. The zone is also characterized by complex radiometric anomalies. A schematic reconstruction of the evolution of the Aswa shear zone on the magnetic map suggests a nearly 60 km sinistral horizontal component of displacement along the zone. The Nakasongola zone is another distinct magnetic, gravimetric and radiometric discontinuity, interpreted to represent a collision (suture) zone, where the northern, low-magnetic block has been thrust over the southern, denser and more magnetic block. Modeling of gravity and magnetic data are consistent with a geometry in which the southern, magnetic and high-density block dips gently to great depth beneath the northern block. Bedrock exposures in both the Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola zone areas indicate a very protracted and complex history of tectonic processes commencing in the Archaean-Paleoproterozoic era and culminating in Pan-African orogenies. Both, the Aswa shear zone and Nagasongola discontinuity are cut by continuous younger dykes that show no signs of

  10. Geological setting, emplacement mechanism and igneous evolution of the Atchiza mafic-ultramafic layered suite in north-west Mozambique

    Ibraimo, Daniel Luis; Larsen, Rune B.


    The Atchiza mafic and ultramafic-layered suite (hereafter, "Atchiza Suite) crops out in an area 330 km2 west of the Mozambican Tete province. In an early account of the geology of this intrusion, it was considered the continuation of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe, an idea that was aborted after detailed studies. Nevertheless, the Ni concentrations in the Atchiza outcrop rocks are considerable. Our investigation used field evidence, hand specimens and petrography descriptions, mineral chemistry studies using electron microprobe analysis and tectonic analysis to arrive at a plausible mineralogical composition and understanding of the tectonic setting for the igneous evolution. The mineral composition from the Atchiza Suite indicates that these are cumulates. The magmatic segregation from the petrographic and mineral composition reasoning indicates that dunite-lherzolitic peridotite-olivine gabbro-gabbronorite-gabbro-pegmatitic gabbro is the rock formation sequence. Olivine and chromite were the first phases formed, followed by pyroxene and plagioclase. In addition, it is shown that these minerals are near-liquidus crystallization products of basaltic magma with olivine Fo: 87.06 in dunite, mean values of clinopyroxene are (Wo: 36.4, En: 48.0, Fs: 15.2), orthopyroxene (Wo: 2.95, En: 73.0, Fs: 24.2) and plagioclase An: 71.3, respectively. Opaque minerals comprise Fe-Ti oxides and (Fe, Cr) spinel up to 4.8 vol.%, but chromitite layers are not present. Most of the opaque minerals are interstitial to pyroxene. Sulphides are common in gabbros, with pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, pyrite and covellite together comprising 0.4-2.0 vol.%. The whole rock Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations are mainly a result of differentiation, but slight crustal contamination/assimilation contributed to the REE contents. In addition, they also show Eu enrichment, suggesting that plagioclase fractionation was important in the rock. The Atchiza Suite preserves a deep-seated plumbing

  11. Evidences for multiple remagnetization of Proterozoic dykes from Iguerda inlier (Anti-Atlas Belt, Southern Morocco)

    Neres, Marta; Silva, Pedro F.; Ikene, Moha; Martins, Sofia; Hafid, Ahmid; Mata, João; Almeida, Francisco; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Boumehdi, Ahmed


    Paleomagnetic data able to constrain the paleoposition of the West African Craton (WAC) during Paleo-Mesoproterozoic are absent, mainly due to gaps on the sedimentary record and intense remagnetizations. Dykes that intrude several Proterozoic inliers of WAC in the Anti-Atlas Belt (southern Morocco) have recently been subjected to geochronological studies, which revealed ages between Paleoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. Therefore, these dykes represent a window of opportunity for paleomagnetic studies aiming to infer about the paleoposition of WAC during Proterozoic. On this scope we conducted a paleomagnetic study on seven Proterozoic dykes of the Iguerda inlier. We determined the paleomagnetic directions and evaluated their meaning by rock magnetic and mineral analyses, complemented by petrographic observations. Results revealed that these rocks record the presence of a complex history of remagnetization events, mostly assigned to several Phanerozoic thermal/chemical events. In particular, we found components assigned to the late stages of Pan African orogeny (s.l.), to the Late Carboniferous Variscan orogeny, and to more recent events. The recognized remagnetization processes are related to widespread metamorphic events under greenschist facies followed by low-temperature oxidation, both responsible for the formation of new magnetic phases (magnetite and hematite). The primary (magmatic) thermo-remanent magnetization of the dykes was obliterated during these events through multiple thermal and chemical remagnetizations. For only one dyke the presence of primary magnetization is possible to infer, though not to confirm, and would place WAC at an equatorial position around 1750 Ma. The authors wish to acknowledge FCT (Portugal) - CNRST (Morocco) bilateral agreement for its major contribution without which this work wouldn't be possible. Publication supported by project FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz.

  12. Mineral reactions and strain localization in a sheared mafic granulite infiltrated by melt (Seiland Igneous Province, Norway)

    degli Alessandrini, Giulia; Menegon, Luca; Malaspina, Nadia; Dijkstra, Arjan; Anderson, Mark


    This study investigates the deformation mechanisms of a metagabbroic dyke experiencing syn-kinematic melt-rock interaction in a continental lower-crustal shear zone in the Seiland Igneous Province (northern Norway). Solid state shearing occurred at T ≈750-820 °C, P ≈0.75-0.95 GPa and was coeval with melt infiltration from dehydration melting of adjacent metasediments, as evident from thin leucosome veinlets within the dykes. The mylonite consists of cpx [Ca0.47,Mg0.35,Fe0.18]SiO3 + opx [Ca0.1,Mg0.5,Fe0.4]SiO3 + pl (An77Ab22Or1) porphyroclasts with localized grt and ilm coronas, embedded in a fine grained matrix of cpx + opx + pl + qtz + ilm ± kfs. Porphyroclasts range in size (diameter) between 25 to 650 μm, whereas the fine grain matrix is consistently below 10 μm (average 4-7 μm). Porphyroclasts show varying degrees of elongation, with the opx reaching aspect ratios of 1:16 and the cpx reaching rare maxima of 1:7. Cpx and pl porphyroclasts are micro-fractured and micro-boudinaged with fine-grained material infill. Texturally, opx porphyroclasts display a marked crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and activity of the {100} and minor {100} slip systems, whereas cpx and pl porphyroclasts are randomly oriented. All porphyroclasts have strong internal misorientations (undulatory and sweeping extinction) and lack recovery features (subgrains). The fine-grained polyphase matrix wrapping the porphyroclasts displays weak to absent CPO, with the exception of opx that shows a {100} poles-to-planes maxima perpendicular to the foliation. Based on the microstructure, we argue that a large part of the matrix is the product of metamorphic reactions in the presence of melt. To test this hypothesis, the interaction between the studied mafic dyke and an adjacent felsic leucosome was modelled using PerpleX for P-T conditions ranging between 7-9 kbar and 700-1000°C. Results show that the syn-kinematic mineral assemblage (opx + cpx + pl + qtz + ilm ± kfs) can be

  13. The fluid dynamics of xenocryst formation in mafic enclaves

    Jarvis, Paul; Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Katharine; Huppert, Herbert; Mader, Heidy


    Mafic enclaves produced by the mingling of felsic and mafic magmas commonly contain xenocrysts; crystals akin to those in the felsic host. These crystals are interpreted as having crossed the interface between the two magmas at some stage during the rock evolution. An understanding of the physical conditions that allow this exchange would give insight into the state of the system at the time of assimilation, providing information about the magmatic history of the rock. Using both numerical models and analogue experiments, the low Reynolds number gravitational settling of spheres on to fluid-fluid interfaces is studied as an analogue to this problem. Theoretical treatment suggests that whether or not a particle sinks or floats at an interface depends on four dimensionless parameters; Bond number, the viscosity ratio, a modified density ratio and the contact angle. Spheres are allowed to settle onto an interface for different values of the dimensionless groups and the behavioural regime boundaries are determined. Experimentally this consists of dropping spheres of varying radii and density onto an interface between two density stratified fluids (silicon oil and polyethylene glycol solution), both of which are lighter than the sphere. The spheres are sputter coated in gold to ensure a constant surface interaction. The numerical models are used to validate these results and apply them in geologic settings. Early results suggest that the presence of even a small interfacial tension between the two magmas is sufficient to inhibit the passage of crystals across interfaces in magmatic systems. An interesting feature of note in mafic enclaves is that the xenocrysts often occur in clusters. This can be compared with observations from the analogue experiments where 6mm nylon spheres were dropped onto the fluid interface. Although the spheres are light and small enough to individually be supported by the interface, the successive addition of spheres leads to the formation of

  14. Marquette Island: A Distinct Mafic Lithology Discovered by Opportunity

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Fleischer, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Yingst, R. A.


    While rolling over the Meridiani Planum sedimentary terrane, the rover Opportunity has occasionally discovered large, > 10 cm erratics. Most of these have proven to be meteorites [1], but one - Bounce Rock - is a martian basaltic rock similar in composition to the meteorite EETA79001 lithology B [2]. Presently, Opportunity is intensively investigating an --30 cm tall rock named Marquette Island that may be a distinct type of martian mafic lithology. We report the results of its continuing investigation using the Microscopic Imager (MI); Mossbauer Spectrometer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). A companion abstract discusses the results of Panoramic Camera (Pancam) imaging of the rock [3].

  15. Study on the carbonate ocelli-bearing lamprophyre dykes in the Ailaoshan gold deposit zone, Yunnan Province

    HUANG; Zhilong(黄智龙); LIU; Congqiang(刘丛强); XIAO; Huayun(肖化云); HAN; Runsheng(韩润生); XU; Cheng(许成); LI; Wenbo(李文博); ZHONG; Kunming(钟昆明)


    Three carbonate ocelli-bearing lamprophyre dykes have been found in the Laowangzhai and Beiya gold orefields in the northern sector of the Ailaoshan gold deposit zone, Yunnan Province. Ocelli in the lamprophyre dykes are carbonates composed mainly of dolomite and calcite. Their trace elements, REE and C isotopic compositions are characteristic of carbonatite and the main mineral assemblages, major elements, trace elements and REE in the matrix are similar to those in the carbonate ocelli-barren lamprophyre dykes in the orefields, which are calc-alkaline lamprophyres that derived from the fertile mantle. The results indicate that the carbonate ocelli-bearing lamprophyre dykes in this area were produced at the time when the Himalayan lamprophyre magma evolved to a relatively late stage of silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility. In the process of magmatic evolution there took place magmatic degassing with CO2 and H2O as the dominant released gases.

  16. Geology and tectonic magmatic of emplacement of a longitudinal dyke swarm of Nico Perez(Minas) URUGUAY

    The Mina Verdun Group (Precambrian) was deposited prior to the subvolcanic emplacement of a longitudinal dyke swarm of basaltic to andesitic composition (Minas Subvolcanic Swarm of the Mina Verdun quarry - Nico Perez Terrane, Minas, Uruguay). The swarm and its country rocks predated a tectono-metamorphic event that produced fragileductile shear zones associated with very low- to low-grade dislocation metamorphism. We interpreted a K-Ar whole rock datum of 485,2 ± 12,5 Ma (andesitic dyke) as a minimum cooling age in relation with late- to post-swarm emplacement deuteric alteration stage. Another K-Ar whole rock datum of 108,5 ± 2,9 Ma on a basaltic dyke was assumed here as a degasification stage, while its geological meaning is still matter of debate. The Minas Subvolcanic Dyke Swarm was intruded at high crustal levels, suggesting that the Minas region was affected by a period of extensional tectonics

  17. Variscan potassic dyke magmatism of durbachitic affinity at the southern end of the Bohemian Massif (Lower Austria)

    Zeitlhofer, Helga; Grasemann, Bernhard; Petrakakis, Konstantin


    Dykes in the Strudengau area (SW Moldanubian Zone, Austria) can be mineralogically divided into lamprophyres (spessartites and kersantites) and felsic dykes (granite porphyries, granitic dykes and pegmatoid dykes). Geochemical analyses of 11 lamprophyres and 7 felsic dykes show evidence of fractional crystallization. The lamprophyres are characterized by metaluminous compositions, intermediate SiO2 contents and high amounts of MgO and K2O; these rocks have high Ba (800-3000 ppm) and Sr (250-1000 ppm) contents as well as an enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements over high field strength elements, typical for enriched mantle sources with variable modifications due to fractionation and crustal contamination. This geochemical signature has been reported from durbachites (biotite- and K feldspar-rich mela-syenites particularly characteristic of the Variscan orogen in Central Europe). For most major elements, calculated fractionation trends from crystallization experiments of durbachites give an excellent match with the data from the Strudengau dykes. This suggests that the lamprophyres and felsic dykes were both products of fractional crystallization and subsequent magma mixing of durbachitic and leucogranitic melts. Rb-Sr geochronological data on biotite from five undeformed kersantites and a locally deformed granite porphyry gave cooling ages of c. 334-318 Ma, indicating synchronous intrusion of the dykes with the nearby outcropping Weinsberger granite (part of the South Bohemian Batholith, c. 330-310 Ma). Oriented matrix biotite separated from the locally deformed granite porphyry gave an Rb-Sr age of c. 318 Ma, interpreted as a deformation age during extensional tectonics. We propose a large-scale extensional regime at c. 320 Ma in the Strudengau area, accompanied by plutonism of fractionated magmas of syncollisional mantle-derived sources, mixed with crustal components. This geodynamic setting is comparable to other areas in the Variscan belt documenting an

  18. Eocene slab breakoff of Neotethys as suggested by dioritic dykes in the Gangdese magmatic belt, southern Tibet

    Ma, Xuxuan; Xu, Zhiqin; Meert, Joseph G.


    The Gangdese magmatic belt in southern Tibet demarcates an important boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Due to its location and magmatic evolutionary history, it is key to understanding both the history of Neotethys closure and the Indo-Asian collisional process. This study presents new geochronological and geochemical data for dioritic dykes in the southern Gangdese magmatic belt in southern Tibet. U-Pb geochronological results reveal that the dykes were emplaced at ca. 41 Ma and thus broadly coeval with the 40-38 Ma Dazi volcanics and the 42-40 Ma Gaoligong-Tengliang basaltic dykes. Geochemically, these dykes are characterized by alkaline signature, high Mg# (57-63) and low TiO2 contents (~ 0.9-1.0), showing notable enrichment of light rare earth elements relative to the heavy rare earth elements, enrichment of incompatible elements (i.e. Cs, Rb, Ba, Th and U), and depletion of high field strength elements (i.e. Nb, Ta and Ti). In addition, a large variation of zircon εHf(t) values (- 10 to + 13) was shown, implying heterogeneity of magma sources. A heterogeneous source is also suggested by the occurrence of xenocrysts in the dykes. These observations suggest that the magma source of the dykes was dominated by partial melting of lithospheric mantle and then subsequently contaminated by crustal material during ascent. In combination with other geological data in the region, we suspect that the slab slicing of the Neotethys played a key role in the formation of the lithospheric mantle-derived dioritic dykes and adakitic granite, asthenosphere-derived volcanics, basaltic dykes, as well as the recently reported strongly fractionated granites.

  19. Geochemical Characteristics of a Carbonatite Dyke Rich in Rare Earths from Bayan Obo, China


    The whole-rock geochemistry of a rare earths rich carbonatite dykes that locates at Dulahala and lies 3 km north-east to the East Ore body of the giant Bayan Obo RE-Nb-Fe deposit was analysed. The dyke cuts cross H1 coarse quartz sandstone and H2 fine quartzite of the Proterozoic Bayan Obo group. RE content in the dyke varies greatly up to 20%(mass fraction), which comprises rich RE ores. Light RE in carbonatites are extremely enriched and strongly fractionated relative to heavy RE, but no Eu anomaly. The carbonatite may be produced by mechanisms as follows: the carbonatite magma is directly formed by very low degree(F<1%) partial melting of enriched lithospheric mantle, leaving residual minerals characterized by abundant garnet;then the magma arises into a chamber within the crust where they will undergo fractional crystallization, which makes RE further concentrated in carbonatite. The RE patterns and spider diagrams of the carbonatite are identical to those fine-grained dolomite marble that is the ore-host rock for the Bayan Obo deposit. However, the carbonatite is calcic, which is different from the fine-grained dolomite marble in major element geochemistry. The difference is suggested to be resulted from that the carbonatite dyke is not affected by a large scale dolomitization, while the fine-grained dolomite marble might be the product of dolomitized carbonatite intrusive body that might set up a hydrothermal system in the region, which transported Mg from the Bayan Obo sediments, especially form the shales to the carbonatite intrusion.

  20. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome Demonstrated by Current MR images. A Case Report.

    Hori, M; Mizuno, M; Katagiri, N; Takeshi, K; Tsujino, N; Araki, T; Shiraga, N


    Current magnetic resonance imaging techniques demonstrated MR findings of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome in a 44-year-old man. Statistical parametric mapping analysis of the T1-weighted images showed focal atrophy in the basal ganglia. Three-dimensional white matter fibers of corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum and cingulate bundle were demonstrated using diffusion tensor data correlated to the patient's clinical conditions. PMID:24209398

  1. The intensity of the geomagnetic field from 2.4 Ga old Indian dykes

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Besse, Jean; Kumar, Anil; Vadakke-Chanat, Sayoob; Philippe, Edouard


    paleomagnetic records from dyke swarms provide a unique source of information regarding the Archean geomagnetic field and more specifically the average field strength produced by the early dynamo. We sampled 16 paleomagnetic sites from the Dharwar giant dyke swarm in southern India which was emplaced between 2.365 and 2.368 Ga. Despite taking great care in selecting locations exempt of any geological disturbance, only two of these sites provided primary directions with very steep inclinations and therefore were emplaced in close to a magnetic pole. Paleointensity experiments were conducted on a subset of samples from the dyke margins. The characteristic magnetization is carried by single domain magnetite grains with a very narrow range of unblocking temperatures inferred from the sharp decrease by at least 75% of their remanence above 520°C. The paleointensity results indicate an average low field of 9.2 ± 7 µT, consistent with reported values from Canadian dyke swarms for the same period. These results combined with the Thellier-Thellier determinations obtained so far for the Precambrian suggest that a low field period prevailed from circa 2.3 to 1.8 Ga, while the preceding and following time intervals are characterized by significantly stronger paleointensities. Although this suite of episodes is not fully incompatible with previous models for the long-term evolution of the geodynamo, it is tempting to make the link with the recent suggestion of an early dynamo sustained within a conductive magma layer at the base of the mantle from 3.5 to 2.5 Ga which progressively declined until convection became sufficiently efficient to reactivate a strong dynamo process within the Earth's liquid core.

  2. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome: Cases of Two Brothers and Literature Review

    Park, Kyung-Il; Chung, Jae-Myun; Kim, Ji-Young


    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) has cerebral hemiatrophy and compensatory ipsilateral skull thickening, and is manifested by recurrent seizures and hemiparesis. We present one case with typical DDMS, who had a brother suffering from epilepsy with mild imaging abnormality relevant to DDMS and similar seizure semiology. A 26-year-old man had a history of developmental delay, mental retardation, hemiparesis and recurrent seizures. His brother, 23-year-old man had also experienced recurrent ...

  3. The geology and geochronology of the Belmont pluton and microgranite dykes from the Margate area

    Field, petrographic, geochemical and Rb-Sr isotope data are presented for two granitic units which are considered to represent amongst the youngest intrusive rocks in the Natal Metamorphic Province. These are the Belmont granite pluton and a suite of unfoliated biotite microgranite dykes from the Margate area. The data suggest that these rocks do not form part of a consanguineous suite as previously envisaged. It is concluded that the Belmont pluton (1055 ± 60Ma) should be assigned to the garnet leucogranite phase of the syntectonic Margate Suite, and that the dykes (∼965 Ma) represent the products of a discrete, late-stage magmatic event which took place towards the end of the Natal orogenesis. Furthermore, the high initial Sr isotopic ratio (∼0,715) of the dykes suggests that they were derived from the melting of pre-existing radiogenic crust. The termination of major tectono-magmatic events in the Late Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt apparently youngs from west to east across South Africa. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland place the Falkland Plateau and the Maudheim Province of Antarctica off the southeast of Africa. Dates obtained from this region range from ∼1000Ma to ∼500Ma, suggesting a continued decrease in age of tectono-magmatic activity eastwards. The microgranite dykes described here are unequivocally amongst the youngest post-tectono-metamorphic intrusions of southern Natal, yet they do not preserve any whole-rock indication of Pan-African isotopic disturbances. Sparse Rb-Sr mineral isotopic data support this indication that there was no significant Pan-African activity in the Natal Metamorphic Province. 8 figs., 7 tabs., 38 refs

  4. Excess pore water pressure induced in the foundation of a tailings dyke at Muskeg River Mine, Fort McMurray

    Eshraghian, A.; Martens, S. [Klohn Crippen Berger Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This paper discussed the effect of staged construction on the generation and dissipation of excess pore water pressure within the foundation clayey units of the External Tailings Facility dyke. Data were compiled from piezometers installed within the dyke foundation and used to estimate the dissipation parameters for the clayey units for a selected area of the foundation. Spatial and temporal variations in the pore water pressure generation parameters were explained. Understanding the process by which excess pore water pressure is generated and dissipates is critical to optimizing dyke design and performance. Piezometric data was shown to be useful in improving estimates of the construction-induced pore water pressure and dissipation rates within the clay layers in the foundation during dyke construction. In staged construction, a controlled rate of load application is used to increase foundation stability. Excess pore water pressure dissipates after each application, so the most critical stability condition happens after each load. Slow loading allows dissipation, whereas previous load pressure remains during fast loading. The dyke design must account for the rate of loading and the rate of pore pressure dissipation. Controlling the rate of loading and the rate of stress-induced excess pore water pressure generation is important to dyke stability during construction. Effective stress-strength parameters for the foundation require predictions of the pore water pressure induced during staged construction. It was found that both direct and indirect loading generates excess pore water pressure in the foundation clays. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. Petrology of the prehistoric lavas and dyke of the Barren Island, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    M A Alam; D Chandrasekharam; O Vaselli; B Capaccioni; P Manetti; P B Santo


    Although Barren Island (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean) witnessed several volcanic eruptions during historic times, the eruptions that led to the formation of this volcanic island occurred mainly during prehistoric times. It is still active and currently in the fumarolic stage. Its volcanic evolution appears to be characterized by a constructive phase with the piling up of lava flows and scoria deposits and Strombolian activities, followed by a sudden collapse of the main cone. Deposits of a possible caldera-forming eruption were not recognized earlier. After a period of peri-calderic hydromagmatic activity, whose deposits presently mantle inner and outer caldera walls, a new phase of intracalderic Vulcanian activities took place. A prominent dyke in the SE inner side of the caldera wall was recognized. Petrographically the lava flows and dyke are similar but they differ in their chemical composition (viz., SiO2, MgO, Ni, Cr) significantly. Similarity in major, minor and trace element composition (viz., K/La, K/Nb, K/Rb, K/Ti ratios) of these rocks together with Chondrite normalized trace element (Rb, Ba, Sr, P, Zr, Ti and Nb) and REE (La, Ce, Nd and Y) patterns of the Barren Island prehistoric lava flows and dyke and low-K lavas of Sunda Arc indicates that Barren Island must have evolved from a source similar to that of Sunda Arc lavas during the Quaternary Period.

  6. Modelling the behaviour of the pervious foundation of a dyke and its treatment with relief wells

    Zahra, M.; D' Astous, J.J.; Tremblay, H. [Centre d' expertise hydrique du Quebec, PQ (Canada); Chahde, J. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada)


    This paper presented the geotechnical conditions prevailing in the foundation of the Moncouche dyke. The 190 m long, 8.7 m high sand and gravel earth fill dyke is an important water retaining structure of the Kenogami lake reservoir. Following its first impoundment in 1924, heavy seepage forced the construction of a downstream pervious blanket and other remedial measures. During the 1996 July Saguenay flood, new seepage sources topped the blanket. This study analyzed the seepage in the foundation and simulated it through a 2D finite elements model in order to assess measures to reduce uplift seepage gradients. This paper described the modelling of the existing pore water pressures in the foundation. The pore pressures and seepage to be evacuated once the line of relief wells was in place were also estimated. They dyke's impervious core is a concrete wall connected at its lower end to a metal sheet piles driven to a variable depth. The existence of artesian conditions in the 30 m thick granular pervious fluvioglacial deposit combined with low to medium standard penetration tests and dynamic cone penetration test counts called for liquefaction hazard assessment relative to seismic loading. The construction of deep relief wells were shown to be an appropriate and cost effective measure to reduce seepage. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  7. Understanding and using technological affordances: a commentary on Conole and Dyke

    Tom Boyle


    Full Text Available The paper by Conole and Dyke sets the context by pointing to a number of problems that inhibit the widespread, effective use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT to support learning. They argue that this situation highlights the need to explore a theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. The central argument of the paper is that the notion of affordances can make a significant contribution to this endeavour. The paper aims to articulate the potential impact of these affordances primarily through the development of a taxonomy. It draws on social constructivist theory to help understand and articulate the impact of these affordances. The concept of affordances is potentially both rich and provocative. Conole and Dyke provide a refreshing and diverse look at the theoretical basis for the use of ICT to support learning. We have structured our commentary around six questions that are provided by Conole and Dyke in their Discussion section. Whilst examining these questions we highlight various issues raised by the paper, which we believe, need further consideration and clarification.

  8. Possible Mafic Patches at Mons Malapert and Scott Crater Highlight the Value of Site Selection studies

    Cooper, B. L.


    Possible areas of mafic material on the rim and floor of Scott crater (82.1 S, 48.5 E) and on the northeast flank of Mons Malapert (85.5 S, 0 E) are suggested by analysis of shadow-masked Clementine false-colorration images. Mafic materials can produce more oxygen than can highlands materials, and mafic materials close to the south pole may be important for propellant production for a future lunar mission. If the dark patches are confirmed as mafic materials, this finding would suggest that other mafic patches may also exist, perhaps even closer to the poles. These preliminary findings illustrate the need for additional site selection studies in the lunar polar regions, to improve our capability to "live off the land".

