Kumar, Manoj; Mishra, Sankalp; Dixit, Vijaykant; Kumar, Manoj; Agarwal, Lalit; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar
Two plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Pseudomonas putida NBRIRA and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRISN13 with ability to tolerate abiotic stress along with multiple PGP traits like ACC deaminase activity, minerals solubilisation, hormones production, biofilm formation, siderophore activity were evaluated for their synergistic effect to ameliorate drought stress in chickpea. Earlier we have reported both the strains individually for their PGP attributes and stress amelioration in host plants. The present study explains in detail the possibilities and benefits of utilizing these 2 PGPR in consortium for improving the chickpea growth under control and drought stressed condition. In vitro results clearly demonstrate that both the PGPR strains are compatible to each other and their synergistic growth enhances the PGP attributes. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation of both strains individually and consortia in drought tolerant and sensitive cultivars (BG362 and P1003). The growth parameters were observed significantly higher in consortium as compared to individual PGPR. Colonization of both PGPR in chickpea rhizosphere has been visualized by using gfp labeling. Apart from growth parameters, defense enzymes, soil enzymes and microbial diversity were significantly modulated in individually PGPR and in consortia inoculated plants. Negative effects of drought stress has been ameliorated and apparently seen by higher biomass and reversal of stress indicators in chickpea cultivars treated with PGPR individually or in consortia. Findings from the present study demonstrate that synergistic application has better potential to improve plant growth promotion under drought stress conditions. PMID:26362119
Sulaiman, Rania S; Merrigan, Stephanie; Quigley, Judith; Qi, Xiaoping; Lee, Bit; Boulton, Michael E; Kennedy, Breandán; Seo, Seung-Yong; Corson, Timothy W
Ocular neovascularisation underlies blinding eye diseases such as retinopathy of prematurity, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and wet age-related macular degeneration. These diseases cause irreversible vision loss, and provide a significant health and economic burden. Biologics targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are the major approach for treatment. However, up to 30% of patients are non-responsive to these drugs and they are associated with ocular and systemic side effects. Therefore, there is a need for small molecule ocular angiogenesis inhibitors to complement existing therapies. We examined the safety and therapeutic potential of SH-11037, a synthetic derivative of the antiangiogenic homoisoflavonoid cremastranone, in models of ocular neovascularisation. SH-11037 dose-dependently suppressed angiogenesis in the choroidal sprouting assay ex vivo and inhibited ocular developmental angiogenesis in zebrafish larvae. Additionally, intravitreal SH-11037 (1 μM) significantly reduced choroidal neovascularisation (CNV) lesion volume in the laser-induced CNV mouse model, comparable to an anti-VEGF antibody. Moreover, SH-11037 synergised with anti-VEGF treatments in vitro and in vivo. Up to 100 μM SH-11037 was not associated with signs of ocular toxicity and did not interfere with retinal function or pre-existing retinal vasculature. SH-11037 is thus a safe and effective treatment for murine ocular neovascularisation, worthy of further mechanistic and pharmacokinetic evaluation. PMID:27148944
... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: J Kevin ...
Full Text Available Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF, a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG, cholic acid (CLA, chlorogenic acid (CGA and sinapic acid (SPA, regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES, reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively.
Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang
Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332
Hou, Yuanyuan; Nie, Yan; Cheng, Binfeng; Tao, Jin; Ma, Xiaoyao; Jiang, Min; Gao, Jie; Bai, Gang
Gram-negative pathogen-induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ingredients from QF, arctigenin (ATG), cholic acid (CLA), chlorogenic acid (CGA) and sinapic acid (SPA), regulate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways and related targets were investigated using molecular biology and molecular docking techniques. The results showed that pretreatment with QF significantly inhibits the release of cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and RANTES), reduces leukocytes recruitment into inflamed tissues and ameliorates pulmonary edema and necrosis. In addition, ATG was identified as the primary anti-inflammatory agent with action on the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways. CLA and CGA enhanced the actions of ATG and exhibited synergistic NF-κB inactivation effects possibly via the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Moreover, CLA is speculated to target FGFR and MEK firstly. Overall, QF regulated the PI3K/AKT and Ras/MAPK pathways to inhibit pathogenic bacterial infections effectively. PMID:27175332
Full Text Available Five cases of ocular rosacea (one male and four females are reported in this paper. Two of the patients were with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, one with conjunctivitis chronica and blepharitis, one with conjunctivitis chronica and meibomitis, and one with reccurent corneal erosions with meibomitis and chordeloum. In four patients ocular symptoms preceded the occurence of skin lesions. The treatment with oral tetracyclines significantly improved the state of ocular rosacea in four patients, while in one case the changes of the anterior eye segment progressed in more severe state of ulcerative keratitis. It is considered that in almost 20% of the patients with rosacea ocular lesions may precede the skin changes, representing a diagnostic problem. Thus, in those cases multidisciplinary approach is suggested. Such approach is particularly important because of the decrease of morbidity and the prevention of the onset of the eye complications such as drastic worsening of visual acuity, i.e., the blindness.
Chiquet, C; Khayi, H; Puech, C; Tonini, M; Pavese, P; Aptel, F; Romanet, J-P
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. Previously known as the "great imitator", this disease can have numerous and complex manifestations. The ophthalmologist should suspect the diagnosis in patients with uveitis or optic neuropathy and high-risk sexual behavior and/or another sexually transmitted disease (such as HIV) or those presenting with posterior placoid chorioretinitis or necrotising retinitis. Ocular involvement in acquired syphilis is rare, tending to occur during the secondary and tertiary stages of the disease. Syphilis may affect all the structures of the eye, but uveitis (accounting for 1-5% of the uveitis in a tertiary referral center) is the most common ocular finding. Granulomatous or non-granulomatous iridocyclitis (71%), panuveitis, posterior uveitis (8%) and keratouveitis (8%) are often described. In the secondary stage, the meninges and the central nervous system can be affected, sometimes with no symptoms, which justifies performing lumbar puncture in patients with uveitis and/or optic neuropathy. The diagnosis of ocular syphilis requires screening with a non-treponemal serology and confirmation with a treponemal-specific test. Parenterally administered penicillin G is considered first-line therapy for all stages of ocular syphilis. Systemic corticosteroids are an appropriate adjunct treatment for posterior uveitis, scleritis and optic neuritis if ocular inflammation is severe. Prolonged follow-up is necessary because of the possibility of relapse of the disease. With proper diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment, the majority of cases of ocular syphilis can be cured. PMID:24655791
Novack, Gary D; Robin, Alan L
Ophthalmic diseases include both those analogous to systemic diseases (eg, inflammation, infection, neuronal degeneration) and not analogous (eg, cataract, myopia). Many anterior segment diseases are treated pharmacologically through eye drops, which have an implied therapeutic index of local therapy. Unlike oral dosage forms administered for systemic diseases, eyedrops require patients not only to adhere to treatment, but to be able to accurately perform-ie, instill drops correctly. Anatomical and physiological barriers make topical delivery to the anterior chamber challenging-in some cases more challenging than absorption through the skin, nasal passages, or gut. Treatment of the posterior segment (eg, vitreous, retina, choroid, and optic nerve) is more challenging due to additional barriers. Recently, intravitreal injections have become a standard of care with biologics for the treatment of macular degeneration and other diseases. Although the eye has esterases, hydroxylases, and transporters, it has relatively little CYP450 enzymes. Because it is challenging to obtain drug concentrations at the target site, ocular clinical pharmacokinetics, and thus pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions, are rarely available. Ophthalmic pharmaceuticals require consideration of solubility, physiological pH, and osmolarity, as well as sterility and stability, which in turn requires optimal pharmaceutics. Although applied locally, ocular medications may be absorbed systemically, which results in morbidity and mortality (eg, systemic hypotension, bronchospasm, and bradycardia). PMID:26360129
Yuanyuan Hou; Yan Nie; Binfeng Cheng; Jin Tao; Xiaoyao Ma; Min Jiang; Jie Gao; Gang Bai
Gram-negative pathogen–induced nosocomial infections and resistance are a most serious menace to global public health. Qingfei Xiaoyan Wan (QF), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, has been used clinically in China for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, acute or chronic bronchitis and pulmonary infection. In this study, the effects of QF on Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced acute pneumonia in mice were evaluated. The mechanisms by which four typical anti-inflammatory ...
Mulla Summaiya A
Full Text Available Background: Isolation of common pathogens involved in ocular infection and their in-vitro susceptibility to commonly used ocular antibiotics, as well as the trends in antibiotic resistance developed by these pathogens were investigated. Material/Methods: All patients with suspected bacterial ocular infections presenting between march 2010 and feb 2011 were examined under slit lamp microscope and samples were collected by using aseptic techniques. All samples were processed for direct microscopy, culture and identification by standard methods. Susceptibility testing was done by Kirby-Bauer method as per CLSI guideline. Results: Out of 116 patients with ocular infections 130 samples were collected, from which 38 different organisms were isolated. Gram-positive cocci 21 (55%, gram-negative cocco-bacilli 5(31% and gram-negative bacilli 12 (32% were isolated. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (37% and Pseudomonas species (21% were the most commonly-isolated. Gatifloxacin has highest efficacy (89% against all isolates. Majority of gram positive cocci were susceptible to vancomycin, gatifloxacin, cefazolin, gram negative cocco-bacilli to amikacin, tobramycin, fluoroquinolone and gram negative bacilli to gatifloxacin. Conclusion: Majority of ocular infection is caused by gram positive organisms which were susceptible to vancomycin followed by gram negative organisms susceptible to amikacin, fluoroquinolone, gram negative cocco-bacilli to amikacin and tobramycin, and gatifloxacin effective against both type of organisms. The information provided in this article help the clinician in formulating rationale-based empirical antibiotic treatment of bacterial ocular infections. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 22-24
Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination...
Public Health Agency
Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?
Ahmad M Mansour
Full Text Available Purpose: To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006. Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. Results: There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308 of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67% with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes, corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes, corneal decompensation (2 eyes, ruptured cataract (6 eyes, and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes. The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Conclusions: Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.
Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.
Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central Americ
Rajkumar Gunaseelaraj; Suma Karthikeyan; Kumar, Mohan N.; T Balamurugan; Jagadeeshwaran, A. R.
An ocular defect may affect a patient psychologically. An ocular prosthesis is given to uplift the patient psychologically and improve the confidence. Ocular prosthesis can be custom made or a stock shell. To improve the comfort and matching of the prosthesis with that of the adjacent natural eye an custom made ocular prosthesis is preferred. Different techniques are available to fabricate a custom ocular prosthesis, here we have used paper iris disk technique.
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.
Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira
Full Text Available Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnostic test for rosacea. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea relies on observation of clinical features, which can be challenging in up to 90% of patients in whom accompanying roseatic skin changes may be subtle or inexistent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed in the literature, clinical features, diagnosis and management of ocular rosacea, as well as discuss the need for a diagnostic test for the disease.
J Gordon Millichap
The clinical and neuroradiological findings, and long-term intellectual prognosis in 10 patients (4 boys and 6 girls) with congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA) are reviewed by researchers at Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.
Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira; Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima; Mannis, Mark J.
Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnosti...
Kim, Yoo-Chun; Chiang, Bryce; Wu, Xianggen; Prausnitz, Mark R.
Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered invasive delivery methods, because non--invasive ocular delivery methods, such as eye drops, and systemic delivery, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting. There is a need to improve delivery of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive delivery routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug...
Levitan, Barry M.; Reschke, Millard F.; Spector, Lawrence N.
Compact, battery-powered, noninvasive unit replaces several pieces of equipment and operator. Instrument that looks like pair of goggles with small extension box measures ocular counterrotation. Called "otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation" (OTTR) goggles, used in studies of space motion sickness. Also adapted to use on Earth and determine extent of impairment in patients who have impaired otolith functions.
Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.
Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Ranimenon
Homocysteine (Hcy) is a derived sulfur-containing and non-proteinogenic amino acid. The metabolism of Hcy occurs either through the remethylation to methionine or transsulfuration to cysteine. Studies have identified hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) as one of the possible risk factors for a multitude of diseases including vascular, neurodegenerative and ocular diseases. Association of HHcy with eye diseases such as retinopathy, pseudoexfoliative glaucoma maculopathy, cataract, optic atrophy and retinal vessel atherosclerosis is established. The molecular mechanism underlying these ocular diseases has been reported as impaired vascular endothelial function, apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, extracellular matrix alterations, decreased lysyl oxidase activity and oxidative stress. The formed homocysteine-thiolactone in HHcy has stronger cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory properties which can induce lens opacification and optic nerve damage. The metabolism of Hcy requires enzymes with vitamins such as folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6. Despite the mixed conclusion of various studies regarding the level of these vitamins in elder people, studies recommended the treatment with folate and B12 to reduce Hcy levels in subjects with or without any defect in the enzymes involved in its metabolism. The levels of Hcy, folate, B6 as well as B12 should be measured early in patients with visual impairment that would aid to screen patients for life-threatening disorders related with HHcy. Elder patients may supplement with these vitamins in order to attenuate the ocular damages. This article discusses the association of Hcy in ocular diseases and the possible mechanism in the pathogenesis. PMID:26343924
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the ocular manifestations in multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major patients and assess the ocular side-effects of iron chelating agents. Materials and Methods: In this prospective observational study, 45 multiple transfused beta-thalassemia major children between six months and 21 years of age were enrolled and assigned groups according to the treatment regimens suggested. Group A received only blood transfusions, Group B blood transfusions with subcutaneous desferrioxamine, Group C blood transfusions with desferrioxamine and oral deferriprone and Group D blood transfusions with deferriprone. Ocular status at the time of enrolment was documented. Subjects were observed quarterly for one year for changes in ocular status arising due to the disease process and due to iron chelation therapy. Children with hemoglobinopathies other than beta-thalassemia major, congenital ocular anomalies and anemia due to other causes were excluded. Results: Ocular involvement was observed in 58% of patients. Lenticular opacities were the most common ocular finding (44%, followed by decreased visual acuity (33%. An increased occurrence of ocular changes was observed with increase of serum ferritin and serum iron levels as well as with higher number of blood transfusions received. Desferrioxamine seemed to have a protective influence on retinal pigment epithelium (RPE mottling. Occurrence of lenticular opacities and RPE degeneration correlated positively with use of desferrioxamine and deferriprone respectively. Follow-up of patients for one year did not reveal any change in ocular status. Conclusion: Regular ocular examinations can aid in preventing, delaying or ameliorating the ocular complications of thalassemia.
Moon, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Eun Joo; Park, Sang Joon; Seo, Young Lan [Hallym University, Department of Radiology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Byoung Jin [Hallym University, Department of Ophthalmology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea)
Choristoma is a benign tumour defined as normal tissue in an ectopic location. Osseous choristoma, one subtype of this entity, occurring within the orbit has rarely been reported in the world literature. We report a 6-year-old girl with bilateral ocular osseous choristomas who presented with palpable nodules protruding from both upper lids. The radiological and clinical findings are described and previous reports are reviewed. (orig.)
Sekhar G; Nagarajan Rukmini
Tamoxifen is an antioestrogen drug used widely in the management of oestrogen-dependant metastatic breast carcinoma. A number of ocular complications have been described secondary to tamoxifen therapy. We report two patients, one of whom had superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis and the other who had painful proptosis and acute angle-closure glaucoma with choroidal detachment secondary to tamoxifen therapy, both of which have not been reported earlier. In both patients the signs and symptoms re...
Kerkhoff, F.T.; Ossewaarde, J.M.; de Loos, W.S.; Rothova, A.
BACKGROUND—The spectrum of diseases caused by Bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. METHODS—The clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined by an enzyme immunoassay ...
Carrasquinho, S; Teixeira, S.; Cadete, A; Bernardo, M.; Pêgo, P; Prieto, I.
PURPOSE: Congenital ocular motor apraxia is a rare disease characterized by defective or absent voluntary and optically induced horizontal saccadic movements. Jerky head movements or thrusts on attempted lateral gaze are a compensatory sign. Most affected children have delayed motor and speech development. Cases associated with systemic diseases, neurologic maldevelopment, metabolic deficits, and chromosomal abnormalities have been described. METHODS: Case report and review of the scienti...
Flynn, T H
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.
Full Text Available Introduction. This study was aimed at providing an update on most recent developments regarding ocular and systemic manifestations and complications, clinical diagnosis and management, and molecular patophysiology of pseudoexfoliation syndrome. Method. Review of recent literature and own clinical and laboratory studies. Results. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related disease in which abnormal fibrillar extracellular material is produced and accumulated in many ocular tissues. Recent progress and advances have led to improvements in clinical management by understanding the effects of the pseudoexfoliation process on the ocular tissues, by refining diagnostic criteria and applying new treatment regimes, and by developing preventive strategies to reduce surgical complications. Increasing evidence of systemic associations of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, abdominal aorta aneurysm can provide better understanding and management of this condition, and new therapeutic goal. The current pathogenesis concept describes psuedoexfoliation syndrome as an elastic microfibrillopathy involving transforming growth factor-b, matrix metalloproteinase oxidative stress. Conclusion. Despite extensive research, the exact chemical composition of exfoliation material remains unknown. The presence of pseudoexfoliation should alert the physician to the increased risks of intraocular surgery, most commonly zonular dehiscence, capsular rupture, and vitreous loss during cataract extraction. Its associated clinical signs are important in the detection and management of glaucoma.
McNamara, M.; Clynes, M.; Dunne, B; NicAmhlaoibh, R; Lee, W. R.; Barnes, C; Kennedy, S M
AIMS/BACKGROUND: Metastatic disease in patients with ocular melanoma is resistant to chemotherapy. One of the main mechanisms of modulating multidrug resistance is the expression of the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) product (p-glycoprotein) by tumour cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of expression of the MDR1 gene in ocular melanoma whose primary treatment was surgical excision or enucleation. METHODS: Twelve recent ocular melanomas were received fresh, snap ...
