Sample records for american churches perspectives

  1. Examining Church Capacity to Develop and Disseminate a Religiously Appropriate HIV Tool Kit with African American Churches

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Martinez, David Alfonso; Hawes, Starlyn Montez; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Wainright, Cassandra


    Increasingly, African American churches have been called upon to assist in efforts to address HIV/AIDS in underserved communities. African Americans churches may be well-positioned to provide HIV education, screening, and support services, particularly if they are equipped with church-appropriate, easy-to-deliver HIV tools that can be implemented through the naturalistic church environment. To inform the development of a church-based HIV tool kit, we examined church capacity with African Amer...

  2. 21 CFR 1307.31 - Native American Church.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Native American Church. 1307.31 Section 1307.31... Persons § 1307.31 Native American Church. The listing of peyote as a controlled substance in Schedule I does not apply to the nondrug use of peyote in bona fide religious ceremonies of the Native...

  3. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary


    A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congre...

  4. A Korean perspective on megachurches as missional churches

    Cornelius J.P. Niemandt


    Full Text Available Both the megachurch and the missional church are on-going global phenomena. Working from the premise that the church has to be missional, this article operates from a Korean perspective and researches whether a megachurch can be missional. The megachurch is not simply a very large church in terms of membership or the physical size of its building(s � because of the influence of the interaction between socio-cultural, historical, and theological backgrounds, the megachurch has its own missiological and ecclesiological perspectives. The megachurch understands that the growth of an individual church implies the expansion of the kingdom of God, which means that the individual church has a responsibility to be both functionally and structurally sound, in order to ensure the efficient growth of the kingdom. This is an influential tendency that is found not only in larger size churches, but in all churches who are trying to achieve the quantitative growth of the church by way of evangelisation. The Korean megachurches, represented by the Poongsunghan Church, display these characteristics. The missional church is not simply a mission-driven church, sending many missionaries to other countries; the missional church believes that all churches are sent to the world by God, who wants to reconcile the whole universe with himself. The implication of this is that the church has to restore its missional essence in order to be able to participate in the mission of God. Thus, the missional church is a reforming movement that witnesses to God�s rule by recovering its apostolic nature. The characteristics of this movement are clearly visible in one of the case studies � the Bundang Woori Church. The importance of the missional movement for Korean churches is emphasised.Interdisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The research is a case study of Korean megachurches from a missional perspective. The research represents a critique of practises in

  5. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary


    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  6. The Catholic Church, the American military, and homosexual reorientation therapy.

    Lutz, David


    Homosexual activist groups have targeted the Catholic Church and the American military as institutions especially in need of transformation. Associations of healthcare professionals are also under assault from homosexual activists. It is, nevertheless, appropriate for the Church and the military to defend themselves against this assault, to affirm that homosexuality is incompatible with Christian ethics and military service, and to help homosexuals free themselves from the vice of homosexuality. Arguments that homosexual reorientation therapy is unethical are unsound. Such therapy is consistent with the Christian virtue of charity. PMID:15764096

  7. Perspectives on Church Tourism in Ireland

    Griffin, Kevin


    This paper presents some thoughts on Pilgrimage and Church Tourism in Ireland, with a particular emphasis on Knock, pilgrimage for the Irish Travelling Community, and some thoughts on Genealogy, all with a view to informing the audience of research being undertaken in Ireland.

  8. Beliefs About Sex and Parent-Child-Church Sex Communication Among Church-Based African American Youth.

    Moore, Erin; Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Bohn, Alexandria; Hawes, Starlyn; Bowe-Thompson, Carole


    Parent-child sex communication has been shown to be protective against sexual risk among African American youth. The current study sought to use the theory of planned behavior as a framework for focus group discussions (N = 54 youth participants aged 12-19 years) to explore church youths' (a) sex beliefs and values (attitudes), (b) sources and evaluation of sex communication and education (subjective norms), (c) facilitator/barriers to adolescent sexual risk reduction and communication behaviors (perceived behavioral control), and (d) intentions to engage in these behaviors. Additionally, participants identified strategies for consideration in developing tailored parent-child-church sex communication education programs for use in African American churches. Themes suggested both positive and negative attitudes toward premarital sex and parents and churches as key sources of sex education and communication. Strategies to enhance parent-child-church sex communication are discussed in the context of these findings. PMID:25260385

  9. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L


    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  10. Factors Contributing to the Development of an HIV Ministry within an African American Church

    Stewart, Jennifer M.; Dancy, Barbara L.


    Having an HIV ministry within a church depends on the religious culture of that church. However, little is known about how a church’s religious culture influences an HIV ministry. This study’s purpose was to examine how an African American church’s religious culture supported the development, implementation, and maintenance of an HIV ministry within the church. An ethnographic case study research design was used. Data were collected through interviews, non-participant and participant observat...

  11. Readiness to Implement HIV Testing in African-American Church Settings.

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra


    HIV and AIDS continue to impact Black Americans at disproportionately high rates. Promotion of HIV testing and linkage to care is a national health imperative for this population. As a pillar in the Black community, the Black Church could have a significant impact on the promotion of HIV testing within their churches and surrounding communities. Churches, however, have varied levels of involvement in testing. Furthermore, little is known about how to assess a church's readiness to integrate HIV testing strategies into its mission, much less how to promote this practice among churches. This qualitative study used interviews and focus groups with pastors and church leaders from four churches with varying levels of involvement in HIV testing to identify key stages in the progression of toward church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Findings showed that churches progressed through levels of readiness, from refusal of the possibility of HIV interventions to full integration of HIV testing and linkage to care within the church. PMID:26019024

  12. ‘Ecclesia reformata semper reformanda’ Church renewal from a Reformed perspective

    Leo J. Koffeman


    Full Text Available With a view to the theme of church renewal, this article explores the role of a well-known and popular phrase in the Reformed tradition within Protestantism, that is, ecclesia reformata semper reformanda [‘the reformed church should always be reformed’]. Is this a helpful slogan when considering the possibilities and the limitations of church renewal? Firstly, the historical background of this phrase is described: it is rooted in the Dutch Reformed tradition, and only in the 20th century it was widely recognised in Reformed circles. Against this background the hermeneutical problem, linked with the principle of sola Scriptura, is presented, and put into an ecumenical ecclesiological perspective: the church is grounded in the gospel. Finally, the article focuses on church polity as an important field of renewal, taking into account Karl Barth’s interpretation of this phrase. From this perspective, a balanced and ecumenical approach of church renewal is possible.

  13. African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care: assets, challenges and needs.

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher


    The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches' involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 39 participants), 4 interviews and 116 surveys in a mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of a church-based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance, including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework. PMID:26652165

  14. Disease Messaging in Churches: Implications for Health in African-American Communities.

    Harmon, Brook E; Chock, Marci; Brantley, Elizabeth; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R


    Using the right messaging strategies, churches can help promote behavior change. Frequencies of disease-specific messages in 21 African-American churches were compared to overall and cancer-specific mortality and morbidity rates as well as church-level variables. Disease messages were found in 1025 of 2166 items. Frequently referenced topics included cancer (n = 316), mental health conditions (n = 253), heart disease (n = 246), and infectious diseases (n = 220). Messages for lung and colorectal cancers appeared at low frequency despite high mortality rates in African-American communities. Season, church size, and denomination showed significant associations with health messages. Next steps include testing messaging strategies aimed at improving the health of churchgoing communities. PMID:26296703

  15. Physical Health Screenings Among African-American Church and Community Members.

    Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail


    This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs. PMID:27272330

  16. Missionary Destinations and Diasporic Destiny: Spatiality of Korean/American Evangelism and the Cell Church

    Han, Ju Hui Judy


    The existing literature on immigrant Korean Protestant churches in North America typically addresses identity formation and dynamics of assimilation in the context of North American religious pluralism and multiculturalism, particularly focusing on the role of religion in “maintaining ethnicity” and “preserving traditions.” In this literature, the immigrant Korean church is depicted as an ethnic enclave, a bounded territorial enclosure that facilitates adjustment and transition into the main...

  17. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    Goto, Courtney T.


    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  18. Public Health and Church-Based Constructions of HIV Prevention: Black Baptist Perspective

    Roman Isler, Malika; Eng, Eugenia; Maman, Susanne; Adimora, Adaora; Weiner, Bryan


    The black church is influential in shaping health behaviors within African-American communities, yet few use evidence-based strategies for HIV prevention (abstinence, monogamy, condoms, voluntary counseling and testing, and prevention with positives). Using principles of grounded theory and interpretive description, we explored the social…

  19. Recruiting African American Churches to Participate in Research: The Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills for a Better Life Study.

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Borden, Shanice L; Alexander, Dayna S; Kennedy, Betty M; Goldmon, Moses V


    Physical activity among African Americans (AA) is low; effective intervention strategies are needed. Community-based settings are useful for delivering health-related interventions in racial/ethnic minority communities. This article describes strategies used to recruit churches for participation in a 22-month intervention designed to increase physical activity levels in AA women. Initial recruitment efforts, led by AA study staff, included direct mailers, phone calls, and in-person meetings with church representatives. After 10 months, only five churches were enrolled. Seven community members with existing partnerships/contacts in the faith community were subsequently hired and an additional 26 churches were enrolled within 6 months. Overall response rate was 45%, and churches required 3.5 ± 3.0 months of multiple contacts prior to enrollment. The main primary contacts within churches were individuals with personal interest in the program and pastors. Prior relationship between the research team and churches did not appear to influence church enrollment as much as community member recruiters. The current study identifies several potential strategies that may be useful for increasing success in efforts to recruit AA churches into studies. Additional research is warranted that tests and compares a variety of recruitment strategies to determine the most successful strategies for recruitment in different populations. PMID:26724311

  20. HEALS: A Faith-Based Hypertension Control and Prevention Program for African American Churches: Training of Church Leaders as Program Interventionists

    Sunita Dodani


    Full Text Available Background. A 12-session church-based HEALS program (healthy eating and living spiritually was developed for hypertension control and prevention program in African Americans (AAs. This study presents specifics of training lay health educators to effectively deliver HEALS to high-risk AAs. Methods. A one-day workshop was conducted by the research experts in an AA church. Five church members were recruited to be program interventionists called church health counselors (CHCs. Results. Using principles of adult education, a training protocol was developed with the intention of recognizing and supporting CHCs skills. CHCs received training on delivering HEALS program. The process of training emphasized action methods including role playing and hands-on experience with diet portion measurements. Conclusion. With adequate training, the community lay health educator can be an essential partner in a community-based hypertension control programs. This may motivate program participants more and encourages the individual to make the behavior modifications on a permanent basis.

  1. South American perspectives

    Moxon, S.


    South America still has enormous potential for the further development of hydroelectric power. The reasons why much of the potential remains untapped are discussed and here environmental considerations are prominent: to a lesser extent, war, military coups, corruption, bad management and hyperinflation have all contributed. Some examples of disastrous South American hydro projects are given. Argentina sees a possible solution in using international contractors. However, privatisation has produced some success stories, notably the Canon del Plato hydro plant in Peru and the Duqueco project in Chile. (UK)

  2. Development of a Spiritually Based Educational Intervention to Increase Informed Decision Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among Church-Attending African American Men

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S.; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily


    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor (CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were ...

  3. Barriers to Participation in Adult Education for African Americans Attending a Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

    Chalmers, Michael


    Faith-based organizations, particularly churches, have embraced education. Historically, churches, synagogues, and temples have been the sites for educational programming. Yet, a great concern among religious institutions is participation in educational activities. Many studies have identified barriers to participation in adult education among…

  4. Calvin’s view on church discipline and unity: a South African perspective

    P.J. Strauss


    Full Text Available The reformer John Calvin, born in 1509, considers discipline and unity as two essential aspects of the Christian church. According to him, the bond of church discipline is a way to unite church members in the truth of the Word and the Christian faith based thereupon. If discipline is exercised with exaggerated strictness and without compassion, tolerance and love, it can break the unity. Because church unity is essentially a unity of faith, or a unity in the truth of the Word, discipline can sever adulterated elements that threaten the unity from the church. Discipline, if correctly ap- plied, builds the unity of the church as a unity in religious truths.

  5. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen


    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  6. The Seraphim above: Some Perspectives on the Theology of Orthodox Church Music

    Ivan Moody


    Full Text Available Some outstanding contributions notwithstanding, much recent scholarship in Western European languages concerning art and the sacred has been quite prolific but has generally avoided discussion of specifically liturgical music, a particular problem when dealing with the sacred music of the Orthodox Church. The present discussion aims at establishing some bases for furthering this discussion, drawing not only on recent commentators but especially commentary on the question of liturgical singing by the Fathers of the Church.

  7. Church, mission and ethics. Being church with integrity

    Wim Dreyer


    Full Text Available This article is an exercise in Practical Ecclesiology. The author reflects on church, mission and ethics from historical, hermeneutical and strategic perspectives. Using the ecclesiology of Karl Barth as a point of departure, the author argues that the church needs to be church if it wants to be a credible witness to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Integrity is essential if a church wants to be missional. Integrity means the church has to become what it already is, the body of Christ. This contribution is dedicated to Prof Graham Duncan, professor emeritus of church history (University of Pretoria, a man of integrity and dedicated to the missional calling of the church. Keywords: Ecclesiology; First Clement; Karl Barth; Missional Church; Integrity

  8. Church, mission and ethics. Being church with integrity

    Wim Dreyer


    This article is an exercise in Practical Ecclesiology. The author reflects on church, mission and ethics from historical, hermeneutical and strategic perspectives. Using the ecclesiology of Karl Barth as a point of departure, the author argues that the church needs to be church if it wants to be a credible witness to the Gospel of Jesus Christ. Integrity is essential if a church wants to be missional. Integrity means the church has to become what it already is, the body of Christ. This contri...

  9. Misión Integral and Progressive Evangelicalism: The Latin American Influence on the North American Emerging Church

    Michael Clawson


    Full Text Available Though commonly identified with the conservative politics of the Christian Right, over the past decade evangelicals in the United States have increasingly embraced a more politically progressive range of social concerns. Often treated as something wholly new, this trend actually has roots in Latin American evangelicalism from the 1970s. Latin American theologian/practitioners like C. René Padilla and Samuel Escobar of the Latin American Theological Fellowship, promoted a holistic vision of the church’s mission, what they called misión integral, seeking to integrate both evangelism and socio-political involvement on behalf of the poor and oppressed. These Latin American thinkers played a direct role in the rise of progressive evangelicalism in the United States in the 1970s. While overshadowed for a time by the Christian Right, the concept of misión integral and its Latin American exponents has continued to influence the resurgence of progressive social concerns among North American evangelicals in the first decade of the 21st century, and especially those associated with the emerging church movement.

  10. Contemporary challenges to the Church Mission from the perspective of post-modern art and technology

    Gheorghe Istodor


    Full Text Available The secular challenges coming from postmodern art and postmodern technology constitute a serious challenge to be addressed by the mission and life of the Church. The distortion of the Christian Orthodox teaching and the blasphemous trends coming from the contemporary art scene is adding to the distortion of man as God’s special creation from the point of view of genetic engineering, biotechnology, and artificial intelligence, as the core elements of God’s empowerment of man through technology.

  11. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  12. Development of a spiritually based educational intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men.

    Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily


    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129

  13. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention: A Look at a Health Promotion Project Aimed to Reduce Colorectal Cancer Among African Americans in the Midwest

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K. Allen


    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show...

  14. Lobbying for the Unborn: The American Catholic Church and the Abortion Issue

    BEN HAFSA, Lanouar


    Following the landmark 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade (410 US 113), there are around a million abortions performed each year in the United States. Originally a mere medical procedure which aims at delivering a woman from an unwanted pregnancy, abortion has become one of the most controversial issues of American life today. Actually, two opposing forces are constantly fighting to win legitimacy and impose their own views: on the one hand, the pro-abortion proponents who defend the ...

  15. Use of an interactive, faith-based kiosk by congregants of four predominantly, African-American churches in a metropolitan area

    Scott eDulchavksy


    Full Text Available Chronic diseases are prevalent in ethnic communities. Churches represent a potent resource for targeted health promotion. A Faith-Based Kiosk (FBK was developed as an informational tool and placed in four predominantly (>80% African-American churches. Congregants were surveyed to describe Kiosk use, kiosk-user characteristics, health status, and self-reported behavior changes attributed to the kiosk. We analyzed 1,573 questionnaires. Mean age of respondents was 46.4 years and >70% were women. Older congregations (mean age > 46.1 years had more reports of diabetes (p=0.002 and heart disease (p=0.01 than younger churches (mean age 40 years (p2 health conditions, adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval=1.43 (1.0-2.0, p=0.05. Male Kiosk-users preferred to select disease-specific content, aOR=1.87 (1.10-3.17, p=0.02, while females tended to select information about supportive community resources, aOR=0.49 (0.23-1.04, p=0.062. Knowledge of Kiosk-user characteristics and the health status of a congregation, provide an opportunity for targeted, church-based health promotion.

  16. The role of the church in the struggle against poverty: A Hervormde Kerk in Suidelike Afrika perspective

    S. P. Mpanza


    Full Text Available The essence of being a church is love. The church as an organization based on love has the responsibility of loving God, his people and the world which God himself loved first. This paper is about the responsibility of a 'poor church', the Hervormde Kerk in Suidelike Afrika, which despite its poverty still has the vocation of becoming meaningful to its members. Two appeals are made here: firstly, that both the rich and the poor churches should, despite their circumstances, play their roles in combating poverty among their members. Secondly, churches should shift from charity work to development.

  17. The Effect of Changes in Health Beliefs Among African-American and Rural White Church Congregants Enrolled in an Obesity Intervention: A Qualitative Evaluation.