  9. The nature and origin of Mafic Mound in the South Pole-Aitken Basin

    Moriarty, Daniel P.; Pieters, Carle M.


    "Mafic Mound" is a distinctive and enigmatic feature 75 km across and 1 km high near the center of the vast South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Using several modern data sets, we characterize the composition, morphology, and gravity signature of the structure in order to assess its origin. Mafic Mound is found to exhibit a perched circular depression and a homogeneous high-Ca pyroxene-bearing composition. Several formation hypotheses based on known lunar processes are evaluated, including the possibilities that Mafic Mound represents (1) uplifted mantle, (2) SPA-derived impact melt, (3) a basalt-filled impact crater, or (4) a volcanic construct. Individually, these common processes cannot fully reproduce the properties of Mafic Mound. Instead, we propose a hybrid origin in which Mafic Mound is an edifice formed by magmatic processes induced by the formation and evolution of SPA. This form of nonmare volcanism has not previously been documented on the Moon.

  10. Laboratory tests of mafic, ultra-mafic, and sedimentary rock types for in-situ applications for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Rush, G.E.; O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Penner, Larry R.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.


    Recent tests conducted at the Albany Research Center have addressed the possibility of in-situ storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations, particularly in deep brackish to saline non-potable aquifers, and the formation of secondary carbonate minerals over time within these aquifers. Various rock types including Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) drill core samples, blocks of ultra-mafic rock and sandstone were used. A solution formulated from aquifer data, a bicarbonate salt solution, and distilled water were tested. Pressure and temperature regimens were used to mimic existing in-situ conditions, higher temperatures were used to simulate longer time frames, and higher pressures were used to simulate enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pressure. Results are encouraging, indicating mineral dissolution with an increase of desirable ions (Ca, Fe2+, Mg) in solution that can form the carbonate minerals, calcite (CaCO3), siderite (FeCO3), and magnesite (MgCO3).

  11. Distribution and petrography of the mesozoic basic dykes of the San Gregorio de Polanco, Parana magmatic province, Uruguay

    The tectonomagmatic events developed in the lower Cretaceous, predating the South Atlantic Ocean opening, generated an intensive magmatic activity that covered an important surface of the South American platform (Parana-Etendeka Magmatic Province). Both the instability and rupture of the continental crust, as well as magma rising are registered by the presence of basic intrusions (dykes and sills), and lava flows located in the central-north portion of Uruguay. This paper deals with a detailed petrologic study focused on the San Gregorio de Polanco Dyke Swarm (Department of Tacuarembo). As result of semidetailed geological mapping, 17 dyke segments with 12km length and 20m width maximum have been identified. These dykes are concentrated in four main geographic zones named: Achar, San Gregorio de Polanco, La Paloma and San Jorge. The dykes define parallel to sub parallel trends, with a zig-zag pattern (N140°-170° and N080°-110°) controlled by basement lineaments. Their mineralogy includes calcic plagioclases (labradorite and andesine), calcic clinopyroxene (augite-pigeonite), opaques minerals (two populations), olivine; glass and apatite as accessories. In turn, the SEM-EDS analyses of the opaque minerals (modal 15%) of both populations allowed their classification as titanomagnetite correspondent to different crystallisation stages. The first population of titanomagnetite would correspond to the main crystallisation stage while the second one would be generated by partial dissolution of the former under low oxygen fugacity conditions and temperatures around 450°C

  12. Fault and dyke detectability in high resolution seismic surveys for coal: a view from numerical modelling*

    Zhou, Binzhong 13Hatherly, Peter


    Modern underground coal mining requires certainty about geological faults, dykes and other structural features. Faults with throws of even just a few metres can create safety issues and lead to costly delays in mine production. In this paper, we use numerical modelling in an ideal, noise-free environment with homogeneous layering to investigate the detectability of small faults by seismic reflection surveying. If the layering is horizontal, faults with throws of 1/8 of the wavelength should be detectable in a 2D survey. In a coal mining setting where the seismic velocity of the overburden ranges from 3000 m/s to 4000 m/s and the dominant seismic frequency is ~100 Hz, this corresponds to a fault with a throw of 4-5 m. However, if the layers are dipping or folded, the faults may be more difficult to detect, especially when their throws oppose the trend of the background structure. In the case of 3D seismic surveying we suggest that faults with throws as small as 1/16 of wavelength (2-2.5 m) can be detectable because of the benefits offered by computer-aided horizon identification and the improved spatial coherence in 3D seismic surveys. With dykes, we find that Berkhout's definition of the Fresnel zone is more consistent with actual experience. At a depth of 500 m, which is typically encountered in coal mining, and a 100 Hz dominant seismic frequency, dykes less than 8 m in width are undetectable, even after migration.

  13. Lithological Discrimination of the Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, Huitongshan, Beishan, China:Using ASTER Data

    Lei Liu; Jun Zhou; Dong Jiang; Dafang Zhuang; Lamin R Mansaray


    The Beishan area has more than seventy mafic-ultramafic complexes sparsely distributed in the area and is of a big potential in mineral resources related to mafic-ultramafic intrusions. Many mafic-ultramafic intrusions which are mostly in small sizes have been omitted by previous works. This research takes Huitongshan as the study area, which is a major district for mafic-ultramafic occur-rences in Beishan. Advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data have been processed and interpreted for mapping the mafic-ultramafic complex. ASTER data were processed by different techniques that were selected based on image reflectance and laboratory emis-sivity spectra. The visible near-infrared (VNIR) and short wave infrared (SWIR) data were trans-formed using band ratios and minimum noise fraction (MNF), while the thermal infrared (TIR) data were processed using mafic index (MI) and principal components analysis (PCA). ASTER band ratios (6/8, 5/4, 2/1) in RGB image and MNF (1, 2, 4) in RGB image were powerful in distinguishing the subtle differences between the various rock units. PCA applied to all five bands of ASTER TIR imagery high-lighted marked differences among the mafic rock units and was more effective than the MI in differen-tiating mafic-ultramafic rocks. Our results were consistent with information derived from local geolog-ical maps. Based on the remote sensing results and field inspection, eleven gabbroic intrusions and a pyroxenite occurrence were recognized for the first time. A new geologic map of the Huitongshan area was created by integrating the results of remote sensing, previous geological maps and field inspection. It is concluded that the workflow of ASTER image processing, interpretation and ground inspection has great potential for mafic-ultramafic rocks identifying and relevant mineral targeting in the sparsely vegetated arid region of northwestern China.


    Vipin Kumar


    Full Text Available Cerebral hemi-atrophy with seizures, hemiplegia and mental retardation is uncommon clinical presentation in the early childhood and adolescence. The causes are various and usually grouped into congenital and acquired types. The Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome is one of the causes of these clinical manifestations, which is usually developed secondary to brain insult. Here we report two cases with similar symptoms- one case was an adult male of 35 years with long history of seizures and the second case was a young male of 22 years with cognitive impairment, difficulty in speech and walking

  15. Granitoids and dykes of the Pine Island Bay region, West Antarctica

    Kipf, Andrea; Mortimer, Nicholas; Werner, Reinhard; Gohl, Karsten; van den Bogaard, Paul; Hauff, Folkmar; Hoernle, Kaj


    We present geochronological and geochemical data for eight plutonic rocks from five locations in the Pine Island Bay area of West Antarctica, collected during RV Polarstern expedition ANT-XXIII/4. Ar-Ar laser method dating yielded closure temperatures ages of c. 147–98 Ma for dioritic and granitic plutonic rocks and an age range of c. 97–95 Ma for granitoid and trachyandesitic dykes. Major and trace element compositions indicate that all rocks have an I-type subduction-related chemistry. Ther...

  16. Mafic Materials in Scott Crater? A Test for Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Cooper, Bonnie L.


    Clementine 750 nm and multispectral ratio data, along with Lunar Orbiter and radar data, were used to study the crater Scott in the lunar south polar region. The multispectral data provide evidence for mafic materials, impact melts, anorthositic materials, and a small pyroclastic deposit. High-resolution radar data and Lunar Orbiter photography for this area show differences in color and surface texture that correspond with the locations of the hypothesized mafic and anorthositic areas on the crater floor. This region provides a test case for the upcoming Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Verification of the existence of a mafic deposit at this location is relevant to future lunar resource utilization planning.

  17. Les dykes basiques du massif ancien de l'Ourika (Atlas de Marrakech, Maroc): géochimie et significationThe basic dykes of the Ourika old massif (High Atlas of Marrakech): Geochemistry and significance

    Barakat, Ahmed; Marignac, Christian; Bouabdelli, Mohamed

    The Precambrian massif of Ourika is crosscut by two systems of basic dykes, striking N40°E and N90-120°E. Using incompatible trace elements, the two systems form two distinct chemical groups, displaying a continental tholeiitic affinity. The composition variations between the two defined groups can be due to heterogeneities of mantle sources and to contamination, during the magma ascent, by the continental crust. The emplacement of these basic dykes, before the late-PIII formations, can be related to the Neoproterozoic distension generalised to the Anti-Atlas chain. To cite this article: A. Barakat et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 827-833.

  18. Broad accommodation of rift-related extension recorded by dyke intrusion in Saudi Arabia

    Pallister, John S.


    The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  19. The paleoproterozoic Monchetundra mafic massif (Kola Peninsula): New geological and geochronological data

    Borisenko, E. S.; Bayanova, T. B.; Nerovich, L. I.; Kunakkuzin, E. L.


    In view of the absence of an unambiguous intrusive contact between the main mafic rocks varieties in the Monchetundra massif, the latter was considered for a long time as a large complex of syngenetic mafic rocks. On the basis of data derived from study of the outcrops and drill core samples, researchers defined various numbers of zones characterized by certain rock types. The results of geological-petrographic investigations and data on the U-Pb system in zircon and baddeleyite provided grounds for revision of the views on the structure of the massif: at least four groups of different ages of mafic rocks are now definable in the Monchetundra massif. In this communication, we discuss the relations between two groups of mafic rocks and the results of their U-Pb isotopic dating, which imply a long multiphase formation of the massif.

  20. Sinkinematic ultramafic-mafic magmatism in the Red River shear zone

    To investigate into manifestations the mantle ultramafic-mafic magnetism synchronous with displacement motions in the Red River zone one carried out Ar-Ar-dating of the bulk samples of the amphibolic gabbros, pyroxenites and peridotites from various areas of the mentioned zone. One determined three phases of formation of the ultramafic-mafic association of the Red River zone that corresponded to the age equal to 49-42, 35 and 25 million years

  1. Petrology and geochemistray of Imam-Zadeh Hashem mafic and ultramafic bodies, southern Guilan province

    Mojgan Salavati; Reza Fahim Guilani


    Mafic and ultramafic plutonic igneous bodies, with small and big outcrops, between Shemshak rock units (Jurassic) are observed in east of Imam Zadeh Hashem, in southern Guilan province. Ultramafic cumulates consist of clinopyroxenite, and plagiofer clinopyroxenite, olivine clinopyroxenite, and mafic rocks, based on mineralogy consist of gabbros, olivine gabbros, biotite gabbros and amphibole gabbros. According to geochemical data, studied rocks have tholeiitic nature and in the tectonic setti...

  2. Palaeoproterozoic mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks in the Turku area, SW Finland

    Markku Väisänen; Gustav Westerlund


    Twenty two samples were analysed from mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks from the Turku area along ~60 km long north-south geotraverse. Geographically and lithologically the samples were divided into the Pargas, Turku and Vahto groups. The Pargas and Turku groups consist of mafic units and intercalations within migmatitic gneisses. Their geochemical compositions are very similar. In average, they show quite flat REE curves and the multielement diagrams show moderate LILE enrichments, minor...

  3. Onset of seafloor spreading in the Iapetus Ocean at 608 Ma: precise age of the Sarek Dyke Swarm, northern Swedish Caledonides

    Svenningsen, Olaf


    can be identified from crosscutting relations. The SN represents the fossil continent–ocean transition between the Baltic craton and the Iapetus Ocean, marking the initiation of seafloor spreading. Bubble-shaped pods and veinlets of diorite are present in the SDS sheeted dyke complexes. The pods are...... absent in the oldest dykes, but the younger a dyke, the more frequent the pods. The diorite pods are the equivalent of gabbro pegmatites, and both cogenetic and coeval with the dykes. The rapid successive emplacement of tholeiitic magma raised the ambient temperature in the dyke complex, so that...... discordant, indicating a crystallization age of 608±1 Ma (207Pb/206Pb=607.9±0.7 Ma, MSWD=0.33). This age is inferred to date the onset of seafloor spreading in the Iapetus Ocean along the Baltoscandian margin....

  4. Li isotope fractionation in peridotites and mafic melts

    Jeffcoate, A. B.; Elliott, T.; Kasemann, S. A.; Ionov, D.; Cooper, K.; Brooker, R.


    We have measured the Li isotope ratios of a range of co-existing phases from peridotites and mafic magmas to investigate high-temperature fractionations of 7Li/ 6Li. The Li isotopic compositions of seven mantle peridotites, reconstructed from analyses of mineral separates, show little variation (δ 7Li 3.2-4.9‰) despite a wide range in fertility and radiogenic isotopic compositions. The most fertile samples yield a best estimate of δ 7Li ˜ 3.5‰ for the upper mantle. Bulk analyses of olivine separates from the xenoliths are typically ˜1.5‰ isotopically lighter than co-existing orthopyroxenes, suggestive of a small, high-temperature equilibrium isotope fractionation. On the other hand, bulk analyses of olivine phenocrysts and their host melts are isotopically indistinguishable. Given these observations, equilibrium mantle melting should generate melts with δ 7Li little different from their sources (style of zoning is also observed in the phenocrysts of holocrystalline Hawaiian lavas. More dramatically, a single orthopyroxene crystal from a San Carlos xenolith shows a W-shaped Li isotope profile with a 40‰ range in δ 7Li, close to the isotope variability seen in all terrestrial whole rock analyses. We attribute Li isotope zonation in mineral phases to diffusive fractionation of Li isotopes, within mineral phases and along melt pathways that pervade xenoliths. Given the high diffusivity of Li, the Li isotope profiles we observe can persist, at most, only a few years at magmatic temperatures. Our results thus highlight the potential of Li isotopes as a high-resolution geospeedometer of the final phases of magmatic activity and cooling.

  5. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis and tectonic significance of Paleozoic dolerite dykes in the southern margin of Alxa Block, North China Craton

    Duan, Jun; Li, Chusi; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Jiao, Jiangang


    Dolerite dykes are common in the southern margin of Alxa Block which is the westernmost part of North China Craton. The ages and petrogenesis of the dolerite dykes, which are important for a better understanding of tectonic-magmatic evolution in the region, are uncertain. This paper reports the results of an integrated geochronological and geochemical study of the dolerite dykes in the Jinchuan area. Previously, these dolerite dykes were considered to be coeval with the ∼831 Ma Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion by some researchers, despite a cross-cutting relationship for the dykes. Our new zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the dolerite dykes were emplaced at ∼424 Ma, >400 Ma younger than the Jinchuan intrusion. The Jinchuan dolerite dykes contain 5-9 wt.% MgO and 47-51 wt.% SiO2, and are characterized by light REE (rare earth elements) enrichments relative to heavy REE, pronounced negative Nb anomaly, elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7056 to 0.7068, negative εNd from -2 to -5, and zircon εHf from -2 to -20. The trace element and isotope data are consistent with an asthenosphere-derived parental magma that experienced 10-25% crustal contamination prior to final emplacement. Since the Jinchuan dolerite dykes are 20-40 Ma younger than the subduction-related basaltic volcanic rocks, blueschists and eclogites in the nearby North Qilian orogenic belt to the south, we propose that the Jinchuan dolerite dykes are the products of basaltic magmatism induced by delamination of previously subducted oceanic lithosphere and the associated asthenosphere upwelling in a post-subduction setting. The occurrence of ∼424 Ma post-subduction dolerite dykes in the Jinchuan area and the ∼450 Ma arc basalts to the south indicate that the southwestern margin of North China Craton was an active plate margin in Early Paleozoic.

  6. Brittle-ductile deformation effects on zircon crystal-chemistry and U-Pb ages: an example from the Finero Mafic Complex (Ivrea-Verbano Zone, western Alps)

    Langone, Antonio; José Alberto, Padrón-Navarta; Zanetti, Alberto; Mazzucchelli, Maurizio; Tiepolo, Massimo; Giovanardi, Tommaso; Bonazzi, Mattia


    A detailed structural, geochemical and geochronological survey was performed on zircon grains from a leucocratic dioritic dyke discordantly intruded within meta-diorites/gabbros forming the External Gabbro unit of the Finero Mafic Complex. This latter is nowadays exposed as part of a near complete crustal section spanning from mantle rocks to upper crustal metasediments (Val Cannobina, Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Italy). The leucocratic dyke consists mainly of plagioclase (An18‑24Ab79‑82Or0.3‑0.7) with subordinate amounts of biotite, spinel, zircon and corundum. Both the leucocratic dyke and the surrounding meta-diorites show evidence of ductile deformation occurred under amphibolite-facies conditions. Zircon grains (up to 2 mm in length) occur mainly as euhedral grains surrounded by fine grained plagioclase-dominated matrix and pressure shadows, typically filled by oxides. Fractures and cracks within zircon are common and can be associated with grain displacement or they can be filled by secondary minerals (oxides and chlorite). Cathodoluminescence (CL) images show that zircon grains have internal features typical of magmatic growth, but with local disturbances. However EBSD maps on two selected zircon grains revealed a profuse mosaic texture resulting in an internal misorientation of ca. 10o. The majority of the domains of the mosaic texture are related to parting and fractures, but some domains show no clear relation with brittle features. Rotation angles related to the mosaic texture are not crystallographically controlled. In addition, one of the analysed zircons shows clear evidence of plastic deformation at one of its corners due to indentation. Plastic deformation results in gradual misorientations of up to 12o, which are crystallographically controlled. Trace elements and U-Pb analyses were carried out by LA-ICP-MS directly on petrographic thin sections and designed to cover the entire exposed surface of selected grains. Such investigations revealed a strong

  7. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome: case report of fetal unilateral ventriculomegaly and hypoplastic left middle cerebral artery

    Piro, E.; Piccione, M; Marrone, G; Giuffrè, M; G. Corsello


    Prenatal ultrasonographic detection of unilateral cerebral ventriculomegaly arises suspicion of pathological condition related to cerebrospinal fluid flow obstruction or cerebral parenchimal pathology. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a rare condition characterized by cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, skull and facial asymmetry, contralateral hemiparesis, cognitive impairment and seizures. Congenital and acquired types are recognized and have been described, mainly in late childhood...

  8. Mafic Plinian volcanism and ignimbrite emplacement at Tofua volcano, Tonga

    Caulfield, J. T.; Cronin, S. J.; Turner, S. P.; Cooper, L. B.


    Tofua Island is the largest emergent mafic volcano within the Tofua arc, Tonga, southwest Pacific. The volcano is dominated by a distinctive caldera averaging 4 km in diameter, containing a freshwater lake in the south and east. The latest paroxysmal (VEI 5-6) explosive volcanism includes two phases of activity, each emplacing a high-grade ignimbrite. The products are basaltic andesites with between 52 wt.% and 57 wt.% SiO2. The first and largest eruption caused the inward collapse of a stratovolcano and produced the `Tofua' ignimbrite and a sub-circular caldera located slightly northwest of the island's centre. This ignimbrite was deposited in a radial fashion over the entire island, with associated Plinian fall deposits up to 0.5 m thick on islands >40 km away. Common sub-rounded and frequently cauliform scoria bombs throughout the ignimbrite attest to a small degree of marginal magma-water interaction. The common intense welding of the coarse-grained eruptive products, however, suggests that the majority of the erupted magma was hot, water-undersaturated and supplied at high rates with moderately low fragmentation efficiency and low levels of interaction with external water. We propose that the development of a water-saturated dacite body at shallow (roof to cause sudden evacuation of material, producing a Plinian eruption column. Following a brief period of quiescence, large-scale faulting in the southeast of the island produced a second explosive phase believed to result from recharge of a chemically distinct magma depleted in incompatible elements. This similar, but smaller eruption, emplaced the `Hokula' Ignimbrite sheet in the northeast of the island. A maximum total volume of 8 km3 of juvenile material was erupted by these events. The main eruption column is estimated to have reached a height of ˜12 km, and to have produced a major atmospheric injection of gas, and tephra recorded in the widespread series of fall deposits found on coral islands 40-80 km

  9. Geochemistry of PGE in mafic rocks of east Khasi Hills, Shillong Plateau, NE India

    Sampa Hazra; Jyotisankar Ray; C Manikyamba; Abhishek Saha; S S Sawant


    The mafic rocks of east Khasi Hills of the Meghalaya Plateau, northeastern India, occur as an intrusive body which cut across the weakly metamorphosed Shillong Group of rocks. Other than Shillong Group of rocks, high grade Archaean gneissic rocks and younger porphyritic granites are also observed in the study area. The studied mafic rocks of east Khasi Hills cover an area of about 4 km2 and represent structurally controlled intrusion and varying grades of deformation. Structurally, these mafic rocks can be divided into massive type of mafic rocks, which are more or less deformation free and foliated type of mafic rocks that experienced deformation. Petrographically, this massive type can be classified as leuco-hornblende-gabbro whereas foliated type can be designated as amphibolite. On the basis of major oxide geochemistry, the investigated mafic rocks can be discriminated into high titanium (HT) (TiO2 > 2 wt%) and low titanium (LT) types (TiO2 < 2 wt%). Use of several geochemical variation diagrams, consideration of chondrite-normalized and mantle-normalized REE and PGE plots suggest role of magmatic differentiation (with almost no role of plagioclase fractionation) in a subduction controlled tectonic environment. The PGE trends of the studied rocks suggest relative enrichment of palladium group of PGE (PPGE) compared to iridium group PGE (IPGE). Critical consideration of Sm vs. La, Cu vs. La, Pd vs. La and Cu/Pd vs. La/Sm plots strongly favours generation of the parent magma at a columnar melting regime with batch melting of cylindrical column of the parent mantle to the tune of ∼25%. The characteristic PGE behaviours of the presently investigated mafic rocks of east Khasi Hills can be typically corroborated as `orogenic' (discordant) type. These rocks have an enriched mantle affinity with a co-magmatic lineage and they have been generated by slab-dehydration, wedge-melting and assimilation fractional crystallization process at a continental margin arc setting.

  10. Age and intrusive relations of the Lamarck granodiorite and associated mafic plutons, Sierra Nevada, California

    Joye, J.L.; Bachl, C.A.; Miller, J.S.; Glazner, A.F. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Geology); Frost, T.P. (Geological Survey, Spokane, WA (United States)); Coleman, D.S. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences)


    The compositionally zoned Late Cretaceous Lamarck granodiorite, west of Bishop, hosts numerous mafic intrusions ranging from hornblende gabbro to mafic granodiorite. Frost and Mahood (1987) suggested from field relations that the Lamarck and the associated mafic plutons were co-intrusive. Contact relations between the Lamarck host and the mafic intrusions are variable (sharp to diffuse) and in places suggest commingling. In order to constrain the intrusive relationships between the Lamarck and its associated mafic plutons, the authors have analyzed feldspars from the Mt. Gilbert pluton and the Lamarck granodiorite to see if feldspar compositions in the Mt. Gilbert overlap those in the Lamarck host and determined U-Pb zircon ages for the Mt. Gilbert and Lake Sabrina plutons to see if they have the same age as the Lamarck granodiorite. Feldspars from the Lamarck granodiorite are normally zoned and range compositionally from An[sub 38--32]; those in the Mt. Gilbert diorite are also normally zoned but range compositionally from An[sub 49--41] and do not overlap the Lamarck host. Four to five zircon fractions from each pluton were handpicked and dated using U-Pb methods. The Mt. Gilbert mafic diorite has a concordant age of 92.5 Ma and the Lake Sabrina diorite has a concordant age of 91.5 Ma. Ages for the two plutons overlap within error, but multiple fractions from each suggest that the Lake Sabrina pluton is slightly younger than the Mt. Gilbert pluton. These data and field relationships indicate: (1) plagioclase phenocrysts in the Mt. Gilbert pluton were not derived from the Lamarck granodiorite despite their textural similarity; but (2) the Lamarck granodiorite and its associated mafic plutons are co-intrusive as supported by the close agreement of the ages with the crystallization age obtained by Stern and others for the Lamarck granodiorite.