To describe the patterns of ocular trauma, cause of injury and its effects on eye. A retrospective case series. Medical records of 1105 patients admitted with ocular trauma were reviewed. The details of patients regarding age, gender, literacy, cause of injury and its effects on eye were entered into specially-designed performa. Sample selection consisted of all patients with history of ocular trauma and who were admitted to hospital. Population details consisted patients who were referred to the hospital from all parts of N.W.F.P. Thus, the frequency of trauma in the hospital admissions was analysed. Ophthalmic trauma comprised 6.78% of the hospital admission. One thousand one hundred and five patients presented with eye injuries. Out of them, 21 patients suffered from trauma to both eyes. Almost 80% patients were male and 69% patients were below 30 years of age. Delayed presentation was more common and 63.61% patients presented after one week. Open globe injuries were more common (520 eyes (46.18%)) than closed globe injuries (484 eyes (42.98%)). 23.26% of open globe injuries were associated with intraocular and intra-orbital foreign bodies. Superficial non-perforating, eyelid and adnexal and burns were seen in 122 eyes (10.83%). Among the complications, lens damage and hyphema was seen in more than 50% of the patients, 16.60% eyes were infected at the time of admission and 4.88% of eyes needed enucleation or evisceration. The common causes of injury were violence in 37.37%, occupational in 24.43% and domestic accidents in 19.18%. Ophthalmic trauma is a major public health problem. Majority of the involved are male and under 30 years of age. Delayed presentation is more common. Open globe injuries are more frequent. Violence and occupational injuries are the major causes. (author)
Lee YC; Chiu CJ
Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix...
Katoch Sabita; Devi Anjana; Kulkarni Prajakta
There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP) patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.
Lueck, Christian J
This chapter covers the very large number of possible disorders that can affect the three ocular motor nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles. Conditions affecting the nerves are discussed under two major headings: those in which the site of damage can be anatomically localized (e.g., fascicular lesions and lesions occurring in the subarachnoid space, the cavernous sinus, the superior orbital fissure, or the orbit) and those in which the site of the lesion is either nonspecific or variable (e.g., vascular lesions, tumors, "ophthalmoplegic migraine," and congenital disorders). Specific comments on the diagnosis and management of disorders of each of the three nerves follow. Ocular motor synkineses (including Duane's retraction syndrome and aberrant regeneration) and disorders resulting in paroxysms of excess activity (e.g., neuromyotonia) are then covered, followed by myasthenia gravis and other disorders that affect the neuromuscular junction. A final section discusses disorders of the extraocular muscles themselves, including thyroid disease, orbital myositis, mitochondrial disease, and the muscular dystrophies. PMID:21601071
Full Text Available Yueh-Chang Lee, Cheng-Jen Chiu Department of Ophthalmology, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC Abstract: This case report describes a female toddler with manifestations of ocular leech infestation. A 2-year-old girl was brought to our outpatient clinic with a complaint of irritable crying after being taken to a stream in Hualien 1 day previous, where she played in the water. The parents noticed that she rubbed her right eye a lot. Upon examination, the girl had good fix and follow in either eye. Slit-lamp examination showed conjunctival injection with a moving dark black–brown foreign body partly attached in the lower conjunctiva. After applying topical anesthetics, the leech, measuring 1 cm in length, was extracted under a microscope. The patient began using topical antibiotic and corticosteroid agents. By 1 week after extraction, the patient had no obvious symptoms or signs, except for a limited subconjunctival hemorrhage, and no corneal/scleral involvement was observed. Keywords: leech, ocular foreign body, conjunctival reaction, pediatric ophthalmology
Augusteyn, Robert C.; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie
Purpose To examine ocular growth in nonhuman primates (NHPs) from measurements on ex vivo eyes. Methods We obtained NHP eyes from animals that had been killed as part of other studies or because of health-related issues. Digital calipers were used to measure the horizontal, vertical, and anteroposterior globe diameters as well as corneal horizontal and vertical diameters of excised globes from 98 hamadryas baboons, 551 cynomolgus monkeys, and 112 rhesus monkeys, at ages ranging from 23 to 360 months. Isolated lens sagittal thickness and equatorial diameter were measured by shadowphotogrammetry. Wet and fixed dry weights were obtained for lenses. Results Nonhuman primate globe growth continues throughout life, slowing toward an asymptotic maximum. The final globe size scales with negative allometry to adult body size. Corneal growth ceases at around 20 months. Lens diameter increases but thickness decreases with increasing age. Nonhuman primate lens wet and dry weight accumulation is monophasic, continuing throughout life toward asymptotic maxima. The dry/wet weight ratio reaches a maximum of 0.33. Conclusions Nonhuman primate ocular globe and lens growth differ in several respects from those in humans. Although age-related losses of lens power and accommodative amplitude are similar, lens growth and properties are different indicating care should be taken in extrapolating NHP observations to the study of human accommodation. PMID:26780314
S. A. Igwe
Full Text Available Cola nitida Linn (Sterculiaceae is an economic plant widely distributed throughout West Africa and possibly other parts of Africa.Members are malvalves because of their lobular nature. Because of its ubiquity, the plant plays an important role in commerce, and in social activities where it is casually eaten without prescription or restriction. The ethnopharmacological effects of bolus ingestion of 30g of Cola nitida was investigated on visually acute and healthy volunteers in order to determine its ocular implications or effects. Results showed that Cola nitida had no effecton the pupil diameter, visual acuity and intraocular pressure but improved the near point of convergence by 43% and increased the amplitude of accommodation by 11% while existing heterophorias are ameliorated. The stimulating effect of Cola nitida might overcome asthenopic symptoms with convergence insufficiency and allows near work to be donewithout stress. Somnolence and ocular muscle imbalance common features of the elderly canbe ameliorated or relieved.
Sayin, Nihat; Kara, Necip; Pekel, Gökhan
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problem that induces ernestful complications and it causes significant morbidity owing to specific microvascular complications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as, ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy. It can affect children, young people and adults and is becoming more common. Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world's most significant cause of morbidity and are preventable with early detection and timely treatment. This review provides an overview of five main ocular complications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathy and papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surface diseases. PMID:25685281
Full Text Available The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described.
SHEN Xi; XU Ge-zhi; JIAO Qin; LI Xia; SHI Ruo-fei
Objective To describe the ocular complications of 62 patients with active atopic dermatitis( AD) during the period of 2003 2006. Methods Routine ophthalmic examinations, including slit-lamp microscope, indirect ophthalmoscope or Goldmann three-mirror lens, A-scan and B-scan ultrasound, ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) and corneal topography, as well as tear film break-up time (BUT) and Schirmer tests were carried out. Results Cataract (28 eyes), keratoconjunctivitis (42 eyes), superficial punctate keratopathy (45 eyes) and tear function abnormality ( 76 eyes) were major ocular complications in AD patients. Retinal detachment (6 eyes) was the most severe ocular complication in the AD patients. Conclusion Ocular complications are common in AD patients and a very careful examination of eyes is essential in treating AD patients. If the eyes can be examed carefully and in time, some operations and severe complications can be avoidable, especially for the patients with retinal breaks or retinal detachment.
Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: Retrospctive study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 49 patients of hHyc referred from various departments for ophthalmic opinion are included in the study. All cases were evaluated for anterior segment and posterior segment presentations. Field test was done for cases who had optic nerve involvement and cerebral infarcts. RESULTS: out 49 cases 25 cases had significant ocular findings mainly vascular involvements and sequlaes, like Retinal branch vein occlusion(BRVO, papillodema, visual field defects, Non arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION and optic disc pallor and 49%(24 patients had no ocular findings. All cases were of moderate to intermediate hHyc and could undergo all the tests. One case with severe brain ischemia evaluated in medical casualty died. CONCLUSION: hHyc can present with varied vascular and ischemic ocular findings. Study shows the need for hHyc evaluations in all cases ocular ischemic and vascular catastrophes.
Ralić Marjan; Jovanović Milan
This paper presents a case of ocular changes in leishmaniasis in a dog brought in for examination because of visible changes in the eyes. An ocular manifestation in leishmaniasis can be bilateral or unilateral. Changes most often occur on the conjunctive and the front segment of the eye, the cornea and iris. From 70 to 80% of dogs diseased with leishmaniasis exhibit frontal uveitis, and dry eye, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is also a frequent finding. Based ...
Mariela Julia Curbelo Gómez
Full Text Available A clinical case on ocular toxocariasis is presented. The clinical manifestations were pain and red eye in a four year-old child. A prior acute uveitis in the LE was found in the physical ocular exam. Vitrea band that was out of the superior edge of papila and a marginal granuloma were found in the eyes fundus. The patient was admitted and treated with oral corticoids and oral antihelmintics
Myrna Serapião dos Santos; Milton Ruiz Alves; Denise de Freitas; Luciene Barbosa de Sousa; Ricardo Wainsztein; Sérgio Kandelman; Mauricio Lozano; Francisco Beltrán; Oscar Baça Lozada; Concepción Santacruz; Giovanni Guzzo; Carlos Alberto Zaccarelli Filho; José Álvaro Pereira Gomes
PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocul...
Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.
Myrna Serapião dos Santos
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.
... CDC.gov . Healthcare-associated Infections (HAIs) Share Compartir Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Healthcare Settings On this Page What ... and/or help treat infections? What is a Pseudomonas infection? Pseudomonas infection is caused by strains of ...
Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.
Margalit, Ruth (Inventor)
A method for the detection of Pseudomonas bacteria is described where an Azurin-specific antibody is employed for detecting the presence of Azurin in a test sample. The detection of the presence of Azurin in the sample is a conclusive indicator of the presence of the Pseudomonas bacteria since the Azurin protein is a specific marker for this bacterial strain.
Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...
Zicai Huang; Hongni Li; Yixia Huang; Zhongxia Zhou
Purpose: To investigate the clinical characteristics of ocular trauma in children and put forward the major treatment and prevention of ocular trauma in children.Methods: To analyze the clinical data by 77 eyes in 77 cases of ocular trauma in children from April 1999 to February 2002. Results: The male and female were in the ratio of 2.21: 1. Right eye ocular traumas were more than left ones. Ocular penetrating trauma was 83.12% and blunt trauma 12.99%. 41 cases (53.25%) were injured by themselves while 33 cases by others. 90.91% patients came from the countryside.Conclusion: The rate of blindness of children with ocular trauma could be reduced by prompt treatment. The study indicated that ocular trauma preventive publicity should be faced in the countryside in order to improve the understanding of the severity of ocular trauma and treat it as a social problem.
Full Text Available An intact cerebellum is a prerequisite for optimal ocular motor performance. The cerebellum fine-tunes each of the subtypes of eye movements so they work together to bring and maintain images of objects of interest on the fovea. Here we review the major aspects of the contribution of the cerebellum to ocular motor control. The approach will be based on structural-functional correlation, combining the effects of lesions and the results from physiologic studies, with the emphasis on the cerebellar regions known to be most closely related to ocular motor function: 1 the flocculus/paraflocculus for high-frequency (brief vestibular responses, sustained pursuit eye movements and gaze-holding, 2 the nodulus/ventral uvula for low-frequency (sustained vestibular responses, and 3 the dorsal oculomotor vermis and its target in the posterior portion of the fastigial nucleus (the fastigial oculomotor region for saccades and pursuit initiation.
Ma, N; Ye, J J
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a collection of inflammatory disorders associated with paradoxical worsening of preexisting infectious processes or emerging diseases or even dead after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in a period of recovery of immune function. Ocular immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is mainly caused by cytomegalovirus which performing a series of ocular inflammation accompanied with the increase of CD4+ T lymphocytes, such as cytomegalovirus retinitis, after HAART. With HAART widely used, the patients of IRIS gradually increased. But the clinical presentations of IRIS were various because of different pathogens. This review summarized the clinical manifestations, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of ocular IRIS.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 51: 150-153). PMID:26906710
Full Text Available Congenital ocular motor apraxia (COMA is a unique ocular motor disorder which ischaracterized by a deficit in initiation of voluntary horizontal eye movement with reservedreflex eye movement. Although a portion of cases with COMA were found to be associatedwith other abnormalities, COMA in most patients is an isolated disorder. The most characteristicappearance of these patients is compensatory head thrusts which usually become lessevident with increasing age.Since Cogan first described COMA in 1952, many cases have been reported. Themajority of these occurred sporadically with only a few exceptions. We report on 4 patientswith COMA. Two of them were siblings, and the other 2 patients were father and daughter.The ocular motility status is described in detail.
Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel
Diabetes mellitus （DM） is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld＇s most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.
Full Text Available The intraocular patches were prepared using gelatin as the polymer. Ocular patch were prepared by solvent casting method. The patches were prepared for six formulations GP1, GP2, GP3, GP4, GP5 and GP6. Petri dishes were used for formulation of ocular patch. Gelatin was used as a polymer of choice. Glutaraldehyde used as cross linking agent and (DMSO dimethylsulfoxide used as solubility enhancer. The elasticity depends upon the concentration of gelatin. 400 mg amount of polymer i.e gelatin gave the required elasticity for the formulation.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular plethysmograph. 882.1790 Section 882.1790...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1790 Ocular plethysmograph. (a) Identification. An ocular plethysmograph is a device used to measure or detect volume changes in the eye...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular esthesiometer. 886.1040 Section 886.1040...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1040 Ocular esthesiometer. (a) Identification. An ocular esthesiometer is a device, such as a single-hair brush, intended to touch the cornea...
Martha G Domínguez Expósito
Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case
• A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe a case of ocular rosacea with a very complex evolution. Rosacea is a chronic dermatological disease that may affect the ocular structures up to 6-72% of all cases. This form is often misdiagnosed, which may lead to long inflammatory processes with important visual consequences for affected patients. Therefore, an early diagnosis and an adequate treatment are important. Methods: We report the case of a 43-year-old patient who had several relapses of what seemed an episode of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Two weeks later, he developed a corneal ulcer with a torpid evolution including abundant intrastromal infiltrators and calcium deposits. He was diagnosed with ocular rosacea and treated with systemic doxycycline and topical protopic. Results: A coating with amniotic membrane was placed in order to heal the ulcer, but a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty to restore the patient’s vision because of the corneal transparency loss was necessary. Conclusions: Ocular rosacea includes multiple ophthalmic manifestations ranging from inflammation of the eyelid margin and blepharitis to serious corneal affectations. A delayed diagnosis can result in chronic inflammatory conditions including keratinization and loss of corneal transparency, which lead to important visual sequelae for affected patients.
Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se analiza la toxicidad ocular inducida por cuatro grupos de fármacos sistémicos: tamoxifeno, cloroquina y derivados, anticolinérgicos y tamsulosina. El objetivo principal es dar unas normas prácticas que sirvan para el manejo diario de los pacientes sometidos a estos tratamientos, más que profundizar en los mecanismos de acción de cada uno de ellos.This paper analyses ocular toxicity induced by four groups of systemic medicines: tamoxifen, chloroquine and derivatives, anticholinergics and tamsulosin. Our main aim is to provide some practical rules that will be of use in the everyday management of patients receiving these treatments, rather than to examine the mechanisms by which each of these medicines act.
Tyagi, Pallavi; Tyagi, Vipin; Hashim, Adnan A
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is a group of rare multisystemic genetic syndromes that affects ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, teeth and sweat glands. The authors present a case of a child with ocular and dermatological signs of HED along with severe involvement of other multiple organ systems. The family history could be traced to four generations and there was an observed trend of increase in severity of signs and symptoms occurring at younger age. The purpose of t...
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...
Tao, Ye; Geng, Lei; Xu, Wei-Wei; Qin, Li-Min; Peng, Guang-Hua; Huang, Yi-Fei
Hydrogen, one of the most well-known natural molecules, has been used in numerous medical applications owing to its ability to selectively neutralize cytotoxic reactive oxygen species and ameliorate hazardous inflammations. Hydrogen can exert protective effects on various reactive oxygen species-related diseases, including the transplantation-induced intestinal graft injury, chronic inflammation, ischemia–reperfusion injuries, and so on. Especially in the eye, hydrogen has been used to counteract multiple ocular pathologies in the ophthalmological models. Herein, the ophthalmological utilizations of hydrogen are systematically reviewed and the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen-induced beneficial effects are discussed. It is our hope that the protective effects of hydrogen, as evidenced by these pioneering studies, would enrich our pharmacological knowledge about this natural element and cast light into the discovery of a novel therapeutic strategy against ocular diseases. PMID:27279745
Sayin, Nihat; Kara, Necip; Pekel, Gökhan
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problem that induces ernestful complications and it causes significant morbidity owing to specific microvascular complications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as, ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy. It can affect children, young people and adults and is becoming more common. Ocular complications associated with DM are progressive and rapidly becoming the world’s most significa...
Mittal Mamta; Sathish K; Bhatia Prashant; Chidamber B
A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient settin...
Costa Daniella Socci da; Silva Rodrigo Tavares Schueler e; Klejnberg Tatina; Japiassu Ricardo; Turchetti Remo; Moraes Jr. Haroldo Vieira de
Os autores relatam dois casos de tuberculose ocular presumida com comprometimento coroidiano. No primeiro caso, um paciente de 43 anos, HIV positivo, com tuberculose pulmonar miliar e tuberculoma cerebral, apresenta um granuloma coroidiano único na região macular do olho esquerdo. No segundo caso, uma paciente de 12 anos, HIV negativa, com tuberculose pulmonar apresenta coroidite multifocal e comprometimento do segmento anterior do olho esquerdo. Ambos os pacientes evoluíram favoravelmente co...
Jabs, D A
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-rel...
von Riesen, V L
Pseudomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas putida were identified as alginolytic species. Two media used for demonstrating alginolytic activity are described. The applied aspects of the ability of these two species to digest algin are discussed.
Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Khorrami Nejad, Masoud; Askarizadeh, Farshad; Pour, Fatemeh Farahbakhsh; Ranjbar Pazooki, Mahsa; Moeinitabar, Mohamad Reza
Torticollis can arise from nonocular (usually musculoskeletal) and ocular conditions. Some facial asymmetries are correlated with a history of early onset ocular torticollis supported by the presence of torticollis on reviewing childhood photographs. When present in an adult, this type of facial asymmetry with an origin of ocular torticollis should help to confirm the chronicity of the defect and prevent unnecessary neurologic evaluation in patients with an uncertain history. Assessment of facial asymmetry consists of a patient history, physical examination, and medical imaging. Medical imaging and facial morphometry are helpful for objective diagnosis and measurement of the facial asymmetry, as well as for treatment planning. The facial asymmetry in congenital superior oblique palsy is typically manifested by midfacial hemihypoplasia on the side opposite the palsied muscle, with deviation of the nose and mouth toward the hypoplastic side. Correcting torticollis through strabismus surgery before a critical developmental age may prevent the development of irreversible facial asymmetry. Mild facial asymmetry associated with congenital torticollis has been reported to resolve with continued growth after early surgery, but if asymmetry is severe or is not treated in the appropriate time, it might remain even with continued growth after surgery. PMID:27239567
Shikha Baisakhiya DOMS; FGO
As the number of HIV infected patients is multiplying exponentially day by day so are the associated ocular complications.The increasing longevity of individuals with HIV disease has resulted in greater numbers of pa-tients with ocular opportunistic infection.By the means of this article we describe various opportunistic ocular infections in AIDS and their clinical manifestations,discussed under four headings;1 )adnexal manifestation;2)anterior segment manifestation;3)posterior segment manifestation;4)neuro ophthalmic manifestation . Herpes zoster ophthalmicus,molluscum contagiosum and Kaposi sarcoma are common adnexal manifestations. Molluscum contagiosum being the commonest.Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)and herpes simplex virus (HSV) most commonly cause infectious keratitis in HIV-positive patients .As compared to the immunocompetent indi-viduals the frequency of bacterial and fungal keratitis is not more in HIV patients,but it tends to be more se-vere.Posterior segment structures involved in HIV-positive patients include the retina,choroid,and optic nerve head.The herpesvirus family is implicated most commonly in infections of the retina and choroid in HIV positive patients.CMV is the most common cause of retinitis and the commonest intraocular infection in AIDS. Atypical presentations resistance to conventional treatment and higher rate of recurrence make the diagnosis and therapeutic intervention more difficult and challenging.In addition,in one eye,several infections may occur at the same time,rendering the situation more difficult.
Stahl, Erin D; Mahomed, Faheem; Hans, Amneet K; Dalal, Jignesh D
HSCT has been linked to the development of an assortment of ocular surface complications with the potential to lead to permanent visual impairment if left untreated or if not treated early in the course of disease. Strategies for therapy include maintenance of lubrication and tear preservation, prevention of evaporation, decreasing inflammation, and providing epithelial support. The ultimate aim of treatment is to prevent permanent ocular sequelae through prompt ophthalmology consultation and the use of advanced techniques for ocular surface rehabilitation. We describe several rehabilitation options of ocular surface complications occurring secondarily during the post-HSCT course. PMID:26869458
Kupersmith, M J; Ying, G.
Aim: The optimal treatment of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) remains unknown. The authors evaluated the efficacy of prednisone and pyridostigmine in reducing diplopia, ocular motor dysfunction, and ptosis in patients with OMG.
Sun, Y Y; Chen, W W; Wang, N L
Ocular hypertension is popular among people, with a prevalence of 3% to 10% in those older than 40 years old. Without proper intervention, over 10% of the patients with ocular hypertension would develop glaucoma in the following 5 to 10 years. Glaucoma has become one of the leading causes of blindness all over the world, which makes it essential for us to pay enough attention to the prevention and treatment of ocular hypertension. However, it is not cost-effective to treat all the patients with ocular hypertension. Certain side effects may also be caused with long-term medical treatment. Therefore, it is of great importance for ophthalmologists to identify the right time and use appropriate therapeutic methods. To introduce the knowledge of ocular hypertension, the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, risk factors and treatment of ocular hypertension are reviewed in this article. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 542-546). PMID:27531115
Henriques, Mariana; Sousa, Cláudia; Lira, Madalena; Oliveira, M. Elisabete; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to compare the adhesion capabilities of the most important etiologic agents of microbial ocular infection to the recently available silicone– hydrogel lenses with those to a conventional hydrogel lens. Methods. In vitro static adhesion assays of Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10,145, Staphylococcus epidermidis 9142 (biofilm-positive), and 12,228 (biofilm-negative) to two extended-wear silicone– hydrogel lenses (balafilcon A and lotrafilcon A), a daily wear sil...
Prachi Thakkar; JR Patel; Rajesh Sethuraman; Narendra Nirmal
The goal of palliative care is the achievement of the best quality of life for patients and their families. Eyes are generally the first features of the face to be noticed. Loss of an eye is a traumatic event which has a crippling effect on the psychology of the patient. Several ocular and orbital disorders require surgical intervention that may result in ocular defects. An ocular prosthesis is fabricated to restore the structure, function, and cosmetics of the defects created by such conditi...
... clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Hot Tub Rash ( Pseudomonas Folliculitis) Information for adults A A A This ... small pus-filled lesions. Overview Hot tub rash ( Pseudomonas folliculitis) is an infection of the hair follicle ...
Guo-Ling; Chen; Jing-Jing; Zhang; Xin; Kao; Lu-Wan; Wei; Zhi-Yu; Liu
· AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharides(LPS)-induced corneal inflammation in rats.· METHODS: Corneal infection was induced by pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS in Wistar rats. The inflammation induced by LPS were examined by slit lamp microscope and cytological checkup of aqueous humor.Corneal tissue structure was observed by hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B(NF-κB) was determined by Western blot.Messenger ribonucleic acid(m RNA) of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) in LPS-challenged rat corneas were measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).· RESULTS: Typical manifestations of acute corneal inflammation were observed in LPS-induce rat model,and the corneal inflammatory response and structure were improved in rats pretreated with emodin. Treatment with emodin could improve corneal structure, reduce corneal injure by reducing corneal inflammatory response. Emodin could inhibit the decreasing lever of inhibitor of kappa B alpha(IкBα) express, and the m RNA expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in corneal tissues was also inhibited by emodin. The differences were statistically significant between groups treated with emodin and those without treatment(P <0.01).·CONCLUSION: Emodin could ameliorate LPS-induced corneal inflammation, which might via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB.
Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is an Autosomal Recessive (AR) condition characterized by photosensitivity and inability to repair Ultra-Violet (UV) induced DNA damage. Patients diagnosed with XP, presenting to the Paediatric Ophthalmology Department of Al- Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, were evaluated and followed-up over a period of one year, for the effects of the disease process on vision and for the development of ocular tumours. Excision of the tumours, if present, was performed under general anaesthesia. Counselling of the patients was done. Referral to oncologist and dermatologist was made, if so warranted, after histopathology of excision biopsy. (author)
Full Text Available A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported. Surgical excision under topical anesthesia was carried out uneventfully in the outpatient clinic. The live worm removed from the subconjunctival space was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic examination and histopathology. Surgical excision of subconjunctival dirofilariasis is safe in an outpatient setting and curative precluding the need for further systemic antihelminthics.
María Beltrán F
Full Text Available Se presentan tres casos de miasis ocular (dos adultos y un niñoprocedentes de zonas ganaderas de la provincia de Huaura,departamento de Lima,que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Huacho por presentar el ojo rojo,fotofobia, edema palpebral y sensación de cuerpo extraño;se extrajeron larvas adheridas al canto interno del ojo,las cuales se recibieron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud y fueron identificadas como Oestrus ovis .
Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner
The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in
Kautto, Liisa; Nguyen-Khuong, Terry; Everest-Dass, Arun; Leong, Andrea; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P; Packer, Nicolle H; Peterson, Robyn
The human eye is constantly bathed by tears, which protect the ocular surface via a variety of mechanisms. The O-linked glycans of tear mucins have long been considered to play a role in binding to pathogens and facilitating their removal in the tear flow. Other conjugated glycans in tears could similarly contribute to pathogen binding and removal but have received less attention. In the work presented here we assessed the contribution of glycan moieties, in particular the protein attached N-glycans, presented by the broad complement of tear proteins to the adhesion of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a leading cause of microbial keratitis and ulceration of the cornea. Our adhesion assay involved immobilising the macromolecular components of tears into the wells of a polyvinyl difluoride (PVDF) microtitre filter plate and probing the binding of fluorescently labelled bacteria. Three P. aeruginosa strains were studied: a cytotoxic strain (6206) and an invasive strain (6294) from eye infections, and an invasive strain (320) from a urinary tract infection (UTI). The ocular isolates adhered two to three times more to human tears than to human saliva or porcine gastric mucin, suggesting ocular niche-specific adaptation. Support for the role of the N-glycans carried by human tear proteins in the binding and removal of P. aeruginosa from the eye was shown by: 1) pre-incubation of the bacteria with free component sugars, galactose, mannose, fucose and sialyl lactose (or combination thereof) inhibiting adhesion of all the P. aeruginosa strains to the immobilised tear proteins, with the greatest inhibition of binding of the ocular cytotoxic 6206 and least for the invasive 6294 strain; 2) pre-incubation of the bacteria with N-glycans released from the commercially available human milk lactoferrin, an abundant protein that carries N-linked glycans in tears, inhibiting the adhesion to tears of the ocular bacteria by up to 70%, which was significantly more
use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Song, Jing; Huang, Yi-Fei; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Chen, Xiao-Fei; Guo, Yu-Mian
Many factors, such as environmental, microbial and endogenous stress, antigen localization, can trigger the immunological events that affect the ending of the diverse spectrum of ocular disorders. Significant advances in understanding of immunological and molecular mechanisms have been researched to improve the diagnosis and therapy for patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Some kinds of ocular diseases are inadequately responsive to current medications; therefore, immunotherapy may be a potential choice as an alternative or adjunctive treatment, even in the prophylactic setting. This article first provides an overview of the immunological and molecular mechanisms concerning several typical and common ocular diseases; second, the functions of immunological roles in some of systemic autoimmunity will be discussed; third, we will provide a summary of the mechanisms that dictate immune cell trafficking to ocular local microenvironment in response to inflammation.
Al Arfaj, Khalid; Al Zamil, Waseem
Rosacea is a dermatologic condition that affects the midfacial region. Ocular rosacea is most frequently diagnosed when cutaneous signs and symptoms are also present. Ocular manifestations are essentially confined to the eyelids and ocular surface. Ocular involvement ranges from minor irritation, dryness, and blurry vision to potentially severe ocular surface disruption including corneal ulcers, vascularization and rarely perforation. We present a 49-year-old Saudi Arabian female with the diagnosis of rosacea who presented with a peripheral corneal performation. The perforation was successfully managed by surgical repair, oral doxycycline and topical steroid. The final best corrected visual acuity was 20/30 after treatment. Early referral to an ophthalmologist and careful long-term follow-up are recommended. PMID:20616930
Al Arfaj Khalid
Full Text Available Rosacea is a dermatologic condition that affects the midfacial region. Ocular rosacea is most frequently diagnosed when cutaneous signs and symptoms are also present. Ocular manifestations are essentially confined to the eyelids and ocular surface. Ocular involvement ranges from minor irritation, dryness, and blurry vision to potentially severe ocular surface disruption including corneal ulcers, vascularization and rarely perforation. We present a 49-year-old Saudi Arabian female with the diagnosis of rosacea who presented with a peripheral corneal performation. The perforation was successfully managed by surgical repair, oral doxycycline and topical steroid. The final best corrected visual acuity was 20/30 after treatment. Early referral to an ophthalmologist and careful long-term follow-up are recommended.
Ferreira, Teresa [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: T.A.Ferreira@lumc.nl; Verbist, Berit [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: B.M.Verbist@lumc.nl; Buchem, Mark van [Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.A.van_Buchem@lumc.nl; Osch, Thijs van [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: M.J.P.van_Osch@lumc.nl; Webb, Andrew [C.J. Gorter for High-Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (Netherlands)], E-mail: A.Webb@lumc.nl
The ocular motor nerves (OMNs) comprise the oculomotor, trochlear and the abducens nerves. According to their course, they are divided into four or five anatomic segments: intra-axial, cisternal, cavernous and intra-orbital and, for the abducens nerve, an additional interdural segment. Magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice in the evaluation of the normal and pathologic ocular motor nerves. CT still plays a limited but important role in the evaluation of the intraosseous portions at the skull base and bony foramina. We describe for each segment of these cranial nerves, the normal anatomy, the most appropriate image sequences and planes, their imaging appearance and pathologic conditions. Magnetic resonance imaging with high magnetic fields is a developing and promising technique. We describe our initial experience with a Phillips 7.0 T MRI scanner in the evaluation of the brainstem segments of the OMNs. As imaging becomes more refined, an understanding of the detailed anatomy is increasingly necessary, as the demand on radiology to diagnose smaller lesions also increases.
Full Text Available The ocular surface is exceptionally rich in complexity and functionality. Severe ocular surface disorders/conditions, such as chemical or thermal injuries, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, neurotrophic keratopathy, chronic limbitis, and severe microbial keratitis cause significant morbidities and even corneal blindness. Hypofunction may be caused by Aniridia, Neurotrophy, Endocrine, Pterygium and Chronic limbitis Approximately 6000 patients are seen in Ocular Surface Clinic every year; almost 80% have some form of dry eyes. About 125 new patients of Stevens Johnson Syndrome are seen in a year of which approximately 25% may benefit from Cultured Epithelial Transplant and 75 new patients of thermal/chemical injury in a year of which almost 80% will benefit from Stem Cell Transplantation. Of the 128 severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis which were seen in the ocular surface clinic, 10% require stem cell transplantation. Nearly 30 new cases of Ocular cicatrical pemphigoid every year are seen and they may need stem cell transplantation. In addition, several patients with persistent epithelial defects may benefit from limbal stem cell transplantation to alleviate, maintain conjunctivalization regression and corneal avascularity limbal deficiency, and restore vision. Even if granted that this statistics is for a single large ophthalmic hospital, for a large country as India with 1.1 billion populations, the number of patients requiring corneal stem cell transplantation is enormous. Stem cells in the palisades of Vogt participate in regeneration and preservation of corneal transparency and avascularity. The diminished regenerative capacity seen in LSCD is characterized by persistent epithelial defects, erosion and ulceration, conjunctivalization and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation. Standard corneal transplantation for restoration of corneal clarity and avascularity is a contraindication in the surgical management
Jaga, Kushik; Dharmani, Chandrabhan
Toxic effects on eyes result from exposure to pesticides via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact and ocular exposure. Exposure of unprotected eyes to pesticides results in the absorption in ocular tissue and potential ocular toxicity. Recent literature on the risks of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure is limited.
Prabhakar S Krishnachary
Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.
Full Text Available Hantavirus infections are an emerging infectious disease that is beginning to be recognized both worldwide and in India as a cause of hemorrhagic fever that may present as a pulmonary syndrome or as a renal syndrome. Reports of ocular involvement are rare and include transient myopia, low intraocular pressure, conjunctival hemorrhages and changes of intraocular dimensions. Eleven patients (10 males, one female, mean age 37.6 years were admitted to the intensive care unit for pyrexia of unknown origin or hemorrhagic fever following exposure to flood waters. Five male patients (mean age 31.6 years were identified as suffering from hantavirus infection. In one patient, dot and blot intraretinal hemorrhages were seen in the macula of one eye and streak hemorrhages of the disc in the other. In the remaining four, no fundus abnormalities were seen. Ophthalmologists should be aware of these features.
Full Text Available La toxocariosis es una geohelmintiosis producida por la ingestión de
huevos de Toxocara canis y T. catis, cuyos hospederos definitivos son el perro y el gato. En el humano las larvas producen el Síndrome de Migración Larvaria Visceral y Ocular; en este último produce una enfermedad grave que puede semejar un retinoblastoma (1,2. Los niños son más susceptibles a adquirir esta infección (3. Nuestro objetivo es determinar la frecuencia de toxocariosis ocular en menores de edad con sintomatología ocular.
ROMAO, Elen A.; BOLELLA, Valdes R.; NARDIN, Maria Estela P.; HABIB-SIMAO, Maria Lucia; FURTADO, João Marcelo; MOYSES-NETO, Miguel
We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748
Sandra Saray Quignon Santana
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is considered an autoimmune disease in which articular and extra articular manifestations are produced and contribute to alter the functional capacity of the individual. This study consists on performing a bibliographical review showing the main ocular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is our purpose to give you our experiences to the students as well as the internal medicine, ophthalmology and rheumatologist residents about this topic. The ophthalmological consultation of sick patients contributes to the prevention of ocular illnesses which are characteristic of the base disease and improve the ocular health.
Romao, Elen A; Bolella, Valdes R; Nardin, Maria Estela P; Habib-Simao, Maria Lucia; Furtado, João Marcelo; Moyses-Neto, Miguel
We present a case of ocular syphilis after a renal transplantation involving progressive vision loss without clinically identifiable ocular disease. Electroretinography showed signs of ischemia, especially in the internal retina. A serological test was positive for syphilis. Lumbar puncture revealed lymphocytic meningitis and a positive serologic test for syphilis in the cerebrospinal fluid. The patient was treated with penicillin, and had a quick vision improvement. In the case of transplant recipients, clinicians should always consider the diagnosis of ocular syphilis in cases with unexplained visual acuity decrement, as this condition may cause serious complications if not treated. PMID:27253748
Szaflik, Jerzy; Szaflik, Jacek P.; Ambroziak, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Jan; Skopiński, Piotr
The increasing understanding of immune mechanisms changed our perception of the ocular surface, which is now considered a compartment of the common mucosal immune system. It offered the possibility to alter the physiological immune response on the ocular surface and effectively combat inflammation, which impairs stability of the tear film and causes tear hyperosmolarity, causing symptoms of dry eye disease. The paper provides an overview of ocular surface anatomy and physiology, explains the underlying mechanisms of dry eye disease and discusses novel and promising treatment modalities, such as cyclosporine A, biological therapies using autologous serum and various growth factors as well as experimental treatment methods which are currently being investigated. PMID:27536206
Ultrasound B-scan examination of traumatized eve is safe, cheap and easy diagnostic method for visualization of the posterior pole of the eye. Ophthalmoscopic visualization of the fundus of traumatized eye can be obscured by corneal opacity, anterior chamber hyphema, cataractous change of the lens, or hemorrhage of the citreous. Ultrasound B-scan examination of the posterior pole is imperative in such cases to detect any intraocular damage and the presence of a foreign body. So we performed ultrasound B-scan examination of traumatized eye seventy eight patients and analyzed those findings. All cases were confirmed by follow up examination of ophthalmoscopy and ultrasound, or surgery. The results were as follows; 1. The most common cause of the ocular injury was traffic accidents (19 patients, 24.4%),male was more commonly injured (63 patients, 80.8). and the most common age group was their 4th decade. 2. Summary of sonographically detected intraocular lesions were as follows; 1) Corneal opacity (44 patients)-hyphema 15, traumatic cataract 24, vitreous hemorrhage 31, retinal detachment 20, intraocular foreign body 4, etc. 2) Hyphemal (16 patients)-hyphema 16, vitreous hemorrhage 11, tretinal detachment 5, etc. 3) Traumatic cataract with no corneal or lens opacity (6 patients)-vitreous hemorrhage with or without retinal detachment 3, normal vitreous and retina 3. 4) Vitreous opacity(12 patients)-vitreous hemorrhage 12, retinal detachment 4, intraocular foreign body 3, etc. In all seventy eight patients with ocular trauma , we could demonstrate characteristic findings for each intraocular lesion. So we recognized the important role and high diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound B-scan examination for the evaluation of the posterior pole of traumatized eye
Ocular radioimmunoscintigraphy was performed in 20 patients using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled monoclonal antibody 225.28S, F(ab')2 fragments. Radioimmunoscintigraphy was positive in 13 patients and the diagnosis of ocular melanoma was confirmed by enucleation of the eye or clinical follow-up. Scintigraphy was positive in one patient with lymph node metastasis from an ocular melanoma. In six patients immunoscintigraphy was negative. Using this technique a sensitivity of 92.8% was achieved for detecting ocular melanomas. Single photon emission tomography helped to separate the lesions situated in the nasal quadrant of the eye from the adjacent nasopharyngeal activity. With appropriate imaging techniques small tumors of the order of 3 x 5 x 3 mm could be detected clearly
Rajesh R Nayak
Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare genetic disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous and neurological manifestations. It occurs due to deficiency of the enzymes responsible for repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage. Persistence of un-repaired DNA results in somatic mutations, leading to neoplasia of the skin and ocular surface. As this condition is rare, only isolated case reports of XP with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN are found in literature.