    Martinez, Diane J; Turner, Monique M; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi; Kashima, Kanako; Hargreaves, Margaret K; Dignan, Mark B; Hébert, James R


    Church interventions can reduce obesity disparities by empowering participants with knowledge and skills within an established community. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Biomedical/Obesity Reduction Trial (BMORe) and investigate changes in health beliefs among obese adult participants. Ten pre-/post-intervention focus groups applying the Health Belief Model conducted in two African-American churches in Tennessee (n = 20) and South Carolina (n = 20), and one rural Appalachian church in Kentucky (n = 21). Two independent coders using NVivo analyzed transcribed audio data and notes. Participants' health status of being overweight/obese and having comorbidities of diabetes and high blood pressure motivated enrollment in BMORe. Initially participants voiced low self-efficacy in cooking healthy and reading food labels. BMORe made participants feel "empowered" after 12 weeks compared to initially feeling "out of control" with their weight. Participants reported improvements in emotional health, quality of life, and fewer medications. During post-intervention focus groups, participants reported increased self-efficacy through family support, sharing healthy eating strategies, and having accountability partners. Solidarity and common understanding among BMORe participants led focus group attendees to comment how their peers motivated them to stay in the program for 12 weeks. Long-term barriers include keeping the weight off by maintaining habits of exercise and healthy eating. Implementation of pre-/post-intervention focus groups is an innovative approach to evaluate an obesity intervention and track how changes in health beliefs facilitated behavior change. This novel approach shows promise for behavioral interventions that rely on participant engagement for sustained effectiveness. PMID:26601845

  18. Empirical and Historical Perspectives on the Growth of Pentecostal-Style Churches in Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong

    Kay, William K.


    This article considers the growth of Pentecostal-style churches in Southeast Asia, and specifically in Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. It outlines four reasons for the growth that occurred and then, using qualitative and quantitative data in a mixed mode, seeks to test the hypotheses it derives. It concludes that each of the hypotheses…

  19. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A.; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K. Allen


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and…

  20. Diet quality and physical activity outcome improvements resulting from a church-based diet and supervised physical activity intervention for rural, southern, Africian American adults: Delta Body and Soul III

    We assessed the effects of a 6-month, church¬-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention, conducted between 2011 and ¬2012, on improving diet quality and increasing physical activity of southern, African American adults. Using a quasi¬-experimental design, 8 self-selected, eligible c...

  1. Marketing a Healthy Mind, Body, and Soul: An Analysis of How African American Men View the Church as a Social Marketer and Health Promoter of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Prevention.

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Vanchy, Priya; Baker, Tamara A; Daley, Christine; Ndikum-Moffer, Florence; Greiner, K Allen


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ranks colorectal cancer (CRC) as the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States; African American (AA) men are at even greater risk. The present study was from a larger study that investigates the church's role as a social marketer of CRC risk and prevention messages, and whether religiously targeted and tailored health promotion materials will influence screening outcome. We used an integrated theoretical approach to explore participants' perceptions of CRC risk and prevention and how promotion messages should be developed and socially marketed by the church. Six focus groups were conducted with men from predominately AA churches in the Midwest. Themes from focus group discussions showed participants lacked knowledge about CRC, feared cancer diagnosis, and feared the procedure for screening. Roles of masculinity and the mistrust of physicians were also emergent themes. Participants did perceive the church as a trusted marketer of CRC but believed that promotional materials should be cosponsored and codeveloped by reputable health organizations. Employing the church as a social marketer of CRC screening promotion materials may be useful in guiding health promotions and addressing barriers that are distinct among African American men. PMID:26424748

  2. American Indian Perspectives of Euro-American Counseling Behavior

    Lokken, Jayne M.; Twohey, Denise


    Thirteen American Indians participated in 17 counseling interviews with Euro-American counselors. The study analyzed interviews of American Indian participants using Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR). Counselor trustworthiness, which was increased by counselor empathy, genuineness, concern, self-disclosure, and slow pace of problem…

  3. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David


    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  4. A Comparative study of the theory of dual reality from the perspective of Averroes, followers of Averroes and the church of the thirteenth century

    Ali Ghorbani


    Full Text Available In the thirteenth century, along with the return of the European thinkers and philosophers to Aristotelian philosophy and the emergence of the contradiction between Aristotle's philosophy and Christian teachings and religious beliefs, the church put forward a theory known as dual reality. According to this theory everything that is true in theology, its opposite can also be true in philosophy. With this theory, the church accused the philosophers of heresy, while the followers of Averroes considered themselves free of this charge. In his book Faṣl al-maqāl, Averroes appeared to be in favor of the above mentioned theory in a different form. By a precise analysis of the theory through reviewing the now available sources and considering the events followed by attributing this view to the philosophers, one can infer different implications from the theory from the perspective of each of the three sides involved (i.e. Averroes, followers of Averroes and church and the following division can be sketched: 1- ontological implications: that is to believe in the existence of two types of realities in the universe which can be described in two ways: A two contradictory scopes in the universe B two distinct scopes in the universe. 2- Epistemological implications of the dual reality: A Two ways to reach one reality. B Two dictions to narrate one reality. C Duality of the reality in practice. D Two levels of one single reality. By analyzing each of these implications of the dual reality, one can be led to some consequences according to which based on different works of Averroes he cannot be accused of believing in a kind of duality which makes him deserve heresy.

  5. In support of female leadership in the church: Grappling with the perspective of Setswana men � Shepherding as solution offered

    Gopolang H. Sekano; Maake J. Masango


    This article addresses the overwhelmingly negative experience and feeling of some men who serve under female leaders in the church. They claim to feel degraded and traumatised by the experience of being led by women. They also claim that their patriarchal culture and religion is defied by such actions and laws of equality that encourage female leadership. They substantiate their views by quoting 1 Corinthians 14:34−35 and 1 Timothy 2:12−14 in addition to a Setswana proverb, �Tsa e...

  6. Political ideology and American intergroup discrimination: A patriotism perspective.

    L Hoyt, Crystal; Goldin, Aleah


    In this research we demonstrate the powerful role of ingroup favoritism, rather than hostility, in American intergroup biases. Specifically, we take a novel perspective to understanding the relationship between political ideology and discrimination against ethnic-minority Americans by focusing on the role of patriotism. Across three studies, we show that political ideology is a strong predictor of resource allocation biases, and this effect is mediated by American patriotism and not by prejudice or nationalism. Conservatives report greater levels of patriotism than liberals, and patriotism is associated with donating more to American, as opposed to ethnic-minority American, organizations. We further show that the link between patriotism and partiality to the national group is mediated by stronger "American = White" associations. These findings have important implications for intergroup relations and diversity-related policy issues in the United States. PMID:26467846

  7. American Minorities and 'New Nation' Perspectives

    Moore, Joan W.


    The 'Third World models' discussed in this article are, specifically the concept of 'internal colonialism' and the related idea of a 'dual economy/society' that is especially prominent in the literature on urbanization in Africa and Latin American nations.

  8. Consensus and Difference: American Students' Perspectives on the National History

    Dan, Yongjun; Todd, Reese; Lan, William


    The purpose of this study was to re-examine the consensus and difference in American students' understanding of national history, on which there were divergent research results. With three sets of questions that examined students' perspectives of the collective memory, historical significance, and credibility of historical sources, we found that…

  9. American Library History Literature, 1947-1997: Theoretical Perspectives?

    Wiegand, Wayne A.


    Reviews 50 years of published research literature in American library history that shows a lack of theoretical perspective. Suggests that library historians should join with critical theorists and with social and cultural historians to help place the library in a larger context of social and cultural forces. (Contains 131 references.) (LRW)

  10. Walking in Beauty: An American Indian Perspective on Social Justice

    Eason, Evan Allen; Robbins, Rockey


    The purpose of this article is to introduce "walking in beauty," an American Indian spiritual perspective related to social justice that emphasizes beauty, harmony, connectedness/unity of experience, and imagination. Walking in beauty includes 3 processes: embodiment, creativity, and appreciation of the sublime. Recommendations are offered for…

  11. In support of female leadership in the church: Grappling with the perspective of Setswana men � Shepherding as solution offered

    Gopolang H. Sekano


    Full Text Available This article addresses the overwhelmingly negative experience and feeling of some men who serve under female leaders in the church. They claim to feel degraded and traumatised by the experience of being led by women. They also claim that their patriarchal culture and religion is defied by such actions and laws of equality that encourage female leadership. They substantiate their views by quoting 1 Corinthians 14:34−35 and 1 Timothy 2:12−14 in addition to a Setswana proverb, �Tsa etelelwa pele ke e namagadi di wela ka lengope� [those who are led by a female leader fall into dongas]. In the light of this situation an intensive study regarding the need for an egalitarian concept and constructive interpretation of Bible passages, Setswana proverbs and idioms regarding the inevitability of female leadership is paramount to people who have an androcentric concept of religion and culture.

  12. South American legal perspective on professional nursing.

    Campos, Fagner Alfredo Ardisson Cirino; Nekrassovski, Oleg

    This study involved a literature review aimed at describing the professional duties, stipulated in federal legislation, of nursing professionals in South America. According to the federal legislation that regulates the professional nursing practice, nurses are supposed to apply their skills and knowledge in an autonomous and secure way. Since it is through this legislation that professional competence of nurses is determined, the laws of each South American nation were consulted, to see how professional nursing functions differ according to each. In general, according to the South American federal nursing legislations, professional nursing practice must be grounded in quality patient care and good nursing administration. PMID:24260995

  13. The amazing growth of the early church

    Wim A. Dreyer


    Full Text Available The church grew rapidly during the first centuries. The question is: Why? Generations of scholars approached this question from different perspectives and with different methods. Historical research, analysis of early Christian texts and theological reflection were the most common methods used to shed light on the growth of the church. In this contribution five different models of growth were discussed, using the approach of A.M. Schor as a point of departure. These models of church growth were put under the headings of an apostolic mission model, values reproduction model, social reaction model, network model with an institutional model added.

  14. Policies for Displaced Workers: An American Perspective

    O'Leary, Christopher J.


    American employment policy for displaced workers started in the Great Depression with programs for the employment service, unemployment insurance, work experience, and direct job creation. Assistance for workers displaced by foreign competition emerged in the 1960s along with formalized programs for occupational job skill training. The policy focus on displaced workers was sharpened in the 1980s through the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act and the Economic Dislocation and Wor...

  15. Church Orientations in Slovenia

    Čaval, Saša

    The high number of churches built during the Romanesque period in Slovenia provides a unique dataset from which to study church orientation using archaeoastronomical methods. An innovative methodology revealed a specific pattern of motivation for church alignment, ultimately revealing a greater depth of thought, process, and intentionality than has previously been recognized relative to this subject.

  16. A Latin American perspective of periodontology.

    Caffesse, Raúl G


    Periodontal diseases occur worldwide, and Latin American populations are significantly affected by different manifestations of periodontal disease. The interest in periodontics and periodontal therapy first developed in the early 1930s in the southernmost countries of Latin America, and spread, as the years went by, throughout the region. Today, periodontal research is vibrant in Latin America. The aim of this volume of Periodontology 2000 was to present an overview of the periodontal research currently being performed in different countries of Latin America. The epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults, children and adolescents, and the pathogenesis of such diseases (including microbiological characteristics and risk factors), are discussed. The role of systemic antibiotic therapy and the effect of smoking are discussed in relation to the progression and the treatment of periodontitis. In addition, the benefit of lasers in periodontal therapy is evaluated. Latin American research groups have been active in exploring new venues of regenerative periodontal treatment, addressing the role of cementum proteins, growth factors and oral mesenchymal stem cells in tissue engineering. Finally, basic research to study cancerization is reported. PMID:25494595

  17. Pediatric liver transplantation: a North American perspective.

    Kerkar, Nanda; Lakhole, Arathi


    Liver transplantation (LT) is an important component in the therapeutic armamentarium of managing end-stage liver disease. In North American children, biliary atresia remains the most common indication for LT compared to hepatitis C in adults, while hepatoblastoma is the most common liver tumor requiring LT, versus Hepatocellular carcinoma in adults. Rejection, lymphoproliferative disease, renal insufficiency, metabolic syndrome, recurrent disease, 'de novo' autoimmune hepatitis and malignancy require careful surveillance and prompt action in adults and children after LT. In children, specific attention to EBV viremia, growth, development, adherence and transition to the adult services is also required. Antibody mediated rejection and screening for donor specific antibodies is becoming important in managing liver graft dysfunction. Biomarkers to identify and predict tolerance are being developed. Machine perfusion and stem cells (iPS) to synthesize organs are generating interest and are a focus for research. PMID:26982346

  18. Propane supply picture: North American perspective

    An overview is presented of the North American propane supply and demand situation. Propane has a distribution network in place and a well established market. North America is virtually self-sufficient in propane with a market of over 1,000,000 bbl/d. Approximately 80% of Canada's propane supply is produced at gas plants in western Canada as a byproduct of natural gas production. The expansion in natural gas markets will mean that propane supply will rise further, unlike crude oil. Canada's daily supply of nearly 160,000 bbl is used for heating (30%), transport (12%), petrochemicals (7.8%), and enhanced oil recovery (4.7%), with the remainder being exported. Propane surpluses are expected to grow, between 70,000 and 100,000 bbl/d in the next 5 years. Nearly 30% of North America's demand for propane is in the petrochemical industry, for which various other feedstocks can be substituted. An availability of over 400,000 bbl/d could fuel ca 5 million vehicles. Only natural gas has a comparable infrastructure and this suffers from high utilization pressure and poor energy density. Wholesale propane is now available at under 9 cents/liter, significantly below the projected ethanol price of 18 cents/liter, which excludes grain feedstock or capital cost. 8 refs., 6 figs

  19. American medical malpractice litigation in historical perspective.

    Mohr, J C


    Medical malpractice and the problems associated with it remain an important issue in the US medical community. Yet relatively little information regarding the long-term history of malpractice litigation can be found in the literature. This article addresses 2 questions: (1) when and why did medical malpractice litigation originate in the United States and (2) what historical factors best explain its subsequent perpetuation and growth? Medical malpractice litigation appeared in the United States around 1840 for reasons specific to that period. Those reasons are discussed in the context of marketplace professionalism, an environment that provided few quality controls over medical practitioners. Medical malpractice litigation has since been sustained for a century and a half by an interacting combination of 6 principal factors. Three of these factors are medical: the innovative pressures on American medicine, the spread of uniform standards, and the advent of medical malpractice liability insurance. Three are legal factors: contingent fees, citizen juries, and the nature of tort pleading in the United States. Knowledge of these historical factors may prove useful to those seeking to reform the current medical malpractice litigation system. PMID:10755500

  20. A Model Program for Churches and Ex-Offender Reintegration.

    O'Connor, Thomas; Ryan, Patricia; Parikh, Crystal


    Prison Fellowship Ministries' church and community based Transition of Prisoners (TOP) program in Detroit is examined. TOP mobilizes, trains, and equips primarily African-American churches and volunteers to assist ex-offenders to successfully reintegrate into their community. Preliminary outcome data suggest that participation in TOP reduces need…

  1. A church-based diet and physical activity intervention for rural, lower Mississippi Delta African American adults: Delta Body and Soul effectiveness study, 2010-2011

    Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have reached epidemic levels in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region. We assessed the effectiveness of a 6-month, church-based, diet and physical activity intervention, conducted during 2010 through 2011, for improving diet quality (measured by ...

  2. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.


    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of rep...

  3. Engineering, Development and Philosophy American, Chinese and European Perspectives

    Mitcham, Carl; Li, Bocong; An, Yanming


    This inclusive, cross-cultural study rethinks the nexus between engineering, development, and culture. It offers diverse commentary from a range of disciplinary perspectives on how the philosophies of today’s cultural triumvirate—American, European and Chinese—are shaped and given nuance by the cross-fertilization of engineering and development. Scholars from the humanities and social sciences as well as engineers themselves reflect on key questions that arise in this relational context, such as how international development work affects the professional views, identities, practice and ethics of engineers.   The first volume to offer a systematic and collaborative study that cuts across continental boundaries, the book delineates the kinds of skills and competences that tomorrow’s engineering success stories will require, and analyzes fascinating aspects of the interplay between engineering and philosophy, such as how traditionally Chinese ways of thinking can influence modern engineering practice in...

  4. Ethics and nuclear arms: European and American perspectives

    English, R.


    This book presents papers on the ethical and moral aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the development of a nuclear policy, war and peace in the nuclear age, the viewpoint of the German churches, the US Catholic bishops and nuclear arms, nuclear pacifism, NATO and ''first use,'' and Christian morality with regard to nuclear arms.

  5. Relational leadership and the missional church

    Jacob J. Breedt


    Full Text Available The global realities regarding cultural shifts and the transition between traditional, modern and postmodern world perspectives have particular implications for leadership in general. In several institutions, including those in commercial, educational, medical and religious circles, leaders face the challenges of constant change in lifestyle, relational intelligence and responsibility. The combined impact of these changes in thought and culture, information technology, globalisation and racial, ethnic and religious pluralism has displaced the historic role the church has traditionally played. In this article it was argued that the church would have to take a hard look at relationships, in order to be the successful missional church which was demonstrated by Jesus Christ. The church needs to change, evolve and advance in relational intelligence and leadership � and leaders should set the pace. This implies that a paradigm shift is necessary; it is believed that this can be achieved through the proposed relational leadership style, as clearly demonstrated in the Trinitarian discussion. The Trinity, especially a relational Trinity, revealed the core understanding of missional ecclesiology and leadership and showed that as a result of the total �oneness� of God, there is no hierarchical order in the Godhead and as such the church should function and operate with the Trinity as its model and example.

  6. Perspectives on Efforts to Address HIV/AIDS of Religious Clergy Serving African American and Hispanic Communities in Utah

    Alder, Stephen C.; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin


    Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and ...

  7. Analysis of American Superhero Movies——From A Chinese Perspective



    <正>Preface Superhero movies are very popular around the world,and as it is well-known,American superhero movies are the reflection of American social value.This essay tend to analyze the impact of American superhero movies from the perspective of a Chinese,and it will be divided to four episodes:First,it will tell readers what American superhero movies are,and then continue to analyze

  8. Employing the Church as a Marketer of Cancer Prevention

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Coffey, Candice R.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen


    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church. PMID:23718957

  9. Why I Left the Church

    Leth-Nissen, Karen Marie Sø


    This qualitative study covers 4 former members of the Danish National Church. The study offers initial research on why members of the Danish National Church are abandoning the church. The research focuses on outlining the process leading up to the actual resignation of a membership, and aim to...... church is more of a trigger than actually a driver, why we should be more aware of the other reasons for resigning membership....