  11. Dyke propagation and tensile fracturing at high temperature and pressure, insights from experimental rock mechanics.

    Bakker, Richard; Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio


    It is well known that magma ascends trough the crust by the process of dyking. To enable dyke emplacement, basement rocks typically fail in a mode 1 fracture, which acts as conduits for magma transport. An overpressure of the ascending magma will further open/widen the fracture and permit the fracture to propagate. In order to further understand the emplacement and arrest of dykes in the subsurface, analogue and numerical studies have been conducted. However, a number of assumptions regarding rock mechanical behaviour frequently has to be made as such data are very hard to directly measure at the pressure/temperature conditions of interest: high temperatures at relatively shallow depths. Such data are key to simulating the magma intrusion dynamics through the lithologies that underlie the volcanic edifice. Here we present a new laboratory setup, which allows us to investigate the tensile fracturing properties under both temperature and confining pressure, and the emplacement of molten material within the newly formed fracture. We have modified a traditional tri-axial test assembly setup to be able to use a Paterson type High Pressure, High Temperature deformation apparatus. Sample setup consists of cylindrical rock samples with a 22 mm diameter and a 8 mm bore at their centre, filled with a material chosen as such that it's in a liquid state at the experimental temperature and solid at room temperature to enable post-experiment analysis. The top and lower parts of the rock sample are fitted with plugs, sealing in the melt. The assembly is then placed between ceramic pistons to ensure there are no thermal gradients across the sample. The assembly is jacketed to ensure the confining medium (Ar) cannot enter the assembly. A piston is driven into the sample such that the inner conduit materials pressure is slowly increased. At some point a sufficient pressure difference between the inner and outer surfaces causes the sample to deform and fail in the tensile regime

  12. Adult Presentation of Dyke-Davidoff-Masson Syndrome: A Case Report

    Ujjawal Roy


    Full Text Available Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS is a rare disease which is clinically characterized by hemiparesis, seizures, facial asymmetry, and mental retardation. The classical radiological findings are cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, and hyperpneumatization of the frontal sinuses. This disease is a rare entity, and it mainly presents in childhood. Adult presentation of DDMS is unusual and has been rarely reported in the medical literature. Key Messages: DDMS is a rare disease of childhood. However, it should be kept in mind as a diagnostic possibility in an adult who presents with a long duration of progressive hemiparesis with seizures and mental retardation. Cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, and hyperpneumatization of the frontal sinuses are diagnostic for this illness on brain imaging.

  13. Dyke-davidoff-masson syndrome: cases of two brothers and literature review.

    Park, Kyung-Il; Chung, Jae-Myun; Kim, Ji-Young


    Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) has cerebral hemiatrophy and compensatory ipsilateral skull thickening, and is manifested by recurrent seizures and hemiparesis. We present one case with typical DDMS, who had a brother suffering from epilepsy with mild imaging abnormality relevant to DDMS and similar seizure semiology. A 26-year-old man had a history of developmental delay, mental retardation, hemiparesis and recurrent seizures. His brother, 23-year-old man had also experienced recurrent seizures, but he had no neurological deficits. Older brother experienced focal motor seizures with/without secondary generalization. Sometimes, he noted an auditory aura. MRI demonstrated the hemispheric atrophy with the adjacent bony hypertrophy. The seizures of younger brother were mainly of the auditory type and the MRI showed mild hemispheric atrophy with hippocampal sclerosis without any bony change. Our sibling cases might have a familial predisposition and support the idea that clinical courses and radiological findings of DDMS are varied even within one family. PMID:24977128

  14. Strain accommodation by slow slip and dyking in a youthful continental rift, East Africa.

    Calais, Eric; d'Oreye, Nicolas; Albaric, Julie; Deschamps, Anne; Delvaux, Damien; Déverchère, Jacques; Ebinger, Cynthia; Ferdinand, Richard W; Kervyn, François; Macheyeki, Athanas S; Oyen, Anneleen; Perrot, Julie; Saria, Elifuraha; Smets, Benoît; Stamps, D Sarah; Wauthier, Christelle


    Continental rifts begin and develop through repeated episodes of faulting and magmatism, but strain partitioning between faulting and magmatism during discrete rifting episodes remains poorly documented. In highly evolved rifts, tensile stresses from far-field plate motions accumulate over decades before being released during relatively short time intervals by faulting and magmatic intrusions. These rifting crises are rarely observed in thick lithosphere during the initial stages of rifting. Here we show that most of the strain during the July-August 2007 seismic crisis in the weakly extended Natron rift, Tanzania, was released aseismically. Deformation was achieved by slow slip on a normal fault that promoted subsequent dyke intrusion by stress unclamping. This event provides compelling evidence for strain accommodation by magma intrusion, in addition to slip along normal faults, during the initial stages of continental rifting and before significant crustal thinning. PMID:19079058

  15. Single Silicate Crystal Paleointensity Analyses of the ca. 2.575 Ga Great Dyke of Zimbabwe

    O'Brien, T.; Tarduno, J. A.; Hofmann, A.


    Recent considerations of core thermal conductivity suggest a relatively young (less than 1 billion-year-old) age for the inner core, excluding compositional convection associated with inner core growth as a driving mechanism for an Archean geodynamo. These reconsiderations provide further motivation for studying the nature of the field when core convection was predominantly related to core mantle boundary heat flow. Here we examine the ca. 2.575 Ga Great Dyke of Zimbabwe. We rely on deep drill core samples, eliminating the otherwise pervasive effects of lightning seen in surface samples. We apply single silicate crystal paleointensity (SCP) techniques (Tarduno et al., Rev. Geophys., 2006) on feldspars separated from orthopyroxene gabbros (norites). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses indicate the presence of rare sub-micron equant to slightly elongate magnetic inclusions in the feldspars. The magnetite/titanomagnetite needles commonly observed in feldspars of slowly cooled igneous rocks are rarely observed in crystals from our Great Dyke gabbro samples. Selection criteria of crystals for analyses required feldspar crystals to be free of visible multi-domain inclusions. Natural remanent magnetic intensities of ca. 1 mm-sized feldspar crystal are relatively weak (approximately 1-2 x 10-8 emu), but well within the measurement range of the University of Rochester small bore ultra-high moment resolution 2G DC SQUID magnetometer. Preliminary total thermal demagnetization experiments suggest paleofield values within 50% of those of the present-day, similar to other results that imply a relatively strong magnetic field during the late Archean. Results from Thellier analyses will be used to test this interpretation.

  16. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic-mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    Mandal, Aditi; Ray, Arijit


    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E-W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic-ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47-81) and Al 2 O 3 (5.5-17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic-ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic-ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic-mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic-mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  17. Mafic magmatism and associated tectonism of the central High Cascade Range, Oregon

    Hughes, Scott S.


    Results are presented on chemical analyses of basaltic core samples obtained from holes drilled at three locations in the mafic platform within the central region of the High Cascade Range (Oregon), as well as of some surface samples to enhance the original data base. Analyses were obtained using a variety of procedures; the most appropriate data commensurate with the technique were selected. The data illustrate the development of the mafic platform in terms of geochemical variations and tectonic configurations required to satisfy petrochemical associations.

  18. Intrusion of lamprophyre dyke and related deformation effects in the host rock salt: A case study from the Loulé diapir, Portugal

    Machek, Matěj; Roxerová, Zuzana; Závada, Prokop; Silva, P. F.; Henry, B.; Dědeček, Petr; Petrovský, Eduard; Marques, F. O.


    Roč. 629, August (2014), s. 165-178. ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : AMS * lamprophyre dyke * rock salt * paleomagnetism * microstructure * CPO Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging depiction of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Report of two cases

    Ranjana Gupta


    Full Text Available Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.

  20. A Geochemical Study of an REE-rich Carbonatite Dyke at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, Northern China


    An REE-rich carbonatite dyke was found in Dulahala, close to the Bayan Obo superlarge REE-Nb-Fe mineral deposit in Inner Mongolia, northern China. The REE content in the dyke varies greatly, from 1% up to 20% (wt), which might constitute rich REE ores. Light REEs in the carbonatite are enriched and highly fractionated relative to heavy REEs and there is no Eu anomaly. The REE and trace element distribution patterns of the carbonatite are identical to those of fine-grained dolomite marble which is the host rock of the Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe superlarge mineral deposit. This indicates a petrogenetic linkage between the REE-rich carbonatite and the mineralizations in this region.

  1. Permeability of sheeted dykes beneath oceanic ridges: Strain experiments coupled with 3D numerical modeling of the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus

    Coelho, Gabriel; Branquet, Yannick; Sizaret, Stanislas; Arbaret, Laurent; Champallier, Rémi; Rozenbaum, Olivier


    Permeability laboratory measurements under in-situ pressures, temperature and strain have been performed on three different diabase alteration facies (metadiabase, chloritized diabase, epidosite) from the Troodos Ophiolite, Cyprus. This aims to study the relations between hydrodynamics, deformation and hydrothermal reaction in the sheeted dyke complex beneath oceanic ridges. The use of water as pore fluid in these experiments favors hydrothermal fluid-rock interactions. All experiments, perfo...

  2. Geological and Geochemical Study on Some Dykes And Hosting Stone-grey in Sheikh Salem Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Sheikh Salem area (45 km west of coastal Mersa Alam town .south Eastern Desert of Egypt) is occupied by Precambrian basement rocks including volcaniclastic metasediments, metagabbro-diorite complexes, metavolcanics and syenogranite. The studied area is dissected by numerous dyke swarms. The syenogranite is of I-type and characterized by peraluminous nature. Two sets of nearly vertical dykes cut the syenogranite. The younger one trends NNW-SSE, while the older trends ENE-WSW. The younger dykes are lamprophyres and mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende, pyroxene and olivine. Calcite, epidote, antigorite and chlorite are secondary minerals, whereas opaques are accessories. The older dykes are andesites and mainly composed of plagioclase, hornblende. Saussurite, calcite, and epidote are secondary minerals, whereas opaques are accessories. The separated minerals from the lamprophyre samples include graphite, pyrite and zircon. A very important observation is the occurrence of graphite in most lamprophyre samples. The original magma of the lamprophyres is of high K.-calc alkaline to shoshonitic type with basaltic nature, while the original magma of the andesites is of high K-calc alkaline to calc alkaline type with andesitic nature. The lamprophyres have high content in Y, Ni, Cu, V and Zr, and low content in Rb, Pb, Zn, Ba and Ga compared with andesites. Both the lamprophyres and andesites show enrichment in Ba, Rb, Pb, Sr, Zr, Zn and Y and depletion in Cr and Ni compared with primitive mantle. The Syenogranite of Sheikh Salem area shows background radioactivity level giving eU contents of 7.4 ppm while eTh average content is 18.7 ppm and the mean value of eU/eTh ratio is 0.42

  3. Nb/Ta variations of mafic volcanics on the Archean-Proterozoic boundary: Implications for the Nb/Ta imbalance

    LIU; Yongsheng; GAO; Shan; WANG; Xuance; HU; Shenghong; WA


    The HFSE and REE of the Precambrian mafic volcanics from the North China craton demonstrate obvious A(Archean)-P(Proterozoic) boundary. The Neoarchean mafic vol-canics show weak correlation between HFSE and TiO2. Their superchondritic Nb/Ta ratio (18.8(1.2) could be attributed to partial melting of mantle peridotite in the presence of garnet. Compared with Neoarchean mafic volcanics, the Paleoproterozoic ones have higher HFSE contents and lower Nb/Ta ratio (15.6(2.9). The significantly elevated HFSE and REE contents of Paleoproterozoic mafic volcanics imply metasomatic enrichment of mantle source, in which Ti-rich silicates could be present as suggested by significant positive correlations between TiO2 and HFSE. The global database of Precambrian mafic volcanics shows a similar A-P boundary. 23 Archean mafic volcanic suites yield an average Nb/Ta ratio of 17.8(1.9 higher than or close to the PM value; Proterozoic mafic volcanics from 28 suites yield an average Nb/Ta ratio of 14.7(4.1 deficit could be mainly formed in post-Archean time. Archean mafic volcanics could be one of the geochemical reservoirs complementing the low Nb/Ta of the post-Archean continental crust and DM.

  4. Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from late Proterozoic mafic dikes and sills, Montana and Wyoming

    Harlan, Stephen S.; Geissman, John William; Snee, Lawrence W.


    Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar results from mafic dikes and sills in northwestern Wyoming and western Montana yield similar virtual geomagnetic poles and isotopic dates. In combination with paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from elsewhere in the western Cordillera, these data provide evidence for a regional mafic magnetic event at 780 to 770 Ma that affected a large area of western North America.

  5. Early detection of eruptive dykes revealed by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) on Mt. Etna and Mt. Nyiragongo

    Houlié, N.; Komorowski, J. C.; de Michele, M.; Kasereka, M.; Ciraba, H.


    Flank-fissure eruptions involve lateral injection and propagation of magma in a volcanic edifice along pre-existing fractures in the direction of the rift zones where magma intrusion and lava flow production are concentrated over time. Thus, the identification and mapping of active fractures and faults is a fundamental aspect of studies of active volcanic systems. However, gradual dyke wedge emplacement at depth in well-fractured zones on volcano flanks and in volcanic rift zones does not necessarily trigger large amplitude deformation signals susceptible to be recorded months or even years before the actual eruption. Here we show that active and potentially eruptive areas can be detected up to 2 yrs before the arrival to the surface of the final eruptive dyke and venting of lava flows by processing satellite images applying a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) algorithm. A posteriori analysis of satellite images indeed reveals that the surficial effects of dyke wedge injection and ascent on plant growth were apparent for Mt. Etna from 2000 to 2002 and for Mt. Nyiragongo in 2001, thus months to years before they erupted.

  6. Quasi 2D hydrodynamic modelling of the flooded hinterland due to dyke breaching on the Elbe River

    S. Huang


    Full Text Available In flood modeling, many 1D and 2D combination and 2D models are used to simulate diversion of water from rivers through dyke breaches into the hinterland for extreme flood events. However, these models are too demanding in data requirements and computational resources which is an important consideration when uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo techniques is used to complement the modeling exercise. The goal of this paper is to show the development of a quasi-2D modeling approach, which still calculates the dynamic wave in 1D but the discretisation of the computational units are in 2D, allowing a better spatial representation of the flow in the hinterland due to dyke breaching without a large additional expenditure on data pre-processing and computational time. A 2D representation of the flow and velocity fields is required to model sediment and micro-pollutant transport. The model DYNHYD (1D hydrodynamics from the WASP5 modeling package was used as a basis for the simulations. The model was extended to incorporate the quasi-2D approach and a Monte-Carlo Analysis was used to conduct a flood sensitivity analysis to determine the sensitivity of parameters and boundary conditions to the resulting water flow. An extreme flood event on the Elbe River, Germany, with a possible dyke breach area was used as a test case. The results show a good similarity with those obtained from another 1D/2D modeling study.

  7. Geology, geochemistry and geodynamic implications of the mafic-ultramafic rocks from the Antalya Complex, SW Turkey

    Elitok, Ömer


    The Antalya Complex is bounded on the east and the west by the opposing carbonate platforms (the eastern Anamas-Akseki and the western Bey Daǧları) forming a north pointing cusp (so-called the Isparta Angle) in SW Turkey, and is made of an assemblage of allochthonous Mesozoic slope-basin deposits and ophiolitic thrust sheets. The allochthonous rock assemblages in the northern part of the Antalya Complex are mainly characterized by slope-basin deposits that are spatially associated with: Upper Triassic volcanic rocks varying in composition from alkali basalt to fractionated trachyandesite; Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous tholeiitic volcanic rocks ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite; and, MORB-type volcanic rocks, most likely in Cretaceous age, that are spatially associated with olistostromal and subophiolitic tectonic mélanges. Whole rock chemistry of the harzburgitic mantle peridotites (Eǧridir Kızıl Daǧ peridotites) within the apex region of the Isparta Angle and of the isolated dolerite dykes intruding the peridotites, and the mineral chemistry of the harzburgitic spinels collectively suggest a depleted residual mantle peridotite character that is characteristic of forearc tectonic settings. Also, the Upper Triassic volcanic rocks associated with different basin deposits can be traced to the south within the Isparta Angle area and within the Mamonia Complex (SW Cyprus) in the eastern Mediterranean region. Upper Triassic alkaline volcanic rocks are underlain by rift-related siliciclastic rocks, massive limestones, and are, in turn, locally overlain by small patchy carbonate deposits, indicative of an intra-continental rift basin, which may have evolved in the apex region of the Isparta Angle. In the southern part of the Isparta Angle (in the eastern and western side of the Gulf of Antalya), the Triassic lavas are interbedded with and/or overlain by Upper Triassic pelagic sedimentary rocks. The Upper Triassic lavas of the Mamonia Complex are also

  8. Acute myeloblastic leukemia-associated Marfan syndrome and Davidoff-Dyke-Masson syndrome: a case report

    Ahmet Faik Öner


    Full Text Available We present herein a 23-year-old man with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML associated with Davidoff-Dyke-Masson syndrome (DDMS and Marfan syndrome (MS. The diagnosis of DDMS was based on findings including left facial asymmetry, left hemiparesis, mental retardation, right cerebral hemiatrophy, dilatation of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle and calvarial thickening. The diagnosis of MS was based on clinical findings including tall stature, myopia, retinitis pigmentosa, blue scleras, scoliosis, pectus excavatum, arachnodactyly and low ratio of upper/lower body segment. The patient developed hepatosplenomegaly, gingival hypertrophy and pancytopenia. Peripheral blood film and bone marrow examination showed that most of nucleated cells were blasts; immunophenotype of those cells showed CD11+, CD13+, CD14+, CD33+ and HLA-DR+. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of AML (FAB-M5. After induction chemotherapy, remission was obtained. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the third report of AML in MS syndrome, while AML associated with DDMS and MS has not been previously reported in the literature.

  9. Can we see the distal dyke communicate with the caldera? Examples of temporal correlation analysis using seismicity from the Bárðarbunga volcano

    Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Jónasson, Kristján; Tumi Guðmundsson, Magnús; Hensch, Martin; Hooper, Andrew; Holohan, Eoghan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Vogfjörð, Kristín; Roberts, Matthew; Barsotti, Sara; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Pálsson, Finnur; Parks, Michelle; Dumont, Stephanie; Einarsson, Páll; Guðmundsson, Gunnar


    The Bárðarbunga volcano is composed of a large oval caldera (7x11 km) and fissures extending tens of kilometers away from the caldera along the rift zone, which marks the divergent plate boundary across Iceland. On August 16th, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the Bárðarbunga caldera and in the two weeks that followed a dyke migrated some 47 km laterally in the uppermost 6-10 km of the crust along the rift. The dyke propagation terminated in lava fields just north of Vatnajökull glacier, where a major (1.5 km3) six months long eruption took place. Intense earthquake activity in the caldera started in the period August 21-24 with over 70 M5 earthquakes accompanying slow caldera collapse, as verified by various geodetic measurements. The subsidence is likely due to magma withdrawal from a reservoir at depth beneath the caldera. During a five months period, October-February, the seismic activity was separated by over 30 km in two clusters; one along the caldera rims (due to piecewise caldera subsidence) and the other at the far end of the dyke (as a result of small shear movements). Here we present statistical analysis comparing the temporal behaviour of seismicity recorded in the two clusters. By comparing the earthquake rate in the dyke in temporal bins before and after caldera subsidence earthquakes to the rate away from these bins (background rate), we show posing a statistical p-value test, that the number of dyke earthquakes was significantly higher (p M4.6) in the caldera. Increased dyke seismicity was also observed 0-3 hours following a large caldera earthquake. Elevated seismicity in the dyke before a large caldera earthquake may occur when a constriction in the dyke was reduced, followed by pressure drop in the chamber. Assuming that the large caldera earthquakes occurred when chamber pressure was lowest, the subsiding caldera piston may have caused temporary higher pressure in the dyke and thereby increased the likelihood of an earthquake

  10. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic–mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    Aditi Mandal; Arijit Ray


    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E–W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbronorite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic–ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47–81) and Al2O3 (5.5–17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic–ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic–ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic–mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic–mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  11. Flood risk control of dams and dykes in middle reach of Huaihe River

    Zhen-kun MA


    Full Text Available Three stochastic mathematical models for calculation of the reservoir flood regulation process, river course flood release, and flood risk rate under flood control were established based on the theory of stochastic differential equations and features of flood control systems in the middle reach of the Huaihe River from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate, comprehensively considering uncertain factors of hydrology, hydraulics, and engineering control. They were used to calculate the flood risk rate with flood regulation of five key reservoirs, including the Meishan, Xianghongdian, Nianyushan, Mozitan, and Foziling reservoirs in the middle reach of the Huaihe River under different flood frequencies, the flood risk rate with river course flood release under design and check floods for the trunk of the Huaihe River in conjunction with relevant flood storage areas, and the flood risk rate with operation of the Linhuaigang Project under design and check floods. The calculated results show that (1 the five reservoirs can withstand design floods, but the Xianghongdian and Foziling reservoirs will suffer overtopping accidents under check floods; (2 considering the service of flood storage areas under the design flood conditions of the Huaihe River, the mean flood risk rate with flood regulation of dykes and dams from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate is about 0.2, and the trunk of the Huaihe River can generally withstand design floods; and (3 under a check flood with the flood return period of 1 000 years, the risk rate of overtopping accidents of the Linhuaigang Project is not larger than 0.15, indicating that it has a high flood regulation capacity. Through regulation and application of the flood control system of the Linhuigang Project, the Huaihe River Basin can withstand large floods, and the safety of the protected area can be ensured.

  12. Geochemical characteristics and genesis of niudai diabase dykes in northern Guangdong province

    The Niudai diabase dykes, located in the south of Zhuguang pluton of North Guangdong Province, are characterized with low SiO2(45.04%∼48.64%), high TiO2 (2.02%∼3.23%) and TFeO (17.00%∼19.80%), enrichment in LILE (Rb, Ba) and LREE, relatively high ΣREE(112.1 x 10-6∼132.7 x 10-6), slightly depletion in Nb and Ta, without negative Eu anomaly. All informations are similar to the basalt from asthenospheric mantle sources. Elements' ratios of incompatible elements,such as Zr/Ba, La/Nb, La/Ta, Ti/Y, Ba/Nb, Th/Nb and Th/La of Niudai diabase are close to the ratios of OIB. The tectonic discrimination diagrams show that the diabases all fall into the range of OIB. The Niudai diabases have Pb isotope (206Pb/204Pb=18.153∼18.594, 207Pb/204Pb=15.713∼15.730, 208Pb/204Pb=39.184∼39.206) and its εNd(t) ranges from 3.1 to 4.3, close to the scope of OIB. The geochemical characteristics indicate that the origin of Niudai Diabase had both ends of members of mixed characteristics of asthenospher mantle and lithosphere mantle, and the hybrid were related to the melts of overlying lithosphere mantle as asthenospher mantle upwelling. The Niudai diabases are formed while the fast invaded of magma in the tectonic environment that lithospher thinning leaded by asthenosphere mantle upwelling. (authors)

  13. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina Province, Northern Territory, Australia: Implications for the Neoproterozoic to Devonian evolution of central Australia

    Wallace, Madeline L.; Jowitt, Simon M.; Saleem, Ahmad


    Petrological and geochemical data for magmatic mafic-ultramafic suites of the Irindina and Aileron provinces of the Eastern Arunta region, Northern Territory, Australia constrain the petrogenesis and tectonic setting of magmatic events covering ~ 500 million years. Six geochemically distinct magmatic suites, here named A-F, have been identified and provide evidence of the tectonic history of this region and also are linked to two mineralisation-related magmatic events: the Lloyd Gabbro (Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation) and the Riddoch Amphibolite (Cyprus-style Cu-Co volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralisation). The whole-rock geochemistry of Suites A and F is indicative of melts derived from a range of mantle depths (garnet to spinel lherzolite) and source enrichment. Suite D is likely related to the ~ 1070 Ma Warakurna/Giles event of central Australia, including the Alcurra (Musgrave) and Stuart (Arunta) dyke swarms, and likely formed through either: a) melting of subduction modified, sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by an upwelling mantle plume; or b) a combination of intra-plate tectonic processes involving a long-lived thermal anomaly, lithospheric-scale architecture that focussed magmatism, and large-scale tectonism. Suite F represents more alkaline magmas, derived from a deeper source, but most likely formed during the same Warakurna LIP event (possibly contemporaneously) as Suite D. Suite E (the Riddoch Amphibolite) was most likely emplaced in a back-arc basin (BAB) setting at ~ 600 Ma, coincident with Delamerian subduction and BAB formation along the eastern Proterozoic margin of Australia from Queensland to the eastern Arunta and possibly further south. Subsequent destabilisation of the SCLM underneath the North Australian Craton generated the ~ 510 Ma Kalkarindji LIP in the form of Suite B intrusions that assimilated some of the older Suite E (Riddoch) material. This event is locally known as the ~ 506 Ma Stanovos Igneous Suite and represents the most

  14. The Karoo triple junction questioned : Evidence from 40Ar/39Ar Jurassic and Proterozoïc ages and geochemistry of the Okavango dyke swarm (Botswana).

    Jourdan, F.; Féraud, G.; Bertrand, H.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Tshoso, G.; Le Gall, B.; Tiercelin, J. J.


    The lower Jurassic Karoo-Ferrar magmatism represents one of the most important Phanerozoic continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces. Karoo CFB is dominated by tholeiitic traps and apparently radiating giant dyke swarms covering altogether ca 3x106 km2. This study focuses on the giant N110° oriented Okavango dyke swarm (ODS) stretching over a distance of 1500 km through Botswana. This dyke swarm represents the main arm of the so-called Karoo triple junction which is generally considered as a key marker linking the Karoo magmatism to a starting mantle plume impact (Campbell and Griffiths, 1990). ODS dolerites yield twelve reliable plagioclase 40Ar/39Ar plateau (and mini-plateau) ages ranging from 178.3 +-1.1 (2 sigma) to 179.3 +-1.2 Ma (Le Gall et al, 2002 and unpublished data). The distribution of the ages along a narrow gaussian curve suggests a short period of magmatic activity centered around 178.9 Ma. In addition, small clusters of plagioclase separated from twenty-five other dykes and measured by total fusion, gave either Karoo or Proterozoïc ages. The Proterozoïc rocks range from 758.2 +-6.6 Ma and 1223.8 +-10.0 Ma (integrated ages) and, although petrographically indistinguishable in some cases, they display clear geochemical differences (e.g. TiO22%, Ti/Y>400). Geochemical data combined with available Ar/Ar dates allowed us to identify the two groups within a total set of seventy-eight dykes investigated: about 15 % of the bulk ODS dykes were emplaced during the Proterozoïc and, thus, the Jurassic Karoo dykes were emplaced along reactivated Proterozoïc structures. The validity of the Karoo triple junction-plume model, should therefore be revisited. Although available data on Proterozoïc dykes along the ODS are not precise enough to assess their exact emplacement age, they indicate that most of the Proterozoïc dykes were emplaced between 900 and 1100 Ma. This age range is the same as dating commonly reported for the Umkondo igneous province (UIP, about

  15. Paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal from late miocene mafic intrusions, southern nevada.

    Ratcliff, C D; Geissman, J W; Perry, F V; Crowe, B M; Zeitler, P K


    Late Miocene (about 8.65 million years ago) mafic intrusions and lava flows along with remagnetized host rocks from Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, provide a high-quality paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal. These rocks yield thermoremanent magnetizations with declinations of 227 degrees to 310 degrees and inclinations of -7 degrees to 49 degrees , defining a reasonably continuous virtual geomagnetic pole path over west-central Pacific longitudes. Conductive cooling estimates for the intrusions suggest that this field transition, and mafic magmatism, lasted only a few hundred years. Because this record comes principally from intrusive rocks, rather than sediments or lavas, it is important in demonstrating the longitudinal confinement of the geomagnetic field during a reversal. PMID:17816684

  16. The French Guyana doleritic dykes: geochemical evidence of three populations and new data for the Jurassic Central Atlantic Magmatic Province

    Nomade, S.; Pouclet, A.; Chen, Y.


