Aghaei, Iraj; Nazeri, Masoud; Shabani, Mohammad; Mossavinasab, Marziehsadat; Mirhosseini, Fatemeh Khaleghi; Nayebpour, Mohsen; Dalili, Afshin
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious consequence of hepatic cirrhosis (HC). Previous studies have demonstrated cognitive impairments in both clinical and animal experiments of HC. Some potential therapeutic agents have been used to alleviate the cognitive symptoms in the animal models of HC. In the current study, the possible effect of erythropoietin (ERY) as a potent neuroprotective agent on motor and cognitive impairments induced by HC has been studied. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery. Administration of ERY (5,000 IU/kg, i.p., daily for three days) was initiated 2 weeks after surgery and lasted for the next 28 days. Open field, rotarod, Morris water maze and passive avoidance learning was used to evaluate the motor and cognitive function of the animals. ANOVA and repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the data. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. BDL rats had an increased level of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin. Impairment of balance function by BDL was reversed by ERY. Spatial and passive avoidance learning impairments observed in BDL rats were also reversed by chronic administration of ERY. ERY can be offered as a potential neuroprotective agent in the treatment of patients with HC that manifest mental dysfunctions. Though further studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanisms, the neuroprotective properties of ERY against BDL impairments were demonstrated in the current study. PMID:25115607
Dahm, Stephan F; Rieger, Martina
Executed bimanual movements are prepared slower when moving to symbolically different than when moving to symbolically same targets and when targets are mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they are mapped in an inner/outer fashion [Weigelt et al. (Psychol Res 71:238-447, 2007)]. We investigated whether these cognitive bimanual coordination constraints are observable in motor imagery. Participants performed fast bimanual reaching movements from start to target buttons. Symbolic target similarity and mapping were manipulated. Participants performed four action conditions: one execution and three imagination conditions. In the latter they indicated starting, ending, or starting and ending of the movement. We measured movement preparation (RT), movement execution (MT) and the combined duration of movement preparation and execution (RTMT). In all action conditions RTs and MTs were longer in movements towards different targets than in movements towards same targets. Further, RTMTs were longer when targets were mapped to target locations in a left/right fashion than when they were mapped in an inner/outer fashion, again in all action conditions. RTMTs in imagination and execution were similar, apart from the imagination condition in which participants indicated the start and the end of the movement. Here MTs, but not RTs, were longer than in the execution condition. In conclusion, cognitive coordination constraints are present in the motor imagery of fast (motor imagery. PMID:25758054
Lacreuse, Agnès; Russell, Jamie L.; Hopkins, William D.; Herndon, James G.
We present the first longitudinal data on cognitive and motor aging in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Thirty-eight adult female chimpanzees (10–54 years old) were studied. The apes were tested longitudinally for 3 years in a modified Primate Cognition Test Battery (Herrmann et al., 2007, Science 317,1360–1366), which comprised 12 tests of physical and social cognition. The chimpanzees were also administered a fine motor task requiring them to remove a steel nut from rods of various complex...
Full Text Available Objective(s:Previous research demonstrated that diabetes is one of the leading causes of learning and memory deficits. Naringin, a bioﬂavonoid isolated from grapefruits and oranges, has potent protective effects on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Recently, the effects of naringin on learning and memory performances were monitored in many animal models of cognitive impairment. However, to date, no studies have investigated the ameliorative effects of naringin on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD. In this study, we investigated the effects of naringin, using a STZ-injected rat model and explored its potential mechanism. Materials and Methods:Diabetic rats were treated with naringin (100 mg/kg/d for 7 days. The learning and memory function were assessed by Morris water maze test. The oxidative stress indicators [superoxide dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA] and inﬂammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-1β, and IL-6 were measured in hippocampus using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein levels of PPARγ were evaluated by real time (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results:The results showed that supplementation of naringin improved learning and memory performances compared with the STZ group. Moreover, naringin supplement dramatically increased SOD levels, reduced MDA levels, and alleviated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 compared with the STZ group in the hippocampus. The pretreatment with naringin also significantly increased PPARγ expression. Conclusion: Our results showed that naringin may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline in DACD.
Hernandez, Amanda Martinez; Caçola, Priscila
Research has shown links between motor proficiency and cognition in school-age children, however, few have explored earlier ages. We aimed to determine the association between motor proficiency and cognitive ability in four-year-olds. Motor and cognitive skills were examined in 32 (15 males, 17 females) four-year-olds (±5.59 months) using the…
Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Shafir, Tal
In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other.
Leisman, Gerry; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Shafir, Tal
In this article, we argue that motor and cognitive processes are functionally related and most likely share a similar evolutionary history. This is supported by clinical and neural data showing that some brain regions integrate both motor and cognitive functions. In addition, we also argue that cognitive processes coincide with complex motor output. Further, we also review data that support the converse notion that motor processes can contribute to cognitive function, as found by many rehabilitation and aerobic exercise training programs. Support is provided for motor and cognitive processes possessing dynamic bidirectional influences on each other. PMID:27252937
Learmonth, Y C; Pilutti, L A; Motl, R W
Researchers have examined cognitive motor interference (CMI) for lower extremity function in MS, but have not examined this in the upper extremity. This study examined CMI for both lower and upper extremity motor tasks in persons with MS and without MS. Eighty-two persons walked on a GAITRite electronic walkway (velocity) and performed the nine-hole peg test (NHPT, seconds) without (single task) and with a cognitive challenge (dual task). The data were analysed with mixed-factor ANOVA and Pearson correlations. When comparing MS and controls, there were statistical significant and exceptionally large Task main effects on gait velocity (ηp(2)=.41; F1,60=55.78; p.450). CMI occurs in both the lower and upper extremities, and is comparable between persons with and without MS and across MS disability level. PMID:25957651
Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria
Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two...
Full Text Available Due to a sedentary lifestyle, more and more people are becoming obese nowadays. In addition to health-related problems, obesity can also impair cognition and motor performance. Previous results have shown that obesity mainly affects cognition and motor behaviors through altering brain functions and musculoskeletal system, respectively. Many factors, such as insulin/leptin dysregulation and inflammation, mediate the effect of obesity and cognition and motor behaviors. Substantial evidence has suggested exercise to be an effective way to improve obesity and related cognitive and motor dysfunctions. This paper aims to discuss the association of obesity with cognition and motor behaviors and its underlying mechanisms. Following this, mechanisms of exercise to improve obesity-related dysfunctions are described. Finally, implications and future research direction are raised.
Lehert, P; Villaseca, P; Hogervorst, E; Maki, P M; Henderson, V W
A number of health and lifestyle factors are thought to contribute to cognitive decline associated with age but cannot be easily modified by the individual patient. We identified 12 individually modifiable interventions that can be implemented during midlife or later with the potential to ameliorate cognitive aging. For ten of these, we used PubMed databases for a systematic review of long-duration (at least 6 months), randomized, controlled trials in midlife and older adults without dementia or mild cognitive impairment with objective measures of neuropsychological performance. Using network meta-analysis, we performed a quantitative synthesis for global cognition (primary outcome) and episodic memory (secondary outcome). Of 1038 publications identified by our search strategy, 24 eligible trials were included in the network meta-analysis. Results suggested that the Mediterranean diet supplemented by olive oil and tai chi exercise may improve global cognition, and the Mediterranean diet plus olive oil and soy isoflavone supplements may improve memory. Effect sizes were no more than small (standardized mean differences 0.11-0.22). Cognitive training may have cognitive benefit as well. Most individually modifiable risk factors have not yet been adequately studied. We conclude that some interventions that can be self-initiated by healthy midlife and older adults may ameliorate cognitive aging. PMID:26361790
Motor neuron disease (MND) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron loss, leading to weakness of the muscles of arms and legs, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Depending on the involvement of the lower and the upper motor neuron, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; both lower and upper motor neuron affected) and progressive muscular atrophy (PMA; only lower motor neuron affected) are recognized. There is no cure, despite numerous pharmaceutical tria...
Patra, Kousiki; Greene, Michelle M; Patel, Aloka L; Meier, Paula
Objective To evaluate the relative impact of maternal education level (MEL) on cognitive, language, and motor outcomes at 20 months' corrected age (CA) in preterm infants. Study Design A total of 177 preterm infants born between 2008 and 2010 were tested at 20 months' CA using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III. Multiple regression analyses were done to determine the relative impact of MEL on cognitive, language, and motor scores. Results Infants born to mothers with high school MEL were 3.74 times more likely to have a subnormal motor index, while those born to mothers with some college and graduate school MEL had reduced odds (0.36 and 0.12, respectively) of having subnormal language index at 20 months. In linear regression, MEL was the strongest predictor of cognitive, language, and motor scores, and graduate school MEL was associated with increases in cognitive, motor, and language scores of 8.49, 8.23, and 15.74 points, respectively. Conclusions MEL is the most significant predictor of cognitive, language, and motor outcome at 20 months' CA in preterm infants. Further research is needed to evaluate if targeted interventions that focus on early childhood learning and parenting practices can ameliorate the impact of low MEL. PMID:26890439
Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA refers to a disease entity in which polyglutamine aggregates are over-produced in Purkinje cells (PCs of the cerebellum as well as other neurons in the central nervous system, and the formation of intracellular polyglutamine aggregates result in the loss of neurons as well as deterioration of motor functions. So far there is no effective neuroprotective treatment for this debilitating disease although numerous efforts have been made. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs possess multi-lineage differentiation potentials as well as immuno-modulatory properties, and are theoretically good candidates for SCA treatment. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether transplantation of human MSCs (hMSCs can rescue cerebellar PCs and ameliorate motor function deterioration in SCA in a pre-clinical animal model. Method Transgenic mice bearing poly-glutamine mutation in ataxin-2 gene (C57BL/6J SCA2 transgenic mice were serially transplanted with hMSCs intravenously or intracranially before and after the onset of motor function loss. Motor function of mice was evaluated by an accelerating protocol of rotarod test every 8 weeks. Immunohistochemical stain of whole brain sections was adopted to demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of hMSC transplantation on cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs into mice brain. Results Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs effectively improved rotarod performance of SCA2 transgenic mice and delayed the onset of motor function deterioration; while intracranial transplantation failed to achieve such neuroprotective effect. Immunohistochemistry revealed that intravenous transplantation was more effective in the preservation of the survival of cerebellar PCs and engraftment of hMSCs than intracranial injection, which was compatible to rotarod performance of transplanted mice. Conclusion Intravenous transplantation of hMSCs can indeed delay the onset as well as improve the motor
Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100 performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3 to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.
Lacreuse, Agnès; Espinosa, Paola M.; Herndon, James G.
Declines in fine motor skills and cognitive function are well known features of human aging. Yet, the relationship between age-related impairments in motor and cognitive function remains unclear. Rhesus monkeys, like humans, show marked decline in cognitive and fine motor function with age and are excellent models to investigate potential interactions between age-related declines in cognitive and motor functioning. We investigated the relationships among cognition, motor function and age in 3...
Full Text Available Football may be a physical and sport activities able to improve motor and cognitive growth in children. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times.Forty-six children with chronological age of ~9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n=24 attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n=22 was composed of sedentary children.Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a natural and enjoyable tool to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development.
Alesi, Marianna; Bianco, Antonino; Padulo, Johnny; Luppina, Giorgio; Petrucci, Marco; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria
Motor and cognitive growth in children may be influenced by football practice. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess whether a Football Training Program taken over 6 months would improve motor and cognitive performances in children. Motor skills concerned coordinative skills, running, and explosive legs strength. Cognitive abilities involved visual discrimination times and visual selective attention times. Forty-six children with chronological age of ∼9.10 years, were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 24) attended a Football Exercise Program and Group 2 (n = 22) was composed of sedentary children. Their abilities were measured by a battery of tests including motor and cognitive tasks. Football Exercise Program resulted in improved running, coordination, and explosive leg strength performances as well as shorter visual discrimination times in children regularly attending football courses compared with their sedentary peers. On the whole these results support the thesis that the improvement of motor and cognitive abilities is related not only to general physical activity but also to specific ability related to the ball. Football Exercise Programs is assumed to be a "natural and enjoyable tool" to enhance cognitive resources as well as promoting and encouraging the participation in sport activities from early development. PMID:26579014
Ben-Soussan, Tal D.; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Glicksohn, Joseph; Carducci, Filippo
Quadrato Motor Training (QMT) is a whole-body movement contemplative practice aimed at increasing health and well-being. Previous research studying the effect of one QMT session suggested that one of its means for promoting health is by enhancing cognitive flexibility, an important dimension of creativity. Yet, little is known about the effect of a longer QMT practice on creativity, or the relative contribution of the cognitive and motor aspects of the training. Here, we continue this line of research in two inter-related studies, examining the effects of prolonged QMT. In the first, we investigated the effect of 4-weeks of daily QMT on creativity using the Alternate Uses (AUs) Task. In order to determine whether changes in creativity were driven by the cognitive or the motor aspects of the training, we used two control groups: Verbal Training (VT, identical cognitive training with verbal response) and Simple Motor Training (SMT, similar motor training with reduced choice requirements). Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of the groups. Following training, cognitive flexibility significantly increased in the QMT group, which was not the case for either the SMT or VT groups. In contrast to one QMT session, ideational fluency was also significantly increased. In the second study, we conducted a pilot longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (4-weeks QMT). We report gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy changes, in several regions, including the cerebellum, previously related to interoceptive accuracy. The anatomical changes were positively correlated with cognitive flexibility scores. Albeit the small sample size and preliminary nature of the findings, these results provide support for the hypothesized creativity-motor connection. The results are compared to other contemplative studies, and discussed in light of theoretical models integrating cognitive flexibility, embodiment and the motor system. PMID
Full Text Available In daily life, object manipulation is usually performed concurrently to the execution of cognitive tasks. The aim of the present study was to determine which aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources using a motor-cognitive dual-task paradigm. Eighteen healthy participants took part in the experiment, which comprised two conditions. In the first condition, participants performed a motor task without any concomitant cognitive task. They were instructed to grip, lift and hold an apparatus incorporating strain gauges allowing a continuous measurement of the force perpendicular to each contact surface (grip force, GF as well as the total tangential force applied on the object (load force, LF. In the second condition, participants performed the same motor task while concurrently performing a cognitive task consisting in a complex visual search combined with counting. In the dual-task condition, we found a significant increase in the duration of the preload phase (time between initial contact of the fingers with the apparatus and onset of the load force, as well as a significant increase of the grip force during the holding phase, indicating that the cognitive task interfered with the initial force scaling performed during the preload phase and the fine-tuning of grip force during the hold phase. These findings indicate that these aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources. In contrast, other aspects of the precision grip, such as the temporal coupling between grip and load forces, were not affected by the cognitive task, suggesting that they reflect more automatic processes. Taken together, our results suggest that assessing the dynamic and temporal parameters of precision grip in the context of a concurrent cognitive task may constitute a more ecological and better-suited tool to characterize motor dysfunction in patients.
Full Text Available For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population.
Cai, Liuyang; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.; Peng, Kaiping
For more than two decades, there have been extensive studies of experience-based neural plasticity exploring effective applications of brain plasticity for cognitive and motor development. Research suggests that human brains continuously undergo structural reorganization and functional changes in response to stimulations or training. From a developmental point of view, the assumption of lifespan brain plasticity has been extended to older adults in terms of the benefits of cognitive training and physical therapy. To summarize recent developments, first, we introduce the concept of neural plasticity from a developmental perspective. Secondly, we note that motor learning often refers to deliberate practice and the resulting performance enhancement and adaptability. We discuss the close interplay between neural plasticity, motor learning and cognitive aging. Thirdly, we review research on motor skill acquisition in older adults with, and without, impairments relative to aging-related cognitive decline. Finally, to enhance future research and application, we highlight the implications of neural plasticity in skills learning and cognitive rehabilitation for the aging population. PMID:24653695
Introduction: Cognitive dysfunction and dementia are linked to physical disability and are the major cause of dependency and institutionalization in the elderly. Physical therapists deal with disability yet little clinical and research attention has been given to the physical disability experienced in people with cognitive dysfunction. Aim: The overall purpose with this thesis was to investigate and characterize motor function with special reference to gait and balance in ...
Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...
Toussaint, Lucette; Meugnot, Aurore
We examined the effects of a brief period of limb immobilization on the cognitive level of action control. A splint placed on the participants' left hand was used as a means of immobilization. We used a hand mental rotation task to investigate the immobilization-induced effects on motor imagery performance (Experiments 1 and 2) and a number mental…
Rachana Mishra; Shaffi Manchanda; Muskan Gupta; Taranjeet Kaur; Vedangana Saini; Anuradha Sharma; Gurcharan Kaur
Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD)...
Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects.
Håvard Lorås; Ann-Katrin Stensdotter; Fredrik Öhberg; Hermundur Sigmundsson
The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100) performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the P...