  10. Un-Autobiographical Autobiographies: Investigating the Life-Stories of Ten Elderly Nisei Christian Women at a Local Japanese American Church

    Okamura, Naoki


    Traise Yamamoto, a professor of English and a scholar of biographical studies, made the following remark in her book "Masking Selves, Making Subjects" (1999). She wrote, "Nisei (second-generation Japanese American) women's autobiographies are frustratingly un-autobiographical" (103). Yamamoto, who is a Japanese-American woman herself, saw the lack…

  11. Time Perspective and School Membership as Correlates to Academic Achievement among African American Adolescents

    Adelabu, Detris Honora


    This study examined the relationship of academic achievement to time perspective (future, present) and school membership (belonging, acceptance, rejection) among 232 low-income, urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated positive, significant relationships among academic achievement, future time perspective, school belonging, and…

  12. An Association Perspective: Responding to the American Dental Association's Future of Dentistry Project.

    Hutchinson, Rowland A.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.


    In response to the American Dental Association's (ADA) Future of Dentistry Project, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) provided perspective on the most critical issues facing the dental profession. ADEA responded in six areas, each corresponding to areas of focus in the ADA project. This report reflects comments provided to the ADEA…

  13. Churches in Jude the Obscure

    ZHAO Jing-jing


    In Hardy's novel,Jude the Obscure,many images and scenes relating to churches function to reveal the hero's,or the author's views towards Christian religion.This essay makes an analysis of the church architecture,church scenes and clerical characters in the novel.

  14. Aurora Borealis, A Painting by Frederic Edwin Church

    Love, J. J.


    This year marks the sesquicentennial anniversary of the end of the American Civil War. In 1865, the same year as the War's end, the great American landscape artist, Frederic Edwin Church, unveiled Aurora Borealis, a painting that depicts a fantastic, far-northern place, an auroral arch stretched across a quiet night-time sky, above dark mountains and a frozen sea. Church was born in Connecticut, lived in New York, and traveled to Labrador; he would have often seen the northern lights. Church might have also been influenced by the spectacular displays of aurora that were caused by some unusually intense magnetic storms in 1859. Aurora Borealis can certainly be interpreted in terms of 19th-century romanticism, scientific philosophy, and Arctic missions of exploration, all subjects of interest to Church. As with so many of his paintings, Church's meticulous attention to detail in Aurora Borealis reveals his deep admiration of nature. But his depiction of auroral light is a curious and possibly intentional departure from natural verisimilitude. Some art historians have suggested that Church painted Aurora Borealis as a subdued tribute to the end of the Civil War, with the drapery of auroral light forming an abstract representation of the American flag. If so, then colors of the flag have been unfurled across a cold and barren landscape, not in extravagant celebration, but in somber recognition of the reality of post-war desolation and an uncertain future.



    The history of a German-built Protestant church in Qingdao offers a sketch of Christianity's development in modern China Li Hong's father used to wedge his Bible into a thick mat so it wouldn't be confiscated. That was during the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, when all religions were suppressed, she said.

  16. Research on American English Translation of Chinese Signs in Baoding from the Perspective of Cultural Differences

    Nan Zhao; Ruixian Ma; Xiaomei Du


    This thesis aims at analyzing the American English translation of Chinese signs in Baoding from the perspective of cultural differences. The thesis researches on signs translation from a new angle by separating American English translation from British English translation and puts special emphasis on American English signs translation, which may be helpful to the standardization of signs translation in China. Through digging out the cultural differences from different thinking mode, value, an...

  17. Institutional Racism and Mental Health: An Asian-American Perspective.

    Chin, Jean Lau

    Positive stereotypes of contemporary Asian Americans have negative consequences for this minority group. The belief that Asian Americans are successful and have overcome prejudice and discrimination obscures the historical fact that legislation has curtailed Asian American civil rights and sanctioned harassment of Asians by public authorities and…

  18. Darwinism and the Church

    K. K. Verma


    Darwinism and the church have been in conflict right from the inception of the former. A recent expression of this conflict has appeared in the form of the Concept of Intelligent Design (ID), which amounts to the special creation concept, which is in religious scriptures. ID is not science, and the Natural Selection Theory of Evolution, propounded by Darwin, is a well established scientific theory. Intermixing science and religion, as ID is, is not advisable. However, science and religion are...

  19. How ‘direct’ can a direct translation be? Some perspectives from the realities of a new type of church Bible

    Christo H.J. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available The skopos of this new type of church Bible is: ‘How would the source texts of the Bible have sounded in Afrikaans in the context envisaged for its hypothesised first audience(s?’ Fully acknowledging the complexities of language as a dynamic and complex system embedded in the culture and conceptual world of its speakers, as well as the wide range of frames that are involved in the process of Bible translation as a difficult form of secondary communication, this article addresses two of the challenges of this ambitious project. In the first section the incongruence between the world of the Old Testament and speakers of Afrikaans is treated. Examples are provided of instances where both the nature of difficult secondary intercultural communication as well as the subjective theories of the host audience constrains the ‘directness’ of the translation. In the second section, some of the challenges of distinguishing between the formal and functional features of Biblical Hebrew are dealt with. The article concludes that, although the notion ‘communicative clue’ provides a useful heuristic device to act as point of departure for negotiations on the construal of the meaning of the text in the source language and host language respectively, the notion has to be supplemented by insights from the fields of cultural anthropology, cognitive linguistics and linguistic typology. A better understanding of how meaning ‘works’ (e.g. how linguistic expressions act as windows into the conceptual worlds of speakers, how the meaning of expressions may shift and develop, as well as processes of grammaticalisation provides members of a translation team with some criteria to make informed decisions when they negotiate how the meaning of specific Biblical Hebrew constructions are to be construed ‘directly’ in Afrikaans.Keywords: Afrikaans Bibles; Bible translation; Biblical Hebrew; church Bible; code model; cognitive linguistics; cognitive semantics

  20. New Roads to Faith: Black Perspectives in Church Education. Educating Black People for Liberation and Collective Growth; The Acts of God and the Children of Africa; The Educational Role of Black Churches in the 70s and 80s; Use Guide.

    Jones, James M.; And Others

    The monographs in this packet were written by black scholars from the various disciplines for the Joint Educational Development (JED) Black Church Education Project Team. A basic assumption of the team is that viable educational experiences for black people in our churches involve releasing the potential power of our black scholars and making that…

  1. Asian American Youth Language Use: Perspectives across Schools and Communities

    Shankar, Shalini


    Recent studies of Asian American youth language practices have presented compelling insights about the identities and migration experiences of young people of Asian descent. This article offers a detailed examination of the relationship between language use and select issues concerning Asian American youth, including social life, schooling,…

  2. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang


    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  3. Perspectives of African Americans on Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis

    Lathan, Christopher S.; Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen


    This qualitative study suggests that African American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment.

  4. Parental Perspectives on Antismoking Discussions With Adolescents in Rural African American Households, May 2004-January 2005

    Butler, Susan; Crozier Kegler, Michelle; Escoffery, Cam


    Introduction The purpose of this study was to use qualitative interviews to examine antismoking discussions African American parents and adult family members have with adolescent children. This study is one of the first studies to examine the content of family discussions about not smoking among rural African American families from the perspective of parents and extended family members. Methods Interview topics included discussions with their children, how their children reacted to those disc...

  5. Community leaders’ perspectives on engaging African Americans in biobanks and other human genetics initiatives

    Buseh, Aaron G.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Townsend, Leolia; Sheryl T. Kelber


    There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans’ perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain en...

  6. Mexican-American and Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors’ Perspectives on Exercise: Similarities and Differences

    Treviño, Rose A.; Vallejo, Liliana; Hughes, Daniel C; Gonzalez, Velda; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Basen-Engquist, Karen


    Qualitative data was collected from Mexican-American (MA) and Puerto Rican (PR) breast cancer survivors to gain their perspectives on the relevant issues surrounding breast cancer survivorship and exercise. Six focus groups, a total of 31 participants were convened (three in Puerto Rico and three in Texas). Responses were analyzed and compared between the Mexican-American and Puerto Rican groups. Follow-up sessions were conducted at the sites to review the initial results and to validate a cu...

  7. Anti-Americanism and Americanophobia: A French Perspectives

    Lacorne, Denis


    French anti-Americanism has never been as much the focus of debate as it is today. This is true both in France, where a crop of books has appeared on the subject, and in the United States, for reasons linked to the French refusal to support the American invasion of Iraq. Some authors have underlined the unchanging nature of the phenomenon, defining anti- Americanism as a historical “constant” since the 18th century, or again an endlessly repetitive “semantic block” to use Phili...

  8. Darwinism and the Church

    K. K. Verma


    Full Text Available Darwinism and the church have been in conflict right from the inception of the former. A recent expression of this conflict has appeared in the form of the Concept of Intelligent Design (ID, which amounts to the special creation concept, which is in religious scriptures. ID is not science, and the Natural Selection Theory of Evolution, propounded by Darwin, is a well established scientific theory. Intermixing science and religion, as ID is, is not advisable. However, science and religion are both human needs.

  9. Unshackling the Church

    Vuyani Vellem


    Full Text Available In whose ‘order’, ‘newness’ and ‘foundation’ is ecclesiology based in South Africa? The colonial legacy of pigmentocracy, the cultural domination and annihilation of the indigenous dispensation of black Africans, is not devoid of institutional structures of faith and their historical performance in South Africa. The church is one institution in South Africa that played a crucial role in perpetrating perversities of racial, economic and cultural exclusion with a fetish of its institutional character that is still pervasive and dangerously residual in post-1994 South Africa. By presenting a brief outline of the basics on ecclesiology, the article argues that things remain the same the more things seem to change if the methodological approach to ecclesiology circumvents the edifice and foundations on which the history of ecclesiology in South Africa is built. To unshackle the church, a Black Theology of liberation must begin from and debunk the foundations of models of ecclesiology that are conceived on perverse theological and ideologised forms of faith that have become residually hazardous in South Africa post-1994.

  10. American Immigrant Girls' Understanding of Female Body Image in Disney: A Critical Analysis of Young Korean Girls' Perspectives

    Lee, Lena


    This paper discusses young Korean immigrant girls' understanding of American popular culture in a small-scale qualitative study in order to disclose young American immigrant girls' perspectives on such culture. In particular, this paper explores how these Korean girls (age five to eight) perceive female body images in American popular culture -…

  11. A Qualitative Assessment of the Learning Outcomes of Teaching Introductory American Politics in Comparative Perspective

    Gelbman, Shamira M.


    This article discusses the findings of an ethnographic content analysis of students' written reflections as a means for assessing the learning outcomes of teaching introductory American politics in comparative perspective. It focuses especially on determining whether and how this approach enhanced students' understanding and retention of knowledge…

  12. Talking about Corporal Punishment: Nine Low-Income African American Mothers' Perspectives

    Ispa, J.M.; Halgunseth, L.C.


    Qualitative interviews conducted over the course of 5 years with nine young low-income African American mothers were analyzed in order to gain understanding of their perspectives on corporal punishment. All used corporal punishment with their children. Results pertain to the vocabulary mothers used to describe corporal punishment (pop, tap, whup,…

  13. How Deaf American Sign Language/English Bilingual Children Become Proficient Readers: An Emic Perspective

    Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.


    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…

  14. Future Time Perspective, Hope, and Ethnic Identity among African American Adolescents

    Adelabu, Detris Honora


    This study examines the relationship of academic achievement to future time perspective (FTP), hope, and ethnic identity among low-income, rural and urban African American adolescents ( N = 661). Findings indicate that adolescents who are oriented toward the future, determined to reach their goals (hope), and interested in and have a strong sense…

  15. African American Pre-Service Teachers' Perspectives on Urban Education: An Exploration at an HBCU

    Mawhinney, Lynnette; Mulero, Loribel; Perez, Cynthia


    This paper aims to better understand African American pre-service teachers' perspectives on urban education. Over a 2-year period, pre-experience and post-experience surveys were conducted at a Historically Black University (HBCU) after pre-service teachers completed an urban education immersion course in order to frame their understanding of…

  16. Undoing Racism in America: Help from the Black Church.

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Jay A.


    Investigated whether a planned engagement of white college students, which had very little contact with African Americans, with members of a black community in a safe, welcoming environment (a black church) would significantly reduce racism. Participant surveys indicated that positive interactions between Blacks and Whites resulted in positive…

  17. Challenges Facing the Arab American Community from a Legal Perspective

    Ghada Quaisi Audi


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on contemporary issues facing the Arab population vis-à-vis the American legal system. While Arab Americans enjoy the same basic rights enshrined in the federal and various state Constitutions, some of them have been subjected to various forms of discrimination that have infringed upon these basic rights. I will survey these areas as follows: racial discrimination, hate crimes, civil rights (including racial profiling and immigration, and employment. The paper concludes with a discussion on various means to prevent discriminatory practices with specific recommendations for the classroom.

  18. The Identity and Integration Function of Religion to Chinese American Immigrants ---Survey Notes on Evangelical Chinese Church of Salem, Oregon%宗教信仰对美国华人移民的认同与整合作用--俄勒冈州塞勒姆华人福音教会考察札记



    本文是笔者在美国西俄勒冈州立大学访学期间,对当地塞勒姆华人福音教会所做的为期近一年的个案跟踪和考察实录。通过对华人教会的结构和功能的观察和思考,笔者认为,华人教会不仅是美国华人敬拜上帝的精神家园,也是美国华人移民社团,特别是大陆、香港和台湾两岸三地同胞之间,重建认同和归属感的整合桥梁和纽带。同时,海外华人教会,对于提高华人移民在白人为主体的美国社会的族群地位和社会影响,无疑也具有重要而积极的作用。%This article is a case study report on a one -year observation and inspection to the local Evangelical Chinese Church of Salem, Oregon, during the author’s study as a visiting scholar in U.S.Through observations of and reflections on the struc-tures and functions of local Chinese churches , the author holds that Chinese Church , besides the spiritual home of American Chi-nese immigrants to worship God , also serves as an important spiritual bond to reconstruct identity and belonging among Chinese immigrant communities,especially for immigrants from Taiwan, Hong Kong and Mainland China.Meanwhile Chinese Church plays an important and active role in helping increase Chinese immigrants ’ community status and social influence in the White -dominated American mainstream culture .

  19. Power and Ideology in American Sport. A Critical Perspective.

    Sage, George H.

    This book offers a critical perspective in examining how the dominant power interests influence sport and its role in society. It provides insights into how government, big business, the mass media, and educational institutions gain and maintain power and wealth while sport participants and spectators look to sport for enjoyment, creative…

  20. New Perspectives on the History of American Sign Language

    Shaw, Emily; Delaporte, Yves


    Examinations of the etymology of American Sign Language have typically involved superficial analyses of signs as they exist over a short period of time. While it is widely known that ASL is related to French Sign Language, there has yet to be a comprehensive study of this historic relationship between their lexicons. This article presents…

  1. Beyond Authoritarianism: A Cultural Perspective on Asian American Parenting Practices.

    Chao, Ruth K.

    A study was conducted to determine Asian American conceptualizations of parenting, focusing on socialization goals, parenting style, and parenting practices related to schooling, aspects of parental influences discussed by D. Darling and L. Steinberg (1993). It was suggested that the standard conceptualizations of parenting style, those of D.…

  2. Strategic Management of Quality: An American and British Perspective.

    Weller, L. David; McElwee, Gerard


    Total Quality Management is being implemented in American and British schools to improve educational outcomes. The 14 points of Deming's quality model and Porter's models of competition and drivers of cost provide a systematic, structured template to promote educational excellence and meet the demands of social, political, and economic forces.…

  3. Protection of geological heritage: A North American perspective on Geoparks

    GodfreyS.Nowlan; PeterBobrowsky; JohnClague


    The First International Conference on Geoparks was held in Beijing,China in June 2004.At that conference we were immersed in the UNESCO concept of Geoparks for the first time,As North Americans,we take for granted national.provincial and state parks which are scattered throughout the continent and provide recreational and educational opportunities.

  4. The State-Church Relationship in Post-Communist Romania



    Full Text Available Starting from the Romanian edition of Lavinia Stan and Lucian Turcescu’swork Religion and Politics in Post-Communist Romania, we argue in favour of thenecessity to study the relationship between the State and the Romanian OrthodoxChurch using an approach which takes into account the details and the possibleexistent perspectives, bringing a plus of objectivity, which is so needed in a fieldperceived as a sensible one. The arguments put forward will be justified by thehistorical tradition of the State-Church relationship in the Byzantine Empire, but alsoin Romania, as well as by the predominantly Orthodox structure of our country.

  5. Church Asylum - new strategies, alliances and modes of resistance

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak


    This article discusses the possibilities for democratic transformation in a landscape of political closure. Taking the case of Church Asylum [Kirkeasyl] as an example of new ways of resistance and participation in contemporary Denmark the articles argues that although the established political...... channels are characterised by closure alternatives may be formulated outside the parliamentarian system. Using contemporary perspectives on social critique and mobilization the article looks back at Church Asylum in 2009 and discuss the alliances, strategies and modes of resistance used during the event....... The article draws on a framework derived from political sociology and critical theory....

  6. Multicultural/multiethnic grey literature : An Asian-American perspective

    Li, Marjorie H. (Rutgers University); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    Grey literature while very useful and extremely valuable, unfortunately, may never find its way into the usual review channels. Quite often it is this body of literature - commissioned reports, theses, publications of political activist groups, associations and organizations' newsletters an pamphlets, and ethnic print and non-print media - that are the most useful in recording the history and culture of peoples who have suffered discrimination and exclusion. The Asian-American, as well as the...