    A petrographic and geochemical study of 15 Early Jurassic and 7 Proterozoic dolerites of French Guyana, and of one Jurassic dolerite from Ivory-Coast were carried out. The Early Jurassic SSW-NNE trending dykes have doleritic aphyric or gabbroic phyric texture. Their chemical compositions, slightly under-saturated to over-saturated, show moderate to low Mg-ratios (63-36), high TiO 2 contents (1.85-3.56 wt.%), weak rare earth element fractionation [1.8isotopic data of Bertrand et al. [Bertrand, H., Liegeois, J.P., Deckart, K., Féraud, G., 1999. High-Ti tholeiites in Guinea and Their Connection with the Central Atlantic CFB Province: Elemental and Nd-Sr-Pb Isotopic Evidence for Preferential Zone of Mantle Upwelling in Cause of Rifting. AGU spring meeting (Abst. p 317)] suggest that their magmatic source is different from that of the other basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). Such signatures are restricted to a central zone coinciding with the Panafrican Rokelides suture. We propose a model of sub-lithospheric preferential channelling of an asthenospheric ascent in this zone. Two other groups of dykes were identified in French Guyana. Compared to the Jurassic ones the Proterozoic dykes have NNW-SSE and E-W trending direction, more important LILE enrichment, low TiO 2 contents (<2 wt%) and Nb-Ta negative anomalies. Their calc-alkaline signature could be the result of a previous subduction and may be related to the 1800 Ma Venturi-Tapajós event, which contaminated the mantle source.

  17. The age and constitution of Cerro Campanario, a mafic stratovolcano in the Andes of central Chile

    Hildreth, W.; Singer, B.; Godoy, E.; Munizaga, F.


    Cerro Campanario, a towering landmark on the continental divide near Paso Pehuenche, is a glacially eroded remnant of a mafic stratovolcano that is much younger than previously supposed. Consisting of fairly uniform basaltic andesite, rich in olivine and plagioclase, the 10-15 km3 edifice grew rapidly near the end of the middle Pleistocene, about 150-160 ka, as indicated by 40Ar/39Ar and unspiked K-Ar analyses of its lavas.

  18. The mafic dikes from the Panticosa pluton (Pyrenean Axial Zone): petrology and mineral chemistry

    Tierz, Pablo; Lago San José, Marceliano; Galé, Carlos; Arranz, Enrique; Ubide, Teresa; Larrea, Patricia; Sanz, Tomás


    The Panticosa pluton is one of multiple granitic plutons cropping out in the Pyrenean Axial Zone, which corresponds to the Palaeozoic core of the Pyrenees. Mafic dikes cut both the Panticosa pluton and its Devonian metasedimentary country rocks. According to their mineralogy and mineral composition, these dikes can be classified into two different groups, with little textural variations: a calc-alkaline group and an alkaline group. The calcalkaline rocks (spessartites and ca...

  19. Geochronologic boundaries and geodynamic interpretation for alkaline-mafic magmatism of the Kuznetsky Alatau ridge

    The U-Pb isotope dating of zircon from nepheline syenite of the Dedovogorsky massif was performed for studying the stages of alkaline-mafic magmatism development in the northern part of the Kuznetsky Alatau ridge. Taking into account the morphological properties of the zircon studied, the isotope age value obtained, i. e. 400.9 ± 6.8 mln. years, was interpreted as the period of the above-mentioned syenites formation

  20. Physical abrasion of mafic minerals and basalt grains: application to Martian aeolian deposits

    Cornwall, Carin; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Titus, Timothy N.; Schreiber, B. C.; Montgomery, D.R.


    Sediment maturity, or the mineralogical and physical characterization of sediment deposits, has been used to locate sediment source, transport medium and distance, weathering processes, and paleoenvironments on Earth. Mature terrestrial sands are dominated by quartz, which is abundant in source lithologies on Earth and is physically and chemically stable under a wide range of conditions. Immature sands, such as those rich in feldspars or mafic minerals, are composed of grains that are easily physically weathered and highly susceptible to chemical weathering. On Mars, which is predominately mafic in composition, terrestrial standards of sediment maturity are not applicable. In addition, the martian climate today is cold, dry and sediments are likely to be heavily influenced by physical weathering rather than chemical weathering. Due to these large differences in weathering processes and composition, martian sediments require an alternate maturity index. Abrason tests have been conducted on a variety of mafic materials and results suggest that mature martian sediments may be composed of well sorted, well rounded, spherical basalt grains. In addition, any volcanic glass present is likely to persist in a mechanical weathering environment while chemically altered products are likely to be winnowed away. A modified sediment maturity index is proposed that can be used in future studies to constrain sediment source, paleoclimate, mechanisms for sediment production, and surface evolution. This maturity index may also provide details about erosional and sediment transport systems and preservation processes of layered deposits.

  1. Mesozoic mafic dikes from the Shandong Peninsula, North China Craton: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Mesozoic mafic dikes are widely distributed in Luxi (Mengyin and Zichuan) and Jiaodong regions of the Shandong Peninsula, China, providing an opportunity of investigating the nature of the lost lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC). The mafic dikes are characterized by strong depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), highly variable Th/U ratios, high initial (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7050-0.7099) and negative εNd(T) (-6.0 to -17.6). They were derived from melting of metasomatized portions of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle, followed by fractionation of clinopyroxenes. The similarity in Nd isotopic compositions between the Mengyin gabbro dikes and the Paleozoic peridotite xenoliths suggests that ancient lithospheric mantle was still retained at 120 Ma below Mengyin, although the ancient lithospheric mantle in many other places beneath NCC had been severely modified. There might be multiple enrichment events in the lithospheric mantle. An early-stage (before or during Paleozoic) rutile-rich metasomatism affected the lithospheric mantle below Mengyin, Jiaodong and Zichuan. Since then, the lithospheric mantle beneath Mengyin was isolated. A late-stage metasomatism by silicate melts modified the lithospheric mantle beneath Jiaodong and Zichuan but not Mengyin. The removal of the enriched lithospheric mantle and the generation of the mafic dikes may be mainly related to the convective overturn accompanying Jurassic-Cretaceous subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate. (author)

  2. Physical abrasion of mafic minerals and basalt grains: Application to martian aeolian deposits

    Cornwall, C.; Bandfield, J. L.; Titus, T. N.; Schreiber, B. C.; Montgomery, D. R.


    Sediment maturity, or the mineralogical and physical characterization of sedimentary deposits, has been used to identify sediment sources, transport medium and distance, weathering processes, and paleoenvironments on Earth. Mature terrestrial sands are dominated by quartz, which is abundant in source lithologies on Earth and is physically and chemically stable under a wide range of conditions. Immature sands, such as those rich in feldspars or mafic minerals, are composed of grains that are easily physically weathered and highly susceptible to chemical weathering. On Mars, which is predominately mafic in composition, terrestrial standards of sediment maturity are not applicable. In addition, the martian climate today is cold and dry and sediments are likely to be heavily influenced by physical weathering rather than chemical weathering. Due to these large differences in weathering processes and composition, martian sediments require an alternate maturity index. This paper reports the results of abrasion tests conducted on a variety of mafic materials and results suggest that mature martian sediments may be composed of well sorted, well rounded, spherical polycrystalline materials, such as basalt. Volcanic glass is also likely to persist in a mechanical weathering environment while more fragile and chemically altered products are likely to be winnowed away. A modified sediment maturity index is proposed that can be used in future studies to constrain sediment source, paleoclimate, mechanisms for sediment production, and surface evolution. This maturity index may also provide insights into erosional and sediment transport systems and preservation processes of layered deposits.

  3. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record crust-mantle interaction during continental deep subduction.

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei


    Findings of coesite and microdiamond in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal protolith led to the recognition of continental subduction to mantle depths. The crust-mantle interaction is expected to take place during subduction of the continental crust beneath the subcontinental lithospheric mantle wedge. This is recorded by postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its adjacent continental margin in the North China Block. These rocks exhibit the geochemical inheritance of whole-rock trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes as well as zircon U-Pb ages and Hf-O isotopes from felsic melts derived from the subducted continental crust. Reaction of such melts with the overlying wedge peridotite would transfer the crustal signatures to the mantle sources for postcollisional mafic magmatism. Therefore, postcollisonal mafic igneous rocks above continental subduction zones are an analog to arc volcanics above oceanic subduction zones, providing an additional laboratory for the study of crust-mantle interaction at convergent plate margins. PMID:24301173

  4. Sentinel-1 TOPS interferometry for geophysical applications: Dyke intrusion imaged during 2014 Pico do Fogo eruption

    Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Marinkovic, Petar; Samsonov, Sergey; Hooper, Andrew; Larsen, Yngvar; Wright, Tim


    apply Sentinel-1 TOPS-InSAR to illuminate the deformation accompanying a recent volcanic eruption at Pico do Fogo volcano, Fogo (Cape Verde). The detected deformation is consistent with a shallow near-vertical dyke intrusion, which fed the fissure eruption. The modelling of the deformation interferograms do not seem affected largely by the variable LoS vector, in this case. The presented results prove the potential of Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS) interferometry for geophysical applications, in particular using ESA Sentinel-1 mission.

  5. Pre-Elsonian mafic magmatism in the Nain Igneous Complex, Labrador: the bridges layered intrusion

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wiebe, R.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Whitehouse, M.J.; Snyder, Diane


    Decades of work on the pristine, unmetamorphosed, and well exposed anorthositic, mafic and granitic rocks of the Nain igneous complex, Labrador, have led to the conclusion that all plutonic rocks in that area were emplaced in a short time intercal at about 1300 ?? 10 Ma). We report here new isotopic data for mafic intrusive rocks that appear to have crystallized several hundred Ma earlier than the bulk of the plutonic activity in the Nain complex. The Bridges layered intrusion (BLI) is a small (15-20 km2) lens of layered mafic rocks about 1.5 km thick, surrounded and intruded by anorthositic, leuconoritic and leucotroctolitic plutons in the middle of the coastal section of the Nain igneous complex. BLI shows very well developed magmatic structures, including channel scours, slump structures, and ubiquitous modally graded layering. Most rocks, however, show granular textures indicative of recrystallization, presumably caused by emplacement of younger anorthositic rocks. BLI contains cumulate rocks with slightly more primitive mineral compositions (An60-83, Fo66-71) than those of other mafic intrusions in the Nain igneous complex, including Kiglapait. SmNd isotopic data for 7 BLI whole-rocks ranging in composition between olivine melagabbro and olivine leucogabbro yield an age of 1667 ?? 75 Ma, which we interpret as the time of primary crystallization. The internal isotopic systematics of the BLI have been reset, probably by intrusion of adjacent anorthositic plutons. A SmNd mineral isochron (plag, whole-rock, mafics) for a BLI olivine melagabbro gives an age of 1283 ?? 22 Ma, equivalent within error of a mineral array (plag, whole-rock, opx, cpx) for an adjacent, igneous-textured, leuconorite vein (1266 ?? 152 Ma). The initial Nd ratio for BLI corresponds to ??{lunate}Nd = -3.18 ?? 0.44. Other whole-rock samples, however, some with vein-like alteration (Chlorite, serpentine, amphiboles), show ??{lunate}Nd values as low as -9.1, suggesting variable contamination by

  6. Polarization of mafic and felsic rocks In the Skaergaard Layered Series (Invited)

    McBirney, A. R.; Johnston, A.; Webster, J. D.


    When it became apparent that plagioclase could never sink in a magma as iron rich and dense as that of the Skaergaard Intrusion, we were faced with the problem of explaining the formation of anorthositic layers, foundered blocks, and schlieren that consist almost entirely of plagioclase but were obviously stable on the floor of the intrusion. Sonnenthal (Jour. Pet., 1998, 39: 633-661) found that gabbroic blocks that fell from the roof series were originally more gabbroic and were altered metasomatically to anorthosites after they reached the floor were buried it the advancing front of crystallization. Their mafic components were expelled into the surrounding gabbro and replaced by plagioclase. Similar processes appear to have transformed parts of the Layered and Marginal Border Series into strongly polarized anorthosites and olivine pyroxenites. The studies of Filiberto and Treiman (Chem. Geol. 2009, 263: 50-68) of the effect of chlorine on the liquidus of basalts, together with our on-going experimental investigation of its effect on the system plagioclase-pyroxene, has opened new possibilities that may enable us to explain these enigmatic rocks. When Webster and his co-workers (Geoch Cosmoch. Acta, 2009, 73: 559-581) showed that, unlike water, chlorine is much more soluble in mafic silicate melts than felsic ones, these contrasting properties suggested that the effect of chlorine on the cotectic relations of plagioclase and pyroxene might be the opposite of that of water: it could depress the melting temperature of pyroxene just as water depressed that of plagioclase. Experiments currently underway at the American Museum of Natural History and University of Oregon are showing that this is indeed the case. Consider what might happen if a crystallizing gabbro were infiltrated by a chlorine-rich aqueous fluid of the kind that Larsen and Brooks (Jour. Pet., 1997, 35: 1651-79) have shown permeated the rocks while they were still at a high temperature. Flux melting

  7. 40Ar/39Ar phlogopite and U - Pb perovskite dating of lamprophyre dykes from the eastern Lake Superior region: evidence for a 1.14 Ga magmatic precursor to Midcontinent rift volcanism

    Thin lamprophyre dykes are abundant in the vicinity of the ca. 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System and the late Archean - Early Proterozoic Kapuskasing Uplift in the Canadian Shield northeast of Lake Superior. However, the relationship between these dykes and spatially associated alkalic-carbonatite complexes has been unclear. To ascertain the temporal relationship between the two, we have determined, by 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating, precise emplacement ages for six lamprophyre dykes from the region. The 1144-4+6 Ma U - Pb date for perovskite from the western Marathon and Wawa areas is indistinguishable from the 1144 ± 7 Ma 40Ar/39Ar date for phlogopite from the eastern Kapuskasing Uplift, and it is concluded that these dykes are part of a regional 1.14 Ga swarm that extends over 300 km. These dykes were therefore emplaced some 35 Ma prior to the 1109 Ma commencement of Midcontinent Rift volcanism and coeval alkaline-complex activity, but essentially simultaneously with emplacement of the 1141 ± 2 Ma Abitibi diabase dyke swarm. It is suggested that these widespread 1144 Ma lamprophyre dykes and the Abitibi diabase dykes represent the first magmatic response of initiation of the Midcontinent rifting event, and were precursors to the main rift magmatism at 1109 Ma. (author). 32 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Mineralogy and petrogenesis of a Ba-Ti-Zr-rich peralkaline dyke from Šebkovice (Czech Republic): Recognition of the most lamproitic Variscan intrusion

    Krmíček, Lukáš; Cempírek, Jan; Havlín, Aleš; Přichystal, Antonín; Houzar, Stanislav; Krmíčková, Michaela; Gadas, Petr


    A peralkaline, ultrapotassic dyke found at Šebkovice (Třebíč district, western Moravia) is a mineralogically extreme member of a dyke swarm occurring along the south-eastern border of the Moldanubian Region of the Bohemian Massif. The dyke shows a simple zoning, with a very fine-grained marginal zone grading into a medium-grained central zone. It has a primary mineral assemblage of microcline and potassic amphiboles, with accessory apatite and altered phlogopite. The microcline exhibits an unusual red luminescence colour and pronounced substitution of Fe3+ for Al, with measured contents of Fe2O3 up to 8.5 wt.% (0.31 apfu Fe3+). Amphiboles have very high K (up to 0.99 apfu) and Si contents; their compositions follow an alkaline fractionation trend from potassic-richterite to potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite, characterized by an increase of Na/K and a decrease of Ca, Mg, Fe2+ and Ti via heterovalent substitutions [B]Ca + [C](Mg,Fe2+) → [B]Na + [C]Fe3+ and Ti + Mg → 2Fe3+. The most evolved apatite is significantly enriched in SrO (up to 9.7 wt.%; 0.49 apfu Sr). The core of the dyke and late veinlets contain unique late- to post-magmatic Ba-Ti-Zr-bearing mineral assemblages of baotite, henrymeyerite, titanite, rutile, benitoite and bazirite. Anhedral baotite fills interstices distributed inhomogeneously in the dyke centre; it is locally replaced by a Ba-bearing titanite + henrymeyerite + rutile + quartz assemblage. Henrymeyerite (the second record in a lamproite) shows variable Fe/Ti ratios and represents a solid solution of the hepta- and hexatitanate components. Euhedral crystals of benitoite and bazirite are enclosed in the late-stage quartz-titanite-apatite veinlets in the fine-grained margin of the intrusion. In terms of a mineralogical-genetic classification, the Šebkovice dyke can be considered as a new high-silica (~ 57 wt.% SiO2) variety of lamproite (variety Šebkovice), and represents a unique expression of post-collisional potassic magmatism on the

  9. 北疆二叠纪镁铁-超镁铁岩铜、镍矿床的构造背景、岩体类型、基本特征、相对剥蚀程度、含矿性评价标志及成矿潜力分析%The Tectonic Setting, Style, Basic Feature, Relative Erosion Deee, ore-Bearing Evaluation Sign, Potential Analysis of Mineralization of Cu-Ni-Bearing Permian Mafic-ultramafic Complexes, Northern Xinjiang

    秦克章; 邓刚; 唐冬梅; 苏本勋; 毛亚晶; 薛胜超; 田野; 孙赫; 三金柱; 肖庆华


    -ultramafic intrusions, can determine the relative erosion degree of the deposits synthetically. The relative erosion degree in combination with the regional element geochemical and geophysics anomalies, are the effective measures to evaluate the Cu-Ni mineralization potential in mafic-ultramafic complexes. Mafic dykes, small intrusion, ultramafic outcrop in large mafic-ultramafic complex, strongly altered mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks, gravity and magnetic anomaly zone superimposed geochemical anomalies, are the important target for finding small intrusion with large scale magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits.

  10. P-T-t Path of Mafic Granulite Metamorphism in Northern Tibet and Its Geodynamical Implications

    HU Daogong; WU Zhenhan; JIANG Wan; YE Peisheng


    Mafic granulites have been found as structural lenses within the huge thrust system outcropping about 10 km west of Nam Co of the northern Lhasa Terrane, Tibetan Plateau. Petrological evidence from these rocks indicates four distinct metamorphic assemblages. The early metamorphic assemblage (Mi) is preserved only in the granulites and represented by plagioclase+homblende inclusions within the cores of garnet porphyroblasts. The peak assemblage (M2) consists of gamet+clinopyroxene+hornblende+plagioclase in the mafic granulites. The peak metamorphism was followed by near-isothermal decompression (M3), which resulted in the development of horublende+plagioclase symplectites surrounding embayed garnet porphyroblasts, and decompression-cooling (M4) is represented by minerals of homblende+plagioclase recrystallized during mylonization. The peak (M2) P-T conditions of gamet+clinopyroxene+plagioclase+homblende were estimated at 769-905°C and 0.86-1.02 GPa based on the geothermometers and geobarometers. The P-T conditions of plagioclase+hornblende symplectites (M3) were estimated at 720-800°C and 0.55-0.68 GPa, and recrystallized hornblende+plagioclase (M4) at 594-708°C and 0.26-0.47 GPa. It is impossible to estimate the P-T conditions of the early metamorphic assemblage (M1) because of the absence of modal minerals. The combination of petrographic textures, metamorphic reaction history, thermobarometric data and corresponding isotopic ages defines a clockwise near-isothermal decompression metamorphic path, suggesting that the mafic granulites had undergone initial crustal thickening, subsequent exhumation, and cooling and retrogression. This tectonothermal path is considered to record two major phases of collision which resulted in both the assemblage of Gondwanaland during the Pan-African orogeny at 531 Ma and the collision of the Qiangtang and Lhasa Terranes at 174 Ma, respectively.

  11. The age and constitution of Cerro Campanario, a mafic stratovolcano in the Andes of Central Chile

    Wes Hildreth; Brad Singer; Estanislao Godoy; Francisco Munizaga


    ABSTRACT Cerro Campanario, a towering landmark on the continental divide near Paso Pehuenche, is a glacially eroded remnant of a mafic stratovolcano that is much younger than previously supposed. Consisting of fairly uniform basaltic andesite, rich in olivine and plagioclase, the 10-15 km³ edifice grew rapidly near the end of the middle Pleistocene, about 150-160 ka, as indicated by 40Ar/39Ar and unspiked K-Ar analyses of its lavas.La edad y formación del cerro Campanario, un estratovolcán má...

  12. The stable vanadium isotope composition of the mantle and mafic lavas

    Prytulak, J.; Nielsen, S. G.; Ionov, D. A.; Halliday, A. N.; Harvey, J.; Kelley, K. A.; Niu, Y. L.; Peate, D. W.; Shimizu, K.; Sims, K. W. W.


    Vanadium exists in multiple valence states under terrestrial conditions (2+, 3+, 4+, 5+) and its isotopic composition in magmas potentially reflects the oxidation state of their mantle source. We present the first stable vanadium isotope measurements of 64 samples of well-characterized mantle-derived mafic and ultramafic rocks from diverse localities. The δ51V ranges from -0.27‰ to -1.29‰, reported relative to an Alfa Aesar (AA) vanadium solution standard defined as 0‰. This dataset is used to assess the effects of alteration, examine co-variation with other geochemical characteristics and define a value for the bulk silicate Earth (BSE). Variably serpentinised peridotites show no resolvable alteration-induced δ51V fractionation. Likewise, altered mafic oceanic crustal rocks have identical δ51V to fresh hand-picked MORB glass. Intense seafloor weathering can result in slightly (˜0.2-0.3‰) heavier isotope compositions, possibly related to late-stage addition of vanadium. The robustness of δ51V to common alteration processes bodes well for its potential application to ancient mafic material. The average δ51V of mafic lavas, including MORB, Icelandic tholeiites and lavas from the Shatsky Rise large igneous province is -0.88±0.27‰ 2sd. Peridotites show a large range in primary δ51V (-0.62‰ to -1.17‰), which co-varies positively with vanadium concentrations and indices of fertility such as Al2O3. Although these data suggest preferential extraction of heavier isotopes during partial melting, the isotope composition of basalts (δ51V=-0.88±0.27‰ 2sd) and MORB glass in particular (δ51V=-0.95±0.13‰ 2sd) is lighter than fertile peridotites and thus difficult to reconcile with a melt extraction scenario. Determination of fractionation factors between melt and mineral phases such as pyroxenes and garnet are necessary to fully understand the correlation. We arrive at an estimate of δ51VBSE=-0.7±0.2‰ (2sd) for the bulk silicate Earth by averaging

  13. Electromagnetic induction in a conductive strip in a medium of contrasting conductivity: application to VLF and MT above molten dykes

    Davis, Paul M.


    Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic waves that penetrate conductive magma-filled dykes generate secondary fields on the surface that can be used to invert for dyke properties. The model used for the interpretation calculates currents induced in a conductive strip by an inducing field that decays exponentially with depth due to the conductivity of the surrounding medium. The differential equations are integrated to give an inhomogeneous Fredholm equation of the second kind with a kernel consisting of a modified Bessel function of the second kind. Numerical methods are typically used to solve for the induced currents in the strip. In this paper, we apply a modified Galerkin-Chebyshev method, which involves separating the kernel into source and field spectra and integrating the source terms to obtain a matrix equation for the unknown coefficients. The incident wave is expressed as a Chebyshev series. The modified Bessel function is separated into a logarithmic singularity and a non-singular remainder, both of which are expanded in complex Chebyshev polynomials. The Chebyshev coefficients for the remainder are evaluated using a fast Fourier transform, while the logarithmic term and incident field have analytic series. The deconvolution then involves a matrix inversion. The results depend on the ratio of strip-size to skin-depth. For infinite skin-depth and a singular conductivity distribution given by τ_0 a/√{a^2 - z^2 } (where τ0 is the conductance, a is the half-length and z the distance from the centre), Parker gives an analytic solution. We present a similar analytic series solution for the finite skin-depth case, where the size to skin depth ratio is small. Results are presented for different ratios of size to skin depth that can be compared with numerical solutions. We compare full-space and half-space solutions. A fit of the model to VLF data taken above a magma filled dykes in Hawaii and Mt Etna demonstrates that while properties such as depth to top

  14. Uses of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in the study of emplacement processes of lava flows and dykes

    Complete text of publication follows. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is a powerful technique that can be used to explore in detail the mineral fabric of many types of rocks. In particular, it is well suited to determine mineral fabric of massive, otherwise featureless rocks, like for example the internal parts of many lava flows and dykes. Like most other mineral fabric indicators, the AMS is mainly acquired at a stage when flow-related deformation promotes a mineral array within the melted rock. Unlike is the case with other petrofabric methods, however, the effort required to obtain three-dimensional information of such mineral array using AMS is much reduced, although due to differences in the shape of various minerals involved in the process of fabric acquisition it is possible to find some differences between magnetic and optically determined mineral fabrics. When attention is given to the systematic variations of the AMS within a lava flow or dyke, however, the AMS method allows us to infer aspects of lava (magma) emplacement that are not easy to study through other traditional petrofabric techniques. Such detailed information can be used to obtain a detailed record of the internal deformation of one flow unit with relative ease and little effort. Despite of these advantages, the abundant information obtained from one single unit through AMS methods might not be interpreted in a simple form. The main complications arise from two contrasting premises. On the one hand it can be assumed that mineral fabric remains constant along one single unit, and therefore departures from an expected value are considered indicative of post-emplacement alteration. Alternatively, it can be considered that changes in the mineral fabric are to be expected due to changing conditions of emplacement. For this reason, a more thoroughly investigation that takes into consideration independent lines of information is always advisable. Nevertheless, AMS remains as the

  15. On the origin of pseudoleucite from Cenozoic phonolite dykes from Loučná/Böhmisch Wiesenthal, Krušné hory/Erzgebirge Mts., Bohemia

    Pivec, Edvín; Ulrych, Jaromír; Langrová, Anna


    Roč. 179, č. 3 (2004), s. 221-238. ISSN 0028-3649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3048201 Keywords : pseudoleucite * phonolite * tinguaite * dyke * mineralogy * petrology * Cenozoic * Krušné hory/Erzgebirge Mts. * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2004

  16. Mafic granulite xenoliths in the Chilka Lake suite, Eastern Ghats Belt, India: evidence of deep-subduction of residual oceanic crust

    Bhattacharya, S.; Chaudhary, A.K.; Saw, A. K.; Das, P.; Chatterjee, D


    Granulite xenoliths preserve key geochemical and isotopic signatures of their mantle source regions. Mafic granulite and pyroxinite xenoliths within massif-type charnockitic rocks from the Eastern Ghats Belt have recently been reported by us. The mafic granulite xenoliths from the Chilka Lake granulite suite with abundant prograde biotite are geochemically akin to Oceanic Island Basalt (OIB). They can be distinguished from the hornblende-mafic granulite xenoliths with signatures of Arc-derive...

  17. Tectonic accretion and underplating of mafic terranes in the Late Eocene intraoceanic fore-arc of New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific): geodynamic implications

    Cluzel, Dominique; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Picard, Christian


    This paper deals with the tectonic events that result in the accretion of mafic terranes in the fore-arc region and a close juxtaposition of ultramafic rocks, low grade and high-grade mafic terranes in many collisional orogens. The example is taken from New Caledonia where tectonic accretion, subduction, underplating and obduction of mafic terranes took place during the late Eocene in an intra-oceanic forearc setting. The late Eocene tectonic complex comprised three major terranes: an overlyi...

  18. Impacts of dyke development in flood prone areas in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta to downstream flood hazard

    Khanh Triet Nguyen, Van; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Fujii, Hideto; Kummu, Matti; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko


    The Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) plays an important role in food security and socio-economic development of the country. Being a low-lying coastal region, the VMD is particularly susceptible to both riverine and tidal floods, which provide, on (the) one hand, the basis for the rich agricultural production and the livelihood of the people, but on the other hand pose a considerable hazard depending on the severity of the floods. But despite of potentially hazardous flood, the area remain active as a rice granary due to its nutrient-rich soils and sediment input, and dense waterways, canals and the long standing experience of the population living with floods. In response to both farmers' requests and governmental plans, the construction of flood protection infrastructure in the delta progressed rapidly in the last twenty years, notably at areas prone to deep flooding, i.e. the Plain of Reeds (PoR) and Long Xuyen Quadrangle (LXQ). Triple rice cropping becomes possible in farmlands enclosed by "full-dykes", i.e. dykes strong and high enough to prevent flooding of the flood plains for most of the floods. In these protected flood plains rice can be grown even during the peak flood period (September to November). However, little is known about the possibly (and already alleged) negative impacts of this fully flood protection measure to downstream areas. This study aims at quantifying how the flood regime in the lower part of the VMD (e.g. Can Tho, My Thuan, …) has been changed in the last 2 recent "big flood" events of 2000 and 2011 due to the construction of the full-dyke system in the upper part. First, an evaluation of 35 years of daily water level data was performed in order to detect trends at key gauging stations: Kratie: upper boundary of the Delta, Tan Chau and Chau Doc: areas with full-dyke construction, Can Tho and My Thuan: downstream. Results from the Mann-Kendall (MK) test show a decreasing trend of the annual maximum water level at 3 stations Kratie, Tan

  19. Hydrogeochemistry of deep groundwaters of mafic and ultramafic rocks in Finland

    The present work reports and interprets the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data obtained from deep groundwaters in various mafic-ultramafic formations in Finland. The work is mainly based on the results of the research project 'Geochemistry of deep groundwaters' financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Geological Survey of Finland. Five sites were selected for this study: (1) Juuka, (2) Keminmaa, (3) Maentsaelae, (4) Ranua, and (5) Ylivieska. Keminmaa and Ranua are located in Early Proterozoic layered intrusions dated at 2.44 Ga. The Juuka site lies within the massive Miihkali serpentinite, which is thought to represent the ultramafic part of a Proterozoic (1.97 Ga) ophiolite complex. The Maentsaelae gabbro represents the deep parts of the Svecofennian volcanic sequence, while the Ylivieska mafic-ultramafic intrusion is one of a group of Svecokarelian Ni-potential intrusions 1.9 Ga in age. For reference, groundwaters from four other sites are also briefly described. Three of these sites are located within the nickel mining regions of Enonkoski, Kotalahti and Vammala, while the fourth is a small Ni mineralization at Hyvelae, Noormarkku. The four reference sites are all of Svecokarelian age. (refs.)

  20. Hydrogeochemistry of deep groundwaters of mafic and ultramafic rocks in Finland

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Lindberg, A.; Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Frape, S. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada)


    The present work reports and interprets the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data obtained from deep groundwaters in various mafic-ultramafic formations in Finland. The work is mainly based on the results of the research project `Geochemistry of deep groundwaters` financed by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Geological Survey of Finland. Five sites were selected for this study: (1) Juuka, (2) Keminmaa, (3) Maentsaelae, (4) Ranua, and (5) Ylivieska. Keminmaa and Ranua are located in Early Proterozoic layered intrusions dated at 2.44 Ga. The Juuka site lies within the massive Miihkali serpentinite, which is thought to represent the ultramafic part of a Proterozoic (1.97 Ga) ophiolite complex. The Maentsaelae gabbro represents the deep parts of the Svecofennian volcanic sequence, while the Ylivieska mafic-ultramafic intrusion is one of a group of Svecokarelian Ni-potential intrusions 1.9 Ga in age. For reference, groundwaters from four other sites are also briefly described. Three of these sites are located within the nickel mining regions of Enonkoski, Kotalahti and Vammala, while the fourth is a small Ni mineralization at Hyvelae, Noormarkku. The four reference sites are all of Svecokarelian age. (refs.).

  1. Petrology and geochemistray of Imam-Zadeh Hashem mafic and ultramafic bodies, southern Guilan province

    Mojgan Salavati


    Full Text Available Mafic and ultramafic plutonic igneous bodies, with small and big outcrops, between Shemshak rock units (Jurassic are observed in east of Imam Zadeh Hashem, in southern Guilan province. Ultramafic cumulates consist of clinopyroxenite, and plagiofer clinopyroxenite, olivine clinopyroxenite, and mafic rocks, based on mineralogy consist of gabbros, olivine gabbros, biotite gabbros and amphibole gabbros. According to geochemical data, studied rocks have tholeiitic nature and in the tectonic setting diagrams, display arc characteristic. The chondrite normalized REE patterns show low enrichment in LREEs relative to HREEs. The negative Nb and Ti anomalies in primitive mantle and MORB-normalized multi-element diagrams of the rocks are characteristic of island arc magmas. Also, enrichment in LILE and depletion of HFSE may indicate a subduction-related tectonic setting. According to geological and geochemical evidence, Imam-Zadeh Hashem ultramafic and sub-alkaline gabbro rocks can be as a part of the Southern Caspian Sea Ophiolite sequence (SCO that formed in a suprasubduction tectonic system.

  2. Palaeoproterozoic mafic and intermediate metavolcanic rocks in the Turku area, SW Finland

    Markku Väisänen


    Full Text Available Twenty two samples were analysed from mafic and intermediate volcanic rocks from the Turku area along ~60 km long north-south geotraverse. Geographically and lithologically the samples were divided into the Pargas, Turku and Vahto groups. The Pargas and Turku groups consist of mafic units and intercalations within migmatitic gneisses. Their geochemical compositions are very similar. In average, they show quite flat REE curves and the multielement diagrams show moderate LILE enrichments, minor negative Ta-Nb anomalies and straight HFSE curves. We infer these as transitional between MORB and VAB. The Vahtogroup consists of thicker volcanic sequences in connection with synorogenic plutonic rocks. The data show enriched LREEs, LILEs, Th and P combined with negative Ta-Nb anomalies, i.e. the Vahto group shows subduction component. We interpret that the Vahto volcanicrocks belong to the Häme belt. The geochemical data indicate that the Pargas and Turku groups were formed in extensional, possibly back-arc or intra-arc setting while the Vahto group was formed at continental volcanic arc.

  3. Petrogenesis of Mesoproterozoic lamproite dykes from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western Cuddapah Basin, southern India

    Rao, N. V. Chalapathi; Atiullah; Kumar, Alok; Sahoo, Samarendra; Nanda, Purnendu; Chahong, Ngazimpi; Lehmann, B.; Rao, K. V. S.


    We report mineral chemistry and whole-rock major and trace-element geochemistry for a recent find of Mesoproterozoic (~1.4 Ga) lamproites from the Garledinne (Banganapalle) cluster, south-western part of the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic Cuddapah Basin, southern India. The Garledinne lamproites occur as WNW-ESE-trending dykes that have undergone varying degree of pervasive silicification and carbonate alteration. Nevertheless, their overall texture and relict mineralogy remain intact and provide important insights into the nature of their magmas. The lamproite dykes have porphyritic to weakly porphyritic textures comprising pseudomorphed olivine macrocrysts and microphenocrysts, titanian phlogopite microphenocrysts, spinel having a compositional range from chromite to rarely magnesiochromite, Sr-rich apatite and niobian rutile. The Garledinne and other Cuddapah Basin lamproites (Chelima and Zangamarajupalle) collectively lack sanidine, clinopyroxene, potassic richterite, and titanite and are thus mineralogically distinct from the nearby Mesoproterozoic lamproites (Krishna and Ramadugu) in the Eastern Dharwar Craton, southern India. The strong correlation between various major and trace elements coupled with high abundances of incompatible and compatible trace elements imply that alteration and crustal contamination have had a limited effect on the whole-rock geochemistry (apart from K2O and CaO) of the Garledinne lamproites and that olivine fractionation played an important role in their evolution. The Garledinne lamproites represent small-degree partial melts derived from a refractory (previously melt extracted) peridotitic mantle source that was subsequently metasomatised (enriched) by carbonate-rich fluids/melts within the garnet stability field. The involvement of multiple reservoirs (sub-continental lithospheric mantle and asthenosphere) has been inferred in their genesis. The emplacement of the Garledinne lamproites is linked to extensional events, across the various

  4. Late orogenic mafic magmatism in the North Cascades, Washington: Petrology and tectonic setting of the Skymo layered intrusion

    Whitney, D.L.; Tepper, J.H.; Hirschmann, M.M.; Hurlow, H.A.


    The Skymo Complex in the North Cascades, Washington, is a layered mafic intrusion within the Ross Lake fault zone, a major orogen-parallel structure at the eastern margin of the Cascades crystalline core. The complex is composed dominantly of troctolite and gabbro, both with inclusions of primitive olivine gabbro. Low-pressure minerals in the metasedimentary contact aureole and early crystallization of olivine + plagioclase in the mafic rocks indicate the intrusion was emplaced at shallow depths (magmatism. The Skymo mafic complex and the Golden Horn granite were emplaced during regional extension and collapse of the North Cascades orogen and represent the end of large-scale magmatism in the North Cascades continental arc. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  5. Post-collisional Tertiary–Quaternary mafic alkalic magmatism in the Carpathian–Pannonian region: a review

    Seghedi, I.; Downes, Hilary; O. Vaselli; Szakács, A.; Balogh, K.; Z. Pécskay


    Mafic alkalic volcanism was widespread in the Carpathian–Pannonian region (CPR) between 11 and 0.2 Ma. It followed the Miocene continental collision of the Alcapa and Tisia blocks with the European plate, as subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism was waning. Several groups of mafic alkalic rocks from different regions within the CPR have been distinguished on the basis of ages and/or trace-element compositions. Their trace element and Sr–Nd–Pb isotope systematics are consistent with deriv...

  6. Neoproterozoic ultramafic and mafic magmatism in the Eastern Cordillera of the central peruvian Andes: the Tapo Massif

    Tassinari, Colombo G.; Castroviejo Bolibar, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Jose F.; Acosta, Jorge; Pereira, Eurico


    A highly dismembered assemblage of ultramafic and mafic rocks is exposed in the Eastern Cordillera of the Central Peruvian Andes, extending along a discontinuous NW-SE belt over some 250 km between 12° and 9° S of latitude. One of the most important occurrences is the Tapo Mafic-Ultramafic Complex, which occurs at 3750 to 4200 m above sea level, 2 km to the west of Tapo locality, in the Tarma province, about 200 Km west of Lima. The Tapo complex is a lens-shaped body, 5 km long and 1-2...

  7. Postcollisional mafic igneous rocks record recycling of noble gases by deep subduction of the continental crust

    Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei; He, Huai-Yu; Zhao, Zi-Fu


    Recycling of noble gases from crustal rocks into the mantle is indicated not only by oceanic basalts and mantle xenoliths, but also by ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens. It is intriguing whether noble gases in continental crust were recycled into the mantle by deep subduction of the continental crust to mantle depths. Here we firstly report the He, Ne and Ar isotopic compositions of pyroxene from postcollisional mafic igneous rocks in the Dabie orogen, China. The results show that the pyroxene separates from the mafic rocks have low 3He/4He ratios of 0.002 to 1.8 Ra and air-like Ne isotope compositions. Furthermore, the pyroxene exhibits low 40Ar/36Ar ratios of 393.6 to 1599.8, close to those of the air. In combination with whole-rock geochemistry it is found that pyroxene 3He/4He ratios are correlated with whole-rock (La/Yb)N and Sr/Y ratios, εNd(t) values and MgO contents. These observations demonstrate the mass transfer from the deeply subducted continental crust to the overlying mantle wedge, recording the source mixing between the crust-derived melt and the mantle peridotite in the continental subduction zone. A direct addition of the crustal He via crust-derived melt to the mantle leads to the extremely low 3He/4He ratios in the orogenic lithospheric mantle, and the dissolved atmospheric Ar and Ne in the subducted supracrustal rocks results in the air-like Ar and Ne isotope ratios. Therefore, the noble gas isotopic signatures of supracrustal rocks were carried into the mantle by the continental deep subduction to subarc depths and then transferred to the postcollisional mafic igneous rocks via the melt-peridotite reaction at the slab-mantle interface in a continental subduction channel. Our finding firstly establishes the slab-mantle interaction model for recycling of supracrustal noble gases in the continental subduction zone.

  8. Thorium isotope evidence for melting of the mafic oceanic crust beneath the Izu arc

    Freymuth, Heye; Ivko, Ben; Gill, James B.; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Elliott, Tim


    We address the question of whether melting of the mafic oceanic crust occurs beneath ordinary volcanic arcs using constraints from U-Series (238U/232Th, 230Th/232Th and 226Ra/230Th) measurements. Alteration of the top few hundred meters of the mafic crust leads to strong U enrichment. Via decay of 238U to 230Th, this results in elevated (230Th/232Th) (where brackets indicate activity ratios) over time-scales of ∼350 ka. This process leads to the high (230Th/232Th), between 2.6 and 11.0 in the mafic altered oceanic crust (AOC) sampled at ODP Sites 801 and 1149 near the Izu-Bonin-Mariana arc. Th activity ratios in the Izu arc lavas range from (230Th/232Th) = 1.2-2.0. These values are substantially higher than those in bulk sediment subducting at the Izu trench and also extend to higher values than in mid-ocean ridge basalts and the Mariana arc. We show that the range in Th isotope ratios in the Izu arc lavas is consistent with the presence of a slab melt from a mixed source consisting of AOC and subducted sediments with an AOC mass fraction of up to approximately 80 wt.% in the component added to the arc lava source. The oceanic plate subducting at the Izu arc is comparatively cold which therefore indicates that temperatures high enough for fluid-saturated melting of the AOC are commonly achieved beneath volcanic arcs. The high ratio of AOC/sediments of the slab melt component suggested for the Izu arc lavas requires preferential melting of the AOC. This can be achieved when fluid-saturated melting of the slab is triggered by fluids derived from underlying subducted serpentinites. Dehydration of serpentinites and migration of the fluid into the overlying crust causes melting to start within the AOC. The absence of a significant sediment melt component suggests there was insufficient water to flux both AOC and overlying sediments.

  9. Magmatism and metamorphism at the sheeted dyke-gabbro transition zone: new insight from beerbachite from ODP/IODP Hole 1256D and Oman ophiolite

    Python, Marie; Abily, Bénédicte; France, Lydéric


    During IODP Expedition 335, two-pyroxenes bearing granulites (beerbachites) were extensively recovered as drilling cuttings at the gabbro-sheeted dyke transition zone of ODP Hole 1256D (East Pacific Rise, 6°44.163'N, 91°56.061'W). This lithology results from high-temperature metamorphism of previously hydrothermally altered diabases, basalts and/or gabbros; the heat source likely stems from the melt lens located at the top of the magmatic chambers imaged along present-day fast-spreading ridges. This lithology, associated with gabbroic bodies, characterises the transition zone between the sheeted dyke complex and the uppermost gabbroic section and represents the interface between magmatic and hydrothermal convecting systems in an oceanic crust formed at fast-spreading ridges. Samples acquired during IODP Exp. 335 show a particularly high degree of recrystallisation and are characterised by the absence of hydrous phases like amphibole, suggesting very high-T metamorphism. The Beerbachites mineral chemical characteristics are rather homogeneous compared to gabbros or dolerite from the sheeted dyke but pyroxenes Mg#, Ti, Al and Cr contents as well as the anorthite content of plagioclase are closer to gabbro than dolerite. This similarity may be explained by two hypothesis: either beerbachites in Hole 1256D are metamorphosed gabbros, or they underwent a melt-rock reaction process with the gabbros parental magma and were re-equilibrated at high temperature until their mineral composition become similar to that of gabbros. The gabbro-sheeted dyke transition zone in the Oman ophiolite is also outlined by the presence of high grade metamorphic rocks. Fine grained granulites and amphibolites that may be derived from the transformation of altered sheeted dyke diabases are in direct contact with fresh gabbroic and troctolitic bodies which are themselves cross-cut by dolerite dykes. The observation of textures show that high-T recrystallisation occurred in the fine grained

  10. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics.

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Kang; Rudnick, Roberta L


    The Archean Eon witnessed the production of early continental crust, the emergence of life, and fundamental changes to the atmosphere. The nature of the first continental crust, which was the interface between the surface and deep Earth, has been obscured by the weathering, erosion, and tectonism that followed its formation. We used Ni/Co and Cr/Zn ratios in Archean terrigenous sedimentary rocks and Archean igneous/metaigneous rocks to track the bulk MgO composition of the Archean upper continental crust. This crust evolved from a highly mafic bulk composition before 3.0 billion years ago to a felsic bulk composition by 2.5 billion years ago. This compositional change was attended by a fivefold increase in the mass of the upper continental crust due to addition of granitic rocks, suggesting the onset of global plate tectonics at ~3.0 billion years ago. PMID:26798012

  11. Archean upper crust transition from mafic to felsic marks the onset of plate tectonics

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Kang; Rudnick, Roberta L.


    The Archean Eon witnessed the production of early continental crust, the emergence of life, and fundamental changes to the atmosphere. The nature of the first continental crust, which was the interface between the surface and deep Earth, has been obscured by the weathering, erosion, and tectonism that followed its formation. We used Ni/Co and Cr/Zn ratios in Archean terrigenous sedimentary rocks and Archean igneous/metaigneous rocks to track the bulk MgO composition of the Archean upper continental crust. This crust evolved from a highly mafic bulk composition before 3.0 billion years ago to a felsic bulk composition by 2.5 billion years ago. This compositional change was attended by a fivefold increase in the mass of the upper continental crust due to addition of granitic rocks, suggesting the onset of global plate tectonics at ~3.0 billion years ago.

  12. Hydraulic fracturing as a possible mechanism of dyke-sill transitions and horizontal discordant intrusions in trachytic tabular bodies of Arraial do Cabo, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    S.E. Sichel


    Full Text Available This paper presents some field descriptions and genetic considerations about dyke-sill transitions and horizontal-discordant intrusions of the early Tertiary felsic alkaline dyke swarm at Arraial do Cabo, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two examples show the entire process of dyke-sill transition. Near sea level they are vertical-discordant; at middle height, oblique-concordant; at the top of the cliff, horizontal-discordant. The latter process cannot be explained by a traditional model of magma intrusion along weaknesses in the host body. It can be accounted for by hydraulic fracturing: magma pressure creates a new fracture normal to σ3, regardless of whether old fracture systems exist. The dyke-sill transition takes place at a depth such that σ3 changes direction from horizontal to vertical. In the specific case described here, the stress change could be caused by intrusion and volume expansion of the Cabo Frio Island syenitic body.

  13. Contrasting Peridotite Types in the Dabie UHP Belt, Eastern China: the Raobazhai and Bixiling Ultramafic-mafic Complex

    Jianping Zheng; Min Sun; W. L. Griffin; Mei-Fu Zhou; Guochun Zhao


    @@ The Dabie UHP metamorphic belt, central China,contains two contrasting types of mafic-ultramafic complex. The Bixiling peridotite in the southern Dabie terrane contains abundant garnet (21.1-32.2 vol% )and thus has high CaO + Al2O3 (9.81-15.9 wt% ).

  14. Triassic mafic and intermediate magmatism associated with continental collision between the North and South China Cratons in the Korean Peninsula

    Yi, Sang-Bong; Oh, Chang Whan; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Choi, Seon-Gyu; Kim, Taesung; Yi, Keewook


    Triassic coeval mafic and intermediate magmatism occurred in the area suggested to be the southern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Gyeonggi Massif (GM) of the Korean Peninsula. This study investigates aspects of the mafic and intermediate magmatism using SHRIMP zircon ages and whole-rock chemical and isotopic Sr-Nd data. The mafic and intermediate rocks intruded into a basement paragneiss in three areas (Yangpyeong, Odesan and Yangyang) within the GM at ca. 230 Ma. The paragneiss was metamorphosed in both the Paleoproterozoic and Triassic. Gabbros (hornblende gabbro and pyroxene-mica gabbro) from the study areas exhibit strong light REE (LREE) enrichment relative to chondrite (LaN/YbN = 11.1-30.6) and a high LILE/HFSE pattern, Ta-Nb-P-Ti troughs and positive Ba-K-Pb-Sr spikes on the N-MORB-normalized multi-element variation diagram. These features are typical characteristics of arc-related gabbros. The gabbros also show strongly enriched initial isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7100-0.7137; εNd(t) = - 13.1 to - 19.7). The coeval intermediate intrusive rocks also exhibit whole-rock chemical and isotopic features (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7099-0.7143; εNd(t) = - 10.8 to - 18.6) similar to those of the gabbros. The mafic and intermediate intrusive rocks plot in the within-plate and/or post-collisional fields on tectonic discrimination diagrams. These data indicate that the mafic and intermediate magmatism in the study areas occurred during the Triassic post-collisional relaxation period via partial melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) that was enriched in a subduction environment prior to (or during) the Permo-Triassic continental collision between the NCC and the South China Craton (SCC). The highly enriched mantle signatures revealed by the gabbros from the study areas are matched to the enriched features identified in Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks (ca. 130 Ma) on the southern margin of the NCC. Thus, this study suggests that the

  15. Interaction between magmatic and tectonic stresses during dyke intrusion Interacción entre esfuerzos magmáticos y tectónicos durante la intrusión de diques

    Jorge Skarmeta


    Cataclastic and mylonitic rocks exposed in the southwestern part of the Peninsula de Mejillones, northern Chile, are intruded at high angles of the foliation by younger, steeply inclined (±70°) basaltic dykes that resemble intrusive tension gashes with knife-edge contacts with the country rocks. These late dykes developed sigmoidaly-shaped, preferred orientation paths defined by oriented pyroxene phenocrysts that vary in size, aspect ratio, concentration and distribution across the width of a...

  16. The carbonatite-marble dykes of Abyan Province, Yemen Republic: the mixing of mantle and crustal carbonate materials revealed by isotope and trace element analysis

    Le Bas, M. J.; Ba-Bttat, M. A. O.; Taylor, R. N.; Milton, J. A.; Windley, B. F.; Evins, P. M.


    Dykes of carbonate rocks, that cut gneisses in the Lowder-Mudiah area of southern Yemen, consist of dolomite and/or calcite with or without apatite, barite and monazite. Petrographic observations, mineralogical, XRF and ICP-MS analyses reveal that some of the carbonate rocks are derived from sedimentary protoliths, whereas others are magmatic calcio- and magnesio-carbonatites some of which are mineralized with barite-monazite. The interbanded occurrence and apparent contemporary emplacement of these different rock types within individual dykes, backed by Sr Nd isotope evidence, are interpreted to show that intrusion of mantle-derived carbonatite magma was accompanied by mobilization of crustal marbles. That took place some 840 Ma ago but the REE-mineralization is dated at ca. 400 Ma.