Nayak, RR; Kamath, GM; Kamath, MM; Kamath, AR; D'Souza, S.
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare genetic disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous and neurological manifestations. It occurs due to deficiency of the enzymes responsible for repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage. Persistence of un-repaired DNA results in somatic mutations, leading to neoplasia of the skin and ocular surface. As this condition is rare, only isolated case reports of XP with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) are found in literature.
Janicijevic Katarina; Kocic Sanja; Todorovic Dusan; Sarenac Vulovic Tatjana
Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma). We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glauc...
Azira NMS; Zeehaida M
Ocular toxocariasis is prevalent among children. The symptoms and signs may mimic other ocular pathologies such as malignancies and other infectious diseases (such as toxoplasmosis and syphilis). We presented a case of progressive blurring of vision in a single eye of a9-year-old boy. The presence of anti-toxocara antibody in serum samples helps to confirmation the diagnosis in our patient. Despite of treatment, the boy had lost his vision on the affected eye.
Borrelli, M; Geerling, G
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a specialized area of ophthalmology that deals with the management of deformities and abnormalities of the eyelids, lacrimal system and the orbit. An ophthalmoplastic surgeon is able to identify and correct abnormalities of the ocular adnexae such as ectropion, lid retraction, conjunctival scarring with severe entropion, that can cause secondary ocular surface disorders; manage patients with watering eye, and when needed intervene with a dacry...
Siddesh Kumar Chintal
Full Text Available The disfigurement associated with the loss of an eye can cause significant physical and emotional problems. Various treatment modalities are available, one of which is implants. Although implant has a superior outcome, it may not be advisable in all patients due to economic factors. The present article describes the prosthetic management of an ocular defect with a custom-made ocular prosthesis.
Seyed Ali Tabatabaei; Shokoufeh Modanloo; Arezoo Mohammadkhani Ghiyasvand; Abolghasem Pouryani; Mohammad Soleimani; Seyed Mehdi Tabatabaei; Ahmad Reza Pakrah; Hamideh Masarat
AIM: To report the frequency, associated risk factors and characteristics of cases referred to Farabi Eye Hospital with ocular superglue injuries. METHODS: In a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between December 2012 and February 2013, patients with ocular superglue injuries were evaluated. Age, sex, educational level, location, time, mechanism, type, site and time of eye injury were gathered through interview using a customized questionnaire. All participants had given consent t...
Sen, Hatice Nida; Davis, Janet; Ucar, Didar; Fox, Austin; Chan, Chi Chao; Debra A. Goldstein
Ocular inflammatory disorders disproportionately affect women, and the majority of affected women are of childbearing age. The role of sex or reproductive hormones has been proposed in many other inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, and findings from non-ocular autoimmune diseases suggest a complex interaction between sex hormones, genetic factors and the immune system. However, despite the age and sex bias, factors that influence this disparity are complicated and unclear. This review aims ...
Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E
The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material. PMID:15386023
Balasubramanya, Rashmi; Selvarajan, Santosh Kumar; Cox, Mougnyan; Joshi, Ganesh; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Mitchell, Donald G; O'Kane, Patrick
Ocular melanoma is the most common adult primary intraocular tumour. Although helpful for detecting liver lesions. In particular, newer hepatobiliary contrast agents which offer an additional hepatobiliary phase of excretion help in the detection of even tiny liver metastases. Diffusion-weighted imaging is helpful when an i.v. contrast cannot be administered. Treated lesions are also better evaluated with MRI. CT is useful for evaluating lung nodules, large liver metastasis or in patients in whom MRI is medically contraindicated. The disadvantage lies in its inability to detect small liver metastasis and the radiation dose involved. The lesions treated with iodized oil as part of chemoembolization procedures can be followed on CT. Ultrasound can be used only for detecting hepatic metastases. However, it is heavily operator dependent, technically challenging and time consuming especially in patients who are large. Extrahepatic metastasis cannot be seen on ultrasound. Its utility is primarily for the biopsy of liver lesions. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT can detect lung nodules and large liver lesions but is insensitive to small liver lesions. Moreover, the high radiation dose is a major disadvantage. PMID:27168029
Described are the clinical and basic findings of B-cell lymphoma in ocular adnexal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), a rare and indolent disease with rather good prognosis, mainly on authors' retrospective examination. Subjects examined are 114 patients (71 M, 43 F; median age 57.5 y) from 1970 to 2003 in their hospital with the disease localized at stage I/II (107 cases, 94%) and at progression in both sides (17, 15%), and 100 cases (88%) of whom are defined in low risk group of the International Prognostic Index. The disease is sensitive to radiation and the initial treatment is done on about a half of patients (58 cases, 51%) with it, on 15 cases (13%) with chemotherapy alone, on 5 (4%) with chemo- and radio-therapy, and not done on 36 (32%). No significant difference in 10-year overall survival is seen among these treatment groups, but progression free survival tends to be higher in the group treated with radiation. Observed are no severe complication and 3 deaths by the disease progression. This MALT lymphoma is heterogeneous in cell genetics with various chromosome aberrations and in histopathology. Its relation with Chlamydia infection has been suggested. Radiation therapy is most widely applied, but observatory follow up without any treatment can be an option. (R.T.)
Full Text Available In order to evaluate whether ophthalmic preparations can be safely used within 12 hours after first opening, four different sterile ocular medications,were opened and tested for spontaneous bacterial contamination after exposure to air. Samples (10ml were collected from 5 containers of each ophthalmic preparation after 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours. No viable microorganisms were found during and at the end of the evaluation time. In order to assess if the ocular bacterial population might contaminate the medications, about 105 microbial cells of different species (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Candida albicans were added to the containers and incubated at 35°C or at room temperature. Samples were collected and the number of viable microrganisms was estimated.The medicaments showed a bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity (<100 survivors after 24 h of exposure against the majority of all relevant species, with the exception of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumanii, which demonstrated to be able to grow in some of these ocular preparations.These data indicate that the risk of spontaneous contamination of the containers after first opening is low, and that all solutions do not offer a favourable substrate for the growth of the microrganisms showing in the great majority of the cases an antimicrobial activity. These results suggest that a safe usage of these ocular medications can be extended from the recommended 12 hours at least 24 hours after first opening.
Tabatabaei, Seidali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Foroutan, Alireza; Ahmadabadi, Mehdinili; Zarei, Reza; Piri, Nilofar; Gordiz, Arzhang
AIM To report ocular symptoms, funduscopic findings and demographic distribution of ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran METHODS In this cross-sectional study, a total of 40 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (24 female, 16 male) were enrolled. The distribution of symptoms and funduscopic findings were studied. RESULTS The patients' age was in the range of 13-52 with the most common age of 19 years old. Twenty-four patients were female (60.0%). The most common presenting sign was visual loss. There was anterior chamber (AC) inflammation in 23 patients (57.5%). Vitritis was presented in 36 patients (90.0%). In 35 patients (87.5%), the retinal lesion was central. In patients with peripheral lesion, 3 patients (60.0%) had flashing vs 12.5% chance of flashing in all patients. Older patients had larger lesion (P=0.04). CONCLUSION Ocular toxoplasmosis substantially varies among patients with different age, gender, status of immunity, site of lesion and other undetermined factors. One of ocular symptoms, flashing, may necessitate a more precise peripheral fundus examination. PMID:22553642
S. Yu. Petrov
Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.
Full Text Available Syphilis is a multi systemic infection caused by Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations of Syphilis have a myriad of presentations and severity. A 31year old male patient was referred from ophthalmology department as a case of chorioretinitis for screening for syphilis. Patient had diminished vision and redness of right eye for 2 months duration. History of premarital exposure and extramarital contact was present. Ocular examination revealed - Rt eye: conjunctival congestion and Argyll Robertson pupil; Lt eye: normal. Fundoscopy of right eye showed yellowish white retinal lesions, macular edema and hyperaemia and left eye was normal .No genital lesion, scars or cutaneous lesion was present.VDRL was reactive in 1 dilution,TPHA was positive ; HIV test was negative ; CSF revealed VDRL - Negative and TPHA -Negative.Patient was treated with Injection procaine penicillin 1.2 Million units intramuscularly daily for 21 days. The patient responded well to treatment and there was improvement in his vision. Ocular Syphilis can occur at any stage of Syphilis and may be the only presenting sign. Syphilis serology was positive confirming the disease.This case highlights the importance of syphilis with ocular manifestation - there by proving that diagnosis of syphilis based on ocular finding is clinically challenging.
Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad
Full Text Available Purpose: To compare ocular biometric parameters in primary angle closure suspects (PACS, primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG and acute primary angle closure (APAC. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 113 patients including 33 cases of PACS, 45 patients with PACG and 35 subjects with APAC. Central corneal thickness (CCT, axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD and lens thickness (LT were measured with an ultrasonic biometer. Lens-axial length factor (LAF, relative lens position, corrected ACD (CACD and corrected lens position were calculated. The parameters were measured bilaterally but only data from the right eyes were compared. In the APAC group, biometric parameters were also compared between affected and unaffected fellow eyes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed in biometric parameters between PACS and PACG eyes, or between affected and fellow eyes in the APAC group (P>0.05 for all comparisons. However, eyes with APAC had thicker cornea (P=0.001, thicker lens (P<0.0001, shallower ACD (P=0.009, shallower CACD (P=0.003 and larger LAF (P<0.0001. Based on ROC curve analysis, lower ACD, and larger LT, LAF and CCT values were associated with APAC. In the APAC group, LAF (P<0.0001 and CCT (P=0.001 were significant risk factors. Conclusion: This study revealed no significant difference in biometric characteristics in eyes with PACS and PACG. However, larger LAF and CCT were predictive of APAC.
Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson
A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection. PMID:23427437
Mackay, Devin D; Garza, Philip S
The proficiency of nonophthalmologists with direct ophthalmoscopy is poor, which has prompted a search for alternative technologies to examine the ocular fundus. Although ocular fundus photography has existed for decades, its use has been traditionally restricted to ophthalmology clinical care settings and textbooks. Recent research has shown a role for nonmydriatic fundus photography in nonophthalmic settings, encouraging more widespread adoption of fundus photography technology. Recent studies have also affirmed the role of fundus photography as an adjunct or alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy in undergraduate medical education. In this review, the authors examine the use of ocular fundus photography as an educational tool and suggest future applications for this important technology. Novel applications of fundus photography as an educational tool have the potential to resurrect the dying art of funduscopy. PMID:26444395
Full Text Available A year long study of ocular injuries in children below the age of 15 years was conducted in the Ophthalmology Department of a general hospital. Fortyfour cases were studied. Of these 45.45% were in the age group of 6-10 years. The male to female ratio was 5.28 : 1. Pointed objects viz. sticks, wires etc. were found to be the common causative agents; the recent trend being of bow and arrow injuries. Ocular perforation was observed in 28 cases. On follow up of all the cases with ocular trauma, only 12 patients were found to have a visual acuity better than 6/18; perception of light was absent in 7 patients. A need for increased parental awareness and supervision of children is stressed upon.
Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform
Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display a...... remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because the...... use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...
Alessandra G Commodaro
Full Text Available Ocular toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. The infection can be acquired congenitally or postnatally and ocular lesions may present during or years after the acute infection occur. Current treatment controls ocular infection and inflammation, but does not prevent recurrences. We present a review and update on ocular toxoplasmosis and address misconceptions still found in the current medical literature.
Richard W Hertle
The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to v...
To determine the frequency and causes of bilateral ocular trauma. All patients coming to the hospital with bilateral eye trauma and requiring admission were recruited into the study. The details of patients demographics, risk factors, ocular examination, treatment offered and final visual acuity were noted and described as frequency and percentages. Out of a total of 1551 patients of hospitalized ocular trauma, 46 (2.9%, 92 eyes) had bilateral ocular trauma. The majority (54.3%) were due to landmine blast injuries followed by dynamite blast in 10.8%, coalmine blast and firearm injury in 6.5% each. Pressure cooker explosion and road traffic accident was the cause in 4.3% each. Gas cylinder and automobile battery explosion, alkali and acid burn, assault and incidental trauma occurred in 2.1%. Sixty three percent were between 16 and 40 years of age. Males were affected in 93.4%. Corneal and / or scleral repair was done in 58.6%, conjunctival and or corneal foreign body removal in 26% and extracapular cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation in 16.3%. The visual acuity was in the range of 6/60 and perception of light in 54.3%, while in 21.7%, there was no perception of light at the time of admission. Due to severity of injury, the final visual acuity was poor and only 28.2% regained vision between 6/18 and 6/60. In this series, landmine, dynamite and coalmine blasts were the major causes of bilateral ocular trauma. Victims were usually young males. Due to severity of ocular trauma, majority had poor visual outcome. (author)
Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14
L. Gila; Villanueva, A.; Cabeza, R.
En el control de la motilidad ocular intervienen varios sistemas funcionales. Los reflejos vestíbulo-oculares y optocinéticos son respuestas automáticas para compensar los movimientos de la cabeza y del entorno visual y poder estabilizar la imagen retiniana sobre un determinado punto de fijación. Los movimientos sacádicos son rápidos desplazamientos de la fijación de un punto a otro del campo visual. Los movimientos de persecución lenta consisten en el seguimiento de estímulos móviles con la ...
Full Text Available Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular surgery irrigation device. 886.4360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4360 Ocular surgery irrigation device. (a) Identification. An ocular surgery irrigation device is a device intended to be suspended over...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocular pressure applicator. 886.4610 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4610 Ocular pressure applicator. (a) Identification. An ocular pressure applicator is a manual device that consists of a sphygmomanometer-type...
Mehmet Giray Ersöz; Seda Adıyeke; Gamze Türe; Ekrem Talay; Hakkı Özgür Konya
Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP), time of disappearance of hyphem...
de Vries, Jan Willem
The field of DNA nanotechnology has progressed rapidly in recent years and now offers facile fabrication of a large variety of nanostructures of different shapes and geometries. In this thesis, short nucleic acid sequences are functionalized with hydrophobic units to form the basis of an ocular drug
Mansour, A M; Mansour, N; Rosenberg, H S
Conjoined twinning is a rare form of congenital anomaly. The ocular findings in six sets of conjoined twins as well as those reported elsewhere include abnormal optic nerve decussation, pseudosynophthalmos, microphthalmia, abnormal eyelids, orbital encephalocele, occipital encephalocele, and eyelid coloboma. These findings are interpreted as due to deformations from appositional fusion-related factors or malformations from developmental factors. PMID:1955960
A simple test of ocular dominance in infants is described. In the test, a small point of light is gradually brought closer to the observer along the medial plane. As the light draws closer, in typical cases, one eye will cease to converge, or frequently, it will break from convergence suddenly. The eye which ceases converging or breaks away from…
Full Text Available Eleven histologically proved cases of ocular malignant lymphoma diagnosed and managed during the year 1974-81 are reported. The follow-up period ranges from 2-7 years. The difficulties in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.
Charles Oluwole Omolase
Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the pattern of ocular injuries in patients presenting to the eye clinic and the accident and emergency department of Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and December 2009. Federal Medical Center, Owo is the only tertiary hospital in Ondo State, Nigeria. The eye center located at this medical center was the only eye care facility in the community at the time of this study. All patients were interviewed with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire and underwent a detailed ocular examination. Results: Of 132 patients included in the study, most (84.1% sustained blunt eye injury while (12.1% had penetrating eye injury. A considerable proportion of patients (37.9% presented within 24 hours of injury. Vegetative materials were the most common (42.4% offending agent, a minority of patients (22% was admitted and none of the patients had used eye protection at the time of injury. Conclusion: In the current series, blunt eye injury was the most common type of ocular trauma. The community should be educated and informed about the importance of preventive measures including protective eye devices during high risk activities. Patients should be encouraged to present early following ocular injury.
Full Text Available Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis are both auto-immune diseases and the coexistence of these two diseases is well recognized. Myasthenia gravis is more frequent in patients with thyroid disease. Here we present a case of thyroid ophthalmopathy and ocular myasthenia.
Yaman A; Yaman H
Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis are both auto-immune diseases and the coexistence of these two diseases is well recognized. Myasthenia gravis is more frequent in patients with thyroid disease. Here we present a case of thyroid ophthalmopathy and ocular myasthenia.
He, Shikun; Li, Xiaohua; Chan, Nymph; Hinton, David R.
Epigenetics has become an increasingly important area of biomedical research. Increasing evidence shows that epigenetic alterations influence common pathologic responses including inflammation, ischemia, neoplasia, aging, and neurodegeneration. Importantly, epigenetic mechanisms may have a pathogenic role in many complex eye diseases such as corneal dystrophy, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, ocular neoplasia, uveitis, and age-related macular degeneration. The emerging emphasis on ep...
