Sample records for american red cross

  1. American Red Cross

    ... to Help Sand Fire Evacuees » 90% of the Red Cross Workforce are Volunteers Learn More. Search for ... Volunteer» Digital Advocates» SEARCH FOR OPENINGS Shop the Red Cross Store Be Prepared and Ready to Respond ...

  2. 41 CFR 102-37.540 - What is the authority for donations to the American National Red Cross?


    ... for donations to the American National Red Cross? 102-37.540 Section 102-37.540 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to the American National Red Cross § 102-37.540 What is the authority for donations to the American National Red Cross? Section...




  4. 75 FR 9323 - American Red Cross Month, 2010


    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-4360 Filed 2-26-10... combating HIV/AIDS in Africa, to saving lives after the tragic earthquake in Haiti, the American people have..., ordinary Americans are still contributing to humanitarian efforts worldwide. This year's...

  5. The American Red Cross disaster mental health services: development of a cooperative, single function, multidisciplinary service model.

    Weaver, J D; Dingman, R L; Morgan, J; Hong, B A; North, C S


    Not until 1989 did the Red Cross officially recognize a need for a systematic and organized plan for the mental health needs of disaster survivors. Over the next decade, the Red Cross Disaster Mental Health Services program has developed and evolved to assist both disaster victims and the Red Cross workers who serve them to cope with the overwhelming stresses encountered by both groups in the aftermath of disasters. The Red Cross now coordinates a large and diverse group of mental health professionals from fields of psychology, psychiatry, nursing, social work, marriage and family therapy, and counseling who work together cooperatively. Cross-disciplinary conflicts are minimized by the Red Cross' generic approach to the various mental health professional specialties as functionally interchangeable in performing Red Cross duties. This article reviews the development of this process and describes one local Red Cross chapter's early experience as part of this effort. PMID:10932444

  6. Canadian Red Cross.

    Lavender, Colleen


    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level. PMID:18551842

  7. American Red Cross Chapter Regions

    Department of Homeland Security — The Regions are part of the national field level structure to support chapters. The Regions role is admistrative as well as provides oversight and program technical...

  8. The Relief of American Red Cross to Greek Refugees after World War Ⅰ(1922-1923)%1922—1923年美国红十字会对希腊难民的救济



    From 1922 to 1923,the American Red Cross provided emergency relief to Greek refugees fleeing from Turkey including fund raising,supply of daily necessities,medical aid and health assistance,characterized by extensive support from the domestic American society and strong pertinence of the relief.Its ultimate purpose is to enable the refugees to earn their own living and the Greek government to take on the major economic responsibility.%1922-1923年美国红十字会对逃离土耳其的希腊难民实施了紧急救济,主要有资金筹集、生活必需品供给、医疗和卫生援助等举措。其主要特特点是:获得美国国内的广泛支持;救济的针对性较强;让希腊政府承担主要的救济职责。

  9. Humanitarian Empire : : The Red Cross in Japan, 1877-1945

    DePies, Gregory John


    This dissertation presents a critical perspective on modern practices of humanitarianism by following histories of the imperial-era Japanese Red Cross Society (JRCS) from its inception in 1877 until the formal dissolution of the Japanese empire in 1945. In the decades after its founding the JRCS became the most prominent humanitarian institution in the Japanese empire and the largest national Red Cross society in the world, drawing its leaders from among the most powerful of the ruling elites...

  10. Meeting psychological needs after Chernobyl: the Red Cross experience.

    Revel, J P


    The explosion that took place in reactor number 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on April 26, 1986 triggered the worst civilian nuclear disaster ever reported. Following requests for assistance by the Red Cross National Societies of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia, the International Federation of Red Cross Societies set up the Chernobyl Humanitarian Assistance and Rehabilitation Program in 1990. Although the initial needs assessment mission mentioned psychological needs as an area of interest, it was not until 1997 that the first Psycho-Social Support pilot project started in Belarus. Objectives and strategy for the psycho-social support program are detailed, as well as the challenges currently faced by the program. The specific role of the media is also reviewed. Finally, the lessons learned from this experience are reviewed, and suggestions are made for future disaster planning. PMID:11778421

  11. Carbon footprint of humanitarian logistics : Case the Finnish Red Cross

    Anttila, Virva


    This thesis was written on the basis that despite all studies and analyses companies, governments and industries have about pollution and carbon footprint voluntary organi-zations have very little information about that. This will serve as background informa-tion for the Finnish Red Cross for the procurement operations. Although many relief item deliveries to areas suffered from natural disasters are very urgent, certain factors allow planners to take environmental impact and carbon emission...

  12. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Samari, Goleen


    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  13. [Scientific communication and technological innovation in the first Red Cross, 1863-1876].

    García-Reyes, Juan Carlos; Arrizabalaga, Jon


    The early years of the international Red Cross movement coincided with great technological changes in war medicine. The organizational peculiarities of the International Association for Relief of Wounded Soldiers in Campaign, set up by the Geneva Committee, and by the Red-Cross' national committees; the convergence in various professional conferences and publications of doctors from different national societies of this association; and the construction of a body of shared practical expertise tested during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) provide keys for understanding the technological innovations introduced by the Spanish Red Cross during the third and last Carlist War (1872-1876). PMID:27557358

  14. Psychological Differences toward Pedestrian Red Light Crossing between University Students and Their Peers.

    Suo, Qinghui; Zhang, Daming


    Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1), the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2) or who are now out of work and school (Group 3). The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario. PMID:26824667

  15. Psychological Differences toward Pedestrian Red Light Crossing between University Students and Their Peers.

    Qinghui Suo

    Full Text Available Based on our site investigation conducted in 2013, we found that the pedestrian red light crossing at the midblock connecting the campus of Southwest University and living area was low, where most of pedestrians are university students and staff. This paper reports a supplementary work applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB to identify any psychological differences toward pedestrian red light crossing between university students and their peers. Three social groups participated in the investigation. The first group is the university students in Grade one (Group 1, the other two groups are their previous senior middle school classmates who are now working full time (Group 2 or who are now out of work and school (Group 3. The statistical results indicated The TPB components accounted for 42.9%, 55.3% and 55.4% of the variance of red signal crossing intention for Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 in the depicted road crossing scenario. The data also showed that there are obvious differences among the participants' responses to "refrain from crossing" between university students and others, and the subsequent regression analysis revealed the ability to "refrain from crossing" played the most important role in the intention of red light crossing in the depicted scenario.

  16. Demand and supply of emergency help: an economic analysis of Red Cross services.

    Hackl, Franz; Pruckner, Gerald Josef


    This paper analyzes supply and demand side characteristics of (voluntary) Red Cross services in Austria. The demand side analysis is based on a contingent valuation study on people's willingness to pay for emergency treatment, transportation services and disaster relief activities. The supply side is identified by a high percentage of volunteers in the Red Cross organization which makes the provision of emergency help at low cost possible. We find that aggregate benefits of Red Cross services exceed their cost of production. Policy conclusions are drawn with respect to future recruitment and funding: whereas intrinsic motivation is important for the decision to volunteer, and financial incentives play a minor role in general, the young Red Cross activists work voluntarily for self-realization reasons and to continue their education. Age-specific recruitment strategies accompanied by word-of-mouth advertising are recommended to address potential volunteers. As long as the volunteering character of Red Cross services will be maintained and cost of production will not go up an increase of funds does not seem necessary in the future. Moreover, a radical change in the structure of funding may crowd out both donations and voluntary labor supply. PMID:16242807

  17. Space use and foraging movements in the American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus).

    Benhamou, S


    This study deals with the movements of two American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in their home ranges from late spring to early autumn in a deciduous-coniferous forest in Québec. During 70 six-hour tracking sessions, the type of behaviour exhibited at any place, and its terrestrial or arboreal occurrence, were recorded. Spatio-temporal structure of the squirrels' home ranges were analysed in relation to vegetation type and food availability. Although American red squirrels are known to be mainly adapted to coniferous forests, they also exploit deciduous areas when these areas become productive. Half of the squirrels' activity time was devoted to feeding or to searching for food, and a third was devoted to moving about. Movements were performed mainly on the ground, with a rate of about 0.5 km per activity hour, and appeared to be mainly organized around the locations of food caches and food-providing sites. PMID:24897435

  18. Red notoginseng: higher ginsenoside content and stronger anticancer potential than Asian and American ginseng

    SUN, SHI; Qi, Lian-Wen; Du, Guang-Jian; MEHENDALE, SANGEETA R.; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su


    A systematic comparison of the ginsenosides and anticancer activities was performed among white (air-dried) and red (steamed) roots of notoginseng (NG, Panax notoginseng), Asian ginseng (AG, P. ginseng), and American ginseng (AmG, P. quinquefolius). Chemical profiles of different ginseng species were characterized, through simultaneous quantification of nineteen major ginsenosides, by HPLC-UV at 202 nm. The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer cells were dete...

  19. [Red Cross hospital in Krapina, during the First world war from 1914 to 1918].

    Fures, Rajko; Habek, Dubravko; Kozina, Drago


    Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, during the First World War, was active from 1914 to 1918. Hospital led by Dr. Mirko Crkvenac, oriented humanist. The hospital is operated thanks to the help of municipalities and citizens. The hospital staff concern is for civilian and military victims of the First World War. Dr. Crkvenac, with the support of the City of Krapina and Mayor Vilibald Sluga, he succeeds to the organization and operation of the hospital to an enviable level. Across the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Croatian, Hospitals Red Cross, had a significant role in caring for the wounded, injured and sick soldiers and civilians. Red Cross Hospital in Krapina, is an example of a well-organized hospital in the toughest conditions. Such an organization was not simple in its implementation, and left the valuable lessons and experience. PMID:27598958

  20. Washington Crossing the Media: American Presidential Rhetoric and Cultural Iconography

    Jutta Ernst


    Full Text Available The Revolutionary War has been of prime importance to American self-perceptions and to the formation of its national identity. As a foundational moment with a strong mythical dimension it has become a cherished point of reference for the nation’s leaders, who, in their speeches and written communications, rely on the most widely accepted cultural iconography to recall this event. A time-honored, traditional discourse might, however, go together with the use of contemporary media technology as a means of distribution, as in the case of Barack Obama. Framing Obama’s rhetorical strategies within 19th- and 20th-century artistic representations of one specific historical moment from the Revolutionary War, Washington’s crossing of the Delaware river, this paper seeks to contribute to an enlarged understanding of the intricate relations between politics, the arts, and media development and of the ways they appropriate the past

  1. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.


    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  2. Red American Ginseng: Ginsenoside Constituents and Antiproliferative Activities of Heat-Processed Panax quinquefolius Roots

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Aung, Han H.; Ni, Ming; Wu, Ji-An; Tong, Robin; Wicks, Sheila; He, Tong-Chuan; Yuan, Chun-Su


    Red Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) is used in many Oriental countries. In this study, the saponin constituents and anticancer activities of steamed American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) roots were evaluated. The contents of 12 ginsenosides in the roots were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After the steaming treatment (100 – 120 °C for 1 h and 120 °C for 0.5 – 4 h), the quantity of 7 ginsenosides decreased and that of 5 others increase...

  3. Medical care as the carrot: the Red Cross in Indonesia during the war of decolonization, 1945-1950.

    van Bergen, L


    During the war of decolonisation in Indonesia 1945-1950, the Dutch Red Cross and the Dutch East Indies Red Cross delivered aid to sick and wounded soldiers and civilians. This was supposed to happen in cooperation with organisations including the Indonesian Red Cross, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the military health service and civilian health services. Due to lack of resources, doctors and nurses, and due to differing interests, cooperation went anything but smoothly, severely undermining medical aid. On top of that, the aid that was given turned out be a tool of propaganda for the Dutch cause. Aid was deliberately--and with Red Cross consent--used as a political-military tool in the service of Dutch national interests. In a military strategy of carrot and stick, medical care served as the carrot. PMID:24133931

  4. Cruz Roja Española: el trabajo con refugiados desde Cruz Roja Alicante (Spanish Red Cross: work with refugees from Alicante Red Cross

    Martínez Sánchez, Mar


    Full Text Available Resumen: Cruz Roja surge a raíz de un conflicto bélico con la finalidad de socorrer a las víctimas del mismo y localizar, mediante voluntarios, a los familiares de éstas. Con el paso de los años, la respuesta de Cruz Roja se institucionaliza y se amplia a las diferentes necesidades que emergen de la sociedad. Para uno de los colectivos más vulnerables, como son los refugiados, se crea un Programa específico para dar cobertura a sus necesidades más básicas durante el proceso de protección internacional, acompañándolos en las diferentes dificultades que se les plantea para alcanzar su integración en la ciudad.Abstract: Red Cross comes up with the aim to help victims from an armed conflict, and to locate their families trough volunteers. Trough the years, the Red Cross answer is widen to the different needs rising up in the society. From one of the most vulnerable group, refugees, a specific program has made to cover their basics needs during their international protection process, being with them in the different difficulties found to get integrated in the city.

  5. Nursing Training in the Brazilian Red Cross in the 1940s: a Foucaultian approach.

    Mecone, Márcia Cristina da Cruz; Freitas, Genival Fernandes de; Bonini, Bárbara Barrionuevo


    Objectives To identify and analyze the discursive statements that characterizes the training of human resources in nursing in the 1940s by the Brazilian Red Cross. Method The approach of the documentary sources was through the assumptions of the Historical Method and they were questioned by using the thought of Michel Foucault. Results Historically, a peculiar model, the military teaching model, influenced the training of human resources in nursing, especially in the 1940s. The Brazilian Red Cross was linked to the Ministry of War and its nursing education had an emphasis on moral conduct, discipline, and respect for hierarchy, culminating in the production of nurses' "docile bodies". The attributes expected of nurses constituted the triad in the professional formation identity at that time: dedication, discipline and obedience. Conclusion The military model still reverberates practices in training of nurses in the present, as in the management, care and education in nursing. PMID:26959155

  6. Principal Milk Components in Buffalo, Holstein Cross, Indigenous Cattle and Red Chittagong Cattle from Bangladesh

    M A Islam; Alam, M.K.; M. N. Islam; Khan, M. A. S.; Ekeberg, D.; Rukke, E. O.; Vegarud, G. E.


    The aim of the present study was to get a total physical and chemical characterization and comparison of the principal components in Bangladeshi buffalo (B), Holstein cross (HX), Indigenous cattle (IC) and Red Chittagong Cattle (RCC) milk. Protein and casein (CN) composition and type, casein micellar size (CMS), naturally occurring peptides, free amino acids, fat, milk fat globule size (MFGS), fatty acid composition, carbohydrates, total and individual minerals were analyzed. These components...

  7. [War Relief of Japanese Red Cross Nurses in the Lost Battle of Burma].

    Kawahara, Yukari


    This paper aims to reveal changes in the relief support of the Japanese Red Cross relief units dispatched to Burma during the Second World War, from the beginning of fighting in Burma to the Japanese withdrawal. Japanese Red Cross relief units began their relief support when Japan invaded Burma in February of 1942. Counterattacks by the British, Indian and Chinese armies from December 1942 caused an increase in the number of patients. There were also many cases of malnutrition and malaria due to the extreme shortage of medical supplies as a result of the Battle of Imphal, which began in March of 1944. Bomb raids became even more intense after the battle ended in July 1944, and patients were carried into bomb shelters and caves on a daily basis. Just prior to invasion by enemy troops, they were ordered to evacuate to neighboring Thailand. Nurses from the Wakayama group hid their identity as members of the Red Cross and evacuated, with 15 out of 23 dying or being reported missing in action. PMID:27089734

  8. Adsorption of allura red dye by cross-linked chitosan from shrimp waste.

    Sánchez-Duarte, Reyna G; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Correa-Murrieta, Ma A


    The present study was designed to evaluate the chitosan, which has been obtained by deacetylation of chitin, as a biosorbent. The chitin was isolated from fermented shrimp waste by an important local industrial food biopolymer. The aim of this work was the characterization of chitosan and preparation of cross-linked chitosan- tripolyphosphate (chitosan-TPP) beads for the removal of allura red food dye from aqueous solutions. Conditions of batch adsorption such as pH, time and adsorbent dose were examined. The effectiveness of cross-linked chitosan beads for dye removal was found to be higher for pH 2 (98%, percentage of dye removal) and tends to decrease at pHs of 3 to 11 (up to 49%). The values of percentage removal show that the adsorption capacity increases with time of contact and dosage of chitosan-TPP, but red dye adsorption is mainly influenced by pH level. The cross-linked chitosan-TPP beads can significantly adsorb allura red monoazo dye from aqueous solutions even at acidic pHs unlike raw chitosan beads that tend to dissolve in acidic solutions. Consequently, this modified chitosan has characteristics that allow minimization of environmental pollution and widening the valorization of shrimp waste. PMID:22277220

  9. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.


    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  10. Revision of widespread red squirrels (genus: Tamiasciurus) highlights the complexity of speciation within North American forests.

    Hope, Andrew G; Malaney, Jason L; Bell, Kayce C; Salazar-Miralles, Fernando; Chavez, Andreas S; Barber, Brian R; Cook, Joseph A


    Integration of molecular methods, ecological modeling, and statistical hypothesis testing are increasing our understanding of differentiation within species and phylogenetic relationships among species by revealing environmental connections to evolutionary processes. Within mammals, novel diversity is being discovered and characterized as more complete geographic sampling is coupled with newer multi-disciplinary approaches. North American red squirrels exemplify a forest obligate genus whose species are monitored as indicators of forest ecosystem condition, yet phylogenetic relationships reflecting evolutionary history within this genus remain tentative. Through testing of competing systematic and niche-based divergence hypotheses, we recognize three species, Tamiasciurus douglasii, T. hudsonicus, and T. fremonti. Our data provide evidence of regional differences in evolutionary dynamics and continental gradients of complexity that are important both for future management and for investigating multiple pathways that can lead to the formation of new species. PMID:27083861

  11. Clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Gladden, Juliet N


    This article describes the clinical management of potential ibuprofen toxicosis in South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria). A 2.5-year-old, 0.78-kg Geochelone carbonaria tortoise was presented to the emergency clinic after ingesting solubilized ibuprofen (200 mg) in a gelatin capsule. Treatment on initial presentation consisted of esophagostomy tube placement for gastric lavage and activated charcoal administration, intravenous and intraosseous fluid therapy, and administration of gastrointestinal protectants (sucralfate and famotidine). The tortoise was discharged to the owners. Although follow-up diagnostic monitoring was minimal because of owner compliance, the patient was noted to be alive and in reasonable health 1 year after initial presentation. This is the first report on the management of potential nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug toxicosis in any chelonian species. PMID:16931380

  12. Disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked hemoglobin as a novel red blood cell substitute

    LU; Xiuling; ZHENG; Chunyang; XU; Yuhong; SU; Zhiguo


    Disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS) intramolecularly cross-linked hemoglobin (Hb) was developed as a novel red blood cell substitute. A multi-angle laser light scattering detector coupled with size exclusion HPLC was applied to determine the molecular weight of the modified Hb. SDS-PAGE was also used as a complement. It was proved that 83.8% of the product was intramolecularly cross-linked Hb with weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of 67.5 kD, 12% was dimeric Hb with Mw of 146.6 kD, and 4.2% was trimeric Hb with Mw of 306.4 kD. The tetramer structure of the cross-linked Hb was stable as shown in size-exclusion chromatography using a mobile phase containing 1 mol/L MgCl2. Analysis by LC-MS demonstrated that the reaction of DSS with Hb mainly took place between the twoα subunits within a Hb molecule, resulting in stabilization of the tetramer structure. However, the cross-linking was not site-specific. The P50 of the cross-linked Hb decreased from 21.8 mmHg to 14.3 mmHg, and the Hill coefficient decreased from 2.22 to 1.41. Result of isoelectric focusing showed that the pI of DSS cross-linked Hb was in the range of 4.6-5.2, similar to that of serum albumin. The safety of DSS cross-linked Hb was favored by animal tests on rats and guinea pigs. Exchange transfusion experiment with DSS cross-linked Hb using rats as a model indicated no pressor effect or other significant side effects. The characteristics and properties of DSS cross-linked Hb were also compared with that of diaspirin cross-linked Hb reported in the literature.