  7. The perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms

    Ferguson, Renae Luenell

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms. Research suggests that psychological, cultural, and socioeconomic perspectives influence the science experiences of African Americans or Blacks; the result of which is under-representation (Lewis et al., 2000). Nonetheless, what is uncertain is if these and other perspectives are similar to the science experiences of Caribbeans who also are majority black by race and rank as the 3 rd largest immigrant population in America's schools (Suarez-Orozco, 2000). Questions guiding this study were: (1) What are the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms? (2) What can we learn from the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' science experiences that may address issues of participation and interest; consequently, influencing the overall performance of ethnic minorities in school science? Sociocultural theory provides the framework for the analysis of the study. Four Caribbean born students in an American high school participated in this naturalistic qualitative research. A constant comparative method was used to categorize and analyze the data and uncover meaningful patterns that emerged from the four interviews and written documents. Although there were similarities between African Americans' science experiences as documented in the literature and that of Caribbeans in this study, the Caribbean participants relied on prior native experiences to dictate their perspectives of their science experiences in America. According to Caribbean students, American science high schools classrooms utilize an objective style of assessments; are characterized by a lack of teacher support; allow behavioral problems in the classroom; and function through different communication styles than the native Caribbean science classroom environment. This study implies science educators should be sensitive

  8. A just alternative. Church tribunals may be the best forum for settling wrongful discharge disputes.

    Fitzgerald, J M; Fitzgerald, L M


    The threat of a wrongful discharge lawsuit should be a concern for every employer. However, Church employers can minimize their risk if they follow Church teaching in their employment practices and policies and if they use the Church tribunal system to settle employer-employee disputes. As it originally developed in common law, the "employment-at-will" concept stipulated that an employer could discharge an employee at any time, for any reason, or for no reason at all. Most states have adopted this common law concept, although courts and legislatures have created a number of exceptions to it. Despite these exceptions, employment-at-will has proven to be a powerful tool in the hands of employers. However, employees of Church institutions who feel they have been discharged wrongfully can turn to Church tribunals, which are governed by canon law. A Church tribunal can do virtually anything a civil court can do, with the exception of ordering someone to jail. Moreover, because the standards of justice and equity applied by Church tribunals are stricter than those applied by American courts, employees of Catholic institutions in the United States may make increasing use of them in the future. Disputes that come before a Church tribunal will be settled by either arbitration or mediation. Arbitration is a kind of informal litigation. Mediation, however, is preferable because it forces the parties involved to examine themselves, their motives, and their effects on each other and the Church as a whole. PMID:10112959

  9. Effective strategic leadership: Balancing roles during church transitions

    Noel J. Pearse


    Full Text Available As part of their responsibilities of leading the organisation, strategic leaders are responsible for leading change. This article investigated the application of the strategic leadership of change within the church context. A Straussian approach to the grounded theory method was used to generate a substantive grounded theory of organisational change and leadership, particularly focusing on the manifestation and management of organisation inertia in churches within South Africa that were transitioning from a programme based to a cell based church design. This article reported on one aspect of this study and focused on the patterns of leadership roles. It further distinguished between effective and ineffective leadership patterns that either enhanced or compromised the credibility of the leader and by implication, affected the success of the change intervention. The results of the study were discussed from the perspective of social capital theory, thereby contributing to understanding the role of strategic leaders in building social capital within the context of organisation change.

  10. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E


    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  11. Perspectives of the mercosur parliament performance according to south american political organization

    Clarissa Franzoi Dri


    Full Text Available The signature of the MERCOSUR Parliament Constitutive Protocol, in 2005, has opened new parliamentary perspectives to the integration process which takes place in the South Cone. The nomination “parliament”, the universal suffrage prevision and new legislative and control functions evidence possibilities for an outstanding actuation. But is it possible to consider that this new organ was created in the middle of political conditions favorable to an effective functionality? Looking for traces to an answer, the paper examines political and electoral characteristics common to the South American States. First, we study the daily relations between the Executive and Legislative Powers in South American presidential regimes. Then, we verify to what extent the proportional open-list electoral system, largely used in the election of the lower houses members in the continent, influences such relations. At the end, we discuss the new assembly perspectives of effectiveness based on the regional characteristics studied.

  12. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    Kim, Jinhee


    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  13. The Asian American Experience: A Special Report. Project R.E.A.C.H. Ethnic Perspectives Series.

    Kan, Bettie Sing Luke

    This workbook is a special report on Asian Americans, part of a series on ethnic perspectives. In three chapters, it covers Asian American culture, history, and immigration experiences. Study questions for recall and analysis of the text are presented at the end of each chapter. The following topics are covered: (1) the Chinese experience; (2) the…

  14. Another Perspective: El Sistema--A Perspective for North American Music Educators

    Tunstall, Tricia


    Herein, Tricia Tunstall presents a critique of the article by Melissa Lesniak published in the December 2012 "Music Educators Journal," and offers a new perspective on the Venezuelan youth orchestra program known as "El Sistema." The program, which began in Caracas thirty-eight years ago, is dedicated to changing the lives of…

  15. The future of the IMF: A Latin American Perspective

    Maritza Cabezas


    Full Text Available The accelerating trend of globalization of the  world economy is putting high demands on global  institutions. The IMF has been looking for new  legitimacy in a world where countries traditionally seeking IMF support have become more financially independent. Latin America, a frequent user  of IMF lending facilities, has also entered a new  phase of economic autonomy with the IMF. This  has not come unnoticed since Latin America has  traditionally accounted for more than 40 per cent  of total IMF credit. This article brings up lessons  from Latin America’s long-term experience with  the IMF. It tries to assess whether the Institution  is still relevant for the region, and, if so, whether a  ‘mild’ reform is sufficient for the IMF or a more  radical reform is necessary to meet the challenges  faced by Latin American countries in a fast changing global economy. Resumen: El futuro del Fondo  Monetario Internacional: Una perspectiva latinoamericanaLa acelerada tendencia hacia la globalización de  la economía mundial está planteando enormes  demandas a las instituciones globales. El FMI ha  estado buscando una nueva legitimidad en un  mundo donde los países que solicitaban tradicionalmente el respaldo del FMI son cada vez más  independientes económicamente. América Latina,  un usuario frecuente de las facilidades crediticias  del FMI, también ha entrado en una nueva fase de  autonomía financiera con respecto al FMI. Esto  no ha pasado desapercibido, ya que América  Latina da cuenta tradicionalmente de más del 40  por ciento del total de los créditos del FMI. Este  artículo trata las lecciones de la larga experiencia  de América Latina con el FMI. Trata de determinar si la institución es todavía relevante para la  región y, en caso de ser así, si una reforma ‘moderada’ sería suficiente para el FMI o si se necesita  una reforma más radical para responder a los  desafíos que enfrentan los pa

  16. Prophets and Preference: Constructing and Maintaining a Homosexual Identity in the Mormon Church

    Richard D. Phillips


    This thesis is a descriptive ethnography of homosexuals and homosexuality in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or Mormon church, The study employs the labeling perspective in sociology and uses gay Mormons to examine how an individual constructs and maintains a homosexual identity in an environment where such an orientation is stigmatized and devalued. Qualitative interviews and documentary analysis are the chief methodological tools for this study. The contradictions betwe...

  17. Domestic violence and abuse : an ethical and pastoral challenge to the Methodist Church in Kenya

    Mati, Susan Gatwiri


    The main problem of the study will be dealt with by answering the following question: How can the Methodist Church in Kenya from an ethical and pastoral perspective, address the problem of domestic violence? In order to address the question above, the following questions 4 will first be tackled: Firstly, what ethical guidance can MCK offer to the churches and the society on domestic violence and abuse? Secondly, what pastoral guidance can the MCK offer to the churc...

  18. Jeremy Bentham and Church of England Education.

    Taylor, Brian


    The author traces Jeremy Bentham's attacks, in 1815 and 1816, on the Church of England's role in the provision of schooling in Britain, particularly his objections to Church policies excluding non-adherents from instruction. (SJL)

  19. Churches, chaplains and the Great War

    Takken, A.J.


    When in 1914 the European nations mobilised for war, the churches followed suit. Notwithstanding pre-war church peace conferences and close international cooperation, most churches and churchmen immediately and whole-heartedly supported their nation’s participation in war and provided the religious

  20. Sustainable management of church property

    Nedvědová, Klára; Schneiderová Heralová, R.

    Prague: Grada, 2013 - (Hájek, P.; Tywoniak, J.; Lupíšek, A.; Sojková, K.), s. 741-744 ISBN 978-80-247-5015-6. [CESB13 - Central Europe towards sustainable building 2013. Praha (CZ), 26.06.2013-28.06.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : management * church property * valuation Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  1. Strengthening partnerships between Black Churches and HIV service providers in the United States.

    Obong'o, Christopher O; Pichon, Latrice C; Powell, Terrinieka W; Williams, Andrea L


    Across the United States, Black Churches play a significant role among the Black community and are increasingly being used to deliver Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention services. This study sought to investigate HIV service providers' strategies for strengthening partnerships with churches to deliver HIV prevention services. Using a community-based participatory research approach, an HIV coalition and an academic institution formed a partnership to address the study aim. Individual interviews (n = 16) were conducted with providers from medical institutions and HIV social support agencies. A thematic analysis focusing on recommendations for addressing the challenges and benefits of partnership with churches for HIV services was conducted. Participants' interest in and intention to work with churches, as well as their comfort level discussing sexual health-related topics with religious congregations, was high. Four themes emerged to highlight the different perspectives of service providers' recommendations for addressing challenges and strengthening partnerships with churches to deliver HIV services including: (1) carefully selecting churches and HIV services to provide, (2) gaining "buy-in" and support of church leadership, (3) taking advantage of conflict with church doctrine, and (4) choosing appropriate delivery strategies. Study findings demonstrate that although challenges exist, heath service providers in this region of the United States may be interested in addressing HIV among faith communities. Study findings also provide concrete solutions to previously documented barriers to HIV prevention in Black Churches. Such information will benefit researchers and practitioners seeking to expand effective HIV prevention efforts with Black Churches in communities who bear a disproportionate burden of HIV infections. PMID:26830679

  2. African American perspectives: A qualitative study of an informal science enrichment program

    Simpson, Jamila Rashida

    The purposes of this study were to determine what program characteristics African American parents consider when they enroll their children into an informal science education enrichment program, the parents' evaluation of a program called Jordan Academy in which they enrolled their children, and the alignment of the parents' perspectives with Black Cultural Ethos (BCE). BCE refers to nine dimensions posited by Wade Boykin, a psychologist, as comprising African American culture. Participants were parents of students that attended Jordan Academy, an informal science enrichment program designed for third through sixth grade students from underserved populations. Qualitative methodologies were utilized to perform a thorough assessment of parents' perspectives. Data sources included classroom observations, student surveys, academy curriculum, photos and video-taped class sessions. Data included teachers and parents' responses to semi-structured, audio recorded interviews and students' written responses to open-ended items on the program's evaluation instrument. The data were analyzed for themes and the findings compared to Black Cultural Ethos. Findings revealed that the participants believed that informal science education offered their children opportunities not realized in the formal school setting - a means of impacting their children holistically. The parents expressed the academic, cultural, and personal development of their children in their characterizations of the ideal informal science education experience and in their evaluations of Jordan Academy. Overall, the parents' views emphasized the BCE values of harmony, affect, verve, movement, orality and communalism. The study has important implications for practices within and research on informal science education.

  3. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines



    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  4. Reconciliation priorities for the Church: Some German remarks

    Friedrich Wilhelm Graf


    Full Text Available Reconciliation has been a topic of major importance in both the German and South-African theological and political contexts. Political events involving the Christian Churches in these countries have prompted a renewed consideration of what is understood by the concept. This article examines some aspects of reconciliation in the contexts of Christian ethics and argues that, from a theological and historical perspective, the nature and practice of what was called reconciliatio is thoroughly religious, although what exactly is involved has been perceived differently over the course of Church history. Reference is also made to the New Testament understanding of the concept and in an attempt to actualise the biblical kerugma, several propositions regarding the significance of a religious view of reconciliation in an eschatological context are provided as a conclusion.

  5. Poverty and Christian Welfare Scheme: Evidence from the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion Osun State, Nigeria

    S. Awoniyi


    Full Text Available Existing studies on welfare schemes in Nigerian Churches have focussed on the political and economic perspectives, neglecting the ethical dimension which has a stronger basis in the Bible. This study, therefore, examined the welfare scheme of the Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion, Osun State, Nigeria as evidence with a view to assessing their method of generating welfare resources, as well as their implementation and monitoring strategy against the provision of the Bible on welfare ethics. Data were obtained through interviews, observation and questionnaire. In-depth interviews were conducted with 90 randomly selected key informants including 12 clergy, 24 poor members of the church, 18 welfare scheme officers and 36 beneficiaries. Four welfare schemes were observed between 1991 -2012 in a total of 30 Anglican Churches in major towns in Osun State. A total of 600 copies of the questionnaire were purposively administered to beneficiaries, church members and welfare scheme officers. Out of these, 550 were retrieved and analysed using percentages. The Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion generated resources for welfare schemes through compulsory  levies, donations, annual harvest proceeds, offering collection ,tithes/offering and foreign assistance .Four categories of welfare schemes were adopted: Health care delivery, vocational rehabilitation, micro-credit loans, and women’s empowerment. One implementation strategy was adopted, namely, social advocacy. The church utilized sensitisation mechanism, widow retreat workshops, free health campaign, radio/television programmes and supportive counselling. Welfare scheme for the Church of Nigeria offered socio-economic benefits to members of the Church, but they were weakened by limited human coverage, insufficient funds and poor monitoring. These call for moral reorientation on the part of stakeholders in order to inculcate the ethics of justice and fairness as enshrined in the Bible.

  6. Emerging Churches in Post-Christian Canada

    Lee Beach


    Full Text Available The traditional mainline and evangelical churches in Canada, as in most western countries, are either in decline or static. Taken as a measure of the future, the prospects for Christianity in Canada, and more broadly the West, are bleak. Post-Christian Canada, however, contains thriving alternative and innovative forms of church, often called ‘emerging’ churches. They take many forms of expression, but share common theological convictions. Based on site research and personal interviews, this article describes the various types and contexts of these churches in Canada. It then highlights three of their central theological characteristics. First, rejecting the ‘culture wars’ social involvement of Christendom churches, they embrace practices and initiatives that transform their local communities. Second, they embrace an incarnational and contextual understanding of Christian life and ministry. Eschewing mega-church franchise models, they endeavor to shape their ministry to the their local communities. Third, they adopt a comprehensive rather than compartmental spirituality.

  7. A Periodization of North American Adult Education (1919-1970): A Critical Sociological Analysis of Trends and Perspectives

    Grace, André P.


    This article provides a critical sociological analysis of trends and perspectives pervasive during the emergence of North American adult education (1919-1970). In discussing transitions during the first 50 years of what is considered modern practice, it draws on Webster E. Cotton's (1986, "On Behalf of Adult Education: A Historical…

  8. Perspectives of Teachers and Parents of Chinese American Students with Disabilities about Their Home-School Communication

    Chu, Szu-Yin


    This exploratory qualitative study aimed to examine the perspectives of teachers and parents of Chinese American students with disabilities regarding home-school communication in the special education field. The author recruited 2 parents and 2 teachers for this study. Different sources of data including observations, interviews, documentations,…

  9. Evaluation of Acoustic parameters of Churches

    Vodopija, Janko; Fajt, Sinisa; Krhen, Miljenko


    National audience The purpose of this paper is to give an evaluation of subjective and objective acoustic parameters in two architecturally different churches in Zagreb, Croatia. These churches have completely different architectural parameters due to different style, shape and volume. The influence of high vaulted ceiling in one church is compared to the lower flat ceiling of the other. The influence of large high ceiling lateral aisles and the lateral galleries to both binaural and monau...

  10. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka)

    Mildnerová Kateřina


    The African Independent churches (AICs) in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa ...

  11. Houses of Worship - Volusia County Churches (Points)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Volusia County church locations were aggregated from several sources including Property Appraisal parcel data, Supervisor of Elections resources, Bell South Yellow...

  12. Kingdom, church and civil society: A theological paradigm for civil action

    J. (Koos M. Vorster


    Full Text Available This article deals with the role that churches can and should play in civil society to develop societal morally. The central-theoretical argument is that the biblical notion of the kingdom of God can, when it is systematically and theologically developed, offer an acceptable foundation for the civil action of churches. In light of this the article takes a new look at the neo-Calvinist view on church and society. The kingdom implies the life encompassing governance of God, the formation of the church and the creation of a moral sense amongst people. The church can, from the perspective of the kingdom, be seen as a community within which Christians should be equipped for social action. The church is a power station which carries forth the light of the Gospel by means of the social involvement of believers in civil society. Christians can, based on natural law, work with civil organisations to pursue the common good of the community. Such collaboration becomes possible only when civil society works purpose- and not paradigm-driven. Based on the moral sense that is founded in natural law, Christians can be socially active within civil society in search of the greatest benefit for all people within the community.

  13. Reach Out for Health: A Church-Based Pilot Breast Cancer Education Program.

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Peterson, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M.; Colditz, Graham; Sorensen, Gloria


    Describes the development and testing of Reach Out For Health, a peer-led, church-based breast cancer education program for African American and Hispanic communities. Pretest-posttest evaluation of screening practices and attitudes among women over age 40 indicated that the intervention was associated with improved attitudes toward mammography,…


    Alexandru ILIEȘ


    Full Text Available In Romania in general and in particular Crişana and Maramureș wooden churches are identifies of local identity. Using specific tools and methods used in geographical but complementary fields, in conjunction with an interdisciplinary architectural heritage element are analyzed wooden churches as tourist planning perspective. Each „land" and ethnographic area of the Tisa and Mureș north to south has a specific fingerprint identifiable architectural style of these „pearls" of Romanian folk architecture. This diversity is an element of favorable effects on tourism diversification and increasing the attractiveness of a region or locality.

  15. Promoting Health and Wellness in Congregations Through Lay Health Educators: A Case Study of Two Churches.

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Hale, W Daniel


    Religious institutions are in regular contact with people who need education about and support with health issues. Creating lay health educators to serve in these communities can promote health initiatives centered on education and accessing resources. This paper is a prospective observational report of the impact of trained lay health community congregation members in two faith communities based on an urban setting. We describe health efforts made in an African-American Methodist church and in a Latino Spanish-speaking Catholic church. We review the intricacies in establishing trust with the community, the training of lay health educators, and the implementation strategies and outcomes of health initiatives for these communities. PMID:26014461

  16. Thermoluminescence dating of some Hungarian medieval churches

    Thermoluminescence dating of three Hungarian historic churches was performed using the quarz inclusion technique and sup(60)Co gamma irradiation. Quarz grains obtained from the bricks were irradiated and the radiation doses were measured by CaSOsub(4):Dy TL dosemeters. Glow curves of irradiated and non-irradiated samples were also measured. From the results it was concluded that the ages of two churches were 10 and 30 percent less, respectively, than the ages estimated earlier. The age of the third church proved to be correct. (R.P.)