Mishra, Rachana; Manchanda, Shaffi; Gupta, Muskan; Kaur, Taranjeet; Saini, Vedangana; Sharma, Anuradha; Kaur, Gurcharan
Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to the spectrum of mood disorders like anxiety, cognitive dysfunctions and motor coordination impairment in many individuals. However, there is no effective pharmacological remedy to negate the effects of SD. The current study examined whether 50% ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (TCE) can attenuate these negative effects of SD. Three groups of adult Wistar female rats - (1) vehicle treated-sleep undisturbed (VUD), (2) vehicle treated-sleep deprived (VSD) and (3) TCE treated-sleep deprived (TSD) animals were tested behaviorally for cognitive functions, anxiety and motor coordination. TSD animals showed improved behavioral response in EPM and NOR tests for anxiety and cognitive functions, respectively as compared to VSD animals. TCE pretreatment modulated the stress induced-expression of plasticity markers PSA-NCAM, NCAM and GAP-43 along with proteins involved in the maintenance of LTP i.e., CamKII-α and calcineurin (CaN) in hippocampus and PC regions of the brain. Interestingly, contrary to VSD animals, TSD animals showed downregulated expression of inflammatory markers such as CD11b/c, MHC-1 and cytokines along with inhibition of apoptotic markers. This data suggests that TCE alone or in combination with other memory enhancing agents may help in managing sleep deprivation associated stress and improving cognitive functions. PMID:27146164
Full Text Available Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2 and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6 performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obstacle crossing under single- and dual-task conditions. The cognitive tasks were the auditory Stroop task and the clock task. There was a significant Group × Gait Task × Cognitive Task interaction for the dual-task effect on gait speed. After adjusting for education, there were no significant effects of gait or cognitive task difficulty on the dual-task effects on cognitive task performance. The results of this study provide evidence that gait task difficulty influences dual-task effects on gait speed, especially in older adults. Moreover, the effects of gait task difficulty on dual-task interference appear to be influenced by the difficulty of the cognitive task. Education is an important factor influencing cognitive-motor interference effects on cognition, but not gait.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.
Full Text Available Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations.
Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina
Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692
Prosperini, Luca; Piattella, Maria Cristina; Giannì, Costanza; Pantano, Patrizia
Rehabilitation is recognized to be important in ameliorating motor and cognitive functions, reducing disease burden, and improving quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In this systematic review, we summarize the existing evidences that motor and cognitive rehabilitation may enhance functional and structural brain plasticity in patients with MS, as assessed by means of the most advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion tensor imaging and task-related and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In most cases, the rehabilitation program was based on computer-assisted/video game exercises performed in either an outpatient or home setting. Despite their heterogeneity, all the included studies describe changes in white matter microarchitecture, in task-related activation, and/or in functional connectivity following both task-oriented and selective training. When explored, relevant correlation between improved function and MRI-detected brain changes was often found, supporting the hypothesis that training-induced brain plasticity is specifically linked to the trained domain. Small sample sizes, lack of randomization and/or an active control group, as well as missed relationship between MRI-detected changes and clinical performance, are the major drawbacks of the selected studies. Knowledge gaps in this field of research are also discussed to provide a framework for future investigations. PMID:26064692
Aman, Michael G.; Hollway, Jill A.; Leone, Sarah; Masty, Jessica; Lindsay, Ronald; Nash, Patricia; Arnold, L. Eugene
This study was designed to explore the placebo-controlled effects of risperidone on cognitive-motor processes, dyskinetic movements, and behavior in children receiving maintenance risperidone therapy. Sixteen children aged 4-14 years with disruptive behavior were randomly assigned to drug order in a crossover study of risperidone and placebo for 2…
Takahashi, Kazuhide; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Shirasawa, Takuji; Takahashi, Mayumi
Brain mitochondrial function declines with age; however, the accompanying behavioral and histological alterations that are characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) are poorly understood. We found that the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and coenzyme Q (CoQ) content were reduced in aged (15-month-old) male mice compared to those in young (6-month-old) male mice. Concomitantly, motor functions, including the rate of movement and exploratory and voluntary motor activities, were significantly reduced in the aged mice compared to the young mice. In the motor cortex of the aged mouse brain, the accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn) phosphorylated at serine129 (Ser129) significantly increased, and the level of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1) decreased compared with that in the young mouse brain. The administration of exogenous water-soluble CoQ10 to aged mice via drinking water restored the mitochondrial OCR, motor function, and phosphorylated α-syn and VGluT1 levels in the motor cortex. These results suggest that early-onset motor impairment and the increased accumulation of Ser129-phosphorylated α-syn in the motor cortex are ameliorated by the exogenous administration of CoQ10. PMID:27143639
Haaland, K Y; Harrington, D L; O'Brien, S; Hermanowicz, N
Procedural learning deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but contradictory results have been reported in rotary pursuit learning. This article compared rotary pursuit learning in 2 nondemented PD groups and 2 normal control (NC) groups, using a between-subjects group design in which 3 rotation speeds were presented either randomly or in blocks. The pattern of learning differed between the randomized and the blocked conditions in the NC, but not in the PD groups. Learning was impaired in the PD group in the random condition only. Memory, visuospatial, or executive skills were not associated with the PD group's poorer learning in the randomized context. Results show that procedural learning deficits are not universal with basal ganglia abnormalities but rather depend on the specific cognitive requirements of the learning context. PMID:9110325
Geng, Da; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong
Fine motor skills refer to any movement where an individual uses the small muscles or muscle areas of the hands and fingers; these movements serve to development of muscle while also improving the cognitive recognition of the object. Automatic fine motor skills can save limited attention resources for advanced cognition tasks as required by an individual; in the development of fine motor skills and cognition, the two abilities interact, some motor skills are the prerequisite for some cognitio...
Caterina ePesce; Ilaria eMasci; Rosalba eMarchetti; Spyridoula eVazou; Arja eSääkslahti; Tomporowski, Phillip D.
In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination...
Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.
In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordi...
Lorist, M.M.; Kernell, Daniel; Meijman, T F; Zijdewind, Inge
During fatiguing submaximal contractions a constant force production can be obtained at the cost of an increasing central command intensity. Little is known about the interaction between the underlying central mechanisms driving motor behaviour and cognitive functions. To address this issue, subjects performed four tasks: an auditory choice reaction task (CRT), a CRT simultaneously with a fatiguing or a non-fatiguing submaximal muscle contraction task, and a fatiguing submaximal contraction t...
Wiecki, Thomas V; Frank, Michael J
We review the contributions of biologically constrained computational models to our understanding of motor and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD). The loss of dopaminergic neurons innervating the striatum in PD, and the well-established role of dopamine (DA) in reinforcement learning (RL), enable neural network models of the basal ganglia (BG) to derive concrete and testable predictions. We focus in this review on one simple underlying principle - the notion that reduced DA increases activity and causes long-term potentiation in the indirect pathway of the BG. We show how this theory can provide a unified account of diverse and seemingly unrelated phenomena in PD including progressive motor degeneration as well as cognitive deficits in RL, decision making and working memory. DA replacement therapy and deep brain stimulation can alleviate some aspects of these impairments, but can actually introduce negative effects such as motor dyskinesias and cognitive impulsivity. We discuss these treatment effects in terms of modulation of specific mechanisms within the computational framework. In addition, we review neurocomputational interpretations of increased impulsivity in the face of response conflict in patients with deep-brain-stimulation. PMID:20696325
Prudence Plummer-D'Amato; Briana Brancato; Mallory Dantowitz; Stephanie Birken; Christina Bonke; Erin Furey
Although gait-related dual-task interference in aging is well established, the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on dual-task interference is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gait and cognitive task difficulty on cognitive-motor interference in aging. Fifteen older adults (72.1 years, SD 5.2) and 20 young adults (21.7 years, SD 1.6) performed three walking tasks of varying difficulty (self-selected speed, fast speed, and fast speed with obst...
Hayama, Tatsuya; Murakami, Koji; Watanabe, Tomomichi; Maeda, Ryota; Kamata, Makoto; Kondo, Shinichi
Mutations in presenilin 1 (PS1) and presenilin 2 (PS2) are known to cause early onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). These proteins comprise the catalytic domain of γ-secretase, which catalyzes the cleavage of β-amyloid (Aβ) from amyloid precursor protein (APP). In recent reports, PS1 and PS2 were linked to the modulation of intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) dynamics, a key regulator of synaptic function. Ca(2+) dysregulation and synaptic dysfunction are leading hypothesis of cognitive dysfunctions during aging and AD progression. Accordingly, manipulations of presenilins by small molecules may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. In an accompanying report, we showed that chronic treatment with compound-1, a novel γ-secretase modulator (GSM), reduced Aβ production and ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in Tg2576 APP transgenic mice. Accordingly, in the present study we showed that single oral administration of compound-1 at 1 and 3mg/kg ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in aged non-transgenic mice. Moreover, compound-1 enhanced synaptic plasticity in hippocampal slices from aged C57BL/6J mice and increased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of the immediate early gene c-fos, which has been shown to be related to synaptic plasticity in vivo. Finally, compound-1 modulated Ca(2+) signals through PS1 in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. Taken together, compound-1 ameliorates both Aβ pathology and age-related cognitive dysfunctions. Hence, compound-1 may have potential as an early intervention for the cognitive declines that are commonly diagnosed in aged subjects, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and prodromal AD. PMID:26707406
It has been long recognized that cranial irradiation used for the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumor often causes neurological side-effects such as intellectual impairment, memory loss and dementia, especially in children patients. Our previous study has demonstrated that whole-brain irradiation (WBI) can cause cognitive decline in rats. Minocycline is an antibiotic that has shown neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. However, whether minocycline can ameliorate cognitive impairment induced by ionizing radiation (IR) has not been tested. Thus this study aimed to demonstrate the potential implication of minocycline in the treatment of WBI-induced cognitive deficits by using a rat model. Sprague Dawley rats were cranial irradiated with electron beams delivered by a linear accelerator with a single dose of 20 Gy. Minocycline was administered via oral gavages directly into the stomach before and after irradiation. The open field test was used to assess the anxiety level of rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess the spatial learning and memory of rats. The level of apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was measured using immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and relative markers for mature neurons (NeuN) or for newborn neurons (Doublecortin (DCX)). Neurogenesis was determined by BrdU incorporation method. Neither WBI nor minocycline affected the locomotor activity and anxiety level of rats. However, compared with the sham-irradiated controls, WBI caused a significant loss of learning and memory manifest as longer latency to reach the hidden platform in the MWM task. Minocycline intervention significantly improved the memory retention of irradiated rats. Although minocycline did not rescue neurogenesis deficit caused by WBI 2 months post-IR, it did significantly decreased WBI-induced apoptosis in the DCX positive neurons, thereby resulting in less newborn neuron depletion 12 h after irradiation
Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon
In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activit...
Kim, Cho Rong; Choi, Soo Jung; Kwon, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Jae Kyeom; Kim, Youn-Jung; Park, Gwi Gun; Shin, Dong-Hoon
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the deficiency of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain, and the main treatment strategy for improving AD symptoms is the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. In the present study, we aimed to identify potent AChE inhibitors from Cinnamomum loureirii extract via bioassay-guided fractionation. We demonstrated that the most potent AChE inhibitor present in the C. loureirii extract was 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)phenol. To confirm the antiamnesic effects of the ethanol extract of C. loureirii, mice were intraperitoneally injected with the neurotoxin trimethyltin (2.5 mg/kg) to induce cognitive dysfunction, and performance in the Y-maze and passive avoidance tests was assessed. Treatment with C. loureirii extract significantly improved performance in both behavioral tests, suggesting that this extract may be neuroprotective and therefore beneficial in preventing or ameliorating the degenerative processes of AD, potentially by restoring cholinergic function. PMID:27374288
Full Text Available The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD using a streptozotocin (STZ-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities of choline acetylase (ChAT, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, catalase (CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 were measured using corresponding kits. After seven weeks, diabetic rats exhibited remarkable reductions in: body weight, percentage of time spent in target quadrant, number of times crossing the platform, ChAT and BDNF levels, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT accompanied with increases in neuronal damage, plasma glucose levels, escape latency, mean path length, AChE, MDA level as well as CAT, NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and caspase-3 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Supplementation with HupA significantly and dose-dependently reversed the corresponding values in diabetes. It is concluded that HupA ameliorates DACD via modulating BDNF, oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis.
Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a lethal disease characterized by a progressive loss of motoneurons. The clinical symptoms include skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy, which impairs motor performance and eventually leads to respiratory failure. We tested whether dihydrotestosterone (DHT, which has both anabolic effects on muscle and neuroprotective effects on axons and motoneurons, can ameliorate clinical symptoms in ALS. A silastic tube containing DHT crystals was implanted subcutaneously in SOD1-G93A mice at early symptomatic age when decreases in body weight and grip-strength were observed as compared to wild-type mice. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated ameliorated muscle atrophy and increased body weight, which was associated with stronger grip-strength. DHT treatment increased the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 in muscle, which can exert myotrophic as well as neurotrophic effects through retrograde transport. DHT treatment attenuated neuromuscular junction denervation, and axonal and motoneuron loss. DHT-treated SOD1-G93A mice demonstrated improvement in motor behavior as assessed by rota-rod and gait analyses, and an increased lifespan. Application of DHT is a relatively simple and non-invasive procedure, which may be translated into therapy to improve the quality of life for ALS patients.
Kim, Helyn; Carlson, Abby G; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam
Despite the comorbidity between motor difficulties and certain disabilities, limited research has examined links between early motor, cognitive, and social skills in preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. The present study examined the relative contributions of gross motor and fine motor skills to the prediction of improvements in children's cognitive and social skills among 2,027 pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, including specific learning disorder, speech/language impairment, intellectual disability, and autism spectrum disorder. Results indicated that for pre-kindergarten children with developmental disabilities, fine motor skills, but not gross motor skills, were predictive of improvements in cognitive and social skills, even after controlling for demographic information and initial skill levels. Moreover, depending on the type of developmental disability, the pattern of prediction of gross motor and fine motor skills to improvements in children's cognitive and social skills differed. Implications are discussed. PMID:26852279
Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.
In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, ...
Ye, Minsook; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Chanju; Hyun Song, Joo; Shim, Insop; Kim, Youn-Sub; Bae, Hyunsu
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) has a critical role in microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, which leads to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have shown that bee venom (BV) has beneficial effects on PD symptoms in human patients or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxin-induced PD mice. This study investigated whether treatment with BV-derived phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) would improve the motor dysfunction and pathological features of PD in human A53T α-Syn mutant transgenic (A53T Tg) mice. The motor dysfunction of A53T Tg mice was assessed using the pole test. The levels of α-Syn, microglia and the M1/M2 phenotype in the spinal cord were evaluated by immunofluorescence. bvPLA2 treatment significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction in A53T Tg mice. In addition, bvPLA2 significantly reduced the expression of α-Syn, the activation and numbers of microglia, and the ratio of M1/M2 in A53T Tg mice. These results suggest that bvPLA2 could be a promising treatment option for PD. PMID:27388550
Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Noguchi, Taiji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ishida, Kazuto
Long-term exercise prior to brain ischemia enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and leads to a significant reduction in brain damage and neurological deficits in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it has not been established whether relatively short-term exercise generates similar results following middle cerebral artery occlusion. We aimed to determine whether short-term exercise could reduce oxidative damage and prevent sensori-motor dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to perform daily exercise on a treadmill for 30 min at a speed of 15 m/min for 3 weeks, followed by a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were assessed after middle cerebral artery occlusion for neurological deficits and sensori-motor function. Brain tissues were processed to evaluate infarct volume and oxidative damage. Oxidative stress was assessed using immunohistochemistry for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Antioxidant enzymes were evaluated using immunohistochemistry for thioredoxin and activity assay for superoxide dismutase. Exercise for 3 weeks decreased the severity of paralysis and impairment in forelimb motor coordination. Furthermore, exercise had effect on superoxide dismutase and reduced the infarct volume and the number of cells immunopositive for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Our results suggest that pre-conditioning treadmill exercise for 3 weeks is useful for ameliorating ischemia-induced brain injury. PMID:23874064
Marcon, Rebecca A.
In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…
Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Garde, Ellen; Skimminge, Arnold;
To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly.......To examine the impact of corpus callosum (CC) tissue loss on the development of global cognitive and motor impairment in the elderly....
