... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...
Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.
Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam
Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...
The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…
Lee, Sunmin; Chen, Lu; Ma, Grace X.; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Oh, Youngsuk; Scully, Lynn
Breast cancer incidence and the number of breast cancer survivors have been rapidly increasing among Chinese and Korean women in the United States. However, few data are available regarding quality of life in Asian American breast cancer survivors. This qualitative study aims to describe Asian American women’s perceptions of quality of life and their breast cancer experiences. In-depth interviews with four Chinese and five Korean American breast cancer survivors and three oncologists were con...
Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A
The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for
Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.
Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C
soy consumers. Similarly, the protective effect of soy was primarily observed among subjects who were nondrinkers of green tea. In summary, our results point to an important role of both green tea and soy intake in relation to breast cancer risk in Asian-American women. PMID:12845655
Cancer Survivor; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Shelley White-Means; Muriel Rice; Jill Dapremont; Barbara Davis; Judy Martin
Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Themat...
Paxton, Raheem J.; Wendell C Taylor; Shine Chang; Courneya, Kerry S.; Jones, Lovell A.
INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (m...
Full Text Available Michelle A Mollica,1 Lynne S Nemeth,1 Susan D Newman,2 Martina Mueller,1 Katherine Sterba31College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 2South Carolina Clinical and Translation Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAPurpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a peer navigation survivorship program for African American (AA breast cancer survivors (BCS and its potential effects on selected short-term outcomes according to the Quality of Life Model Applied to Cancer Survivors.Methods: An AA BCS who completed treatment over 1 year prior to the study was trained as a peer navigator (PN, and then paired with AA women completing primary breast cancer treatment (n=4 for 2 months. This mixed-methods, proof of concept study utilized a convergent parallel approach to explore feasibility and investigate whether changes in scores are favorable using interviews and self-administered questionnaires.Results: Results indicate that the PN intervention was acceptable by both PN and BCS, and was feasible in outcomes of recruitment, cost, and time requirements. Improvements in symptom distress, perceived support from God, and preparedness for recovery outcomes were observed over time. Qualitative analysis revealed six themes emerging from BCS interviews: “learning to ask the right questions”, “start living life again”, “shifting my perspective”, “wanting to give back”, “home visits are powerful”, and “we both have a journey”: support from someone who has been there.Conclusion: Results support current literature indicating that AA women who have survived breast cancer can be an important source of support, knowledge, and motivation for those completing breast cancer treatment. Areas
Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.
Im, Eun-Ok; Lee, Yaelim; Ji, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Jingwen; Kim, Sangmi; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Nishigaki, Masakazu; Yeo, Seon Ae; Shapira, Marilyn M; Mao, Jun James
The purpose of this article is to identify practical issues in Internet recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities by analyzing an Internet intervention study conducted with Asian American breast cancer survivors, and to propose directions for recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for future Internet research. Six practical issues were identified: (a) a relatively fewer number of Internet communities/groups; (b) hindrances in establishing authenticity; PMID:27490884
Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employe...
Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Noel, Lailea; Chavakula, Neeraja N.; Butler, Dwayne; Kenkel, Sandi; Oliver, Cheryl; McCullough, Isaac; Gehlert, Sarah
Similar to disparities seen at the national and state levels, African American women in St. Louis, Missouri have higher breast cancer mortality rates than their Caucasian counterparts. We examined breast cancer treatment (regimens and timing) in a sample of African American breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 while residing in a North St. Louis cluster (eight zip codes) of late stage at diagnosis. Data were obtained from medical record extractions of women participating in ...
Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Oh, April; Schiffer, Linda
Introduction Breast cancer survival rates are lower for African American women than for white women. Obesity, high-fat diets, and lack of regular physical activity increase risk for breast cancer recurrence, comorbid conditions, and premature death. Eighty-two percent of African American women are overweight or obese, partly because of unhealthy eating and exercise patterns. Although successful weight loss and lifestyle interventions for breast cancer survivors are documented, none has consid...
Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia
Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness. PMID:24518421
Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.
Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but limited data are available in African American (AA) women. We examined the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk in AA and white women. Cases (n = 491) and controls (n = 528) were from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). Mammographic density was reported to CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) cat...
Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young
The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886
Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Allicock, Marlyn; Johnson, La-Shell
Improved cancer screening and treatment advances have led to higher cancer survival rates in the United States. However, racial disparities in breast cancer survival persist for African American women who experience lower survival rates than white women. These disparities suggest that unmet needs related to survivorship still exist. This study focuses on the challenges that both African American cancer survivors and caregivers face across the cancer continuum. Five African American focus groups examined cancer survivor and caregiver support needs. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed, and uploaded into Atlas.ti. Thematic content analysis was applied to the text during the coding process. Themes were identified and emphasized based on the research team's integrated and unified final codes. Forty-one African Americans participated in five focus groups: 22 cancer survivors and 19 caregivers. Participants discussed five themes: (1) a culture that discourages the discussion of cancer; (2) lack of support services for African American cancer survivors; (3) lack of support services for cancer caregivers; (4) need for culturally appropriate cancer resources, including resources targeted at African American women; and (5) aspects that were helpful to cancer survivors and caregivers, including connecting with other survivors and caregivers, and having strong social support networks. We gained new insight into the unmet support needs for survivors and caregivers, especially when coping with the cancer experience continuum. While some cancer and caregiver support services exist, our study reveals a great need for services that incorporate the cultural differences that exist across races. PMID:25869580
Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H.; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W.; Nomura, Abraham M. Y.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G
Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach U.S. incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the ...
Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.
A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...
Coughlin, Steven S.
African American women in the U.S. have a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than white women. Black-white differences in survival persist even after accounting for disease stage and tumor characteristics suggesting that the higher rates of breast cancer mortality are due to social factors. Several factors may account for racial differences in breast cancer mortality including socioeconomic factors, access to screening mammography and timely treatment, and biological factors. Efforts to...
Yancy Haile F; Mason Jacquline A; Peters Sharla; Thompson Charles E; Littleton George K; Jett Marti; Day Agnes A
Abstract African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expressio...
Treviño, Rose A.; Vallejo, Liliana; Hughes, Daniel C; Gonzalez, Velda; Tirado-Gomez, Maribel; Basen-Engquist, Karen
Qualitative data was collected from Mexican-American (MA) and Puerto Rican (PR) breast cancer survivors to gain their perspectives on the relevant issues surrounding breast cancer survivorship and exercise. Six focus groups, a total of 31 participants were convened (three in Puerto Rico and three in Texas). Responses were analyzed and compared between the Mexican-American and Puerto Rican groups. Follow-up sessions were conducted at the sites to review the initial results and to validate a cu...
Sadler, Georgia Robins; Beerman, Paula R.; Lee, Kathy; Hung, Jenny; Nguyen, Helene; Cho, Janet; Huang, Wennie
Asian American women's historically low breast cancer mortality rate has remained constant as rates decreased for all other races. From 2000 to 2004, a randomized controlled trial explored the Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program's impact on Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n=1,540). Women aged 40 and older and non-adherent for annual screening mammograms were more likely to schedule a mammogram after receiving the breast cancer education program than wome...
Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E
Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024
Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than ... cancer. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are a number of risk factors. ...
White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy
Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655
White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy
Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655
Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.
Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities.
Wu, A. H.; Ziegler, R. G.; Pike, M. C.; Nomura, A M; West, D. W.; Kolonel, L N; Horn-Ross, P. L.; Rosenthal, J. F.; Hoover, R. N.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese-, Japanese- and Filipino-American women in Los Angeles County Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), San Francisco-Oakland MSA and Oahu, Hawaii. One objective of the study was to quantify breast cancer risks in relation to menstrual and reproductive histories in migrant and US-born Asian-Americans and to establish whether the gradient of risk in Asian-Americans can be explained by these factors. Using a common stu...
Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.
In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women’s emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular mammograms. A community-based convenience sample of African American women (n = 59) used a hand-held audience response device to report the intensity of thei...
... Next Topic Types of breast cancers What is breast cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... breast cancer? ” and Non-cancerous Breast Conditions . How Breast Cancer Spreads Breast cancer can spread through the lymph ...
Feng, Ye; Stram, Daniel O.; Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Olshan, Andrew F.; Jennifer J Hu; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Sue A Ingles; Michael F. Press
Genome-wide association studies have identified 73 breast cancer risk variants mainly in European populations. Given considerable differences in linkage disequilibrium structure between populations of European and African ancestry, the known risk variants may not be informative for risk in African ancestry populations. In a previous fine-mapping investigation of 19 breast cancer loci, we were able to identify SNPs in four regions that better captured risk associations in African American wome...
Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Millikan, Robert C.; John, Esther M; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Jennifer J Hu; Ziegler, Regina G.; Deming, Sandra L.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Nyante, Sarah; Palmer, Julie R.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Sue A Ingles
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed 19 common genetic variants that are associated with breast cancer risk. Testing of the index signals found through GWAS and fine-mapping of each locus in diverse populations will be necessary for characterizing the role of these risk regions in contributing to inherited susceptibility. In this large study of breast cancer in African-American women (3016 cases and 2745 controls), we tested the 19 known risk variants identified by GWAS and re...
Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja
The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. PMID:26804371
Gibson, Lynette M
The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations. PMID:19397053
Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast
Schubart, Jane R; Farnan, Michelle A; Kass, Rena B
Prior research has used focus group methodology to investigate cultural factors impacting the breast cancer experience of women of various ethnicities including African-Americans; however, this work has not specifically addressed treatment decision-making. This study identifies key issues faced by African-American women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding treatment decisions. We used an interpretive-descriptive study design based on qualitative data from three focus groups (n = 14) representing a population of African-American women in central Pennsylvania. Participants were asked to think back to when they were diagnosed with breast cancer and their visit with the breast surgeon. Questions were asked about the actual visit, treatment choices offered, sources of information, and whether the women felt prepared for the surgery and subsequent treatments. The prompts triggered memories and encouraged open discussion. The most important themes identified were fear across the breast cancer disease trajectory, a preference for visual information for understanding the diagnosis and surgical treatment, and support systems relying on family and friends, rather than the formal health-care system. Our results have implications for practice strategies and development of educational interventions that will help breast cancer patients better understand their diagnosis and treatment options, encourage their participation in treatment decision-making, and provide psychosocial support for those at high risk for emotional distress. PMID:25200948
Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott
Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167
I. V. Vysotskaya
Full Text Available American society of clinical oncology update on the roleof bisphosphonates and bone health issues in women with breast cancer Part II. Bisphosphonates in the adjuvant therapy of breast cancer
Raheem J Paxton
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (mean age = 54 years participated in an online survey. All participants completed measures assessing medical and demographic characteristics, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Chi-square tests for association, nonparametric tests, and logistic regression models were used to assess associations. All statistical tests were two sided. RESULTS: Almost half (47% of the women met the current guidelines for physical activity, almost half (47% were obese, and many reported having high blood pressure (53% or diabetes (21%. The prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol increased by age (P<0.001, and obese women had a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (63% vs. 44% and diabetes (21% vs. 12% than did non-obese women (all P<0.05. Obese women participated in significantly fewer total minutes of physical activity per week (100 minutes/week than did non-obese women (150 minutes/week; P<0.05. The number of comorbid conditions was associated with increased odds for physical inactivity (odds ratio = 1.40 and obesity (odds ratio = 2.22. CONCLUSION: Many African American breast cancer survivors had chronic conditions that may be exacerbated by poor lifestyle choices. Our results also provide evidence that healthy lifestyle interventions among obese African American breast cancer survivors are urgently needed.
Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne
The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty." PMID:26773423
Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.
Stiel, Laura; Adkins‐Jackson, Paris B.; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne
Abstract The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non‐Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to e...
Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra
In this study, the authors investigate the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40-65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support is associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry is associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449
James Kilpatrick, PhD
Full Text Available Introduction African American women exhibit a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than do white women. African American women are more likely to gain weight at diagnosis, which may increase their risk of cancer recurrence and comorbidities. Physical activity has been shown to decrease body mass index and improve quality of life in cancer survivors. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of a community-based exercise intervention in African American breast cancer survivors. Methods A theory-based eight-week community intervention using pedometers with scheduling, goal setting, and self-assessment was tested in a convenience sample of African American breast cancer survivors (n = 24. Data were collected at three time points to examine changes in steps walked per day, body mass index, and other anthropometric measures, attitudes, and demographic variables. Results Statistically significant increases in steps walked per day and attitude toward exercise as well as significant decreases in body mass index, body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist, hip, and forearm circumferences, as well as blood pressure, were reported from baseline to immediate post-intervention. Positive changes were retained or improved further at three-month follow-up except for attitude toward exercise. Participant retention rate during eight-week intervention was 92%. Conclusion Increasing walking for exercise, without making other changes, can improve body mass index, anthropometric measures, and attitudes, which are associated with improved quality of life and reduced risk of cancer recurrence. The high participant retention rate, along with significant study outcomes, demonstrate that among this sample of African American breast cancer survivors, participants were motivated to improve their exercise habits.
Antwan Jones; Paxton, Raheem J.
In view of evidence that African American cancer survivors experience the greatest challenges in maintaining adequate levels of physical activity, this cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether individual and residential environment characteristics are associated with physical activity in this population. A total of 275 breast cancer survivors completed self-report items measuring sociodemographic variables, physical activity, and select barriers to physical activity in Spring o...
Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.
Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…
... I found something when I did my breast self-exam. What should I do now? How often should I have mammograms? I have breast cancer. What are my treatment options? How often should I do breast self-exams? I have breast cancer. Is my daughter ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants
Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...
Parise, Carol; Caggiano, Vincent
Purpose Asian-American women have equal or better breast cancer survival rates than non-Hispanic white women, but many studies use the aggregate term "Asian/Pacific Islander" (API) or consider breast cancer as a single disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven subgroups of Asian-Americans expressing the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tumor marker subtypes and determine whether the ris...
Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred
Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…
Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C.; Bell, Douglas A.; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen
Introduction Previous epidemiologic studies suggest that women with variant cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) genotypes who smoke cigarettes are at increased risk for breast cancer. Methods We evaluated the association of breast cancer with CYP1A1 polymorphisms and cigarette smoking in a population-based, case–control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina. The study population consisted of 688 cases (271 African Americans and 417 whites) and 702 controls (285 African Americans and 417 w...
O'Brien, Katie M.; Cole, Stephen R.; Poole, Charles; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Herring, Amy H.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Millikan, Robert C.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene analyses have led to the discovery of several dozen genetic polymorphisms associated with breast cancer susceptibility, many of which are considered well-established risk factors for the disease. Despite attempts to replicate these same variant-disease associations in African Americans, the evaluable populations are often too small to produce precise or consistent results. We estimated the associations between 83 previously identified ...
Discusses breast cancer and teenagers, focusing on how parents can introduce the subject and encourage breast self-examination. The article provides information on breast cancer statistics, mammography, and American Cancer Society services. (SM)
Full Text Available A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR. Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses for LRR presence via chest wall examination. 80% of them (107 were Caucasian, 17% (23 were AA and 3% (4 were of other ethnicities. Evidence of LRR were noted in 13% of the women (17/134. The pro- portion of patients with LRR was higher in AA women than Caucasian women (26% vs. 10%, 6/23 vs. 11/107, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. The majority of Caucasian women with LRR consented to a medical record review, but a minority of AA women consented (8/11 vs. 2/6, respectively, p = 0.16.Conclusion: Evaluating disparities in breast cancer care outcomes is possible by reviewing data from patients served by hospice programs that aid a majority of patients within a community. This pilot data suggests that AA women with breast cancer have a higher incidence of loco-regional failure as a component of their terminal breast cancer disease than Caucasian women. A smaller proportion of AA patients and families agreed to participate in a medical record review study than Caucasians. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings, to elucidate factors contributing to disparities and to develop potential solutions.
... perform breast self-exams each month. However, the importance of self-exams for detecting breast cancer is ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...
Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B
Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658
Adela Castelló; Miguel Martín; Amparo Ruiz; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Virginia Lope; Silvia Antolín; Pedro Sánchez; Manuel Ramos; Antonio Antón; Montserrat Muñoz; Begoña Bermejo; Ana De Juan-Ferré; Carlos Jara; José I Chacón
Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the W...
Smith, Selina A.; Whitehead, Mary S.; Sheats, Joyce Q.; Fontenot, Brittney; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ansa, Benjamin
Background To develop a culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention, involvement of its intended users is needed. Methods Members of an African American (AA) breast cancer support group participated in two 4-hour guided discussions, which were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed to guide the content. Results The support group collaborated with researchers to develop 24 experiential nutrition education sessions using a social cognitive framework and incorporating self-regulation skills (goal-setting, self-monitoring, problem-solving, stimulus control) and social support to enhance self-efficacy for changes in dietary intake. Conclusions Community engagement fostered autonomy, built collaboration, and enhanced the capacity of AA breast cancer survivors to participate in developing a lifestyle intervention.
Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R
Elevated circulating levels of the adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are associated with increased breast cancer risk in prospective studies. Genetic variants in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis genes may contribute to these circulating hormone levels, and consequently to breast cancer risk. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in HPA axis genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five HPA axis genes (NR3C1, NR3C2, CRH, CRHR1, and CRHBP) with the risk of breast cancer in the Women's Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 49 SNPs evaluated, one showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of the SNP rs11747190[A] in the CRHBP gene for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women was 1.45 (1.09-1.94). The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CIs) of two SNPs (CRHBP rs1700688[T] and CRHR1 rs17689471[C]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 1.84 (1.13-2.98) and 2.48 (1.20-5.13), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in these HPA axis genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:26417403
Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.
Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the pas...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...
Paek, Min-So; Lim, Jung-Won
Guided by the stress process model (SPM), this study investigated the direct and indirect pathways of primary (negative self-image and life stress), secondary stressors (family communication strain) and family coping (external and internal) on mental health outcomes among Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). A total of 156 Chinese- and Korean-American BCS were surveyed. Results showed primary and secondary stressors had a negative effect on better mental health outcomes. External coping was associated with better mental health. Family communication strain mediated the relationship between life stress and mental health outcomes. External coping mediated the relationship between family communication strain and mental health outcomes. Multi-group analysis revealed the stress process did not differ across ethnic groups. Findings suggest the SPM may be applicable to understand the stress process of Chinese- and Korean-American BCS and provide valuable insight into the role of family communication and external coping on mental health outcomes. PMID:26223968
More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)
... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer - Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... recommendations for ovarian ablation . Hormonal therapy for metastatic breast cancer Hormonal therapies are also commonly used to treat ...
Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.
Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...
Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R
The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467
"Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).
Jill Suzanne Barnholtz-Sloan
Full Text Available In this study, we assessed association of GWAS hits by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS (N total = 3693 individuals and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk and Ethnicity (SCORE (N total = 1135 individuals. In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS hits (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, MSMB, 8q24 were genotyped. Principal component analysis was used to assess ancestral differences by race. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression was used to assess differences in cancer risk with and without adjustment for the first ancestral principal component (PC1 and for an interaction effect between PC1 and the GWAS hit (SNP of interest. PC1 explained 53.7% of the variance for CBCS and 49.5% of the variance for SCORE. European Americans and African Americans were similar in their ancestral structure between CBCS and SCORE and cases and controls were well matched by ancestry. In the CBCS European Americans, 9/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment, but after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs1219648 in FGFR2; for CBCS African Americans , 6/11 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, all 6 SNPs remained significant and an additional SNP now became significant. In the SCORE European Americans, 0/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and no changes were seen after additional adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect; for SCORE African Americans , 2/9 SNPs were significant after PC1 adjustment and after adjustment for the PC1 by SNP interaction effect, only one SNP remained significant (rs16901979 at 8q24. We show that genetic associations by race are modified by interaction between individual SNPs and population stratification.
... click the brackets in the lower right-hand corner of the video screen. To reduce the videos, ... with breast cancer are under way. With early detection, and prompt and appropriate treatment, the outlook for ...
This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks
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... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...
... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...
Wu, Anna H.; Vigen, Cheryl; Razavi, Pedram; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Stancyzk, Frank Z
Introduction The role of alcohol and breast cancer risk in Asians has not been well studied. Recent studies suggest that even moderate alcohol intake may be associated with an increase in breast cancer risk, and this may be particularly relevant as alcohol intake is traditionally low among Asians. Methods We investigated the association between lifetime alcohol intake (including frequency, quantity, duration, timing, and beverage type) and breast cancer in a population-based case-control stud...
... Text Size News » Filed under: Breast Cancer Report: Breast Cancer Death Rates Down 34% Since 1990 Article date: ... American Cancer Society finds that death rates from breast cancer in the United States have dropped 34% since ...
Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth
This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645, thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.
Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H; Kim, M T; Kim, K B
Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the past 2 years. Ninety-three completed follow-up questionnaires. A 120-min, in-class education combined with LHW follow-up counseling and navigation assistance through the health care system was provided. Rates of breast cancer screening behaviors significantly increased at 6 months (P < 0.001); changes between pre- and post-intervention were 31.9% for mammography, 23% for clinical breast examination and 36.2% for breast self-examination. Modesty toward screening significantly decreased over time, but we did not find any significant differences in breast cancer knowledge and beliefs before and after the intervention. Results support the efficacy of this neighborhood-based, culturally sensitive intervention. Further research should seek to replicate these findings and to incorporate more self-care skills such as health literacy when designing an intervention program for linguistically and culturally isolated immigrant women. PMID:18463411
... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Overview Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...
Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V
Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504
... Other less common types of breast cancer include: Medullary Mucinous Tubular Metaplastic Papillary breast cancer Inflammatory breast cancer is a faster-growing type of cancer that accounts for about 1% to 5% of all breast cancers. Paget’s disease is a type of cancer that begins in ...
Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...
Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men ... usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. Other breast symptoms can include Dimpled ...
Full Text Available Aberrant DNA methylation is critical for development and progression of breast cancer. We investigated the association of CpG island methylation in candidate genes and clinicopathological features in 65 African-American (AA and European-American (EA breast cancer patients. Quantitative methylation analysis was carried out on bisulfite modified genomic DNA and sequencing (pyrosequencing for promoter CpG islands of p16, ESR1, RASSF1A, RARβ2, CDH13, HIN1, SFRP1 genes and the LINE1 repetitive element using matched paired non-cancerous and breast tumor specimen (32 AA and 33 EA women. Five of the genes, all known tumor suppressor genes (RASSF1A, RARβ2, CDH13, HIN1 and SFRP1, were found to be frequently hypermethylated in breast tumor tissues but not in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Significant differences in the CDH13 methylation status were observed by comparing DNA methylation between AA and EA patients, with more obvious CDH13 methylation differences between the two patient groups in the ER- disease and among young patients (age<50. In addition, we observed associations between CDH13, SFRP1, and RASSF1A methylation and breast cancer subtypes and between SFRP1 methylation and patient's age. Furthermore, tumors that received neoadjuvant therapy tended to have reduced RASSF1A methylation when compared with chemotherapy naïve tumors. Finally, Kaplan Meier survival analysis showed a significant association between methylation at 3 loci (RASSF1A, RARβ2 and CDH13 and reduced overall disease survival. In conclusion, the DNA methylation status of breast tumors was found to be significantly associated with clinicopathological features and race/ethnicity of the patients.
Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...
Nahleh, Zeina; Otoukesh, Salman; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Sanchez, Luis; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Cataneda, Kayla; Heydarian, Rosalinda
Hispanics in El Paso, TX, a large American-Mexican border city constitute 85% of the population. Limited cancer research has been conducted in this population. We sought to study the prevalence of BRCA mutations among Hispanic patients of Mexican origin, identify reported Mexican founder or recurrent mutations, and study the breast cancer characteristics in mutation carriers. Methods: Hispanic women of Mexican descent with a personal history of breast cancer, who presented consecutively for g...
... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...
... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...
This book contains outstanding papers presented at the 3rd International Copenhagen Symposium on Detection of Breast Cancer, 1985. The Symposium was an opportunity to learn from extensive screening procedures carried out at outstanding centers in the United States, Sweden, the Netherlands, and England. Furthermore, the symposium dealt with new modalities such as ultrasonography, magnification techniques, and magnetic resonance; and very important contributions concerning self-examination, fine needle aspiration biopsy, and radiation risks were presented. A whole section was also dedicated to the highly important cooperation between radiologist, surgeon, and pathologist. (orig./MG)
... in situ-male; Intraductal carcinoma-male; Inflammatory breast cancer-male; Paget disease of the nipple-male; Breast cancer-male ... The cause of breast cancer is not clear. But there are risk ... breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to radiation Higher ...
Doyle, S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)
Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.
Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Shetty, Priya B; Guan, Xiaowei; Nyante, Sarah J; Luo, Jingchun; Brennan, Donal J.; Millikan, Robert C.
Twenty-nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previously published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and multiple ancestry informative markers were genotyped in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) (742 African-American (AA) cases, 1230 White cases; 658 AA controls, 1118 White controls). In the entire study population, 9/10 SNPs in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) were significantly associated with breast cancer after adjusting for age, race and European ancestry ...
Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Myckatyn, Terence; Margenthaler, Julie; Gehlert, Sarah
Background Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment that positively impacts quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Although breast reconstruction rates have increased over time, African American women remain less likely to receive breast reconstruction compared to Caucasian women. National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, specialized institutions with more standardized models of cancer treatment, report higher breast r...