  17. Sheeted and bulbous pluton intrusion mechanisms of a small granitoid from southeastern Australia: implications for dyke-to-pluton transformation during emplacement

    Fowler, T. J.


    The small late syn-tectonic Carboniferous Davys Creek Granite (DCG) of southeastern Australia consists of microgranitic intrusive bodies of diverse geometry and structure. These bodies include: (1) subvertical concordant sheets; (2) bulbous peneconcordant plutons with apophyses and discordant lobes; and (3) subvertical dykes and stocks. The sequence of changing intrusive style is broadly 1-2-3. Transition from 1 to 2 was probably a response to rising magma pressures or declining tectonic stresses. The λ parameter of Emerman and Marrett (1990), which discriminates between stable sheet-like and potential stock/pluton/batholith emplacement modes, adequately predicts the transitions between sheet and pluton emplacements for the DCG. Ductile dyking along actively forming foliations appears to have been an important early intrusive mechanism. A transition from sheet to bulbous pluton intrusion style is suggested to have been in response to magma pressure increases.

  18. Re-interpretation of zircon date in a carbonatite dyke at the Bayan Obo giant REE-Fe-Nb deposit,China


    @@ Recent re-valuation of the dating of the carbonatite dykes associated with the REE-Fe-Nb giant deposit at Bayan Obo has revealed an anomaly with one of the dates. Inspection of the post-1990 literature for the carbonatite dykes and H8 dolomite rocks and ores of Bayan Obo provides age data in the range 1223 +65 Ma to 1656 Ma, as Table 1 shows. Since Sm and Nd are relatively immobile elements, most of the Sm-Nd dates are considered to be little changed by the subsequent mineralization processes. That the dates occur in two clusters, 1656 ~ 1500 Ma and 1312 ~ 1223 Ma might refer to two related periods of carbonatitic magmatic activity, but that is not relevant at this moment.

  19. 津巴布韦大岩墙铂族金属资源开发现状%Development Status of PGM Resources in Zimbabwe's Great Dyke

    赵声贵; 陈元初


    介绍了津巴布韦大岩墙上铂族金属资源的特点、分布及开发情况,对津巴布韦在产铂金矿山的资源、矿石开采及选冶加工工艺、产能规模等基本情况进行总结,指出采矿是大规模开发津巴布韦大岩墙铂族金属资源的关键.%Characters and distribution of PGM resources in Zimbabwe's Great Dyke were introduced. The PGM resource, mining, processing and production capability of platinum mine in Zimbabwe were summarized in details. Indicate that mining is the key to develop the PGM resources in Zimbabwe's Great Dyke.

  20. Contribution of the FUTUREVOLC project to the study of segmented lateral dyke growth in the 2014 rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland

    Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; Rafn Heimisson, Elías; Dumont, Stéphanie; Parks, Michelle; Spaans, Karsten; Guðmundsson, Gunnar B.; Drouin, Vincent; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Samsonov, Sergey; Brandsdóttir, Bryndís; White, Robert S.; Ágústsdóttir, Thorbjörg; Björnsson, Helgi; Bean, Christopher J.


    The FUTUREVOLC project (a 26-partner project funded by FP7 Environment Programme of the European Commission, addressing topic "Long-term monitoring experiment in geologically active regions of Europe prone to natural hazards: the Supersite concept) set aims to (i) establish an innovative volcano monitoring system and strategy, (ii) develop new methods for near real-time integration of multi-parametric datasets, (iii) apply a seamless transdisciplinary approach to further scientific understanding of magmatic processes, and (iv) to improve delivery, quality and timeliness of transdisciplinary information from monitoring scientists to civil protection. The project duration is 1 October 2012 - 31 March 2016. Unrest and volcanic activity since August 2014 at one of the focus areas of the project in Iceland, at the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, near the middle of the project duration, has offered unique opportunities for this project. On 16 August 2014 an intense seismic swarm started in Bárðarbunga, the beginning of a major volcano-tectonic rifting event forming over 45 km long dyke extending from the caldera to Holuhraun lava field outside the northern margin of Vatnajökull. A large basaltic, effusive fissure eruption began in Holuhraun on 31 August which had by January formed a lava field with a volume in excess of one cubic kilometre. We document how the FUTUREVOLC project has contributed to the study and response to the subsurface dyke formation, through increased seismic and geodetic coverage and joint interpreation of the data. The dyke intrusion in the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, grew laterally for over 45 km at a variable rate, with an influence of topography on the direction of propagation. Barriers at the ends of each segment were overcome by the build-up of pressure in the dyke end; then a new segment formed and dyke lengthening temporarily peaked. The dyke evolution, which occurred over 14 days, was revealed by propagating seismicity, ground

  1. Platinum-group element concentrations in pyrite from the Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe

    Piña, R.; Gervilla, F.; Barnes, S.-J.; Oberthür, T.; Lunar, R.


    The Main Sulfide Zone (MSZ) of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe hosts the world's second largest resource of platinum-group elements (PGE) after the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The sulfide assemblage of the MSZ comprises pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and minor pyrite. Recently, several studies have observed in a number of Ni-Cu-PGE ore deposits that pyrite may host significant amounts of PGE, particularly Pt and Rh. In this study, we have determined PGE and other trace element contents in pyrite from the Hartley, Ngezi, Unki, and Mimosa mines of the Great Dyke by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Based on the textures and PGE contents, two types of pyrite can be differentiated. Py1 occurs as individual euhedral or subhedral grains or clusters of crystals mostly within chalcopyrite and pentlandite, in some cases in the form of symplectitic intergrowths, and is PGE rich (up to 99 ppm Pt and 61 ppm Rh; 1.7 to 47.1 ppm Ru, 0.1 to 7.8 ppm Os, and 1.2 to 20.2 ppm Ir). Py2 occurs as small individual euhedral or subhedral crystals within pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and less frequently within chalcopyrite and silicates and has low PGE contents (<0.11 ppm Pt, <0.34 ppm Rh, <2.5 ppm Ru, <0.37 ppm Ir, and <0.40 ppm Os). Py1 contains higher Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt contents than the associated pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite, whereas Py2 has similar PGE contents as coexisting pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Based on the textural relationships, two different origins are attributed for each pyrite type. Py1 intergrowth with pentlandite and chalcopyrite is inferred to have formed by late, low temperature (<300 °C) decomposition of residual Ni-rich monosulfide solid solution, whereas Py2 is suggested to have formed by replacement of pyrrhotite and pentlandite caused by late magmatic/hydrothermal fluids.

  2. Design of sea dyke works in Zhuhai Hengqin port service area%珠海横琴新区口岸服务区段堤岸工程设计

    柏宝忠; 吴雄远; 周志业


    介绍了珠海横琴新区口岸服务区段堤岸工程的概况,分析了堤岸工程设计的重点和难点。对堤岸断面设计、基础处理设计、涵洞结构设计以及工程耐久性设计等方面作了详细论述。说明了口岸服务区段堤岸工程设计不同于常规堤岸工程的特点和要求。目前,横琴新区基础设施工程的设计、施工正处于高峰阶段,该工程的一些设计经验对类似工程具有参考、借鉴作用。%The general conditions of sea dyke works in Zhuhai Hengqin port service area are introduced, the critical and diffi-cult points in the design of dyke works are analyzed, especially the dyke section design, foundation treatment, culvert structure and dyke durability. The characteristics and requirements of the dyke works in the port service area, which is different from the conventional dyke works, are explained. At present, the design and construction of infrastructure works in this area are in peak period, some experiences and measures can provide reference for the similar works.

  3. The Importance of Sampling Strategies on AMS Determination of Dykes II. Further Examples from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano, Oahu, Hawaii

    Mendoza-Borunda, R.; Herrero-Bervera, E.; Canon-Tapia, E.


    Recent work has suggested the convenience of dyke sampling along several profiles parallel and perpendicular to its walls to increase the probability of determining a geologically significant magma flow direction using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) measurements. For this work, we have resampled in great detail some dykes from the Kapaa Quarry, Koolau Volcano in Oahu Hawaii, comparing the results of a more detailed sampling scheme with those obtained previously with a traditional sampling scheme. In addition to the AMS results we will show magnetic properties, including magnetic grain sizes, Curie points and AMS measured at two different frequencies on a new MFK1-FA Spinner Kappabridge. Our results thus far provide further empirical evidence supporting the occurrence of a definite cyclic fabric acquisition during the emplacement of at least some of the dykes. This cyclic behavior can be captured using the new sampling scheme, but might be easily overlooked if the simple, more traditional sampling scheme is used. Consequently, previous claims concerning the advantages of adopting a more complex sampling scheme are justified since this approach can serve to reduce the uncertainty in the interpretation of AMS results.

  4. Mantle evolution in the Variscides of SW England: Geochemical and isotopic constraints from mafic rocks

    Dupuis, Nicolle E.; Murphy, J. Brendan; Braid, James A.; Shail, Robin K.; Nance, R. Damian


    The geology of SW England has long been interpreted to reflect Variscan collisional processes associated with the closure of the Rhenohercynian Ocean and the formation of Pangea. The Cornish peninsula is composed largely of Early Devonian to Late Carboniferous volcanosedimentary successions that were deposited in pre- and syn-collisional basins and were subsequently metamorphosed and deformed during the Variscan orogeny. Voluminous Early Permian granitic magmatism (Cornubian Batholith) is broadly coeval with the emplacement of ca. 280-295 Ma lamprophyric dykes and flows. Although these lamprophyres are well mapped and documented, the processes responsible for their genesis and their relationship with regional Variscan tectonic events are less understood. Pre- to syn-collisional basalts have intra-continental alkalic affinities, and have REE profiles consistent with derivation from the spinel-garnet lherzolite boundary. εNd values for the basalts range from + 0.37 to + 5.2 and TDM ages from 595 Ma to 705 Ma. The lamprophyres are extremely enriched in light rare earth elements, large iron lithophile elements, and are depleted in heavy rare earth elements, suggesting a deep, garnet lherzolite source that was previously metasomatised. They display εNd values ranging from - 1.4 to + 1.4, initial Sr values of ca. 0.706, and TDM ages from 671 Ma to 1031 Ma, suggesting that metasomatism occurred in the Neoproterozoic. Lamprophyres and coeval granite batholiths of similar chemistry to those in Cornwall occur in other regions of the Variscan orogen, including Iberia and Bohemia. By using new geochemical and isotopic data to constrain the evolution of the mantle beneath SW England and the processes associated with the formation of these post-collisional rocks, we may be able to gain a more complete understanding of mantle processes during the waning stages of supercontinent formation.

  5. Charnockitic ortho gneisses and mafic granulite s of the Cerro Olivo complex, south-east Uruguay, Part 2: lithogeochemistry, mineral o chemistry and thermo barometry

    The Cerro Olivo complex in SE-Uruguay shows different kinds of orthogneisses containing biotite, amphibole and/or orthopyroxene-biotite (charnockitic gneisses). Minor occurrences of mafic granulites are associated. They include low and high pressure kinds. We present the lithogeochemistry and compared mineral chemistry analyses of both the charnockitic orthogneisses and the mafic rocks. Theres i a calc-alkaline geochemical affinity of the biotite-bearing and charnockitic gneisses, while the mafic rocks could derive from tholeitic gabbros. These results allow discrininatieg two kinds of mafic rocks: Low and hight MgO contents, both representing respectively garnet-bearing and garnet-free mafic granulites. The orthopyroxene in the Opx-Bt orthogneisses in FE-rich while MgO-rich mafic rocks show hypersthenes. The thermobarometric data of mafic granulites show temperatures higher than 850°C and two contrasting mineral assemblages, one formed by ∼ 1 Kbar and 770° - 800°C (pre-M). and the other by 5.5 Kbar and 680-700° (M). The mineral chemistry suggests the occurrence of contrasting protoliths to explain the stability of two different mineral associations

  6. Evolution of high-pressure mafic granulites and pelitic gneisses from NE Madagascar: Tectonic implications

    Ishwar-Kumar, C.; Sajeev, K.; Windley, B. F.; Kusky, T. M.; Feng, P.; Ratheesh-Kumar, R. T.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Razakamanana, T.; Yagi, K.; Itaya, T.


    The occurrence of high-pressure mafic-ultramafic bodies within major shear zones is one of the indicators of paleo-subduction. In mafic granulites of the Andriamena complex (north-eastern Madagascar) we document unusual textures including garnet-clinopyroxene-quartz coronas that formed after the breakdown of orthopyroxene-plagioclase-ilmenite. Textural evidence and isochemical phase diagram calculations in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 system indicate a pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution from an isothermal (780 °C) pressure up to c. 24 kbar to decompression and cooling. Such a P-T trajectory is typically attained in a subduction zone setting where a gabbroic/ultramafic complex is subducted and later exhumed to the present crustal level during oceanic closure and final continental collision. The present results suggest that the presence of such deeply subducted rocks of the Andriamena complex is related to formation of the Betsimisaraka suture. LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon dating of pelitic gneisses from the Betsimisaraka suture yields low Th/U ratios and protolith ages ranging from 2535 to 2625 Ma. A granitic gneiss from the Alaotra complex yields a zircon crystallization age of ca. 818 Ma and Th/U ratios vary from 1.08 to 2.09. K-Ar dating of muscovite and biotite from biotite-kyanite-sillimanite gneiss and garnet-biotite gneiss yields age of 486 ± 9 Ma and 459 ± 9 Ma respectively. We have estimated regional crustal thicknesses in NE Madagascar using a flexural inversion technique, which indicates the presence of an anomalously thick crust (c. 43 km) beneath the Antananarivo block. This result is consistent with the present concept that subduction beneath the Antananarivo block resulted in a more competent and thicker crust. The textural data, thermodynamic model, and geophysical evidence together provide a new insight to the subduction history, crustal thickening and evolution of the high-pressure Andriamena complex and its link to the terminal

  7. Cl-rich hydrous mafic mineral assemblages in the Highiș massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Bonin, Bernard; Tatu, Mihai


    The Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) Highiș massif (Apuseni Mountains, Romania) displays a bimodal igneous suite of mafic (gabbro, diorite) and A-type felsic (alkali feldspar granite, albite granite, and hybrid granodiorite) rocks. Amphibole is widespread throughout the suite, and yields markedly high chlorine contents. Three groups are identified: Cl-rich potassic hastingsite (2.60-3.40 wt% Cl) within A-type felsic rocks and diorite, mildly Cl-rich pargasite to hornblende (0.80-1.90 wt% Cl) within gabbro, and low F-Cl hornblende within gabbro and hybrid granodiorite. Coexisting biotite is either Cl-rich within diorite, or F-Cl-poor to F-rich within A-type felsic rocks. Chlorine and fluorine are distributed in both mafic phases, according to the F-Fe and Cl-Mg avoidance rules. The low-Ti contents suggest subsolidus compositions. Cl-rich amphibole within diorite and A-type felsic rocks yields a restricted temperature range - from 575 °C down to 400 °C, whereas mildly Cl-rich amphibole within gabbro displays the highest range - from 675 to 360 °C. Temperatures recorded by Cl-rich biotite within diorite range from 590 to 410 °C. Biotite within A-type felsic rocks yields higher temperatures than amphibole: the highest values- from 640 to 540 °C - are recorded in low-F-Cl varieties, whereas the lowest values- from 535 to 500 °C - are displayed by F-rich varieties. All data point to halogen-rich hydrothermal fluids at upper greenschist facies conditions percolating through fractures and shear zones and pervasively permeating the whole Highiș massif, with F precipitating as interstitial fluorite and Cl incorporating into amphibole, during one, or possibly several, hydrothermal episodes that would have occurred during a ~ 150 My-long period of time extending from the Guadalupian (Mid-Permian) to the Albian (Mid-Cretaceous).

  8. The geochemistry, age, and origin of groundwater in a mafic pluton, East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is conducting geoscience investigations of several plutons in Canada's Precambrian Shield as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, to determine whether such rock masses are suitable for the safe disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The East Bull Lake (EBL) gabbro-anorthosite layered complex is unique in this program as it is the only mafic pluton in which hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical studies have been conducted. These results can be compared with those of similar studies of granitic rocks which have been investigated more extensively. During the period, 1983-85, hydrogeological testing and hydrochemical sampling were conducted by the National Hydrology Research Institute of Environment Canada and AECL in boreholes drilled to depths of up to 850 m into the EBL pluton (Raven et al., 1987). This paper discusses the hydrogeochemistry of the pluton and identifies the major rock-water interactions controlling the chemistry. The spatial variability in chemistry will be shown to be related to the nature of the groundwater flow systems present at this site. The ages and origins of the groundwaters and their solutes are inferred from isotopic analyses

  9. Petrogenesis of mafic magmatism in Arabia-Eurasia collision zone: valley filling flows in Armenia

    Meliksetian, Khachatur; Neill, Iain; Allen, Mark; Navasardyan, Gevorg


    The Turkish- Armenian-Iranian orogenic plateau grew after the Middle Miocene following the initial Paleogene Arabia- Eurasia collision. It is widely accepted, that uplift of the plateau is related to break-off of the southern Neo-Tethys slab beneath the Bitlis-Zagros Suture at ~15-10 Ma, coupled with continued plate convergence and regional crustal shortening. Since this time there has also been a widespread mantle-derived collision magmatism over large parts of NW Iran, Eastern Anatolia and the Lesser Caucasus, potentially hundreds of kilometres from the site of southern Neo-Tethys slab break-off, >10 Myr after the proposed break-off event. Detailed wholer rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data are presented for ~2.5 Ma trachy-basalt to trachy-basaltic andesite lavas erupted in Armenia in the South Caucasus. These thick (up to 400 m) mafic flows generated several plateaux within the Lesser Caucasus: the Javakheti Plateau (S Georgia and NW Armenia), and the Lori and Kotayk Plateaux (Armenia). These basalts sequences also extend to the NE Kars-Erzurum Plateau in eastern Turkey. It is demonstrated that studied series formed by Iranian Plateau, have Th/La ratios ≤ 0.2, much lower than the value of ~0.3 for continental crust, so infra-crustal recycling and/or lower crustal delamination are certainly required to produce andesitic high-Th/La bulk continental crust.

  10. Melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite minor intrusion in Mawpyut ultramafic–mafic complex, Jaintia Hills, Meghalaya

    Monoj Maitra; J S David; S Bhaduri


    Mawpyut igneous suite in Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya plateau comprises differentiated suite of ultramafic–mafic rocks. The complex differs from other ultramafic–alkaline–carbonatite igneous emplacements of Shillong plateau and Mikir Hills like Jesra, Sung, Samchampi complexes, by the absence of alkaline–carbonatite rocks as major litho-units. Melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite, occurs as late phase minor intrusion in Mawpyut igneous complex, posseses alkaline character and shows inubiquitous relation with the host ultramafic–mafic rocks. On the other hand, this alkaline intrusive bodies of the Mawpyut igneous complex shows chemico-mineralogical resemblance with garnet-bearing nepheline syenite, ijolite litho-members of Jesra, Sung, Samchampi complexes of the region. It is interpreted that melanite garnet-bearing nepheline syenite intrusion in Mawpyut is contemporaneous with Jesra, Sung, Samchampi ultramafic–alkaline–carbonatite complexes and the host rocks of Mawpyut complex is an earlier magmatic activity possibly from a comparatively least enriched source.

  11. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the mafic-ultramafic rock association from NW Senja, West Troms Basement Complex

    Priyatkina, Nadezda


    The studied mafic-ultramafic rock association occurs within Archean tonalitic gneisses and metasupracrustal suites of the Astridal belt belonging to the West Troms Basement Complex in the northwestern part of the Senja Island. The rock association appears in lens-shaped bodies, up to 200 m long, which are oriented conformal to the major metamorphic fabric of the host rock. The rock association is made up by interlayered units of green spinel-bearing olivine orthopyroxene-hornblendite, hornble...

  12. Thermal, chemical and isotopic homogenization of syn-extensional I-type plutons and mafic microgranular enclaves

    Tatar Erkül, Sibel; Erkül, Fuat; Uysal, İbrahim


    Magma mixing and mingling processes are common phenomenon in the evolution of granitoid magmas. This study deals with examination of mineral chemical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of enclaves and enclosing syn-extensional granite bodies in western Turkey to make an attempt to solve problems regarding their origin. Mafic microgranular enclaves have granodiorite, quartz monzonite, monzonite and monzodiorite compositions, are subalkaline/calc-alkaline and high-K in character and display typical mixing/mingling textures. Mafic enclaves have partially overlapping geochemical characteristics onto their host rocks in terms of mobile elements and their isotopes while distinct immobile element patterns occur within host rocks and enclaves. Contrasting geochemistry of enclaves is mainly defined by their low SiO2 and high MgO, Mg# and high Fe2O3 contents. Chondrite-normalized spidergrams of enclaves also reveal two contrasting patterns. One is relatively enriched in rare earth element content and the other is slightly enriched and displays relatively flat pattern. 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd contents of enclaves imply considerable amount of crustal input. Crustally derived felsic magma coeval with mafic magma have been chemically, thermally and mechanically exchanged with each other and resulting homogenization led to compositional and isotopic equilibration of mafic and felsic magmas. Fractional crystallization, mixing and the following crustal contamination were responsible for the final composition of syn-extensional granitoids. Such processes appear to have been widely occurred in continental extensional regime that caused melting and mixing of crustal and mantle sources at MOHO depth.

  13. Phase equilibrium constraints on the viscosity of silicic magmas with implications for mafic-silicic mixing processes

    Scaillet, Bruno; Whittington, Alan; Martel, Caroline; Pichavant, Michel; Holtz, François


    Isobaric crystallization paths obtained from phase equilibrium experiments show that, whereas in rhyolitic compositions melt fraction trends are distinctly eutectic-like, dacitic and more mafic compositions have their crystallinities linearly correlated with temperature. As a consequence, the viscosities of the latter continuously increase on cooling, whereas for the former they remain constant or even decrease during 80% of the crystallisation interval, which opens new perspectives for the f...

  14. Silicate geothermometry as an indicator of water-rock interaction processes in the serpentinized mafic-ultramafic intrusion of Ylivieska

    The aim of the study was to use oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to examine the origin of different generations of serpentine. Of special interest was the study of low-temperature generations that may be correlated with the present meteoric waters. The research was commenced with drill core logging in order to obtain insight into the fracture minerals and their distribution in a mafic-ultramafic intrusion. (39 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.)

  15. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.


    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  16. Electrical resistivity tomography investigations along the planned dykes of the HPP Brežice water accumulation basin

    Gorazd Rajh


    Full Text Available Geophysical investigations were conducted using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT along planned dykes of the HPP Brežice water accumulation basin. The ERT profile is 7.3 km long and is located on the right riverbank of the Sava River on the Kr{ko-Brežice field (E Slovenia. A purpose of the investigations was to determine a boundary between semipermeable Miocene and permeable Plio-Quaternary (Pl-Q and Quaternary (Q sediments for the proper design of the jet grouting sealing curtain, which will prevent lateral outflow of water from the accumulation basin. In this paper we present processing of the section between 5100 and 6100 m of the profile line. In this section the measurement template was set to 25 depth levels, because a significant increase in a thickness of the Pl-Q sediments was expected. Modelling of the measured apparent electrical resistivity data was carried out with RES2DINV and RESIX 2DI inversion software. Different inversion parameters were used to create 15 geoelectrical models for each program, which were then compared and evaluated based on borehole data and on previous geological investigations of the area. With the final geoelectrical models it was possible to successfully determine areas of three expected stratigraphic members and limit an electrical resistivity range for each one of them. The boundary is well defined between Q and Pl-Q and also between Q and Miocene sediments with sharp contrast in electrical resistivity between them. A boundary between Pl-Q and Miocene sediments was not that obvious, but it was possible to determine its shape by the use of different inversion parameters. We propose a simplified geological cross section based on the interpreted geoelectrical models and borehole data.

  17. Geochemistry and petrology of mafic enclaves of metasedimentary origin: case study from the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, California

    Liao, K.; Morton, D.; Lee, C.


    Dark clasts rich in amphibole or biotite, commonly referred to as "mafic enclaves", are frequently found in felsic plutons and are traditionally interpreted to represent fragments of mafic magmas, such as basalt, entrained by or intruded into felsic magma bodies. However, during emplacement, magmas often assimilate pre-existing wallrock, begging the question of whether some dark enclaves might have non-igneous protoliths. To investigate this process of forming dark enclaves in more detail, we examined the Cretaceous Domenigoni Valley pluton in the Peninsular Ranges Batholith in southern California. This pluton was emplaced into pre-existing metamorphic country rock, composed of Paleozoic to early Mesozoic calc-silicates, phyllites, and calcareous quartzites. Dark enclaves, in the form of amphibole- or biotite-bearing angular fragments, are abundant in the pluton. However, evidence for wallrock stoping is also seen in the extensive presence of wallrock xenoliths in varying extents of thermal and chemical equilibration with the host tonalite pluton. Enclaves with a clear calc-silicate protolith are represented by quartz-diopside-wollastonite-plagioclase rocks, whereas enclaves with clear pelitic protoliths are represented by biotite-quartz-alkali feldspar rocks. Several lines of evidence, however, suggest that the dark amphibole-rich and biotite-rich enclaves, although mafic in composition (high Mg and Fe), represent the fully equilibrated state of these assimilated wallrocks rather than fragments of basaltic magmas. First, many of the dark, biotite- and amphibole-bearing enclaves have SiO2 contents greater than 60 %, too high to represent typical mafic magmas. Second, although some biotite-rich enclaves have SiO2 contents dark amphibole-bearing enclaves have bulk Al and K lower than the host tonalite but similar to the quartz-diopside-wollastonite-plagioclase rocks thought to have a calc-silicate protolith. Fourth, composite enclaves exist wherein hornblende

  18. Petrology of Mafic Bodies Associated with the Eocene "A-type" Golden Horn Batholith, North Cascades, WA

    Berkelhammer, S.; Tepper, J. H.; Petro, G. T.; Eckles, E. H.