Caroline D. C. Altermann
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With aging, it is important to maintain cognitive and motor functions to ensure autonomy and quality of life. During the acquisition of motor skills, it is necessary for the elderly to understand the purpose of the proposed activities. Physical and mental practice, as well as demonstrations, are strategies used to learn movements. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of mental practice and the observation of movement on motor memory and to understand the relationship between cognitive function and motor performance in the execution of a sequence of digital movements in the elderly. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 45 young and 45 aged subjects. The instruments used were Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Manual Preference Inventory and a Digital Motor Task (composed of a training of a sequence of movements, an interval and a test phase. The subjects were divided into three subgroups: control, mental practice and observation of movement. RESULTS: The elderly depend more strongly on mental practice for the acquisition of a motor memory. In comparing the performances of people in different age groups, we found that in the elderly, there was a negative correlation between the MMSE score and the execution time as well as the number of errors in the motor task. CONCLUSIONS: For the elderly, mental practice can advantage motor performance. Also, there is a significant relationship between cognitive function, learning and the execution of new motor skills.
Full Text Available Kurozu is a traditional Japanese rice vinegar. During fermentation and aging of the Kurozu liquid in an earthenware jar over 1 year, a solid residue called Kurozu Moromi is produced. In the present study, we evaluated whether concentrated Kurozu or Kurozu Moromi could ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in the senescence-accelerated P8 mouse. Senescence-accelerated P8 mice were fed 0.25% (w/w concentrated Kurozu or 0.5% (w/w Kurozu Moromi for 4 or 25 weeks. Kurozu suppressed cognitive dysfunction and amyloid accumulation in the brain, while Kurozu Moromi showed a tendency to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction, but the effect was not significant. We hypothesize that concentrated Kurozu has an antioxidant effect; however, the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain did not differ in senescence-accelerated P8 mice. DNA microarray analysis indicated that concentrated Kurozu increased HSPA1A mRNA expression, a protein that prevents protein misfolding and aggregation. The increase in HSPA1A expression by Kurozu was confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting methods. The suppression of amyloid accumulation by concentrated Kurozu may be associated with HSPA1A induction. However, concentrated Kurozu could not increase HSPA1A expression in mouse primary neurons, suggesting it may not directly affect neurons.
Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. AD was induced by a bilateral intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of Aβ25-35. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a motorized treadmill for 30 min once a day for 4 weeks, starting 2 days after Aβ25-35 injection. In the present results, ICV injection of Aβ25-35 deteriorated motor coordination and balance. The number of calbindin-positive cells in the cerebellar vermis was decreased and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in the cerebellar vermis was increased in the Aβ25-35-induced AD rats. Treadmill exercise improved motor coordination and balance. Treadmill exercise increased the number of Purkinje neurons and suppressed GFAP expression in the cerebellar vermis. The present study demonstrated that treadmill exercises alleviated dysfunction of motor coordination and balance by reduction of Purkinje cell loss through suppressing reactive astrocytes in the cerebellum of AD rats. The present study provides the possibility that treadmill exercise might be an important therapeutic strategy for the symptom improvement of AD patients. PMID:25426461
Aging is associated with a decline in cognition and motor function. Several SNPs have been linked to neural and cognitive variation in healthy adults. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of genetic variants are enhanced with human aging. The present study investigates whether aging and genetic variants, in this case the BDNF and COMT Val/Met polymorphisms, influence executive functioning, fine hand motor control and cognitive skills. Fifty-seven healthy volunteers were genotyped fo...
International audience In the cortical motor system, matching between motor representations and sensory inputs allows the emergence of different types of cognitive abilities. One of these matching mechanisms is represented by monkey mirror neurons that activate both when a monkey executes a goal-related motor act and when it observes a similar motor act performed by another individual. The mirror neuron matching system that probably underlies action understanding has been demonstrated also...
Sebastien Helie; Srinivasa Chakravarthy; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...
Ma, Hongmei; Yao, Li; Pang, Ling; Li, Xingwei; Yao, Qun
Tetrandrine is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Stephania tetrandra, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been observed to exert anti‑inflammatory effects. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether tetrandrine was able to ameliorate sevoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. Male 20‑month‑old Sprague‑Dawley rats underwent sevoflurane‑induction in an environment containing 2% sevoflurane for 5 h. The Morris water maze test was used to measure the effect of tetrandrine on learning and memory in sevoflurane‑treated aged rats. Western blot analysis of the protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Bcl‑2 was conducted. ELISAs were used to measure the levels of interleukin (IL)‑1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF‑α), nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) and caspase‑3. In the present study, tetrandrine improved the learning and memory deficits observed in sevoflurane‑treated aged rats. Treatment with tetrandrine reduced the expression levels of COX‑2, IL‑1β, TNF‑α, NF‑κB, iNOS and caspase‑3, and increased the Bcl‑2 protein expression in sevoflurane‑treated aged rats. In conclusion, the current study indicated that tetrandrine ameliorates sevoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment via the suppression of inflammation and apoptosis in aged rats. Thus, tetrandrine may be a potential novel candidate to protect against the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on cognitive function. PMID:27082007
Hohler, Anna D; Zuzuárregui, José-Rafael P; Katz, Douglas I; Depiero, T Joy; Hehl, Christina L; Leonard, Alissa; Allen, Valerie; Dentino, Jill; Gardner, Maura; Phenix, Heidi; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry
Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often present with orthostatic hypotension (OH) as a result of the dysautonomia associated with the disease or as a side effect of the dopaminergic medications used to treat the disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in motor and cognitive function in patients with PD with and without OH. Forty-four patients with a diagnosis of PD were evaluated and stratified by the presence of OH based on orthostatic blood pressure recordings. Both groups underwent assessments of motor and cognitive function. OH was present in 17 of 44 patients (39%) with PD. These patients with OH had significantly lower scores in gross motor, balance, and cognitive function (p < .05). No significant difference between groups was found in the finger tapping scores. These results suggest that patients with PD should be routinely screened for OH as it commonly occurs and may negatively impact gross motor, balance, and cognitive function. PMID:22191544
J Gordon Millichap
The relationship between cognitive impairment, fine motor deficits, and T2-weighted MRI intensities in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was investigated in 100 patients and 100 healthy controls in a study at University Hospital of Munster, Germany.
Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Linhui
Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most prevalent chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), but there is currently no effective method of prevention nor proven therapeutic regimen for it. In this study, we investigated the effects of calycosin on cognitive behavior and the potential mechanism involved in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. The effects of diabetes and calycosin treatment on spatial learning and memory were evaluated using the Morris Water Maze, passive avoidance and motor coordination tests. Histological analysis of the hippocampus cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region was conducted in rats. The decreased expression of the synapsin (SYN) and postsynatptic density protein (PSD-95), as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in diabetic rats was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Treatment with calycosin promoted a reduction in the expression of SYN, PSD-95 and BDNF. In addition, diabetic rats showed increased MDA levels, and decreased SOD levels and GSH-Px activities in the hippocampus, as well as increased AChE activity in the cerebral cortex; these changes were reversed by calycosin supplementation. Thus, the impairment of learning and memory in STZ-induced diabetic rats was alleviated by calycosin, and that the degree of alleviation was associated with oxidative stress. We also found that calycosin treatment significantly stimulated Akt phosphorylation and decreased GSK-3β and tau phosphorylation, and that these changes could be restored by the PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. In conclusion, calycosin had a beneficial effect on the amelioration, prevention and treatment of diabetes-associated cognitive deficits, through its involvement in oxidative stress, synaptic function and the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β pathway. PMID:26970304
Fernandes, Valter R.; Ribeiro, Michelle L. Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T.; Araújo, Narahyana B.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Andréa C Deslandes
The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the W...
Lorcan eKenny; Elisabeth eHill; Antonia eHamilton
AbstractThere is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat in...
Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. The incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, facilitates insulin signaling, and the long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4 is currently used as an anti-diabetic drug. GLP-1 receptors are widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, and our prior studies have shown that Ex-4 is neuroprotective in several neurodegenerative disease rodent models, including stroke, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Here we hypothesized that Ex-4 may provide neuroprotective activity in ALS, and hence characterized Ex-4 actions in both cell culture (NSC-19 neuroblastoma cells and in vivo (SOD1 G93A mutant mice models of ALS. Ex-4 proved to be neurotrophic in NSC-19 cells, elevating choline acetyltransferase (ChAT activity, as well as neuroprotective, protecting cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Additionally, in both wild-type SOD1 and mutant SOD1 (G37R stably transfected NSC-19 cell lines, Ex-4 protected against trophic factor withdrawal-induced toxicity. To assess in vivo translation, SOD1 mutant mice were administered vehicle or Ex-4 at 6-weeks of age onwards to end-stage disease via subcutaneous osmotic pump to provide steady-state infusion. ALS mice treated with Ex-4 showed improved glucose tolerance and normalization of behavior, as assessed by running wheel, compared to control ALS mice. Furthermore, Ex-4 treatment attenuated neuronal cell death in the lumbar spinal cord; immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the rescue of neuronal markers, such as ChAT, associated with motor neurons. Together, our results suggest that GLP-1 receptor agonists warrant further evaluation to assess whether their neuroprotective potential is of therapeutic relevance in ALS.
Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E
Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063
Conway, Christopher M.; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M.; Henning, Shirley C.; Kronenberger, William G.; Pisoni, David B.
We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fun...
Blauw-Hospers, C. H.; de Graaf-Peters, V. B.; Dirks, T.; Bos, A. F.; Hadders-Algra, M.
Infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders are in general referred to early intervention (EI) services. It is a matter of debate to which extent El may facilitate outcome in various developmental domains. We reviewed the effects of El programmes aiming at promoting rnotor and cognitive d
Dundon, Neil M; Dockree, Suvi P; Buckley, Vanessa; Merriman, Niamh; Carton, Mary; Clarke, Sarah; Roche, Richard A P; Lalor, Edmund C; Robertson, Ian H; Dockree, Paul M
Patients who suffer traumatic brain injury frequently report difficulty concentrating on tasks and completing routine activities in noisy and distracting environments. Such impairments can have long-term negative psychosocial consequences. A cognitive control function that may underlie this impairment is the capacity to select a goal-relevant signal for further processing while safeguarding it from irrelevant noise. A paradigmatic investigation of this problem was undertaken using a dichotic listening task (study 1) in which comprehension of a stream of speech to one ear was measured in the context of increasing interference from a second stream of irrelevant speech to the other ear. Controls showed an initial decline in performance in the presence of competing speech but thereafter showed adaptation to increasing audibility of irrelevant speech, even at the highest levels of noise. By contrast, patients showed linear decline in performance with increasing noise. Subsequently attempts were made to ameliorate this deficit (study 2) using a cognitive training procedure based on attention process training (APT) that included graded exposure to irrelevant noise over the course of training. Patients were assigned to adaptive and non-adaptive training schedules or to a no-training control group. Results showed that both types of training drove improvements in the dichotic listening and in naturalistic tasks of performance in noise. Improvements were also seen on measures of selective attention in the visual domain suggesting transfer of training. We also observed augmentation of event-related potentials (ERPs) linked to target processing (P3b) but no change in ERPs evoked by distractor stimuli (P3a) suggesting that training heightened tuning of target signals, as opposed to gating irrelevant noise. No changes in any of the above measures were observed in a no-training control group. Together these findings present an ecologically valid approach to measure selective
Chen, Chih-Chia; Ringenbach, Shannon D. R.; Albert, Andrew; Semken, Keith
The connection between human cognitive development and motor functioning has been systematically examined in many typical and atypical populations; however, only a few studies focus on people with Down syndrome (DS). Twelve adolescents with DS participated and their cognitive control, measured by the Corsi-Block tapping test (e.g., visual working…
Salman, Michael S; Tsai, Peter
This article discusses the contribution of the pediatric cerebellum to locomotion, ocular motor control, speech articulation, cognitive function, and behavior modulation. Hypotheses on cerebellar function are discussed. Clinical features in patients with cerebellar disorders are outlined. Cerebellar abnormalities in cognitive and behavioral disorders are detailed. PMID:27423796
van Duinen, Hiske; Lorist, Monicque M.; Zijdewind, Inge
Rationale: In everyday life, people are usually capable of performing two tasks simultaneously. However, in a previous study we showed that during a fatiguing motor task, cognitive performance declined progressively. There is extensive literature on the ( positive) effects of caffeine on cognitive a
Full Text Available ObjectiveNeuropsychological impairment is an important co-morbidity of chronic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the state of the cognitive and motor development of patients with refractory epilepsy.Materials & Methods We studied 150 consecutive children with epilepsy who were referred to Mofid Children Hospital, a third level public referral University Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from October 2007 to October 2008. Refractory epilepsy was defined as therapeutic failure of three antiepileptic drugs which were used appropriately.Data regarding sex, age, age at which the first seizure occurred, microcphaly, muscle tonicity, EEG findings, kind of treatment for controlling seizures and cognitive and motor development delay were collected from medical records.Development delay was defined as delay in acquiring cognitive ability and motor skills for age according to the Denver Scale II.Results Of 150 patients 72% were younger than 2 years old and 56.7% were male. About 35.3% were microcephalic while 76% had normal muscular tonicity.Only 2.7% had normal EEGs. About 37.3% showed a good response to anticonvulsive drugs and became seizure free, 13.3% showed a relative response to anticonvulsants but 49.3% did not respond. In the present study, 68% had cognitive developmental delay and 60.7% suffering motor delay. There was a significant difference in response to treatment between patients with cognitive and motor development delay.Conclusion Cognitive developmental delay was more frequent in patients with refractory epilepsy, suggesting that early cognitive screening and introduvtion of rehabilitation programs are necessary for patients with refractory epilepsy.Keywords:Refractory epilepsy, cognition, motor development, children
Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying
The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26847610
Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Agusti, Ana; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gomez-Gimenez, Belen; Malaguarnera, Michele; Dadsetan, Sherry; Belghiti, Majedeline; Garcia-Garcia, Raquel; Balzano, Tiziano; Taoro, Lucas; Felipo, Vicente
The cognitive and motor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are the final result of altered neurotransmission and communication between neurons in neuronal networks and circuits. Different neurotransmitter systems cooperate to modulate cognitive and motor function, with a main role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in different brain areas and neuronal circuits. There is an interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cognitive and motor impairment in HE. This interplay may occur: (a) in different brain areas involved in specific neuronal circuits; (b) in the same brain area through cross-modulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We will summarize some examples of the (1) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in different areas in the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit in the motor alterations in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE); (2) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cerebellum in the impairment of cognitive function in MHE through altered function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. We will also comment the therapeutic implications of the above studies and the utility of modulators of glutamate and GABA receptors to restore cognitive and motor function in rats with hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:25447766
Killane, Isabelle; Fearon, Conor; Newman, Louise; McDonnell, Conor; Waechter, Saskia M; Sons, Kristian; Lynch, Timothy; Reilly, Richard B
Freezing of gait (FOG), an episodic gait disturbance characterized by the inability to generate effective stepping, occurs in more than half of Parkinson's disease patients. It is associated with both executive dysfunction and attention and becomes most evident during dual tasking (performing two tasks simultaneously). This study examined the effect of dual motor-cognitive virtual reality training on dual-task performance in FOG. Twenty community dwelling participants with Parkinson's disease (13 with FOG, 7 without FOG) participated in a pre-assessment, eight 20-minute intervention sessions, and a post-assessment. The intervention consisted of a virtual reality maze (DFKI, Germany) through which participants navigated by stepping-in-place on a balance board (Nintendo, Japan) under time pressure. This was combined with a cognitive task (Stroop test), which repeatedly divided participants' attention. The primary outcome measures were pre- and post-intervention differences in motor (stepping time, symmetry, rhythmicity) and cognitive (accuracy, reaction time) performance during single- and dual-tasks. Both assessments consisted of 1) a single cognitive task 2) a single motor task, and 3) a dual motor-cognitive task. Following the intervention, there was significant improvement in dual-task cognitive and motor parameters (stepping time and rhythmicity), dual-task effect for those with FOG and a noteworthy improvement in FOG episodes. These improvements were less significant for those without FOG. This is the first study to show benefit of a dual motor-cognitive approach on dual-task performance in FOG. Advances in such virtual reality interventions for home use could substantially improve the quality of life for patients who experience FOG. PMID:26394439
Valter Rocha Fernandes
Full Text Available The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc, agility (Shuttle Run Speed - running back and forth, school performance (Academic Achievement Test, the Stroop test and 6 sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV. We found that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R²=0.20. Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (Spearman’s rho=0.536; p<=0.001, as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R= -0.438;p=0.003 and cancellation (rho= -0.471; p=0.001. All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition.
Fernandes, Valter R; Ribeiro, Michelle L Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T; Araújo, Narahyana B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C
The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed-running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R (2) = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = -0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = -0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130
Fernandes, Valter R.; Ribeiro, Michelle L. Scipião; Melo, Thais; de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Paulo; Guimarães, Thiago T.; Araújo, Narahyana B.; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Deslandes, Andréa C.