  13. [Russian Red Cross Society and its role in providing medical aid to wounded and sick people during the First World War].

    Budko, A A; Chigareva, N G


    Russian Red Cross Society during the First World War played a significant role in health care, preservation of human life and return of millions of experienced soldiers to duty. The Red Cross Society formed and sent to the front their medical institutions (military hospitals, hospitals, hospital trains, etc.), trained medical nurses, charity nurses and orderlies of the Red Cross. Famous professor-surgeons worked as the consultants of the Red Cross Society, under their leadership were organized mobile surgical units. Society has created mobile nutrition and dressing units, X-ray units, psychiatric reception and collection points. The Red Cross Society assisted the military Department in the fight against infectious diseases. PMID:25546970

  14. Crossing Borders:Negotiation of Dual Cultural Identity of Chinese American in Pangs of Love



    David Wong Louie demonstrates the emotional pangs between the immigrant parent Mrs. Pang and her Americanized children in Pangs of Love. Through examining the source of the pangs, this paper argues that characters’pangs mainly stem from confrontations between their different cultural identities. Focusing on the way of dealing with conflicts of cultural identities in contemporary Chinese American families, this paper illuminates that Chinese Americans need to cross cultural borders and negoti-ate cultural identity between Chinese and American cultures under the circumstance of globalization.

  15. The International Committee of the Red Cross and its mandate to protect and assist: law and practice

    Shucksmith, CL


    It is 150 years since the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), following Henry Dunant’s experiences during the aftermath of the Battle of Solferino. It is 100 years since the commencement of the Great War: if we think about a ‘traditional’ battlefield, what images come to mind? Perhaps one imagines soldiers in uniform, tanks, guns and trenches. Do the emblems of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (IRCRCM) feature in the imagined conflict sce...

  16. New emergency radiology unit in Ohtawara Red Cross Hospital. Clinical experience and workflow

    A 64-raw multislice computed tomography (64-MSCT) machine, a new 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine, a flat-panel detector X ray, and a digital X ray TV were installed at the Ohtawara Red Cross Hospital in September 2005. Here, we explain the usefulness of ''Traumatic Panscan'' enabled by 64-MSCT and introduce the clinical experience and workflow of the new diagnostic imaging unit. In emergency situations, diagnostic imaging can be useful for triage, since its protocol remains the same for every situation. (author)

  17. Measurements of indoor radon concentration in italian red cross workplaces: preliminary results

    In August 2000 in Italy the D.Lgs.241/00 law was passed to implement the 96/29 Euratom Directive (BSS Directive, EC 1996). D.Lgs.241/00 states that workers cannot be exposed to decay products of radon, thoron and gamma radiation at a level higher than action level. The law became effective January 1, 2001. Italian action level of 500 Bq/m3 is the annual average indoor radon concentration. Work activities in zones with greater probability of high indoor radon concentration have to be identified. According to the law, a Commission must establish criteria for clarifying areas at risk. The actual work of classification is then done by the regions. A three year time period was given to define areas at risk. As the normative still must be completed, the Italian Red Cross and the Italian National Institute for Occupational Prevention and Safety initiated this study both because the Red Cross has always been sensitive to health problems and also to offer the Commission further experimental data regarding radon in Italy

  18. Cross-Correlation of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background with Luminous Red Galaxies

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki


    Measurements of the cross-correlation between the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) and large-scale structure provide a novel probe of dark matter on extragalactic scales. We focus on luminous red galaxies (LRGs) as optimal targets to search for the signal of dark matter annihilation. We measure the cross-correlation function of the EGB taken from the Fermi Large Area Telescope with the LRGs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Statistical errors are calculated using a large set of realistic mock LRG catalogs. The amplitude of the measured cross-correlation is consistent with null detection. Based on an accurate theoretical model of the distribution of dark matter associated with LRGs, we exclude dark matter annihilation cross-sections over $\\langle \\sigma v\\rangle =3\\times10^{-25}-10^{-26}\\, {\\rm cm}^3 \\,{\\rm s}^{-1}$ for a 10 GeV dark matter. We further investigate systematic effects due to uncertainties in the Galactic gamma-ray foreground emission, which we find to be an order of magnitude smaller th...

  19. Language and Cross-Cultural Training in American Multinational Corporations.

    Inman, Marianne


    Discusses a survey done to assess the current situation in foreign language, English language, and cross-cultural training among U.S. multinational corporations. A questionnaire was sent to 300 companies representing 25 different types of business involved in international trade or development. Sixty-two percent of the companies responded to the…

  20. Can red flowers be conspicuous to bees? Bombus dahlbomii and South American temperate forest flowers as a case in point.

    Martínez-Harms, J; Palacios, A G; Márquez, N; Estay, P; Arroyo, M T K; Mpodozis, J


    It has been argued that trichromatic bees with photoreceptor spectral sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV), blue and green areas of the spectrum are blind to long wavelengths (red to humans). South American temperate forests (SATF) contain a large number of human red-looking flowers that are reported to be visited by the bumblebee Bombus dahlbomii. In the present study, B. dahlbomii's spectral sensitivity was measured through electroretinogram (ERG) recordings. No extended sensitivity to long wavelengths was found in B. dahlbomii. The spectral reflectance curves from eight plant species with red flowers were measured. The color loci occupied by these flowers in the bee color space was evaluated using the receptor noise-limited model. Four of the plant species have pure red flowers with low levels of chromatic contrast but high levels of negative L-receptor contrast. Finally, training experiments were performed in order to assess the role of achromatic cues in the detection and discrimination of red targets by B. dahlbomii. The results of the training experiments suggest that the bumblebee relies on achromatic contrast provided by the L-receptor to detect and discriminate red targets. These findings are discussed in the context of the evolutionary background under which the relationship between SATF species and their flower visitors may have evolved. PMID:20118307

  1. Fitting the project into the environment : Gulf Heavy Oil Red Cross Projects

    A reservoir delineation project by Gulf Canada's Heavy Oil Division was reviewed. The six well drilling program was completed in 1997 with minimal negative environmental impacts. The program, dubbed the Red Cross project, took place in the Northern Boreal Forest of Saskatchewan. Its success is attributed to the early involvement of the regulatory agencies in Saskatchewan, on-site environmental investigations, the development of an environmental protection plan, conscientious construction practices, a monitoring program during construction, and a pro-active reclamation plan. The project area is identified as being environmentally sensitive and important as a wildlife habitat area. This successful project demonstrated the usefulness of pre-project planning and team work between industry and the regulators. Details of the planning, construction and planned remedial reclamation actions are described. 11 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Crossing cultural frontiers: representations of the Amish in American culture

    Maja Štekovič


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the typology of Amish fiction, representations of the Amish in literature, and the roles of authors, publishers and readers. Special attention is dedicated to the role of film directors as cultural travellers when crossing cultural frontiers by entering the Amish cultural milieu. The paper also presents a more critical view of the Amish by demonstrating how the perception of the Amish groups has changed with time - from victims of religious persecution in their homeland to becoming highly romanticised people in the Land of Liberty via literature and film.

  3. Framing attention in Japanese and American comics: Cross-cultural differences in attentional structure

    Neil eCohn


    Full Text Available Research on visual attention has shown that Americans tend to focus more on focal objects of a scene while Asians attend to the surrounding environment. The panels of comic books— the narrative frames in sequential images—highlight aspects of a scene comparably to how attention becomes focused on parts of a spatial array. Thus, we compared panels from American and Japanese comics to explore cross-cultural cognition beyond behavioral experimentation by looking at the expressive mediums produced by individuals from these cultures. This study compared the panels of two genres of American comics (Independent and Mainstream comics with mainstream Japanese manga to examine how different cultures and genres direct attention through the framing of figures and scenes in comic panels. Both genres of American comics focused on whole scenes as much as individual characters, while Japanese manga individuated characters and parts of scenes. We argue that this framing of space from American and Japanese comic books simulate a viewer’s integration of a visual scene, and is consistent with the research showing cross-cultural differences in the direction of attention.

  4. Retrospectives: Trouble in the Inaugural Issue of the American Economic Review: The Cross/Eaves Controversy

    Ann Mari May; Robert W. Dimand


    The papers from the first year of the American Economic Review are included in the Archives of the American Economic Association. While researching the early years of the AEA, Ann Mari May came across a folder marked "Controversies, Criticisms, etc."-which stood out in the midst of a review of AEA minutes and reports. This folder included a bulky file on what AER Editor Davis Rich Dewey would come to refer to as the "Cross/Eaves Controversy"-a controversy that, according to a letter he wrote,...


    Delaski, Kristina M; Ramsay, Edward; Gamble, Kathryn C


    Red pandas ( Ailurus fulgens ) are managed as captive populations in both North America and Europe. Regular review of pathology reports is a useful tool for developing veterinary care and husbandry strategies for such populations. Though thorough pathology reviews have been conducted for the European studbook, the North American population has not been reviewed similarly until now. Complete gross and histopathology reports were requested from institutions holding red pandas that died during 1992 through 2012 (n = 530), and reports were received for 95.8% of the individuals, including full necropsy records for 366 red pandas. These reports were classified by subspecies, gender, and age, then reviewed for primary cause of death and secondary pathological findings. A substantial portion of the deaths (40.2%) were neonates (animals, pneumonia was the most common cause of death. In adult (age = 366 days-10 yr) and geriatric red pandas (age >10 yr), cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death. Renal disease and gastrointestinal disease also were common pathologic findings in adult and geriatric animals. These findings suggest that stress associated with captivity and husbandry practices, including those associated with social, environmental, and nutritional conditions, may contribute to immune and cardiovascular pathologies, and other common necropsy findings. PMID:26667534

  6. [The Red Cross System for War Relief during the Second World War and Actual Conditions of Its Efforts in Burma].

    Kawahara, Yukari


    This paper aims to show the system for relief provided by the Japanese Red Cross relief units during the Second World War, as well as the actual activities of sixteen of its relief units dispatched to Burma. The Red Cross wartime relief efforts involved using personnel and funding prepared beforehand to provide aid to those injured in war, regardless of their status as ally or enemy. Thus they were able to receive support from the army in order to ensure safety and provide supplies. Nurses dispatched to Burma took care of many patients who suffered from malnutrition and physical injuries amidst the outbreak of infectious diseases typical of tropical areas, without sufficient replacement members. Base hospitals not meant for the front lines also came under attack, and the nurses' lives were thus in mortal danger. Of the 374 original members, 29 died or went missing in action. PMID:27089733

  7. The first Nobel Peace Prize, Henry Dunant (founder of the International Red Cross) and his "Mémoirs".

    Ottaviani, Raimonda; Vanni, Paolo; Baccolo, Grazia M; Guerin, Elizabeth; Vanni, Duccio


    To celebrate the memory and work of Henry Dunant, on the centenary of the presentation of the first Nobel Peace Prize, rightly awarded to Dunant for his having founded the institution of the International Red Cross, this paper presents the reader with some insights into his activities and sufferings, his trials and tribulations, and the hope and strength of his character. The ceaseless efforts made by Dunant to bring about the Institution which today represents Hope for so many suffering people who are silent victims of wars and atrocities, are fleetingly presented. The authors' intention is to give due recognition to Dunant for his work, and to highlight the humanity and the moral and social worth of the face behind the International Red Cross. PMID:15124521

  8. Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Academic Adaptation and Cross-Cultural Learning Experiences of Chinese Students at American Universities: A Narrative Inquiry

    Zhang, Hong


    Studies on the cross-cultural adaptation of Chinese students in American higher education institutions have received more attention in the past decade with the dramatic increase of Chinese students enrolling in American colleges and universities. According to the 2012 Open Doors Report, the number of students studying in the United States from…

  10. On ‘war task’ and ‘peace work’. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross between the colonial wars and the Second World War

    Martínez-Antonio, Francisco Javier


    After the wars against Atjeh (1873-1907) finished, Dutch rule over the Dutch East India was total. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross (DEIRC) awaited a new task, preparing to give aid in the case of a foreign invasion. The problem was that the end of the wars against the autochthonous “rebellions” also meant the end of Red Cross visibility and in the minds of many, the end to Red Cross urgency. Aid in wars against a real opponent is from a point of public relations much more important than the p...

  11. Bridging Cultural Borders: American Students’ Pedagogical Cross-Cultural Experiences in Hungary

    Jackie Greene


    Full Text Available In exploring the best practices for preparing new teachers to meet the challenges of the changing demographics present in contemporary classrooms, cross-cultural internship experiences emerge as an important component to teacher training curriculums. The authors present information based on the experiences of American student teachers spending three weeks teaching English and American Culture in Szent István’s Practice School, making presentations to local clubs, churches, libraries, and traveling throughout Hungary. This exchange program presented a great opportunity for the authors to conduct a study related to exploring the impact of the student teaching abroad experience in their teaching dispositions as well as in developing an understanding of working within a culturally and linguistically diverse environment.


    Riechers, Robin; Schupp, Alvin R.; Dellenbarger, Lynn E.


    Food consumption patterns have received considerable attention lately, especially changes in red meat consumption. This article examines and analyzes changes in meat consumption patterns in a southern state. Differences are reported based on demographics and consumer expressed preferences. The results reaffirm the negative role of health concerns and fat on red meat consumption and the positive influence on poultry and seafood. The findings agree with related other studies and suggest that fu...

  13. Community in Competition: The American Birkebeiner Cross-Country Ski Race

    Tim Donahue


    Full Text Available In modern times, few people use skis as transportation, but each year, millions of people in colder climates enjoy cross-country skiing for recreation and fitness. And those familiar with the Winter Olympics know that it is also a serious sport. Donahue is particularly interested in exploring the idea of the “train,” in which a large group of skiers bind together like a pack to harness group dynamics in the largest ski race in North America, the 50 kilometer American Birkebeiner, in Hayward, Wisconsin. The key to this race, implies Donahue, is knowing and deciding when to compete with and when to compete against.

  14. 32 CFR 728.78 - American Red Cross representatives and their dependents.


    ... those requiring domiciliary care. Routine dental care, other than dental prosthesis and orthodontia, is... PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR ELIGIBLE PERSONS AT NAVY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT FACILITIES Other...

  15. The integrated North American electricity market : Enhancing opportunities for cross border trading and environmental performance

    The stability of the North American electricity industry has always been recognized, in both Canada and the United States. However, this sector is facing uncertainty mainly due to lack of clarity concerning market rules, environmental challenges, and the very poor investment climate. The principal thesis that was developed for this paper used those three factors as context and justification. The thesis is as follows: the evolving North American market is more and more regionally integrated, and that continued and growing regional integration will lessen uncertainty. All problems cannot be solved simply through increased regional integration, but it represents a step in the right direction in that it leads to greater efficiency, increased reliability, more predictable regulation and policy, lower costs and greater environmental benefits. The result is increased investor confidence and reduced uncertainty in the marketplace. To assist in the strengthening of this integration, the Canadian Electricity Association made seven recommendations. They were: (1) increased focus on harmonizing market rules and increased participation in the Regional Transmission Organizations, (2) development of North American strategy for the management of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from electricity generation, (3) identification of oportunites to further harmonize management of other air emissions, (4) creation of consistent methodology for the measurement of environmental performance, (5) enhancement of cross-border and interprovincial transmission transfer capability, (6) coordination of critical infrastructure protection, and (7) support of self-governing international organization for the development and enforcement of mandatory reliability standards for the evolving electricity industry. 5 figs

  16. Clone of Chinese Jinan red-cross yellow cattle and evaluation of reproductive characteristics of cloned calf

    DAI Yunping; LI Ning; LIAN Zhengxing; ZHU Huabin; GONG Guochun; WANG Lili; WANG Haiping; ZHAO Zhihui; ZHU Qinghong; FEI Jing


    Somatic cell clone technology is a viable approach to preserving endangered livestock and wildlife genetic resources. In the present research, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was performed using granulose cells from the critical endangered Chinese red-cross yellow cattle as donor cells. A total of 211 oocytes were manipulated and 166 (79%) of them were successfully enucleated. 112 (67.4%) SCNT embryos were reconstructed, 94 (83%) of them cleaved, and 48 (43%) of them developed to blastocyst stage. SCNT blastocysts were transferred to 6 Holstein recipients, and 2 (33%) of them were found to be pregnant. One of them maintained to term and delivered a calf, whereas another aborted. Effect of different fusion buffer (mannitol vs. Zimmerman fusion buffer) and different activation methods (calcium ionophore+6-DMAP vs. cycloheximide+CB) on fusion rate and development of SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that: (i) on condition of two DC pulses of 2.5 kV/cm for 10 μs each, fusion rates were higher in mannitol solution than in Zimmerman fusion buffer (71% vs. 61%, respectively, p<0.05), but the blastocysts rates did not differ between two treatments (36% vs. 39%, p>0.05 ); (ii) There was no significant difference in development rates to the blastocyst stage for SCNT embryos activated by calcium ionophore+6-DMAP or by cycloheximide+CB (42% vs. 46%, respectively, p>0.05). Microsatellite DNA analysis examining 28 loci confirmed that the cloned calf was genetically identical to the donor Jinan red-cross yellow cattle and different from the recipient females. Growth and reproductive performance of cloned cow were evaluated, and there were no difference i cross-red n it between cloned and normal control Jinan yellow cattle. Furthermore, the cloned yellow cow has delivered a healthy yellow calf.

  17. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    Duran Bonnie M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7% of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native. Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9. Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7. Conclusions Native American women in

  18. Heterosis and Effect of Breed Proportion for Milk Production Traits in Crosses Between Danish Holstein, Danish Red and Danish Jersey

    Norberg, Elise; Byskov, Kenneth; Kargo, Morten

    fat yield (FY) from 52,165 first lactation cows born in 2004 or later from 104 herds using systematic crossbreeding. More than 50% of the cows were crosses between Danish Holstein (DH), Danish Red (DR) and /or Danish Jersey (DJ) and the remaining were pure DH, DR or DJ. Cows with less than 45 DIM and....... For PY there was no significant difference between DH and DR. Danish Jersey produced 40 kg less PY than DH and 35 kg less than DR. There was no significant effect of breed proportion for FY between the three breeds. Heterosis was significant in all combination of breeds for all three milk production...

  19. Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.

    Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L


    The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment. PMID:25340987

  20. Melatonin and N-acetyl-serotonin cross the red blood cell membrane and evoke calcium mobilization in malarial parasites

    Hotta C.T.