  17. A developmental perspective on the ideal of reason in American constitutional law.

    Dailey, Anne C


    The ideal of reason is central to contemporary accounts of citizenship in American constitutional law. The individual capacity for reasoned choice lies closely aligned with the constitutional values of personal liberty and democratic self-government as they have evolved in Supreme Court decisions over the past century. Yet as presently conceived, the ideal of reason in constitutional law overlooks the process by which individuals actually acquire the capacity to choose their own values and commitments or to engage in reasoned thinking about collective ends. This paper argues that we cannot hope to sustain and foster a constitutional polity committed to the principles of individual liberty and democratic self-government without knowing something about how individual citizens come to possess this requisite skill of mind. A developmental perspective on reason in constitutional law provides a framework for examining the source and contours of the psychological skills that make it possible to lead an autonomous, self-directed life and to participate meaningfully in the processes of democratic self-government. Developmental psychology, together with research in related fields, provides empirical support for the proposition that the psychological capacity for reasoned thinking has its roots in the early caregiving relationship. Thus, a comprehensive and integrated constitutional family law must recognize the role of early caregiving in the political socialization of children. This developmental approach offers a substantial reworking of constitutional doctrine in the areas of family privacy, parental rights, congressional power, and affirmative welfare rights. PMID:16405217

  18. Portuguese Catholic churches as reference acoustical models for heritage Catholic churches in Goa, India

    Menino Allan S. M. Peter Tavares; António P. O. Carvalho


    The architectural genres of the churches built in Goa (a Portuguese colony in India) during the 16th - 19th century period, are partial derivatives of the Portuguese style considering the affinity of the latter#8217;s architecture and worship ambience with that of the Goan churches. Therefore reference ranges used for the normalization of the measured objective acoustical parameters in the Goan Catholic churches of values for Reverberation Time (RT) and Loudness (G) (both regarding the medium...

  19. Church, freedom and bolshevisation of Moscow University

    Gaina, Alex


    A short description of events, occured in Russia after 1917 with emphasysis on main phyilosophycal curents such as marxism and believing, first of atheistic content and second of christian moralty content is given. It is argued, that bolshevicks contributed to progress of Russia, but this was reached by mean of purges and terror, during which many peoples were killed, especially representatives of the Russian Ortodox church. A list of scientists, which contributed more than other to the bolshevisation of the Russia and Moscow University, particularly, is given. The controverse between Hegel and Einstein from one part and Marx and bolshevicks from other part is examined also. The bolshevicks destroyed the Russian ortodox church, instead of its modernisation, is argued. The Calendar in the Russian Ortodox church is discussed, which is Julian, and it is argued, that a peaceful dialogue between the representatives of the Church and scientists is needed in order to make a transition to the Gregorian one.

  20. The Church and the Sub-culture

    Thompson, William E.


    The link between the Church and culture is inevitable. By defining "culture" I will then apply this definition to the sub-culture, since this difference is merely one of emphasis not fact. I will describe the matter of the Afro-centric sub-culture and the Church in the Commonwealth Caribbean by looking at the various forms of Christianity in Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago.

  1. The roman catholic church and contraception

    William J. LeMaire


    Full Text Available The official position regarding the use of artificial means of family planning varies from religion to religion. With its steadfast opposition to the use of any form of contraception or sterilization, the Roman Catholic Church puts its 1.2 billion followers worldwide in the difficult dilemma of either adhering to the teaching of their church and thereby risk an unwanted pregnancy, or ignoring that teaching and use an artificial method of family planning, but thereby become marginalized by their church. Pope Francis has made a number of statements and actions indicating that their might be a possibility of some changes in the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church regarding a number of issues re-lated to the family, such as divorce, remarriage, gays and women's rights. However he has continued to reaffirm the Church's opposition to the use of any artificial method of family planning and has reiterated on a number of occasions that the Church will only allow the so called natural methods. This essay argues that in the opinion of the author, the time has come for the Roman Catholic hierarchy to revise this outdated position and allow catholics to resort to modern methods for limiting the size of their family, which is some-thing that a large percentage of the catholics are doing already anyway. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2065-2068

  2. Further solar alignments of Greek Byzantine churches

    Liritzis, I.; Vasiliou, H.

    Following the recent work on the solar alignment of Greek byzantine churches (Liritzis and Vassiliou 2006 a,b,c) the solar orientations of twenty one more churches are presented. The question examined is if the day of solar rise across the eastern direction of the church is related with the feast day of Patron Saint. Measurements were carried out with magnetic compass, inclinometer, portable GPS and appropriate corrections for the solar declination. The alignments towards eastern sunrise were examined for various angular altitudes of the perceptible horizon. At least for all Rhodean churches the patron's day is met when sun oblique path crosses horizon a few degrees beyond the intersection of extrapolated eastern axis of the church with horizons skyline. Therefore, taken the orientation as the glitter of first sunrays -early dawn- correlation of thirteen present churches are aligned near the autumnal equinox, three have relation with the feast of patron saint, four are related to the other important feast of Christianity and one seem orientated randomly. However accounting for a due east sun position a few degrees above horizon in early liturgy hours (6:30 - 9:30 am) all the Rhodean alignments coincides with Saint's name day.

  3. How Native American Success and Leadership Is Cultivated at the Corporate Level: A Native American Employee Perspective.

    One Feather, Sandra


    A Chippewa-Cree engineer helps educate Native American college students on how to adjust to the corporate environment and become successful employees and leaders. Issues include differences between Native and corporate cultures, impact of cultural differences on group dynamics, business etiquette, and the importance of workplace mentors. Corporate…

  4. Telling the Story of the American Presidency: Examining the Content and Perspective of Presidency Chapters in Introductory American Politics Texts

    Evans, Jocelyn Jones; Lindrum, David


    While previous scholarship suggests that "American government textbooks are more alike than they are different," an examination of the market's most frequently adopted texts suggests that this consistency does not extend much further than the subjects of major chapters. We explore the degree to which four major introductory American…

  5. Missing Voices: African American School Psychologists' Perspectives on Increasing Professional Diversity

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.


    Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…

  6. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka

    Mildnerová Kateřina


    Full Text Available The African Independent churches (AICs in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa church of Alice Lenshina. Since the 1970s and in particular in the 1990s the Christianity in Zambia has been significantly marked by the proliferation of the African Independent Churches - both of Pentecostal and prophet-healing type. These churches that started mushrooming particularly in urban settings became part of the strengthening charismatic movement, particularly within Protestantism. A typical feature of AICs is focus on spiritual healing and religious syncretism - the local traditional customs and beliefs in dangerous ghosts, ancestral spirits, or witches are placed within the biblical religious framework where the Holy Spirit (Muzimu Oyela is considered to be the only source of healing whereas other ‘inferior spirits’ are labelled as demons. The traditional methods of healing are creatively combined with Christian healing by means of prayers, spiritual blessings, laying on of hands on patients and demon exorcism - it is believed that only a body rid of bad spirits can receive the Holy Spirit, and thus be healed. The paper draws on both secondary literature concerning African Independent Churches and primary data issued from fieldwork in Lusaka (2008-2009.

  7. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-Income African American Families

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L.; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Joel E. Williams; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders


    Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overwe...

  8. Fishers, Fishing, and Overfishing: American Experiences in Global Perspective, 1976-2006

    Mansel Blackford


    Since the mid-1970s, overfishing has had a considerable impact on the American seafood industry, and companies serving the American seafood market have taken steps to respond to the crisis. Following a brief survey of modern-day fishing and of the steps that have been taken to mitigate overfishing, the strategies adopted for commercial fishing in American waters, especially those in Alaska, are examined. Through their attempts to deal with the challenges posed by overfishing, fishers, seafood...

  9. Science and Technology vs. Defense and Security: Dual Use Consequences, a South American Perspective

    Nowadays we can say that science and technology are development driven forces in most countries, with some exceptions especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Even though, we have to take into account their link to and impact on defense and security and not only when it comes to WMD but also in the economy and academy areas, both in developed and developing countries. Within this framework, when we analyze the spread of technology and knowledge, it is important to consider: the media where it takes place (e.g. journals, internet, conferences, commercial agreements); which the actors involved are (e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, commercial firms); and the motive why it occurs (e.g. scientific discoveries; commercial exchange; international agreements). Once known all these elements, which vary both intracountry and intercountry, we may have a deep and broad enough framework to consider which policies to take in order to foster scientific and technologic development without collaborating with state and non state WMD programs. Although we already have a legal framework to fight against WMD proliferation and terrorism, the diverse degree of success of such instruments makes it necessary to continue analyzing and debating ways to strengthen them and/or find new ones. Therefore, in this paper we will analyze how the phenomena of science and technology development and spread impacts on defense and security from a South American perspective, taking into account the particular differences among developed and developing countries. Among the primary findings we can mention the existing differences between countries when it comes to the place (military, academic or commercial ones) where the critical science and technology innovative developments take place; the origin of funding (private or governmental); the existence and fulfillment of plans to foster science and technology development; and the scientific community awareness in WMD topics. All these elements have a

  10. Conservation of the Ethiopian church forests

    Aerts, Raf; Ortveld, Koev van; November, Eva;


    In the central and northern highlands of Ethiopia, native forest and forest biodiversity is almost confined to sacred groves associated with churches. Local communities rely on these 'church forests' for essential ecosystem services including shade and fresh water but little is known about...... their region-wide distribution and conservation value. We (1) performed the first large-scale spatially-explicit assessment of church forests, combining remote-sensing and field data, to assess the number of forests, their size, shape, isolation and woody plant species composition, (2) determined their plant...... communities and related these to environmental variables and potential natural vegetation, (3) identified the main challenges to biodiversity conservation in view of plant population dynamics and anthropogenic disturbances, and (4) present guidelines for management and policy. The 394 forests identified...

  11. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  12. Poverty - The road ahead. A theological perspective

    P.G.J. Meiring


    The article focuses on the role of the Church in combating poverty in South Africa. After a brief discussion of Biblical perspectives on poverty, an overview of the involvement of the Church throughout history, especially during the second half of the 20th century, is given.

  13. Poverty - The road ahead. A theological perspective

    P. G. J. Meiring


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of the Church in combating poverty in South Africa. After a brief discussion of Biblical perspectives on poverty, an overview of the involvement of the Church throughout history, especially during the second half of the 20th century, is given.

  14. The Proto–Hesychasts : origins of mysticism in the Eastern church / Sabo T.

    Sabo, Theodore Edward.


    The Proto–Hesychasts suggests that the thinkers between and including Basil the Great and Symeon the New Theologian were important largely for their role in forming the fourteenth–century Hesychastic movement in the Eastern church. This conclusion is reached in part by viewing the period from an Orthodox rather than a broadly Christian perspective. Chapter Two surveys previous research on Proto–Hesychasm, and Chapter Three sets forth certain Hesychastic trends in the Proto–Hesy...

  15. Reframing Diabetes in American Indian Communities: A Social Determinants of Health Perspective

    Mitchell, Felicia M.


    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience some of the greatest health inequities of any group within the United States. AI/ANs are diagnosed with diabetes more than twice as often as non-Hispanic white Americans. Diabetes is a chronic preventable disease often associated with individual risk factors and behaviors that indicate what…

  16. Suicide Risk Assessment with Asian American College Students: A Culturally Informed Perspective

    Choi, Jayoung L.; Rogers, James R.; Werth, James L., Jr.


    Scholars have based their understanding of college-student suicide in the United States largely on the study of European Americans, and therefore, its relevance to making culturally informed decisions with suicidal Asian American college students is unclear. This article explores aspects of suicide assessment potentially unique to Asian American…

  17. The Rule of Law and Religion:American Perspectives and Chinese Experience

    Mark; David; Hall; Jennifer; E.Walsh; Kevin; R.den; Dulk


    正In June of 2011,eight American scholars and twelve Chinese scholars travelled together and were engaged in a two weeks seminar entitled"Religion,Society,and Rule of Law".Zheng Yushuang,a seminar participant,interviewed three American scholars who focused their study on constitutional law and the judicial process.

  18. Irish churches and mosque - towards a model of media relations

    O'Brien, Breda


    This thesis looks at current media relations practice as conducted on behalf of the Roman Catholic Church, the Church of Ireland, the Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church and members of the Islamic community in Ireland. It also asks what model of media relations is most appropriate for religious organisations. In the academic world, there has been growing interest in analysis of the intersecting fields of media, culture and religion, yet the practice of media relations conducted on behal...

  19. Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach

    Michelle C. van der Merwe


    Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.

  20. Ethiopian church forests : opportunities and challenges for restoration

    Wassie Eshete, A.


    In Northern Ethiopia almost all dry Afromontane forests have been converted to open agricultural lands. Only small isolated fragments remain around churches ("church forests"), but these are many. This study analyses forest community structure and composition of the church forests, investigates majo

  1. Restoration and Rehabilitation of world heritage Site of Chupan Church

    Darvish Rohani, S.


    Church of Chupan is located in Jolfa cityin north of Iran and is laid at south side of Arax River. Built of the church traced back to 14th to 15th century and the time when Armenians were inhabited in the region. Chupan church had been inscribed at World Heritage List of UNESCO under no 1262 in 2008, as one of the five churches of "Armenian Monasteries of Azerbaijan province of Iran" dossier. As it is located at a religious and tourism road of Darresham and each year most of Armenian from all over the world visited the church as a part of a religious ceremony, also as the same church on opposite side of the Arax in Republic of Nakhchivan is completely destroyed between 1998-2002 and the church is the only existing evidence of these two couple church, the restoration and rehabilitation of chupan church is very important. Because of very bad statues of structure stability and long-term neglect of the conservation and preservation of the building, restoration and rehabilitation of the church in the earliest was necessary. Restoration of this church was my MA degree thesis and now as a Ph.D student in field of urban design and planning student, I am working on the next step which is to revitalization and rehabilitation of the church.

  2. Experiencing Religious Information Literacy: Informed Learning in Church Communities

    Gunton, Lyndelle; Bruce, Christine; Stoodley, Ian


    This paper reports an exploration of religious information literacy in terms of how people use information to learn in the context of church communities. The research approach of phenomenography was used to explore Uniting Church in Australia members' experience of using information to learn as participants in their church communities. Five ways…

  3. “Mama just won’t accept this”: Adult Perspectives on Engaging Depressed African American Teens in Clinical Research and Treatment

    BRELAND-NOBLE, ALFIEE M.; Bell, Carl C.; Burriss, Antoinette


    This manuscript focuses on qualitative data collected for AAKOMA Project, a 2-phase treatment engagement intervention trial for depressed African American adolescents and families. Data are presented from our phase I study of adult perspectives on African American adolescent depression, depression treatment, and research engagement. The research team conducted four focus groups (N = 24) and generated major themes from the data including ideas regarding the manifestations of depression in Afri...

  4. Condoms, HIV and the Roman Catholic Church.

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Carrara, Sabina; Filippi, Valentina; Brosens, Ivo


    For decades, the Roman Catholic Church opposed use of condoms to prevent spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) because of their contraceptive effect. In 2009, Pope Benedict XVI said that widespread use of condoms could worsen the situation, a position rejected as 'unscientific'. Recently, however the Pontiff stated that because the Church considers acts of prostitution and homosexuality to be gravely immoral and disordered, in such specific cases use of a condom might become an initial step in the direction of a moralization leading to an assumption of responsibility and a new awareness of the meaning of sexuality. In doing so, he reaffirmed his belief that condoms cannot solve the problem of STI spread, stressing the Church's position that modern societies no longer see sexuality as an 'expression of love, but only as a sort of drug that people administer to themselves'. The new Papal position has been widely applauded, but made conservative Catholics unhappy. A dialogue with the Church now seems possible: Does concentrating on condoms hinder the effectiveness of other strategies? What are the respective roles of condoms and other approaches to prevent infection spread? Does a special situation exist in Africa requiring specific and focused interventions? PMID:21507723

  5. The Pauluskerk: an unorthodox church in Rotterdam

    Frank van der Hoeven


    Full Text Available The tale of the rebuilding of the Pauluskerk (St. Paul’s Church in the Dutch city of Rotterdam is a multilayered story that blurs the lines between architecture, societal issues, policymaking and urban redevelopment.The original Pauluskerk was built in the late 1950s in a city centre that was still recovering from the damage it suffered during the Second World War. The church may never have received the attention it has were it not for Reverend Visser, who developed the church into a refuge for the outcasts of Dutch society: asylum seekers, homeless people and drug addicts. Visser’s activism eventually evolved into the Perron Nul (Platform Zero initiative, through which he organized support for the addicted and indigent on a scale not seen before in the city.The close proximity of the Pauluskerk to Rotterdam Central Station and the controversy surrounding its mission brought it slowly but steadily onto a collision course with the renewal and redevelopment of the station area, which would eventually lead to the demolition of the original Pauluskerk in 2007 and the construction of a new church building as part of the CalypSO project, designed by British architect William Alsop.This article brings these story lines together to showcase the complex process involved in an inner-city urban development founded in the well-established practice of local democracy, where consensus-seeking is the norm, even when this crosses societal borders.

  6. Nuclear power and the Catholic Church

    The radical rejection of nuclear power, even up to and including fanatical actionism, which can sometimes be found in the Protestant Church has always been the exception in the Catholic Church. A comprehensive survey, which cannot be presented in this article, of all comments by the church on nuclear power is contained in an essay by Stephan Feldhaus: Der Fall Kernenergie - ein Glaubensstreit? Kirche und Energieversorgung. Recent statements by circles close to the Catholic German bishops give the impression as if the Catholic Church in Germany were moving from an attitude based on worldwide responsibility to a 'zeitgeist' critical of technology of the type widespread in this country. This is true especially of the treatise 'Zur Bewertung der Kernenergie-Nutzung', which was published by the Environment Working Group of the Commission of German Bishops in April 1996, and which is the object of the critical review expressed in this article. Although the treatise was not adopted by the German bishops, readers will consider it a quasi-official comment by the bishops simply because it was published by the Commission of German Bishops. (orig./GL)

  7. Foreign Perspectives of Brazil: A textual Analysis of American Newspaper coverage

    Vanessa de Macedo Higgins


    Journalists´ perceptions of objectivity and news judgment may be infl uenced by extraneous factors such as audience, companies, and national politics, as well as personal cultures. Foreign correspondents have additional factors infl uencing these perceptions. This study analyzes the narrative of texts from three mainstream American newspapers written by their foreign correspondents in Brazil during the weeks prior to the 2004 American presidential election, looking at how the ideology of both f...