    The 49 Ma Golden Horn batholith, the only "A-type" granite in the WA Cascades, is associated with coeval mafic bodies that represent samples of mantle-derived magmas that were present during melting and emplacement of the batholith. The most voluminous mafic rocks are dikes up to 10 m wide that occur in a NW-trending 48 Ma swarm roughly parallel to (but outside of) the SW margin of the batholith. Dike lithologies include hornblende lamprophyres, biotite-hornblende diorites, and hornblende-biotite tonalites. Mafic rocks also occur as plutons within the batholith, one studied example being the 48.4 Ma olivine-bearing pyroxene diorite at Cutthroat Peak. All of the Golden Horn mafic rocks have spidergrams with HFSE depletions that suggest an arc setting. They can be divided on the basis of chemistry into 5 types: low-silica adakites (LSA), high-silica adakites (HSA), Nb-enriched basalts (NEB), high-Nb basalts (HNB), and "typical" arc basalts (TAB). HSA traits (800-1400 ppm Sr, La/Ybn = 11-23, low HREE contents, SiO2 >60 wt. %) are consistent with an eclogite (slab) source. Conversely, the LSA (860-1100 ppm Sr, La/Ybn = 21-25, up to 650 ppm Cr, SiO2 peridotite sources. Traits of the TAB, represented by the Cutthroat Peak diorite (46-50 wt. % SiO2; La/Ybn = 3.5-6.1) suggest derivation from a mantle wedge without slab melt (eclogite) involvement. We suggest that the LSA, NEB, and HNB originated by melting of mantle wedge that had been enriched with (or assimilated by) slab melts, the latter possibly represented by the HSA. Elevated temperatures necessary for slab melting are associated with slab windows, and plate motion reconstructions (Engebretson et al., 1985) are compatible with migration of the Kula-Farallon slab window beneath the Golden Horn area during the mid-Eocene. Passage of this slab window provides an explanation for adakite formation and perhaps also enhanced lower crustal melting to produce the granitoid rocks. Pb, Sr, and Nd work is currently underway to

  19. Microchemistry of amphiboles near the roof of a mafic magma chamber: Insights into high level melt evolution

    Murphy, J. Brendan; Blais, Stephanie A.; Tubrett, Michael; McNeil, Daniel; Middleton, Matthew


    The Late Neoproterozoic Greendale Complex, located within the Avalon terrane of Nova Scotia, is a suite of appinitic rocks ranging from ultramafic to felsic in composition that were intruded during regional ensialic arc magmatism and crystallized at shallow crustal levels under conditions of high pH2O. Amphibole is the dominant mafic mineral in ultramafic to mafic rocks and displays the extraordinary variability in texture and modal abundance that is characteristic of appinite suites. These features allow sensitivity of amphibole composition (major, trace and REE) to the evolution of water-rich magma to be investigated. All amphiboles in mafic and ultramafic rocks are calcic, with (Ca + Na)B ≥ 1.34 and SiIV between 6.1 and 7.3. They predominantly range in composition from tschermakite to magnesiohornblende and display a dominance of edenite (Na,KA + AlIV = SiIV) substitution. Although each sample exhibits remarkably uniform Mg# over a wide range in Si of up to one formula unit, the mafic rock amphiboles are characterized by lower (0.5 to 0.7) Mg#, compared to the ultramafic rocks (0.7 and 0.9). REE profiles are bow-shaped, and are characterized by depletion in LREE (La/Sm ≈ 0.61), a slight depletion in HREE (Gd/Yb ≈ 1.55) as well as a negative Eu anomaly, which is attributed to co-precipitation of plagioclase. REE and trace element profiles of ultramafic amphiboles are divided into two groupings. Group A amphiboles occur in all specimens analyzed and their REE profiles are very similar to the whole-rock analyses of the mafic rocks and to those predicted from amphibole/melt partition coefficients. In contrast, Group B amphiboles display relative enrichment in light REEs (La/Sm ≈ 2.05), have lower ΣREE, and lack a negative Eu anomaly relative to Sm and Gd. Group B amphiboles are more enriched in Th and U and show a more pronounced depletion in Nb, Ti, Y and HREE. Group B amphiboles probably grew in a reaction relationship with olivine and pyroxene, and their

  20. Paleomagnetism of Proterozoic mafic dikes from the Tobacco Root Mountains, southwest Montana

    Harlan, S.S.; Geissman, J. Wm; Snee, L.W.


    Paleomagnetic data from Proterozoic mafic dikes in southwestern Montana provides evidence for two distinct episodes of subparallel dike emplacement at ca. 1450 and 780 Ma. Published geochemical data from dikes in the southern Tobacco Root Mountains has identified three distinct compositional groups, termed groups A, B, and C. Geochronological data from the group A dikes yielded a Sm-Nd age of 1448 ?? 49 Ma. Emplacement of these dikes is thought to reflect mafic magmatism associated with extension accompanying development of the adjacent Mesoproterozoic Belt Basin. Paleomagnetic results from these dikes and a group C dike yield antipodal magnetizations with a group-mean direction of D = 225.0??, I = 61.8?? (k = 27.9, ??95 = 7.7??, N = 14 independent means/24 sites). The average paleomagnetic pole (8.7??N, 216.1??E, A95 = 10.3??) is considered to be primary on the basis of positive baked contact tests and similarity to poles of ca. 1.45-1.4 Ga from intrusions elsewhere in North America, but is discordant with respect to poles from age equivalent sedimentary rocks of the Meosoproterozoic Belt Supergroup. 40Ar/39Ar dates from geochemical group B dikes are consistent with published U-Pb dates that demonstrate dike emplacement at 780 Ma as part of the regional Gunbarrel magmatic event. Hornblende concentrates from the group B dikes yield 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages of 778-772 Ma, whereas biotite from a baked contact zone yielded a plateau date of 788 Ma. Paleomagnetic results from the group B dikes yield a mean direction of D = 301.5??, I = -17.1?? (k = 65.7, ??95 = 4.0??, N = 12 independent means/23 sites) with a paleomagnetic pole at 14.6??N, 127.0??E (A95 = 3.2??). The combination of geochronologic data, results of a baked contact test, and spatial agreement of the paleomagnetic poles with poles of similar age elsewhere in North America indicates that this is also a primary magnetization associated with dike emplacement. Paleomagnetic data from some of the Tobacco Root

  1. Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Neoarchean Metamorphic Mafic Rocks in the Wutai Complex

    L(U) Yongjun; LIU Shuwen; Guochun ZHAO; LI Qiugen; Jian ZHANG; LIU Chaohui; K. H. PARK; Y. S. SONG


    Neoarchean metamorphic mafic rocks in the lower and the middle Wutai Complex mainly comprise metamorphic gabbros, amphibolites and chlorite schists. They can be subdivided into three groups according to chondrite normalized REE patterns. Rocks in Group #1 are characterized by nearly flat REE patterns (Lan/Ybn=0.86-1.3), the lowest total REEs (29-52 ppm), and weak negative to positive Eu anomalies (Eun/Eun*=0.84-1.02), nearly flat primitive mantle normalized patterns and strong negative Zr(Hf) anomalies. Their geochemical characteristics in REEs and trace elements are similar to those of ocean plateau tholeiite, which imply that this group of rocks can represent remnants of Archean oceanic crust derived from a mantle plume. Rocks in Group #2 are characterized by moderate total REEs (34-116 ppm), LREE-enriched (Lan/Ybn=1.76-4.34) chondrite normalized REE patterns with weak Eu anomalies (Eun/Eun*=0.76-1.16), and negative Nb, Ta, Zr(Hf), Ti anomalies in the primitive mantle normalized spider diagram. The REE and trace element characteristics indicate that they represent arc magmas originating from a sub-arc mantle wedge metasomatized by slabderived fluids. Rocks in Group #3 are characterized by the highest total REEs (61-192 ppm), the strongest LREEs enrichment (Lan/Ybn=7.12-16) with slightly negative Eu anomalies (Eun/Eun*=0.81-0.95) in the chondrite normalized diagram. In the primitive mantle normalized diagram,these rocks are characterized by large negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, Ti, negative to no Zr anomalies.They represent arc magmas originating from a sub-arc mantle wedge enriched in slab-derived melts.The three groups of rocks imply that the formation of the Neoarchean Wutai Complex is related to mantle plumes and island-arc interaction.

  2. Evolution of the East African rift: Drip magmatism, lithospheric thinning and mafic volcanism

    Furman, Tanya; Nelson, Wendy R.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.


    The origin of the Ethiopian-Yemeni Oligocene flood basalt province is widely interpreted as representing mafic volcanism associated with the Afar mantle plume head, with minor contributions from the lithospheric mantle. We reinterpret the geochemical compositions of primitive Oligocene basalts and picrites as requiring a far more significant contribution from the metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle than has been recognized previously. This region displays the fingerprints of mantle plume and lithospheric drip magmatism as predicted from numerical models. Metasomatized mantle lithosphere is not dynamically stable, and heating above the upwelling Afar plume caused metasomatized lithosphere with a significant pyroxenite component to drip into the asthenosphere and melt. This process generated the HT2 lavas observed today in restricted portions of Ethiopia and Yemen now separated by the Red Sea, suggesting a fundamental link between drip magmatism and the onset of rifting. Coeval HT1 and LT lavas, in contrast, were not generated by drip melting but instead originated from shallower, dominantly anhydrous peridotite. Looking more broadly across the East African Rift System in time and space, geochemical data support small volume volcanic events in Turkana (N. Kenya), Chyulu Hills (S. Kenya) and the Virunga province (Western Rift) to be derived ultimately from drip melting. The removal of the gravitationally unstable, metasomatized portion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle via dripping is correlated in each case with periods of rapid uplift. The combined influence of thermo-mechanically thinned lithosphere and the Afar plume together thus controlled the locus of continental rift initiation between Africa and Arabia and provide dynamic support for the Ethiopian plateau.

  3. Analysis of the deconstruction of Dyke Marsh, George Washington Memorial Parkway, Virginia-Progression, geologic and manmade causes, and effective restoration scenarios

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine W.; Oberg, Erik; Helwig, Ben; Steury, Brent; Santucci, Vincent L.; Durika, Nancy J.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Engelhardt, Katharina M.; Sanders, Geoffrey; Verardo, Stacey; Elmore, Andrew J.; Gilmer, Joseph


    This report is a synthesis of the latest findings from an ongoing study of Dyke Marsh, an eroding freshwater tidal wetland that is scheduled for federal restoration. Its purpose is to provide an accurate and up-to-date temporal and geological framework for the marsh, of which most is new information (plus a compilation of historical and recent information), that is directly relevant to the restoration effort and also is relevant to short-term and long-term land management decisions regarding this natural resource.

  4. Caracterizacion fisiológica del crecimiento y desarrollo del fruto de mango (mangifera indica l.) variedad van dyke en el municipio de el espinal


    El estudio se realizó en la finca Frutol del Municipio de El Espinal, departamento del Tolima, situado a una altura de 431 m.s.n.m., con precipitación, temperatura y Humedad Relativa promedio anual de 1.368 mm / año, 29°C y 70%.   Se realizó el seguimiento de los cambios ocurridos durante el crecimiento y desarrollo del mango Variedad Van Dyke, desde la antesis hasta la madurez fisiológica: Diámetros longitudinal, transversal, el volumen, la gravedad específica, el peso fresco y seco, color ...

  5. Determination of rare-earths and other trace elements in neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic dykes from Ceara state, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    Anjos, Rafael Martins dos; Figueiredo, Ana M.G., E-mail: rafael.anjos@usp.b, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator Nuclear de Pesquisas. Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons; Cardoso, Gustavo Luan; Marques, Leila S., E-mail: leila@iag.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas


    Trace elements such as rare earths, U, Th, Ta, Ba and Hf can be very useful in petrogenetic studies of igneous and metamorphic rocks, giving information about the origin and evolution of magmas. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) is an accurate and precise for trace element analysis in geological samples, and provides the information required for this kind of studies. In this study, rare earths and incompatible trace elements were determined by INAA in the geological reference materials GS-N and BE-N, to quality control, and for the investigation of acid dykes of neo proterozoic-neo paleozoic ages, which outcrop in the Medio Coreau and Ceara Central domains from the Borborema Province (Ceara State). The powdered samples (particle sizes less than 100 mesh), crushed by using a mechanical agate mortar grinder, were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN-CNEN/SP, and the induced activity was measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated and preliminary results of dyke samples are presented. (author)

  6. Pleistocene mafic volcanoes in the Puna Cordillera Oriental boundary, NW-Argentina

    Guzmán, S. R.; Petrinovic, I. A.; Brod, J. A.


    Los Gemelos and El Saladillo are both monogenetic, strombolian, basaltic-shoshonitic volcanoes that constitute the easternmost recognized examples of mafic Plio-Quaternary volcanism in the southern Central Andes. Two regional faults delimit the borders of the Calchaquí valley, as thrusts with opposite vergence: the eastern Calchaquí fault and the western Toro Muerto fault. While Los Gemelos are set in the hanging wall of Calchaquí back-thrust fault, El Saladillo are set in the footwall of Toro Muerto fault. As Los Gemelos volcanoes have well preserved morphological features, we highlight some relationship between them and their tectonic setting. Kinematic data and one new measurement, that indicate right strike-slip movement in the vicinity of Los Gemelos during the Pleistocene-Holocene. The emplacement of these volcanoes should be related to a transpression zone parallel to the valley, where the alignment of the cones is outlining the trend of conjugated faults. The magmas were derived from a small degree of partial melting of an enriched, garnet-bearing mantle source. The analysed rocks have primitive signature (high Ni, Cr, Co and MgO concentrations; presence of chromite and forsteritic olivine) and evidence for crustal contamination with felsic rocks (quartz ± plagioclase ± K-feldspar xenocrysts with coronas, reaction rims and/or embayments; high 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, negative ɛNd values). The high Cr and Ni content, high Mg# and low crystal content suggest that no major fractional crystallization occurred, therefore precluding long residence periods. Rapid magma ascent across 60 km of continental crust was guided by magmatic overpressure favoured by important tectonic stresses also avoiding significant residence time at upper crust depth. Thus, we invoke a process of assimilation during turbulent ascent (ATA) to explain the contamination at crustal levels. Los Gemelos volcanoes were formed around 35,000 yr. as inferred from the age of lacustrine sediments

  7. Physical processes of shallow mafic dike emplacement near the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Delaney, P.T.; Gartner, A.E.


    Some 200 shonkinite dikes, sills, and breccia bodies on the western Colorado Plateau of south-central Utah were intruded from approximately 3.7 to 4.6 Ma, contemporaneous with mafic volcanism along the nearby plateau margin. Thicknesses of dikes range to about 6 m; the log-normal mean thickness is 85 cm. Despite the excellent exposures of essentially all dikes in strata of the Jurassic San Rafael Group, their number is indeterminate from their outcrop and spacing because they are everywhere greatly segmented. By our grouping of almost 2000 dike segments, most dikes are less than 2 km in outcrop length; the longest is 9 km. Because the San Rafael magmas were primitive and probably ascended directly from the mantle, dike lengths in outcrop are much less than their heights. The present exposures probably lie along the irregular upper peripheries of dikes that lengthen and merge with depth. Orientations of steps on dike contacts record local directions of dike-fracture propagation; about half of the measurements plunge less than 30??, showing that lateral propagation at dike peripheries is as important as the vertical propagation ultimately responsible for ascent. The San Rafael dikes, now exposed after erosion of about 0.5-1.5 km, appear to thicken and shorten upward, probably because near-surface vesiculation enhanced magmatic driving pressures. Propagation likely ceased soon after the first dike segments began to feed nearby sills or vented to initiate small-volume eruptions. Most of the dikes are exposed in clastic strata of the Jurassic San Rafael Group. They probably acquired their strikes, however, while ascending along well-developed joints in massive sandstones of the underlying Glen Canyon Group. Rotation of far-field stresses during the emplacement interval cannot account for disparate strikes of the dikes, which vary through 110??, most lying between north and N25??W. Rather, the two regional horizontal principal stresses were probably nearly equal, and so

  8. Petrology and oxygen isotope geochemistry of the Pucon ignimbrite - Southern Andean volcanic zone, Chile: Implications for genesis of mafic ignimbrites

    Although mafic components of dominantly intermediate to silicic ignimbrites are rather common, voluminous, dominantly mafic ignimbrites are rare (e.g., Smith, 1979; cf. Freundt and Schmincke, 1995). Volcan Villarrica, the most active composite volcano in South America, located in the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone (SAVZ, Lopez-Escobar and Moreno, 1994a), has produced two such ignimbrites, respectively the Lican and Pucon Ignimbrites, in the last 14,000 years (Clavero, 1996). The two ignimbrites are low-Si andesite and basaltic-andesite to low-Si andesite, respectively, the former about twice as voluminous as the later (10 and 5 km3). Eruption of the ignimbrites produced calderas respectively 5 and 2 km in diameter (Moreno, 1995; Clavero, 1996). In addition to its mafic bulk composition, the Pucon Ignimbrite (PI) is also distinguished by numerous xenolithic fragments among and also within magmatic pyroclasts. Many of these are fragments of granitoid rocks. Volcan Villarrica has also produced numerous smaller mafic ignimbrites and pyroclastic surge deposits, as well as dominantly basaltic fallout and lava flows (Lopez-Escobar and Moreno, 1994; Moreno, 1995; Clavero, 1996; Hickey-Vargas et al., 1989; Tormey et al., 1991). Reasons for the unusual style of mafic explosive activity at Volcan Villarrica are unclear. Clavero (1996), based upon an exemplary thesis-study of the physical volcanology and petrology of the PI, suggests it formed in response to a sequence of events beginning with injection of a shallow basaltic andesite magma chamber by hotter basaltic magma. In his model mixing and heat transfer between the two magmas initiated a violent Strombolian eruption that destabilized the chamber causing infiltration of large amounts of meteoric-water saturated country rocks. The Pucon Ignimbrite formed in response to subsequent phreatomagmatic interactions. In contrast, Lopez-Escobar and Moreno (1994) infer on geochemical grounds that volatiles leading to the explosive

  9. Deformation monitoring of the 2014 dyke intrusion and eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, and associated stress triggering at neighbouring volcanoes

    Parks, Michelle; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Dumont, Stéphanie; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hooper, Andrew; Drouin, Vincent; Ófeigsson, Benedikt; María Friðriksdóttir, Hildur; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Rafn Heimisson, Elías; Vogfjörd, Kristín; Jónsdóttir, Kristín; Hensch, Martin; Guðmundsson, Gunnar; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Einarsson, Páll; Rut Hjartardóttir, Ásta; Pedersen, Rikke


    The recent unrest and activity within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland was initially identified by the onset of an intense earthquake swarm on the 16th August 2014 and concurrent movement registered at several nearby continuous GPS (cGPS) sites. Over the following weeks additional cGPS stations were installed, campaign sites were reoccupied and interferograms formed using X-band satellite images. Data were analysed in near real-time and used to map ground displacements associated with the initial dyke emplacement and propagation (NE of Bárðarbunga), responsible for the sudden unrest. On the 29th August 2014, a small fissure opened up just a few kilometers to the north of the Vatnajökull ice cap, at Holuhraun. The eruption lasted only a few hours, but was followed on 31st August by the onset of a fissure eruption, characterised by lava fountaining and the extrusion of extensive lava flows. The eruption continues at the time of writing (January 2015). We demonstrate how Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis, in conjunction with GPS measurements and earthquake seismicity, has been instrumental in the continued monitoring of Bárðarbunga volcanic system since the onset of unrest. We also investigate how changes in the local stress field induced by the dyke intrusion and concurrent magma withdrawal may trigger seismicity and potentially renewed activity at neighbouring volcanoes. InSAR analysis has systematically been used throughout the eruption to monitor co-eruptive displacement in the vicinity of both the dyke and the eruption site, along with major co-eruptive subsidence occurring beneath the Bárðarbunga caldera - the latter is believed to have commenced shortly after the onset of the unrest and is associated with magma withdrawal beneath the central volcano, feeding the dyke and the ongoing eruption. We use Persistent Scatterer Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PS-InSAR) techniques to generate a time series of

  10. Seismic constraints on a large mafic intrusion with implications for the subsidence mechanism of the Danish Basin

    Sandrin, Alessandro; Thybo, Hans


    Seismic refraction data from the ESTRID-1 profile are used for seismic velocity modeling along the strike of a large mafic intrusion in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, central Denmark. The P wave velocity structure identifies a ~8 km thick sedimentary succession with velocities between 1.8 and 5.7 km...... mGal) positive gravity anomaly known as Silkeborg Gravity High. The intrusion has a minimum volume of 40,000 km3, which implies that the magma influx and the consequent cooling of the lithosphere from high temperature could have had profound effects on the subsidence of the Danish Basin, in...

  11. Nature and Evolution of the Mafic Component(s) of the Early Cretaceous Sierra Nevada Batholith, CA

    Clemens-Knott, D.; Seal, E.; Saleeby, J.


    Geochemical characterization of the mafic component(s) of the earliest phase of the voluminous Cretaceous Sierra Nevada batholith is facilitated by two rock assemblages exposed in the Stokes Mountain region of the western foothills near Visalia, CA: (1) km-scale blocks of modally layered olivine-plagioclase cumulates, and (2) two gabbroic-to-granitic ring dike complexes. Mineral compositions of a 100-m-thick section of a single layered cumulate block documents the presence of high-temperature mineral assemblages (e.g., Fo78 olivine; An93 plagioclase), approaching values that would be in equilibrium with mantle-derived primary magmas. Stratigraphic and core-to-rim variations in mineral chemistry (including nickel contents in olivine) demonstrate that the earliest stages of magma differentiation were dominated by down-temperature fractional crystallization, punctuated by repeated recharge of mantle-derived magmas. Fractional crystallization of troctolite cumulates is hypothesized to have produced buoyant, hornblende-rich gabbros-to-diorites that are represented by rare gabbroic intrusions (e.g., Stokes Mtn. region; Onion Valley) and possibly by the more abundant mafic enclaves that are found mingled with intermediate to silicic intrusions throughout the batholith. Geochemical systematics of the dominantly gabbroic to tonalitic ring dikes complexes encasing the mafic cumulate blocks document the temporal coexistence of at least two, spatially distinct source regions within the mantle wedge. REE and O-Sr-Nd isotopic data indicate that differentiation of ring dikes magmas occurred primarily by coupled assimilation-fractional crystallization. Some mixing with recharged mafic magmas is supported both by field observations and by geochemical data. Existence of a third, spatially distinct, mantle source may be documented by plutonic rocks found in a narrow zone of intense magma mingling and synmagmatic shear that separates the two ring complexes. These rocks have the

  12. Mantle derivation of Archean amphibole-bearing granitoid and associated mafic rocks: evidence from the southern Superior Province, Canada

    Sutcliffe, Richard H.; Smith, Alan R.; Doherty, William; Barnett, Robert L.


    Amphibole-bearing, Late Archean (2.73 2.68 Ga) granitoids of the southern Superior Province are examined to constrain processes of crustal development. The investigated plutons, which range from tonalite and diorite to monzodiorite, monzonite, and syenite, share textural, mineralogical and geochemical attributes suggesting a common origin as juvenile magmas. Despite variation in modal mineralogy, the plutons are geochemically characterized by normative quartz, high Al2O3 (> 15 wt%), Na-rich fractionation trends (mol Na2O/K2O >2), low to moderate Rb (generallyenclaves and igneous layers and as intrusive units which exhibit textures indicative of contemporaneous mafic and felsic magmatism. Mafic mineral assemblages include: hornblende + biotite in tonalites; augite + biotite ± orthopyroxene ± pargasitic hornblende or hornblende+biotite in dioritic to monzodioritic rocks; and aegirine-augite ± silicic edenite ± biotite in syenite to alkali granite. Discrete plagioclase and microcline grains are present in most of the suites, however, some of the syenitic rocks are hypersolvus granitoids and contain only perthite. Mafic-ultramafic rocks have REE and Y contents indicative of their formation as amphibole-rich cumulates from the associated granitoids. Some cumulate rocks have skeletal amphibole with XMg(Mg/(Mg+ Fe2+)) indicative of crystallization from more primitive liquids than the host granitoids. Geochemical variation in the granitoid suites is compatible with fractionation of amphibole together with subordinate plagioclase and, in some cases, mixing of fractionated and primitive magmas. Mafic to ultramafic units with magnesium-rich cumulus phases and primitive granitoids (mol MgO/ (MgO+0.9 FeOTOTAL) from 0.60 to 0.70 and CT >150 ppm) are comagmatic with the evolved granitoids and indicate that the suites are mantle-derived. Isotopic studies of Archean monzodioritic rocks have shown LREE enrichment and initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios indicating derivation from mantle

  13. Syntectonic emplacement of the Middle Jurassic Concon Mafic Dike Swarm, Coastal Range, central Chile (33 degrees S)

    C. Creixell; M.A. Parada; Roperch, Pierrick; D. Morata; Arriagada, C; Arce, C.P. de


    The Concon Mafic Dike Swarm (CMDS) consists of basaltic to andesitic dikes emplaced into deformed Late Palcozoic granitoids during the development of the Jurassic arc of central Chile. The dikes are divided into an early group of thick dikes (512 in) and a late group of thin dikes (0.5-3 m). Two new amphibole Ar-40/Ar-39 dates obtained from undeformed and deformed dikes, constrain the age of emplacement and deformation of the CMDS between 163 and 157 Ma. Based on radiometric ages, field obser...

  14. Opportunity to sample something different: The dark, unweathered, mafic sands of Cerberus and the Pathfinder 1997 Mars landing

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Singer, Robert B.; Geissler, P. E.