    Full Text Available The duration of the intraerythrocytic cycle of Plasmodium is a key factor in the pathogenicity of this parasite. The simultaneous attack of the host red blood cells by the parasites depends on the synchronicity of their development. Unraveling the signals at the basis of this synchronicity represents a challenging biological question and may be very important to develop alternative strategies for therapeutic approaches. Recently, we reported that the synchrony of Plasmodium is modulated by melatonin, a host hormone that is synthesized only during the dark phases. Here we report that N-acetyl-serotonin, a melatonin precursor, also releases Ca2+ from isolated P. chabaudi parasites at micro- and nanomolar concentrations and that the release is blocked by 250 mM luzindole, an antagonist of melatonin receptors, and 20 mM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor. On the basis of confocal microscopy, we also report the ability of 0.1 µM melatonin and 0.1 µM N-acetyl-serotonin to cross the red blood cell membrane and to mobilize intracellular calcium in parasites previously loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator Fluo-3 AM. The present data represent a step forward into the understanding of the signal transduction process in the host-parasite relationship by supporting the idea that the host hormone melatonin and N-acetyl-serotonin generate IP3 and therefore mobilize intracellular Ca2+ in Plasmodium inside red blood cells.

  1. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.

    Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy


    Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals. PMID:20346362

  2. A method for the estimation of the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled red-noise time series

    Max-Moerbeck, W; Hovatta, T; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S


    We present a practical implementation of a Monte Carlo method to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data, whose statistical properties are modeled with a simple power-law power spectral density. This implementation builds on published methods, we introduce a number of improvements in the normalization of the cross-correlation function estimate and a bootstrap method for estimating the significance of the cross-correlations. A closely related matter is the estimation of a model for the light curves, which is critical for the significance estimates. We present a graphical and quantitative demonstration that uses simulations to show how common it is to get high cross-correlations for unrelated light curves with steep power spectral densities. This demonstration highlights the dangers of interpreting them as signs of a physical connection. We show that by using interpolation and the Hanning sampling window function we are able to reduce the effects of red-noise leak...

  3. Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study

    Suguimoto S Pilar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

  4. Cross-correlation matrix analysis of Chinese and American bank stocks in subprime crisis

    Zhu, Shi-Zhao; Li, Xin-Li; Nie, Sen; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Yu, Gao-Feng; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong


    In order to study the universality of the interactions among different markets, we analyze the cross-correlation matrix of the price of the Chinese and American bank stocks. We then find that the stock prices of the emerging market are more correlated than that of the developed market. Considering that the values of the components for the eigenvector may be positive or negative, we analyze the differences between two markets in combination with the endogenous and exogenous events which influence the financial markets. We find that the sparse pattern of components of eigenvectors out of the threshold value has no change in American bank stocks before and after the subprime crisis. However, it changes from sparse to dense for Chinese bank stocks. By using the threshold value to exclude the external factors, we simulate the interactions in financial markets. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275186, 91024026, and FOM2014OF001) and the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology (USST) of Humanities and Social Sciences, China (Grant Nos. USST13XSZ05 and 11YJA790231).

  5. Nativity and Serum Concentrations of Antioxidants in Mexican American Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Kamal Eldeirawi


    Full Text Available There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1994, on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4–16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  6. Acupuncture for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria) - a case report.

    Scognamillo-Szabó, Márcia Valéria Rizzo; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Olegário, Maria Marlene Martins; Andrade, Mariana Batista


    The literature contains numerous reports of the effect of acupuncture on domestic or experimental animals, but only a few involving wild animals. This paper reports on acupuncture treatment for locomotor disabilities in a South American red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria, SPIX, 1824), an endangered land tortoise found in Brazils Cerrado region. The animal was captured and kept in an aquatic pen, subsequently developing respiratory symptoms and locomotor disabilities. The respiratory symptoms resolved in response to antibiotic treatment. However, despite the use of nutritional supplements, the motor symptoms remained unchanged. After 16 months, the tortoise was given six acupuncture sessions. No other changes were made to its environment or management. The location of the acupuncture points was transposed from canine charts. After acupuncture, the animals motor functions, which had remained unchanged during the preceding 16 months, were restored, enabling it to eat and walk unaided. The improvement persisted during 18 months follow up. The transposition of acupuncture points from canine charts is a viable alternative for chelonians. PMID:19098697

  7. Personality Traits, Vocational Interests, and Career Exploration: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between American and Hong Kong Students

    Fan, Weiqiao; Cheung, Fanny M.; Leong, Frederick T. L.; Cheung, Shu Fai


    This study compared the pattern of relationships among personality, vocational interests, and career exploration within an integrated framework between 369 American and 392 Hong Kong university students. The first hypothesis predicted differential contributions of the universal and indigenous personality dimensions based on the Cross-cultural…

  8. Derivation of water vapour absorption cross-sections in the red region

    Lal, M.; Chakrabarty, D. K.


    Absorption spectrum in 436 to 448 nm wavelength region gives NO2 and O3 column densities. This spectrum can also give H2O column density. The spectrum in the range of 655 to 667 nm contains absorption due to NO3 and H2O. Combining the absorption spectra in the wavelength ranges of 436 to 448 and 655 to 667 nm, water vapor absorption cross-sections in this range comes out to be of the order of 2.0 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp -2).

  9. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan


    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:20974090

  10. Ancestors of two-spirits: Historical depictions of Native North American gender-crossing women through critical discourse analysis.

    Hemmilä, Anita


    Letters written by Christian men of European origin during the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries contain brief descriptions of gender-crossing individuals among indigenous Americans. Although now considered ethnocentrically biased because of the etic positioning of their authors, these historical sources are invaluable because they offer a glimpse of the ancestors of modern-day two-spirits. An application of critical discourse analysis to three depictions of gender-crossing females from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries demonstrates that such women were favorably portrayed. These results differ dramatically from those obtained from my similar analysis of depictions of gender-crossing males. It also became evident that the three descriptions of gender-crossing women were not based on actual observations, but only on hearsay, which makes their use as primary sources questionable. PMID:27254764

  11. Psychological maladjustment and academic achievement: a cross-cultural study of Japanese, Chinese, and American high school students.

    Crystal, DS; Chen, C.; Fuligni, AJ; Stevenson, HW; Hsu, CC; Ko, HJ; Kitamura, S.; Kimura, S.


    Psychological maladjustment and its relation to academic achievement, parental expectations, and parental satisfaction were studied in a cross-national sample of 1,386 American, 1,633 Chinese, and 1,247 Japanese eleventh-grade students. 5 indices of maladjustment included measures of stress, depressed mood, academic anxiety, aggression, and somatic complaints. Asian students reported higher levels of parental expectation and lower levels of parental satisfaction concerning academic achievemen...

  12. Patterns of ectoparasitism in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus: Sex-biases, seasonality, age, and effects on male body condition

    Jesse E.H. Patterson


    Full Text Available Within many species, males are often more heavily parasitised than females. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including immunocompetence handicaps, sexual size dimorphism and behavioural differences. Here we set out to test the latter two hypotheses and make inferences about the former by assessing patterns of ectoparasitism across various life-history stages in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. We also conducted an ectoparasite removal experiment to investigate the effects of ectoparasites on male body condition. We found that males were more intensely parasitized than females, but only during the mating period. There was no difference in ectoparasite intensity between male and female juveniles at birth or at emergence, suggesting that ectoparasites do not exploit male red squirrels for longer-range natal dispersal. Male red squirrels in our population were slightly heavier than females, however we did not find any evidence that this dimorphism drives male-biased ectoparasitism. Finally, we could not detect an effect of ectoparasite removal on male body mass. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that ectoparasites exploit their male hosts for transmission and that male red squirrels are important for the transmission dynamics of ectoparasites in this population; however, the mechanisms (i.e., immunocompetence, testosterone are not known.

  13. Risk factors for hepatitis B carrier status among blood donors of the National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society.

    Nuchprayoon, T; Chumnijarakij, T


    A study of risk factors for hepatitis B carriers among voluntary blood donors of the National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society was carried out in a case-control study design during January 1989 to June 1990. Cases were 876 blood donors whose blood identified HBsAg at time of recruitment and continued positive for more than 6 months. Controls were 1,750 blood donors whose blood was free from HBsAg who came for blood donation at the same period as the cases. The ratio of cases:controls = 1:2. Self-administered questionnaires were constructed and pretested before using both cases and controls. The study revealed that the risk factors for hepatitis B among voluntary blood donors were age of less than 30 years old; low socioeconomic status (family income of less than 8,000 Baht/month); single status, especially males; male occupations of students, monks, nongovernment workers compared with government officials; female occupations of laborers, students, nongovernment workers and government officials compared with housewives. Sharing of nail clippers, used blades and tooth brushes among family members are proved to be risk factors, especially among males. In addition, sharing of used blades in barber shops proved to be a risk among males while sharing of nail clippers in beauty salons, history of ear-piercing at department stores or history of caesarean section among females could not be shown to be risk factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1439976

  14. Social Loafing on an Optimizing Task: Cross-Cultural Differences Among Chinese and Americans.

    Gabrenya, William K., Jr.; And Others


    American and Chinese students (Grades 6 and 9) performed an auditory tracking task that required counting tone patterns alone and in pairs. The Americans tended to work harder individually, while the Chinese performed better in pairs. These findings contradict earlier suggestions that "social loafing" is a transcultural phenomenon. (KH)

  15. Potency requirements of rabies vaccines administered intradermally using the Thai Red Cross regimen: investigation of the immunogenicity of serially diluted purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine.

    Beran, Jiri; Honegr, Karel; Banzhoff, Angelika; Malerczyk, Claudius


    To determine the minimum vaccine potency per intradermal dose required to elicit an adequate immune response using the Thai Red Cross (TRC) regimen (2-2-2-0-1-1), healthy volunteers received 0.1 mL volumes of PCECV containing decreasing amounts of antigen. Subjects also received HRIG to evaluate potential interference with antibody production. Results indicated that when each 0.1 mL intradermal dose of PCECV contained antigen corresponding to 0.32 IU per intramuscular dose, every subject had titers above 0.5 IU/mL by day 14. These results confirm that the current World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for vaccine potency (2.5 IU per intramuscular dose) are sufficient for use in the Thai Red Cross intradermal regimen. PMID:15917111

  16. A Study on Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Japanese and American Expatriates in China

    Xingying Zhou; Jie Qin


    A survey has been made on Japanese and American business expatriates who are currently working in China in order to explore the relationship between cultural distance and expatriate adjustment. Based on the reviewed literature and the theory, the authors put forward two hypotheses which are tested by a specially designed 34-item questionnaire distributed to 41 Japanese subjects and 53 American subjects. The results partly prove the expectation that cultural distance is negatively correlated w...

  17. Musical Crossings: Identity Formations of Second-Generation South Asian American Hip Hop Artists

    Sharma, Nitasha Tamar


    This paper stems from a dissertation project on second-generation South Asian American hip hop artists based on twenty-two months of fieldwork conducted primarily in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Area. Through interviews, participant observation, and an analysis of their lyrics, this paper examines how South Asian American (desi) hip hop artists develop a racial consciousness and identities that both challenge narrow identity politics strictly drawn around ethnic lines and provide alternativ...

  18. The irrational beliefs inventory: cross-cultural comparisons between South African and previously published Dutch and American samples.

    du Plessis, Marilize; Möller, André T; Steel, Henry R


    The Irrational Beliefs Inventory gives a measure of irrational beliefs, as postulated by Ellis's Rational Emotive Behavior therapy. Given the increasing cross-cultural use of psychometric scales, it is important to assess whether the psychometric properties of the inventory are consistent across cultures. In the present study cross-cultural applicability, in terms of internal consistency and independence of subscales, was investigated for an ad hoc sample of White (n= 100, M age = 21.3 yr., SD=4.0) and Black (n=82, M age=19.8 yr., SD=2.2) undergraduate South African university students. Cronbach coefficients alpha for the subscales and Pearson correlations between subscales for American and Dutch students, as reported by Bridges and Sanderman, were compared with those indices for the South African students. The magnitude and rank order of Cronbach alpha, as well as the correlations between subscales for the three groups showed strong similarities. Values of alpha for the Black South African students were lower in magnitude on all subscales than those for American, Dutch, and White South African samples, but intercorrelations between subscale scores were consistent. Findings in the present study are supportive of the cross-cultural applicability of the Irrational Beliefs Inventory to White South African students but not to South African Black students. PMID:15666916

  19. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

    Carter-Edwards Lori


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  20. Fostering Cross-Cultural Understanding Through E-Learning: Russian-American Forum Case-Study.

    Ekaterina V. Talalakina


    Abstract— The importance of cross-cultural understanding is accelerated nowadays by globalization and joint efforts of different countries in the face of global challenges. Countries’ educational systems display attempts to incorporate cross-cultural studies in their curricula across all stages of formal learning. Many higher education institutions offer special courses aimed at promoting cross-cultural studies. One of the tools used to facilitate the process is e-learning. The present articl...

  1. Cross-Cultural Communication And Dimensions: A Hybrid Analysis Of Horizontal And Vertical Individualist And Collectivist Tendencies Among African American And European American Management Students

    Ephraim Okoro


    Full Text Available This article describes research about horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism (HVIC among African American and European American university students. The survey is based on the work of Harry Triandis (1995, one of the seminal researchers of individualism and collectivism (I-C. The survey of attitude and scenario items, developed by Harry Triandis (1995, was administered to undergraduate management students in three universities in the Eastern and Southeastern United States. Many of the attitude and scenario survey items directly address preferred communication patterns. The findings are also interpreted in terms of situational preferences about I-C, including the following contexts: social events, workplace decisions, and group and work dynamics. The research is unique in that it measures four types of the I-C dimension: horizontal individualism, vertical individualism, horizontal collectivism, and vertical collectivism, as conceptualized by Triandis (1995. Furthermore, it emerges from the premise that cultures are neither strictly collectivist nor individualist; rather, cultures have profiles in which individualist tendencies are prominent in some circumstances whereas collectivist tendencies are emphasized in others. Also, this article provides findings that can easily be converted into training about cross-cultural similarities and differences. Related recommendations for future research and implications for teaching are provided.

  2. Analysis of American Individualism and Chinese Collectivism from the Cross-Cultural Perspective



    Individualism and collectivism are the core of the value systems in American and Chinese society respectively.Understanding their differences is essential to create a harmonious environment in intercultural communication.This thesis compares Chinese collectivism and American’s individualism,and it demonstrates their influences on intercultural communication.

  3. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Domestic American and International Chinese Students' Social Media Usage

    Xu, Qiong; Mocarski, Richard


    This survey of American and Chinese students at a state university in the southern United States measures Social Media (SM) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media…

  4. Cross-Cultural Service Learning: American and Russian Students Learn Applied Organizational Communication.

    Stevens, Betsy


    Describes how American and Russian students engaged in service learning in their own communities as part of an organizational communication class in which they learned communication principles and applied their skills to assist non-profit organizations. Describes both projects, stumbling blocks, and course outcomes. (SR)

  5. Familiarity Overrides Complexity in Rhythm Perception: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of American and Turkish Listeners

    Hannon, Erin E.; Soley, Gaye; Ullal, Sangeeta


    Despite the ubiquity of dancing and synchronized movement to music, relatively few studies have examined cognitive representations of musical rhythm and meter among listeners from contrasting cultures. We aimed to disentangle the contributions of culture-general and culture-specific influences by examining American and Turkish listeners' detection…

  6. Racial Attitudes among Asian and European American College Students: A Cross-Cultural Examination

    Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti


    College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…

  7. Effect of lean red meat from lamb v. lean white meat from chicken on the serum lipid profile: a randomised, cross-over study in women.

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Perez-Calahorra, Sofia; Cenarro, Ana; Bea, Ana M; Andres, Eva; Horno, Jaime; Ros, Emilio; Civeira, Fernando


    The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability. PMID:21902857

  8. Egyptian and American Internet-Based Cross-Cultural Information Seeking Behavior. Part I: Research Instrument

    Paul L. Hover


    Full Text Available This article is the first of three in an exploratory study of the cross-cultural, cross-language information-seeking (IS behavior of a group of eighty-four academic and public reference librarians from Egypt and the USA. The present article describes the design of the cross-cultural research instrument used to record the behavior of participants when presented with a choice of information resources in several languages unfamiliar to them. A review of literature demonstrates the need in cross-cultural investigations for a multi-tiered approach that allows analysis from different perspectives. A detailed description of the design rationale for the interview model is given, which includes a cultural background questionnaire providing data designed to enable comparative analysis of the search performance of sub-groups. Instructions on how to manage cross-language searches complete the interview. A discussion of the usefulness of the methodology in discerning cultural universals, differences, and the IS needs of cross-cultural researchers is followed by conclusions and suggestions for further research.

  9. Cross-cultural study of representations of happiness in Russian and American proverbs: search for points of contact with Hofstede''s dimensions



    In this article, I present the results of research into cultural differences in the folk perceptions of happiness of the Russian and American people that enter into their actual happiness experiences. I started from the premise widely accepted in paremiology that proverbs are one of the important sources of such information. Based on this idea, I conducted a cross-cultural analysis of Russian and American proverbs on happiness. The research reveals differences in 1) emotional ratings of the h...

  10. Cross-species microsatellite amplification in South American Caimans (Caiman spp and Paleosuchus palpebrosus

    Rodrigo Barban Zucoloto


    Full Text Available Microsatellite DNA markers have been used to assess genetic diversity and to study ecological behavioral characteristics in animals. Although these markers are powerful tools, their development is labor intensive and costly. Thus, before new markers are developed it is important to prospect the use of markers from related species. In the present study we investigated the possibility of using microsatellite markers developed for Alligator mississipiensis and Caiman latirostris in South American crocodilians. Our results demonstrate the use of microsatellite markers for Paleosuchus palpebrosus, Caiman crocodilus and Caiman yacare.

  11. A profile of the socio-demographic background of children admitted with acute diarrhoea to the Red Cross Children’s Hospital, Cape Town

    J. M. Huskisson


    Full Text Available The demographic and health profile and anthropometry of 106 young children hospitalised with acute diarrhoea during winter at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, is reported. Information regarding socio-economic status, feeding practices and mothers' knowledge/perceptions about the aetiology of diarrhoea and the use of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT was collected on a predetermined questionnaire in English or Xhosa. The findings underline the need for an aggressive, well-targeted education programme to reduce the morbidity and mortality of vulnerable children as well as the financial drain on the hospital budget.

  12. Spirituality of American and Czech students – a cross-cultural comparison

    Říčan, Pavel; Lukavský, Jiří; Janošová, Pavlína; Štochl, J.


    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2010), s. 243-251. ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700250801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : spirituality * measurement * factor analysis * cross- cultural differences Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor : 0.258, year: 2008

  13. The guava's Smell and the red sorghum flavor. Magic realism in Latin-American and Chinese literature

    Ye, Fan


    Since the 1980s, the author of Hundred Years of Solitude has become a great idol and a constant source of the ???anxiety of influence??? (as phrased by Harold Bloom) for an entire generation of Chinese writers, including Jia Pingwa, Yu Hua, Su Tong, Yan Lianke, Ma Yuan and Mo Yan. The paper proposes a parallel reading between Gabriel Garc??a M??rquez and Mo Yan, the Chinese Nobel laureate, in order to demonstrate that the Latin American magical realism and its adventure in China has formed pa...