Nan, Hongmei; Dorgan, Joanne F; Rebbeck, Timothy R
Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) regulates ovarian folliculogenesis by signaling via its receptors, and elevated serum AMH levels are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. No previous studies have examined the effects of genetic variants in AMH-related genes on breast cancer risk. We evaluated the associations of 62 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in AMH and its receptor genes, including AMH type 1 receptor (ACVR1) and AMH type 2 receptor (AMHR2), with the risk of breast cancer in the Women's Insights and Shared Experiences (WISE) Study of Caucasians (346 cases and 442 controls), as well as African Americans (149 cases and 246 controls). Of the 62 SNPs evaluated, two showed a nominal significant association (P for trend < 0.05) with breast cancer risk among Caucasians, and another two among African Americans. The age-adjusted additive odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs12694937[C] and ACVR1 rs2883605[T]) for the risk of breast cancer among Caucasian women were 2.33 (1.20-4.52) and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), respectively. The age-adjusted additive ORs (95% CI) of those two SNPs (ACVR1 rs1146031[G] and AMHR2 functional SNP rs2002555[G]) for the risk of breast cancer among African American women were 0.63 (0.44-0.92) and 1.67 (1.10-2.53), respectively. However, these SNPs did not show significant associations after correction for multiple testing. Our findings do not provide strong supportive evidence for the contribution of genetic variants in AMH-related genes to the risk of developing breast cancer in either Caucasians or African Americans. PMID:25379134
The ATM gene has been frequently involved in hereditary breast cancer as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene but evidence regarding the role of ATM as a breast cancer susceptibility gene has been contradictory. In this study, a full mutation analysis of the ATM gene was carried out in patients from 137 Chilean breast cancer families, of which 126 were BRCA1/2 negatives and 11 BRCA1/2 positives. We further perform a case-control study between the subgroup of 126 cases BRCA1/2 negatives and 200 controls for the 5557G>A missense variant and the IVS38-8T>C and the IVS24-9delT polymorphisms. In the full mutation analysis we detected two missense variants and eight intronic polymorphisms. Carriers of the variant IVS24-9delT, or IVS38-8T>C, or 5557G>A showed an increase in breast cancer risk. The higher significance was observed in the carriers of IVS38-8T>C (OR = 3.09 [95%CI 1.11–8.59], p = 0.024). The IVS24-9 T/(-T), IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype confered a 3.19 fold increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 3.19 [95%CI 1.16–8.89], p = 0.021). The haplotype estimation suggested a strong linkage disequilibrium between the three markers (D' = 1). We detected only three haplotypes in the cases and control samples, some of these may be founder haplotypes in the Chilean population. The IVS24-9 T/(-T), IVS38-8 T/C, 5557 G/A composite genotype alone or in combination with certain genetic background and/or environmental factors, could modify the cancer risk by increasing genetic inestability or by altering the effect of the normal DNA damage response
Rachetta, Eleonora; Osano, Silvia; Astegiano, Francesco; Martincich, Laura
Since several studies have demonstrated the inadequate diagnostic performance of mammography in high risk women, over the past two decades, different breast imaging tests have been evaluated as additional diagnostic methods to mammography, and the most relevant ones are the techniques that do not imply the use of X-rays, considering the young age of these patients and the higher radio-sensitivity. Breast dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has risen growing interest not only because of the absence of use of X-rays, but also because it provides morpho-functional features, which may depict biological characteristics of breast tissues, including invasive and in situ cancers. Different multicenter non-randomized prospective studies aimed to evaluate breast DCE-MRI as an integral part of surveillance programs, agreed about the evidence that in high risk women screening with DCE-MRI is more effective than either mammography and/or ultrasound. Moreover, this modality leads to the identifications of cancers at a more favorable stage, allowing a real advantage in terms of tumor size and nodal involvement. The medical community is evaluating to suggest DCE-MRI alone as screening modality in high-risk women, as it was reported that in these cases the sensitivity of MRI plus conventional imaging was not significantly higher than that of MRI alone. Breast MRI is now recommended as part of screening program for high risk women by both European and American guidelines. PMID:26924173
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS, conducted mostly in European or Asian descendants, have identified approximately 67 genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Given the large differences in genetic architecture between the African-ancestry genome and genomes of Asians and Europeans, it is important to investigate these loci in African-ancestry populations. We evaluated index SNPs in all 67 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified to date in our study including up to 3,300 African-American women (1,231 cases and 2,069 controls, recruited in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS and the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS. Seven SNPs were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 with the risk of overall breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported: rs10069690 (5p15/TERT, rs999737 (14q24/RAD51L1, rs13387042 (2q35/TNP1, rs1219648 (10q26/FGFR2, rs8170 (19p13/BABAM1, rs17817449 (16q12/FTO, and rs13329835 (16q23/DYL2. A marginally significant association (P<0.10 was found for three additional SNPs: rs1045485 (2q33/CASP8, rs4849887 (2q14/INHBB, and rs4808801 (19p13/ELL. Three additional SNPs, including rs1011970 (9p21/CDKN2A/2B, rs941764 (14q32/CCDC88C, and rs17529111 (6q14/FAM46A, showed a significant association in analyses conducted by breast cancer subtype. The risk of breast cancer was elevated with an increasing number of risk variants, as measured by quintile of the genetic risk score, from 1.00 (reference, to 1.75 (1.30-2.37, 1.56 (1.15-2.11, 2.02 (1.50-2.74 and 2.63 (1.96-3.52, respectively, (P = 7.8 × 10(-10. Results from this study highlight the need for large genetic studies in AAs to identify risk variants impacting this population.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...
... about this condition, see Inflammatory Breast Cancer . Paget disease of the nipple This type of breast cancer ... carcinoma (this is a type of metaplastic carcinoma) Medullary carcinoma Mucinous (or colloid) carcinoma Papillary carcinoma Tubular ...
A polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, Ala-9Val, has been examined in association with breast cancer risk in several epidemiologic studies. Results suggest that the Ala allele increases the risk of breast cancer and modifies the effects of environmental exposures that produce oxidative damage to DNA. We examined the role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in a population-based case–control study of invasive and in situ breast cancer in North Carolina. Genotypes were evaluated for 2025 cases (760 African Americans and 1265 whites) and for 1812 controls (677 African Americans and 1135 whites). The odds ratio for MnSOD Ala/Ala versus any MnSOD Val genotypes was not elevated in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2) or in whites (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.2). Greater than additive joint effects were observed for the Ala/Ala genotype and smoking, radiation to the chest, and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Antagonism was observed between the Ala/Ala genotype and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The MnSOD genotype may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer in the presence of specific environmental exposures. These results provide further evidence for the importance of reactive oxygen species and of oxidative DNA damage in the etiology of breast cancer
Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Raska, Paola; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Millikan, Robert C.
In this study, we assessed association of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) “hits” by race with adjustment for potential population stratification (PS) in two large, diverse study populations; the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS; N total = 3693 individuals) and the University of Pennsylvania Study of Clinical Outcomes, Risk, and Ethnicity (SCORE; N total = 1135 individuals). In both study populations, 136 ancestry information markers and GWAS “hits” (CBCS: FGFR2, 8q24; SCORE: JAZF1, M...
... With Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Prevention en español Cáncer de mama You may have heard about special events, like walks or races, to raise money for breast cancer research. Or maybe you've seen people wear ...
Outcome disparities in African American women with triple negative breast cancer: a comparison of epidemiological and molecular factors between African American and Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer
Although diagnosed less often, breast cancer in African American women (AAW) displays different characteristics compared to breast cancer in Caucasian women (CW), including earlier onset, less favorable clinical outcome, and an aggressive tumor phenotype. These disparities may be attributed to differences in socioeconomic factors such as access to health care, lifestyle, including increased frequency of obesity in AAW, and tumor biology, especially the higher frequency of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in young AAW. Improved understanding of the etiology and molecular characteristics of TNBC in AAW is critical to determining whether and how TNBC contributes to survival disparities in AAW. Demographic, pathological and survival data from AAW (n = 62) and CW (n = 98) with TNBC were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Student’s t-tests, and log-rank tests. Frozen tumor specimens were available from 57 of the TNBC patients (n = 23 AAW; n = 34 CW); RNA was isolated after laser microdissection of tumor cells and was hybridized to HG U133A 2.0 microarrays. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with FDR <0.05, >2-fold difference defining significance. The frequency of TNBC compared to all BC was significantly higher in AAW (28%) compared to CW (12%), however, significant survival and pathological differences were not detected between populations. Gene expression analysis revealed the tumors were more similar than different at the molecular level, with only CRYBB2P1, a pseudogene, differentially expressed between populations. Among demographic characteristics, AAW consumed significantly lower amounts of caffeine and alcohol, were less likely to breastfeed and more likely to be obese. These data suggest that TNBC in AAW is not a unique disease compared to TNBC in CW. Rather, higher frequency of TNBC in AAW may, in part, be attributable to the effects of lifestyle choices. Because these risk factors are modifiable, they provide new opportunities for the development of risk
... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...
... breast-cancer prevention in postmenopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 364(25):2381–2391. [PubMed Abstract] Saslow D, Boetes C, Burke W, et al. American Cancer Society guidelines for breast screening with MRI ...
... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...
... Breast Cancer , Coping with Cancer Your Body After Breast Cancer Article date: September 28, 2012 By Melissa Weber ... age 24, she was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer in 2010. “I had no control over what ...
Dang, Jeff; Lee, Jessica; Tran, Jacqueline H; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen N; Valdez-Dadia, Annalyn; Thomson, Jasmin; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
We examined whether the impact of medical interpretation services was associated with the receipt of a mammogram, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear. We conducted a large cross-sectional study involving four Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities with high proportions of individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). Participants were recruited from community clinics, churches and temples, supermarkets, and other community gathering sites in Northern and Southern California. Among those that responded, 98% completed the survey rendering a total of 1,708 AAPI women. In a series of multivariate logistic regression models, it was found that women who typically used a medical interpreter had a greater odds of having received a mammogram (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21, 2.83), clinical breast exam (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 1.82, 5.03), and a Pap smear (OR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.38, 3.97) than those who did not usually use an interpreter. The study provides support for increasing language access in healthcare settings. In particular, medical interpreters may help increase the utilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among LEP AAPI women. PMID:20352398
Debra E. Lyon; Lathika Mohanraj; Debra Lynch Kelly; RK Elswick Jr
Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with bre...
Timothy R Rebbeck; DeMichele, Angela; Tran, Teo V.; Panossian, Saarene; Bunin, Greta R.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Strom, Brian L
FGFR2 and MAP3K1 are members of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK-signaling pathway and have been identified from genome-wide association studies to be breast cancer susceptibility genes. Potential interactions of these genes and their role with respect to tumor markers, hormonal factors and race on breast cancer risk have not been explored. We examined FGFR2 and MAP3K1 variants, breast tumor characteristics and hormone exposures in a population-based case–control sample of 1225 European-American (EA) and ...
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.
Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.