    A very important surface component, typically described as 'dark gray material', was not seen at the Viking lander sites, but is common to all low-albedo regions on Mars. Dark material probably includes unaltered mafic volcanic and/or crustal rock and soil not coated by dust, weathering rinds, or varnish. A Pathfinder landing in Cerberus (9 deg N - 16 deg N, 194 deg W - 215 deg W) will guarantee examination of materials that are distinctly different from the two Viking lander sites. In situ study of dark material will provide vital ground truth for orbiter-based observations like those anticipated from Mars '94/'96 and Mars Global Surveyor.

  15. Study of the mining possibilities in the surroundings of Mahoma - Guaycuru phase I Feasibility of the mafic body of Mahoma-Guaycuru and of the complex mafic - Stratified ultramafic of the Cerros Negros and San Jose and Colonia provinces

    In Mahoma - Guaycuru area has been carried out regional cartography to place the geologic context, mainly the Mahoma bodies magmatic intrusive s, Guaycuru and Cerros Negros. The area has good mining possibilities due to their geologic environment. They exist also geochemical anomalies in the area that they should be taken as base for future works in the same one. In this environment studies were begun with the bodies magmatic mafic and ultramafic, due to its feasibility in Platino ides, Chromium, Nickel, Cobalt . It intent to adjust in a following stage (it Leaves II) a work methodology in an occurrence of minerals metallic. for future works,la occurrence of metallic minerals it lacks elements of economic interest in concentrations high, just as it demonstrates it the geochemical of rocks carried out, and the lack of anomalies in the geochemical of active silts and of floors. As element of interest single Gold appears in samples alluvial deposits but their source would not be the mafic rocks. Other occurrence of metallic minerals appears

  16. Trace elements in minerals from mafic and ultramafic cumulates of the central Sierra de Valle Fértil, Famatinian arc, Argentina

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Tiepolo, Massimo; Walker, Barry A.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.


    Trace element abundances in constituent minerals from mafic and ultramafic rocks of a deep arc crustal section are studied to observe their abundance and distribution. Five cumulate rocks were selected from a sequence that consists of pyroxene hornblende peridotite, olivine hornblende gabbronorite, pyroxene hornblende gabbronorite, hornblende gabbronorite, gabbro and anorthosite. Solid/liquid partition coefficients calculated with the equilibrium distribution model indicate that Cr, Ni, Co, Zn and V are highly compatible with an olivine-dominated mineral assemblage from the mafic and ultramafic cumulates. The compatibility of Ti and Sc would be dependent on the stability of clinopyroxene, amphibole and oxides in the magmatic system. With few exceptions, the other trace elements are incompatible with the minerals that form the cumulate. At most half the mass of Sr carried by a primitive arc magma could be stored in anorthite-rich plagioclase from the mafic cumulates. Magmatic amphibole fractionates Y, middle and heavy REE from other incompatible elements during crystal accumulation of mafic cumulates. In contrast, late magmatic to subsolidus amphibole has no effect on the differentiation of a primitive arc magma. In fact, the trace element variability of amphibole and clinopyroxene is easily related to different stages of magmatic evolution within the cumulate pile. The results presented here are helpful for modelling other cases of arc magma petrogenesis where the cumulate rocks with dominant mafic assemblages are not exposed.

  17. The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field: petrological diversity and implications for magmatic evolution of mafic volcanic centers from the northern Puna

    Maro, Guadalupe; Caffe, Pablo J.


    The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field (CBAF) is one of the two largest mafic volcanic fields in northern Puna (22-24° S) and is spatially and temporally associated with ignimbrites erupted from some central Andean Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex calderas. The CBAF comprises seven scoria cones and widespread high-K calcalkaline lava flows that cover an area of 200 km2. Although all erupted rocks have a relatively narrow chemical range (56-62 % SiO2, 3-6 % MgO), there is a broad diversity of mineral compositions and textures. The least evolved lavas (˜58-61 % SiO2) are high-Mg andesites with scarce (<10 %) microphenocrysts of either olivine or orthopyroxene. The small compositional range and low phenocryst content indicate evolution controlled by low percentages (<10 %) of fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene of magmas similar to the least evolved rocks from the field, accompanied by assimilation during rapid ascent through the crust. Evolved andesites (˜62 wt% SiO2), on the other hand, are porphyritic rocks with plagioclase + orthopyroxene + biotite and ubiquitous phenocryst disequilibrium textures. These magmas were likely stored in crustal reservoirs, where they experienced convection caused by mafic magma underplating, magma mixing, and/or assimilation. Trace element and mineral compositions of CBAF lavas provide evidence for complex evolution of distinct magma batches.

  18. Global absorption center map of the mafic minerals on the Moon as viewed by CE-1 IIM data


    Determining the global distribution of minerals on the Moon has been an important goal of lunar science. Hyperspectral remote sensing is an important approach to acquiring minerals on the Moon on the global scale. The wavelength of the absorption band center is the key parameter for identifying minerals with reflectance spectra as well as remote sensing data. The global absorption center map of the mafic minerals of the Moon was produced for the first time with the Chang’E-1 IIM data. This map shows the global distribution of mafic minerals such as orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes, and olivine and even plagioclase feldspar of the Moon. The validation for some representative areas indicates that the global map is reliable and even more detailed than the results derived from Clementine-data. Moreover, our method is insensitive to the topography and viewing and illumination geometries. The global absorption band center map not only contributes to the lunar science research, but also has other implications to be further studied. Moreover, the preprocessing methods such as calibration and correction introduced in this study can be useful in other research with IIM data.

  19. Chemical weathering on Mars - Thermodynamic stabilities of primary minerals /and their alteration products/ from mafic igneous rocks

    Gooding, J. L.


    Chemical weathering on Mars is examined theoretically from the standpoint of thermodynamic equilibrium between primary rock-forming minerals and the atmospheric gases O2, H2O, and CO2. The primary minerals considered are those common to mafic igneous rocks and include olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, magnetite, troilite, pyrrhotite, and apatite. The importance of kinetics and reaction mechanisms in controlling possible weathering processes on Mars is discussed within the limits of currently available data, and the possible influence of liquid water on Martian weathering processes is evaluated where appropriate. For gas-solid weathering of mafic igneous rocks at the Martian surface, it is concluded that upon attainment of thermodynamic equilibrium: (1) oxides and carbonates should dominate the mineral assemblage of weathering products; (2) hematite rather than goethite should be the stable mineral form of Fe (III); (3) FeSO4 or FeSO4.H2O could be the stable weathering product of iron sulfides in the absence of liquid water; and (4) kaolinite is apparently the only clay mineral that should be thermodynamically stable over all ranges of temperature and water-vapor abundance at the Martian surface.

  20. K-Ar ages of allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes and their metamorphic aureoles, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    Boak, J.L.; Turner, D.L.; Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.


    New K-Ar ages from allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes of the western Brooks Range (Brooks Range ophiolite) show that igneous rocks yielded ages nearly identical to those of underlying metamorphic aureole rocks. Dated rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence from Tumit Creek consist of (1) hornblende gabbro with minor greenschist and lower grade alteration, hornblende age 147.2 +/- 4.4 Ma; and (2) hornblende-bearing diorite, also slightly altered, age 155.8 +/- 4.7 Ma. Both samples come from presumed higher levels of the Misheguk sequence. Dated samples of metamorphic aureole rocks come from outcrops near Kismilot Creek and lie structurally beneath the Iyikrok Mountain peridotite body. The rocks consist of amphibolite and garnet-bearing biotite-hornblende gneiss considered to be metamorphosed Copter igneous sequence and related sedimentary rocks. Hornblende ages are 154.2 +/- 4.6 Ma and 153.2 +/- 4.6 Ma. metamorphism is clearly related to the structurally overlying perioditite, as the degree of alteration decreases downward. The authors suggest that the K-Ar ages of these rocks represent the effects of thermal metamorphism post-dating igneous crystallization, and are related to tectonic emplacement of the complex. Earlier K-Ar data on igneous rocks give similar ages and have been interpreted as reflecting tectonothermal events. The age of igneous crystallization of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence remains uncertain.

  1. Multistage metasomatism in ultrahigh-pressure mafic rocks from the North Dabie Complex (China)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Hermann, Jörg; Scambelluri, Marco; Compagnoni, Roberto


    -800 °C. The petrological study, combined with bulk-rock and mineral trace element analyses, provides evidence of intense metasomatism affecting these eclogites. The bulk-rock major and trace element compositions indicate that the eclogites derive from basaltic protoliths with MORB and E-MORB affinity. Compared with such basalts, the studied rocks show strong depletion in SiO 2 and alkalis and enrichment in MgO and FeO. These features likely derive from element exchange with ultramafic rocks prior to subduction, possibly related with the influx of Si-depleted and Mg-enriched fluids produced during the serpentinisation of the associated lherzolitic rocks. On the other hand, the trace element bulk-rock compositions show strong enrichment in Cs, Ba and Pb. The same characteristic enrichment and fractionation is recorded by peak metamorphic clinopyroxene but not in retrograde amphibole. Therefore, influx of crustal fluids transporting LILE and light elements must have occurred during subduction at UHP conditions. This stage likely records the tectonic coupling of the mafic-ultramafic rocks with the associated crustal rock units and provides evidence of LILE mobility between different slab components.

  2. Geochronology, mantle source composition and geodynamic constraints on the origin of Neoarchean mafic dikes in the Zanhuang Complex, Central Orogenic Belt, North China Craton

    Deng, Hao; Kusky, Timothy; Polat, Ali; Wang, Junpeng; Wang, Lu; Fu, Jianmin; Wang, Zhensheng; Yuan, Ye


    Mafic granulitic and amphibolitic boudins dispersed in Archean felsic gneisses are widely distributed in the Central Orogenic Belt (COB) and the Eastern Block of the North China Craton (NCC) and are considered to constitute deformed mafic dike swarms. Previous studies have demonstrated that the mafic dikes in the Zanhuang Complex of the NCC intruded the fabrics of an Archean mélange belt and were boudinaged during younger deformation. Igneous zircons from an undeformed mafic dike yield a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2535 ± 30 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age. In addition, pegmatites cutting across the mafic dikes in the field also yield an igneous zircon 207Pb/206Pb age of 2504 ± 16 Ma, providing strong evidence that the mafic dikes in the NCC intruded during the Neoarchean. Metamorphic zircons from one deformed mafic dike sample yield a metamorphic 207Pb/206Pb age of 2090 ± 83 Ma, and another four samples from deformed mafic dikes have a consistent metamorphic zircon age of ca. 1850 Ma, indicating that the mafic dikes underwent at least two generations of Paleoproterozoic metamorphism of ca. 2.1 Ga and ca. 1.85 Ga. Previously reported trace element systematics of the mafic dikes are consistent with an arc-related lithospheric mantle source region, rather than an ocean island basalt (OIB)-like source region. The new whole rock Nd isotopic composition (ɛNd(t) = + 0.71 to + 3.70) is relatively more evolved compared to that of the depleted mantle at 2.5 Ga, indicating an enriched lithospheric mantle source. Accordingly, the mafic dikes are proposed to have been formed in a subduction-related environment and their enriched mantle source was metasomatized by the melts and fluids derived from the subducted slab. Based on previous studies of the NCC and new geochronological and isotopic data in this contribution, a new comprehensive tectonic model is proposed for the evolution of the NCC between 2.7 Ga and 1.85 Ga: (1) from 2.7 to 2.5 Ga, an oceanic arc

  3. Mafic rocks from Erinpura gneiss terrane in the Sirohi region: Possible ocean-floor remnants in the foreland of the Delhi Fold Belt, NW India

    M K Pandit; H De Wall; H Daxberger; J Just; M Bestmann; K K Sharma


    A small isolated mafic body occurs to the south of Sirohi near village Daba within the Neoproterozoic Erinpura Granite in the southern sector of the Proterozoic Delhi Fold Belt in NW India. This mafic body occurs close to a 100 m wide NE–SW trending shear zone (Daba Shear Zone) which overprints the felsic rock fabrics. Further south, a small mafic body near village Kui was also sampled which forms the southern limit of the Phulad Ophiolite Suite which is a 300 km long major NE–SW trending lineament, described as Western Margin Fault. Some of the lithological components of the Daba mafic body show locally preserved magmatic fabric but completely transformed mineralogies under lower amphibolites facies metamorphic conditions where two-stage deformation has been inferred. Magnetic fabric analysis underlines a general correspondence of structural elements in both felsic and mafic lithologies. Binary correlations of Zr with other high field strength elements underline fractionation as the main process in the evolution of Daba and Kui rocks. Geochemical characteristics indicate subalkaline tholeiitic basalt affinity for these mafic rocks. The trace element characteristics, such as enriched LIL elements, high Th, absence of negative Nb anomalies and depletion in compatible elements in Daba samples suggest an enriched mantle source and lower degree of melting. The trace and rare earth element characteristics for Kui (Th anomaly, Nb–Ta trough and less spiked patterns, flat REE trends) indicate derivation from a refractory mantle source affected by fluids derived from subduction. Distinct differences in trace and REE characteristics between Daba and Kui can be interpreted in terms of different stages of ophiolite development.

  4. Estimated Flood-Inundation Mapping for the Upper Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch in Kansas City, Missouri, 2006-08

    Kelly, Brian P.; Huizinga, Richard J.


    In the interest of improved public safety during flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, completed a flood-inundation study of the Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from the U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gage at Kenneth Road to 63rd Street, of Indian Creek from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, and of Dyke Branch from the Kansas-Missouri border to its mouth, to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation at selected flood stages on the Blue River, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch. The results of this study spatially interpolate information provided by U.S. Geological Survey gages, Kansas City Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time gages, and the National Weather Service flood-peak prediction service that comprise the Blue River flood-alert system and are a valuable tool for public officials and residents to minimize flood deaths and damage in Kansas City. To provide public access to the information presented in this report, a World Wide Web site ( was created that displays the results of two-dimensional modeling between Hickman Mills Drive and 63rd Street, estimated flood-inundation maps for 13 flood stages, the latest gage heights, and National Weather Service stage forecasts for each forecast location within the study area. The results of a previous study of flood inundation on the Blue River from 63rd Street to the mouth also are available. In addition the full text of this report, all tables and maps are available for download ( Thirteen flood-inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for water-surface elevations from 763.8 to 787.8 feet referenced to the Blue River at the 63rd Street Automated Local Evaluation in Real Time stream gage operated by the city of Kansas City, Missouri. Each map is associated with gages at Kenneth Road, Blue Ridge Boulevard, Kansas City (at Bannister Road), U.S. Highway 71

  5. Formation of baotite - a Cl-rich silicate - together with fluorapatite and F-rich hydrous silicates in the Kvaløya lamproite dyke, North Norway

    Kullerud, Kåre; Zozulya, Dmitry; Ravna, Erling J. K.


    Baotite occurs as a late phase in the Kvaløya lamproite dyke and in the fenitized granite adjacent to the dyke, suggesting that baotite formed during reactions between rock and fluids derived from a volatile-rich lamproitic magma. Most of the analyzed grains of baotite from the Kvaløya lamproite show compositions close to the ideal Nb-free end-member Ba4Ti8Si4O28Cl. Compilation of all published baotite analyses suggests that the major compositional variations of baotite occur between the Nb-free end member Ba4Ti8Si4O28Cl, and a Nb-rich end member Ba4Ti2Fe²+ 2Nb4Si4O28Cl. However, a Pb-bearing baotite, showing significant concentrations of Ca, Sr, Pb and K, and approximately 3 Ba p.f.u., was also identified from the Kvaløya lamproite. Euhedral fluorapatite formed as an early phase during crystallization of the lamproite magma, while anhedral REE-rich fluorapatite overgrowths on the euhedral grains formed during reactions with the late magmatic fluid. Fluorapatite contains up to 1.2 F p.f.u., but only traces of Cl. Other F-rich, but Cl-poor minerals of the lamproite include fluoro-potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite, fluoro-phlogopite, and yangzhumingite. The presence of baotite together with a range of high-F, but low-Cl mineral phases suggests that the minerals formed in equilibrium with a high-F, Cl-bearing hydrous fluid. The high Cl-content of baotite demonstrates that Cl is strongly partitioned into this mineral in the presence of a Cl-bearing F-rich hydrous fluid. We suggest that a combination of high aSi, aTi, aBa, and fO2, but low aCa of the fluid enabled baotite formation.

  6. Lamprophyre or Lamproite Dyke in the SW Tarim Block?--Discussion on the Petrogenesis of These Rocks and Their Source Region


    The mineralogical, petrological and geochemical studies on Keliyang (克里阳) potassic dykes have been carried out to understand their rock types, the petrogenesis and the nature of their mantle sources. They are potassic lamprophyre, not lamproites as the previous researchers believed. In this study, the whole-rock major and trace element compositions of another 6 lamproite dykes recently discovered are reported. Major elements were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) techniques, while REE and trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). They can be classified into phlogopite-diopside lamprophyre, leucite-diopside lamprophyre and granular carbonatite-bearing diopside lamprophyre on the basis of their mineral components. They are all characterized by relatively low SiO2 (41.31% -44. 84%), TiO2 (0.75% -0.86%) and high MgO (7.30%-11.33%), K2O (4.01%-6.01%) concentrations with K2O/Na2O ratios of 2. 77-12.49. In addition, they display enrichment in large-ion iithophile elements (LILEs, e. g., Rb, Sr,Ba) and LREE, but a relative depletion in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs, e.g. , Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf and Ti). They display similar chondrite-normalized REE patterns with slight negative Eu anomalies (δEu=0.64-0. 82), and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, which resemble those of high K/Ti and low-Ti potassic magmas formed in subduction-related settings. Consequently, we suggest that the parental magma was generated by partial melting of the phlogopite-amphibole- bearing garnet lherzolite within the lithospheric mantle that might have been metasomatized by a potassium-bearing fluid released from a subduction oceanic crust.

  7. Chemical composition of spinel from Uralian-Alaskan-type Mafic-Ultramafic complexes and its petrogenetic significance

    Krause, J.; Brügmann, G. E.; Pushkarev, E. V.


    Uralian-Alaskan-type mafic-ultramafic complexes are recognized as a distinct class of intrusions regarding lithologic assemblage, mineral chemistry and petrogenetic setting. In the present study, we discuss new data on the distribution of major elements in minerals of the spinel group in rocks from Uralian-Alaskan-type complexes in the Ural Mountains, Russia. Cr-rich spinel (Cr2O3 = 20-53 wt%) in dunite with interstitial clinopyroxene and in wehrlite cumulates indicate that it reacted with interstitial liquid resulting in the progressive substitution of Al2O2 and Cr2O3 by Fe2O3 and TiO2. A distinct change in the spinel chemistry in dunite (Cr2O3 = 47-53 wt%), towards Al2O3- and Cr2O3-poor but Fe2O3-rich compositions monitors the onset of clinopyroxene fractionation in wehrlite (Cr2O3 = 15-35 wt%, Al2O3 = 1-8 wt%, Fe2O3 = 25-55 wt%). In more fractionated mafic rocks, the calculated initial composition of exsolved spinel traces the sustained crystallization of clinopyroxene by decreasing Cr2O3 and increasing FeO, Fe2O3 and fO2. Finally, the initiation of feldspar crystallization buffers the Al2O3 content in most of the spinels in mafic rocks at very low Cr2O3 contents (<5 wt%). The fractionation path all along and the reaction with interstitial liquid are accompanied by increasing Fe2O3 contents in the spinel. This likely is caused by a significant increase in the oxygen fugacity, which suggests closed system fractionation processes. Spinel with Cr2O3 < 27 wt% is exsolved into a Fe2O3-rich and an Al2O3-rich phase forming a variety of textures. Remarkably, exsolved spinel in different lithologies from complexes 200 km apart follows one distinct solvus line defining a temperature of ca. 600°C. This indicates that the parental magmas were emplaced and eventually cooled at similar levels in the lithosphere, likely near the crust-mantle boundary. Eventually, these 600°C hot bodies were rapidly transported into colder regions of the upper crust during a regional tectonic

  8. Mineral chemistry, P-T-t paths and exhumation processes of mafic granulites in Dinggye, Southern Tibet

    LIU; Shuwen; ZHANG; Jinjiang; SHU; Guiming; LI; Qiugen


    The mafic granulites in Dinggye, as various scale lense-shaped enclaves within the high Himalayan crystalline rock series, occur along mylonitic foliations at the junction between the Southern Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) and the Xainza-Dinggye normal fault system. The main lithological assemblage comprises garnet plagioclase pyroxenite, garnet two-pyroxene granulite, pyroxene garnet amphibolite and so on. The detailed petrological analyses show that these mafic granulites underwent at least four-stage metamorphic evolution. The first metamorphic stage, the garnet+clinopyroxene+quart mineral assemblage (M1) was probably formed under eclogite facies, the second stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene symplectite mineral assemblage (M2) was produced under high-pressure granulite facies by the early decompressive breakdown of M1 mineral assemblage, the third stage, the plagioclase+clinopyroxene+ hypersthene symplectite mineral assemblage (M3) was formed at granulite facies by the late period decompressive breakdown of M1 and M2 mineral assemblages and the final stage, plagioclase+hornblende mineral assemblage (M4) was formed by hydrolysis of earlier mineral assemblages during late uplifting. The detailed mineral composition analyses suggest that garnets and clinopyroxenes within M1 and M2 mineral assemblages display similar compositions to the equivalents in the B and C types of eclogites, whereas the M3 clinopyroxenes are akin to these of the same kind of minerals in the granulite. These mineral chemistry features and P-T estimates calculated by mineral thermometers and barometers indicate that the early stage relic porphyroblasts (M1) could be formed at the eclogite facies, the early decompressive breakdown (M2) occurred at the high-pressures granulite facies of 1.35―1.48 GPa and 625―675℃, the M3 mineral assemblage recorded the granulite facies of 0.7―0.95 GPa and 775―900℃ and M4 plagioglase+hornblende retrograde mineral assemblage was produced under

  9. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray


    The Jurassic Ferrar large igneous province of Antarctica comprises igneous intrusions, flood lavas, and mafic volcaniclastic deposits (now lithified). The latter rocks are particularly diverse and well-exposed in the Coombs-Allan Hills area of South Victoria Land, where they are assigned to the Mawson Formation. In this paper we use these rocks in conjunction with the pre-Ferrar sedimentary rocks (Beacon Supergroup) and the lavas themselves (Kirkpatrick Basalt) to reconstruct the geomorphological and geological evolution of the landscape. In the Early Jurassic, the surface of the region was an alluvial plain, with perhaps 1 km of mostly continental siliciclastic sediments underlying it. After the fall of silicic ash from an unknown but probably distal source, mafic magmatism of the Ferrar province began. The oldest record of this event at Allan Hills is a ≤ 180 m-thick debris-avalanche deposit (member m1 of the Mawson Formation) which contains globular domains of mafic igneous rock. These domains are inferred to represent dismembered Ferrar intrusions emplaced in the source area of the debris avalanche; shallow emplacement of Ferrar magmas caused a slope failure that mobilized the uppermost Beacon Supergroup, and the silicic ash deposits, into a pre-existing valley or basin. The period which followed ('Mawson time') was the main stage for explosive eruptions in the Ferrar province, and several cubic kilometres of both new magma and sedimentary rock were fragmented over many years. Phreatomagmatic explosions were the dominant fragmentation mechanism, with magma-water interaction taking place in both sedimentary aquifers and existing vents filled by volcaniclastic debris. At Coombs Hills, a vent complex or 'phreatocauldron' was formed by coalescence of diatreme-like structures; at Allan Hills, member m2 of the Mawson Formation consists mostly of thick, coarse-grained, poorly sorted layers inferred to represent the lithified deposits of pyroclastic density currents

  10. Silicate melt inclusions in clinopyroxene phenocrysts from mafic dikes in the eastern North China Craton: Constraints on melt evolution

    Cai, Ya-Chun; Fan, Hong-Rui; Santosh, M.; Hu, Fang-Fang; Yang, Kui-Feng; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Yongsheng


    Silicate melt inclusions (SMIs) in magmatic minerals provide key information on the chemical and mineralogical evolution of source magmas. The widespread Cretaceous mafic dikes in the Jiaojia region of the eastern North China Craton contain abundant SMIs within clinopyroxene phenocrysts. The daughter minerals in these SMIs include amphibole, plagioclase, pyrite and ilmenite, together with CO2 + CH4 and CH4 as the major volatile phase. The total homogenization temperatures of the SMIs range between 1280 and 1300 °C. The host clinopyroxene phenocrysts in these dolerite dikes are dominantly augite with minor diopside. From LA-ICPMS analyses of the SMIs, we identify two compositional groups: (1) low-MgO (6.0-7.6 wt.%) SMIs and (2) high-MgO (11.2-13.9 wt.%) SMIs. The Low-MgO group exhibits higher concentrations of TiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, P2O5 and lower CaO and CaO/Al2O3 ratio as compared to the high-MgO SMIs. The trace element patterns of the two types of SMIs are similar to those of the host mafic dikes. However, the low-MgO SMIs and host mafic dikes are clearly more enriched in all the trace elements as compared to the high-MgO type, especially with regard to the highly incompatible elements. The estimated capture temperatures and pressures are 1351-1400 °C and 1.6-2.1 GPa for the high-MgO SMIs and 1177-1215 °C and 0.6-1.1GPa for the low-MgO type. The high-MgO and low-MgO SMIs were trapped at depths of ∼51-68 km and ∼20-35 km, respectively. Computations show that the parental melt is mafic with SiO2 content 49.6 wt% and Mg# 80.0 with relatively low total alkali contents (1.35 wt% Na2O + K2O) and high CaO (15.2 wt%). Exploratory runs with the program MELTS and pMELTS show that the low-MgO and high-MgO SMIs were derived from the same parental melt through different degrees of crystallization. Clinopyroxene and a small amount of olivine were the fractionating phases during the evolution from parental melts to high MgO melts, while the low MgO melts experienced