  14. Fostering Cross-Cultural Understanding Through E-Learning: Russian-American Forum Case-Study.

    Ekaterina V. Talalakina


    Full Text Available Abstract— The importance of cross-cultural understanding is accelerated nowadays by globalization and joint efforts of different countries in the face of global challenges. Countries’ educational systems display attempts to incorporate cross-cultural studies in their curricula across all stages of formal learning. Many higher education institutions offer special courses aimed at promoting cross-cultural studies. One of the tools used to facilitate the process is e-learning. The present article examines the case study of an internet-based collaboration between two higher education institutions – State University Higher School of Economics in Russia and Champlain College in the USA – in fostering cross-cultural understanding. The project is based on the study of individualistic and collectivistic values within the framework of two corresponding courses studied at both institutions. The topicality of the study is determined by the growing importance of the cooperation of two countries on the international affairs arena, on the one hand, and the fundamental differences of the countries’ underlying value system, on the other. In particular, a post-soviet Russia is generally viewed as a developing democracy representing the collectivistic end of the value spectrum, whereas the USA is considered as an extreme case of individualistic value system. The comparison and contrast of the two systems conducted simultaneously by the representatives of both cultures (students of the two universities within a specifically built internet forum comprises the base of the project. The case study covers the project’s objectives, its background, the rationale behind its content choice, the design of the e-learning tool, the profile of the participants of the project, its implementation stages and its outcome. The major findings of the case study deal with the process of building cross-cultural awareness, reinforcing students’ analytical skills and

  15. Channel Cross Sections, Floodplains wabash_cross sections red line w/ crosssections identified, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, WABASH COUNTY GOVERNMENT.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Channel Cross Sections dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2009. It is...

  16. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Korean and American Science Teachers' Views of Evolution and the Nature of Science

    Kim, Sun Young; Nehm, Ross H.


    Despite a few international comparisons of the evolutionary beliefs of the general public, comparatively less research has focused on science teachers. Cross-cultural studies offer profitable opportunities for exploring the interactions among knowledge and belief variables in regard to evolution in different socio-cultural contexts. We investigated the evolutionary worldviews of pre-service science teachers from Asia (specifically South Korea), a region often excluded from international comparisons. We compared Korean and American science teachers': (1) understandings of evolution and the nature of science, and (2) acceptance of evolution in order to elucidate how knowledge and belief relationships are manifested in different cultural contexts. We found that Korean science teachers exhibited 'moderate' evolutionary acceptance levels comparable to or lower than American science teacher samples. Gender was significantly related to Korean teachers' evolution content knowledge and acceptance of evolution, with female Christian biology teachers displaying the lowest values on all measures. Korean science teachers' understandings of nature of science were significantly related to their acceptance and understanding of evolution; this relationship appears to transcend cultural boundaries. Our new data on Korean teachers, combined with studies from more than 20 other nations, expose the global nature of science teacher ambivalence or antipathy toward evolutionary knowledge.

  17. ``A red cross appeared in the sky'' and other celestial signs: Presumable European aurorae in the mid AD 770s were halo displays

    Neuhäuser, D. L.; Neuhäuser, R.


    The interpretation of the strong 14C variation around AD 775 as one (or several) solar super-flare(s) by, e.g., Usoskin et al. (2013) is based on alleged aurora sightings in the mid AD 770s in Europe: A red cross/crucifix in AD 773/4/6 from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, inflamed shields in AD 776 (both listed in the aurora catalogue of Link 1962), and riders on white horses in AD 773 (newly proposed as aurora in Usoskin et al. 2013), the two latter from the Royal Frankish Annals. We discuss the reports about these three sightings in detail here. We can show that all three can be interpreted convincingly as halo displays: The red cross or crucifix is formed by the horizontal arc and a vertical pillar of light (either with the Sun during sunset or with the moon after sunset); the inflamed shields and the riders on white horses were both two mock suns, especially the latter narrated in form of a Christian adaptation of the antique dioscuri motive. While the latter event took place early in AD 774 (dated AD 773 in Usoskin et al. 2013), the two other sightings have to be dated AD 776, i.e. anyway too late for being in connection with a 14C rise that started before AD 775. We also sketch the ideological background of those sightings and there were many similar reports throughout that time. In addition, we present a small drawing of a lunar halo display with horizontal arc and vertical pillar forming a cross for shortly later, namely AD 806 June 4, the night of full moon, also from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle; we also show historic observations of halo phenomena (mock suns and crosses) from G. Kirch and Hevelius - and a modern photograph.

  18. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.


    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  19. On ‘war task’ and ‘peace work’. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross between the colonial wars and the Second World War

    van Bergen, Leo


    Full Text Available After the wars against Atjeh (1873-1907 finished, Dutch rule over the Dutch East India was total. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross (DEIRC awaited a new task, preparing to give aid in the case of a foreign invasion. The problem was that the end of the wars against the autochthonous “rebellions” also meant the end of Red Cross visibility and in the minds of many, the end to Red Cross urgency. Aid in wars against a real opponent is from a point of public relations much more important than the preparation of aid against an unknown opponent. “Work in times of peace” had to be the answer to this problem, but this work was only in name, and not de facto different from preparation of aid in times of war. Through “peace work” the DEIRC prepared itself for the war-task. To be able to fulfil the war-task the Red Cross had to have enough doctors, nurses, and stretcher-bearers. Visible peace-work had to provide for that. It enlarged the Red Cross’ popularity and trained its volunteers. However, at the beginning of 1942, when the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies, it turned out to be too little, too late.Tras el fin de las guerras contra Aceh (1873-1907, el dominio holandés sobre la India Oriental Holandesa fue total. La Cruz Roja de las Indias Orientales Holandesas (DEIRC quedaba a la espera de una nueva tarea: prepararse para proporcionar ayuda en caso de una invasión extranjera. El problema era que el final de las guerras contra las “rebeliones” autóctonas también significaba el fin de la visibilidad de la Cruz Roja y, a juicio de muchos, el final de la perentoriedad de la Cruz Roja. El socorro en guerras contra un adversario real era desde el punto de vista de las relaciones públicas mucho más importante que los preparativos de socorro contra un enemigo desconocido. El “trabajo en tiempo de paz” debía ser la respuesta a este problema, si bien resultó diferente solo de palabra, no de hecho, en relación a los preparativos

  20. Differential effect of obesity on bone mineral density in White, Hispanic and African American women: a cross sectional study

    Pabon Lina


    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a major public health problem with low bone mass affecting nearly half the women aged 50 years or older. Evidence from various studies has shown that higher body mass index (BMI is a protective factor for bone mineral density (BMD. Most of the evidence, however, is from studies with Caucasian women and it is unclear to what extent ethnicity plays a role in modifying the effect of BMI on BMD. A cross sectional study was performed in which records of postmenopausal women who presented for screening for osteoporosis at 2 urban medical centres were reviewed. Using logistic regression, we examined the interaction of race and BMI after adjusting for age, family history of osteoporosis, maternal fracture, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle on BMD. Low BMD was defined as T-score at the lumbar spine Among 3,206 patients identified, the mean age of the study population was 58.3 ± 0.24 (Years ± SEM and the BMI was 30.6 kg/m2. 2,417 (75.4% were African Americans (AA, 441(13.6% were Whites and 348 (10.9% were Hispanics. The AA women had lower odds of having low BMD compared to Whites [Odds ratio (OR = 0.079 (0.03–0.24 (95% CI, p There is thus a race-dependent effect of BMI on BMD. With each unit increase in BMI, BMD increases for White women, while a slight but significant decrease in BMD occurs in African American women.

  1. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey


    Objectives To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. Design/Setting/Participants A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Main Outcomes/Measures Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Results Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all stakeholders may be of great value to eliminate these pervasive behaviors in the field of

  2. Ultraviolet and mid-infrared continuum generation by cross-phase modulation between red-shifted solitons and blue-shifted dispersive waves in a photonic crystal fiber

    Using a photonic crystal fiber with a zero dispersion wavelength of the fundamental mode at 780 nm designed and fabricated in our lab, the ultraviolet and mid-infrared continua are generated by cross-phase modulation between red-shift solitons and blue-shift dispersive waves. The dependences of continuum on the pump power and wavelength are investigated. With the pump working at 820 nm, when the pump power increases from 300 to 500 mW, the bandwidths of ultraviolet and mid-infrared continua change from 80 to 140 nm and 100 to 200 nm, respectively. The wavelength of ultraviolet continuum is below 246 nm, and the wavelength of mid-infrared continuum exceeds 2500 nm. Moreover, the influences of pump power on wavelength and conversion efficiency of different parts of continua are also demonstrated. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. On ‘war task’ and ‘peace work’. The Dutch East Indies Red Cross between the colonial wars and the Second World War

    Martínez-Antonio, Francisco Javier


    Full Text Available From the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century, Morocco’s modernizing projects included plans for signing up to the Geneva Convention and creating a local Red Cross/Crescent society. These plans initially stemmed from the convergence of Moroccan administrative/military reforms and Spanish “regenerationist” interventions. They ran parallel to developments in leading Islamic countries such as Egypt, Persia and the Ottoman Empire though they would have to wait till the country’s independence from Franco-Spanish domination in 1956 to become a reality. Beyond their lack of actual results, those early initiatives would serve as legal ground for Morocco’s “humanitarian sovereignty”, tacitly confirmed by the provisions of the Algeciras Act of 1906. In the following two decades, the resilience of this sovereignty would reveal itself in the sustained competition between the Spanish and the French Red Cross for “humanitarian hegemony” in the country, and also in the repeated and nearly successful demands to establish a local Red Cross/Crescent that were made to the International Committee of the Red Cross by the insurgent leader Abdelkrim during the so-called Rif War.Hacia finales del siglo XIX y comienzos del XX, los proyectos de modernización de Marruecos incluyeron planes de adhesión a la Convención de Ginebra y de creación de una sociedad local de la Cruz/Media Luna Roja. Estos planes surgieron de la convergencia entre las reformas administrativas/militares marroquíes y las intervenciones “regeneracionistas” españolas. Transcurrieron en paralelo con los desarrollos en países islámicos líderes como Egipto, Persia y el Imperio Otomano, aunque habrían de esperar para hacerse realidad hasta la independencia del país de la dominación franco-española en 1956. Más allá de la falta de resultados concretos, estas tempranas iniciativas servirían como marco legal a la “soberanía humanitaria” de Marruecos

  4. On Foreign Affairs of Red Cross Society of China during China's Resistance War against Japan%抗战时期中国红十字会外交述评



    围绕抗日战争,中国红十字会开展了一系列的对外交往,向国际社会控告日军侵华罪行,呼吁各国政府、国际红十字会、各国红十字会开展对华援助,接受国际社会医药、粮食、医务工作者等物力、财力、人力的大规模支持,出席国际红十字大会,发起成立红十字国际委员会,赢得了国际社会的同情与支持,加深了与国际社会的了解和感情,在对外交往中认识和改进了红十字工作的缺点与不足。抗战时期中国红十字会的对外交往,是战时中国外交的主要组成部分。%During China's Resistance War against Japan, the Red Cross Society of China launched a series of foreign exchanges with international society to fight against Japanese invasion of China. It called on the governments, the International Committee of the Red Cross, Red Cross in different countries to aid China, and accepted the international aid of material resources, financial resources and human support such as the medicine, food and medical staff. The Red Cross Society of China attended the international conference of Red Cross, initiated the establishment of the International Committee of the Red Cross, won the sympathy and support of the international society, and promoted the international understanding and feelings about China. The shortcomings and deficiencies of Red Cross Society of China were able to be overcome in its foreign activities. The foreign contact of Red Cross Society of China was the main part of Chinese diplomacy during China's Resistance War against Japan.

  5. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of Zr and La: Probing Neutron Exposure and Neutron Flux in Red Giant Stars

    Kitis, G; Wiescher, M; Dahlfors, M; Soares, J


    We propose to measure the neutron capture cross sections of $^{139}$La, of $^{93}$Zr (t$_{1/2}$)=1.5 10$^{6}$ yr), and of all the stable Zr isotopes at n_TOF. The aim of these measurements is to improve the accuracy of existing results by at least a factor of three in order to meet the quality required for using the s-process nucleosynthesis as a diagnostic tool for neutron exposure and neutron flux during the He burning stages of stellar evolution. Combining these results with a wealth of recent information coming from high-resolution stellar spectroscopy and from the detailed analysis of presolar dust grains will shed new light on the chemical history of the universe. The investigated cross sections are also needed for technological applications, in particular since $^{93}$Zr is one of the major long-lived fission products.

  6. Cardiovascular disease in latin american patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study and a systematic review.

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel


    Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%-79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

  7. 晚清至北京国民政府时期的中国红十字会医院(1904—1927)%The China Red Cross Hospital from the Late Qing Dynasty to the Period of Beijing National Government(1904-- 1927)



    In 1904,Chinese established a Red Cross organizations--Shanghai International Red Cross. In order to make good use of the work of Red Cross, Shanghai International Red Cross set up the Red Cross hospital. Since then, with the formal establishment of the Chinese Red Cross, Red Cross Hospital continued to develop and expand its scale, and gradually formed five Red Cross hospitals. Moreover,medical education and medical personnel training of the Chinese Red Cross Hospital have also made great progress, resuiting in a large number of outstanding medical personnel. The Development of Chinese Red Cross Hospital greatly promoted the development of Chinese Red Cross, and made a significant contribution to the development to modern philanthropy.%1904年,中国人建立了红十字组织——上海万国红十字会,为了更好的开展红十字会工作,上海万国红十字会建立了红十字会医院。此后,随着中国红十字会的正式成立,红十字会医院不断发展并扩大其规模,逐渐形成红十字会的五大医院。不仅如此,中国红十字会医院的医学教育和医疗人才的培养也取得了很大的发展,产生了大量优秀的医学人才。中国红十字会医院的发展极大地促进了中国红十字会的发展,也为近代慈善事业的发展做出了重大的贡献。

  8. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  9. Antibody titers in animal bite victims after post exposure vaccination with intradermally administered purified vero cell rabies vaccine using modified thai red cross regimen

    To determine the seroconversion following rabies vaccination by intradermal route in cases of animal bite attending Anti rabies center, Lahore for post exposure prophylaxis. Study Design: Cross sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration: Antirabies center, Birdwood road Lahore, Microbiology laboratory, office of Bacteriologist, Government of Punjab, Lahore. Patients and Methods: Victims of all ages and both sexes having exposure with suspected rabid animal within 24 - 72 hours were included, fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria, over 3 months period from February to April 20. Patients of Category II and III wounds were included. Purified vero cell vaccine (PVR V) with antigenic content> 2.5 ml was used for intradermal vaccination according to modified Thai Red Cross regimen (2-2-2-0-2). Each victim received 0.1 ml intradermal dose on each deltoid on day 0, 3, 7 and 28th day of bite. Blood samples from victims were taken on day 0, 14 and 35. Antibody titers were estimated by ELISA kit. Results: Fifty cases were studied including 20 children. Male female ratio was 4:1. Optimum serocon version (> 0.5 IU/ml) was achieved in all cases by day 14. Antibody levels increased further (> 4 IV/ml) in 92% cases on day 35. Geometric mean titers were 3.2 IU/ml and 6.2 IU/ml on day 14 and 35 respectively. Conclusion: Intradermal route for cell culture rabies vaccine for postexposure prophylaxis in animal bite victims was efficacious and safe. The smaller dosage of vaccine was economically affordable by patients in referral centers. (author)

  10. A decade of an HIV workplace programme in armed conflict zones; a social responsibility response of the International Committee of the Red Cross.

    Du Mortier, Stéphane; Mukangu, Silas; Sagna, Charles; Nyffenegger, Laurent; Aebischer Perone, Sigiriya


    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) works in fragile States and in armed conflict zones. Some of them are affected by the HIV pandemic. Within the framework of its social responsibility programme concerning HIV affecting its staff members, the organization has implemented an HIV workplace programme since 2004. We carried out a retrospective analysis over 10 years. Data collected were initially essentially qualitative and process-oriented, but were complemented over the years by data on annual voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) uptake and on direct annual costs covering awareness, testing and antiretroviral therapy. The number of people covered by the programme grew from none in 2003 to 4,438 in 2015, with an increase in annual VCT uptake over the years increasing from 376 persons (14 %) in 2007 to 2,663 in 2015 (60 %). Over the years, the services were expanded from awareness raising to bringing VCT to the workplace, as well as offering testing and health coverage of other conditions and innovative approaches to facing challenges linked to situations of violence. Within its social responsibility framework, the ICRC has shown the importance and feasibility of a workplace HIV programme in conflict zones. A sustainable workplace programme in these conflict settings requires constant adaptation, with regular follow-up given the relatively high turnover of staff, and ensuring sustainable stocks of condoms and antiretroviral drugs. PMID:27247611

  11. Bridging the Information Gap: American Youth Perceptions on Torture and Civilian Protection

    Rose, Emily


    A recent survey commissioned by the American Red Cross about the attitudes of the post-9/11 generation toward the Geneva Conventions reveals that 59% of youth, compared with 51% of adults, believe that torturing the enemy is always or sometimes acceptable. The Geneva Conventions are at the core of international humanitarian law (IHL) and protect…

  12. The Red and the Yellow



    THE China film market is based on the so-called battle of the yellow, green and red.Yellow is American Kodak,green Japanese Fuji color, and red China's Lucky film, local counterweight to the two world-famous foreigners.

  13. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie


    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle. PMID:23907305

  14. Cross-Ethnic Invariance of Self-Esteem and Depression Measures for Chinese, Filipino, and European American Adolescents

    Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Shen, Yuh-Ling; Lee, Sun-A


    Self-esteem and depression are fundamental psychological adjustment constructs in the study of adolescent well-being. Most measures of these constructs have been developed and validated using European American samples, and while the correlates and predictors of psychological adjustment have been examined in multiple cultural settings, no existing…

  15. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Patterns of Learning and Academic Performance of Spanish and Latin-American Undergraduates

    Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.


    The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…

  16. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia


    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  17. 二十世纪五十年代江苏红十字会的两次组织整顿%Two Rounds of Organizational Consolidation of the Red Cross in Jiangsu Province in the 1950s



    20世纪50年代江苏红十字会经历两次组织整顿。50年代初期的分会改组,重在机构改选、思想整顿和社团登记;50年代中后期的组织调整,则重在各级组织创建和管理体制建构。两次整顿促成了红十字会自身性质、组织结构和管理体制的演变,这表明红十字会的组织发展,总体上与社会运行呈正相关关系。不过,在高度集中的计划体制下,红十字会等社会组织严重依附政府,其独立发展的空间极为狭小,这是历史留下的深刻教训。%The Red Cross in Jiangsu underwent two rounds of organizational consolidation in the 1950s. The reor- ganization of the Jiangsu Branch of China Red Cross in early 1950s was focused on olganizational re-election, ide- ological rectification and registration while the organizational adjustments in the middle and late 1950s on the crea- tion of various levels of organizations and the construction of administrative system. The two rounds of consolida- tion brought about changes of the Red Cross in its own nature, organizational structure and administrative system, suggesting that in general the organizational development of the Red Cross positively correlated with the social de- velopment in China. However, under the highly centralized planning system, the social organizations like the Red Cross were heavily dependent on the government in their operation and had very limited space for their indepen- dent development-this is a profound lesson for us to remember.