  8. Participation of Asian-American Women in Cancer Chemoprevention Research: Physician Perspectives

    Nguyen, Tung T.; Somkin, Carol P.; Ma, Yifei


    To the authors’ knowledge, little is known regarding the participation of Asian Americans in cancer prevention research. In 2002, the authors mailed surveys to primary care physicians in Northern California to assess their knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers concerning the participation of Asian-American women in breast cancer chemoprevention research. The response rate was 52.3% (n = 306 physicians). For physician barriers, most respondents selected lack of study knowledge (73%) an...

  9. A Contrastive Research on American-Chinese Cultural Identity from Perspective of Mass Culture



    The appearance and development of "Super Girl" accompanies with the rise of mass culture and it reflects the main features of mass culture.Meanwhile western mass cultural product especially the American mass cultural product "American Idol" influenced Chinese mass culture and it has produced massive impact on the identity of national cultural and cultural independence in China.The thesis can help to deepen and make up for the deficiency of mass culture theories,to enrich the applicational experience and the...

  10. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural south

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha


    Though African American youth in the south are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and ...

  11. Sacred Space: A Beginning Framework for Off-Planet Church

    Hoffmann, T. K.

    As governments and corporations continue to engage space security, commerce, exploration and colonization, the Christian Church will not be far behind. Historically the Church has always been part of the first waves of explorers and colonizers, with its ideological interests being easily supported by generous resources and strong infrastructures. The exploring Church has not always been a friendly guest, however, and at times has initiated or condoned great harm. This paper offers a beginning framework as one way of insuring an appropriate presence in space for the Church. This framework is built with three common religious planks, namely, theology, ecclesiology and church worker vocation. Each of these is recast in terms of the off-planet scenario. This paper concludes that an appropriate off-planet Church will be founded on an "exomissiological" theology, will embrace an ecclesiology that emphasizes religious health, and will adequately select, train and monitor its off-planet church workers.

  12. A Mid-South Perspective: African American Faith-based Organizations, HIV, and Stigma.

    Otey, Tamara D; Miller, Wendy Renee


    Shelby County, Tennessee has the fastest growing rate of HIV infection in the state, and the majority of new infections are in African Americans. In 2011, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report stated that Memphis (the largest city in Shelby County) ranked seventh highest in new HIV infections. Little research has addressed HIV-related themes in African American culture that could hinder HIV prevention measures. Our qualitative study engaged African American, faith-based leaders in areas with high rates of HIV in meaningful conversations regarding their attitudes toward HIV and those who are infected. Although faith-based leaders felt they had a role in HIV prevention, only 4% in our study had participated in HIV prevention activities, but they were open to HIV prevention programs. We found that faith-based leaders had limited knowledge of health disparities and ongoing stigma concerning HIV, which served as a major barrier to HIV prevention. PMID:27209431

  13. Calvin on the sacraments and church unity

    D.J. Smit


    Full Text Available Calvin’s ecumenical passion has often been documented by scholars (section 1. This article argues that these practical en- deavours were based on Calvin’s ecclesiological conviction that there is only one church (section 2, based on the communio of believers with Christ and with one another (section 3, in which the sacraments, particularly the Lord’s Supper, play a crucial role as the bonds of communio (section 4. For Calvin, this concretely implied that believers who participate in the cele- bration of the Supper should also love one another, as quota- tions from the 1559 “Institutes” powerfully demonstrate (section 5. Given the ambiguous legacy of Calvin in South Africa, these views of Calvin present a continuous challenge to South African churches in his tradition (section 6.

  14. Archaeoastronomy and the orientation of old churches

    Gangui, Alejandro


    Cultural astronomy is an interdisciplinary area of research that studies how perceptions and concepts related to the sky are part of the worldview of a culture. One of its branches, archaeoastronomy, focuses on the material remains of past peoples and tries to investigate their practices and astronomical knowledge. In this context, the orientation of Christian churches is now considered a distinctive feature of their architecture that repeats patterns from early Christian times. There is a general tendency to align their altars in the solar range, with preference for orientations towards the east. Here we present recent data from our measurements of astronomical orientations of old churches located in two --geographically and culturally-- very distant regions, and we discuss the results in the light of the historical and cultural knowledge surrounding these temples.

  15. Explaining seemingly paradoxical consumer experiences: conjoining weekly road rage and church attendance.

    Gau, Li-Shiue; Woodside, Arch G; Martin, Drew


    The purposes of the current study are threefold: Provide evidence that an extreme paradoxical group exists-people frequently attending church and exhibiting road rage, profile this group, and frame possible explanations for the seemingly paradoxical behaviors. This study employs data from a national (USA) lifestyle survey conducted by Market Facts with 3,350 American respondents. The major questions asked about church participation and road-rage behavior ("giving a finger" and "flashing headlights"). Nomologically, relevant activities include 3 items for church goers and 3 items for road-rage givers. Additionally, 14 items profiled the lifestyles of the unique paradoxical behavior segment. Utilizing cross-tabulation tables, property space analyses identify the double extreme (XX) group (18 people) and other 6 groups with a significant chi-square test, confirming the extreme group exists. Analyses of variance test results show that comparing nomologically relevant activities among the seven groups is all statistically significant, indicating the nomological validity is met. Overall, the XX group tends to have more males, be younger, and have a higher proportion of people working in sales. The profile of lifestyle analyses shows the XX group members have both high ambitions and expectations, might be very frustrated individuals, and equip with the adventurous and masculine traits related to aggression. The XX behavior group's demographic and psychographic characteristics portray similar lifestyles that differ from other groups. Case-based analyses provide further contextual information of nuances to XX segment individuals. The limited energy theory, the Eagleman's theory of unconscious mind, and justification theory help to explain why people conjointly go to church and commit road rage. Addressing chronic paradoxical behaviors provides implications for social de-marketing to reduce aggressive anti-social behavior such as road rage. Frequent church attendance may

  16. Indigenous Education and Empowerment: International Perspectives. Contemporary Native American Communities #17

    Abu-Saad, Ismael, Ed.; Champagne, Duane, Ed.


    Indigenous people have often been confronted with education systems that ignore their cultural and historical perspectives. Largely unsuccessful projects of assimilation have been the predominant outcome of indigenous communities' encounters with state schools, as many indigenous students fail to conform to mainstream cultural norms. This…

  17. Program Planning for the Training and Continuing Education of Adults: North American Perspectives.

    Cookson, Peter S., Ed.

    This book provides an overview of program planning for adult learning from philosophical and pedagogical perspectives. It contains 19 papers and an introduction by the editor, Peter S. Cookson. The following are included: "A Conceptual Context for Program Planning" (Peter S. Cookson); "Prototypical Program Planning Models"--"Houle's Fundamental…

  18. Interjections of Lamentation in Old Church Slavonic

    Chromá, Martina

    Praha: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, 2015 - (Janyšková, I.; Karlíková, H.), s. 107-112. (Studia etymologica Brunensia. 18). ISBN 978-80-7422-381-5. [Etymological Symposium Brno 2014. Brno (CZ), 09.09.2014-11.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP406/12/1790 Institutional support: RVO:68378017 Keywords : Old Church Slavonic * Etymology * Interjections Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  19. Mexican American Adolescent Couples Communicating about Conflict: An Integrated Developmental and Cultural Perspective

    Rueda, Heidi Adams; Williams, Lela Rankin


    Using observational methods on a small sample of committed Mexican American couples (N = 10, ages 15-17, M length of relationship = 26.5 months), we describe and categorize developmental and cultural communication patterns concerning the negotiation of conflict issues. Videotaped dyadic interactions were transcribed and qualitatively coded using…

  20. Analysis of American Individualism and Chinese Collectivism from the Cross-Cultural Perspective



    Individualism and collectivism are the core of the value systems in American and Chinese society respectively.Understanding their differences is essential to create a harmonious environment in intercultural communication.This thesis compares Chinese collectivism and American’s individualism,and it demonstrates their influences on intercultural communication.

  1. Death Beliefs and Practices from an Asian Indian American Hindu Perspective

    Gupta, Rashmi


    The purpose of this article was to explore Asian Indian American Hindu (AIAH) cultural views related to death and dying. Three focus group interviews were conducted with AIAH persons living in the southern region of United States. The focus group consisted of senior citizens, middle-aged adults, and young adults. Both open-ended and semistructured…

  2. Diversity in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Perspectives Held by Undergraduate Students at a Predominantly European American University

    Littleford, Linh Nguyen


    Undergraduate students (N = 932, 83.8% European Americans, 69.6% women) completed an online survey and reported their definitions of diversity, their attitudes toward incorporating diversity into the curriculum, and their motivations for learning about diversity issues. Findings revealed that students conceptualized diversity primarily in terms of…

  3. An American Professor's Perspective on the Dialectics of Teaching Interpersonal Communication in the Swedish Classroom

    Natalle, Elizabeth J.


    This case study of an American professor's teaching experience in Sweden analyzes classroom communication using relational dialectics theory and cultural values theory. Tensions of hierarchy vs. equality and autonomy vs. connection were described through classroom processes such as greeting practices, dress, grading, attendance, gendered language…

  4. Beloved Women: Nurturing the Sacred Fire of Leadership from an American Indian Perspective

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Garrett, Michael Tlanusta


    American Indian women have been consistently involved in leadership throughout indigenous history. Their leadership provides a strong, nurturing influence passed down from generation to generation. In the U.S. society, this type of leadership style is recognized among contemporary authors of leadership manuals as relational and is attributed to…

  5. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents' Perspectives

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.


    Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social…

  6. Korean-American Student Perceptions on Literacy and Identity: Perspectives from an Ethnographic Case Study

    Choi, Jeonghee; Godina, Heriberto; Ro, Yeon Sun


    This ethnographic case study examines perceptions of literacy and identity for a Korean-American student in a third-grade classroom. The researchers examine how teachers can misinterpret Asian identity in the classroom due to perceptions related to the "Model Minority Myth" and other stereotypical representations of Asian culture. By…

  7. South American energy integration: new perspectives; Novas perspectivas para a integracao energetica sul-americana

    Silva, Jose Malhaes da [Malhaes da Silva Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Luiz Alfredo [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Politicas Publicas e Governo


    This paper analyses the South American energy integration, the advantages related to this process as well as the existing obstacles . What is the scope in terms of projects and initiatives, and the role of political and institutional barriers to be overcome. (author)

  8. Addressing Disease-Related Malnutrition in Healthcare: A Latin American Perspective.

    Correia, Maria Isabel; Hegazi, Refaat A; Diaz-Pizarro Graf, José Ignacio; Gomez-Morales, Gabriel; Fuentes Gutiérrez, Catalina; Goldin, Maria Fernanda; Navas, Angela; Pinzón Espitia, Olga Lucia; Tavares, Gilmária Millere


    Alarmingly high rates of disease-related malnutrition have persisted in hospitals of both emerging and industrialized nations over the past 2 decades, despite marked advances in medical care over this same interval. In Latin American hospitals, the numbers are particularly striking; disease-related malnutrition has been reported in nearly 50% of adult patients in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Uruguay. The tolls of disease-related malnutrition are high in both human and financial terms-increased infectious complications, higher incidence of pressure ulcers, longer hospital stays, more frequent readmissions, greater costs of care, and increased risk of death. In an effort to draw attention to malnutrition in Latin American healthcare, a feedM.E. Latin American Study Group was formed to extend the reach and support the educational efforts of the feedM.E. Global Study Group. In this article, the feedM.E. Latin American Study Group shows that malnutrition incurs excessive costs to the healthcare systems, and the study group also presents evidence of how appropriate nutrition care can improve patients' clinical outcomes and lower healthcare costs. To achieve the benefits of nutrition for health throughout Latin America, the article presents feedM.E.'s simple and effective Nutrition Care Pathway in English and Spanish as a way to facilitate its use. PMID:25883116

  9. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela


    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  10. Seeds of Faith: Catholic Indian Boarding Schools. Native Americans: Interdisciplinary Perspectives--A Garland Series.

    Carroll, James T.

    This book relates the history of four Catholic Indian boarding schools in the Dakota Territory between 1870 and 1928. Chapter 1 covers 1870 to 1887, when federal Indian relations were driven by the Peace Policy, which assigned reservations to specific religious bodies and established a formal system of schools to assimilate American Indians into…

  11. The Faculty Perspective on Holistic and Systems Thinking in American and Australian Mechanical Engineering Programmes

    Kellam, N. N.; Maher, M. A.; Peters, W. H.


    This research effort examined current mechanical engineering educational programmes in America and Australia to determine the degree of holistic, systems thinking of each programme. Faculty from ten American universities and ten Australian universities participated in online surveys and interviews. Resulting data analysis and interpretation…

  12. Historical Perspectives on Diverse Asian American Communities: Immigration, Incorporation, and Education

    Paik, Susan J.; Kula, Stacy M.; Saito, L. Erika; Rahman, Zaynah; Witenstein, Matthew A.


    Background/Context: Asian Americans have recently been reported as the largest incoming immigrant population and the fastest growing racial group. Diverse in culture, tradition, language, and history, they have unique immigrant stories both before and after the Immigration Act in 1965. Historians, sociologists, educators, and other experts inform…

  13. Overcoming Adversity: High-Achieving African American Youth's Perspectives on Educational Resilience

    Williams, Joseph M.; Bryan, Julia


    This qualitative multicase research study identified the home, school, and community factors and processes that contributed to the academic success of 8 urban, African American high school graduates from low-income, single-parent families. Ten main themes emerged: school-related parenting practices, personal stories of hardship, positive…

  14. Mexican Americans With Type 2 Diabetes: Perspectives on Definitions, Motivators, and Programs of Physical Activity

    Nelda Mier, PhD


    Full Text Available IntroductionResearch documents that Mexican Americans bear excess health risk because of physical inactivity and have higher morbidity and mortality rates from chronic diseases than do other ethnic groups. Factors influencing physical activity in this minority population, however, are not well understood. This study examines perceptions of physical activity in a population of Mexican Americans who have type 2 diabetes and live in the Texas-Mexico border region and identifies motivators and barriers to physical activity in this group.MethodsThis study used a qualitative research design and employed six focus groups comprising 39 Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes who live in the Texas–Mexico border region. A team of bilingual Mexican American researchers systematically reviewed and analyzed focus group data by means of qualitative data analysis software. The study was conducted during 2005–2006.ResultsMost participants considered physical activity to be related not only to exercise but also to occupational and home activities. Walking was the preferred type of activity. Motivators to physical activity included family support and the sense of well-being derived from physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included individual and environmental factors, such as lack of time, physical pain, depression, being overweight, unsafe neighborhoods, and lack of facilities. Participants suggested that the ideal intervention would be low in cost, family-based, close to home, and led by bilingual instructors.ConclusionHealth promotion efforts to prevent or reduce the effects of chronic disease among Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes in the Texas–Mexico border region should focus on implementing neighborhood-based, family-oriented walking interventions.

  15. From Independence Day to Land of Plenty: Screening American Patriotism from German Émigré Perspectives before and after 9/11

    Frank Mehring


    Full Text Available Independence Day and Land of Plenty are two tropes referring to the basis of American national identity: the Declaration of Independence with its guarantee of equal and inalienable rights and the promise of an inexhaustible abundance of resources. Independence Day and Land of Plenty are also two American feature films directed by German émigrés, the first being a science fiction blockbuster from 1996 by Roland Emmerich, the second an independent road movie from 2003 by Wim Wenders. Both films confront the issue of American patriotism albeit from different angles and at different times. Independence Day wholeheartedly embraces the American founding myths and translates them into a science fiction scenario. Wenders manoeuvres into an artistic space producing what I call patriotism of dissent. The films engage in a kind of dialectic dialogue on American patriotism. This article takes a close look at émigré perspectives on American patriotism before and after 9/11. By turning to the four patterns which political theorist Samuel P. Huntington identified as possible responses to the discrepancy between principles and practices of American democracy, I will analyse Independence Day as a filmic strategy to deny democratic gaps and Land of Plenty as a representative example of a moralistic reaction to democratic gaps. In the discourse of screening American patriotism from German émigré perspectives before and after 9/11, the work of Emmerich and Wenders exemplifies the spectrum of approaches to negotiate the fantasy of, desire for, and experience of American culture in the medium of film.

  16. An ecological perspective of science and math academic achievement among African American students

    Stewart, Endya Bentley

    Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), path analytic procedures were performed to test an ecological model of the effects of family, individual and school characteristics on the academic African American students. A distinctive study is the inclusion of school computer use in the model. The study results show that several of the variables directly or indirectly affected 12th grade academic achievement. Furthermore, most of the individual influence variables were directly related to 12 th grade achievement. Two surprising findings from this study were the insignificant effects of family income and school computer use on 12 th grade achievement. Overall, the findings support the notion that family, individual, and school characteristics are important predictors of academic success among African American students.

  17. The impact of the railroad on American society: a communication perspective of technology

    Matusitz, Jonathan


    Full Text Available This manuscript examines the railroad system as a combination of humans and machines that form a symbiosis, and explains how the railroad exerted a huge effect on American life when it made irrelevant the organic – following nature – time system that existed in cities and countries where clocks were set according to weather conditions. The author makes the point that the railroad is an organ of society, that it will evolve to serve the functions we demand, that it has molded and altered – but never replaced – contact between humans, and that it will continue to enhance and facilitate it. This manuscript analyzes the social, cross-cultural, psychological, and financial impact of the railroad on American society in the past two hundred years. The measure of progress in the United States is tantamount to the mass of things that had to be sacrificed to it.

  18. African American Female Engineering Students' Persistence in Stereotype-threatening Environments: A Critical Race Theory Perspective

    Gregory, Stacie LeSure


    Due to the social context of engineering classrooms, stereotype threat (STT) may play an essential role in the dearth of African American females in engineering. Empirical studies have confirmed the deleterious effects STT has on students' performance. However, acceptance of STT as more than a laboratory phenomenon necessitates an in-depth understanding of how stigmatized groups experience being socially devalued and negatively stereotyped. In this qualitative investigation, Intersectionality...