The relationship between exercise and cognition is an important topic of research that only recently began to unravel. Here, we set out to investigate the relation between motor skills, cognitive function, and school performance in 45 students from 8 to 14 years of age. We used a cross-sectional design to evaluate motor coordination (Touch Test Disc), agility (Shuttle Run Speed—running back and forth), school performance (Academic Achievement Test), the Stroop test, and six sub-tests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We found, that the Touch Test Disc was the best predictor of school performance (R2 = 0.20). Significant correlations were also observed between motor coordination and several indices of cognitive function, such as the total score of the Academic Achievement Test (AAT; Spearman's rho = 0.536; p ≤ 0.001), as well as two WISC-IV sub-tests: block design (R = −0.438; p = 0.003) and cancelation (rho = −0.471; p = 0.001). All the other cognitive variables pointed in the same direction, and even correlated with agility, but did not reach statistical significance. Altogether, the data indicate that visual motor coordination and visual selective attention, but not agility, may influence academic achievement and cognitive function. The results highlight the importance of investigating the correlation between physical skills and different aspects of cognition. PMID:27014130
Kenny, Lorcan; Hill, Elisabeth; Hamilton, Antonia F. de C.
There is increased interest in the relationship between motor skills and social skills in child development, with evidence that the mechanisms underlying these behaviors may be linked. We took a cognitive approach to this problem, and examined the relationship between four specific cognitive domains: theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Neuroimaging and adult research suggest that action understanding and imitation are closely linked, but are somewhat independent of theory of mind and low-level motor control. Here, we test if a similar pattern is shown in child development. A sample of 101 primary school aged children with a wide ability range completed tests of IQ (Raven’s matrices), theory of mind, motor skill, action understanding, and imitation. Parents reported on their children’s social, motor and attention performance as well as developmental concerns. The results showed that action understanding and imitation correlate, with the latter having a weak link to motor control. Theory of mind was independent of the other tasks. These results imply that independent cognitive processes for social interaction (theory of mind) and for motor control can be identified in primary school age children, and challenge approaches that link all these domains together. PMID:26941685
Full Text Available Excessive production of cytokines by microglia may cause cognitive dysfunction and long-lasting behavioral changes. Activating the peripheral innate immune system stimulates cytokine secretion in the central nervous system, which modulates cognitive function. Histone deacetylases (HDACs modulate cytokine synthesis and release. Trichostatin A (TSA, an HDAC inhibitor, is documented to be anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. We investigated whether TSA reduces lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction. ICR mice were first intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with vehicle or TSA (0.3 mg/kg. One hour later, they were injected (i.p. with saline or Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the injected mice and then determined the microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-treated mice and LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells. In the TSA-pretreated mice, microglial activation was lower, anhedonia did not occur, and LPS-induced cognitive dysfunction (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal was attenuated. Moreover, mRNA expression of HDAC2, HDAC5, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β in the brain of LPS-challenged mice and in the LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells was lower. TSA diminished LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in cognitive function, which might be specifically related to reducing HDAC2 and HDAC5 expression.
Wang, Cong; He, Ling; Yan, Ming; Zheng, Guang-yao; Liu, Xiao-yang
Cognitive deficiency and oxidative stress have been well documented in aging and in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we assessed the therapeutic effect of polyprenols on D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment in mice by testing on of behavioral and cognitive performance. In order to explore the possible role of polyprenols against D-galactose-induced oxidative damages, we assessed various biochemical indicators. Chronic administration of D-galactose (150 mg/kg·d, s.c.) for 7 weeks significantly impaired cognitive performance (both in step-through passive and active avoidance tests) and locomotor activity (in open-field test) and the ability of spatial learning and memory (in Morris water maze test) compared with the control group. The results revealed that polyprenols treatment for 2 weeks significantly ameliorated model mice's cognitive performance and oxidative defense. All groups of polyprenols enhanced the learning and memory ability in step-through passive and active avoidance tests, locomotor activity in open-field test, and the ability of spatial learning and memory in Morris water maze test. Furthermore, high and middle level of polyprenols significantly increased total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, neprilysin (NEP), and β-site AβPP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression, while nitric oxide (NO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the level of Aβ1-42 and presenilin 1 (PS1) were decreased. Polyprenols have a significant relieving effect on learning, memory, and spontaneous activities in a D-galactose-induced mouse model and ameliorates cognitive impairment and biochemical dysfunction in mice. In summary, we have demonstrated that polyprenols may ameliorate memory and cognitive impairment via enhancing oxidative defense and affecting generation and dissimilation of Aβ-related enzymes, suggesting that
Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of cognitive, motor, and Karate (accordingly the guidelines of the German-Karate-Federation, DKV training on the cognitive functioning and mental state of older people between 67 and 93 years of age. The three training groups consisted of 12 elderly participants; the waiting control group included 9 participants. Before the training, participants were evaluated with cognitive measurements (cognitive speed: number connection test, number symbol test; memory performance: digit-span test, blocking-tapping test, figure test and a measurement of emotional well-being. After this pre-testing they participated the specific training in on average 16 one-hour training sessions. The cognitive training exercised inductive thinking ability, the motor training worked on easy stretching and mobilization techniques, and the Karate training taught tasks of self-defense, partner training and Katas. After 16 training sessions all tests were applied again. The results show no significant difference in cognitive improvement dependent on group between the three training conditions. However a significant improvement was found in the emotional mental state measurement for the Karate group compared to the waiting control group. This result suggests that the high involvement in Karate leads to a feeling of self-worth and that even in elderly people integration of new sports helps to improve quality of life.
Jansen, Petra; Dahmen-Zimmer, Katharina
The present study investigated the influence of cognitive, motor, and Karate (accordingly the guidelines of the German-Karate-Federation, DKV) training on the cognitive functioning and mental state of older people between 67 and 93 years of age. The three training groups each consisted of 12 elderly participants; the waiting control group included 9 participants. Before the training, participants were evaluated with cognitive measurements (cognitive speed: number-connection test, number-symbol test; memory performance: digit-span test, blocking-tapping test, figure test) and a measurement of emotional well-being. After this pre-testing they participated the specific training in on average sixteen 1-h training sessions. The cognitive training exercised inductive thinking ability, the motor training worked on easy stretching and mobilization techniques, and the Karate training taught tasks of self-defense, partner training, and Katas. After completion of the training sessions, all tests were applied again. The results show no significant difference in cognitive improvement dependent on group between the three training conditions. However a significant improvement was found in the emotional mental state measurement for the Karate group compared to the waiting control group. This result suggests that the integrated involvement in Karate leads to a feeling of self-worth and that, even in elderly people, integration of new sports helps to improve quality of life. PMID:22363311
Puente, Erwin C.; Silverstein, Julie; Bree, Adam J.; Musikantow, Daniel R.; Wozniak, David F.; Maloney, Susan; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Fisher, Simon J.
OBJECTIVE Although intensive glycemic control achieved with insulin therapy increases the incidence of both moderate and severe hypoglycemia, clinical reports of cognitive impairment due to severe hypoglycemia have been highly variable. It was hypothesized that recurrent moderate hypoglycemia preconditions the brain and protects against damage caused by severe hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either 3 consecutive days of recurr...
Gao, Jin; He, He; Jiang, Wenjiao; Chang, Xiayun; Zhu, Lingpeng; Luo, Fen; Zhou, Rui; Ma, Chunhua; Yan, Tianhua
The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible preventive effects of salidroside (sal) on a rat model of Alzheimer's disease and to explore its possible mechanism. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of d-gal (120mg/kg) for 42 days, and the rats were treated with sal (20, 40mg/kg) or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of d-gal injection. Morris water maze (MWM) test and step-down passive avoidance test were conducted to evaluate the cognitive function of the rats. The levels of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in hippocampus were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of sal. Further, we estimated the expression levels of thioredoxin (Trx), thioredoxin interacting protein (Txnip/vitamin D3 up-regulated protein/thioredoxin binding protein-2), Bax, Bcl-2, caspase-9 and related-proteins of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by western blot assay. It showed that administration of sal significantly attenuated all the d-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. These analytical results provides evidence that sal can improve cognitive capacity by inhibiting neuroinflammation and affecting apoptosis-related proteins in hippocampus. PMID:26192909
Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya
The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570
Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie
Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients. PMID:24026132
Stöckel, Tino; Hughes, Charmayne M L
Specific relations between executive functions (working memory capacity, planning and problem-solving, inhibitory control) and motor skill performance (anticipatory motor planning, manual dexterity) were examined in 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 40). Results showed that the two motor skill components were not correlated. Additionally, it was found that response planning performance was a significant predictor of anticipatory motor planning performance, whereas inhibitory control and working memory capacity measures were significant predictors of manual dexterity scores. Taken together, these results suggest that cognitive and motor skills are linked, but that manual dexterity and anticipatory motor planning involve different specialized skills. The current study provides support for specific relations between cognitive and motor performance, which has implications for early childhood cognitive-motor training and intervention programs. PMID:25820330
O’Connor, Kieron P.; Lavoie, Marc E.; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick
The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A compariso...
Schneider, Jay S.; Decamp, Emmanuel; Koser, Amy Jo; Fritz, Stephanie; Gonczi, Heather; Syversen, Tore; Guilarte, Tomás R.
Acute exposure to manganese is associated with complex behavioral/psychiatric signs that may include Parkinsonian motor features. However, little is known about the behavioral consequences of chronic manganese exposures. In this study, cynomolgus macaque monkeys were exposed to manganese sulfate (10 –15 mg/kg/week) over an exposure period lasting 272 ± 17 days. Prior to manganese exposure, animals were trained to perform tests of cognitive and motor functioning and overall behavior was assess...
Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions. PMID:24367325
Mariana M. Santos
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. OBJECTIVE: Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. METHOD: Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children. All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. RESULTS: Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. CONCLUSION: The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers.
Full Text Available In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency.The aim of this study was twofold. It (1 explored the outcomes of enriched physical education, centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2 examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in physical education, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task, or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System, CAS.Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance. The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched physical education on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium
Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D.
In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children’s cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5–10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the ‘enriched’ intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that
Pesce, Caterina; Masci, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Vazou, Spyridoula; Sääkslahti, Arja; Tomporowski, Phillip D
In light of the interrelation between motor and cognitive development and the predictive value of the former for the latter, the secular decline observed in motor coordination ability as early as preschool urges identification of interventions that may jointly impact motor and cognitive efficiency. The aim of this study was twofold. It (1) explored the outcomes of enriched physical education (PE), centered on deliberate play and cognitively challenging variability of practice, on motor coordination and cognitive processing; (2) examined whether motor coordination outcomes mediate intervention effects on children's cognition, while controlling for moderation by lifestyle factors as outdoor play habits and weight status. Four hundred and sixty children aged 5-10 years participated in a 6-month group randomized intervention in PE, with or without playful coordinative and cognitive enrichment. The weight status and spontaneous outdoor play habits of children (parental report of outdoor play) were evaluated at baseline. Before and after the intervention, motor developmental level (Movement Assessment Battery for Children) was evaluated in all children, who were then assessed either with a test of working memory (Random Number Generation task), or with a test of attention (from the Cognitive Assessment System). Children assigned to the 'enriched' intervention showed more pronounced improvements in all motor coordination assessments (manual dexterity, ball skills, static/dynamic balance). The beneficial effect on ball skills was amplified by the level of spontaneous outdoor play and weight status. Among indices of executive function and attention, only that of inhibition showed a differential effect of intervention type. Moderated mediation showed that the better outcome of the enriched PE on ball skills mediated the better inhibition outcome, but only when the enrichment intervention was paralleled by a medium-to-high level of outdoor play. Results suggest that
Xiao-Yuan Mao; Dan-Feng Cao; Xi Li; Ji-Ye Yin; Zhi-Bin Wang; Ying Zhang; Chen-Xue Mao; Hong-Hao Zhou; Zhao-Qian Liu
The present study was designed to probe the effects of Huperzine A (HupA) on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) using a streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model. Diabetic rats were treated with HupA (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) for seven weeks. Memory functions were evaluated by the water maze test. Nissl staining was selected for detecting neuronal loss. Protein and mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were analyzed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. The activities...
Li, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Xing; Shen, Yunheng; Zhao, Jing; Yue, Rongcai; Liu, Fang; He, Weiwei; Wang, Rui; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong
Standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera (BME) have been shown to exert a neuroprotective effect against mental diseases, such as depression, anxiety and Alzheimer's disease (AD), in chronic administration studies. However, its mechanism of action has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of Bacopaside I (BS-I), a major triterpenoid saponin of BME, on the cognitive impairment and neuropathology in APP/PS1 transgenic mice and explored the possible mechanism from a biological systems perspective. We found that BS-I treatment significantly ameliorated learning deficits, improved long-term spatial memory, and reduced plaque load in APP/PS1 mice. We constructed BS-I's therapeutic effect network by mapping the nodes onto the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network constructed according to their functional categories based on genomic and proteomic data. Because many of the top enrichment categories related to the processes of the immune system and phagocytosis were detected, we proposed that BS-I promotes amyloid clearance via the induction of a suitable degree of innate immune stimulation and phagocytosis. Our research may help to clarify the neuroprotective effect of BME and indicated that natural saponins target the immune system, which may offer new research avenues to discover novel treatments for AD. PMID:26946062
Kong, Liang; Hu, Yu; Yao, Yingjia; Jiao, Yanan; Li, Shaoheng; Yang, Jingxian
It is believed that neuronal death caused by abnormal deposition of amyloid-beta peptide is the major cause of the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Adult neurogenesis plays a key role in the rescue of impaired neurons and amelioration of cognitive impairment. In the present study, we demonstrated that osthole, a natural coumarin derivative, was capable of promoting neuronal stem cell (NSC) survival and inducing NSC proliferation in vitro. In osthole-treated APP/PS1 transgenic mice, a significant improvement in learning and memory function was seen, which was associated with a significant increase in the number of new neurons (Ki67(+)/NF-M(+)) and a decrease in apoptotic cells in the hippocampal region of the brain. These observations suggested that osthole promoted NSC proliferation, supported neurogenesis, and thus efficiently rescued impaired neurons in the hippocampus and ameliorated cognitive impairment. We also found that osthole treatment activated the Notch pathway and upregulated the expression of self-renewal genes Notch 1 and Hes 1 mRNA in NSCs. However, when Notch activity was blocked by the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, the augmentation of Notch 1 and Hes 1 protein was ameliorated, and the proliferation-inducing effect of osthole was abolished, suggesting that the effects of osthole are at least in part mediated by activation of the Notch pathway. PMID:26328484
Colla, Stephy; Van Keer, Ines; Schalen, Gertruud Henrike; van der Putten, Annette; Visser, Linda; Maes, Bea; Vlaskamp, Carla; van der Meulen, Bieuwe
Recently, a longitudinal project on the development of children with a serious cognitive and motor developmental delay has started in Belgium and the Netherlands. The aims of this study are to evaluate the cognitive, motor, communicative and social-emotional abilities of young children with a severe
Bons, Danielle; van den Broek, Egon; Scheepers, Floor; Herpers, Pierre; Rommelse, Nanda; Buitelaaar, Jan K.
It is unclear which aspects of empathy are shared and which are uniquely affected in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and conduct disorder (CD) as are the neurobiological correlates of these empathy impairments. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the overlap and specificity of motor, emotional, and cognitive aspects of empathy in…
Choo, Ai Leen; Burnham, Evamarie; Hicks, Kristin; Chang, Soo-Eun
The onset of developmental stuttering typically occurs between 2 to 4 years of age, coinciding with a period of rapid development in speech, language, motor and cognitive domains. Previous studies have reported generally poorer performance and uneven, or "dissociated" development across speech and language domains in children who stutter (CWS) relative to children who do not stutter (CWNS) (Anderson, Pellowski, & Conture, 2005). The aim of this study was to replicate and expand previous findings by examining whether CWS exhibit dissociated development across speech-language, cognitive, and motor domains that are also reflected in measures of neuroanatomical development. Participants were 66CWS (23 females) and 53CWNS (26 females) ranging from 3 to 10 years. Standardized speech, language, cognitive, and motor skills measures, and fractional anisotropy (FA) values derived from diffusion tensor imaging from speech relevant "dorsal auditory" left perisylvian areas (Hickok & Poeppel, 2007) were analyzed using a correlation-based statistical procedure (Coulter, Anderson, & Conture, 2009) that quantified dissociations across domains. Overall, CWS scored consistently lower on speech, language, cognitive and motor measures, and exhibited dissociated development involving these same measures and white matter neuroanatomical indices relative to CWNS. Boys who stutter exhibited a greater number of dissociations compared to girls who stutter. Results suggest a subgroup of CWS may have incongruent development across multiple domains, and the resolution of this imbalance may be a factor in recovery from stuttering. PMID:27010940
van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Becher, Jules G.; Steenbergen, Bert
Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specifically, the relative influence of non-verbal…
Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.