  18. Patterns and correlates of tobacco control behavior among american association of pediatric dentistry members: a cross-sectional national study

    Miller Arthur J; Isong Umo; Ellison James A; Ryan Jennifer L; Gansky Stuart A; Walsh Margaret M


    Abstract Background To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists. Methods A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors. Results Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior...

  19. Eye redness

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  20. Geospatial Information Categories Mapping in a Cross-lingual Environment: A Case Study of “Surface Water” Categories in Chinese and American Topographic Maps

    Xi Kuai


    Full Text Available The need for integrating geospatial information (GI data from various heterogeneous sources has seen increased importance for geographic information system (GIS interoperability. Using domain ontologies to clarify and integrate the semantics of data is considered as a crucial step for successful semantic integration in the GI domain. Nevertheless, mechanisms are still needed to facilitate semantic mapping between GI ontologies described in different natural languages. This research establishes a formal ontology model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping. By first extracting semantic primitives from a free-text definition of categories in two GI classification standards with different natural languages, an ontology-driven approach is used, and a formal ontology model is established to formally represent these semantic primitives into semantic statements, in which the spatial-related properties and relations are considered as crucial statements for the representation and identification of the semantics of the GI categories. Then, an algorithm is proposed to compare these semantic statements in a cross-lingual environment. We further design a similarity calculation algorithm based on the proposed formal ontology model to distance the semantic similarities and identify the mapping relationships between categories. In particular, we work with two GI classification standards for Chinese and American topographic maps. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of the proposed model for cross-lingual geospatial information ontology mapping.

  1. A cross-sectional characterization of insulin resistance by phenotype and insulin clamp in East Asian Americans with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    William C Hsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Classic features of type 1 and type 2 diabetes may not apply in Asian Americans, due to shared absence of common HLA DR-DQ genotype, low prevalence of positive anti-islet antibodies and low BMI in both types of diabetes. Our objective was to characterize diabetic phenotypes in Asian Americans by clamp and clinical features. MATERIALS/METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a referral center. Thirty East young Asian American adult volunteers (27.6±5.5 years with type 1, type 2 diabetes or controls underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp to assess insulin resistance and DEXA to assess adiposity. RESULTS: Gender, BMI, waist/hip ratio, leptin, LDL, anti-GAD, anti-IA2 antibodies and C-reactive protein were similar among three groups. Serum C-peptide, adiponectin, free fatty acid, HDL concentrations and truncal fat by DEXA, were different between diabetic groups. Glucose disposal rate by clamp was lowest in type 2 diabetes, followed by type 1 diabetes and controls (5.43±2.70, 7.62±2.59, 8.61±2.37 mg/min/kg, respectively, p = 0.001. Free fatty acid concentration universally plummeted during steady state of the clamp procedure regardless of diabetes types in all three groups. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein in the entire cohort (r = -0.625, p = 0.04 and controls (r = -0.869, p = 0.046 correlated best with insulin resistance, independent of BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetes in Asian Americans was associated with insulin resistance despite having low BMI as type 1 diabetes, suggesting a potential role for targeting insulin resistance apart from weight loss. Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, strongly associated with insulin resistance, independent of adiposity in the young Asian American population, may potentially serve as a biomarker to identify at-risk individuals. Larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  2. Palaeomagnetism and magnetic anisotropy of Carboniferous red beds from the Maritime Provinces of Canada: evidence for shallow palaeomagnetic inclinations and implications for North American apparent polar wander

    Bilardello, Dario; Kodama, Kenneth P.


    A palaeomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy study was conducted on the lower-middle Carboniferous Maringouin and Shepody red bed formations of the Maritime Provinces of Canada to detect and correct inclination shallowing. Because of the shallow inclinations commonly observed in red beds and the strong dependence of North America's Palaeo-Mesozoic apparent polar wander (APW) on red beds, inclination shallowing may substantially affect large portions of North America's APW path. Hematite is the primary magnetic mineral carrier in these red beds, accompanied by secondary magnetite, maghemite, goethite and pigmentary hematite. Thermal and chemical demagnetization of the Shepody Fm. successfully isolated characteristic remanence directions of D = 177°, I = 20.4°, α95 = 6.5°, N = 19 and D = 177.8° I = 17.7°, α95 = 6.9°, N = 16, respectively. Thermal demagnetization of the Maringouin Fm. isolated a characteristic remanence direction of D = 178.7°, I = 24.9°, α95 = 14.5°, N = 9. High field anisotropy of isothermal remanence followed by alternating field and thermal cleaning on leached samples was used to isolate the fabric of hematite. Individual particle anisotropy was measured directly from magnetic separates using a new technique. Hematite's magnetic fabric and particle anisotropy were used to apply an inclination correction. Our inclination corrections indicate up to 10° of inclination shallowing, corresponding to corrected palaeopole positions of 27.2°N, 118.3°E, A95 = 6.2° and 27.4°N, 117.2°E, A95 = 13.1° for the Shepody and Maringouin formations, respectively. This correction corresponds to a ~ 6° increase in colatitude for Carboniferous North America, which translates into approximately a 650 km change in North America's palaeogeographic position. The proposed position of North America supports a Pangea B-type reconstruction.

  3. Elevated Gene Expression in Chalcone Synthase Enzyme Suggests an Increased Production of Flavonoids in Skin and Synchronized Red Cell Cultures of North American Native Grape Berries

    Davis, Gina; Ananga, Anthony; Krastanova, Stoyanka; Sutton, Safira; Ochieng, Joel W.; Leong, Stephen; Tsolova, Violetka


    Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribu...

  4. Crossing the Rubicon : the decline of the American empire at the end of the age of oil

    Ruppert, M.C.


    The depletion of fossil fuels and how this governs current political and military strategies is the subject of this book. North American dependency on these resources was examined in the context of recent political actions and the forces operating behind the drive towards multi-national globalization. The book intends to address the vacuum created by the omissions of a largely corporate media in delivering this information to the public. The motives and responses behind the September 11 attacks were examined, with particular reference to the Pentagon's need for a pretext for a war that would enable an all-out drive for the last reserves of oil and gas. The author's depiction of the United States government's hidden agenda before the Iraqi war was presented, with a detailed outline of theories connecting petroleum, war and drug trafficking. Censorship and various other internal tactics used to conceal motives were examined. American foreign policy decisions surrounding Russia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and the Taliban were discussed, as was the long-standing business relationship between the current government and the bin Laden family. Details of the business activities of various chiefs of staff were presented and examined. Detailed information was provided about warfare tactics, biological warfare and the Iraqi/Saudi oil fields. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Microstructure and cross-sectional shape of limb bones in Great Horned Owls and Red-tailed Hawks: how do these features relate to differences in flight and hunting behavior?

    Crystal A Marelli

    Full Text Available The Red-tailed Hawk and Great Horned Owl are two species of raptor that are similar in body size, diet, and habitat. Both species use their hindlimbs during hunting, but differ in foot morphology, how they approach and immobilize prey, and the average size of prey captured. They also differ in primary flight style: the Red-tailed Hawk uses static soaring and the Great Horned Owl uses flap-gliding. The objectives of this study were to characterize the microstructure and cross-sectional shape of limb bones of these species and examine the relationship with flight and hunting behaviors. The mid-shaft of six limb bones from six individuals of each species was sampled. The degree of bone laminarity (proportion of circular primary vascular canals and cross-sectional geometric parameters were calculated. In both species, the humerus and femur exhibited features that suggest high resistance to torsional loading, whereas the tibiotarsus and phalanges had a shape more likely to resist compression and bending in a specific plane. The femur of the Red-tailed Hawk exhibited higher laminarity and larger polar moment of area than that of the Great Horned Owl. The tibiotarsus was more elliptical than that of the Great Horned Owl. The hawk approaches prey from a more horizontal axis, takes prey of greater mass, and is more likely to pursue prey on the ground, which could potentially be causing more torsional loads on the femur and bending loads on the tibiotarsus. In addition, differences in polar moment of area of the phalanges between the species could relate to differences in foot morphology or digit length. The humerus and ulna of the flap-gliding Great Horned Owl are more elliptical than the static soaring Red-tailed Hawk, a shape that may better resist the bending loads associated with a larger amount of flapping.

  6. Cruz Vermelha Brasileira (filial São Paulo na imprensa (1916-1930 Cruz Roja Brasileña (filial São Paulo en la imprenta (1916-1930 Brazilian Red Cross (São Paulo branch in media (1916-1930

    Fernando Porto


    -1930 . The objectives were to describe and analyze its visibility within the written media and to discuss the effects of the symbolic belief of the Brazilian Red Cross Society. Documents for analysis derived from a portfolio found in the Historical, Cultural Center for Iberian-American Nursing, of the University of São Paulo, School of Nursing. Results were analyzed based on Pierre Bourdieu's concepts which indicate a symbolic belief circle, when 1089 news were published in the national and international press. In this sense, for each publication of news about the Brazilian Red Cross, this disseminated to the central board and consequently to the International Red Cross.

  7. Zonal surface wind jets across the Red Sea due to mountain gap forcing along both sides of the Red Sea

    Jiang, Houshuo


    [1] Mesoscale atmospheric modeling over the Red Sea, validated by in-situ meteorological buoy data, identifies two types of coastal mountain gap wind jets that frequently blow across the longitudinal axis of the Red Sea: (1) an eastward-blowing summer daily wind jet originating from the Tokar Gap on the Sudanese Red Sea coast, and (2) wintertime westward-blowing wind-jet bands along the northwestern Saudi Arabian coast, which occur every 10-20 days and can last for several days when occurring. Both wind jets can attain wind speeds over 15 m s-1 and contribute significantly to monthly mean surface wind stress, especially in the cross-axis components, which could be of importance to ocean eddy formation in the Red Sea. The wintertime wind jets can cause significant evaporation and ocean heat loss along the northeastern Red Sea coast and may potentially drive deep convection in that region. An initial characterization of these wind jets is presented. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.


    Jeanette Weideman


    Full Text Available An increase in economic globalisation and international trade has amounted to an increase in the number of multinational enterprises that have debt, own assets and conduct business in various jurisdictions around the world. This, coupled with the recent worldwide economic recession, has inevitably caused the increased occurrence of multinational financial default, also known as cross-border insolvency (CBI. The legal response to this trend has, inter alia, produced two important international instruments that were designed to address key issues associated with CBI. Firstly, the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Cross-Border Insolvency (the Model Law in 1997, which has been adopted by nineteen countries including the United States of America and South Africa. Secondly, the European Union (EU adopted the European Council Regulation on Insolvency Proceedings (EC Regulation in 2000. Both the EC Regulation and Chapter 15 adopt a “modified universalist” approach towards CBI matters. Europe and the United States of America are currently the world leaders in the area of CBI and the CBI legislation adopted and applied in these jurisdictions seems to be effective. As South Africa’s Cross-Border Insolvency Act is not yet effective, there is no local policy guidance available to insolvency practitioners with regard to the application of the Model Law. At the basis of this article is the view that an analysis of the European and American approaches to CBI matters will provide South African practitioners with valuable insight, knowledge and lessons that could be used to understand and apply the principles adopted and applied in terms of the EC Regulation and Chapter 15, specifically the COMI concept, the “establishment” concept in the case of integrated multinational enterprises and related aspects.

  9. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi


    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  10. A cross-over in Mexican and Mexican-American fertility rates: Evidence and explanations for an emerging paradox

    Patrick Heuveline


    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of two new developments in the fertility behavior of the Mexican- Origin population in the U.S., the present discussion will update contemporary Mexican-Origin fertility patterns and address several theoretical weaknesses in the current approach to minority group fertility. Data come from six national surveys (three from Mexico and three from the U.S. that cover a twenty-five year period (1975-2000. The findings demonstrate dramatic decreases in the fertility rates in Mexico at the same time that continuous increases have been documented in the fertility rates of third-or-later generation Mexican-Americans in the U.S., particularly at younger ages. These changes necessitate a reexamination of the ubiquitous theory that Mexican pronatalist values are responsible for the high fertility rates found within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Instead, they point to the increasing relevance of framing the fertility behavior of the Mexican-Origin population within a racial stratification perspective that stresses the influence of U.S. social context on fertility behavior. As a step in this direction, the analysis examines fertility patterns within the Mexican-Origin population in the U.S. Special attention is given to the role of nativity/generational status in contributing to within group differences.

  11. Patterns and correlates of tobacco control behavior among american association of pediatric dentistry members: a cross-sectional national study

    Miller Arthur J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice behaviors among US pediatric dentists. Methods A survey was conducted in 1998 among a national, random sample of 1500 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry members. Chi-square tests and logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals assessed factors related to pediatric dentists' tobacco control behaviors. Results Response was 65% for the survey. Only 12% of respondents had prior tobacco prevention/cessation training. Of those untrained, 70% were willing to be trained. Less than two-thirds correctly answered any of four tobacco-related knowledge items. Over one-half agreed pediatric dentists should engage in tobacco control behaviors, but identified patient resistance as a barrier. About 24% of respondents reported always/often asking their adolescent patients about tobacco use; 73% reported always/often advising known tobacco users to quit; and 37% of respondents always/often assisting with stopping tobacco use. Feeling prepared to perform tobacco control behaviors (ORs = 1.9–2.8, a more positive attitude score (4 points from 11 tobacco-related items (ORs = 1.5–1.8, and a higher statewide tobacco use prevalence significantly predicted performance of tobacco control behaviors. Conclusion Findings suggest thatraining programs on tobacco use and dependence treatment in the pediatric dental setting may be needed to promote tobacco control behaviors for adolescent patients.

  12. The integrated North American electricity market : assuring an adequate supply of electricity through cross-border cooperation and trade

    The purpose of this paper is to support cooperation and discussion of the long-term sufficiency of the electricity trading system between Canada and the United States. It discusses the integrated electricity market including details on exports and imports of electricity, major transmission interconnections, the economic and environmental benefits of an integrated market and electricity generation statistics by fuel source. The paper also discusses several areas of cooperation and presents several recommendations including: greater dialogue on regional supply requirements; mandatory reliability standards; coordinated regulatory approaches to new cross-border transmission; the role of emerging generation and transmission technologies; opportunities to exchange experience and learning on demand-side measures; coordinated strategies to manage greenhouse gas and other air pollutants; and, critical infrastructure protection. The paper concludes that the integration between Canada and the United States will only increase as energy demand and trade continue to grow, making close cooperation between the two countries a necessity. 6 figs

  13. Comparison of the urinary excretion of quercetin glycosides from red onion and aglycone from dietary supplements in healthy subjects: A randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    Shi, Y; Williamson, G.


    Some intervention studies have shown that quercetin supplementation can regulate certain biomarkers, but it is not clear how the doses given relate to dietary quercetin (e.g. from onion). We conducted a two-period, two-sequence crossover study to compare the bioavailability of quercetin when administered in the form of a fresh red onion meal (naturally glycosylated quercetin) or dietary supplement (aglycone quercetin) under fasting conditions. Six healthy, non-smoking, adult males with BMI 22...

  14. 论北美印第安人的性别跨界与多元文化%A Probe into American Indians’ Gender-crossing and Multiculture



    With a splendid and brilliant ancient culture, native Americans boast a unique and multiple gender culture that features gender variance and alternative sexuality. Distinct from the binary opposition of gender in Western culture, the gender culture of American Indians emphasizes spiritual connotation and cultural significance implied and embedded in its gender diversity and advocates the fluidity of gender identity. Native Americans can cross into women-men or men-women after gender-role changes according to their own expectation, values, and need of the tribes. Thought to possess spiritual power, these gender crossers play a special role in the tribal society, enjoying high esteem and status. This culture-specific gender crossing undoubtedly smashes Western “either the one or the other” way of thinking in regard to the two sexes, and constructs a multi-layered gender perspective. Though being questioned and obliterated as alien by White colonists, the gender culture of American Indians is pristine, brilliant, and self-contained. It is an integral part of human culture, and makes it more diverse and heterogenic.%曾经孕育过灿烂的古代文明的印第安人有着独特的多元性别文化。与传统二分的性别观念不同,印第安人多元性别文化强调性别所承载的精神内涵和文化意义,主张性别身份的不固定性,男女部族成员可以根据自己的期望、价值观念以及部族需要跨界成为“女子气的男子”或是“男子气的女子”。这些印第安部族性别跨界者被认为具有灵性力量,在部族社会中扮演着特殊的角色,受到族人的尊敬,享有较高部族地位。毫无疑问,这种极具印第安民族色彩的性别文化挑战了西方思维下的二元性别模式,构建了一个多层面的性别视角。虽然被白人殖民文化视为异类而遭到质疑和抹杀,印第安多元性别文化质朴灿烂,自成体系,是人类文化体系中的组成

  15. AcT-2: A Novel Myotropic and Antimicrobial Type 2 Tryptophyllin from the Skin Secretion of the Central American Red-Eyed Leaf Frog, Agalychnis callidryas

    Lilin Ge


    Full Text Available Tryptophyllins are a diverse family of amphibian peptides originally found in extracts of phyllomedusine frog skin by chemical means. Their biological activities remain obscure. Here we describe the isolation and preliminary pharmacological characterization of a novel type 2 tryptophyllin, named AcT-2, from the skin secretion of the red-eyed leaf frog, Agalychnis callidryas. The peptide was initially identified during smooth muscle pharmacological screening of skin secretion HPLC fractions and the unique primary structure—GMRPPWF-NH2—was established by both Edman degradation and electrospray MS/MS fragmentation sequencing. A. cDNA encoding the biosynthetic precursor of AcT-2 was successfully cloned from a skin secretion-derived cDNA library by means of RACE PCR and this contained an open-reading frame consisting of 62 amino acid residues with a single AcT-2 encoding sequence located towards the C-terminus. A synthetic replicate of AcT-2 was found to relax arterial smooth muscle (EC50 = 5.1 nM and to contract rat urinary bladder smooth muscle (EC50 = 9.3 μM. The peptide could also inhibit the growth of the microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, (MIC = 256 mg/L Escherichia coli (MIC = 512 mg/L, and Candida albicans (128 mg/L. AcT-2 is thus the first amphibian skin tryptophyllin found to possess both myotropic and antimicrobial activities.

  16. 西洋参与人参中人参皂甙含量的比较%Comparisons of saponin contents of American ginseng, ginseng and red ginseng (prepared ginseng)

    朱丹妮; 杨力; 严永清


    采用TLC和HPLC方法分析比较西洋参(Panax quinquefolium L.)、人参(P.ginseng C.A.Mey.)及其加工品红参(red ginseng),以及不同规格的西洋参中人参皂甙的含量.结果表明,西洋参中人参皂甙总量及人参二醇型皂甙的含量明显高于人参及红参,且含有1种人参及红参中未发现的未知人参皂甙Rx,但不含人参及红参中含有的Rf;人参中人参二醇型皂甙的含量高于人参三醇型皂甙,其加工品红参则相反.生长年限是影响西洋参人参皂甙含量的主要因素,人参皂甙含量随着生长年限的增长而增加.