  19. Multicultural and multiethnic grey literature - A Rich Resource : An African-American Perspective

    Evans, V. Tessa Perry (Rutgers University Libraries); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service


    Grey literature while very useful and extremely valuable, unfortunately, may never find its way into the usual review channels. Quite often it is this body of literature - commissioned reports, theses, publications of political activist groups, associations and organizations' newsletters an pamphlets, and ethnic print and non-print media - that are the most useful in recording the history and culture of peoples who have suffered discrimination and exclusion. The African-American, as well as t...

  20. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents’ Perspectives

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.


    Longitudinal patterns in parents’ reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with two offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social domain theory was supported by analyses of eight decision types spanning prudential, conventional, personal, and multifaceted domains. Decision ma...

  1. Seismic analysis and strengthening of Pico Island Churches

    Antonio Arede; Anibal Costa; Domingos Moreira; Nuno Neves


    The proposed study addresses the development of an integrated strategy for modelling, experimental calibration, numerical analysis and seismic strengthening carried out in two churches of the Pico Island, Azores, namely the Bandeiras and the Madalena churches. Following an initial description of the observed damages resulting from the 1998 earthquake, the modelling option for the churches structures is outlined. Reference is made to the use of ambient vibration tests that led to the definitio...

  2. Evangelisation and the New Age: A Challenge To The Church?

    Gallagher, Gerard


    The Church has always been faced with the problem of having to adapt to new problems and controversies. At significant periods in its history, the Church has been forced into making its opinion on new ideas known. The Church has been continually focussing what it has been about for years. In its earlier years it was missionary, and evangelical. In later years it became institutionalised and yet again had to face problems related with that. As we move towards the end of th...

  3. Silence or condemnation: the Orthodox Church on homosexuality in Serbia:

    Miloš Jovanović


    The article deals with the representation of the gay population in the discourse of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The declarations of Church bodies and officials, as well as unofficial public statements of prominent believers regarding gay persons are analysed. There is an ambivalent attitude towards gay people that is usually expressed in the 'hate the sin, love the sinner' formula. There is also a different kind of ambivalence: the Serbian Orthodox Church as well as its faithful either stick...

  4. Relationships between subjective and objective acoustical measures in churches

    António P. Carvalho; António E. Morgado; Luís Henrique


    This study reports on subjective and objective acoustical field measurements made in a survey of 36 Catholic churches in Portugal built in the last 14 centuries. Monaural acoustical measurements (RT, EDT, C80, D50, TS and L) were taken at several source/receiver locations in each church and a group of college students was asked to judge the subjective quality of music. The listeners in each church evaluated live music performances at similar locations in each room. Evaluation sheets were used...

  5. Catholic Church and State in Cuba: past and present relationships



    After centuries of a deep presence in Cuba, the Catholic Church has always been part of a complex relationship with the political establishment. The break between Church and State that occurred after the Revolution, would soon show the institution’s ability to survive in unfavorable conditions. Now, after more than fifty years of revolutionary experience, the Catholic Church has become the sole internal interlocutor with the regime. The aim of this article is to analyze the process by which t...

  6. Gendered Resource Returns: African American Institutions and Political Engagement

    Robnett, Belinda


    While numerous studies discuss the importance of black churches and race-based organizations to African American political participation, few of them systematically analyze the gendered nature of such engagement. Employing data from the 1994 National Black Politics Survey, this study compares the influence of church-based activities and race-based organizational participation on African American men’s and women’s electoral and non-electoral political participation, and finds that 1) African ...

  7. The United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (UCCSA) - A case study of a united and ecumenical church

    D van der Water


    In this article, the ecumenical heritage of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa is described by the General Secretary of that church. The early history of the UCCSA, related to the London Missionary Society, created a sense of self-awareness that led to the unification of racially divided congregational churches during 1967. This set the ground for the active involvement of the UCCSA in the political liberation processes in Southern Africa. In addition, the UCCSA 's continued ...

  8. American security perspectives: public views on energy, environment, nuclear weapons and terrorism: 2008

    We analyze and compare findings from matching national surveys of the US general public on US energy and environmental security administered by telephone and Internet in mid-2008. Key areas of investigation include: energy supplies and reliability; energy vulnerabilities and threats, and relationships among security, costs, energy dependence, alter-native sources, and research and investment priorities. We analyze public assessments of nuclear energy risks and benefits, nuclear materials management issues, and preferences for the future of nuclear energy in the US. Additionally, we investigate environmental issues as they relate to energy security, to include evolving perspectives on global climate change and relationships among environmental issues and potential policy options. We also report findings from an Internet survey of the general public conducted in mid-2008 that investigates assessments of threats to US security; valuations of US nuclear weapons and nuclear deterrence; perspectives on nuclear proliferation; and support for investments in nuclear weapons capabilities. Our analysis of public views on terrorism include assessments of the current threat, progress in the struggle against terrorism, preferences for responding to terrorist attacks at different levels of assumed casualties, and support for domestic policies intended to reduce the threat of terrorism.

  9. The challenge of language assessment for african american english-speaking children: a historical perspective.

    Seymour, Harry N


    The diagnostic problem of how validly to assess the language of children who speak dialects different from Mainstream American English (MAE) has challenged the field of communication disorders for several decades. The key to its solution is to recognize differences due to dialect or development and remove them from the initial diagnosis of a disorder. A new approach to the puzzle, implemented jointly by University of Massachusetts scholars and the Psychological Corporation (TPC), takes two directions: (1) it provides new normative data on African American English (AAE) development, and (2) it proposes a level of analysis deeper than dialect for the discovery of alternate markers of a disorder. We present three objectives for a language assessment instrument designed to solve this longstanding problem: (1) to answer the problem/no problem question for a given child; (2) to provide explanatory data about the nature of the problem; and (3) to achieve objectives 1 and 2 in a way that is culturally and linguistically fair to both speakers of MAE and speakers of other dialects of English such as AAE. PMID:15088228

  10. Developing Renewable Energy: Comparative Scenarios and Public Policy Perspectives from some Latin American Countries

    Claudia Cecilia Lardizabal


    Full Text Available The energy matrix of Latin American and the Caribbean countries has one of the largest renewable energy components when compared to other regions of the world. Nonetheless, by 2009 nearly three-quarters of its structure corresponded to fossil fuels, with most of the countries being net importers of these fuels. This situation marks the region´s dependence on the effects of changes in energy commodities. Therefore, the opportunity lies in higher use of renewable energy sources that contribute to the country´s energy security and represent significant environmental benefits. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative analysis of current energy scenarios of six Latin American countries (Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador and Chile in order to evaluate the policies, programs and strategies implemented in the search for greater participation of renewable energy. Considering the importance of the water-energy nexus that could serve to promote renewables under conditions of water scarcity, a qualitative data comparison was accomplished, considering energy consumption, CO2 emissions, GDP and water withdrawals per country. The authors conclude that, despite technological and financial constraints, all the involved countries are moving towards the substitution of a fossil fuel based matrix to a renewable one. This process could be seen as a result of clear policies and strategies that have been set, which include (but are not limited to price regulations setting, preferential prices to electricity generated through renewable energy technologies and incentives formulated to encourage the production of biofuels.

  11. The Challenge of Providing Renal Replacement Therapy in Developing Countries: The Latin American Perspective.

    Obrador, Gregorio T; Rubilar, Ximena; Agazzi, Evandro; Estefan, Janette


    The costs of health care place developing countries under enormous economic pressure. Latin America is a region characterized by wide ethnic and per capita gross domestic product variations among different countries. Chronic kidney failure prevalence and incidence, as well as provision of renal replacement therapy (RRT), have increased in all Latin American countries over the last 20 years. From an ethical point of view, life-sustaining therapies such as RRT should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease who might benefit. However, even among Latin American countries with similar per capita incomes and health care expenditures, only some have been able to achieve universal access to RRT. This indicates that it is not just a problem of wealth or distribution of scarce health care resources, but one of social justice. Strategies to increase the availability of RRT and renal palliative-supportive care, as well as implementation of interventions to prevent chronic kidney disease development and progression, are needed in Latin America and other developing countries. PMID:26709109

  12. Looking Back, Moving Forward: How the Civil Rights Era Church Can Guide the Modern Black Church in Improving Black Student Achievement

    Gaines, Robert W., II


    As the operational center of the Civil Rights Movement, the Black church fostered community, functioned as an educative space, and promoted collaborative efforts among churches. Similarly, the modern Black church has the opportunity to invest in educating, organizing, and mobilizing people within the church and the local community. By investing in…

  13. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio


    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

  14. Preventing HIV among Latino and African American Gay and Bisexual Men in a Context of HIV-Related Stigma, Discrimination, and Homophobia: Perspectives of Providers

    Brooks, Ronald A.; Etzel, Mark A.; Hinojos, Ernesto; Henry, Charles L.; Perez, Mario


    HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia impede community based efforts to combat HIV disease among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men. This commentary highlights ways to address these social biases in communities of color in Los Angeles from the perspectives of staff from HIV prevention programs. Information was collected from HIV prevention program staff participating in a two-day symposium. The outcomes from the symposium offer strategies for developing and implemen...

  15. The Pan American Health Organization's programmes on QA and QC in radiation medicine: Historical perspective

    Full text: Since initiating radiation medicine activities in the 1950s, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed, promoted and implemented quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) programmes in the Americas. In radiation oncology, QA/QC activities started in 1968, after a seminal IAEA/PAHO/WHO meeting on Dosimetric Requirements in Radiotherapy Centers, in Caracas, Venezuela, where the Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) network and the Postal IAEA/PAHO/WHO Dosimetry Programme using TLDs, were created. In 1970, the first regional course for radiation oncologists and radiotherapy physicists, jointly sponsored by PAHO/WHO and the IAEA was held at the Puerto Rico Nuclear Center. Similar courses were organized in Mexico (1973), and Brazil and Chile (1975). In 1980, PAHO contracted a medical physicist to identify and correct errors in those radiotherapy centres where a deviation of greater that 5% had been observed, the first time that such on-site follow-up visits was provided. In 1982, in collaboration with the M.D. Anderson Hospital of the University of Texas and participation of the IAEA and the ICRU, a Working Group on Improvement of Radiation Dosimetry and Quality Assurance was organized in Houston, Texas and attended by SSDL directors. Their recommendations were endorsed by a 1983 Advisory Group Meeting on the Future of the Dose Intercomparison Service for Radiotherapy organized by the IAEA where, with PAHO's participation, it was decided to expand the programme to include orthovoltage X ray machines and linear accelerators. In 1983, PAHO organized and hosted The First International Symposium on Quality Assurance in Radiation Therapy: Clinical and Physical Aspects, where a consensus on minimal and optimal standards for both clinical and physical QA aspects was reached. In 1988 and 1994, PAHO participated in regional IAEA courses in Peru and Venezuela. QC courses for clinicians and physicists were given in Cuba (1992), Ecuador (1998

  16. Canadian electricity and the economy : developing a North American energy perspective : a proposal for action on electricity

    This report provided a Canadian industry perspective on strategies to improve the way electricity markets operate in North America, particularly following the events of September 11, 2001 which highlighted how closely the integrated infrastructure between Canada and the United States really is. Other major and recent events that have influenced the process of fundamental change across much of the North American electricity industry include the electricity crisis in California, the downturn in the North American economy, and the collapse of Enron. These events have forced governments to work collaboratively on integrating policy initiatives related to electricity. This report also discussed the impact that the U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol would have on Canada. Canada is not yet on a path to meet the greenhouse gas emission reduction target of 6 per cent below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Should Canada decide to implement Kyoto, the fact that the U.S. plan is much less aggressive than Kyoto, would place Canada at a cost disadvantage relative to its major trading partner. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) believes that this problem can be solved using a continental approach to climate change with realistic targets to reduce greenhouse gases over a long-term period. The energy strategy delivered by the Bush administration focuses on security of supply. Within Canada, there is no crisis in supply, and to keep it that way, due attention must be given to future demand through investment in new generation and transmission. The CEA believes that an effective partnership between Canada and the United States would ensure security and economic advantages for both countries. This report summarized the following: (1) electricity generation by fuel type in Canada and the United States in 2000, (2) electricity exports from Canada and imports from United States from 1992 to 2001, (3) volume of net exports and imports in 2001, and (4) the status of restructuring in

  17. The Orthodox Church and the Young Generation – Today’s Problems

    Tucă Nicuşor


    Full Text Available Lately, the Orthodox Church has been very concerned by the issue of the youngster's migration into a multicultural and pluri-religious area. Migration is an objective reality that we can notice but we are not able to stop. We emphasize the fact that the young generation needs to be seen in the light of hope and of the future, as resources and not as problems. Under these circumstances, the Church needs to find a new way of working and adequate pastoral means for people to be able to live a normal life from a spiritual and religious perspective as well. We need to find means of awakening and of shaping the youngstersř moral conscience, of guiding them towards Christian holiness and perfection. It is only by having such a perspective, the perspective of those who want to give the young generation the chance to discover Christ our Redeemer, that a correct spiritual guidance for the young can be realized, able to save them from the mirage of the contemporary temptations.

  18. What Would They Do? Latino Church Leaders and Domestic Violence

    Behnke, Andrew O.; Ames, Natalie; Hancock, Tina U.


    Understanding what Latino church leaders believe about domestic violence, and what they do when they confront it, is a key step in developing programs to help them engage in domestic violence prevention and intervention activities in their congregations. This article presents the findings from an exploratory study of 28 Latino church leaders. The…

  19. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    Klaiber, Jeffrey


    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  20. The political economy of churches in Denmark over 700 years

    Paldam, Ella; Paldam, Martin

    This paper reports new macro time-series for the number and size of churches in Denmark from year 1300 to 2000. Church densities are defined as the series per capita. The densities are interpreted as a proxy for religiosity. It is falling throughout all 700 years, but two events gave an extra fall...

  1. The Canon Law revisions: a reflection of the postconciliar Church?

    O'Connor, D F


    The postconciliar Church has approved many changes in Church life. Reactions to the proposed draft of the new canon law codes have ranged from favorable to strongly critical. The mature Catholic looks beyond the letter of the law to its spirit and purpose. PMID:488987

  2. The Potential Role of Business Intelligence in Church Organizations

    Felder, Charmaine


    Business intelligence (BI) involves transforming data into actionable information to make better business decisions that may help improve operations. Although businesses have experienced success with BI, how leaders of church organizations might be able to exploit the advantages of BI in church organizations remains largely unexplored. The purpose…


    Cricovean Mircea


    Regarding the administration of goods, the Church finds guidance in the laws of the State to which it belongs (Stan, 1952 but taking into consideration the fact that the Church cannot “have its special principles and rules contradicted”(Floca, 1990: 448. However, the church, in fulfilling its purpose - the salvation of believers, needs wealth or heritage. This is not to understand that the Church can “lose its essential character, supernatural character, because, for the Church the earthly possessions and temporal happiness are not an immediate end” (Floca, 1990: 451-452. To understand the Church’s sources of financing it is necessary to take account of its properties. Along the time the church was holder of ownership rights. Its property had to be maintained, at least, so it needed funding. The Church’s canonical and statutory provisions are those governing the Church’s source of funding. They cannot conclusively be understood without observing the principles and rules specific for the ecclesiastical wealth management. Noted should be that previously there were no generally accepted rules on the management of financial resources of the church. The canonical, legal and statutory establishments have become customary in time, making it possible this way, by the dioceses supervisors, that sources of funding should be directed towards the maintenance of the Church, of the worship and of social activities.

  4. American Culture’s Shifting Perspective on Female Homosexuality From the 1970’s to the Present

    williams, Courtney


    Full Text Available Homosexuality has been a subject of controversy since before it was removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM in 1973 as a mental disease. Female homosexuality holds special significance because women have generally been victims of sexism, both subtle and blatant, which has led to harmful effects, whether through individual or interpersonal discrimination (Angela R. Gillem et al, 2000. These issues began to be recognized when the second wave of feminism came into play, also known as the Women’s Movement (Biaggio, 2000. There have been few investigative studies focusing on attitudes toward homosexual individuals, and fewer that look into gender differences in terms of how people perceive homosexuals. There are extremely few studies focused specifically on Lesbianism. This literature review will look at published research that focuses on female homosexuality and will examine shifts in perspectives that have occurred over the past thirty years. It will also provide suggestions for the next steps needed to increase acceptance of female homosexuality in American culture.

  5. Canadian electricity and the economy : developing a North American energy perspective : a proposal for action on electricity

    This paper presented an overview of the Canadian electric power industry and provided a Canadian industry perspective on what could be done to improve the way in which electricity markets operate in a North American Energy Framework. The measures outlined by the Canadian Electricity Association are based on the solid policy framework already in place in Canada and the United States which have focused on making energy systems more market responsive and reducing environmental impacts. In the past decade, Canadian and U.S. energy markets have become more interdependent regarding oil and gas and electricity in particular. This paper argued the point that while this interdependence has benefited consumers and producers in both countries, it is important to take measures to ensure energy security. In particular, the paper focused on a domestic supply shortage in the U.S. and is aimed at decision-makers and policy advisors in Canada and the United States to strengthen the Canada-U.S electricity partnership

  6. A phylogenetic perspective on elevational species richness patterns in Middle American treefrogs: why so few species in lowland tropical rainforests?