Full Text Available Soluble inserts of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride using high and low molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol alone and in various combinations were fabricated by a casting technique. The in vitro drug release from the prepared inserts was studied using a continuous flow-through model, developed in our laboratory. The antimicrobial efficacies of the prepared inserts against common ocular pathogens, viz., Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, were evaluated using a modified in vitro microbiological model. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride release from the inserts followed matrix diffusion kinetics showing an anomalous release mechanism (erosion-controlled based on the calculated release exponent (n values. Drug release increased with an increase in the proportion of high molecular weight polyvinyl alcohol in the inserts. The in vitro microbiological model demonstrated the effectiveness of the inserts against the two microorganisms. Further, the results of the in vitro release studies correlated well with that of the antimicrobial studies.
Osbel Alfonso Sánchez
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is considered an autoimmune disease in which articular and extra articular manifestations are produced and contribute to alter the functional capacity of the individual. This study consists on performing a bibliographical review showing the main ocular manifestations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It is our purpose to give you our experiences to the students as well as the internal medicine, ophthalmology and rheumatologist residents about this topic. The ophthalmological consultation of sick patients contributes to the prevention of ocular illnesses which are characteristic of the base disease and improve the ocular health.La artritis reumatoide se considera una enfermedad autoinmune, la cual produce manifestaciones articulares y extraarticulares que contribuyen a alterar la capacidad funcional del individuo. En esta revisión se muestran las principales manifestaciones oculares en pacientes con diagnóstico de dicha enfermedad. Se describen experiencias válidas para estudiantes y residentes de medicina interna, oftalmología y reumatología y se realiza la valoración de la interconsulta oftalmológica de los pacientes enfermos en la prevención de afecciones oculares propias de la enfermedad de base y su contribución al mejoramiento de su salud ocular.
Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.
Meyers Valerie E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind’s limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Methods Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm, reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles Results In vitro testing indicated minimal irritancy potential based on the time required to reduce cell viability by 50% (ET50. Follow-up testing using the Draize standard protocol confirmed that the lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Conclusions Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.
Zubkov, V. S.
We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.
Ricardo Cardona Villa
Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also
... EspaÃ±ol [PDF - 1 page] "Hot Tub Rash" ( Pseudomonas Dermatitis / Folliculitis) If contaminated water comes in contact ... is often caused by infection with the germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa . This germ is common in the environment ( ...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a hyaluronic acid containing eye drop in ameliorating ocular surface pathology and discomfort in canine keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS. Twenty five dogs with KCS treated with a topical carbomer (CA-based tear replacement gel were moved to treatment with a hyaluronic acid (HA-containing tear replacement eye drop. Dogs were subject to a full ophthalmic examination at the beginning of the study and after two and four weeks of treatment, Schirmer tear tests (STTs were performed at each examination. Conjunctival hyperemia, ocular discharge and ocular irritation were evaluated and scored on a 0-3 semi-quantitative scale. Values were compared before and after 4 weeks of treatment using a paired t-test. Evaluation scores were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The transfer from CA-based to HA-containing tear replacement significantly decreased the conjunctival hyperemia score from 2.12 ± 0.73 to 1.26 ± 0.59 and ocular discomfort was lowered from 2.11 ± 0.97 to 0.93 ± 0.75. Ocular discharge was reduced from a score of 1.04 ± 0.82 to 0.70 ± 0.53, however, the decrease did not reach statistical significance. Schirmer tear test was increased with statistical significance (p < 0.001 but given that the increase was only from 5.42 ± 3.50 to 6.19 ± 3.86 mm min-1; this was not considered clinically significant. This study demonstrated that HA-containing eye drops used twice daily in dogs with KCS had greater ameliorative effects on ocular surface health and discomfort than did CA-based topical gels used as or more frequently.
Choy, Bonnie Nga Kwan; Ng, Alex Lap Ki; Shum, Jennifer Wei Huen; Fan, Michelle Ching Yim; Lai, Jimmy Shiu Ming
Chlorpromazine is known to cause ocular pigmentary deposits. However, delayed presentation after cessation of chlorpromazine has not been reported. There are also no reports on whether newer generation of anti-psychotic agents contribute to ocular toxicity. We describe a case of ocular toxicity related to anti-psychotic agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anterior segment pigmentary deposits associated with olanzapine use, 2 years after the cessation of chlorpromazine.We report a case of ocular toxicity in a patient with history of chlorpromazine usage of 100 mg per day for 13 years and subsequently switched to olanzapine 5 mg for 2 years. There were no signs of ocular toxicity while the patient was on chlorpromazine. However, when the patient switched to olanzapine, she developed the ocular side effect as described for chlorpromazine-induced ocular toxicity, with pigmentary depositions on both corneas and the anterior lens surface and decrease in vision.Olanzapine, a newer anti-psychotic agent, may play a role in the ocular pigmentary deposition, either directly causing pigmentary deposition itself or accentuating the effect of chlorpromazine as the 2 drugs act on the same receptors, although further studies are required to support this hypothesis. As patients with psychiatric conditions may not voluntarily complain of visual symptoms, ocular screening could be considered in these patients receiving chronic anti-psychotic treatment, so that any ocular toxicity could be diagnosed in a timely manner. PMID:27082594
Meyers, Valerie E.
This slide presentation reviews the use of ocular testing to determine the toxicity of lunar dust. The OECD recommendations are reviewed. With these recommendations in mind the test methodology was to use EpiOcular, tissues derived from normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the cells of which have been differentiated on cell culture inserts to form a multi-layered structure, which closely parallels the corneal epithelium and to dose the tissue with 100 mg dust from various sources. The in-vitro study provides evidence that lunar dust is not severely corrosive or irritating, however, in vitro tests have limitations, and in vivo tests provides a more complete scenario, and information, it is recommended that in vivo tests be performed.
McNab, A. A.; Potts, M J; Welham, R A
The EEC syndrome (ectrodactyly or lobster-claw deformity, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip and palate) is a rare disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance, variable expression, and in some families lack of penetrance. We present the findings in five cases with emphasis on the ocular findings. Lacrimal surgery was performed on three patients with good results in each case. We also report the occurrence of spontaneous corneal perforation in two cases, a complication not previously recogni...
Canan Aslı Utine; İsmet Durak
Recently, pepper spray has been used by both civilians, as a non-lethal personal defense spray, and law enforcement agencies in population movements. People exposed to pepper spray experience panic and disorientation due to acute severe pain, blepharospasm, tearing and sometimes blurred vision and even temporary blindness. Having knowledge about the properties and mechanism of action of pepper spray and the different aspects of this exposure from other ocular chemical injuries is imp...
Kaiser, James M.; Imai, Hisanori; Haakenson, Jeremy K.; Robert M Brucklacher; Fox, Todd E.; Shanmugavelandy, Sriram S.; Unrath, Kellee A.; Pedersen, Michelle M.; Dai, Pingqi; Freeman, Willard M.; Bronson, Sarah K.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Kester, Mark
Nanoliposomal technology is a promising drug delivery system that could be employed to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of clearance and distribution in ocular drug delivery to the retina. We developed a nanoscale version of an anionic, cholesterol-fusing liposome that can encapsulate therapeutic levels of minocycline capable of drug delivery. We demonstrate that size extrusion followed by size-exclusion chromatography can form a stable 80-nm liposome that encapsulates minocycline at a ...
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects up to a third of the world′s population. Infection is mainly acquired by ingestion of food that is contaminated with oocysts. We report an outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis, which is an acute acquired type rather than reactivation of congenital toxoplasmosis. Our preliminary investigation points to municipal water contamination. This outbreak only proves the need of an effective public health system and health education in curtailing any outbreak.
Insler, M. S.; Davlin, L
The case of a 5-month-old black female child with a linear sebaceous naevus syndrome and multiple congenital anomalies is presented. Ocular malformations consisted of colobomatous changes of the lid and retina, dermoid of the conjunctiva, chorioretinal changes, and peripapillary atrophy of the optic nerve. Systemic findings included midline cleft of the secondary palate with involvement by the naevus, bilateral hearing loss, asymmetrical skull bones, ventricular septal defect, epidermal inclu...
Charles Oluwole Omolase; Ericson Oluseyi Omolade; Olakunle Tolulope Ogunleye; Bukola Olateju Omolase; Chidi Oliver Ihemedu; Olumuyiwa Adekunle Adeosun
Purpose: To determine the pattern of ocular injuries in patients presenting to the eye clinic and the accident and emergency department of Federal Medical Center, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Methods: This prospective study was conducted between January and December 2009. Federal Medical Center, Owo is the only tertiary hospital in Ondo State, Nigeria. The eye center located at this medical center was the only eye care facility in the community at the time of this study. All patients were in...
Sinha, Amit; Al Husainy, Sahar
A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department following an episode of severe visual impairment, headache, dizziness and confusion. The patient had been taking quinine sulfate as long-term medication for leg cramps. During an episode of sleepwalking, the patient had taken an overdose of quinine sulfate. Following a thorough investigation and assessment, a diagnosis of ocular quinine toxicity was made. We present this case and highlight the risks of quinine prescription. PMID:24287479
Chen, Ying; Mehta, Gaurav; Vasiliou, Vasilis
The human eye is subjected constantly to oxidative stress due to daily exposure to sunlight, high metabolic activities, and oxygen tension. Reactive oxygen species generated from environmental insults and pathological conditions render the human eye particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage. The ocular surface composed of the tear film, the cornea, and the aqueous humor forms the first physical and biochemical barrier of the eye and plays a pivotal role in combating free radicals. These ocu...
Solani D. Mathebula
Full Text Available Accumulated data supports the argument that vitamin D possesses several biological and molecular actions apart from its role in calcium absorption and facilitation of gene expression. Vitamin D deficiency has been an associated risk factor for cardiovascular disease,metabolic syndrome and ocular complications. The aim of this review is to summarise the most relevant data regarding these associations and to try to clarify whether, and to what extent, oral vitamin D supplementation could be used as a beneficial intervention in such diseases.Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.
Moon, Sunghyuk; Lim, Su-Ho
Background Blank cartridge guns are generally regarded as being harmless and relative safe. However recent published articles demonstrated that the gas pressure from the exploding propellant of blank cartridge is powerful enough to penetrate the thoracic wall, abdominal muscle, small intestine and the skull. And there has been a limited number of case reports of ocular trauma associated with blank cartridge injury. In addition, no report on case with split extraocular muscle injury with traum...
Chiu, Kin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai
Intravitreous injection is a widely used technique in visual sciences research. It can be used to establish animal models with ocular diseases or as direct application of local treatment. This video introduces how to use simple and inexpensive tools to finish the intravitreous injection procedure. Use of a 1 ml syringe, instead of a hemilton syringe, is used. Practical tips for how to make appropriate injection needles using glass pipettes with perfect tips, and how to easily connect the syri...
Gichuhi, Stephen; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi; Sagoo, Mandeep S; Burton, Matthew J.
The incidence of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is strongly associated with solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, HIV and human papilloma virus (HPV). Africa has the highest incidence rates in the world. Most lesions occur at the limbus within the interpalpebral fissure particularly the nasal sector. The nasal limbus receives the highest intensity of sunlight. Limbal epithelial crypts are concentrated nasally and contain niches of limbal epithelial stem cells in the basal layer. It is p...
The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma
Harley E. A. Bicas
Full Text Available Partindo-se de um circuito esquemático relacionando os sistemas sensorial (visual binocular e oculomotor, cujos defeitos em vias aferentes ou eferentes, ou de suas interações, explicam o aparecimento dos estrabismos e suas conseqüências, são examinados os fundamentos e referenciais da movimentação ocular. Apresentam-se os conceitos de eixos e planos, centro de massa e de rotação, definem-se os movimentos monoculares de translação e de rotação e os binoculares de versões e vergências. É também referida a função dos centros de comando para movimentos voluntários e reflexos, a dos núcleos oculomotores e a respectiva inervação aos músculos oculares externos. Numa segunda parte (fisiologia da musculatura ocular extrínseca são comentadas as atividades de contração e relaxamento e a importância da lei de Sherrington. Voltando-se ao conceito de posição primária do olhar e dos referenciais das rotações, menciona-se a diversidade de vários sistemas de medidas. Em seguida, são analisadas as ações musculares rotacionais com bases no plano de ação muscular e na distribuição anatômica dos músculos, levando a resultados em posição primária do olhar e nas outras. Os efeitos de fáscias e membranas intermusculares são também comentados, terminando-se com a concepção moderna sobre as ações musculares (ação simultânea de todos os músculos em quaisquer das posições oculares. Com os condicionantes da lei de Hering, desenvolve-se o conceito de posições diagnósticas (das disfunções oculomotoras, diferentemente do clássico: os músculos são considerados em pares, de acordo às suas ações predominantes ___ horizontais (retos horizontais, verticais (retos verticais ou torcionais (oblíquos. Em cada qual devem ser comparadas as ações em condições diametralmente opostas de fixação ocular e posições do olhar (por exemplo, supradextroversão na fixação com o olho direito e infralevoversão na fixa
Full Text Available Xuyang Wen*, Linna Lu*, He Zhang, Xianqun Fan Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Epigenetics is currently one of the most promising areas of study in the field of biomedical research. Scientists have dedicated their efforts to studying epigenetic mechanisms in cancer for centuries. Additionally, the field has expanded from simply studying DNA methylation to other areas, such as histone modification, non-coding RNA, histone variation, nucleosome location, and chromosome remodeling. In ocular tumors, a large amount of epigenetic exploration has expanded from single genes to the genome-wide level. Most importantly, because epigenetic changes are reversible, several epigenetic drugs have been developed for the treatment of cancer. Herein, we review the current understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in ocular tumors, including but not limited to retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma. Furthermore, the development of new pharmacological strategies is summarized. Keywords: ocular tumors, epigenetics, retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma, epigenetic drugs
Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.
Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difﬁculty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of speciﬁc photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.
Full Text Available A total number of 400 cases of eye infection were studied. Among them, 250 were conjunctivitis (59.2%,120were keratitis (53.34% 15 were endophthalmitis (26.67% and 15 were suffering from other infections(40%. The corneal scrapping, conjunctival swab and biopsy material ( endophthalmitis cases was collectedasceptically. The material was examined using 10% Potassium hydroxide, Gram staining and Giemsastaining. The specimens were cultured on sheeps’ blood agar, chocolate agar and sabourauds’ dextroseagar. In the bacterial cause of eye infection Staphylococcus aureus (19.13% was the most commonlyisolated organism and other pathogens isolated were Streptococcus pneumoniae (10.93%, Streptococcuspyogens (0.55%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.92%, Klebsiella species(2.74%, Escherichia colli (1.10%and Proteus mirabilis (0.55%. Among the opportunistic pathogens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, (19.13%were the most common isolate followed by Acinetobacter species(2.74%. Alkaligenes faecalis (1.10%,Staphylococcus saprophyticus (0.55%, Staphylococcus cohnii (0.55%, Staphylococcus haemolyticus(0.55%. In the endopthalmitis patients only Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20% and Staphylococcusepidermidis (6.67% were isolated. In the fungal keratitis, the total fungal isolates were 32.50%. Amongthem Aspergillus species (56.42% was the most common fungus isolated followed by Curvurlaria (17.95%,Cladosporium (7.70%, Candida species (5.13%, Fusarium (5.13%, Alternaria (5.13%, Penicillium(2.57%. Fungal infection is a life threatening condition, which needs early diagnosis and treatment tosave the patients’ eye. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are still the most commonisolates among the known and opportunistic pathogens in ocular infection. Pseudomonas is the mostcommon cause of endophthalmitis. Aspergillus remains most common cause for fungal keratitis.
Ocular surface reconstruction by tissue engineering using somatic stem cells is a second-generation modality. In order to treat bilaterally affected, severe ocular surface disorders, we investigated the transplantation of two types of cultivated mucosal epithelia: allogenic corneal epithelial stem cells, and autologous oral mucosal epithelial cells. For this, first, we summarized the clinical results of allogenic keratoepithelioplasty and limbal transplantation. In addition, we showed that the immunological shift from Th1 to Th2 by using keyhole limpet hemocyanin was effective in suppressing the incidence of immunological rejection. Second, we investigated the transplantation of cultivated human corneal epithelial stem cells onto amniotic membrane. The cultivated sheet was created by co-culture with 3T3 fibroblasts, using the air-lift method, in cultivating the corneal epithelial stem cell on the amniotic membrane. These cultivated cells demonstrated positive keratin 3 and 12 specific to in vivo corneal epithelium, tight junction related proteins, and telomerase activity. The transplanted allogenic human corneal epithelial sheet survived on the corneal surface in all cases, and was quite effective for achieving ocular surface stability in the acute phase of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, or chemical injury. However, a few cases developed immunological rejection or opportunistic infection. Third, to establish the transplantation of the autologous cultivated oral mucosal epithelial sheet, we performed animal experiments using rabbits. In vitro oral mucosal epithelial sheet showed histology similar to that of in vivo corneal epithelial sheet. It expressed positive keratin 3 as well. Since the autologous transplantation of this sheet survived on the ocular surface with the recovery of corneal transparency, a cultivated oral mucosal epithelium may become a substitute for corneal epithelium. Fourth, we created a cultivated human corneal
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is one of the common autoimmune diseases seen in young patients, predominantly affecting females. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this prospective study is to determine ocular presentations in SLE METHODS: In this descriptive, prospective, observational, cross sectional study, all patients who presented to the department of dermatology during this study period of 12 months from January 2010 - December 2010 in Belgaum Institute of Medical Sciences were included . RESULTS: Total number of females in the present study was 19(74%, males in the study was 6 (26%. Mean age of the patients was 26.2 ± 2.8 (SD years, maximum age being 36 years and minimum age being 20 years, number of patients in the age group 20 - 25 years was 14 (56%, 26 - 30 years was 6 (24%, 30 - 35 years was 3 (12%, number of patients in 36 - 40 years was 2 (8% Maximum number of patients was in their middle age between 20 - 25 years. Ocular symptoms in present study scelritis was seen in 8(32% patients, episcelritis was seen i n 10(40% patients, conjunctivitis was seen in 5(20% patients, ANA - positive was seen in 20 (80% patients, episcelritis was seen in maximum number of patients i.e. 10 (40%. Distribution of ocular symptoms in present study between two eyes, scelritis was seen in 6(75% in right eye, was seen in 2(25% in left eye, scelritis was seen in 7(70% in right eye, was seen in 3(30% in left eye, conjunctivitis was seen in scelritis was seen in 2 (40% in right eye, was seen in 3(60% in left eye. Ocular symptoms a nd sex distribution, scelritis was seen in 6 (31.57% patients in females, Episcelritis was seen in 8(42.10% females, Conjunctivitis was seen in 5(26.31% males, and ANA positivity was seen in 18 (72% females. Scelritis was seen in 2 (33.33% patients in males, Episcelritis was seen in 2 (33.33% males, Conjunctivitis was not seen in males, and ANA positivity was seen in 2 (8% males. P value of all ocular symptoms is insignificant. P
Oluwakemi Adegbehingbe; Kayode Ajite
Objective: To determine the contribution of corporal punishment to ocular morbidity and visual impairment in Nigerian children. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted of all patients aged 0-15 years seen with ocular injuries over a four year period. Those who sustained ocular injuries during the administration of corporal punishment were further studied. Relevant information was documented using a semistructured questionnaire. Data was analyzed by simple descriptive stati...