PURPOSE: The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. METHOD: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy prog
van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; Stehmann-Saris, JC; Kinebanian, A
Purpose : The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. Method: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy pro
Rooijen, M. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Smits, D.W.; Ketelaar, M.; Steenbergen, B.
Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specificall
Eakin, Katharine; Li, Yazhou; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Hoffer, Barry J; Rosenheim, Hilary; Greig, Nigel H; Miller, Jonathan P
Traumatic brain injury represents a major public health issue that affects 1.7 million Americans each year and is a primary contributing factor (30.5%) of all injury-related deaths in the United States. The occurrence of traumatic brain injury is likely underestimated and thus has been termed "a silent epidemic". Exendin-4 is a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus that not only effectively induces glucose-dependent insulin secretion to regulate blood glucose levels but also reduces apoptotic cell death of pancreatic β-cells. Accumulating evidence also supports a neurotrophic and neuroprotective role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in an array of cellular and animal neurodegeneration models. In this study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of Exendin-4 using a glutamate toxicity model in vitro and fluid percussion injury in vivo. We found neuroprotective effects of Exendin-4 both in vitro, using markers of cell death, and in vivo, using markers of cognitive function, as assessed by Morris Water Maze. In combination with the reported benefits of ex-4 in other TBI models, these data support repositioning of Exendin-4 as a potential treatment for traumatic brain injury. PMID:24312624
Fu, Amy K. Y.; Hung, Kwok-Wang; Yuen, Michael Y. F.; Zhou, Xiaopu; Mak, Deejay S. Y.; Chan, Ivy C. W.; Cheung, Tom H.; Zhang, Baorong; Fu, Wing-Yu; Liew, Foo Y.; Ip, Nancy Y.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating condition with no known effective treatment. AD is characterized by memory loss as well as impaired locomotor ability, reasoning, and judgment. Emerging evidence suggests that the innate immune response plays a major role in the pathogenesis of AD. In AD, the accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain perturbs physiological functions of the brain, including synaptic and neuronal dysfunction, microglial activation, and neuronal loss. Serum levels of soluble ST2 (sST2), a decoy receptor for interleukin (IL)-33, increase in patients with mild cognitive impairment, suggesting that impaired IL-33/ST2 signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, we investigated the potential therapeutic role of IL-33 in AD, using transgenic mouse models. Here we report that IL-33 administration reverses synaptic plasticity impairment and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice. IL-33 administration reduces soluble Aβ levels and amyloid plaque deposition by promoting the recruitment and Aβ phagocytic activity of microglia; this is mediated by ST2/p38 signaling activation. Furthermore, IL-33 injection modulates the innate immune response by polarizing microglia/macrophages toward an antiinflammatory phenotype and reducing the expression of proinflammatory genes, including IL-1β, IL-6, and NLRP3, in the cortices of APP/PS1 mice. Collectively, our results demonstrate a potential therapeutic role for IL-33 in AD. PMID:27091974
Full Text Available To expose cortical involvement in age-related changes in motor performance, we compared steadiness (force fluctuations and fatigability of submaximal isometric contractions with the ankle dorsiflexor muscles in older and young adults and with varying levels of cognitive demand imposed. Sixteen young (20 ± 2 yr: 8 men, 8 women and 17 older adults (69 ±4 yr: 9 men, 8 women attended three sessions and performed a 40 s isometric contraction at 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC force followed by an isometric contraction at 30% MVC until task failure. The cognitive demand required during the submaximal contractions in each session differed as follows: 1 high-cognitive demand session where difficult mental math was imposed (counting backward by 13 from a 4-digit number; 2 low-cognitive demand session which involved simple mental math (counting backward by one; and 3 control session with no mental math. Anxiety was elevated during the high-cognitive demand session compared with other sessions for both age groups but more so for the older adults than young adults (p0.05, but the variability between sessions (standard deviation [SD] of 3 sessions was greater for older adults than young (2.02 ± 1.05 min vs. 1.25 ± 0.51 min, P<0.05. Thus, variability in lower limb motor performance for low and moderate force isometric tasks increased with age and was exacerbated when cognitive demand was imposed, and may be related to modulation of synergist and antagonist muscles and an altered neural strategy with age originating from central sources. These data have significant implications for cognitively demanding low-force motor tasks that are relevant to functional and ergonomic in an aging workforce.
Full Text Available Marianna Alesi,1 Giuseppe Battaglia,2 Michele Roccella,1 Davide Testa,1 Antonio Palma,2 Annamaria Pepi1 1Department of Psychology, 2Department of Law, Social and Sport Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods: The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years. Results: Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion: There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. Keywords: disability, Down syndrome, gross motor abilities, cognitive abilities, physical activity
Full Text Available To localize the brain dynamics for cognitive processes from EEG signature has been a challenging taskfrom last two decades. In this paper we explore the spatial-temporal correlations of brain electricalneuronal activity for cognitive task such as Arithmetic and Motor Task using 3D cortical distributionmethod. Ten healthy right handed volunteers participated in the experiment. EEG signal was acquiredduring resting state with eyes open and eyes closed; performing motor task and arithmetic calculations.The signal was then computed for three dimensional cortical distributions on realistic head model withMNI152 template using standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA. Thiswas followed by an appropriate standardization of the current density, producing images of electricneuronal activity without localization bias. Neuronal generators responsible for cognitive state such asArithmetic Task and Motor Task were localized. The result was correlated with the previous neuroimaging(fMRI study investigation. Hence our result directed that the neuronal activity from EEG signal can bedemonstrated in cortical level with good spatial resolution. 3D cortical distribution method, thus, may beused to obtain both spatial and temporal information from EEG signal and may prove to be a significanttechnique to investigate the cognitive functions in mental health and brain dysfunctions. Also, it may behelpful for brain/human computer interfacing.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Raised activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may both amplify inflammatory and free radical responses and decrease tissue metabolic efficiency and thus enhance cerebral injury in the preterm infant. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE DD genotype is associated with raised ACE and RAS activity as well as potentially adverse stimuli such as inflammation. The DD genotype has been associated with neurological impairments in the elderly, and thus may be also associated with poorer motor or cognitive development amongst children born preterm prematurely. Methods The association of DD genotype with developmental progress amongst 176 Caucasian children born at less than 33 weeks gestation (median birthweight 1475 g, range 645–2480 g; gestation 30 weeks, range 22–32; 108 male was examined at 2 and 5 1/2 years of age. Measured neuro-cognitive outcomes were cranial ultrasound abnormalities, cerebral palsy, disability, Griffiths Developmental Quotient [DQ] at 2 yrs, and General Cognitive Ability [British Ability Scales-11] and motor performance [ABC Movement], both performed at 5 1/2 yrs. All outcomes were correlated with ACE genotype. Results The DD genotype was not associated with lower developmental quotients even after accounting for important social variables. Conclusion These data do not support either a role for ACE in the development of cognitive or motor function in surviving infants born preterm or inhibition of ACE as a neuroprotective therapy.
Dromey, Christopher; Benson, April
This study examined the influence of 3 different types of concurrent tasks on speech motor performance. The goal was to uncover potential differences in speech movements relating to the nature of the secondary task. Twenty young adults repeated sentences either with or without simultaneous distractor activities. These distractions included a motor…
Lee, Jae-Min; Shin, Mal-Soon; Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Woon; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Jang, Myung-Soo; Kim, Tae-Wook; Kim, Bo-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Hee
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a most common age-related neurodegenerative disease. AD is characterized by a progressive loss of neurons causing cognitive dysfunction. The cerebellum is closely associated with integration of movement, including motor coordination, control, and equilibrium. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of tread-mill exercise on the survival of Purkinje neurons in relation with reactive astrocyte in the cerebellum using Aβ25–35–induced AD rats. AD was induced by a...
Engberg, A; Bentzen, L; Garde, B
The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive power of ratings of Barthel Index at Day 40 post stroke, compared with and/or combined with simultaneous ratings from a mobility scale (EG motor index) and a rather simple cognitive test scale (CT50). The parameter to be individually...... power than Barthel Index alone. A combination of EG motor index and CT50 had at least the same predictive power as the combination of Barthel Index and CT50. The usefulness of a simple diagram for individual prognostication was demonstrated....
Li-Da Zhang; Li Ma; Li Zhang; Jian-Guo Dai; Li-Gong Chang; Pei-Lin Huang; Xiao-Qiang Tian
Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and Ginkgo biloba extract (e.g., EGB 761) were shown to ameliorate cognitive and memory impairment in Alzheimer′s disease (AD). However, the exact mechanism remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of HBO and EGB 761 via the function of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) pathway. Methods: AD rats were induced by injecting β-amyloid 25-35 into the hippocampus. All animals were divided into six groups: Normal, s...
Wajda, Douglas A; Roeing, Kathleen L; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W; Sosnoff, Jacob J
Gait and cognitive impairments are compounded when performed simultaneously in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this is termed cognitive-motor interference (CMI). The authors examined whether CMI is related to balance confidence in individuals with MS. They hypothesized that individuals with low balance confidence would exhibit greater CMI possibly indicating a behavioral modification during dual task conditions. Thirty-four individuals with MS completed Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and a cognitive assessment as well as single and dual task walking trials at a comfortable pace. CMI was calculated as the percent change in walking velocity and cognitive task performance from single- to dual-task conditions and termed dual-task cost (DTC). A correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationships between DTCs of gait and cognitive performance and ABC scores. The correlation analysis revealed no significant association between ABC and DTC of walking velocity (p > .05). A significant relationship between balance confidence and DTCs of cognition was observed. The observed relationships suggest individuals with MS tend to alter their cognitive performance rather than manipulating their gait when confronted with a dual task. Overall, the findings partially support a behavioral explanation of CMI in individuals with MS. PMID:25988565
Beristain, Xabier; Golombievski, Esteban
Stroke is a leading cause of disability among older adults and more than half of stroke survivors have some residual neurological impairment. Traditionally, managing the aftermath of stroke has been by the implementation of several physical and language therapy modalities. The limitations of these rehabilitation efforts have sparked an interest in finding other ways to enhance neurological recovery. Some of these novel approaches have included pharmacological interventions, cell-derived treatments, and cortical magnetic stimulation. Mounting evidence over the last 2 decades suggests that pharmacological manipulations may have the potential to modulate practice-dependent neuroplasticity and potentially improve neurological recovery after stroke. Multiple pharmacological agents with different mechanisms of action have been evaluated, showing conflicting results. Some studies suggest some promise, yet the quality of the available studies is suboptimal overall, with most of the studies being underpowered. So far, the most promising agents include the antidepressants for motor recovery and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for aphasia. However, large, well-designed clinical trials are needed to address the shortcomings of the available data and before any pharmacological agent can be recommended for routine use as part of the standard algorithm of stroke management. PMID:26423272
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Motor imagery training is a promising rehabilitation strategy for stroke patients. However, few studies had focused on the neural mechanisms in time course of its cognitive process. This study investigated the cognitive alterations after left hemispheric ischemic stroke during motor imagery task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven patients with ischemic stroke in left hemisphere and eleven age-matched control subjects participated in mental rotation task (MRT of hand pictures. Behavior performance, event-related potential (ERP and event-related (desynchronization (ERD/ERS in beta band were analyzed to investigate the cortical activation. We found that: (1 The response time increased with orientation angles in both groups, called "angle effect", however, stoke patients' responses were impaired with significantly longer response time and lower accuracy rate; (2 In early visual perceptual cognitive process, stroke patients showed hypo-activations in frontal and central brain areas in aspects of both P200 and ERD; (3 During mental rotation process, P300 amplitude in control subjects decreased while angle increased, called "amplitude modulation effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. Spatially, patients showed significant lateralization of P300 with activation only in contralesional (right parietal cortex while control subjects showed P300 in both parietal lobes. Stroke patients also showed an overall cortical hypo-activation of ERD during this sub-stage; (4 In the response sub-stage, control subjects showed higher ERD values with more activated cortical areas particularly in the right hemisphere while angle increased, named "angle effect", which was not observed in stroke patients. In addition, stroke patients showed significant lower ERD for affected hand (right response than that for unaffected hand. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cortical activation was altered differently in each cognitive sub-stage of motor imagery after
Eznallah AZARGHASHB; Farhad MAHVELATI-SHAMSABADI; Mohammad Mehdi NASEHI; Mohammad GHOFRANI
ObjectiveNeuropsychological impairment is an important co-morbidity of chronic epilepsy. The aim of this study was to determine the state of the cognitive and motor development of patients with refractory epilepsy.Materials & Methods We studied 150 consecutive children with epilepsy who were referred to Mofid Children Hospital, a third level public referral University Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from October 2007 to October 2008. Refractory epilepsy was defined as therapeutic failure of three ...
van Heugten, C.M.; Dekker, J; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.
PURPOSE: The present study investigated which additional cognitive and motor impairments were present in stroke patients with apraxia and which of these factors influenced the effects of treatment. METHOD: A group of 33 patients with apraxia were treated according to the guidelines of a therapy programme based on teaching patients strategies to compensate for the presence of apraxia. Patients were treated at occupational therapy departments in general hospitals, rehabilitation centres and nur...
Van der Graaff, Jolien; Meeus, Wim; de Wied, Minet; van Boxtel, Anton; van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Branje, Susan
This study examined interrelations of trait and state empathy in an adolescent sample. Self-reported affective trait empathy and cognitive trait empathy were assessed during a home visit. During a test session at the university, motor empathy (facial electromyography), and self-reported affective and cognitive state empathy were assessed in response to empathy-inducing film clips portraying happiness and sadness. Adolescents who responded with stronger motor empathy consistently reported higher affective state empathy. Adolescents' motor empathy was also positively related to cognitive state empathy, either directly or indirectly via affective state empathy. Whereas trait empathy was consistently, but modestly, related to state empathy with sadness, for state empathy with happiness few trait-state associations were found. Together, the findings provide support for the notion that empathy is a multi-faceted phenomenon. Motor, affective and cognitive empathy seem to be related processes, each playing a different role in the ability to understand and share others' feelings. PMID:25864486
Full Text Available Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world. The effects of caffeine have been studied using cognitive and motor measures, quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG and event-related potentials. However, these methods are not usually employed in combination, a fact that impairs the interpretation of the results. The objective of the present study was to analyze changes in electrophysiological, cognitive and motor variables with the ingestion of caffeine, and to relate central to peripheral responses. For this purpose we recorded event-related potentials and eyes-closed, resting EEG, applied the Stroop test, and measured reaction time. Fifteen volunteers took caffeine (400 mg or placebo in a randomized, crossover, double-blind design. A significant reduction of alpha absolute power over the entire scalp and of P300 latency at the Fz electrode were observed after caffeine ingestion. These results are consistent with a stimulatory effect of caffeine, although there was no change in the attention (Stroop test or in reaction time. The qEEG seems to be the most sensitive index of the changes produced by caffeine in the central nervous system since it proved to be capable of detecting changes that were not evident in the tests of cognitive or motor performance.
Sinan Mahir Kayiran
Full Text Available Iron is an essential element for the human organism. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA is one of the most important health problems in Turkey. Iron deficiency (ID is more frequently seen that IDA. In developed countries, although the incidence of iron deficiency-related anemia has declined significantly, the condition still remains a health issue. Because, as with IDA, iron deficiency can lead to growth retardation in children, this is regarded as a major public health problem. Cognitive, emotional, motor and behavioral test results in children with the condition are adversely affected. Many studies have been carried out to learn the causes and mechanisms of the condition and to ascertain whether the effects are reversible. The condition causes a permanent decline of intelligence In untreated children or whenever treatment is delayed. For this reason, an iron-rich diet is important in all stages of life and it is particularly important for mothers to supplement their iron intake during pregnancy to ensure that the newborn starts off life with a rich store of iron. Developmental retardation is not completely curable with iron therapy. At the same time, if iron deficiency can be treated with iron supplements before it becomes a chronic and serious condition, motor, cognitive and emotional disorders may be prevented. This article reviews the emotional, motor and cognitive effects of iron deficiency in children as well as the impact of iron on neuronal functions. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 529-534
Dum, Richard P; Levinthal, David J; Strick, Peter L
Modern medicine has generally viewed the concept of "psychosomatic" disease with suspicion. This view arose partly because no neural networks were known for the mind, conceptually associated with the cerebral cortex, to influence autonomic and endocrine systems that control internal organs. Here, we used transneuronal transport of rabies virus to identify the areas of the primate cerebral cortex that communicate through multisynaptic connections with a major sympathetic effector, the adrenal medulla. We demonstrate that two broad networks in the cerebral cortex have access to the adrenal medulla. The larger network includes all of the cortical motor areas in the frontal lobe and portions of somatosensory cortex. A major component of this network originates from the supplementary motor area and the cingulate motor areas on the medial wall of the hemisphere. These cortical areas are involved in all aspects of skeletomotor control from response selection to motor preparation and movement execution. The second, smaller network originates in regions of medial prefrontal cortex, including a major contribution from pregenual and subgenual regions of anterior cingulate cortex. These cortical areas are involved in higher-order aspects of cognition and affect. These results indicate that specific multisynaptic circuits exist to link movement, cognition, and affect to the function of the adrenal medulla. This circuitry may mediate the effects of internal states like chronic stress and depression on organ function and, thus, provide a concrete neural substrate for some psychosomatic illness. PMID:27528671
Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with ...