Breast cancer remains a common disease throughout the world. Here we review new knowledge about early breast cancer obtained during the past 5 years. The prognosis of early breast cancer is generally favorable. Especially, ductal carcinoma in situ has been regarded as a non-life-threatening disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and early onset of the treatment has been important. Early age at menarche, late age at first birth, and late age at menopause are related to breast cancer risk. Examination by mammography and ultrasonography is still the most effective means of detection for premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. Additionally, there have been important advances in MRI, sentinel lymph node biopsy, breast-conserving surgery, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Another approach to keeping the disease under control is the elucidation of breast cancer's molecular biological features. Assessment of potential molecular targets can lead to early diagnosis and molecular targeted treatment. (author)
Castellaro, Andrés M.; Tonda, Alfredo; Cejas, Hugo H.; Ferreyra, Héctor; Caputto, Beatriz L.; Pucci, Oscar A.; Gil, German A.
Background Microcalcifications can be the early and only presenting sign of breast cancer. One shared characteristic of breast cancer is the appearance of mammographic mammary microcalcifications that can routinely be used to detect breast cancer in its initial stages, which is of key importance due to the possibility that early detection allows the application of more conservative therapies for a better patient outcome. The mechanism by which mammary microcalcifications are formed is still l...
Phipps, R. F.; Perry, P M
Familial breast cancer is important because of all the known risk factors associated with developing the disease. The one with the most predictability is a positive family history. It is also important because a family history causes anxiety in the families concerned, and young women will often ask their chance of developing the disease. This form of breast cancer accounts for 10% of causes and has factors that distinguish it from the sporadic variety. Relatives of familial breast cancer pati...
Owens, Thomas W.; Naylor, Matthew J.
Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to th...
Debra E Lyon
Full Text Available Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with breast cancer. Methods: This is a baseline descriptive analysis from an ongoing randomized controlled trial that includes 124 women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer prior to chemotherapy. Data sources included medical records, self-report questionnaires and a blood sample for measures of inflammation. The statistical analysis included descriptive statistics and ANOVA models to determine differences between the two groups. Results: Overall, both groups had low levels of health promoting behaviors. African Americans had a significantly higher body mass index. Caucasian women consumed more alcohol. Levels of C-reactive protein and MIP-1β were significantly higher in African Americans. Conclusion: Potentially modifiable factors such as nutrition, physical activity and levels of inflammation warrant further attention.
Stebbing, Justin; Slater, Sarah; Slevin, Maurice
Median survival from metastatic breast cancer is 12 months without treatment, but young people can survive up to 20 years with the disease, whereas in other metastatic cancers this would be considered very unusual.
Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8874 of October 1, 2012 National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Breast cancer touches the lives of Americans from... combatting this devastating illness, more than 200,000 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer this...
Graça, Susana; Esteves, Joana; Costa, Sílvia; Vale, Sílvio; Maciel, Jorge
Neuroendocrine breast cancer is thought to account for about 1% of all breast cancers. This rare type of breast malignancy is more common in older women and presents as a low-grade, slow-growing cancer. The most definitive markers that indicate neuroendocrine carcinoma are the presence of chromogranin, synaptophysin or neuron-specific enolase, in at least 50% of malignant tumour cells. The authors present a case report of an 83-year-old woman, admitted to their institution with right breast l...
The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably
... breast cancer: consensus statement for standardized diagnosis and treatment. Annals of Oncology 2011; 22(3):515-523. [PubMed Abstract] Fouad TM, Kogawa T, Reuben JM, Ueno NT. The role of inflammation in inflammatory breast cancer. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 2014; 816:53-73. [PubMed ...
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Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.
Reese, Le’Roy E.; Blumenthal, Daniel S; Haynes, Venice E.
This supplement highlights the efforts of Morehouse School of Medicine’s Prevention Research Center and its partners to reduce the disparities experienced by African American women for breast and cervical cancer in Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina. The project (entitled the Southeastern U.S. Collaborative CEED, or SUCCEED) is supported by a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) grant to establish a Center of Excellence in the Elimination of Disparities (CEED). This introd...
Hirko, Kelly A.; Soliman, Amr S; Banerjee, Mousumi; Ruterbusch, Julie; Harford, Joe B; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Graff, John J.; Merajver, Sofia D; Schwartz, Kendra
Introduction Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is characterized by an apparent geographical distribution in incidence, being more common in North Africa than other parts of the world. Despite the rapid growth of immigrants to the United States from Arab nations, little is known about disease patterns among Arab Americans because a racial category is rarely considered for this group. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the burden of IBC in Arab ethnic populations by descri...
Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez
Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer.
... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...
... Balance › Breast Cancer and Bone Loss Fact Sheet Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July, 2010 Download PDFs English ... JoAnn Pinkerton, MD What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...
Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumours are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs. Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarise what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically.
BACKGROUND: The issue of pregnancy following the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer is important because the incidence of breast cancer is increasing in women of childbearing age. The fact that many women are delaying childbearing, whether for educational, professional, or personal reasons, increases the number of women who will undergo breast cancer treatment before completing childbearing. METHODS: Data on pregnancy in breast cancer survivors are limited and consist only of retrospective data. This paper reviews the published literature on the influence of subsequent pregnancy on breast cancer, including three recent large-scale population-based studies. RESULTS: The survival of women with breast carcinoma who subsequently become pregnant is not reported to be decreased in any of the published series. However, several biases may be present that justify the concern regarding the conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the safety of subsequent pregnancy after breast carcinoma treatment is needed. To address these issues, patients are currently being accrued for a large, prospective, multicenter study of young breast carcinoma patients. PMID:10758557
Schairer, C; Brinton, L A; Hoover, R N
We investigated the relationship between methylxanthine consumption and breast cancer using data from a case-control study which included 1,510 cases and 1,882 controls identified through a nation-wide breast cancer screening program. There was no evidence of a positive association between methylxanthine consumption and risk of breast cancer. In fact, there was some suggestion of a negative association, particularly in women diagnosed after age 50. In addition, there was no evidence of increased risk with past or recent methylxanthine consumption, or with the consumption of caffeine or specific beverages, most notably brewed or instant caffeinated coffee and tea. PMID:3117709
Hodge, Felicia Schanche
A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…
Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Full Text Available Steven Lehrer, Sheryl Green, John A Martignetti, Kenneth E Rosenzweig Departments of Radiation Oncology and Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background: The risk of thyroid cancer is known to be slightly increased in women after treatment for breast cancer. In the current study, we analyzed the incidence of thyroid cancer and breast cancer in 50 US states and in the District of Columbia to ascertain how often these two diseases are associated. Methods: Data on the incidence of thyroid cancer were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute and data on the incidence of breast cancer were from the American Cancer Society. Data on the average number of children per family with children and mean household income were sourced from the US Bureau of the Census and prevalence of obesity by state is determined from a paper published in 2010 on state-specific obesity prevalence among US adults by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: There was a significant association between breast and thyroid cancer (P=0.002. Since the incidence of breast cancer increases with increasing income and obesity, while decreasing with parity, multiple linear regression was performed. Breast cancer incidence was significantly related to thyroid cancer incidence (β=0.271, P=0.039, inversely related to average number of children per family with children (β=-0.271, P=0.039, unrelated to adult obesity (β=0.134, P=0.369, and significantly related to family income (β=0.642, P<0.001. Conclusion: This study identifies an association between breast and thyroid cancer. The association suggests that unexplored breast-thyroid cancer susceptibility loci exist and warrant further study. Keywords: breast cancer, thyroid cancer, genetics, association
Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer
The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)
... Prosthesis Complementary Therapy Types of Complementary Therapy Acupuncture Art Therapy Diet, Nutrition and Exercise Expressive Writing Guided ... SIGN UP FOR OUR MAILING LIST SIGN UP Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Living Beyond Breast Cancer Conference ...
... the risk of breast cancer: Having an abortion. Making diet changes such as eating less fat or more ... does not give formal guidelines or recommendations for making decisions about health care. Reviewers and Updates Editorial Boards ...
Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads
BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...
Christine B. Ambrosone
Full Text Available Breast cancer in African-American (AA women occurs at an earlier age than in European-American (EA women and is more likely to have aggressive features associated with poorer prognosis, such as high-grade and negative estrogen receptor (ER status. The mechanisms underlying these differences are unknown. To address this, we conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for high-grade ER- disease in both AA and EA women. With the onset of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, creative measures were needed to adapt case ascertainment and contact procedures to this new environment of patient privacy. In this paper, we report on our approach to establishing a multicenter study of breast cancer in New York and New Jersey, provide preliminary distributions of demographic and pathologic characteristics among case and control participants by race, and contrast participation rates by approaches to case ascertainment, with discussion of strengths and weaknesses.
Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...
Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability ...
Lippman, M E
One in every 12 women will develop breast cancer; the incidence increases with age, dietary fat intake, caloric intake, height, and weight. The 10-year survival rate of breast cancer patients who refuse therapy is virtually zero. Segmental mastectomy plus radiation and lumpectomy, combined with systemic (adjuvant)chemotherapy, are alternatives under investigation at the National Institutes of Health that may increase the survival rate by decreasing metastatic complications.
Xin Jin; Ping Mu
Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer-associated deaths. Despite the significant improvement in current therapies in extending patient life, 30–40% of patients may eventually suffer from distant relapse and succumb to the disease. Consequently, a deeper understanding of the metastasis biology is key to developing better treatment strategies and achieving long-lasting therapeutic efficacies against breast cancer. This review covers recent breakthroughs in the discovery of various me...
Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M
Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix
Lawson, James S., E-mail: email@example.com; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)
Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.
Dang, Jeff; Lee, Jessica; Tran, Jacqueline H.; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foo, Mary Anne; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen N.; Valdez-Dadia, Annalyn; Thomson, Jasmin; Tanjasiri, Sora Park
We examined whether the impact of medical interpretation services was associated with the receipt of a mammogram, clinical breast exam, and Pap smear. We conducted a large cross-sectional study involving four Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) communities with high proportions of individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP). Participants were recruited from community clinics, churches and temples, supermarkets, and other community gathering sites in Northern and Southern Califor...
Mallika Siva Donepudi; Kasturi Kondapalli; Seelam Jeevan Amos; Pavithra Venkanteshan
Breast cancer is one of the familiar diseases in women. Incidence and mortality due to cancer, particularly breast cancer has been increasing for last 50 years, even though there is a lacuna in the diagnosis of breast cancer at early stages. According to World Health Organization (WHO) 2012 reports, breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women, accounting 23% of all cancer deaths. In Asia, one in every three women faces the risk of breast cancer in their lifetime as per reports of WHO...
The BioScan System was developed by OmniCorder Technologies, Inc. at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The system is able to locate cancerous lesions by detecting the cancer's ability to recruit a new blood supply. A digital sensor detects infrared energy emitted from the body and identifies the minute differences accompanying the blood flow changes associated with cancerous cells. It also has potential use as a monitoring device during cancer treatment. This technology will reduce the time taken to detect cancerous cells and allow for earlier intervention, therefore increasing the overall survival rates of breast cancer patients.
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer
Fu, Sidney W.; Lee, Woojin; Coffey, Caitrin; Lean, Alexa; Wu, Xiaoling; Tan, Xiaohui; Man, Yan-Gao; Brem, Rachel F.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among American women, except for skin cancers. About 12 % women in the United States will develop invasive breast cancer during their lifetime. Currently one of the most accepted model/theories is that ductal breast cancer (most common type of breast cancer) follows a linear progression: from normal breast epithelial cells to ductal hyperplasia to atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and finally to invasive ductal carcin...
Full Text Available Trials with tamoxifen have clearly shown that the risk of developing oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer can be reduced by at least 50% with prophylactic agents. The current challenge is to find new agents which achieve this or better efficacy, but with fewer side effects. Recent results indicate that the SERM raloxifene has similar efficacy to tamoxifen, but leads to fewer endometrial cancers, gynecological symptoms, and thromboembolic events. Results for contralateral tumors in adjuvant trials suggest that aromatase inhibitors may be able to prevent up to 70%–80% of ER-positive breast cancers, and this is currently being investigated in two large prevention trials, one using anastrozole (IBIS-II and the other exemestane (MAP.3. New agents are needed for receptor negative breast cancer and several possibilities are currently under investigation.
FACTS FOR LIFE Life After Breast Cancer Treatment Once breast cancer treatment ends, you may face a new set of issues and concerns. ... fear. If fear starts to disrupt your daily life, talk to your doctor. Getting the support and ...
Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.
Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...
Mammography is the only imaging study that has been proven in multiple large randomized trials to decrease breast cancer mortality. Mammography, however, has its limitations and, as such, other modalities that can complement it are being studied. One of these is dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI, which has emerged as an important adjunctive modality and is at present the most sensitive modality that we have to evaluate the breast. The American College of Radiology, in its 2004 practice guidelines, has outlined the 12 current indications for breast MRI. This manuscript reviews and provides examples of each of these
A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening
Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Male Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Hodgson, M Elizabeth; Newman, Beth; Millikan, Robert C.
Introduction Much recent work has focused on hypotheses that very early life exposures influence adult cancer risk. For breast cancer it has been hypothesized that high in utero estrogen exposure may increase risk. Methods We used data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based case–control study of incident breast cancer in North Carolina, to examine associations for three possible surrogates of high prenatal estrogen exposure: weight at birth, maternal age, and birth order. W...
Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer
The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening
Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.
The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening.
Breast Cancer, with a life-time prevalence of about 10-12%, is the most common cancer in women. In 2013, the actress Angelina Jolie, by announcing she had a double mastectomy, increased the awareness of a family history of breast and ovarian cancer and the treatment available to reduce the inherited risks. In Germany, each year about 25 out of 100,000 women (age-standardized according to European Standard) die of the disease. The number of newly diagnosed cases is about 72,000 per year. In comparison, many other countries record higher levels. Investing in the development of new therapies has therefore been key for many years. Prevention programs, such as the mammography screening are publicly touted, in both cases with the aim to reduce breast cancer mortality. To accurately assess the risk in underwriting, it is important to know about the risk factors for the development of breast cancer, as well as the latest advances in prevention, therapy and their prognostic classification. The following article provides an overview. PMID:25000626
In the USA, the use of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (ACR BI-RADS) has served not only as a quality assurance tool and guide to standardizing breast imaging reports but has also improved communication between referring physicians, researchers, and patients. In fact, in the USA, the Mammography Quality Standards Act of 1997 requires that all mammograms be assigned a BI-RADS category based on the finding of most concern. In this manuscript, we aim to review the recommendations provided in the 4th edition of the ACR BI-RADS for mammography, USG, and MRI. We also review the major controversies surrounding the use of ACR BI-RADS
Ambrosone, Christine B; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Furberg, Helena; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Bowman, Elise D.; Ahmed, Sabrina; Graham, Saxon; Vena, John E; Shields, Peter G.
Background Findings from previous studies regarding the association between the CYP17 genotype and breast cancer are inconsistent. We investigated the role of the MspAI genetic polymorphism in the 5' region of CYP17 on risk of breast cancer and as a modifier of reproductive risk factors. Methods Questionnaire and genotyping data were obtained from a population-based, case–control study of premenopausal (n = 182) and postmenopausal (n = 214) European-American Caucasian women in western New Yor...
Forma Ewa; Bernaciak Magdalena; Bryś Magdalena
Breast cancer is an emotive cancer. It is a disease that affects a visible sexual organ and it is the commonest single cause of death of women between 40 and 60 years of age. Nevertheless, this type of cancer was infrequently depicted in art paintings. In this article the themes from the breast cancer in famous art paintings are discussed.
This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer. Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/28/2011.
Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;
Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight into the t......Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...
Bardwell, Wayne A; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia
Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in breast cancer patients and survivors. A rather nebulous concept, fatigue overlaps with sleepiness and depressed mood. In this chapter, we cover methods for assessing fatigue; describe the occurrence of fatigue before, during and after initial treatment; present possible underlying mechanisms of fatigue; and, enumerate approaches to its treatment.
Full Text Available Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.
Cancers of the prostate and breast are hormone dependent cancers. There is a tendency to equate them and apply same algorithms for treatment. It is pointed out that metastatic prostate cancer with bone-only disease is a potentially fatal condition with a much poorer prognosis than metastatic breast cancer and needs a more aggressive approach.
Pasqualini, Jorge R
Progestins exert their progestational activity by binding to the progesterone receptor (form A, the most active and form B, the less active) and may also interact with other steroid receptors (androgen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, estrogen). They can have important effects in other tissues besides the endometrium, including the breast, liver, bone and brain. The biological responses of progestins cover a very large domain: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, water and electrolyte regulation, hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular and immunological systems. At present, more than 200 progestin compounds have been synthesized, but the biological response could be different from one to another depending on their structure, metabolism, receptor affinity, experimental conditions, target tissue or cell line, as well as the biological response considered. There is substantial evidence that mammary cancer tissue contains all the enzymes responsible for the local biosynthesis of estradiol (E(2)) from circulating precursors. Two principal pathways are implicated in the final steps of E(2) formation in breast cancer tissue: the 'aromatase pathway', which transforms androgens into estrogens, and the 'sulfatase pathway', which converts estrone sulfate (E(1)S) into estrone (E(1)) via estrone sulfatase. The final step is the conversion of weak E(1) to the potent biologically active E(2) via reductive 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity. It is also well established that steroid sulfotransferases, which convert estrogens into their sulfates, are present in breast cancer tissues. It has been demonstrated that various progestins (e.g. nomegestrol acetate, medrogestone, promegestone) as well as tibolone and their metabolites can block the enzymes involved in E(2) bioformation (sulfatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) in breast cancer cells. These substances can also stimulate the sulfotransferase activity which converts estrogens into the biologically
Ko, Celine M
Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...
Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs
HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Breast Adenocarcinoma; Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma
Ryujin Lisa T
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.
Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P;
BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Insulinoma; Mucositis; Oral Complications; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Cancer; Somatostatinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social integration is a well-established influence on health, less is known about how the specific types of social connection (social roles, social networks, and social support influence knowledge, attitudes, and practices for specific prevention goals, and how to utilize these influences in interventions with priority populations. This research examined the prevalence of social roles, networks and support among 576 urban African-American women age 45–93 in East Baltimore, Maryland, and the association of these social factors with breast cancer related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Methods Using data from 1997–1998 in-home interviews, we developed indices of six possible social roles, social networks of family, neighborhood and church, and instrumental and emotional social support. In multivariate models adjusting for age, education, and medical care, we examined the association of each social influence on breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, screening recency and intention, and treatment preferences. Results We found substantial variation in social integration among these women, with social integration positively associated with overall health and well-being. Social roles and networks were positively associated with screening knowledge, and emotional support and church networks were positively associated with attitudes conducive to early detection and treatment. In regard to screening behaviors, family networks were associated with both screening recency and intention. Women with greater church networks and emotional support held more conservative attitudes towards lumpectomy, reconstruction, and clinical trials. Conclusion Overall, social integration is a positive influence on breast cancer control and should be utilized where possible in interventions, including identifying surrogate mechanisms for support for subgroups without existing social resources.