Rahul Rama Hegde; Amitava Ghosh,; Anurag Verma
Delivery of drugs into eyes using conventional drug delivery systems, such as solutions, is a considerable challenge to the treatment of ocular diseases. Drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal fluid secretion, lachrymal fluid-eye barriers, and blood-ocular barriers are main obstacles. A number of ophthalmic drug delivery carriers have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. The potential use of microemulsions ...
Azodo, Clement C.; Ezeja, Ejike B
Objective Daily clinical activities in dental operatory expose dental surgeons to varied forms of ocular events. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of ocular splashes and foreign bodies among dental surgeons in Nigeria. Methods This questionnaire-based cross-sectional of dental surgeons in Southern Nigeria was conducted between September 2010 and August 2011. The information elicited were demography, experience and type of ocular event, implicated dental proc...
Sams, Thomas; Baker, Ysobel; Hodgkinson, James;
is now known to be under the con-trol of the quorum sensing (QS) system. Over the last15 years, the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS) has beenfound to play a crucial role in QS by linking the two seg-ments (las and rhl) of the P. aeruginosa N-acylhomoserinelactone-dependent QS signaling pathways...
Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira
Full Text Available Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnostic test for rosacea. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea relies on observation of clinical features, which can be challenging in up to 90% of patients in whom accompanying roseatic skin changes may be subtle or inexistent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed in the literature, clinical features, diagnosis and management of ocular rosacea, as well as discuss the need for a diagnostic test for the disease.A rosácea é uma condição cutânea crônica, que possui apresentações clínicas variáveis. Apesar de considerada uma doença dermatológica, os olhos podem ser acometidos em 58-72% dos casos, causando inflamação palpebral e da superfície ocular. Aproximadamente um terço dos pacientes desenvolve acometimento corneano, podendo causar baixa visual significativa. Diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado são de extrema importância, devido à significativa morbidade ocular que a doença pode causar. Não há, até o momento, um teste diagnóstico para rosácea. O diagnóstico da rosácea ocular depende da observação das manifestações clínicas, o que pode ser bastante desafiador em até 90% dos pacientes, em que os achados cutâneos são discretos ou inexistentes. Nesta revisão, descrevemos os mecanismos fisiopatológicos propostos na literatura, manifestações clínicas, diagnóstico e tratamento da rosácea ocular, assim como abordamos a necessidade de um teste diagnóstico.
Richard W Hertle
Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.
Hertle, Richard W
The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function. PMID:24014991
Full Text Available Joanna DaCostaMoorfields Eye Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Conjunctivitis is often considered an innocuous condition which is self-limiting. This report describes misdiagnosis of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid as chronic conjunctivitis. Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid is a rare autoimmune condition. The clinical features which are useful to distinguish this condition from infective conjunctivitis are discussed. The investigation and treatment of ocular cicatricial pemphigoid is discussed. It is important to recognize nonocular symptoms and signs that may indicate the presence of a more serious underlying pathological condition necessitating specialized ophthalmic referral and subsequent investigation and treatment.Keywords: autoimmune, conjunctivitis, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid
Full Text Available Subramaniam Suresh1, Saidin Nor-Masniwati1, Muhd Nor Nor-Idahriani1, Wan-Hitam Wan-Hazabbah1, Mohamed Zeehaida2, Embong Zunaina11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, MalaysiaBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig G avidity of serological toxoplasmosis testing in patients with ocular inflammation and to determine the clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis.Methods: A retrospective review of all patients presenting with ocular inflammation to the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia between 2005 and 2009 was undertaken. Visual acuity, clinical manifestations at presentation, toxoplasmosis antibody testing, and treatment records were analyzed.Results: A total of 130 patients with ocular inflammation were reviewed retrospectively. The patients had a mean age of 38.41 (standard deviation 19.24, range 6–83 years. Seventy-one patients (54.6% were found to be seropositive, of whom five (3.8% were both IgG and IgM positive (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis while one (0.8% showed IgG avidity ≤40% (suggestive of recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis and 65 patients (50.0% showed IgG avidity >40% (suggestive of reactivation of toxoplasmosis infection. Chorioretinal scarring as an ocular manifestation was significantly more common in patients with seropositive toxoplasmosis (P = 0.036. Eighteen patients (13.8% were diagnosed as having recent and/or active ocular toxoplasmosis based on clinical manifestations and serological testing.Conclusion: Ocular toxoplasmosis is a clinical diagnosis, but specific toxoplasmosis antibody testing helps to support the diagnosis and to differentiate between reactivation of infection and recently acquired ocular toxoplasmosis.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, chorioretinal scar, toxoplasmosis antibody, IgG avidity test
The author focused on the functional decline of synapses in the brain with aging to understand the underlying mechanisms and to ameliorate the deficits. The first attempt was to unravel the neuronal functions of gangliosides so that gangliosides could be used for enhancing synaptic activity. The second attempt was to elicit the neuronal plasticity in aged animals through enriched environmental stimulation and nutritional intervention. Environmental stimuli were revealed neurochemically and mo...
Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.
Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...
Amparo, Francisco; Wang, Haobing; Emami-Naeini, Parisa; Karimian, Parisa; Dana, Reza
In this study, we present and validate an automated method to assess ocular redness in clinical images. This system is based on a continuous, centesimal scale, and employs a computer algorithm that objectively scores redness without need for a trained physician.
María Adela LLull Tombo
Full Text Available A clinical case on ocular toxocariasis is presented. The clinical manifestations were pain and red eye in a four year-old child. A prior acute uveitis in the LE was found in the physical ocular exam. Vitrea band that was out of the superior edge of papila and a marginal granuloma were found in the eyes fundus. The patient was admitted and treated with oral corticoids and oral antihelmintics
Se presenta un caso clínico de toxocariasis ocular. La manifestación clínica fue dolor y ojo rojo en un niño de 4 años de edad. Al examen físico ocular encontramos signos de uveítis anterior aguda en ojo izquierdo y el fondo de ojo mostraba banda vítrea que salía del borde superior de papila y un granuloma periférico. El paciente fue ingresado y tratado con corticoides orales y antihelmínticos orales.
Alessandra Pinheiro Chaves
Full Text Available As drogas antineoplásicas proporcionam aumento da sobrevida dos portadores de neoplasias, mas podem induzir efeitos adversos em vários órgãos e tecidos. A mucosite é efeito adverso freqüentemente observado durante a administração de certos quimioterápicos. A toxicidade ocular dessas drogas pode se manifestar por alterações da superfície ocular e do filme lacrimal. O objetivo foi avaliar alterações da superfície ocular induzidas pelos quimioterápicos e estabelecer sua correlação clínica com mucosite e quimioterapia. Trinta e nove pacientes foram submetidos a exame oftalmológico completo, citologia de impressão e estudo microbiológico da conjuntiva. Comparamos 2 grupos: com manifestação de mucosite (caso e sem manifestação de mucosite (controle. Para análise estatística, utilizamos o software Statistical Package for Social Sciences. A mucosite foi identificada em 51,4% dos pacientes avaliados após a quimioterapia. O tempo de quebra do filme lacrimal mostrou redução significativa após a quimioterapia (pAntineoplastic agents offer an increase in the patients' survival rates, but may induce side effects in different organs and tissues. Mucositis is one of the most common side effects during chemotherapy with certain agents. The ocular toxicity induced by these drugs may manifest as changes in the ocular surface and in the tear film. The purpose of this research was to study the ocular surface changes induced by chemotherapy and to establish their clinical correlation with the chemotherapy and mucositis. The 39 selected patients underwent a full ophthalmological examination and supplementary tests. We compared 2 groups of patients: with (case and without mucositis (control. Statistical analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software. Mucositis was identified in 51.4% of the patients after chemotherapy. The brakeup time showed a statistically significant decrease after chemotherapy (p<0
Mehmet Giray Ersöz
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the frequency of angle recession, commotio retinae, and other ocular findings in patients with hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 66 patients hospitalized between July 2010 and May 2012 with a diagnosis of traumatic hyphema were retrospectively reviewed. The age, gender, period between injury and the first examination, visual acuity at presentation, intraocular pressure (IOP, time of disappearance of hyphema, cause of blunt injury, additional ocular findings, medical and/or surgical treatment, follow-up time, and visual outcome were noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 23.8±19.2 years. Males constituted the 83.3% of the whole group. Game-related injury (43.9% and work-related injury (22.7% were the most common causes of blunt trauma. The bead gun was the most common tool involved in injury. Angle recession was detected in 36 patients (54.5%. Development of secondary glaucoma was higher in the patients with angle recession (chi-square test, p<0.05. Commotio retinae was observed in 47% of patients. The mean visual acuity at presentation was 0.4±0.3, while at the last visit, it was 0.8±0.3. There was a statistically significant difference between baseline and final visual acuity (paired-samples t-test, p<0.001. Conclusion: Hyphema due to blunt ocular trauma is observed mostly in young men and children. The most common blunt ocular injuries are game-and work-related. Angle recession and commotio retinae are the main complications of blunt ocular trauma causing hyphema. In cases with blunt ocular trauma, the presence of hyphema makes it difficult to examine the anterior chamber angle and the fundus. It is important to perform these investigations at the earliest stage to manage the complications since commotio retinae and angle recession accompany many cases with hyphema. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 19-22
Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.
Lawrence, Brian David
Current biomaterial approaches for repairing the cornea's ocular surface upon injury are partially effective due to inherent material limitations. As a result there is a need to expand the biomaterial options available for use in the eye, which in turn will help to expand new clinical innovations and technology development. The studies illustrated here are a collection of work to further characterize silk film biomaterials for use on the ocular surface. Silk films were produced from regenerated fibroin protein solution derived from the Bombyx mori silkworm cocoon. Methods of silk film processing and production were developed to produce consistent biomaterials for in vitro and in vivo evaluation. A wide range of experiments was undertaken that spanned from in vitro silk film material characterization to in vivo evaluation. It was found that a variety of silk film properties could be controlled through a water-annealing process. Silk films were then generated that could be use in vitro to produce stratified corneal epithelial cell sheets comparable to tissue grown on the clinical standard substrate of amniotic membrane. This understanding was translated to produce a silk film design that enhanced corneal healing in vivo on a rabbit injury model. Further work produced silk films with varying surface topographies that were used as a simplified analog to the corneal basement membrane surface in vitro. These studies demonstrated that silk film surface topography is capable of directing corneal epithelial cell attachment, growth, and migration response. Most notably epithelial tissue development was controllably directed by the presence of the silk surface topography through increasing cell sheet migration efficiency at the individual cellular level. Taken together, the presented findings represent a comprehensive characterization of silk film biomaterials for use in ocular surface reconstruction, and indicate their utility as a potential material choice in the
Nagaraj, Kalpana Badami; Jayadev, Chaitra; Yajmaan, Soumya; Prakash, Savitha
Dengue, one of the most common mosquito-borne flavivirus diseases affecting humans, is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Most people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever; few have more severe features, while in a small proportion it is life-threatening. Severe dengue is defined as that associated with severe bleeding, severe organ dysfunction, or severe plasma leakage. Ophthalmic manifestations can involve both the anterior and posterior segment. We report an ocular emergency of proptosis and globe rupture in a patient with severe dengue. PMID:25371643
Kalpana Badami Nagaraj
Full Text Available Dengue, one of the most common mosquito-borne flavivirus diseases affecting humans, is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Most people infected with dengue virus are asymptomatic or only have mild symptoms such as an uncomplicated fever; few have more severe features, while in a small proportion it is life-threatening. Severe dengue is defined as that associated with severe bleeding, severe organ dysfunction, or severe plasma leakage. Ophthalmic manifestations can involve both the anterior and posterior segment. We report an ocular emergency of proptosis and globe rupture in a patient with severe dengue.
Canan Aslı Utine
Full Text Available Recently, pepper spray has been used by both civilians, as a non-lethal personal defense spray, and law enforcement agencies in population movements. People exposed to pepper spray experience panic and disorientation due to acute severe pain, blepharospasm, tearing and sometimes blurred vision and even temporary blindness. Having knowledge about the properties and mechanism of action of pepper spray and the different aspects of this exposure from other ocular chemical injuries is important for timely and correct interventions and appropriate management of the condition by the ophthalmologists in emergency care. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 294-7
M. Cristina Nishiwaki-Dantas
Full Text Available Pressure to practice evidence-based medicine is increasing and has the potential to reduce malpractice claims. Sometimes the evidence may prove a specific therapy to be ineffective, but practice says it is effective. In Medicine, however, if you do not trust the evidence, you may expose yourself and your patients to untoward consequences. When we face a complex problem, most of the time it is better to rely on scientific evidence rather than on expert personal opinion. Key words: ocular
Objective: To study the pathological and clinical characteristics of primary lymphoma of ocular adnexae, analyze the treatment results and discuss the methods to prevent radiation complications. Methods: From Feb. 1995 to Feb. 2004, 25 patients with primary ocular adnexal lymphoma were treated in the second hospital and the forth hospital of Xuzhou, including 11 males and 14 females. The diagnosis was confirmed pathologically by biopsy in 19 patients and lumpectomy in 6 patients, including 22 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and 3 non-MALT lymphoma. According to the Ann Arbor Staging System, there were 21 patients with tumor in stage I E, 3 in stage II E and 1 in stage III E. The primary tumor was found in the eyelid or conjunctiva in 19 eyes and orbit in 9 eyes. Radiotherapy were given to 22 patients (25 eyes) by deep X-rays, 60Co γ-rays or mixed beams. The total irradiation dose ranged from 30.0 to 57.6 Gy. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the survival rate and Logrank test was used to detect the difference between the different groups. Results: The 5-, 10-year accumulated survival rates (SR) of the whole group were 90% and 82%. The 10-year SR of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor and orbit tumor were 100% and 58% (P=0.032). The local control rates of the radiotherapy group and non-radiotherapy group were 92% and 33 % (P=0.006). The 10-year SR of patients with tumor completely removed and those with residues were 83% and 82% (P=0.907). The 10-year SR of MALT lymphoma and non-MALT lymphoma were 90.0% and 33.3% (P=0.009). After radiotherapy, 8 eyes (36%) had cataract formation and 7 eyes (28%) had xerophalmic symptoms. Conclusions: The results of radiothera- py for the primary ocular adnexal lymphoma are satisactory. The prognosis of patients with primary, eyelid or conjunctiva tumor is better than those with orbit tumor. The vast majority of the primary ocular adnexal lymphomas are MALT lymphomas. The survival rate of
Harley E. A. Bicas
Partindo-se de um circuito esquemático relacionando os sistemas sensorial (visual binocular) e oculomotor, cujos defeitos em vias aferentes ou eferentes, ou de suas interações, explicam o aparecimento dos estrabismos e suas conseqüências, são examinados os fundamentos e referenciais da movimentação ocular. Apresentam-se os conceitos de eixos e planos, centro de massa e de rotação, definem-se os movimentos monoculares de translação e de rotação e os binoculares de versões e vergências. É també...
Coles, W H; Jaros, P A
We studied ocular surface pH in 161 subjects. The mean pH for 133 normal volunteers was 7 . 11, SD 1 . 5. We found that older women had a more alkaline pH than other subjects, that the pH shifted from acid to alkaline during the day, that one hour of eyelid closure caused an acid shift in pH, and that pH recovered to baseline values within 40 minutes after acid drop instillation. We explored the mechanism of pH regulation, and we believe that pH changes could affect contact lens toleration, d...
Rasmussen, Peter Kristian; Ralfkiaer, E.; Prause, J.U.;
and six patients (25%) presented with an ocular adnexal relapse. The most frequently affected sites were the lacrimal gland (38%) and the orbit (33%). Thirteen patients (54%) presented with Ann Arbor stage IE lymphoma, four (17%) had stage IIE, two patients (8%) stage IIIE, and five patients (21%) had...... stage IV lymphoma. Radiotherapy was primarily used in patients with primary lymphoma and those with a stage IE/IIE relapse (82%), while stage IIIE/IV lymphomas most frequently received alkylating chemotherapy (67%). Complete remission was observed in 19 of the patients (79%), but of these 11(58%) had a...
Con esta investigación lo que se pretende es comprobar si existe relación entre el rendimiento académico y el sentido de la vista, concretamente los movimientos oculares. Para hacer este estudio se ha aplicado la prueba del test DEM. El estudio se ha realizado a 30 niños, de los cuales 17 son niños y 13 niñas con una edad de 11 años. La muestra de alumnos pertenece a un colegio público de Infantil y Primaria perteneciente a un pueblo de la provincia de Badajoz. Siguiendo el diseño qu...
Jethwani, Jitendra; Jethwani, Gayathri S.; Verma, A. K.
The loss of an eye is the most devastating, psychologically damaging experience for a patient. All hope to bring such patients back to their accustomed and comfortable life-style rests on a cosmetically acceptable prosthesis. An intra-orbital ocular prosthesis serves the purpose in those defects where the orbital margins are intact. Though the stock eye may match the natural eye’s iris and sclera in color, the fit of the prosthesis to the tissue bed may not be as good as desired. Herein, a fu...
Full Text Available Defects of the eye may follow removal of a part of or the entire orbit. This results in the patient becoming visually, esthetically and psychologically handicapped. Restoring the defect with a silicone- or acrylic-based prosthesis not only restores esthetics but also gives back the lost confidence to the patient. This is a case report of a patient with a `pthisical eye` and details the steps in fabrication of an ocular prosthesis. Particular attention has been given to the laboratory process in this technique to minimize the residual monomer content in the artificial eye.