Houwen, Suzanne; Visser, Linda; van der Putten, Annette; Vlaskamp, Carla
It is generally agreed that cognitive and language development are dependent on the emergence of motor skills. As the literature on this issue concerning children with developmental disabilities is scarce, we examined the interrelationships between motor, cognitive, and language development in children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and compared them to those in children without IDD. In addition, we investigated whether these relationships differ between children with different levels of cognitive delay. Seventy-seven children with IDD (calendar age between 1;0 and 9;10 years; mean developmental age: 1;8 years) and 130 typically developing children (calendar age between 0;3 and 3;6 years; mean developmental age: 1;10 years) were tested with the Dutch Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition, which assesses development across three domains using five subscales: fine motor development, gross motor development (motor), cognition (cognitive), receptive communication, and expressive communication (language). Results showed that correlations between the motor, cognitive, and language domains were strong, namely .61 to .94 in children with IDD and weak to strong, namely .24 to .56 in children without IDD. Furthermore, the correlations showed a tendency to increase with the severity of IDD. It can be concluded that both fine and gross motor development are more strongly associated with cognition, and consequently language, in children with IDD than in children without IDD. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of early interventions that boost both motor and cognitive development, and suggest that such interventions will also enhance language development. PMID:26851384
Neville, B G R; Parascandalo, R; Farrugia, R; Felice, A
This study presents the clinical findings on seven children from Malta (population 385,000). All of them had early motor delay and a significant degree of cognitive impairment. Diurnal variation of the motor impairments was clear in six out of seven of the subjects and oculogyric crises occurred from an early stage also in six out of the seven. Five out of seven had clear evidence of dystonia but the early picture was dominated by hypotonia in five. Two had early Parkinsonian tremor and chorea was seen in four, although in two this was attributable to the use of L-dopa. Three had early bulbar involvement. In all, although minor motor problems persisted, the response to L-dopa was dramatic and there was a need to balance improvement in dystonia against aggravation of chorea. The majority were not able to walk until they were treated. Increased doses of L-dopa were required in hot weather, to which they were sensitive. Despite a good response of improved motor ability and abolition of oculogyric crises, there was no obvious change in cognitive function with learning remaining in the moderate impairment range. This report widens the phenotype of dopa-responsive motor disorders and the range of young children with primary motor delay (cerebral palsy) who need a clinical trial of L-dopa. All of the subjects had the same novel mutation in the tetrahydrobiopterin pathway involving sepiapterin reductase, and no abnormality in the gene encoding guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1. Clinically and molecularly the condition shows autosomal recessive inheritance. PMID:16049044
Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan
Full Text Available The importance of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized, not only in motor control but also in cognitive learning and function. Nevertheless, the relationship between training-induced cerebellar activation and electrophysiological and structural changes in humans has yet to be established. In the current paper, we suggest a general model tying cerebellar function to cognitive improvement, via neuronal synchronization, as well as biochemical and anatomical changes. We then suggest that sensorimotor training provides an optimal paradigm to test the proposed model and review supporting evidence of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT, a sensorimotor training aimed at increasing attention and coordination. Subsequently, we discuss the possible mechanisms through which QMT may exert its beneficial effects on cognition (e.g., increased creativity, reflectivity, and reading, focusing on cerebellar alpha activity as a possible mediating mechanism allowing cognitive improvement, molecular and anatomical changes. Using the example of QMT research, this paper emphasizes the importance of investigating whole-body sensorimotor training paradigms utilizing a multidisciplinary approach and its implications to healthy brain development.
Schroeder, Sascha; Verrel, Julius
We investigated lexical decision making in children and adults by analyzing spatiotemporal characteristics of responses involving a hand movement. Children's and adults' movement trajectories were assessed in three tasks: a lexical decision task (LDT), a pointing task that involved minimal cognitive processing, and a symbol task requiring a simple binary decision. Cognitive interference on motor performance was quantified by analyzing movement characteristics in the LDT and symbol task relative to the pointing task. Across age groups, movements in the LDT were less smooth, slower, and more strongly curved to the opposite response option, and these interference effects decreased steadily with age. Older children showed stronger interference effects than did adults, even though their reaction times were similar to adults' performance. No comparable effects were found in the symbol task, indicating that task characteristics such as response mapping and decision selection alone are not able to explain the developmental differences observed in the LDT. Our results indicate substantial overlap between cognitive processing and motor execution in the LDT in children that is not captured by computational models of visual word recognition and cognitive development. PMID:24030472
Ben-Soussan, Tal Dotan; Glicksohn, Joseph; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva
The importance of the cerebellum is increasingly recognized, not only in motor control but also in cognitive learning and function. Nevertheless, the relationship between training-induced cerebellar activation and electrophysiological and structural changes in humans has yet to be established. In the current paper, we suggest a general model tying cerebellar function to cognitive improvement, via neuronal synchronization, as well as biochemical and anatomical changes. We then suggest that sensorimotor training provides an optimal paradigm to test the proposed model and review supporting evidence of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT), a sensorimotor training aimed at increasing attention and coordination. Subsequently, we discuss the possible mechanisms through which QMT may exert its beneficial effects on cognition (e.g., increased creativity, reflectivity, and reading), focusing on cerebellar alpha activity as a possible mediating mechanism allowing cognitive improvement, molecular and anatomical changes. Using the example of QMT research, this paper emphasizes the importance of investigating whole-body sensorimotor training paradigms utilizing a multidisciplinary approach and its implications to healthy brain development. PMID:26539545
Elsinga, Rachel M.; Roze, Elise; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Hulscher, Jan B. F.; Bos, Arend F.
Background: The motor and cognitive outcome at school age of newborn children with surgically treated intestinal obstructions is unknown. Physiological stress and anesthesia may potentially be harmful in the period of early brain development in newborn infants. Objective: To determine motor and cogn
Zhu, Lei; Yang, Jing-yu; Xue, Xue; Dong, Ying-xu; Liu, Yang; Miao, Feng-rong; Wang, Yong-feng; Xue, Hong; Wu, Chun-fu
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), activated microglia invade and surround β-amyloid plaques, possibly contributing to the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ), which affect the survival of neurons and lead to memory loss. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors have recently been shown a potential therapeutic effect on AD. In this study, the effects of yonkenafil (yonk), a novel PDE-5 inhibitor, on cognitive behaviors as well as the pathological features in transgenic AD mice were investigated. Seven-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice were treated with yonk (2, 6, or 18 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection (i.p.)) or sildenafil (sild) (6 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3 months and then behavioral tests were performed. The results demonstrated that yonk improved nesting-building ability, ameliorated working memory deficits in the Y-maze tasks, and significantly improved learning and memory function in the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. In addition, yonk reduced the area of Aβ plaques, and inhibited over-activation of microglia and astrocytes. Furthermore, yonk increased neurogenesis in the dentate granule brain region of APP/PS1 mice, indicated by increased BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) and BrdU(+)/DCX(+) cells compared to vehicle-treated transgenic mice. These results suggest that yonk could rescue cognitive deficits by ameliorated amyloid burden through regulating APP processing, inhibited the over-activation of microglia and astrocytes as well as restored neurogenesis. PMID:26200391
Gerlinde A. Metz
Full Text Available Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks.
Full Text Available Dementia is one of the most feared and devastating disease for the old aged, because of the sufferings it creates. It is estimated that their prevalence will soon reach epidemic proportions due to the population aging. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the benefits of the involvement of the patients with Alzheimer's in cognitive and physical exercise training sessions, associated with multidisciplinary and complementary therapies, because they help delaying social exclusion and slow down the degradation of cognitive functions and their functional status. Material and methods. The research was done over a period of 8 months, involving two groups of patients, total of 52, of both sexes, with ages between 62-89 years old. All participants are already diagnosed and they are following a pharmacological treatment, depending on the disease stage. Group 1 is made of the institutionalized patients, benefiting from cognitive and motor multidisciplinary activities in a day center, and group 2 are non-participating patients, only following the drug therapy. During the study, the subjects participated in physical and cognitive training sessions, 2-3 times per week, which were combined with other therapies. We established the degree of disability and dependency, of mobility, the level of relating and participation - all by using the WHODAS, questionnaire, then we studied the cognitive level by using the MMSE,  method, and we also tested the motor ability. Results. It has been proven that a high level of physical activity associated with cognitive training and supervised activities determine interest and creativity, slowing down physical and mental degradation. The group 1 has shown highly significant results (p = 0.0001 for both instruments for evaluation applied (WHODAS 2, MMES 1. The confidence interval is 95% in both tests, t = 6.0551, dt = 5 for WHODAS. With MMSE, the standard deviation is 4.48 for group 1 compared to 2.47 for group 2
Lam, Wing Kai; Masters, Richard S W; Maxwell, Jonathan P
Maxwell et al. [Maxwell, J. P., Masters, R. S. W., Kerr, E., & Weedon, E. (2001). The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 1049-1068. The implicit benefit of learning without errors. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A, 1049-1068] suggested that, following unsuccessful movements, the learner forms hypotheses about the probable causes of the error and the required movement adjustments necessary for its elimination. Hypothesis testing is an explicit process that places demands on cognitive resources. Demands on cognitive resources can be identified by measuring probe reaction times (PRT) and movement times. Lengthened PRT and movement times reflects increased cognitive demands. Thus, PRT and movement times should be longer following errors, relative to successful, movements. This hypothesis was tested using a motor skill (golf putting). Furthermore, the association between error processing and the preparation and execution phases of movement was examined. The data confirmed that cognitive demand is greater for trials following an error, relative to trials without an error. This effect was apparent throughout learning and in both the preparatory and execution phases of the movement. Cognitive effort also appeared to be higher during movement preparation, relative to movement execution. PMID:21074112
Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD symptoms have been collectively ascribed to malfunctioning of dopamine-related nigro-striatal and cortico-striatal loops. However, some doubts about this proposition are raised by controversies about the temporal progression of the impairments, and whether they are concomitant or not. The present study consists of a systematic revision of literature data on both functional PD impairments and dopaminergic medication effects in order to draw a coherent picture about the disease progression. It was done in terms of an explanatory model for the disruption of implicit knowledge acquisition, motor and cognitive impairments, and the effects of dopaminergic medication on these functions. Cognitive impairments arise at early stages of PD and stabilizes while disruption of acquisition of implicit knowledge and motor impairments are still in progression; additionally, dopaminergic medication reduces motor impairments and increases disruption of acquisition of implicit knowledge. Since this model revealed consistency and plausibility when confronted with data of others studies not included in model's formulation, it may turn out to be a useful tool for understanding the multifaceted characteristics of PD.
Hamakawa, Michiru; Ishida, Akimasa; Tamakoshi, Keigo; Shimada, Haruka; Nakashima, Hiroki; Noguchi, Taiji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Ishida, Kazuto
Long-term exercise prior to brain ischemia enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes and leads to a significant reduction in brain damage and neurological deficits in rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, it has not been established whether relatively short-term exercise generates similar results following middle cerebral artery occlusion. We aimed to determine whether short-term exercise could reduce oxidative damage and prevent sensori-motor dysfunction...
Qi, Zhonghua; Xu, Yinghui; Liang, Zhanhua; Li, Sheng; Wang, Jie; Wei, Yi; Dong, Bin
Naringenin is a flavonoid polyphenolic compound, which facilitates the removal of free radicals, oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study aimed to obtain a better understanding of the effects of curcumin on the regulation of diabetes‑associated cognitive decline, and its underlying mechanisms. An experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) rat model was induced by streptozoticin (50 mg/kg). Following treatment with naringin (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 16 weeks, the body weight and blood glucose levels of the DM rats were measured. A morris water maze test was used to analyze the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors, caspase‑3 and caspase‑9, and the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were quantified in the DM rats using a commercially‑available kit and western blot assay, respectively. In addition, a GW9662 PPARγ inhibitor (0.3 mg/kg) was administered to the DM rats to determine whether PPARγ affected the effects of naringin on the cognitive deficit of the DM rats. The results demonstrated that naringin increased the body weight, blood glucose levels, and cognitive deficits of the DM rats. The levels of oxidative stress and proinflammatory factors in the naringin‑treated rats were significantly lower, compared with those of the DM rats. In addition, naringin activated the protein expression of PPARγ, and administration of the PPARγ inhibitor decreased the protein expression of PPARγ, and attenuated the effects of naringin on cognitive deficit. The results also demonstrated that naringin decreased the expression levels of caspase‑3 and caspase‑9 in the DM rats. These results suggested that naringin ameliorated cognitive deficits via oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and the PPARγ signaling pathway in the type 2 diabetic rat model. Furthermore, oxidative stress, proinflammatory factors and PPARγ signaling may be
Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Schumacher, Vera; Bridenbaugh, S A; Kressig, R W
OBJECTIVES: To investigate dual-task performance of gait and cognition in cognitively healthy and cognitively impaired older adults using a motor–cognition dual-task paradigm. DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective study. SETTING: The Basel Memory Clinic and the Basel Study on the Elderly (Project BASEL). PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred eleven older adults (mean age 77.2 ± 6.2, 350 (49.2%) female and 361 (50.8%) male). MEASUREMENTS: Gait velocity and cognitive task performance usin...
The positive effects which cardiovascular exercise may have on several aspects of cognitive functioning are well established. During the recent years, there has been an increasing focus on neuroplasticity and on the processes that support memory formation and learning and several studies documented...... motor learning but results from longitudinal studies are also presented. In addition to effects of exercise on memory, the longitudinal studies also include effects of exercise on cognitive functions and academic performance e.g. in children. We argue that strategically scheduled exercise performed in...... positive interactions between exercise, memory and learning. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on human memory and learning remain controversial. Several studies have attempted to identify potential modulators that could explain the divergent responses to cardiovascular exercise in...
D'Agata, Federico; Peila, Elena; Cicerale, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; Caroppo, Paola; Vighetti, Sergio; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Minuto, Alice; Campagnoli, Marcello; Salatino, Adriana; Molo, Maria T; Mortara, Paolo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Massazza, Giuseppe
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two specific Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, the repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Short and long term outcomes (after 3 and 6 months, respectively) were evaluated. We measured, at multiple time points, the manual dexterity using a validated clinical scale (ARAT), electroencephalography auditory event related potentials, and neuropsychological performances in patients with chronic stroke of middle severity. Thirty four patients were enrolled and randomized. The intervention group was treated with a NIBS protocol longer than usual, applying a second cycle of stimulation, after a washout period, using different techniques in the two cycles (rTMS/tDCS). We compared the results with a control group treated with sham stimulation. We split the data analysis into three studies. In this first study we examined if a cumulative effect was clinically visible. In the second study we compared the effects of the two techniques. In the third study we explored if patients with minor cognitive impairment have most benefit from the treatment and if cognitive and motor outcomes were correlated. We found that the impairment in some cognitive domains cannot be considered an exclusion criterion for rehabilitation with NIBS. ERP improved, related to cognitive and attentional processes after stimulation on the motor cortex, but transitorily. This effect could be linked to the restoration of hemispheric balance or by the effects of distant connections. In our study the effects of the two NIBS were comparable, with some advantages using tDCS vs. rTMS in stroke rehabilitation. Finally we found that more than one cycle (2-4 weeks), spaced out by washout periods, should be used, only in responder patients, to obtain clinical relevant results. PMID:27445730
Parth, P.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kennedy, R. S.; Ordy, J. M.; Lane, N. E.
Assessment of cognitive and motor performance of bone marrow transplant patients prior to, during, and following intensive toxic chemoradiotherapy may provide an important adjunct to measures of physiological and medical status. The present study is an attempt to assess whether, as side-effects, these aggressive treatments result in cognitive performance deficits, and if so, whether such changes recover posttreatment. Measurement of cognitive ability in this situation presents special problems not encountered with one-time tests intended for healthy adults. Such tests must be sensitive to changes within a single individual, which emphasizes the crucial importance of high reliability, stability across repeated-measures, and resistance to confounding factors such as motivation and fatigue. The present research makes use of a microbased portable test battery developed to have reliable and sensitive tests which were adapted to study the special requirements of transplant patients who may suffer cognitive deficits as a result of treatment. The results showed slight but significant changes in neuropsychological capacity when compared to baseline levels and controls, particularly near the beginning of treatment. The sensitivity of the battery in detecting such subtle temporary changes is discussed in terms of past research showing effects of other stressors, such as stimulated high altitude and ingestion of alcohol, on these measures.