    Smith, Sarah A; de Oca, Adrian Nieto Montes; Reeder, Tod W; Wiens, John J


    Differences in species richness at different elevations are widespread and important for conservation, but the causes of these patterns remain poorly understood. Here, we use a phylogenetic perspective to address the evolutionary and biogeographic processes that underlie elevational diversity patterns within a region. We focus on a diverse but well-studied fauna of tropical amphibians, the hylid frogs of Middle America. Middle American treefrogs show a "hump-shaped" pattern of species richness (common in many organisms and regions), with the highest regional diversity at intermediate elevations. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among 138 species by combining new and published sequence data from 10 genes and then used this phylogeny to infer evolutionary rates and patterns. The high species richness of intermediate elevations seems to result from two factors. First, a tendency for montane clades to have higher rates of diversification. Second, the early colonization of montane regions, leaving less time for speciation to build up species richness in lowland regions (including tropical rainforests) that have been colonized more recently. This "time-for-speciation" effect may explain many diversity patterns and has important implications for conservation. The results also imply that local-scale environmental factors alone may be insufficient to explain the high species richness of lowland tropical rainforests, and that diversification rates are lower in earth's most species-rich biome. PMID:17492971

  7. Determinants of Implementation Effectiveness in a Physical Activity Program for Church-Going Latinas.

    Beard, Megan; Chuang, Emmeline; Haughton, Jessica; Arredondo, Elva M


    Faith-based interventions show promise for reducing health disparities among ethnic minority populations. However, churches vary significantly in their readiness and willingness to support these programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with priests, other church leaders, and lay health advisors in churches implementing a physical activity intervention targeting Latinas. Implementation effectiveness was operationalized as average 6-month participation rates in physical activity classes at each church. Factors facilitating implementation include church leader support and strength of parishioners' connection to the church. Accounting for these church-level factors may be critical in determining church readiness to participate in health promotion activities. PMID:27536927

  8. The Mexican American/Chicano Experience...A Special Report. Project R.E.A.C.H. Ethnic Perspectives Series.

    Howard, Gary; Neal, Colleen

    Events in American history are looked at through the eyes of Mexican Americans. Chapter 1 covers the American Indian (primarily Aztec) and Spanish background of the Mexican people, and the problems between the white settlers and liberal Mexicans living in Texas that eventually gave rise to the Mexican American War of 1846. Chapter 2 discusses the…

  9. Teaching Church History in Global Perspective in New Zealand

    Cooper, Tim


    This essay is part of a collection of short essays solicited from authors around the globe who teach religion courses at the college level (not for professional religious training). They are published together with an introduction in "Teaching Theology and Religion" 18:3 (July 2015). The authors were asked to provide a brief overview of…

  10. Self-secularisation as challenge to the church

    Jaco Beyers


    Full Text Available The concept of self-secularisation has been identified by Wolfgang Huber, bishop of the German Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland (EKD, when he reflected on the context of the church in Germany. Self-secularisation however, is a worldwide phenomenon with effects in South Africa as well. After discussing the origin of the concept and its interpretations, the author tries to identify instances of self-secularisation within especially the Afrikaansspeaking churches, although not limited to them, in South Africa. The theological jargon comes under scrutiny, civil religion, the pluralistic society within which the church exists, the effect of emotionalism, the commercialisation of the church, the role of mass media and the phenomenon of infotainment, rationalisation and a lack of ethics are some of the elements identified and discussed. Finally the author attempts a correction by indicating what the church ought to do in order to counter the effects of self-secularisation.

  11. The Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA): contributions and perspectives

    Bretones, P. S.; Jafelice, L. C.; Horvath, J. E.


    The goal of this work is to present an analysis of articles published by the Latin American Journal of Astronomy Education (RELEA) since its beginning (2004) to the present. We analyzed the 59 articles available on the website of the journal (, published in 15 issues. The articles were classified by: year of publication, issue, author's institutions, grade level, focus of the study and content. The results show that the number of articles is still small - although the journal has been initially qualified as B3 within the Journal Ranking scheme Qualis CAPES and in the latest ranking (current) advanced to the concept B1 in the Qualis, it is too early to expect an increase in the number of articles submitted. Among the main factors for the relatively low number of articles we can mention that the initially nominated Editorial Board did not succeed in a proper dissemination of the journal and call for papers, the ongoing absence of a ``critical mass'' of astronomy education researchers and the lack of publishing tradition in the area. Important aspects of the writing of articles submitted are also discussed, such as refereeing, acceptance rate of articles, participation of authors from countries other than Brazil and theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as the recent editorial restructuration of the international Editorial Board of the RELEA and the nomination of Associate Editors from Brazil. Concluding, it is possible to note the contribution to the field up to the moment through citations in other works in the field. However, it is necessary to advance with regard to: publishing more articles, articles from greater variety of Latin American countries, training of the community for a minimum quality of the writing of articles submitted for publication in a journal aimed at education research. In this sense, additional analyses of the published papers would be desirable. Finally, it is pointed out the need for greater

  12. A long-term perspective on a modern drought in the American Southeast

    The depth of the 2006–9 drought in the humid, southeastern US left several metropolitan areas with only a 60–120 day water supply. To put the region’s recent drought variability in a long-term perspective, a dense and diverse tree-ring network—including the first records throughout the Apalachicola–Chattahoochee–Flint river basin—is used to reconstruct drought from 1665 to 2010 CE. The network accounts for up to 58.1% of the annual variance in warm-season drought during the 20th century and captures wet eras during the middle to late 20th century. The reconstruction shows that the recent droughts are not unprecedented over the last 346 years. Indeed, droughts of extended duration occurred more frequently between 1696 and 1820. Our results indicate that the era in which local and state water supply decisions were developed and the period of instrumental data upon which it is based are amongst the wettest since at least 1665. Given continued growth and subsequent industrial, agricultural and metropolitan demand throughout the southeast, insights from paleohydroclimate records suggest that the threat of water-related conflict in the region has potential to grow more intense in the decades to come. (letter)

  13. The National Council of Churches' Alleged Leftist Bias: To What Degree Did Two Major Media Set the Agenda for Debate on the Issue?

    Gentry, Richard H.

    In January 1983, the American public read or saw hard-hitting allegations of leftist bias by the National Council of Churches (NCC) in the largest circulation magazine, "Reader's Digest," and on the top-rated television program, "60 Minutes." A study examined the extent to which the media set the agenda for debate on this issue. It was…

  14. Race and ethnicity, religion involvement, church-based social support and subjective health in united states: A case of moderated mediation

    Shervin Assari


    Conclusion: Ethnicity shapes how church-based social support mediates the association between religious involvement and subjective health. Our results showed a moderating mediation effect of ethnicity and social support on the religious involvement-subjective health linkage, in a way that it is only among African Americans that social support is a pathway for the beneficial health effect of religious involvement.

  15. Non-Traditional Careers for Physicists: an Inter-American Perspective

    Lottis, Daniel


    At a recent international conference sponsored by the Inter- American Council on Physics Education (http://, a work-group spent several days discussing ways of better preparing physics students (both graduate and undergraduate) for careers outside of the traditional academic and national laboratory tracks. This discussion topic was prompted by the increasingly widespread discrepancies between quantities of degrees granted in physics and job openings in "traditional" areas. The group established a set of recommendations (available on the IACPE website) for improving the employability of physicists. In an effort to follow through on those recommendations, a project has been initiated collecting resources to assist both physics educators and students to learn about (and prepare for) opportunities for physicists in a variety of careers. This presentation will describe this project, which currently is collecting information about existing resources and requesting contributions in the form of "case studies" from the physics community. Information about this project is available on the WWW ( LottisDK/careers.htmlx).

  16. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Petôvári, Csaba


    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well. PMID:20938058

  17. American perspectives on security : energy, environment, nuclear weapons, and terrorism : 2010.

    Herron, Kerry Gale (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Jenkins-Smith, Hank C. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK); Silva, Carol L. (University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK)


    We report findings from an Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone among the American public in mid-2010 on US energy and environmental security. Key areas of investigation include public perceptions shaping the context for debate about a comprehensive national energy policy, and what levels of importance are assigned to various prospective energy technologies. Additionally, we investigate how public views on global climate change are evolving, how the public assesses the risks and benefits of nuclear energy, preferences for managing used nuclear fuel, and public trust in sources of scientific and technical information. We also report findings from a national Internet survey and a subset of questions administered by telephone in mid-2010 on public views of the relevance of US nuclear weapons today, support for strategic arms control, and assessments of the potential for nuclear abolition. Additionally, we analyze evolving public views of the threat of terrorism, assessments of progress in the struggle against terrorism, and tolerance for intrusive antiterror policies. Where possible, findings from each survey are compared with previous surveys in this series for analyses of trends.

  18. A Constructivist Perspective on Leadership Thought among Brazilian and North-American Scholars

    Anderson de Souza Sant'Anna


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an exploratory, inductive cataloguing of the views of Brazilian and U.S. academics regarding current leadership theory and development. Semi structured interviews with academics from a variety of institutional settings in Brazil and the U.S. were content analyzed to identify major themes and tendencies across the two countries. Our analyses revealed that neither Brazilian nor U.S. academics adopted the bulk of current formal leadership thought uncritically. Instead, both the Brazilian and North American business education fields adopted theories selectively and formulated idiosyncratic approaches to the field. The U.S. interviewees appeared to vary much more from one another than the Brazilian scholars, whose positions were more critical but more homogeneous overall. There was also considerable variation across the two national settings. We found Bourdieu’s practice theory useful in interpreting our results, particularly the concepts of field differentiation and heteronomy, habitus, and cultural capital. Still, much research remains to be done to disentangle the purely historical and cultural factors from the impacts of the social construction of the field of business education in the two countries.

  19. ANS [American Nuclear Society] topical meeting on radiological accidents: Perspectives and emergency planning: Proceedings

    The increasing use of radioactive materials and the increasing public concern about possible accidents involving these materials has led to greater emphasis on preparing for such emergencies. The ANS Topical Meeting on Radiological Accidents - Perspectives and Emergency Planning provided a review of experiences with radiological accidents. The meeting covered some of the most important aspects of radiological accidents. Papers were presented which dealt with radiological accident experience. Technical response to accidents is of primary interest to many in the nuclear community; most of the papers submitted fell into this area. So many of these papers dealt with the use of computers in response that a session on that topic was arranged. A very significant impact of most radiological accidents is the cost, especially the cost of cleanup. There were papers on what is known about costs and associated current topics, such as modification and extension of the Price-Anderson Act. At least as important as the technical response to accidents is how society attempts to deal with them. A session on institutional issues was included to discuss how governments and other organizations respond to and deal with accidents. Medical effects of accidents are of great concern to the public. Invited papers to review the effects of high doses of radiation as well as very low doses were included in that session. Although the nuclear industry has an excellent safety record, this fact often does not agree with the public perception of the industry. The final session explored the public response to and perception of radiological emergencies and accidents. This subject will ultimately determine the future use of radioactive materials in this country

  20. Measuring environmental change in forest ecosystems by repeated soil sampling: a North American perspective

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Fernandez, Ivan J.; Richter, Daniel D.; Ross, Donald S.; Hazlett, Paul W.; Bailey, Scott W.; Oiumet, Rock; Warby, Richard A.F.; Johnson, Arthur H.; Lin, Henry; Kaste, James M.; Lapenis, Andrew G.; Sullivan, Timothy J.


    Environmental change is monitored in North America through repeated measurements of weather, stream and river flow, air and water quality, and most recently, soil properties. Some skepticism remains, however, about whether repeated soil sampling can effectively distinguish between temporal and spatial variability, and efforts to document soil change in forest ecosystems through repeated measurements are largely nascent and uncoordinated. In eastern North America, repeated soil sampling has begun to provide valuable information on environmental problems such as air pollution. This review synthesizes the current state of the science to further the development and use of soil resampling as an integral method for recording and understanding environmental change in forested settings. The origins of soil resampling reach back to the 19th century in England and Russia. The concepts and methodologies involved in forest soil resampling are reviewed and evaluated through a discussion of how temporal and spatial variability can be addressed with a variety of sampling approaches. Key resampling studies demonstrate the type of results that can be obtained through differing approaches. Ongoing, large-scale issues such as recovery from acidification, long-term N deposition, C sequestration, effects of climate change, impacts from invasive species, and the increasing intensification of soil management all warrant the use of soil resampling as an essential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment. Furthermore, with better awareness of the value of soil resampling, studies can be designed with a long-term perspective so that information can be efficiently obtained well into the future to address problems that have not yet surfaced.

  1. Molecular perspective on the American transisthmian species of Macrobrachium (Caridea, Palaemonidae)

    Pileggi, Leonardo G.; Rossi, Natália; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.


    Abstract The closure of the Isthmus of Panama (about 3.1 million years ago) separated previously continuous populations and created two groups of extant species, which live now in the Pacific and Atlantic drainage systems. This relatively recent event was a trigger to diversification of various species in the Neotropics, nonetheless there are exemplars that do not show sufficient morphologic variability to separate them by traditional morphological tools. About 60 years ago, some freshwater decapod species with high morphological similarity were separate by previous researchers, based on geographical distribution, in Pacific and Atlantic and considered as “sister species”. However, the complete isolation of these prawns by this geographical barrier is questionable, and it has generated doubts about the status of the following transisthmian pairs of sibling species: Macrobrachium occidentale × Macrobrachium heterochirus, Macrobrachium americanum × Macrobrachium carcinus, Macrobrachium digueti × Macrobrachium olfersii, Macrobrachium hancocki × Macrobrachium crenulatum, Macrobrachium tenellum × Macrobrachium acanthurus and Macrobrachium panamense × Macrobrachium amazonicum. Here we evaluated the relation among these pairs of sibling species in a molecular phylogenetic context. We generated 95 new sequences: 26 sequences of 16S rDNA, 25 of COI mtDNA and 44 of 18S nDNA. In total, 181 sequences were analyzed by maximum likelihood phylogenetic method, including 12 Macrobrachium transisthmian species, as well as seven other American Macrobrachium species, and two other palaemonids. Our analysis corroborated the morphological proximity of the sibling species. Despite the high degree of morphological similarities and considerable genetic diversification encountered among the transisthmian sister species, our data support the conclusion that all species included in sibling groups studied herein are valid taxonomic entities, but not all pairs of siblings form natural

  2. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention for the

  3. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Brian A. DeVries


    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community.Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  4. The Roman Catholic Church and environmental politics in Brazil.

    Hewitt, W E


    For most of its history the Roman Catholic Church's position on the environment has been that resource use is a God given right and an appropriate solution to the problems of human need. This has been especially true in Brazil ever since the 16th century. Since the end of military rule in 1985, the church as been very active in the area of social justice and has therefore been more likely to adopt the position that the earth is a gift from God that we must not abuse. This new Christian asceticism however does not mean that the church has turned around. Clearly, the church is no enemy of the environmentalist movement. It has condemned profit driven development by the government and large agrobusiness in its support of native people and small landholders. It has done a lot of social and political work through its base eccesial communities (CEBs) in terms of infrastructural improvement and land reform. The church has consciously and unconditionally worked to counter the forces within Brazil that have been ravaging the environment. It must be understood however that the church is not preservationist or antidevelopmentalist. The church has been using its power to obtain social justice which includes the equitable use of available resources as the primary means of serving social needs. Thus human needs takes priority over environmental concerns and this is a result of an indigenous socioreligious imperative. PMID:12317213

  5. Should the Catholic Church abolish the rule of Celibacy?

    Men-Andri Benz; Reto Foellmi; Egon Franck; Urs Meister


    Since the Middle Ages, celibacy has been a requirement for those becoming priests in the Roman Catholic Church. In the ongoing discussions about reforms, a wide range of church members have asked for the abolishment of the celibacy requirement in order to meet the changed social and moral standards of believers and to increase the quality and quantity of priests. However, this paper shows that from a strategic point of view, there are good reasons for the Catholic Church to keep, or even to i...

  6. Strategic Choice of Celibacy in the Catholic Church

    Men-Andri Benz; Egon Franck; Urs Meister


    Since the middle ages celibacy is a necessary commitment when considering becoming a priest in the Roman Catholic Church. In the ongoing discussions about reforms, a wide range of church members ask for the abolishment of celibacy in order to meet believers? changed social and moral standards and to increase the quality and the quantity of priests. However, this paper shows that from a rational point of view, there are good reasons for the Catholic Church to keep or even to increase the role ...

  7. Spolia from the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac

    Pejić Svetlana


    Full Text Available Two, so far unknown, spolia with carved interlace ornaments, built into the wall of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac are analyzed. These spolia are a part of the collection of fragments discovered earlier in the Church of St. Peter in Bijelo Polje. A comparative analysis was performed on a multitude of pre-Romanic material, in order to determine the time when they were made and whether they originated from any specific circle of stonemasons, and also to identify the initial position of the fragments in the liturgical church furniture for which they had been carved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036

  8. Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members

    Flynn SJ


    practice in Baltimore, Maryland. We conducted four separate 90-minute focus groups among patients with controlled (one group and uncontrolled (one group hypertension, as well as their family members (two groups. Trained moderators used open-ended questions to assess participants’ perceptions regarding patient, family, clinic, and community-level factors influencing patients’ effective hypertension self-management. Results: Patient participants identified several facilitators (including family members’ support and positive relationships with doctors and barriers (including competing health priorities, lack of knowledge about hypertension, and poor access to community resources that influence their hypertension self-management. Family members also identified several facilitators (including their participation in patients’ doctor’s visits and discussions with patients’ doctors outside of visits and barriers (including their own limited health knowledge and patients’ lack of motivation to sustain hypertension self-management behaviors that affect their efforts to support patients’ hypertension self-management. Conclusion: African American patients with hypertension and their family members reported numerous patient, family, clinic, and community-level facilitators and barriers to patients’ hypertension self-management. Patients’ and their family members’ views may help guide efforts to tailor behavioral interventions designed to improve hypertension self-management behaviors and hypertension control in minority populations. Keywords: hypertension, patient perspective, qualitative research, health disparities

  9. Church over Nation: Christian Missionaries and Korean Christians in Colonial Korea

    Matsutani, Motokazu


    This dissertation examines the interrelationships between the foreign Missions and the Korean Church in colonial Korea. In contrast to previous scholarship that assumes a necessary link between the Korean Church and Korean nationalism, this study focuses on the foreign Mission's predominance over the Korean Church as a major obstacle in the Korean Church's adoption of nationalism as part of its Christian vision.

  10. The United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (UCCSA - A case study of a united and ecumenical church

    D van der Water


    Full Text Available In this article, the ecumenical heritage of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa is described by the General Secretary of that church. The early history of the UCCSA, related to the London Missionary Society, created a sense of self-awareness that led to the unification of racially divided congregational churches during 1967. This set the ground for the active involvement of the UCCSA in the political liberation processes in Southern Africa. In addition, the UCCSA 's continued exploration of further ecumenical endeavours is traced. The covenental theology of the UCCSA forms a unifying thread throughout these processes.