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the predictive value of ocular trauma score(OTS in mechanical ocular injuries occurring in military forces,and compare the difference of OTS application between ocular injury caused by military training and non-military training.Methods The data of 633 inpatients from armed forces suffering from injury of 665 eyes were retrospectively reviewed.Of the 665 injured eyes,326 were injured during military training and 339 during non-military training.The likelihood of final visual acuity(VA calculated with the OTS score was compared with that by the present OTS study,and the correlation between the score and final VA was then analyzed.Results Compared with the distribution of final VA in standard OTS score,the ratio in category 1 was statistically different in present study(P 0.05.There were significant differences in ratio of category 3 between eyes injured by military and non-military training(P < 0.05,and both ratios in category 1 were significantly different compared with those in standard OTS(P < 0.01,e.g.the ratio of NLP was lower(50% vs 73%,P < 0.01;43% vs 73%,P < 0.01;and the ratio in category 2 was significantly different between the eyes injured by non-military training and standard OTS(P < 0.05.However,the OTS showed positive correlation with final VA in present study(P < 0.0001.Conclusion OTS calculated at initial examination may primarily provide a piece of prognostic information of mechanical ocular injuries,and is of special benefit for deciding a prompt management or for evacuation decision for severe ocular injuries caused by military training.
A clinically useful classification system is suggested that can be used in prospective trials to evaluate the effects of radiation on the visual system. We review radiation-induced pathophysiological and clinical changes of the various ocular structures as well as dose-response data and management of ocular complications. The rationale for the classification scheme chosen is also discussed
Sharma, Om Prakash; Patel, Viral; Mehta, Tejal
The complexity of the structure and nature of the eye emanates a challenge for drug delivery to formulation scientists. Lower bioavailability concern of conventional ocular formulation provokes the interest of researchers in the development of novel drug delivery system. Nanotechnology-based formulations have been extensively investigated and found propitious in improving bioavailability of drugs by overcoming ocular barriers prevailing in the eye. The advent of nanocrystals helped in combating the problem of poorly soluble drugs specifically for oral and parenteral drug delivery and led to development of various marketed products. Nanocrystal-based formulations explored for ocular drug delivery have been found successful in achieving increase in retention time, bioavailability, and permeability of drugs across the corneal and conjunctival epithelium. In this review, we have highlighted the ocular physiology and barriers in drug delivery. A comparative analysis of various nanotechnology-based ocular formulations is done with their pros and cons. Consideration is also given to various methods of preparation of nanocrystals with their patented technology. This article highlights the success achieved in conquering various challenges of ocular delivery by the use of nanocrystals while emphasizing on its advantages and application for ocular formulation. The perspectives of nanocrystals as an emerging flipside to explore the frontiers of ocular drug delivery are discussed. PMID:27165145
Dukaczewska, Agata; Tedesco, Roberto; Liesenfeld, Oliver
Ocular toxoplasmosis is a vision-threatening disease and the major cause of posterior uveitis worldwide. In spite of the continuing global burden of ocular toxoplasmosis, many critical aspects of disease including the therapeutic approach to ocular toxoplasmosis are still under debate. To assist in addressing many aspects of the disease, numerous experimental models of ocular toxoplasmosis have been established. In this article, we present an overview on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of ocular toxoplasmosis available to date. Experimental studies on ocular toxoplasmosis have recently focused on mice. However, the majority of murine models established so far are based on intraperitoneal and intraocular infection with Toxoplasma gondii. We therefore also present results obtained in an in vivo model using peroral infection of C57BL/6 and NMRI mice that reflects the natural route of infection and mimics the disease course in humans. While advances have been made in ex vivo model systems or larger animals to investigate specific aspects of ocular toxoplasmosis, laboratory mice continue to be the experimental model of choice for the investigation of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:26716018
Wiwanitkit, Somsri; Wiwanitkit, Viroj
In 2014, the outbreak of Ebola virus infection occured in Africa and became the global concern. The infection is an acute febrile illness and the patient can have several clinical manifestations including the hemorrhage. The ocular manifestation of Ebola infection is interesting. In this brief review, the authors summarize on the ocular manifestation in Ebola virus infection.
D. A. Francis; Heron, J. R.
A patient with suspected multiple sclerosis is described who presented with attacks of blurring of vision and ocular flutter. This has not previously been reported as an isolated paroxysmal manifestation of brain stem demyelination. As with other paroxysmal disturbances ocular flutter may present as the first sign of the disease.
At 5 to 7 months after corneal inoculation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in mice, explants of ocular tissue yielded virus. Immunoperoxidase study of explants undergoing reactivation revealed herpes simplex virus antigens in retinal tissue. These results indicate that herpes simplex virus can establish and maintain latency in ocular tissue, most probably in the retina.
Hegde, Rahul Rama; Verma, Anurag; Ghosh, Amitava
Delivery of drugs into eyes using conventional drug delivery systems, such as solutions, is a considerable challenge to the treatment of ocular diseases. Drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal fluid secretion, lachrymal fluid-eye barriers, and blood-ocular barriers are main obstacles. A number of ophthalmic drug delivery carriers have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. The potential use of microemulsions as an ocular drug delivery carrier offers several favorable pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical properties such as their excellent thermodynamic stability, phase transition to liquid-crystal state, very low surface tension, and small droplet size, which may result in improved ocular drug retention, extended duration of action, high ocular absorption, and permeation of loaded drugs. Further, both lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics are present in microemulsions, so that the loaded drugs can diffuse passively as well get significantly partitioned in the variable lipophilic-hydrophilic corneal barrier. This review will provide an insight into previous studies on microemulsions for ocular delivery of drugs using various nonionic surfactants, cosurfactants, and associated irritation potential on the ocular surface. The reported in vivo experiments have shown a delayed effect of drug incorporated in microemulsion and an increase in the corneal permeation of the drug. PMID:23936681
Lee, Jeffrey S
The relativistic Doppler shifting of visible electromagnetic radiation to beyond the human ocular range reduces the incident radiance of the source. Consequently, luminous astrophysical bodies (LABs) can be rendered invisible with sufficient relativistic motion. This paper determines the proper distance as a function of relativistic velocity at which a luminous object attains ocular invisibility.
Kato, J.; Ito, A.; Nikata, T; Ohtake, H
Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to be attracted to phosphate. The chemotactic response was induced by phosphate starvation. The specificity of chemoreceptors for phosphate was high so that no other tested phosphorus compounds elicited a chemotactic response as strong as that elicited by phosphate. Competition experiments showed that the chemoreceptors for phosphate appeared to be different from those for the common amino acids. Mutants constitutive for alkaline phosphatase showed the chemota...
Ishibashi, Y.; Cervantes, C; Silver, S
Reduction of hexavalent chromium (chromate) to less-toxic trivalent chromium was studied by using cell suspensions and cell-free supernatant fluids from Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. Chromate reductase activity was associated with soluble protein and not with the membrane fraction. The crude enzyme activity was heat labile and showed a Km of 40 microM CrO4(2-). Neither sulfate nor nitrate affected chromate reduction either in vitro or with intact cells.
Ishibashi, Y; Cervantes, C; Silver, S
Reduction of hexavalent chromium (chromate) to less-toxic trivalent chromium was studied by using cell suspensions and cell-free supernatant fluids from Pseudomonas putida PRS2000. Chromate reductase activity was associated with soluble protein and not with the membrane fraction. The crude enzyme activity was heat labile and showed a Km of 40 microM CrO4(2-). Neither sulfate nor nitrate affected chromate reduction either in vitro or with intact cells. PMID:2389940
Holland, G.N.; O' Connor, G.R.; Diaz, R.F.; Minasi, P.; Wara, W.M.
To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease.
Rabelo, Luisa A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear
Proton therapy has been used for the treatment of Ocular Tumors, showing control in most cases as well as conservation of the eyeball, avoiding the enucleation. The protons provide higher energetic deposition in depth with reduced lateral spread, compared to the beam of photons and electrons, with characteristic dose deposition peak (Bragg peak). This technique requires large particle accelerators hampering the deployment a Proton Therapy Center in some countries due to the need for an investment of millions of dollars. This study is related to a new project of an electromagnetic unit of proton circular accelerator to be coupled to the national radiopharmaceutical production cyclotrons, to attend ocular therapy. This project evaluated physical parameters of proton beam circulating through classical and relativistic mechanical formulations and simulations based on an ion transport code in electromagnetic fields namely CST (Computer Simulation Technology). The structure is differentiated from other circular accelerations (patent CTIT/UFMG NRI research group/UFMG). The results show the feasibility of developing compact proton therapy equipment that works like pre-accelerator or post-accelerator to cyclotrons, satisfying the interval energy of 15 MeV to 64 MeV. Methods of reducing costs of manufacture, installation and operation of this equipment will facilitate the dissemination of the proton treatment in Brazil and consequently advances in fighting cancer. (author)
Nelson, Emily S.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.; Raykin, J.; Feola, A. J.; Gleason, R.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.
Upon introduction to microgravity, the near-loss of hydrostatic pressure causes a marked cephalic (headward) shift of fluid in an astronaut's body. The fluid shift, along with other factors of spaceflight, induces a cascade of interdependent physiological responses which occur at varying time scales. Long-duration missions carry an increased risk for the development of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome, a spectrum of ophthalmic changes including posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, distension of the optic nerve sheath, kinking of the optic nerve and potentially permanent degradation of visual function. In the cases of VIIP found to date, the initial onset of symptoms occurred after several weeks to several months of spaceflight, by which time the gross bodily fluid distribution is well established. We are developing a suite of numerical models to simulate the effects of fluid shift on the cardiovascular, central nervous and ocular systems. These models calculate the modified mean volumes, flow rates and pressures that are characteristic of the altered quasi-homeostatic state in microgravity, including intracranial and intraocular pressures. The results of the lumped models provide initial and boundary data to a 3D finite element biomechanics simulation of the globe, optic nerve head and retrobulbar subarachnoid space. The integrated set of models will be used to investigate the evolution of the biomechanical stress state in the ocular tissues due to long-term exposure to microgravity.
Chernoff, Karen A; Schaffer, Julie V
Neurocutaneous syndromes are a heterogeneous group of congenital and hereditary disorders with manifestations in the skin and the nervous system, usually together with ocular features that represent diagnostic clues and potential sources of morbidity. Dermatologists and ophthalmologists often need to work together in identifying and managing patients with these conditions; herein, we focus on classic and under-recognized neurocutaneous syndromes. We begin with autosomal dominant genodermatoses characterized by hamartomas and tumors in the skin, eyes, and central nervous system: neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis complex, and PTEN hamartoma-tumor syndrome. This is followed by a discussion of two mosaic disorders, Sturge-Weber syndrome and neurocutaneous melanocytosis. In addition to providing an update on clinical presentations and evaluation of patients with these conditions, we review recent insights into their pathogenesis, drawing attention to relationships among the diseases on a molecular level and implications regarding treatment. We also highlight the major features of other neurocutaneous syndromes that have ocular findings plus pigmentary, vascular, hyperkeratotic, adnexal, connective tissue, photosensitive, and inflammatory manifestations in the skin. PMID:26903185
Full Text Available A case of destructive ocular myiasis resulting in complete loss of the globe in two days time is documented. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of such a severe involvement in a healthy and non-compromised host. Mechanical removal and good local hygiene helped heal the wound. The larvae were isolated to be that of Chrysomyia bezziana (screwworm fly. This is possibly the first report of destructive ocular myiasis caused by Chrysomyia bezziana from the Indian subcontinent and the second in world literature. Infestation of human eyes with larvae of flies (myiasis has been reported. Serious consequences of destructive myiasis are seen in emaciated and diseased patients. Only one report of total destruction of the globe by maggots of Chrysomyia bezziana exists in the literature. As in previous communications, the patient in this report had no predisposing factors both systemic and local. We here in document a case of orbital myiasis leading to rapid destruction of the globe within two days in a healthy and a non-compromised patient.
Rai, Ruju; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Fay, Aaron
Metastatic renal carcinoma is the third most common source of ocular and second most common source of orbital metastases. This is the first published case of von Hippel-Lindau (vHL) disease that developed renal cell carcinoma metastatic to an eye with a retinal hemangioblastoma. A 73-year-old woman had a history of vHL disease that included prior retinal hemangioblastomas, 2 cerebellar hemangioblastomas, and bilateral renal cell carcinomas with sacral metastasis. After presenting with progressive, painful proptosis secondary to a large mass observable by ocular CT, an enucleation-orbitotomy was performed, and the surgical specimen was sent for histopathological analysis. The ophthalmic renal metastatic tumor, like the primary tumor, was a clear cell variant that involved both the eyeball and orbit in continuity. The intraocular component was larger than the extraocular portion, which was interpreted as an outward extension of an initial retinal metastasis that probably first settled within a hemangioblastoma. Clusters of ectatic ghost vessels with thickened walls produced by periodic acid Schiff-positive, redundant basement membrane material were partially infiltrated by tumor cells at their periphery, thereby lending some support for this hypothesis. Immunohistochemical positivity for the biomarkers cytokeratin 18, vimentin, carbonic anhydrase IX, PAX2, and PAX 8 confirmed the diagnosis. The patient has refused further treatment. Her anophthalmic socket has comfortably retained a porous polyethylene implant without clinical evidence of local recurrence during 5 months of follow up. PMID:24828963
To investigate the role of cellular immunodeficiency in recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, six Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) with healed toxoplasmic lesions of the retina were immunosuppressed by total lymphoid irradiation. Three months prior to irradiation 30,000 Toxoplasma gondii organisms of the Beverley strain had been inoculated onto the macula of eye in each monkey via a pars plana approach. Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis developed in each animal, and lesions were allowed to heal without treatment. During total lymphoid irradiation animals received 2000 centigrays (cGy) over a 7-week period. Irradiation resulted in an immediate drop in total lymphocyte counts and decreased ability to stimulate lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin. Weekly ophthalmoscopic examinations following irradiation failed to show evidence of recurrent ocular disease despite persistent immunodeficiency. Four months after irradiation live organisms were reinoculated onto the nasal retina of the same eye in each animal. Retinochoroidal lesions identical to those seen in primary disease developed in five of six animals. Toxoplasma organisms therefore were able to proliferate in ocular tissue following the administration of immunosuppressive therapy. This study fails to support the hypothesis that cellular immunodeficiency alone will initiate recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Results suggest that reactivation of disease from encysted organisms involves factors other than suppression of Toxoplasma proliferation. If reactivation occurs by other mechanisms, however, cellular immunodeficiency then may allow development of extensive disease
Generali, Elena; Cantarini, Luca; Selmi, Carlo
Eye involvement represents a common finding in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, seronegative spondyloarthropathy, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. The eye is a privileged immune site but commensal bacteria are found on the ocular surface. The eye injury may be inflammatory, vascular or infectious, as well as iatrogenic, as in the case of hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, corticosteroids, and bisphosphonates. Manifestations may affect different components of the eye, with episcleritis involving the episclera, a thin layer of tissue covering the sclera; scleritis being an inflammation of the sclera potentially leading to blindness; keratitis, referring to corneal inflammation frequently associated with scleritis; and uveitis as the inflammation of the uvea, including the iris, ciliary body, and choroid, subdivided into anterior, posterior, or panuveitis. As blindness may result from the eye involvement, clinicians should be aware of the possible manifestations and their management also independent of the ophthalmologist opinion as the therapeutic approach generally points to the underlying diseases. In some cases, the eye involvement may have a diagnostic implication, as for episcleritis in rheumatoid arthritis, or acute anterior uveitis in seronegative spondyloarthritis. Nonetheless, some conditions lack specificity, as in the case of dry eye which affects nearly 30 % of the general population. The aim of this review is to elucidate to non-ophthalmologists the major ocular complications of rheumatic diseases and their specific management and treatment options. PMID:26494481
Ferreira, A I C; De Mattos, C C Brandão; Frederico, F B; Meira, C S; Almeida, G C; Nakashima, F; Bernardo, C R; Pereira-Chioccola, V L; De Mattos, L C
The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) in patients who received medical attention at a public health service. Three hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients, treated in the Outpatient Eye Clinic of Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo state, Brazil, were enrolled in this study. After an eye examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The results showed that 25.5% of the patients were seronegative and 74.5% were seropositive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies; of these 27.3% had OT and 72.7% had other ocular diseases (OOD). The presence of cats or dogs [odds ratio (OR) 2.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-3.98, P = 0.009] and consumption of raw or undercooked meat (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.05-2.98, P = 0.03) were associated with infection but not with the development of OT. Age (OT 48.2 ± 21.2 years vs. OOD: 69.5 ± 14.7 years, P dogs and cats as well as eating raw/undercooked meat increases the risk of infection, but is not associated with the development of OT. PMID:23507508
Wolff, Bruce R.; Mudry, Terry A.; Glick, Bernard R.; Pasternak, J J
Endoglucanase genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa and Pseudomonas sp. were cloned and characterized. DNA hybridization studies showed that these genes are homologous and that each species has one copy of the gene per genome. The DNA fragment from Pseudomonas sp. codes for, at most, a 23-kilodalton endoglucanase.
Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Nagpal, Kalpana; Mishra, Dina Nath
Background: Azithromycin (AZT) is a macrolide antibiotic derived from and similar in structure to erythromycin. Oral administration of AZT is effective for the treatment of trachoma; however, topical formulations are difficult to develop because of the drug's hydrophobicity. The aim of this study is to formulate a novel topical ophthalmic delivery system of AZT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ocular inserts of AZT are prepared using alginate, carbopol, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to solve the said formulation problem of drug and to facilitate ocular bioavailability. Ocular inserts were prepared by film casting method and the prepared films were subjected to investigations for their physical and mechanical properties, swelling behaviors, ex vivo bioadhesion, and in vitro drug release. Ocular irritation of the developed formulation was also checked by hen's egg chorioallantoic membrane test for ocular irritation potential. Results: The physicochemical, bioadhesive, and swelling properties of films were found to vary significantly depending on the type of polymers used and their combinations. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the carbopol films. HPMC addition to the films significantly affected the properties of ocular inserts. Carbopol:HPMC (30:70)-based ocular inserts sustained drug release for longest span of 6 h. The release profile of AZT showed that drug release was by both diffusion and swelling. The formulation was found to be practically nonirritant in ocular irritation studies. Conclusion: AZT can therefore be developed as an ocular insert delivery system for the treatment of ocular surface infections. PMID:23071916
Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar
Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11% were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%, Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%, Hypermetropia (11.68%, Xerophthalmia (3.46%, Pterygium (2.92%, immature senile cataract (2.70%, Eye strain (2.49%, mature senile cataract (1.84% and Presbyopia (0.86%. Females were more affected (36.58% as compared to males (28.37%, [χ2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [χ2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94% [χ2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.