  17. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Papais-Alvarenga, Regina Maria; Vasconcelos, Claudia Cristina Ferreira; Carra, Adriana; de Castillo, Ibis Soto; Florentin, Sara; Diaz de Bedoya, Fernando Hamuy; Mandler, Raul; de Siervi, Luiza Campanella; Pimentel, Maria Lúcia Vellutini; Alvarenga, Marina Papais; Alvarenga, Marcos Papais; Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz; Gama Pereira, Ana Beatriz Calmon; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Velasquez, Carolina; Soublette, Carlos; Fleitas, Cynthia Veronica; Diniz, Denise Sisteroli; Armas, Elizabeth; Batista, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Freda; Pereira, Fernanda Ferreira Chaves da Costa; Siqueira, Heloise Helena; Cabeça, Hideraldo; Sanchez, Jose; Brooks, Joseph Bruno Bidin; Gonçalves, Marcus Vinicius; Barroso, Maria Cristina Del Negro; Ravelo, Maria Elena; Castillo, Maria Carlota; Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito; Rocha, Maria Sheila Guimarães; Parolin, Monica Koncke Fiuza; Molina, Omaira; Marinho, Patricia Beatriz Christino; Christo, Paulo Pereira; Brant de Souza, Renata; Pessanha Neto, Silvio; Camargo, Solange Maria das Graças; Machado, Suzana Costa; Neri, Vanderson Carvalho; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti; Alvarenga, Helcio; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos


    The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD) spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) among multiple sclerosis (MS) cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%), increasing in Mestizos (8%) and Africans (15.4%-27.5%) living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA) was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian). The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%), NMO (11.8%), other NMO syndromes (6.5%), CIS (3.5%), ADEM (1.0%), and acute encephalopathy (0.4%). Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score (r=0.374; p=miscegenation found in SA, MS affects three quarters of all patients with IIDD, mainly white young women who share similar clinical characteristics to those in Western populations in the northern hemisphere, with the exception of ethnicity; approximately one-third of all

  18. 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is inversely associated with serum MMP-9 in a cross-sectional study of African American ESRD patients

    Hooper Craig


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration is inversely associated with peripheral arterial disease and hypertension. Vascular remodeling may play a role in this association, however, data relating vitamin D level to specific remodeling biomarkers among ESRD patients is sparse. We tested whether 25(OHD concentration is associated with markers of vascular remodeling and inflammation in African American ESRD patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among ESRD patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis within Emory University-affiliated outpatient hemodialysis units. Demographic, clinical and dialysis treatment data were collected via direct patient interview and review of patients records at the time of enrollment, and each patient gave blood samples. Associations between 25(OHD and biomarker concentrations were estimated in univariate analyses using Pearson's correlation coefficients and in multivariate analyses using linear regression models. 25(OH D concentration was entered in multivariate linear regression models as a continuous variable and binary variable ( Results Among 91 patients, mean (standard deviation 25(OHD concentration was 18.8 (9.6 ng/ml, and was low ( Conclusions Plasma MMP-9 and circulating 25(OH D concentrations are significantly and inversely associated among ESRD patients. This finding may suggest a potential mechanism by which low circulating 25(OH D functions as a cardiovascular risk factor.

  19. Cross Shelf Patterns in Habitat Selectivity of Hawkfish (Family: Cirrhitidae) in the Red Sea; with a Special Case of Varying Color Morphs in Paracirrhites forsteri.

    Chaidez, Veronica


    Not much is known about hawkfish worldwide including those that occur in the understudied Red Sea reef system. Hawkfishes are small reef predators that perch in ambush-ready positions and shelter within or on various substrates including live and dead coral. The aim of this study was to look at the distribution and abundance patterns of Red Sea hawkfishes across an inshore and offshore gradient and to investigate the use of benthic habitats. This study was conducted on three inshore, four midshore, and two offshore reefs with surveys at 8 meters and along the reef crest. In total, three species were documented: Paracirrhites forsteri, Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus, and Cirrhitus spilotoceps. We found clear distinctions between depth zones and between continental shelf positions. Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus only occurs at the reef slope and Cirrhitus spilotoceps is only found on reef crests. Paracirrhites forsteri was the most abundant species across all reefs and was found in four varying color morphs. Morph 1 showed the most evidence of being a generalist as it utilized the greatest number of substrates. All three species were more abundant on midshore and offshore reefs which have healthier, intact coral communities. Coral cover is a good indicator of hawkfish abundance even when the species in question does not utilize live coral directly.

  20. Central Nervous System Idiopathic Inflammatory Demyelinating Disorders in South Americans: A Descriptive, Multicenter, Cross-Sectional Study.

    Regina Maria Papais-Alvarenga

    Full Text Available The idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease (IIDD spectrum has been investigated among different populations, and the results have indicated a low relative frequency of neuromyelitis optica (NMO among multiple sclerosis (MS cases in whites (1.2%-1.5%, increasing in Mestizos (8% and Africans (15.4%-27.5% living in areas of low MS prevalence. South America (SA was colonized by Europeans from the Iberian Peninsula, and their miscegenation with natives and Africans slaves resulted in significant racial mixing. The current study analyzed the IIDD spectrum in SA after accounting for the ethnic heterogeneity of its population. A cross-sectional multicenter study was performed. Only individuals followed in 2011 with a confirmed diagnosis of IIDD using new diagnostic criteria were considered eligible. Patients' demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. In all, 1,917 individuals from 22 MS centers were included (73.7% female, 63.0% white, 28.0% African, 7.0% Mestizo, and 0.2% Asian. The main disease categories and their associated frequencies were MS (76.9%, NMO (11.8%, other NMO syndromes (6.5%, CIS (3.5%, ADEM (1.0%, and acute encephalopathy (0.4%. Females predominated in all main categories. The white ethnicity also predominated, except in NMO. Except in ADEM, the disease onset occurred between 20 and 39 years old, early onset in 8.2% of all cases, and late onset occurred in 8.9%. The long-term morbidity after a mean disease time of 9.28±7.7 years was characterized by mild disability in all categories except in NMO, which was scored as moderate. Disease time among those with MS was positively correlated with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS score (r=0.374; p=<0.001. This correlation was not observed in people with NMO or those with other NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs. Among patients with NMO, 83.2% showed a relapsing-remitting course, and 16.8% showed a monophasic course. The NMO-IgG antibody tested using indirect

  1. Comparison of cross-sectional renal function measurements in African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and of primary formulas to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

    Lewis, J; Agodoa, L; Cheek, D; Greene, T; Middleton, J; O'Connor, D; Ojo, A; Phillips, R; Sika, M; Wright, J


    Renal function measurements were obtained in 1,703 African Americans with presumed hypertensive nephrosclerosis who were screened for entry into the African-American Study of Hypertension and Kidney Disease (AASK). We examined the effect of race on relationships involving renal variables by comparing African Americans enrolled into the AASK with non-African Americans enrolled into the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. We examined the effect of gender on renal variables by comparing African American men and women. We compared various methods for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with iodine 125-labeled ((125)I)-iothalamate GFR. AASK data were also used to derive a new formula for estimating GFR in African Americans. After adjusting for age, sex, and baseline GFR, African American patients on the AASK study were heavier and had larger body surface areas and body mass indices than either MDRD African Americans or non-African Americans. African Americans had greater serum creatinine levels and urinary creatinine excretions for any given level of GFR. Mean GFR was greater in African American men than African American women (59.7 versus 51.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), although serum creatinine levels were also greater in men (1.91 versus 1.73 mg/dL). Seventy-eight percent of women with serum creatinine levels between 1.2 and 1.5 mg/dL had GFRs less than 65 mL/min/1.73 m(2). For African Americans in the AASK, GFR was overestimated by the 24-hour creatinine clearance and underestimated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula. A prediction formula developed in the MDRD study more accurately predicted GFR in AASK patients than these measurements. AASK data were also used to derive a new five-term formula for estimating GFR that was slightly more accurate in the African Americans in the AASK than the MDRD formula (median percentage of error, 12.4% for the MDRD formula versus 12.1% for the AASK formula). Important differences exist in renal variables between African

  2. Red Sirius

    A hypothesis is proposed explaining the assumption that Sirius changes its colour from red in the second century to pale blue in the tenth century A.D. The hypothesis is based on the possibility of transformation of a Sirius satellite (Sirius B) from a red giant in the past to a white dwarf in the present. Such a transformation would have been accompanied by an explosion of Sirius B, which is clearly visible from the Earth. The fact that the increase in Sirius brightness by 4-5 units is not reflected in historical chronicles is attributed to the degradation of sciences in Europe in 4-10 centuries

  3. Translation, adaptation, validation and performance of the American Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire Short Form (WEL-SF to a Norwegian version: a cross-sectional study

    Tone N. Flølo


    Full Text Available Background. Researchers have emphasized a need to identify predictors that can explain the variability in weight management after bariatric surgery. Eating self-efficacy has demonstrated predictive impact on patients’ adherence to recommended eating habits following multidisciplinary treatment programs, but has to a limited extent been subject for research after bariatric surgery. Recently an American short form version (WEL-SF of the commonly used Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL was available for research and clinical purposes. Objectives. We intended to translate and culturally adapt the WEL-SF to Norwegian conditions, and to evaluate the new versions’ psychometrical properties in a Norwegian population of morbidly obese patients eligible for bariatric surgery. Design. Cross-sectional Methods. A total of 225 outpatients selected for Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG were recruited; 114 non-operated and 111 operated patients, respectively. The questionnaire was translated through forward and backward procedures. Structural properties were assessed performing principal component analysis (PCA, correlation and regression analysis were conducted to evaluate convergent validity and sensitivity, respectively. Data was assessed by mean, median, item response, missing values, floor- and ceiling effect, Cronbach’s alpha and alpha if item deleted. Results. The PCA resulted in one factor with eigenvalue > 1, explaining 63.0% of the variability. The WEL-SF sum scores were positively correlated with the Self-efficacy and quality of life instruments (p < 0.001. The WEL-SF was associated with body mass index (BMI (p < 0.001 and changes in BMI (p = 0.026. A very high item response was obtained with only one missing value (0.4%. The ceiling effect was in average 0.9 and 17.1% in the non-operated and operated sample, respectively. Strong internal consistency (r = 0.92 was obtained, and Cronbach’s alpha remained high (0.86–0.92 if

  4. Research on Activities Implemented by the Red Cross Society of China and its Characters During the Period of 1949 to 1966%1949-1966年间中国红十字会的主要活动及其特点



    After the founding of the People's Republic of China , the Red Cross Society of China made lots of change on its struc-ture under the leadership of central government .From 1949 to 1966, the Red Cross Society of China carried out a large number of ac-tivities in medical and health care , first aid, disaster relief, postwar problems and so on .It played an important role in promoting the development of economy and society .In conclusion , there are three features of the activities were implemented by the Red Cross Socie-ty of China:Firstly, its domestic activities were focused on medical and health fields;Secondly , the Red Cross Society of China imple-mented international aid and participated in dealing with international affairs actively ; Thirdly, the activities implemented by the Red Cross Society of China were really under the control of the government .%新中国成立之后,在中央人民政府的领导下,中国红十字会进行了改组。1949-1966年间,中国红十字会在医疗卫生、战地救护、灾害救助、战后问题处理等领域开展了大量活动,对于国家的经济社会建设起到了重要促进作用。归纳这时期中国红十字会活动开展的特点有:国内活动侧重于医疗卫生领域;积极实施国际救助并参与国际事务处理;活动开展的行政化色彩比较浓重。

  5. Comparison of performance-based measures among native Japanese, Japanese-Americans in Hawaii and Caucasian women in the United States, ages 65 years and over: a cross-sectional study

    Hayashi Takuo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese (both in Japan and Hawaii have a lower incidence of falls and of hip fracture than North American and European Caucasians, but the reasons for these differences are not clear. Subjects and Methods A cross-sectional study. We compared neuromuscular risk factors for falls using performance-based measures (chair stand time, usual and rapid walking speed, and grip strength among 163 Japanese women in Japan, 681 Japanese-American women in Hawaii and 9403 Caucasian women in the United States aged 65 years and over. Results After adjusting for age, the Caucasian women required about 40% more time to complete 5 chair stands than either group of Japanese. Walking speed was about 10% slower among Caucasians than native Japanese, whereas Japanese-American women in Hawaii walked about 11% faster than native Japanese. Grip strength was greatest in Japan, which may reflect the rural farming district that this sample was drawn from. Additional adjustment for height, weight or body mass index increased the adjusted means of chair stand time and grip strength among Japanese, but the differences remained significant. Conclusions Both native Japanese and Japanese-American women in Hawaii performed better than Caucasians on chair stand time and walking speed tests, and native Japanese had greater grip strength than Japanese in Hawaii and Caucasians. The biological implications of these differences in performance are uncertain, but may be useful in planning future comparisons between populations.


    Arnault, Denise Saint; Sakamoto, Shinji; Moriwaki, Aiko


    Negative emotions such as anger, sadness and fear are universal; however, there is cultural variability in the ways that specific emotions cluster together. This Experience Sampling Method study collected daily life emotions of distress for 44 American and 50 Japanese college students. These women reported their experiences of 37 distresses once a day for seven days. Cluster Analysis revealed that Americans had upset, depression, hostility and dependency clusters. The Japanese had depression,...

  7. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

    ... accountability What we do Development work Health Migration Risk reduction Shelter Recovery Capacity building Promoting principles and values Humanitarian Diplomacy Disaster and crisis management Disaster law Humanitarian logistics Beneficiary ...

  8. Associations of Red Meat, Fat, and Protein Intake With Distal Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A.; Adair, Linda S.; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.


    Studies have suggested that red and processed meat consumption elevate the risk of colon cancer; however, the relationship between red meat, as well as fat and protein, and distal colorectal cancer (CRC) specifically is not clear. We determined the risk of distal CRC associated with red and processed meat, fat, and protein intakes in Whites and African Americans. There were 945 cases (720 White, 225 African American) of distal CRC and 959 controls (800 White, 159 African American). We assesse...

  9. Red Alive

    Reynaldo Thompson Lopez


    Full Text Available Red Alive is an installation consisting of video, sound and an aquarium containing a beta fish in it. The idea came out by observing the peculiar behavior of the small creature that fights to death with other fishes of his kind that are in his proximity. Its character and physical appearance are good reasons to capture it in a video recording since its color and sensual movements contrast with its aggressive instinct. The conduct of such fish is similar in many aspects to those of humans.

  10. Red Alive

    Reynaldo Thompson Lopez


    Red Alive is an installation consisting of video, sound and an aquarium containing a beta fish in it. The idea came out by observing the peculiar behavior of the small creature that fights to death with other fishes of his kind that are in his proximity. Its character and physical appearance are good reasons to capture it in a video recording since its color and sensual movements contrast with its aggressive instinct. The conduct of such fish is similar in many aspects to those of humans.

  11. An overview of methods and approaches for evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife crossing structures: emphasizing the science in applied science

    Hardy, Amanda; Anthony P Clevenger; Huijser, Marcel; Neale, Graham


    Human activities today often cause landscape habitat fragmentation and blockage of wildlife movements across landscapes and ecosystems. North American and European Union initiatives such as the Transportation Equity Act and COST-341 program have heightened the importance of mitigating the negative effects of roads, such as animal-vehicle collisions and barrier effects. Wildlife crossing structures are being incorporated into some road construction and improvement projects in an attempt to red...

  12. Cross-cultural differences in the refusal to accept a small gift: the differential influence of reciprocity norms on Asians and North Americans.

    Shen, Hao; Wan, Fang; Wyer, Robert S


    Asians are more likely than North Americans to refuse a small gift that is offered to them by a casual acquaintance. Five experiments confirmed this difference and explored the reasons for its occurrence. Asians, who are inclined to think of themselves in relation to others, are more likely than North Americans to invoke a reciprocity norm in exchanging gifts with casual acquaintances, and they refuse a gift in order to avoid the feeling of indebtedness they would experience if they cannot reciprocate. North Americans, however, who are inclined to think of themselves independently of others, are more likely to base their acceptance of the gift on its attractiveness without considering their obligation to reciprocate. These cultural differences are not evident when the gift is offered by a close friend with whom individuals have a communal relationship. Implications of our findings for miscommunication between members of different cultures are discussed. PMID:21058870

  13. Culturally Speaking: Asian Pacific American Heritage Month

    York, Sherry


    The celebration of the Asian Pacific American heritage month is to be held in May 2004. The librarians are advised to include authentic literature by and about Asian Americans for cross-cultural understanding.

  14. Seeing Red


    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io. New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see. The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io volcanos

  15. American Religion



    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  16. The Domestic and Overseas Relief Activities of the Red Cross Society of China between 1949 and 1978%1949-1978年中国红十字会的国内外救助活动及影响



    1949年至1978年的中国红十字会,先后经历了重新改组、艰难发展、撤消停滞、迎来新生的曲折发展过程。30年间,尽管中国红十字会的发展一波多折,但它在国内赈灾救灾、开展医疗卫生服务、战地救护、协助日侨归国、国际灾难援助等方面仍发挥了巨大作用。其开展的各项救济活动,不仅有效缓解了灾难带来的巨大创伤,推进了我国医疗事业的发展,促进了生产力水平的提高,而且还弘扬了人道主义精神,维护了世界和平与稳定。%Between 1949 and 1978,the Red Cross society of China has gone through the reorganized,difficult development,cancel and pause,new turns in the development process.During the 30 years,even though its development is very hard,but it still play a huge role in relief disaster relief,medical health service,the military first aid,international aid,etc.Its relief activities not only effectively relieve the wounds of war,promote the development of medical career,and promote the level of productivity,but also to carry forward the humanitarian spirit,to maintain world peace and stability.

  17. The lived experience of an American expatriate in Ghana: A rhetorical analysis of facebook postings to understand a cross-cultural behavior

    Yawson, Robert M.


    Using rhetorical analyses of the Facebook updates and postings, the lived experience of an American Expatriate in Ghana is told through the lenses of a Ghanaian living in the United States. The study reviews the contemporary understanding and importance of expatriation to organizations and provides detailed description and analysis of different models with theoretical base from cognitive and social psychology and sociology including models developed by Fons Trompenaars, Geert Hofstede, Harry ...

  18. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 Fisiopathological aspects of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias


    Full Text Available Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824, mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação aos ovos retidos, a presença de ovos com alterações de formato e de tamanho aumentado e hipercalcificação das cascas; em relação aos fatores predisponentes, foram analisados fatores ambientais, sinais nos pacientes relacionados à ocorrência de doença osteometabólica, presença de corpo estranho ou fezes ressecadas no trato gastrintestinal, bem como a associação da retenção de ovos com prolapso de oviduto. A utilização de técnicas radiográficas no diagnóstico definitivo da retenção de ovos e no direcionamento da sua resolução mostrou-se indispensável nos casos estudados. Quanto ao tratamento, duas condutas foram consideradas: a utilização de ocitócinos e a intervenção cirúrgica. Da análise dos fatores que favorecem a ocorrência da distocia, conclui-se que a manutenção dos animais em ambientes com substrato rígido foi decisiva.Egg retention is a disorder that affects the genital system of reptiles, with a great prevalence in chelonians. These work analyses fourteen cases of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 maintained as pets that had been attended in the Veterinary Clinic of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF between 1999 and 2003. Among the factors that contribute to the occurrence of this dystocia are aspects of the retained eggs such as shape abnormalities, size enlargement and thickened shells were analyzed, as well as poor environmental condition

  19. Essays on cross listings

    Λουκά, Χριστόδουλος; Louca, Christodoulou


    This PhD dissertation consists of three essays on cross listings: a. The Operating Performance of Exchange-Listed American Depositary Receipts. b. Cross Listing, Bonding and Corporate Governance. c. Cross Listing on U.S. Stock Exchanges and the Earnings Management Hypothesis. The questions analyzed in this dissertation arise because of possible frictions in the transition of information from corporations to markets. To overcome informational frictions a company might choose to lis...