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. Imaging techniques play a pivotal role in breast cancer management, especially in lesion detection, treatment planning and evaluation, and prognostication. These imaging techniques have however limitations such as the use of ionizing radiatio
Full Text Available Inflammation may play a role in breast cancer, but evidence in the general population is lacking. We investigated the association between serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP, absolute granulocyte count (AGC and granulocyte-to-lymphocyte (G/L ratio and breast cancer (BCa mortality in American women while accounting for adiposity. From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III we selected all women aged 20+ without any known history of cancer (n = 7,780. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess CRP, AGC and G/L ratio in relation to mortality from BCa, all cancer, cardiovascular disease and all causes. Stratification analyses by body mass index (BMI and waist circumference were performed to investigate the effect of adiposity on this association. During a mean follow-up of 167 months, 44 women died from BCa. After adjustments for BMI and waist circumference, only G/L ratio was associated to risk of BCa death (e.g. HR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.36-4.06 for the 3rd compared to the 1st tertile, Ptrend = 0.01. Except for a borderline interaction between CRP categories and obesity by BMI, no statistically significant interaction between markers and categories of BMI or waist circumference was observed. All three markers were associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes. Our findings support a role of inflammation in BCa mortality which may involve mechanisms apart from obesity, and potential usefulness of GLR as a marker in assessing inflammation and cancer.
Tamoxifen is a central component of the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer as a partial agonist of ER. It has been clinically used for the last 30 years and is currently available as a chemopreventive agent in women with high risk for breast cancer. The most challenging issue with tamoxifen use is the development of resistance in an initially responsive breast tumor. This review summarizes the roles of ER as the therapeutic target of tamoxifen in cancer treatment, clin...
Wu, Anna H.; Butler, Lesley M.
The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort stud...
The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician's handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs
HANKINSON SUSAN E
Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.
Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.
Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.
Anderson, Robin L
With mammography firmly established as an integral part of efforts to reduce breast cancer mortality, many believe it is time to concentrate on prevention. Part of the multifaceted approach to preventing and treating this disease is unraveling its molecular, genetic and physiological makeup. Another aspect is ensuring that women have the information they need to make informed decisions about screening and treatment. Studies also point to the influence of nutrition, exercise, medicines and a patient's adherence to screening on cancer risk and recovery. PMID:20445140
Simon, Cassandra E.
This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…
Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, is a heritable disease with nearly one hundred known genetic risk factors. Using next generation sequencing, we explored the contribution of genetics at 12 GWAS-identified loci to breast cancer susceptibility in a multi-ethnic breast cancer case-control study. Methods: The study population consists of 4,611 breast cancer cases and controls (2,316 cases and 2,295 controls) from four mutually exclusive ethnicities: Africa...
Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.
Weiss, Joli R; Moysich, Kirsten B; Swede, Helen
Breast cancer in men is a rare disease, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast cancer cases. Although the epidemiologic literature regarding female breast cancer is extensive, relatively little is known about the etiology of male breast cancer (MBC). This review is intended to summarize the existing body of evidence on genetic and epidemiologic risk factors for breast cancer in men. Overall, the epidemiology of MBC presents similarities with the epidemiology of female breast cancer. Major genetic factors associated with an increased risk of breast cancer for men include BRCA2 mutations, which are believed to account for the majority of inherited breast cancer in men, Klinefelter syndrome, and a positive family history. Suspected genetic factors include AR gene mutations, CYP17 polymorphism, Cowden syndrome, and CHEK2. Epidemiologic risk factors for MBC include disorders relating to hormonal imbalances, such as obesity, testicular disorders (e.g., cryptorchidism, mumps orchitis, and orchiectomy), and radiation exposure. Suspected epidemiologic risk factors include prostate cancer,prostate cancer treatment, gynecomastia, occupational exposures (e.g., electromagnetic fields, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and high temperatures), dietary factors (e.g., meat intake and fruit and vegetable consumption), and alcohol intake. PMID:15668471
Even as the National Institutes of Health came under fire last week for giving short shrift to women in the institute's basic and clinical research programs, the report of a recent NIH consensus conference points up the need for more research on how to treat early breast cancer. Although the experts were able to agree on the best surgical treatment for women with early breast cancer, they couldn't resolve the more controversial issue of whether the patients should subsequently receive systemic treatment - chemotherapy or hormone therapy - to prevent recurrence of their disease. The panel reaffirmed that the removal of the lump and nearby lymph nodes, followed by irradiation, is just as effective as a mastectomy. But then came the contentious question: should women with early breast cancer, especially those without detectable lymph node metastases, receive drug therapy to prevent recurrence of the disease? Currently, 70% of such cancers are successfully treated with surgery and radiation alone. For this reason, about 2 years ago, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical alert saying that addition treatment with drugs or hormones is a credible therapeutic option worthy of careful attention for all early stage patients. This pronouncement engendered a storm of criticism. A consensus panel concluded that in cases where tumors are 1 centimeter or less in diameter and no lymph nodes are affected, the likelihood of recurrence is so small that the benefits of adjuvant therapy would be insignificant. But for the patients with larger tumors, the panel concluded that the decision is an individual one that depends on personal preferences and a variety of prognostic factors that can help to indicate whether a woman is at high risk of having a recurrence and should therefore have adjuvant therapy
van der Kemp, W.J.M.
At present, the risk of a woman developing invasive breast cancer during her life is about 1 in 8. This makes breast cancer the most prevalent type of cancer in women worldwide. As the risk of dying from breast cancer for a woman is about 1 in 36, early breast cancer detection and effective treatmen
Boyd, Norman F.; Lisa J Martin; Bronskill, Michael; Martin J. Yaffe; Duric, Neb; Minkin, Salomon
Breast density, as assessed by mammography, reflects breast tissue composition. Breast epithelium and stroma attenuate x-rays more than fat and thus appear light on mammograms while fat appears dark. In this review, we provide an overview of selected areas of current knowledge about the relationship between breast density and susceptibility to breast cancer. We review the evidence that breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer, the histological and other risk factors that are associat...
This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for breast cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among American women, and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death for female in the United States. It has been known that several signaling pathways and various factors play critical roles in the development and progression of breast cancer, such as estrogen receptor, Notch, PTEN, Her2, PI3K/Akt, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Emerging evidence has shown that the F-box protein Skp2 (S-phase kinase associated protein 2 also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Therefore, in this brief review, we summarize the novel functions of Skp2 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Moreover, we provide further evidence regarding the state of our knowledge toward the development of novel Skp2 inhibitors especially natural chemopreventive agents as targeted approach for the prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer.
The Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Colon Cancer Family Registry were established by the National Cancer Institute as a resource for investigators to use in conducting studies on the genetics and molecular epidemiology of breast and colon cancer.
Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea
Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...
Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer
Lim, Bora; Cream, Leah V; Harvey, Harold A
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women in United States. From data of American Cancer Society from 2007 reported total of 178,480 women diagnosed with breast cancer. The death rate from breast cancer has decreased in North America over time, but still accounts for second highest cancer death, following lung cancer. Breast cancer is staged based on tumor size, nodal involvement, and distant metastasis like any other solid tumors. However clinical staging is not the only important factor in management of breast cancer. Various molecular features divides breast cancer into many subgroups - that act differently, and respond differently from therapy. Thus the focus of breast cancer treatment has evolved focusing on specific targets. The most important biologic markers in subtyping of breast cancer so far are hormone receptor positivity and HER2/neu protein expression. Five molecular subtypes using intrinsic gene set include Basal mRNA, HER2 + mRNA, Luminal AmRNA, Luminal B mRNA, and Normal-like mRNA. In addition, better understanding of genetic target of breast cancer has given us arsenal of personalized, and more effective treatment approach.This review will focus on examples that highlight several mechanism of tumorigenesis, giving us not just understanding of gene pathways and the molecular biology, that could lead us to therapeutic target. Several important molecular targets have been investigated in preclinical and clinical trials, others are yet to be explored. We will also describe genetic mechanisms discovery related to overcoming resistance to current targeted therapies in breast cancer, including hormone receptor expression and HER 2- neu amplification. We will also review other exciting developments in understanding of breast cancer, the tumor microenvironment and cancer stem cells, and targeting agents in that area. PMID:23288634
Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Nearly half of the global total of breast cancer cases occurs in patients > 65 years of age. Advanced age at the diagnosis of breast cancer is associated with more favorable tumor biology, as indicated by increased hormone sensitivity, attenuated HER- 2/neu overexpression, and lower grades and proliferative indices Elderly patients, however, are more likely to present with larger and more advanced tumors, and recent reports suggest that lymph node involvement increases with age. Elderly patients care less likely to be treated according to accepted treatment guidelines and under treatment can, as a consequence, have a strong negative impact on survival.Breast cancer in elderly patients represents a great social problem and is expected to remain one of the most common cancers in the next half century. (author)
Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens;
OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening...... from other factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical...
Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per;
Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges...
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer
Morrison, Brian J.; Schmidt, Chris W.; Lakhani, Sunil R; Reynolds, Brent A.; Lopez, J. Alejandro
The concept of cancer stem cells responsible for tumour origin, maintenance, and resistance to treatment has gained prominence in the field of breast cancer research. The therapeutic targeting of these cells has the potential to eliminate residual disease and may become an important component of a multimodality treatment. Recent improvements in immunotherapy targeting of tumour-associated antigens have advanced the prospect of targeting breast cancer stem cells, an approach that might lead to...
Doğer, Emek; Çalışkan, Eray; Mallmann, Peter
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy and its frequency is increasing as more women postpone their pregnancies to their thirties and forties. Breast cancer diagnosis during pregnancy and lactation is difficult and complex both for the patient and doctors. Delay in diagnosis is frequent and treatment modalities are difficult to accept for the pregnant women. The common treatment approach is surgery after diagnosis, chemotherapy after the first trimester and...
Millikan, Robert C.; Player, Jon; de Cotret, Allan René; Moorman, Patricia; Pittman, Gary; Vannappagari, Vani; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Keku, Temitope
Introduction A polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, Ala-9Val, has been examined in association with breast cancer risk in several epidemiologic studies. Results suggest that the Ala allele increases the risk of breast cancer and modifies the effects of environmental exposures that produce oxidative damage to DNA. Methods We examined the role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in a population-based case–control study of invasive and in situ breast cancer in North Ca...
Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...
Full Text Available Mitochondria play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial DNA has been proposed to be involved in carcinogenesis because of its high susceptibility to mutations and limited repair mechanisms in comparison to nuclear DNA. Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer type among women in the world and, although exhaustive research has been done on nuclear DNA changes, several studies describe a variety of mitochondrial DNA alterations present in breast cancer. In this review article, we to provide a summary of the mitochondrial genomic alterations reported in breast cancer and their functional consequences.
Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;
cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio......AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence...
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)
Darbre, P D
Aluminium salts are used as the active antiperspirant agent in underarm cosmetics, but the effects of widespread, long term and increasing use remain unknown, especially in relation to the breast, which is a local area of application. Clinical studies showing a disproportionately high incidence of breast cancer in the upper outer quadrant of the breast together with reports of genomic instability in outer quadrants of the breast provide supporting evidence for a role for locally applied cosmetic chemicals in the development of breast cancer. Aluminium is known to have a genotoxic profile, capable of causing both DNA alterations and epigenetic effects, and this would be consistent with a potential role in breast cancer if such effects occurred in breast cells. Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer and its action, dependent on intracellular receptors which function as ligand-activated zinc finger transcription factors, suggests one possible point of interference from aluminium. Results reported here demonstrate that aluminium in the form of aluminium chloride or aluminium chlorhydrate can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. This adds aluminium to the increasing list of metals capable of interfering with oestrogen action and termed metalloestrogens. Further studies are now needed to identify the molecular basis of this action, the longer term effects of aluminium exposure and whether aluminium can cause aberrations to other signalling pathways in breast cells. Given the wide exposure of the human population to antiperspirants, it will be important to establish dermal absorption in the local area of the breast and whether long term low level absorption could play a role in the increasing incidence of breast cancer. PMID:16045991
Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.
Kulkarni Dhananjay M; Rodrigues Gabriel S; Kaur Kanchan; Contractor Kaiyumars B; Singhal Hemant
Abstract Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 200...
Wu, Anna H.; Kurian, Allison W.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Lu, Yani; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Bernstein, Leslie; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl
Background The role of comorbidities in survival of breast cancer patients has not been well studied, particularly in non-white populations. Methods We investigated the association of specific comorbidities with mortality in a multiethnic cohort of 8,952 breast cancer cases within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC), which pooled questionnaire and cancer registry data from five California-based studies. In total, 2,187 deaths (1,122 from breast cancer) were observed through December 31, 2010. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality associated with previous cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure (HBP), and myocardial infarction (MI). Results Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality increased among breast cancer cases with a history of diabetes (HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.18, 1.87) or MI (HR=1.94, 95% CI=1.27–2.97). Risk patterns were similar across race/ethnicity (non-Latina White, Latina, African American and Asian American), body size, menopausal status, and stage at diagnosis. In subgroup analyses, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated among cases with diabetes who received neither radiation nor chemotherapy (HR=2.11, 95% CI=1.32–3.36); no increased risk was observed among those who received both treatments (HR=1.13, 95% CI= 0.70–1.84) (P interaction= 0.03). A similar pattern was found for MI by radiation and chemotherapy (P interaction=0.09). Conclusion These results may inform future treatment guidelines for breast cancer patients with a history of diabetes or MI. Impact Given the growing number of breast cancer survivors worldwide, we need to better understand how comorbidities may adversely affect treatment decisions and ultimately outcome. PMID:25425578
This infographic shows the Breast Cancer Subtypes in Women. It’s important for guiding treatment and predicting survival. Know the Science: HR = Hormone receptor. HR+ means tumor cells have receptors for the hormones estrogen or progesterone, which can promote the growth of HR+ tumors. Hormone therapies like tamoxifen can be used to treat HR+ tumors. HER2 = Human epidermal growth Factor receptor, HER2+ means tumor cells overexpress (make high levels of) a protein, called HE2/neu, which has been shown to be associated with certain aggressive types of breast cancer. Trastuzumab and some other therapies can target cells that overexpress HER2. HR+/HER2, aka “LuminalA”. 73% of all breast cancer cases: best prognosis, most common subtype for every race, age, and poverty level. HR-/HER2, aka “Triple Negative”: 13% of all breast cancer cases, Worst prognosis, Non-Hispanic blacks have the highest rate of this subtype at every age and poverty level. HR+/HER2+, aka “Luminal B”, 10% of all breast cancer cases, little geographic variation by state. HR-/HER2+, aka”HER2-enriched”, 5% of all breast cancer cases, lowest rates for all races and ethnicities. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.
... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Breast Cancer and Women with Disabilities Language: English Español (Spanish) ... years old, get a mammogram every two years. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. And ...
Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry
Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...
Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville, Cooperative Extension Service.
This short booklet is designed to be used by health educators when teaching women about breast cancer and its early detection and the procedure for breast self-examination. It includes the following: (1) A one-page teaching plan consisting of objectives, subject matter, methods (including titles of films and printed materials), target audience,…
Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio
Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229
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Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun
In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...
... linking the development of this disease, in many cases, with exposure to the hormone estrogen. The focus of recent breast cancer prevention studies has been on testing the effectiveness of drugs called selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). SERMs are ...
An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.
... exposure, high levels of estrogen, and a family history of breast cancer can increase a man’s risk ... also show the dimpled appearance called peau d’orange (like the skin of an orange). There may ...
... trials is available from the NCI website . Locally Advanced or Inflammatory Breast Cancer Treatment of locally advanced ... NIH). NIH is the federal government’s center of biomedical research. The PDQ summaries are based on an ...
Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy
Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer
Moran, Meena S. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Schnitt, Stuart J. [Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Giuliano, Armando E. [Department of Surgery, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Harris, Jay R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Khan, Seema A. [Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Horton, Janet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Klimberg, Suzanne [Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Fayetteville, Arkansas (United States); Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Freedman, Gary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Houssami, Nehmat [School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Johnson, Peggy L. [Advocate in Science, Susan G. Komen, Wichita, Kansas (United States); Morrow, Monica, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Breast Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)
Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs.
Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery With Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer
Purpose: To convene a multidisciplinary panel of breast experts to examine the relationship between margin width and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) and develop a guideline for defining adequate margins in the setting of breast conserving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A multidisciplinary consensus panel used a meta-analysis of margin width and IBTR from a systematic review of 33 studies including 28,162 patients as the primary evidence base for consensus. Results: Positive margins (ink on invasive carcinoma or ductal carcinoma in situ) are associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of IBTR compared with negative margins. This increased risk is not mitigated by favorable biology, endocrine therapy, or a radiation boost. More widely clear margins than no ink on tumor do not significantly decrease the rate of IBTR compared with no ink on tumor. There is no evidence that more widely clear margins reduce IBTR for young patients or for those with unfavorable biology, lobular cancers, or cancers with an extensive intraductal component. Conclusions: The use of no ink on tumor as the standard for an adequate margin in invasive cancer in the era of multidisciplinary therapy is associated with low rates of IBTR and has the potential to decrease re-excision rates, improve cosmetic outcomes, and decrease health care costs
... BRCA mutations, including prostate cancer , pancreatic cancer , and testicular cancer . Because breast cancer in men can be caused ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...
Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, Cyclophosphamide, and Filgrastim Followed By Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer Previously Treated With Surgery
Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer
Scott, Brian J.; Kesari, Santosh
Central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from breast cancer may be characterized as either parenchymal brain metastasis (BM) or leptomeningeal (LM) metastasis. BM are much more common (about 80% of all CNS metastases), and have been more extensively studied than LM. CNS metastasis in breast cancer has been associated with reduced overall survival, with the shortest survival generally observed in cases of LM. Here, we review the epidemiology, prognostic factors, diagnostic tools, currently avai...