Full Text Available Background: Although ocular trauma is preventable public health problem throughout the world it is still one of the common causes of ophthalmic morbidity and monocular blindness. There are no published studies on pattern and severity of ocular trauma in Uttarakhand. The present study analyzes the pattern and visual outcome of ocular trauma in this region. Methods: Study design: Prospective hospital-based study. Settings: Patients of ocular trauma presenting to Ophthalmology OPD and emergency department of Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences, Dehradun. Participants: All ocular injury patients seen for the first time during the period January to December 2008. Results: A total of 88 patients, and 103 eyes, were studied. Men had two fold higher rate of ocular injury than women. The mean age of presentation was 31.2 + 13.6 years (range: 6 - 80 years. The predominant age group of patients was 21-40 years, 55.29 % (n = 47. Eye injuries related to road traffic accident were seen in 37.86% of eyes. Industrial workers were more frequently involved in ocular trauma (23.86%. Closed globe injuries were noted in 55 eyes (53.39% and open globe injuries were noted in 40 eyes (38.83%. Eight eyes (7.76% suffered from chemical injuries. The initial presenting visual acuity of patients with blunt ocular trauma was better than penetrating injury. Eye with better visual acuity at presentation had better visual prognosis at 6 months. Conclusion: Ocular injuries were common in young males. Road traffic accidents related eye injuries were noted in significant number of cases. Strict implementation of traffic rules, health education and preventive strategies may help to decrease the occurrence of ocular injuries.
Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients....... We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect....
Uldall Pallesen, Kristine Appel; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Mørtz, Charlotte Gotthard
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a rare cause of folliculitis. Pseudomonas folliculitis can develop after contact with contaminated water from swimming pools, hot tubs and spa baths. Systemic therapy may be indicated in patients with widespread lesions, systemic symptoms or in immunosuppressed patients. We describe a 23-year-old healthy woman who developed a pustular rash and general malaise after using a spa bath contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacterial culture from a pustule confirmed Pseudomonas folliculitis and the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with rapid good effect. PMID:22735119
Ribelles, Alfredo; Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Parras, Maria A.; Vivar-Llopis, Bárbara; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel
The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS) and tear film (TF) by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40–65 years (n = 148) were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain) and distributed into two age groups, 40–52 years (AGE1; n = 87) and 53–65 years (AGE2; n = 61), and then subdivided according to being (or not) computer users (CUG; NCUG) during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not) to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33%) versus the AGE2-CUG (64%) of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.), as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000, resp.). Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women. PMID:26557673
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS and tear film (TF by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3 in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40–65 years (n=148 were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain and distributed into two age groups, 40–52 years (AGE1; n=87 and 53–65 years (AGE2; n=61, and then subdivided according to being (or not computer users (CUG; NCUG during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33% versus the AGE2-CUG (64% of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P=0.006 and P=0.001, resp., as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P=0.001 and P=0.000, resp.. Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.
Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Danielsen, Heidi Nolsøe; Nielsen, Per Halkjær
Here, we present the complete genome of Pseudomonas sp. UK4. This bacterium was the first Pseudomonas strain shown to produce functional amyloids, and it represents a model organism for studies of functional amyloids in Pseudomonas (Fap).
H.I.H. El-Sayyad, M.A. El-Sherbiny, M.A. Sobh, A.M. Abou-El-Naga, M.A.N. Ibrahim, S.A. Mousa
Full Text Available Phytotherapy is frequently considered to be less toxic and free from side effects than synthetic drugs. Hence, the present study was designed to investigate the protective use of crude water extract of Morus alba leaves on ocular functions including cataractogenesis, biochemical diabetic and hypercholesterolemic markers, retinal neurotransmitters and retinopathy of rat pups maternally subjected to either diabetes and/or hypercholesterolemia. Application of crude water extract of Morus alba resulted in amelioration of the alterations of maternal serum glucose, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and creatine phosphokinase activity as well as retinal neurotransmitters including acetylcholine (ACE, adrenaline (AD, nor-adrenaline (NAD, serotonin (5-HT, histamine (HS, dopamine (DA and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA. The retina of pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemia mothers exhibited massive alterations of retinal neurotransmitters. The alterations of retinal neurotransmitters were correlated with the observed pathological alterations of retinal pigmented epithelium, photoreceptor inner segment and ganglion cells and increased incidence of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis cell death. However, protection with Morus alba extract led to amelioration of the pathological alterations of retinal neurons and estimated neurotransmitters. Furthermore, a striking incidence of cataract was detected in pups of either diabetic and/or hypercholesterolemic mothers. Highest cataractogenesis was observed in pups of combined -treated groups. Our data indicate that experimental maternal diabetes alone or in combination with hypercholesterolemia led to alteration in the ocular structures of their pups, with an increasing incidence of cataract and retinopathy, and the effects of the extract might be attributed to the hypoglycaemic, antihypercholesterolemic and anti-oxidative potential of flavonoids, the major components of the plant extract.
Hess, Bernhard J M
Visual stabilization of the retina during rotational head movements requires that in far vision the eyes rotate about the same axis as the head but in opposite direction with a gain close to unity (optimal strategy). To achieve this goal the vestibulo-oculomotor system must be able to independently control all three rotational degrees of freedom of the eye. Studies of the human rotational vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) have shown that its spatial characteristics are best explained by a strategy that lies halfway between the optimal image stabilization and perfect compliance with Listing's law. Here we argue that these spatial characteristics are fully compatible with an optimal strategy under the condition of a restrained gain of the torsional velocity-to-position integration. One implication of this finding is that the rotational VORs must override the default operation mode of the ocular plant that, according to recent findings, mechanically favours movements obeying Listing's law. PMID:18718301
Diaz, James H
Several factors acting in concert now place US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates at risks of contracting ocular filariasis including increasing seroprevalence rates of zoonotic filariasis, international travel bringing tourists to and expatriates from filariasis-endemic regions, and warming temperatures extending distribution ranges of arthropod vectors. To describe the epidemiology and outcomes of ocular filariasis and to recommend strategies for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of ocular filariasis, internet search engines were queried with the key words in order to examine case reports and series of ocular filariasis in the US and elsewhere. Descriptive epidemiological, morphological, and molecular evidence now support increasing cases of ocular filariasis in domestic and wild animals and humans, with most cases caused by filarial worms including Dirofilaria repens and other zoonotic Dirofilaria species and Onchocerca lupi and other zoonotic Onchocerca species. Clinicians should maintain early suspicion of ocular filariasis in US residents, returning travelers, and expatriates who complain of combinations of red eye, eye pain, foreign body sensation, reduced visual acuity, and migrating ocular worms, even without significant peripheral eosinophilia or microfilaremia. Microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and O. volvulus may traverse the eye, but can usually be treated medically. Mobile adult worms trapped in the subconjunctiva or anterior chamber should be removed by ophthalmologists to permit species identification, prevent posterior uveitis and iritis, and stop worm migration into the posterior chamber which could require lens removal and vitrectomy for worm extraction causing further eye damage. PMID:27159510
Mao, Chen; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Chen, Kuo-Tai
An ocular jellyfish sting is an ophthalmic emergency and is rarely reported in the medical literature. With the evolution of aquatic activities and entertainment in recent decades, we anticipate that more patients with ocular jellyfish stings may be taken to the emergency department. However, most physicians are unaware of the typical presentations, suitable treatments, prognosis, and possible complications of ocular jellyfish stings. We reported 2 cases with ocular jellyfish stings and collected cases series from literature review. The most common clinical features of ocular jellyfish stings were pain, conjunctival injection, corneal lesion, and photophobia. All patients who sustained ocular stings did so during aquatic activities, and the best management at the scene was proper analgesics and copious irrigation of affected eyes with seawater or saline. The ocular lesions were treated with topical cycloplegics, topical steroids, topical antibiotics, topical antihistamines, and removal of nematocysts. The prognosis was good, and all patients recovered without any permanent sequelae. However, symptoms in some patients may last longer than 1 week. Reported complications included iritis, increased intraocular pressures, mydriasis, decreased accommodation, and peripheral anterior synechiae. PMID:27436284
Full Text Available Ocular trauma is a very common incidence that occurs in up to 67% of patients with maxillofacial trauma. It results in life-long agony of not being like others with two eyes, which can see and admire the nature's beauty. This article reports on a case of a 23-year-old male patient with phthisis bulbi, resulting from ocular trauma. The patient was rehabilitated aesthetically by fabrication of custom-made ocular prosthesis for his traumatically injured right eye. The patient was pleased with the aesthetic outcome, comfort, and mobility offered by the custom ocular prosthesis. There were no complications with regard to health of underlying residual ocular tissues and there was no need of relining of the prosthesis at 6 month recall appointment. Rehabilitation of patients with ocular trauma requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ophthalmologist, psychologist, and skilled maxillofacial prosthodontist. Custom-made ocular prosthesis fitted over the phthisical globe seems to be a highly positive, logical, noninvasive, and beneficial approach to increase mobility to the prosthesis, improve the cosmetic appearance and psychological well-being of the patient.
Marta Lucía Muñoz Cardona
Full Text Available The most frequent primary headaches, including migraine variants, and intrinsic optic nerve disorders that produce headache, are reviewed. The latter are often accompanied by autonomic nervous system alterations which lead to vasomotor changes, frequently present in neuralgic processes known as headaches with disautonomic involvement. Epidemiological, semiological, clinical, and therapeutical aspects of different cranial, facial and ocular diseases that produce headache are included. Some physiopathological elements that may help to analyze painful craniofacial processes are discussed. Secondary headaches and common facial neuralgias, on the other hand, are also considered because they may confuse the differential diagnosis. Se revisan las cefaleas primarias más frecuentes que comprometen las estructuras oculares y vecinas al globo ocular, las variantes de la migraña y las alteraciones propias del nervio óptico que alteran la función visual y que se acompañan no solamente de síntomas dolorosos sino también de trastornos vasomotores debidos a alteraciones del sistema nervioso autónomo que suelen ser comunes en algunos procesos neurálgicos llamados ahora cefaleas con compromiso disautonómico. En este artículo se comentan los elementos epidemiológicos de las diferentes enfermedades craneales, faciales y oculares que cursan con cefalea; las diferencias clínicas entre las mismas y su presentación semiológica, al igual que algunos elementos terapéuticos. Se discuten además algunos elementos fisiopatológicos de gran utilidad en el análisis de los procesos dolorosos craneofaciales y el perfil temporal de los mismos; también se comentan algunas cefaleas secundarias que comparten con las primarias elementos que se prestan a confusión en la clínica. Finalmente, se hace un análisis de las neuralgias faciales comunes.
Anton M Kolomeyer
Full Text Available We describe complimentary imaging technologies in traumatic chorioretinal injury. Color and fundus autofluorescence (FAF images were obtained with a non-mydriatic retinal camera. Optical coherence tomography (OCT helped obtain detailed images of retinal structure. Microperimetry was used to evaluate the visual function. A 40-year-old man sustained blunt ocular trauma with a stone. Color fundus image showed a large chorioretinal scar in the macula. Software filters allowed detailed illustration of extensive macular fibrosis. A 58-year-old man presented with blunt force trauma with a tennis ball. Color fundus imaging showed a crescentric area of macular choroidal rupture with fibrosis. FAF imaging delineated an area of hypofluorescence greater on fundus imaging. OCT showed chorioretinal atrophy in the macula. Microperimetry delineated an absolute scotoma with no response to maximal stimuli. Fundus imaging with digital filters and FAF illustrated the full extent of chorioretinal injury, while OCT and microperimetry corroborated the structure and function correlations.
Full Text Available A person is considered to be a forensic case if an other person is responsible of health loss. Health workers are obligated to report suspected guilt at work. Forensic reports have to depend on signs and symptoms, consultation reports, examination results and medical specialist knowledge and have to be objective. Forensic ophthalmologic cases might be classified as; cases that can be treated by simple operations, cases that can not be treated by simple operations, life threatening ophthalmologic cases, cases with ophthalmologic sense and organ failure. “The rules about defectiveness degree, classification and writing health councill reports for disabled people” had been inured at 14.01.2012. In this review forensic reporting principles for ocular trauma according to actual laws and rules are discussed. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 73-7
Full Text Available Blindness is a major health concern worldwide that has a powerful impact on afflicted individuals and their families, and is associated with enormous socio-economical consequences. The Middle East is heavily impacted by blindness, and the problem there is augmented by an increasing incidence of diabetes in the population. An appropriate drug/gene delivery system that can sustain and deliver therapeutics to the target tissues and cells is a key need for ocular therapies. The application of nanotechnology in medicine is undergoing rapid progress, and the recent developments in nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches may bring significant benefits to address the leading causes of blindness associated with cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and retinal degeneration. In this brief review, we highlight some promising nanomedicine-based therapeutic approaches for drug and gene delivery to the anterior and posterior segments.
MRI was performed in 41 patients with ocular lesions: 27 cases of malignant melanoma, 5 of haemorrhage, 3 of choroidal metastasis, 3 of senile disciform macular degeneration, 2 retinoblastomas and 1 hamartoma. On MRI 5 small lesions (<2 mm thick): 1 melanoma, the 3 metastases and the hamartoma, were not seen. All the malignant melanomas visualised were hyperintense compared to the vitreous on T1-weighted images. On T2-weighted images 24 of 26 lesions were hypointense compared to the vitreous. The remaining two lesions were almost isointense, corresponding to amelanotic lesions. These MRI features did not differ significantly from those of retinoblastomas, senile disciform macular degeneration or subacute choroidal haemorrhage. Major shortcomings of MRI in lesions of the globe lie in a lack of spatial resolution and poor specificity of the findings. (orig.)
L. K. Moshetova
Full Text Available Structural changes in eyes are present in all patients with chronic kidney disease. A study to detect ocular patho- logy in patients with end-stage chronic renal failure after kidney transplantation in the early and late postopera- tive period compared with patients receiving replacement therapy with hemodialysis. Revealed that in the early post-transplant period in recipients of kidneyas in patients on hemodialysis, continued angioretinopatiya, 40% of patients had «dry eye syndrome». In the delayed post-transplant period, patients showed significant impro- vement in the retina and retinal vessels, the improvement of spatial-temporal parameters of visual perception. However, a decrease of visual acuity on the background of the development of posterior subcapsular cataract caused by prolonged corticosteroid, and an increased incidence of viral and bacterial conjunctivitis.
Harvey, Steve; Martinez-Moreno, Carlos G
The eye is a target site for GH action and growth hormone has been implicated in diabetic retinopathy and other ocular dysfunctions. However, while this could reflect the hypersecretion of pituitary GH, the expression of the GH gene is now known to occur in ocular tissues and it could thus also reflect excess GH production within the eye itself. The possibility that ocular dysfunctions might arise from endocrine, autocrine or paracrine etiologies of GH overexpression is therefore the focus of this brief review. PMID:27082451
Flavio Mac Cord Medina
Full Text Available Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, characterized by five fundamental features, the "Pentad of Niikawa": dysmorphic facies, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental retardation and postnatal growth deficiency. Patients present characteristic external ocular features, nonetheless they may also present significant ocular abnormalities. We report a case of a brazilian child diagnosed with Kabuki syndrome, addressing the clinical features observed, with emphasis on the ocular manifestations. This case highlights the existence of this syndrome and all of its complexity. The identification of preventable causes of loss of vision underlines the value of detailed ophthalmologic examination of Kabuki syndrome patients.
A novel instrument for the noninvasive diagnosis of ocular melanoma was evaluated with 67Ga in patients with pathologically confirmed tumours. The decision to enucleate was based on the results of standard ophthalmic diagnostic modalities including the 32P uptake test. The differences in the ocular radioactivity at 48-72 h predicted the presence of ocular abnormality. A positive differential result was found for tumours having a volume of > 600 mm3. Smaller tumours indicated lower retention of 67Ga in the eye with the tumour, whereas control subjects showed < 2% differences in the radioactivity present in either eye. (author)
We present preliminary findings on the effectiveness of panretinal photocoagulation in preventing neovascular glaucoma in eyes with radiation-induced ocular ischemia. Our study group consisted of 20 patients who developed radiation-induced ocular ischemia following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy for a choroidal or ciliary body melanoma. Eleven of the 20 patients were treated by panretinal photocoagulation shortly after the diagnosis of ocular ischemia, but nine patients were left untreated. In this non-randomized study, the rate of development of neovascular glaucoma was significantly lower (p = 0.024) for the 11 photocoagulated patients than for the nine who were left untreated
Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki
Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26657007
Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.
A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.
Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)
A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.
Ehrenfried O. Wittig
Full Text Available The objetive of the research was to verify the incidence of the ocular form of cysticercosis among the patients who consulted professionals of the field, during the first statistic inventory accomplished in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The 1996 research was performed through a questionnaire sent to all 220 members of Paraná Ophthalmology Association and to the 17 members of Pathology and Cytology Department of the Paraná Medical Association. A pre-stamped envelop for the return of the answers was included in the package. We received 99 answers from ophthalmologists and 10 answers from pathologists. Retrospective and epidemiological research about the incidences of the ocular cysticercosis in the State of Paraná, added to national related published reports, rendered 95 cases probably adquired in Paraná, 71 of the cases were referred in this research and 24 in prior publication. The most frequent localization was vitreous and subretinal, as literature had already pointed out.O objetivo da pesquisa foi o de verificar a incidência da forma ocular de cisticercose entre os pacientes que consultam profissionais da área, no primeiro levantamento estatístico realizado no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa retrospectiva e epidemiológica foi realizada em 1996 através de encaminhamento por correio, de um questionário com envelope com porte pago para resposta aos 220 membros da Associação Paranaense de Oftalmologia e aos 17 membros do Departamento de Patologia e Citologia da Associação Médica do Paraná, dos quais obtivemos 99 cartas-respostas dos oftalmologistas e 10 dos patologistas. A pesquisa retrospectiva, associada aos relatos de outros casos já referidos na literatura nacional, permitiu-nos reunir 95 casos de cisticercose ocular, provavelmente adquiridos no Paraná, sendo 71 casos referidos nesta pesquisa e 24 em publicação anterior. A localização ocular mais frequente foi a vítrea e subretiniana, fato já salientado na literatura.