  20. Assessing the Validity of the Cross-Cultural Survey of Online Reading Attitudes and Behaviors with American and South Korean Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Students

    Putman, S. Michael; Wang, Chuang; Ki, Seryeong


    The Internet is having a profound impact on the literacy practices of students worldwide; yet, there are few instruments available to facilitate cross-cultural comparisons and conclusions specific to cognitive and affective variables related to Internet proficiency. This research was conducted to examine the measurement invariance of the…

  1. Aneuploid progeny of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, produced by tetraploid × diploid crosses: another example of chromosome instability in polyploid oysters.

    de Sousa, Joana Teixeira; Allen, Standish K; Baker, Haley; Matt, Joseph L


    The commercial production of triploids, and the creation of tetraploid broodstock to support it, has become an important technique in aquaculture of the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Tetraploids are produced by cytogenetic manipulation of embryos and have been shown to undergo chromosome loss (to become a mosaic) with unknown consequences for breeding. Our objective was to determine the extent of aneuploidy in triploid progeny produced from both mosaic and non-mosaic tetraploids. Six families of triploids were produced using a single diploid female and crossed with three mosaic and non-mosaic tetraploid male oysters. A second set of crosses was performed with the reciprocals. Chromosome counts of the resultant embryos were tallied at 2-4 cell stage and as 6-hour(h)-old embryos. A significant level of aneuploidy was observed in 6-h-old embryos. For crosses using tetraploid males, aneuploidy ranged from 53% to 77% of observed metaphases, compared to 36% in the diploid control. For crosses using tetraploid females, 51%-71% of metaphases were aneuploidy versus 53% in the diploid control. We conclude that somatic chromosome loss may be a regular feature of early development in triploids, and perhaps polyploid oysters in general. Other aspects of chromosome loss in polyploid oysters are also discussed. PMID:27070368

  2. Adult Attachment, Love Styles, Relationship Experiences and Subjective Well-Being: Cross-Cultural and Gender Comparison between Americans, Portuguese, and Mozambicans

    Galinha, Iolanda Costa; Oishi, Shigehiro; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Wirtz, Derrick; Esteves, Francisco


    Attachment security, love styles, and romantic relationship experiences are closely associated with subjective well-being (SWB). A few studies have empirically observed significant relations between these variables. However, no studies have included all of these predictors to analyze the unique contribution of each to SWB, and no cross-cultural studies have analyzed these variables simultaneously. This article examined (a) the relations between attachment security, love styles, romantic relat...

  3. Prevalence of overweight and obesity, and dieting attitudes among Caucasian and African American college students in Eastern North carolina: A cross-sectional survey

    Sira, Natalia; Pawlak, Roman


    A cross-sectional survey was used to investigate the rates of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25), and eating attitudes among college students. Data were collected at a large southeastern university. Adolescents (ages 18-25) self-reported weight and height (to calculate BMI), and, in addition to demographic information, completed the eating attitudes (EAT 26) scale to assess dieting tendencies. Significance of the mean BMI differences between gender and ethnic background were assessed by one-wa...

  4. American Psychology "Is" Becoming More International

    Webster, Gregory D.; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco


    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors argue that while Arnett's assessment was poignant, and his call for a more inclusive, international, and cross-cultural representation in American psychology…

  5. Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    Exebio Joel C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low diet quality and depression symptoms are independently associated with poor glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D; however, the relationship between them is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between diet quality and symptoms of depression among Cuban-Americans with and without T2D living in South Florida. Methods Subjects (n = 356 were recruited from randomly selected mailing list. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05 score. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Both linear and logistic regression analyses were run to determine whether or not these two variables were related. Symptoms of depression was the dependent variable and independent variables included HEI-05, gender, age, marital status, BMI, education level, A1C, employment status, depression medication, duration of diabetes, and diabetes status. Analysis of covariance was used to test for interactions among variables. Results An interaction between diabetes status, gender and HEI-05 was found (P = 0.011. Among males with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, those with T2D had a higher mean BDI score than those without T2D (11.6 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.028. Among males and females with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, females without T2D had a higher mean BDI score compared to males without T2D (11.0 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.012 Conclusions Differences in symptoms of depression according to diabetes status and gender are found in Cuban-Americans with low diet quality.

  6. The Homosexual Writing in Chinese American Literature from a Cross-Cultural Perspective, with Examples from Three Novels%跨文化视角下美国华文文学中的同性恋书写——以三部长篇小说为例



    Crystal Boys, Paper Marriage(Zhi hun)and Running in the Opposite Direction(Beidao er chi), three Chinese American novels focused on homosexuality, portray the unique experience of Chinese American cultural conflicts, dialogues and integration through Chinese American encounters. Read from a cross-cultural perspective, one finds that the three novels have created variously featured American images and cross-cultural landscapes by adopting three different dimensions of homosexual writing:the China context, the America context and the cross-cultural context of China and America, thus giving expression to the writers'thoughts on Chinese American culture.%《孽子》《纸婚》《背道而驰》是美国华文文学中关注同性恋话题的三部长篇小说,通过赴美华人的不同遭遇,反映了中美文化冲突、对话、交融的独特经验.引入跨文化视角的解读可以发现,三部小说采用了三种书写同性恋的维度:中国语境、美国语境和中美跨文化语境,塑造了各具特色的美国形象和跨文化景观,表达了作家们对于中美文化的不同思考.

  7. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Yao, Fengchao


    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Cross-sectional geometry in the humeri of foragers and farmers from the prehispanic American Southwest: exploring patterns in the sexual division of labor.

    Ogilvie, Marsha D; Hilton, Charles E


    The work effort of prehistoric males relative to females has long been of interest to anthropologists, particularly in foraging versus farming groups. This knowledge requires a clear understanding of the sexual division of labor, or the dichotomy in subsistence roles allocated to males and females. Such research in the Prehispanic American Southwest has been limited. As previous work has shown that bone is the osseous template that reflects in vivo activity levels, it is possible to assess gender-based differences in past work effort using analyses of geometric properties of bone and calculations of bilateral asymmetry. Our research comparatively analyzed upper limb work effort by sex and subsistence in two skeletal samples from disparate economic groups, foragers and farmers, both from similar desert environments. The residentially mobile foragers are from the Lower Pecos region of southwest Texas and the farmers are from the aggregated pueblo of Pottery Mound in south central New Mexico. Humeri from 27 adult foragers (n = 11 males; n = 17 females) and 65 adult farmers (n = 38 males; n = 27 females) were selected for study. All humeri were radiographed and/or scanned and digitized. Statistical comparisons using two-way ANOVAs indicate that female farmers exhibited the greatest humeral strength and the least asymmetry. Relative to all other groups examined, female farmers engaged in higher levels of upper limb work effort implying a substantial economic contribution to their agricultural economy. PMID:20836131

  9. The role of explanatory style and negative life events in depression: a cross-sectional study with youth from a North American plains reservation.

    Mileviciute, Inga; Trujillo, John; Gray, Matthew; Scott, Walter D


    In a cross-sectional study, we examined the role of explanatory styles and negative life events in the depressive experiences of AI youth. Ninetythree AI youth (49% female, ages 11-14 years) completed surveys assessing for explanatory style, negative life events, and depressive symptoms. Path analyses indicated that both the occurrence of negative life events within the past 6 months and a pessimistic explanatory style predicted more depressive symptoms. However, a moderation path model provided a superior fit to the data, indicating that the occurrence of negative life events was more strongly associated with depressive symptoms for those AI youth with a more pessimistic explanatory style. Findings are discussed in terms of potential interventions that can promote the well-being of this understudied and underserved population. PMID:24352819

  10. Clinical application of AcMAR (accelerated multiple-arc radiotherapy) for head and neck tumors. Results of a randomized, two-dose study in Kitami Red-Cross General Hospital

    Enhanced acute mucositis is the limiting factor for accelerated, hyperfractionated radiotherapy in head and neck (H and N) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). We have developed a simple, new form of conformal radiotherapy, accelerated multiple arc radiotherapy (AcMAR), which covers the target volume by combined, segmental, and rotational arc fields. Two to three rotational fields were placed with CT guidance, each covering the primary tumor and lymph nodes separately. The optimal inter-isocenter distance was determined by 3D dose calculation. The surface area of oro-pharyngeal mucosa irradiated by more than a 50% dose by this method was reduced by 37-73% compared to that with a conventional parallel opposing technic. Dose searching, randomized two-dose study was initiated in Kitami Red-cross General Hospital (KRCGH) in January 1995, and 101 patients were registered and completed AcMAR in Oct 2000. All the patients were followed for up to 96 months (24-96 mo, median 48 mo) at the time of analysis. Fifty-one out of 101 patients were Stage III (17) and IV (34). Primary site of tumors were; 38 larynx, 25 oropharynx, 15 hypopharynx, 13 oral cavity, and 10 other miscellaneous sites. Patients were randomly allocated either to 60 Gy/24 fr/bid/3 wks to gross tumor volume (GTV) (Group A), or 66 Gy/33 fr/bid/4 wks to GTV (Group B). Forty Gy/16 fr/bid/2 wks was given to the volume of prophylactic'' irradiation in both groups of patients. Results were as follows: All the patients, except for one, completed AcMAR without treatment interruption. Acute mucositis at the site of high-dose irradiation was intense; 72% of Group A and 62.5% of Group B experienced World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3 (confluent) mucositis focally. Fifty-one out of 53 in Group A and 48/48 in Group B, however, could maintain oral food intake (WHO Grade 1 or 2) even at the peak of their mucositis, because of the limited area of severe mucositis. With regard to late morbidity, however, 6/46 (followed >24 mo

  11. Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing

    Chen, Christopher Sze-Ming


    This dissertation, Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing, examines the relationship between textual strategies and political imagination at work in Asian American and African American experimental writers Nathaniel Mackey, Myung Mi Kim, and Ed Roberson. Providing one of the first cross-cultural studies of contemporary Asian American and African American experimental writing, I contend that these...

  12. Red Bull Crisis


    Additives make Red Bull the first company to test China’s new Food Safety Law "Drink Red Bull when you feel sleepy or tired" is a famous advertising slogan well-known to Chinese. But a recent German

  13. How does social integration influence breast cancer control among urban African-American women? Results from a cross-sectional survey

    Washington Carmen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social integration is a well-established influence on health, less is known about how the specific types of social connection (social roles, social networks, and social support influence knowledge, attitudes, and practices for specific prevention goals, and how to utilize these influences in interventions with priority populations. This research examined the prevalence of social roles, networks and support among 576 urban African-American women age 45–93 in East Baltimore, Maryland, and the association of these social factors with breast cancer related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Methods Using data from 1997–1998 in-home interviews, we developed indices of six possible social roles, social networks of family, neighborhood and church, and instrumental and emotional social support. In multivariate models adjusting for age, education, and medical care, we examined the association of each social influence on breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, screening recency and intention, and treatment preferences. Results We found substantial variation in social integration among these women, with social integration positively associated with overall health and well-being. Social roles and networks were positively associated with screening knowledge, and emotional support and church networks were positively associated with attitudes conducive to early detection and treatment. In regard to screening behaviors, family networks were associated with both screening recency and intention. Women with greater church networks and emotional support held more conservative attitudes towards lumpectomy, reconstruction, and clinical trials. Conclusion Overall, social integration is a positive influence on breast cancer control and should be utilized where possible in interventions, including identifying surrogate mechanisms for support for subgroups without existing social resources.

  14. Red Wine Over China


    The color red dominates Chinese life and now growing interest in red wine maintains that trend and ushers in a new fashionable addition to local culture There was a time when trying to find a good red wine in China was a difficult affair. But as with all

  15. A Flower of Red Cross Blooming in Local Campus——Analyzing the gains from one research topic of "Offering Social Service and Promoting Undergraduate's Quality"%地方高校的红十字之花——基于"社会服务与大学生素质拓展"课题研究的花语历程



    2006年,广西玉林师范学院红十字会社团,通过开展"社会服务与大学生素质拓展"课题研究,从选题、活动理念、实施进度、项目设置、对外宣传等方面,刷新了地方高校红十字会组织的现代功能范式,为创新当代大学生社团运作机制提供了有益参考.%In 2006 year, Yu-lin Normal University's Red Cross carried out one research topic of "Offering Social Service and Promoting Undergraduate' s Quality" . The research group, with logic thinking, seriously firmed topic, designed plans, regulated progress, positively connected with media, and so on. As a result, the study has renewed the function of Red Cross in local campus, and gained helpful information to lift up the modem quality of undergraduate' s social unites.

  16. American and British English



    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  17. 中美员工心理契约差异的跨文化比较%Cross-cultural comparison on differences of psychological contract between Chinese and American staffs

    王春晖; 杨怀国


    Cultural difference often leads to conflict, which will result in difference of psychological contract of staffs. A cross-cultural comparative study is conducted on the differences of psychological contract between Chinese and American staffs, which can help the cross-cultural organization to take effective management measures of human resource, to establish harmonious enterprise culture, to effectively regulate behavior of employees, to reduce the cost of contracts, and to improve cohesiveness and work efficiency. The cross-cultural comparison includes the content of contract, value identity, value orientation, and breach cost, etc. During the process of human resource management, it is not wise to blindly refer to foreign management methods, but to root it on local culture and establish a psychological contract management system that takes emotion as the ligament, communication as the key, and development as the guarantee.%文化差异往往容易引起冲突,从而造成员工心理契约的差异。对中美两国员工心理契约差异进行跨文化比较研究,有助于跨文化组织采取有效的人力资源管理措施,建立和谐的企业文化,有效规范员工行为,降低契约成本,提升凝聚力和工作效率。这种跨文化比较包括契约内容、价值认同、价值取向以及违背成本等。在人力资源管理过程中,不应盲目借鉴国外的管理方式,而是要以本土文化为根基,建立以情感为纽带、以沟通为关键、以发展为保障的心理契约管理体系。

  18. American ginseng

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  19. Inquiring into Red/Red Inquiring

    Ken Gale


    Full Text Available This layered account of an inquiry into ‘red’ emerged out of a collective biography workshop. In the middle of the Wiltshire countryside, an international and interdisciplinary group of scholars gathered together to write and make other things and marks on paper that asked questions of, and into, the spaces between words, people, things and their environments. We did not set out to workshop or write into or paint ‘red’ but, rather, it was red that slipped in, uninvited, and painted and wrote us. Red arose as a blush or a stain seeping amongst us that became referenced obliquely by material objects, metaphors and fairytales. The stain spread, became noticeable through our weekend together and beyond it, creating another (bright red artery vein of connection to write with.

  20. Arroz tolerante a imidazolinonas: controle do arroz-vermelho, fluxo gênico e efeito residual do herbicida em culturas sucessoras não-tolerantes Imidazolinone tolerant rice: red rice control, out-crossing and herbicide carryover to non-tolerants crops

    S.C.C. Villa


    and red rice. The experimental design was a randomized block design, with 3 treatments and 12 replications. To determine the outcrossing rates between Clearfield rice and red rice, virtually all the red rice panicle was collected and analyzed in the area. The carryover effect was tested using ryegrass and a non-tolerant rice cultivar (IRGA 417. The herbicides tested controlled red rice. Although injury to Clearfield rice was observed, the herbicide did not affect yield. Herbicide carry-over to non-tolerant rice was observed, reducing plant stand on rice seeded 361 days after herbicide application. Natural out-crossing occurred between Clearfield rice and red rice, at rates of 0.065%.

  1. Experimental information: 1096 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_24_4_3 RED Cy3 Cy5 Zenpei Shimatnai Society for Techno-Innovation of Agriculture, Forestry ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Jasmonic acid,JA two-dye methods 2 ...

  2. Experimental information: 1083 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_22_6_5 RED Cy3 Cy5 Kanako Shinbo Society for Techno-innovation of Agriculture,Forestry and ... Fisheries Hormonal Hormonal Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Gibberellin,GA3 two-dye methods 20 ...

  3. Experimental information: 1079 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_21_12_11 RED Cy3 Cy5 Zenpei Shimatani Society for Techno-Innovation of Agriculture, Forestr ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Abscisic acid,ABA two-dye methods ...

  4. Experimental information: 1101 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_24_14_13 RED Cy3 Cy5 Zenpei Shimatnai Society for Techno-Innovation of Agriculture, Forestr ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Jasmonic acid,JA two-dye methods 2 ...

  5. Experimental information: 1091 [RED

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  6. Experimental information: 1092 [RED

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  7. Experimental information: 1077 [RED

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  8. Experimental information: 1082 [RED

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  9. Experimental information: 1097 [RED

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  10. Experimental information: 1100 [RED

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  11. Experimental information: 1085 [RED

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  12. Experimental information: 1088 [RED

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  13. Experimental information: 1090 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_23_6_5 RED Cy3 Cy5 Kanako Shinbo Society for Techno-innovation of Agriculture,Forestry and ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Brassinosteroide,Br two-dye method ...

  14. Experimental information: 1076 [RED

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  15. Experimental information: 1099 [RED

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  16. Experimental information: 1084 [RED

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  17. Experimental information: 1087 [RED

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  18. Experimental information: 1094 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_23_14_13 RED Cy3 Cy5 Kanako Shinbo Society for Techno-innovation of Agriculture,Forestry an ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Brassinosteroide,Br two-dye method ...

  19. Experimental information: 1089 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_23_4_3 RED Cy3 Cy5 Kanako Shinbo Society for Techno-innovation of Agriculture,Forestry and ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Brassinosteroide,Br two-dye method ...

  20. Experimental information: 1075 [RED

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  1. Experimental information: 1080 [RED

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  2. Experimental information: 1098 [RED

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  3. Experimental information: 1095 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_24_2_1 RED Cy3 Cy5 Zenpei Shimatnai Society for Techno-Innovation of Agriculture, Forestry ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Jasmonic acid,JA two-dye methods 2 ...

  4. Experimental information: 1086 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_22_12_11 RED Cy3 Cy5 Kanako Shinbo Society for Techno-innovation of Agriculture,Forestry an ... d Fisheries Hormonal Hormonal Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Gibberellin,GA3 two-dye methods 20 ...

  5. Experimental information: 1078 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_21_10_9 RED Cy3 Cy5 Zenpei Shimatani Society for Techno-Innovation of Agriculture, Forestry ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Abscisic acid,ABA two-dye methods ...

  6. Experimental information: 1081 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_22_2_1 RED Cy3 Cy5 Kanako Shinbo Society for Techno-innovation of Agriculture,Forestry and ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Gibberellin,GA3 two-dye methods 20 ...

  7. Experimental information: 1074 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_21_2_1 RED Cy3 Cy5 Zenpei Shimatani Society for Techno-Innovation of Agriculture, Forestry ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Abscisic acid,ABA two-dye methods ...

  8. Experimental information: 1093 [RED

    Full Text Available 1000_23_12_11 RED Cy3 Cy5 Kanako Shinbo Society for Techno-innovation of Agriculture,Forestry an ... ries Hormonal Other Hormonal Other Rice Expression Database ,RED,Time course,Brassinosteroide,Br two-dye method ...

  9. Probe data: 5652 [RED

    Full Text Available R02-002330-1AR RED D41273 AU174297 ST3645 >AGU83687_1(U83687|pid:g1835701) Apium graveolens NADP ... H-dependent mannose 6-phosphate ... reductase (m6pr) mRNA, complete cds; aldo-keto red ... uctase; similar to aldose 6-phosphate ... reductase also known as NADP-sorbitol-6-phosphate ...

  10. 旅居者跨文化适应影响因素研究--以在华美国人为例%Sojourner Cross-cultural Adaptation Factors:A Case Study of Americans in China



    旅居及其引发的问题,以往主要属于社会学、心理学的研究范畴,但随着研究的不断深入,其展现出强烈的属于文化地理学研究范畴的特征与要素。运用结构方程模型、相关分析等方法,对美国来华旅居者的跨文化适应影响因素展开实证研究。研究结果表明:旅居时间与东道国文化认同之间的正相关性最大,旅居国数与一般生活满意度的正相关性最弱;提出的10个假设中,除了旅居国家数量对文化取向的变化没有显著影响关系外,其余9个假设都得到了证实。%The sojourner is the main research areas of sociology and psychology, but with the deepening of the study, it shows a strong part of research areas of the cultural geography.Structural equation model, correlation a-nalysis and other methods are used in the empirical research on the factors influencing the cross-cultural adaptation of Americans.Time of living with a host of cultural identity is the largest correlation, the weakest positive correla-tion with the number of the country in general life satisfaction;the 10 hypothesis, only the number of sojour has no significant impact to cultural orientation, the other 9 hypotheses are confirmed.

  11. Cross correlations of the American baby names

    Barucca, Paolo; Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico


    The quantitative description of cultural evolution is a challenging task. The most difficult part of the problem is probably to find the appropriate measurable quantities that can make more quantitative such evasive concepts as, for example, dynamics of cultural movements, behavior patterns and traditions of the people. A strategy to tackle this issue is to observe particular features of human activities, i.e. cultural traits, such as names given to newborns. We study the names of babies born in the United States of America from 1910 to 2012. Our analysis shows that groups of different correlated states naturally emerge in different epochs, and we are able to follow and decrypt their evolution. While these groups of states are stable across many decades, a sudden reorganization occurs in the last part of the twentieth century. We think that this kind of quantitative analysis can be possibly extended to other cultural traits: although databases covering more than one century (as the one we used) are rare, the ...

  12. The Electoral College Exacerbates the Red-Blue Divide and Disenfranchises Ethnic Minorities

    Webster, Gregory D.


    Comments on the article by Seyle and Newman "A house divided? The psychology of red and blue America,". Seyle and Newman argued that perceiving the American political landscape in terms of red and blue (to describe conservative and liberal perspectives, respectively) might unnecessarily pigeonhole people's dynamic social identities into one of two…

  13. A House Divided? The Psychology of Red and Blue America

    Seyle, D. Conor; Newman, Matthew L.


    Recently it has become commonplace in America for commentators and the public to use the terms "red" and "blue" to refer to perceived cultural differences in America and American politics. Although a political divide may exist in America today, these particular terms are inaccurate and reductive. This article presents research from social…

  14. Next generation red teaming

    Dalziel, Henry


    Red Teaming is can be described as a type of wargaming.In private business, penetration testers audit and test organization security, often in a secretive setting. The entire point of the Red Team is to see how weak or otherwise the organization's security posture is. This course is particularly suited to CISO's and CTO's that need to learn how to build a successful Red Team, as well as budding cyber security professionals who would like to learn more about the world of information security. Teaches readers how to dentify systemic security issues based on the analysis of vulnerability and con

  15. Inteligencia de red

    Barba Martí, Antonio; Hesselbach Serra, Xavier


    Bibliografia Actualmente existe una necesidad cada vez mayor de ofrecer servicios de red avanzados, que proporcionen un alto valor añadido al cliente. Eso es ya posible gracias a las nuevas capacidades de computación añadidas a los nodos de red, que proporcionan inteligencia y facilitan la gestión de red a los operadores y proveedores de servicios. En este texto, se presentan las nuevas redes inteligentes basadas en señalización número 7, los nuevos servicios sobre Internet (voz sobre IP, ...

  16. Latin American radio pathology net, training program for the medical response in cases of accidents; Red Latioamericana de radiopatologia programa de capacitacion para la respuesta medica en casos de accidentes

    Perez, M. R.; Valverde, N.; Sanhueza, S.; Di Tramo, J. L.; Gisone, P.; Cardenas, J.


    In Latin America exists a wide application of the nuclear techniques in different fields. These tendencies, to the increasing use of nuclear techniques, should carry out the invigoration of the infrastructures and the development of the authorities in radiation protection charge of the regulate and control the sources and practical, associated to ionizing radiation, guided to guarantee their safe use and in consequence to minimize the derived risks of the same ones. In spite of the efforts before mentioned a potential possibility of occurrence of accidental radiological events linked to human errors and violation's of the principles of the radiation protection exists. Reason that they advise to have response capacities to confront and to mitigate the consequences in situations of radiological accidents, including in the same ones the medical assistance of the accident victims. However, the radiological accidents happened in the international environment in the last decades, they have demonstrated inability paradoxically to confront with effectiveness these fortuitous events. Being characterized additionally by the insufficient training of the medical professionals to interpret and to act in consequence before the prejudicial effects to the health of the ionizing radiation. In our geographical context this situation is even more complicated, if we consider the happened radiological accidents of span that put in risk the life and the health of people involved in the same ones, for examples: Argentina (1968, 1963), Brazil (1985, 1987, 1995), Costa Rica (1996). El Salvador (1989), Mexico (1962, 1983, 1984) and Peru (1984, 1999). These reasons justify the development of an action program with the purpose of the consolidate and to integrate the capacity of response of our countries as regards radiological emergencies. Regrettably in Latin American subsist inequalities the development radiation protection programs, that propitiate the possibility of accidental

  17. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    屈彩娥; 李小玺


    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  18. Microstructure of Black, Green and Red Gram

    Joseph, Enamuthu; Crites, Shelly G.; Swanson, Barry G.


    The three most commonly consumed legumes (grams or pulses) in India, black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), or urd , green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) or mung, and red gram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) or tur, were examined by scanning electron microscopy . Seed coat and internal features were examined to differentiate these legumes from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) , adzuki beans (Vigna angu/aris) and lentils (Lens culinaris). Cross-sections of the seed coats of black, green and re...

  19. Experimental information: 225 [RED

    Full Text Available 2202_21_1_2 RED Cy3 Cy3 Masaaki Umeda The University of Tokyo Cell ... cycle Transgenic Cell ... cycle T ... ransgenic cell ... division,cell ... cycle,cyclin,CDK,transgenic plant on ...

  20. Experimental information: 226 [RED

    Full Text Available 2202_21_1_3 RED Cy3 Cy3 Masaaki Umeda The University of Tokyo Cell ... cycle Transgenic Cell ... cycle T ... ransgenic cell ... division,cell ... cycle,cyclin,CDK,transgenic plant on ...

  1. Probe data: 2827 [RED

    Full Text Available R06-035040-2AR RED C72992 AU101214 E02619 EB2619 >(P35339) EXOPOLYGALACTURONASE PRECURSOR (EC 3. ... 2.1.67) (EXOPG) (PECTINASE ) (GALACTURAN 1,4-ALPHA-GALACTURONIDASE). &S30067(S ...

  2. Probe data: 6229 [RED


  3. Experimental information: 1043 [RED

    Full Text Available 2112_21_11_12 RED Cy3 Cy5 Toru Fujiwara Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo ... Nutrient Metabolism Nutrient Metabolism sulfur nutrition ,root,O-acetyl-L-serine,gluthatione,time course two ...

  4. Experimental information: 1038 [RED

    Full Text Available 2112_21_1_2 RED Cy3 Cy5 Toru Fujiwara Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo Nu ... trient Metabolism Nutrient Metabolism sulfur nutrition ,root,O-acetyl-L-serine,gluthatione,time course two ...

  5. Experimental information: 1040 [RED

    Full Text Available 2112_21_5_6 RED Cy3 Cy5 Toru Fujiwara Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo Nu ... trient Metabolism Nutrient Metabolism sulfur nutrition ,root,O-acetyl-L-serine,gluthatione,time course two ...

  6. Experimental information: 1042 [RED

    Full Text Available 2112_21_9_10 RED Cy3 Cy5 Toru Fujiwara Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo N ... utrient Metabolism Nutrient Metabolism sulfur nutrition ,root,O-acetyl-L-serine,gluthatione,time course two ...

  7. Experimental information: 1039 [RED

    Full Text Available 2112_21_3_4 RED Cy3 Cy5 Toru Fujiwara Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo Nu ... trient Metabolism Nutrient Metabolism sulfur nutrition ,root,O-acetyl-L-serine,gluthatione,time course two ...

  8. Experimental information: 1041 [RED

    Full Text Available 2112_21_7_8 RED Cy3 Cy5 Toru Fujiwara Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo Nu ... trient Metabolism Nutrient Metabolism sulfur nutrition ,root,O-acetyl-L-serine,gluthatione,time course two ...

  9. Probe data: 3426 [RED

    Full Text Available R02-002330-1AR RED C26646 AU108627 C12762 CB2762 >AGU83687_1(U83687|pid:g1835701) Apium graveole ... ns NADPH-dependent mannose 6-phosphate ... reductase (m6pr) mRNA, complete cds; aldo-keto red ... uctase; similar to aldose 6-phosphate ... reductase also known as NADP-sorbitol-6-phosphate ...

  10. Probe data: 779 [RED

    Full Text Available R02-002330-1AR RED D48175 AU032804 S14252 SS4252 >AGU83687_1(U83687|pid:g1835701) Apium graveole ... ns NADPH-dependent mannose 6-phosphate ... reductase (m6pr) mRNA, complete cds; aldo-keto red ... uctase; similar to aldose 6-phosphate ... reductase also known as NADP-sorbitol-6-phosphate ...

  11. Probe data: 3773 [RED

    Full Text Available R02-002330-1AR RED AU163183 AU163184 S00625 ST0625 >AGU83687_1(U83687|pid:g1835701) Apium graveo ... lens NADPH-dependent mannose 6-phosphate ... reductase (m6pr) mRNA, complete cds; aldo-keto red ... uctase; similar to aldose 6-phosphate ... reductase also known as NADP-sorbitol-6-phosphate ...

  12. Discussion on the differences between epigenetic oxidized and primary red beds

    The red oxidation zone may be formed in the process of the interlayer oxidation. If the original gray beds formed in the moist palaeoclimatic condition and became red in oxidation, it is easy to distinguish this red oxidization zone from the original red beds. Gray sandstone sandwiched by red mudstone can be formed partially in the arid-semiarid condition. If this gray sandstone was oxidized to be red in color, almost all the strata would be red in cross section, and then it will be difficult to distinguish these red strata from the original red beds. If they are regarded as original red beds, we maybe lose the favorable opportunity to find uranium deposit. This paper presents a case study of Yaojia Formation, Upper Cretaceous in the southwestern part of Songliao Basin. Although the palaeoelimatic condition was arid-semiarid, the gray sandstones of Yaojia Formation in Qianjiadian Sag and its adjacent areas have obvious characteristics of primary depositional origin, and part of them may be formed by epigenetic reduction. The gray sandstone has formed red interlayer oxidation zone after being oxidized and it is just the red interlayer oxidation zone which controls the uranium mineralization in Qianjiadian uranium deposit. By careful contrast and analysis, identification marks of red epigenetic oxidation beds have be established, which can effectively help the distinguishing of epigenetic oxidized red beds from original red beds and extends prospecting idea. (authors)

  13. American Culture Reflected in American English



    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  14. American Houses



    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  15. Galaxy Zoo: Passive Red Spirals

    Masters, Karen L; Romer, A Kathy; Nichol, Robert C; Bamford, Steven P; Schawinski, Kevin; Lintott, Chris J; Andreescu, Dan; Campbell, Heather C; Crowcroft, Ben; Doyle, Isabelle; Edmondson, Edward M; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Vandenberg, Jan


    We study the spectroscopic properties and environments of red spiral galaxies found by the Galaxy Zoo project. By carefully selecting face-on, disk dominated spirals we construct a sample of truly passive disks (not dust reddened, nor dominated by old stellar populations in a bulge). As such, our red spirals represent an interesting set of possible transition objects between normal blue spirals and red early types. We use SDSS data to investigate the physical processes which could have turned these objects red without disturbing their morphology. Red spirals prefer intermediate density regimes, however there are no obvious correlations between red spiral properties and environment - environment alone is not sufficient to determine if a galaxy will become a red spiral. Red spirals are a small fraction of spirals at low masses, but dominate at large stellar masses - massive galaxies are red independent of morphology. We confirm that red spirals have older stellar populations and less recent star formation than ...

  16. On the Crossover of Boundary Currents in an Idealized Model of the Red Sea

    Zhai, Ping


    © 2015 American Meteorological Society. The west-to-east crossover of boundary currents has been seen in mean circulation schemes from several past models of the Red Sea. This study investigates the mechanisms that produce and control the crossover in an idealized, eddy-resolving numerical model of the Red Sea. The authors also review the observational evidence and derive an analytical estimate for the crossover latitude. The surface buoyancy loss increases northward in the idealized model, and the resultant mean circulation consists of an anticyclonic gyre in the south and a cyclonic gyre in the north. In the midbasin, the northward surface flow crosses from the western boundary to the eastern boundary. Numerical experiments with different parameters indicate that the crossover latitude of the boundary currents changes with f0, β, and the meridional gradient of surface buoyancy forcing. In the analytical estimate, which is based on quasigeostrophic, β-plane dynamics, the crossover is predicted to lie at the latitude where the net potential vorticity advection (including an eddy component) is zero. Various terms in the potential vorticity budget can be estimated using a buoyancy budget, a thermal wind balance, and a parameterization of baroclinic instability.

  17. Red-Cell Trace Minerals in Children with Autism

    Joan Jory


    Full Text Available Abnormalities in mineral-dependent antioxidant enzymes in children with autism raise interest in the determination of trace mineral status in this population. A cross sectional investigation of red cell mineral levels was carried out among 20 children with autism and 15 controls. Children with autism demonstrated significantly lower red cell selenium (p<0.0006 and higher molybdenum (p<0.01 than the controls. There was a trend toward lower red cell zinc and higher cobalt and vanadium, among the children with autism. There were no differences in red cell levels of chromium, copper, manganese, or magnesium. These findings confirm an earlier report of low red cell selenium in autism and support a role for decreased trace mineral status in oxidative stress in autism through alteration of selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes and increased lipid peroxidation.

  18. A Confirmatory Model for Substance Use Among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Else, 'Iwalani R. N.; Goebert, Deborah A; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Andrade, Naleen N.


    Few studies have examined the effect of ethnicity and cultural identity on substance use among Asian and Pacific Islander adolescents. A cross-sequential study conducted in Hawai'i with 144 Japanese American and part-Japanese American adolescents assessed a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, substance use, major life events, and social support. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the Japanese Culture Scale and on the Peers’ Social Support than the part-Japanes...

  19. American Headache Society

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  20. Cancer and African Americans

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  1. American Sign Language

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  2. Red giant seismology: Observations

    Mosser B.


    Full Text Available The CoRoT and Kepler missions provide us with thousands of red-giant light curves that allow a very precise asteroseismic study of these objects. Before CoRoT and Kepler, the red-giant oscillation patterns remained obscure. Now, these spectra are much more clear and unveil many crucial interior structure properties. For thousands of red giants, we can derive from seismic data precise estimates of the stellar mass and radius, the evolutionary status of the giants (with a clear difference between clump and RGB stars, the internal differential rotation, the mass loss, the distance of the stars... Analyzing this amount of information is made easy by the identification of the largely homologous red-giant oscillation patterns. For the first time, both pressure and mixed mode oscillation patterns can be precisely depicted. The mixed-mode analysis allows us, for instance, to probe directly the stellar core. Fine details completing the red-giant oscillation pattern then provide further information on the interior structure, including differential rotation.

  3. Little Red Riding Hood



    你一定看过并知道小红帽(Little Red Riding Hood)的故事吧!下面是英语版的小红帽,你看过吗? Once upon a time,people liked a little girl very much.Her red hood(头巾 ) fit her, so people called her Little Red Riding Hood. One day,her mother said, "Take a piece of cake and a bottle ofwine to your grandmother.She is ill and weak.These will do her good.Donot run off the road,or you may fall and break the bottle,and then yourgrandmother will get nothing.OK! Go at once."

  4. Probe data: 5037 [RED

    Full Text Available R12-044780-1AR RED AU173063 AU173064 RA0155 >XLU37373_1(U37373|pid:g1234787) Xenopus laevis tail ... -specific thyroid ... hormone up-regulated (gene 5) mRNA, complete cds; ... up-regulated by thyroid ... hormone in tadpoles; expressed specifically in the ...

  5. Probe data: 5576 [RED

    Full Text Available R03-047910-1AR RED AU174190 AU174191 ST1070 >XLU37373_1(U37373|pid:g1234787) Xenopus laevis tail ... -specific thyroid ... hormone up-regulated (gene 5) mRNA, complete cds; ... up-regulated by thyroid ... hormone in tadpoles; expressed specifically in the ...

  6. Probe data: 6197 [RED

    Full Text Available R07-048110-1AR RED D22267 C96749 C10642 CB0642 >TAU87163_1(U87163|pid:g2306768) Triticum aestivu ... eta subunit mRNA, complete cds; assignment of open reading ... frame based on alignment with other plant eIF2 sub ...

  7. Probe data: 2895 [RED

    Full Text Available R03-021800-1AR RED C19773 AU101326 E10917 EC0917 >TAU87163_1(U87163|pid:g2306768) Triticum aesti ... eta subunit mRNA, complete cds; assignment of open reading ... frame based on alignment with other plant eIF2 sub ...

  8. Probe data: 5564 [RED

    Full Text Available R02-057040-1AR RED D39512 AU174175 ST0896 >SPAC19A8_12(Z98974|pid:g2388911) S.pombe chromosome I ... ar eg. to YNL118C, PSU1_YEAST, P53550, involved in respiration , (970aa), fasta scores, opt:776, E():0, (29.1% ide ...

  9. Probe data: 5495 [RED

    Full Text Available R09-031940-1R RED D48735 AU174075 SS5125 >SPBC215_13(AL033534|pid:g3873550) S.pombe chromosome I ... 932 aa), fasta scores: opt: 694, E():8e-27, (41.8% identity ... in 457 aa). ...

  10. Probe data: 2587 [RED

    Full Text Available R11-011010-4R RED AU062718 AU100766 C30311 CE0311 >AE000959_10(AE000959|pid:g2648442) Archaeoglo ... similar to GB:X79560 SP:P46464 PID:517390 percent identity : 61.98; identified by sequence similarity; putativ ...