Joe R. Nocera, PhD
Full Text Available While much is known about the effects of dual tasking on cyclical and continuous motor performance (e.g., locomotion, there is a paucity of information on the effect of dual tasking on the initiation of movement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a concurrent cognitive task on gait initiation in three groups: patients with Parkinson disease, healthy older adults, and healthy young adults. We examined the anticipatory postural adjustment displacements and velocities during single-task gait initiation as well as two dual-task conditions: (1 0-back + gait initiation and (2 2-back + gait initiation. The Parkinson disease group exhibited less anticipatory postural adjustment displacement and velocity than their aged-matched healthy peers and young adults during the single- and dual-task gait initiation settings (p < 0.05. Of interest was the finding of no additional effect on anticipatory postural adjustment displacement or velocity of gait initiation during the dual-task conditions in any group, including the Parkinson disease group. More traditionally studied gait/balance dual-task paradigms have demonstrated both motor and cognitive decline. Therefore, our results may suggest a prioritization of more "intentional" movement task (e.g., gait initiation while dual tasking in Parkinson disease.
Schreiber, H; Stolz-Born, G; Heinrich, H; Kornhuber, H H; Born, J
Twenty-three offspring of schizophrenic parents (mean age = 12.1 years, SD = 3.2) and 61 adolescent control subjects (mean age = 12.3 years, SD = 3.3) were compared in their performance of the following psychometric tests: simple reaction times (RTs), warned RTs in a monomodal and cross-modal design, d2 concentration test, a motor perseveration test, and a cognitive performance measure (Wechsler Intelligence Scale). The results were validated in a second analysis in which a subgroup of the control subjects were matched to the high-risk subjects for the following characteristics: age, gender, education, and environmental background. Significant deficits were found in the high-risk group in tests that required sustained attention and information processing under high perceptual load (RT measures and d2 concentration test). Deficits were particularly prominent for the processing of visual stimuli; sensory incongruence might also have been a contributor to this deficit. The attentional dysfunction of high-risk subjects might explain their tendency to show less structured behavior and distractibility as reflected by their higher entropy scores in a motor perseveration test. Cognitive evaluation showed a significant deficit in the high-risk group, primarily as reflected in the verbal IQ score. PMID:1480678
Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome affecting patients with liver diseases, mainly those with liver cirrhosis. The mildest form of HE is minimal HE (MHE), with mild cognitive impairment, attention deficit, psychomotor slowing and impaired visuo-motor and bimanual coordination. MHE may progress to clinical HE with worsening of the neurological alterations which may lead to reduced consciousness and, in the worse cases, may progress to coma and death. HE affects several million people in the world and is a serious health, social and economic problem. There are no specific treatments for the neurological alterations in HE. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive and motor alterations in HE are beginning to be clarified in animal models. These studies have allowed to design and test in animal models of HE new therapeutic approaches which have successfully restored cognitive and motor function in rats with HE. In this article we review the evidences showing that. PMID:26307490
Andreasen T., Jesper; Nasser, Arafat; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane;
neuropathic pain. Potential cognitive effects of UCCB01-144 were examined using the social transmission of food preference (STFP) test and the V-maze test, and motor coordination was assessed with the rotarod test. UCCB01-144 (10 mg/kg) reversed CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity after 1 hour, and......NMDAR antagonism shows analgesic action in humans and animal pain models, but disrupts cognitive and motor functions. NMDAR-dependent NO production requires tethering of the NMDAR to neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) by the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Perturbing the NMDAR/PSD-95/n...... cognitive or motor functions. Here, we investigated the analgesic efficacy in the CFA model of UCCB01-144, a PSD-95 inhibitor with improved blood-brain-barrier permeability. To extend the comparison of UCCB01-125 and UCCB01-144, we also tested both compounds in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of...
Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Overgaard, K; Hildebrandt-Eriksen, E S;
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of D-amphetamine (D-amph) and physical therapy separately or combined on fine motor performance, gross motor performance and cognition after middle cerebral artery thromboembolization in rats. METHODS: Seventy-four rats......-amph), 4) THERAPY (embolized, saline + physical therapy) and 5) D-AMPH + THERAPY (embolized, D-amph + physical therapy). Rats of the groups 4-5 underwent d-amph or saline treatment on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after surgery and were re-trained for 1 h starting 60 min after each treatment. During this time, rats...... regarding gross motor performance. CONCLUSIONS: After embolization, physical therapy improved fine motor performance and D-amph accelerated rehabilitation of cognitive performance as observed in the rats of the THERAPY and D-AMPH groups. As a result of the administration of a high dose of D-amph, the rats...
Mylonas, George P; Kwok, Ka-Wai; James, David R C; Leff, Daniel; Orihuela-Espina, Felipe; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong
The success of MIS is coupled with an increasing demand on surgeons' manual dexterity and visuomotor coordination due to the complexity of instrument manipulations. The use of master-slave surgical robots has avoided many of the drawbacks of MIS, but at the same time, has increased the physical separation between the surgeon and the patient. Tissue deformation combined with restricted workspace and visibility of an already cluttered environment can raise critical issues related to surgical precision and safety. Reconnecting the essential visuomotor sensory feedback is important for the safe practice of robot-assisted MIS procedures. This paper introduces a novel gaze-contingent framework for real-time haptic feedback and virtual fixtures by transforming visual sensory information into physical constraints that can interact with the motor sensory channel. We demonstrate how motor tracking of deforming tissue can be made more effective and accurate through the concept of Gaze-Contingent Motor Channelling. The method is also extended to 3D by introducing the concept of Gaze-Contingent Haptic Constraints where eye gaze is used to dynamically prescribe and update safety boundaries during robot-assisted MIS without prior knowledge of the soft-tissue morphology. Initial validation results on both simulated and robot assisted phantom procedures demonstrate the potential clinical value of the technique. In order to assess the associated cognitive demand of the proposed concepts, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy is used and preliminary results are discussed. PMID:20889367
Full Text Available Aging is associated with a progressive decline of mental and physical abilities. Considering the current demographic changes in many civilizations there is an urgent need for measures permitting an independent lifestyle into old age. The critical role of physical exercise in mediating and maintaining physical and mental fitness is well-acknowledged. Dance, in addition to physical activity, combines emotions, social interaction, sensory stimulation, motor coordination and music, thereby creating enriched environmental conditions for human individuals. Here we demonstrate the impact of multi-year (average 16.5 years amateur dancing (AD in a group of elderly subjects (aged 65 to 84 years as compared to education-, gender- and aged-matched controls (CG having no record of dancing or sporting activities. Besides posture and balance parameters, we tested reaction times, motor behavior, tactile and cognitive performance. In each of the different domains investigated, the AD group had a superior performance as compared to the non-dancer CG group. Analysis of individual performance revealed that the best participants of the AD group were not better than individuals of the CG group. Instead, the AD group lacked individuals showing poor performance, which was frequently observed for the CG group. This observation implies that maintaining a regular schedule of dancing into old age can preserve cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities and prevent them from degradation. We conclude that the far-reaching beneficial effects found in the AD group make dance, beyond its ability to facilitate balance and posture, a prime candidate for the preservation of everyday life competence of elderly individuals.
Yamaji, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Shunji; Li, Jiyao; Price, Raymond D; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Mutoh, Seitaro
Injured spinal cord axons fail to regenerate in part due to a lack of trophic support. While various methods for replacing neurotrophins have been pursued, clinical uses of these methods face significant barriers. FK1706, a non-immunosuppressant neurophilin ligand, potentiates nerve growth factor signaling, suggesting therapeutic potential for functional deficits following spinal cord injury. Here, we demonstrate that FK1706 significantly improves behavioral outcomes in animal models of spinal cord hemisection and contusion injuries in rats. Furthermore, we show that FK1706 is effective even if administration is delayed until 1 week after injury, suggesting that FK1706 has a reasonable therapeutic time-window. Morphological analysis of injured axons in the dorsal corticospinal tract showed an increase in the radius and perimeter of stained axons, which were reduced by FK1706 treatment, suggesting that axonal swelling and retraction balls observed in injured spinal cord were improved by the neurotrophic effect of FK1706. Taken together, FK1706 improves both behavioral motor function and the underlying morphological changes, suggesting that FK1706 may have therapeutic potential in meeting the significant unmet needs in spinal cord injury. PMID:18602914
Li-Da Zhang; Li Ma; Li Zhang; Jian-Guo Dai; Li-Gong Chang; Pei-Lin Huang; Xiao-Qiang Tian
Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and Ginkgo biloba extract (e.g., EGB 761) were shown to ameliorate cognitive and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD).However, the exact mechanism remains elusive.The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of HBO and EGB 761 via the function of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-KB) pathway.Methods: AD rats were induced by injecting β-amyloid 25-35 into the hippocampus.All animals were divided into six groups: Normal,sham, AD model, HBO (2 atmosphere absolute;60 min/d), EGB 761 (20 mg·kg-1·d-1), and HBO/EGB 761 groups.Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive, and memory capacities of rats;TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling staining and Western blotting were used to analyze apoptosis and NF-KB pathway-related proteins in hippocampus tissues.Results: Morris water maze tests revealed that EGB 761 and HBO significantly improved the cognitive and memory ability of AD rats.In addition, the protective effect of combinational therapy (HBO/EGB 761) was superior to either HBO or EGB 761 alone.In line, reduced apoptosis with NF-KB pathway activation was observed in hippocampus neurons treated by HBO and EGB 761.Conclusions: Our results suggested that HBO and EGB 761 improve cognitive and memory capacity in a rat model of AD.The protective effects are associated with the reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation in hippocampus neurons.
Full Text Available Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO and Ginkgo biloba extract (e.g., EGB 761 were shown to ameliorate cognitive and memory impairment in Alzheimer′s disease (AD. However, the exact mechanism remains elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms of HBO and EGB 761 via the function of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB pathway. Methods: AD rats were induced by injecting β-amyloid 25-35 into the hippocampus. All animals were divided into six groups: Normal, sham, AD model, HBO (2 atmosphere absolute; 60 min/d, EGB 761 (20 mg·kg−1·d−1 , and HBO/EGB 761 groups. Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive, and memory capacities of rats; TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling staining and Western blotting were used to analyze apoptosis and NF-κB pathway-related proteins in hippocampus tissues. Results: Morris water maze tests revealed that EGB 761 and HBO significantly improved the cognitive and memory ability of AD rats. In addition, the protective effect of combinational therapy (HBO/EGB 761 was superior to either HBO or EGB 761 alone. In line, reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation was observed in hippocampus neurons treated by HBO and EGB 761. Conclusions: Our results suggested that HBO and EGB 761 improve cognitive and memory capacity in a rat model of AD. The protective effects are associated with the reduced apoptosis with NF-κB pathway activation in hippocampus neurons.
Damodaran, Thenmoly; Hassan, Zurina; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Ng, Gandi; Müller, Christian P; Liao, Ping; Dringenberg, Hans C
Cerebral ischemia is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability in aging populations, due to the frequent occurrence of irreversible brain damage and subsequent loss of neuronal function which lead to cognitive impairment and some motor dysfunction. In the present study, the real time course of motor and cognitive functions were evaluated following the chronic cerebral ischemia induced by permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (PBOCCA). Male Sprague Dawley rats (200-300g) were subjected to PBOCCA or sham-operated surgery and tested 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks following the ischemic insult. The results showed that PBOCCA significantly reduced step-through latency in a passive avoidance task at all time points when compared to the sham-operated group. PBOCCA rats also showed significant increase in escape latencies during training in the Morris water maze, as well as a reduction of the percentage of times spend in target quadrant of the maze at all time points following the occlusion. Importantly, there were no significant changes in locomotor activity between PBOCCA and sham-operated groups. The BDNF expression in the hippocampus was 29.3±3.1% and 40.1±2.6% on day 14 and 28 post PBOCCA, respectively compared to sham-operated group. Present data suggest that the PBOCCA procedure effectively induces behavioral, cognitive symptoms associated with cerebral ischemia and, consequently, provides a valuable model to study ischemia and related neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. PMID:25239606
Sherman, Barbara L.; Gruen, Margaret E.; Meeker, Rick B.; Milgram, Bill; DiRivera, Christina; Thomson, Andrea; Clary, Gillian; Hudson, Lola
Few tests have been developed to test the cognitive and motor capabilities of domestic cats, in spite of the suitability of cats for specific studies of neuroanatomy, infectious diseases, development, aging, and behavior. The present study evaluated a T-maze apparatus as a sensitive and reliable measure of cognition and motor function of cats. Eighteen purpose-bred, specific-pathogen-free, male, neutered domestic shorthair cats (Felis catus), 1-2 years of age, were trained and tested to a T-m...
Lim, Matthew S M; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Rogers, Robert D
Cognitive perspectives on gambling propose that biased thinking plays a significant role in sustaining gambling participation and, in vulnerable individuals, gambling problems. One prominent set of cognitive biases include illusions of control involving beliefs that it is possible to influence random gaming events. Sociologists have reported that (some) gamblers believe that it is possible to throw dice in different ways to achieve gaming outcomes (e.g., 'dice-setting' in craps). However, experimental demonstrations of these phenomena are lacking. Here, we asked regular gamblers to roll a computer-simulated, but fair, 6 sided die for monetary prizes. Gamblers allowed the die to roll for longer when attempting to win higher value bets, and when attempting to hit high winning numbers. This behaviour was exaggerated in gamblers motivated to keep gambling following the experience of almost-winning in gambling games. These results suggest that gambling cognitive biases find expression in the motor behaviour of rolling dice for monetary prizes, possibly reflecting embodied substrates. PMID:23620161
Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F
Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more
Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz
Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance. PMID:25642826
Xiaoli Qu; Hong Yang; Hui Li; Bingpei Shi; Wei Shi; Dongdong Chen; Donghao Xu; Jing Miu
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice, the degree of cognitive competence damage correlates to fine motor function deficits in children with psychomotor development retardation. Clear correlations between the two can help to develop and perform corresponding functional training for children with mental retardation (MR). OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate and analyze the correlation of fine motor function to cognitive competence in MR children using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Fine Motor (PDMS-FM) and Symbolic Play Test. DESIGN: Scale evaluation and correlation analysis. SETTING: Children's Rehabilitation Center & Huajing District Hospital, Children's Hospital Affiliated to FudanUniversity.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 42 MR children, 28 males and 14 females, aged 14-69 months, were admitted to the Rehabilitation Center, Children's Hospital, Fudan University between June 2003 and April 2006, and were recruited for this study. All children corresponded to MR diagnosis criteria determined by Chinese Neurology and Psychiatry Society in 1989. Written informed consent for participating in the evaluation and for evaluated content was obtained from each child's guardian. METHODS: Subsequent to admission and prior to treatment, fine motor function of each MR child was evaluated using PDMS-FM (Chinese version). The scale captured 98 items that formed the grasping (Gr) and visual-motor integration (Vi) subtests. Cognitive competence was evaluated using the Symbolic Play Test (Chinese version), which captured four 6-item specific contents. The original score of each subtest was used to evaluate results for statistical analysis. Higher scores from the two evaluations indicated stronger abilities. Pearson correlation analysis was applied for analyzing data correlation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fine motor function was evaluated using PDMS-FM. Cognitive competence was measured using the Symbolic Play Test. Correlations between results from the two evaluations were
Li, Yazhou; Yu, Qian-sheng; Barak, Shani; Tamargo, Ian A.; Rubovitch, Vardit; Holloway, Harold W.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Perez, Evelyn; Van Praag, Henriette; Luo, Yu; Hoffer, Barry J.; Becker, Robert E.; Pick, Chaim G.; Greig, Nigel H.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), often caused by a concussive impact to the head, affects an estimated 1.7 million Americans annually. With no approved drugs, its pharmacological treatment represents a significant and currently unmet medical need. In our prior development of the anti-cholinesterase compound phenserine for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders, we recognized that it also possesses non-cholinergic actions with clinical potential. Here, we demonstrate neuroprotective actions of phenserine in neuronal cultures challenged with oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity, two insults of relevance to TBI. These actions translated into amelioration of spatial and visual memory impairments in a mouse model of closed head mild TBI (mTBI) two days following cessation of clinically translatable dosing with phenserine (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg BID x 5 days initiated post mTBI) in the absence of anti-cholinesterase activity. mTBI elevated levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of oxidative stress. Phenserine counteracted this by augmenting homeostatic mechanisms to mitigate oxidative stress, including superoxide dismutase [SOD] 1 and 2, and glutathione peroxidase [GPx], the activity and protein levels of which were measured by specific assays. Microarray analysis of hippocampal gene expression established that large numbers of genes were exclusively regulated by each individual treatment with a substantial number of them co-regulated between groups. Molecular pathways associated with lipid peroxidation were found to be regulated by mTBI, and treatment of mTBI animals with phenserine effectively reversed injury-induced regulations in the ‘Blalock Alzheimer’s Disease Up’ pathway. Together these data suggest that multiple phenserine-associated actions underpin this compound’s ability to ameliorate cognitive deficits caused by mTBI, and support the further evaluation of the compound as a therapeutic for TBI. PMID:27254111
Li, Yinjie; Xu, Jikai; Xu, Pu; Song, Shijie; Liu, Peng; Chi, Tianyan; Ji, Xuefei; Jin, Ge; Qiu, Shimeng; Hou, Yapeng; Zheng, Chen; Wang, Lili; Meng, Dali; Zou, Libo
Xanthoceras sorbifolia, a traditional Chinese folk medicine with anti-inflammatory effects, has been used for a long time in China, especially in the Inner Mongolian area for the treatment of rheumatism. Inflammation is one of the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is characterized by aggregation of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangle formation, synaptic dysfunction and neuronal loss. To investigate whether Xanthoceras sorbifolia extracts (XSE) improve cognition and protect dendritic spines, we performed behavioral tests to investigate learning and memory in an Aβ25-35-induced dementia animal model of AD as well as Golgi staining to observe dendritic spine formation in CA1 pyramidal neurons and western blots to test the expression levels of PSD95, BDNF and downstream signaling pathways. Our results indicated that oral treatment with XSE significantly reduced cognitive impairments in behavioral tests (passive avoidance test, novel object recognition test, Y-maze test and Morris water maze test). Golgi staining results revealed that XSE ameliorated dendritic spine density deficits in CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. Western blot analysis suggested that XSE upregulated PSD95, which is the major scaffolding protein in synapses. BDNF levels and the ratio of p-TrkB/TrkB increased, and the expression of the RhoA, a member of the Rho-GTPase family, and its downstream target protein ROCK2 decreased in the dementia animal model following treatment with XSE. Therefore, the cognition-improving effects of XSE probably resulted from dendritic spine protection effects through regulation of BDNF signaling pathways. PMID:27412235
van der Fels, Irene M. J.; te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; Hartman, Esther; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris
Objectives: This review aims to give an overview of studies providing evidence for a relationship between motor and cognitive skills in typically developing children. Design: A systematic review. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and PsychINFO were searched for relevant articles. A total of 21 articl
Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.
BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. METHOD
O'Leary, James D; Kozareva, Danka A; Hueston, Cara M; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M
The nuclear receptor Tlx is a key regulator of embryonic and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and has been genetically linked to bipolar disorder. Mice lacking Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-)) display deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and behavioural abnormalities. However, whether Tlx regulates behaviour during adolescence or in a sex-dependent manner remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of Tlx in a series of behavioural tasks in adolescent male and female mice with a spontaneous deletion of Tlx (Nr2e1(-/-) mice). Testing commenced at adolescence (postnatal day 28) and continued until adulthood (postnatal day 67). Adolescent male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice were hyperactive in an open field, an effect that persisted in adulthood. Male but not female Nr2e1(-/-) mice exhibited reduced thigmotaxis during adolescence and adulthood. Impairments in rotarod motor performance developed in male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice at the onset of adulthood. Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, a hippocampus-dependent task, was impaired in adolescent but not adult male and female Nr2e1(-/-) mice. Contextual fear conditioning was impaired in adolescent male Nr2e1(-/-) mice only, but both male and female adolescent Nr2e1(-/-) mice showed impaired cued fear conditioning, a hippocampal-amygdala dependent cognitive process. These deficits persisted into adulthood in males but not females. In conclusion, deletion of Tlx impairs motor, cognitive and anxiety-related behaviours during adolescence and adulthood in male and female mice with most effects occurring during adolescence rather than adulthood, independent of housing conditions. This suggests that Tlx has functions beyond regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and may be an important target in understanding neurobiological disorders. PMID:26970576
Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Manicolo, Olivia; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander
Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7–13.2 years (M = 10.0 years). Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task) and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task). Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive...
Full Text Available The saccadic movement is an important behavioral measure used to investigate several cognitive processes, including attention and sensorimotor integration. The present study aimed at investigating changes in beta coherence over frontal, motor, occipital, and parietal cortices during the performance of two different conditions of a prosacadic paradigm. The conditions involved a different pattern of stimulus presentation: a fixed and random stimulus presentation. Twelve healthy volunteers (three male, mean age of 26.25 (SD=4.13 performed the task, while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography. The results showed an interaction between factors condition and moment for the pair of electrode C3/C4. We observed a main effect for moment to CZ/C4, FZ/F3, and P3/PZ. We also found a main effect for condition to FZ/F4, P3/P4, and O1/O2. Our results demonstrated an important role of the inter-connection of the two hemispheres in visual search and movement preparation. The study demonstrates an automation of action and reduction of the focus of attention during the task. We also found that the inter-hemispheric beta coherence plays an important role in the differentiation of the two conditions, and that beta in the right frontal cortex is able to differentiate the conditions, demonstrating a greater involvement of procedural memory in fixed condition. Our results suggest a neuronal specialization in the execution of prosacadic paradigm involving motor task sequence.
Wang, Xue-Rui; Shi, Guang-Xia; Yang, Jing-Wen; Yan, Chao-Qun; Lin, Li-Ting; Du, Si-Qi; Zhu, Wen; He, Tian; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi
Emerging evidence suggests acupuncture could exert neuroprotection in the vascular dementia via anti-oxidative effects. However, the involvement of Nrf2, a master regulator of antioxidant defense, in acupuncture-induced neuroprotection in vascular dementia remains undetermined. The goal of our study was to investigate the contribution of Nrf2 in acupuncture and its effects on vascular dementia. Morris water maze and Nissl staining were used to assess the effect of acupuncture on cognitive function and hippocampal neurodegeneration in experimental vascular dementia. The distribution of Nrf2 in neurons in hippocampus, the protein expression of Nrf2 in both cytosol and nucleus, and the protein and mRNA levels of its downstream target genes NQO1 and HO-1 were detected by double immunofluorescent staining, Western blotting and realtime PCR analysis respectively. Cognitive function and microglia activation were measured in both wild-type and Nrf2 gene knockout mice after acupuncture treatment. We found that acupuncture could remarkably reverse the cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss, reactive oxygen species production, and decreased cerebral blood flow. It was notable that acupuncture enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in neurons and up-regulate the protein and mRNA levels of Nrf2 and its target genes HO-1 and NQO1. Moreover, acupuncture could significantly down-regulated the over-activation of microglia after common carotid artery occlusion surgery. However, the reversed cognitive deficits, neuron cell loss and microglia activation by acupuncture were abolished in Nrf2 gene knockout mice. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that the neuroprotection of acupuncture in models of vascular dementia was via the Nrf2 activation and Nrf2-dependent microglia activation. PMID:26546103
Zhou, Dongsheng; Liu, Huaxia; Li, Chenli; Wang, Fangyan; Shi, Yaosheng; Liu, Lingjiang; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Aiming; Zhang, Junfang; Wang, Chuang; Chen, Zhongming
Amyloid-beta (Aβ) interacts with the serine/threonine protein kinase AKT (also known as protein kinase B)/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway and deactivates GSK3β signaling, which result in microtubule protein tau phosphorylation. Atorvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, has been proven to improve learning and memory performance, reduce Aβ and phosphorylated tau levels in mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it still remains unclear whether atorvastatin is responsible for regulation of AKT/GSK3β signaling and contributes to subsequent down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and phosphorylated tau in APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg APP/PS1) mice. Herein, we aimed to investigate the possible impacts of atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) on the memory deficit by behavioral tests and changes of AKT/GSK3β signaling in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex by western blot test in Tg APP/PS1 mice. The results showed that treatment with atorvastatin significantly reversed the memory deficit in the Tg APP/PS1 mice in a novel object recognition and the Morris water maze tests. Moreover, atorvastatin significantly attenuated Aβ1-42 accumulation and phosphorylation of tau (Ser396) in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of Tg APP/PS1 mice. In addition, atorvastatin treatment also increased phosphorylation of AKT, inhibited GSK3β activity by increasing phosphorylation of GSK3β (Ser9) and decreasing the beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) expression. These results indicated that the memory ameliorating effect of atorvastatin may be, in part, by regulation the AKT/GSK3β signaling which may contribute to down-regulation of Aβ1-42 and tau hyperphosphorylation. PMID:26883430
Zhao, Xu; Liu, Chunmei; Xu, Mengjie; Li, Xiaolong; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying
Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS) on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg) to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM) could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway). Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1), crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:27035824
Full Text Available Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1, crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP, and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.
Jia, Tingting; Sun, Zhiguo; Lu, Ying; Gao, Jie; Zou, Hao; Xie, Fangyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Xu, Hao; Sun, Duxin; Yu, Yuan; Zhong, Yanqiang
Due to the impermeability of the blood–brain barrier and the nonselective distribution of drugs in the brain, the therapeutic access to intractable neurological disorders is challenging. In this study, dual brain-targeting polymersomes (POs) functionalized by transferrin and Tet-1 peptide (Tf/Tet-1-POs) promoted the transportation of curcumin into the brain and provided neuroprotection. The modification of the ligands that bind to the surface of POs was revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The cell uptake of a coculture model of mouse brain capillary endothelial cells with neurons showed that the Tf/Tet-1-POs had significant transportation properties and possessed affinity for neurons. The pharmacokinetic analysis showed that the blood–brain barrier permeability–surface efficiency of the Tf/Tet-1-POs was 0.28 mL/h/g and that the brain tissue uptake rate (% ID/g) was 0.08, which were significant compared with the controls (P<0.05). The curcumin-encapsulated Tf/Tet-1-POs provided neuroprotection and ameliorated cognitive dysfunction in intrahippocampal amyloid-β1–42-injected mice. These results suggest that the dual brain-targeting POs are more capable of drug delivery to the brain that can be exploited as a multiple noninvasive vehicle for targeting therapeutics.
Ramis, Margarita R; Sarubbo, Fiorella; Terrasa, Juan L; Moranta, David; Aparicio, Sara; Miralles, Antonio; Esteban, Susana
Limiting enzymes in the synthesis of brain monoamines seems to be susceptible to oxidative damage, one of the most important factors in aging. It has been suggested that the use of anti-oxidants can reduce the rate of free radical production related with aging and the associated damage. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of the chronic treatments with the anti-oxidant α-tocopherol (vitamin E) on central monoamines (high-performance liquid chromatography [HPLC] analysis) mediating cognitive functions, as well as on the evaluation of memory and motor abilities in old rats measured by radial maze, Barnes maze, novel object recognition test, and rotarod test. Results show that α-tocopherol significantly increased in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner the synthesis rate and the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline) in the hippocampus and striatum, brain regions involved in memory processing and motor coordination. These positive neurochemical effects, largely due to an increased activity of the limiting enzymes in monoamines synthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase, were accompanied by an improvement in cognitive and motor abilities in old rats. Altogether these findings suggest that α-tocopherol exhibits neuroprotective actions in old rats; thus, diets with α-tocopherol might represent a promising strategy to mitigate or delay the cognitive and motor decline associate with aging and related-diseases. PMID:26414867
Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on two set shifting tasks. Set shifting ability is defined as the capacity to switch between mental sets or actions and requires the activation of a distributed neural network. Thirty healthy subjects (fifteen per site received anodal, cathodal and sham stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC or the primary motor cortex (M1. We measured set shifting in both cognitive and motor tasks. The results show that both anodal and cathodal single session tDCS can modulate cognitive and motor tasks. However, an interaction was found between task and type of stimulation as anodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 was found to increase performance in the cognitive task, while cathodal tDCS of DLPFC and M1 had the opposite effect on the motor task. Additionally, tDCS effects seem to be most evident on the speed of changing sets, rather than on reducing the number of errors or increasing the efficacy of irrelevant set filtering.
Welbat, Jariya Umka; Chaisawang, Pornthip; Chaijaroonkhanarak, Wunnee; Prachaney, Parichat; Pannangrong, Wanassanun; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Wigmore, Peter
Kaempferia parviflora is a herbal plant whose rhizomes are used in traditional medicine. Investigations of this plant have shown it to have antidepressant activity and to improve learning and memory in animal models. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether K. parviflora could protect the brain from the impairments in cognition and hippocampal neurogenesis which are caused by valproic acid (VPA). Male Sprague Dawley rats (180-200g) were given once daily K. parviflora extract (100mg/kg) via oral gavage for 21 days. Rats received twice daily intraperitoneal injections of valproic acid (300mg/kg) from days 8 to 21 of the experiment. Spatial memory was tested using the novel object location (NOL) test five days after the end of treatment. Cell proliferation in the sub granular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus was quantified by immunohistochemistry and levels of doublecortin (DCX) were determined by Western blotting. Co-treatment of VPA and K. parviflora prevented the cognitive decline and reduction in proliferating cells caused by VPA. Furthermore, co-treatment significantly increased DCX protein levels within the hippocampus. These findings demonstrate that K. parviflora is able to prevent the brain from VPA-induced the impairments of spatial memory and proliferating cells within the SGZ. PMID:27142346
Lawson, Anton E.
Grossberg's neural modeling principles of learning, perception, cognition, and motor control are presented as the basis for construction of a neurological model of sensory-motor problem solving. The pattern of problem solving is assumed to be universal, thus is sought in the higher-order shift from the child's use of an additive strategy to the adolescent's use of a proportions strategy to solve the Pouring Water Task (Suarez and Rhonheimer, 1974). Possible neurological principles involved in this shift and in the process of psychological equilibration are discussed as are possible educational implications.
Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Smit, Adel; Van Rensburg, Esme
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of a Kinderkinetics programme on components of children’s perceptual-motor and cognitive development. A pre-/post-test design with an intervention group and a control group was used. A sample of 40, 4- to 6-year-old pre-school children was selected and allocated to the two groups. The intervention group participated in a perceptual-motor programme while the control group received no intervention. The programme involved an hour session once ...
Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst;
OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish...... the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...... sustained attention (Pcognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading...
Sithisarn, Pongtip; Rojsanga, Piyanuch; Jarikasem, Siripen; Tanaka, Ken; Matsumoto, Kinzo
Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a plant that has been traditionally used in Thailand as a vegetable and a tonic. This study investigated effects of the aqueous extract of its leaves (ATL) on cognitive and emotional deficits using an olfactory bulbectomized mouse (OBX) model. OBX mice were treated daily with ATL (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) 3 days after OBX. Antidementia drug tacrine (2.5 mg/kg/day) and antidepressant drug imipramine (10 mg/kg/day) were given i.p. as reference drugs. OBX significantl...
Full Text Available Degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs is associated with cognitive impairments of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, implying that BFCNs hold potentials in exploring stem cell-based replacement therapy for AD. However, studies on derivation of BFCNs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs are limited, and the application of ESC-derived BFCNs remains to be determined. Here, we report on differentiation approaches for directing both mouse and human ESCs into mature BFCNs. These ESC-derived BFCNs exhibit features similar to those of their in vivo counterparts and acquire appropriate functional properties. After transplantation into the basal forebrain of AD model mice, ESC-derived BFCN progenitors predominantly differentiate into mature cholinergic neurons that functionally integrate into the endogenous basal forebrain cholinergic projection system. The AD mice grafted with mouse or human BFCNs exhibit improvements in learning and memory performances. Our findings suggest a promising perspective of ESC-derived BFCNs in the development of stem cell-based therapies for treatment of AD.
Hielkema, Tjitske; Hadders-Algra, Mijna
The aim of this systematic review was to study motor and cognitive outcome in infants with severe early brain lesions and to evaluate effects of side of the lesion, sex, and social economic status on outcome. A literature search was performed using the databases Pubmed and Embase. Included studies involved infants with either cystic periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL), preterm, or term stroke (i.e. parenchymal lesion of the brain). Outcome was expressed as cerebral palsy (CP) and intellectual disability (mental retardation). Median prevalence rates of CP after cPVL, preterm, and term stroke were 86%, 71%, and 29% respectively; of intellectual disability 50%, 27%, and 33%. Most infants with cPVL developed bilateral CP, those with term stroke unilateral CP, whereas after preterm stroke bilateral and unilateral CP occurred equally often. Information on the effects of sex and social economic status on outcome after specific brain lesions was very limited. Our findings show that the risk for CP is high after cPVL, moderate after preterm stroke, and lowest after term stroke. The risk for intellectual disability after an early brain lesion is lower than that for CP. Predicting outcome at individual level remains difficult; new imaging techniques may improve predicting developmental trajectories. PMID:27027607
Vassileva, Jasmin; Gonzalez, Raul; Bechara, Antoine; Martin, Eileen M.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of antisociality and extent of multidrug use on cognitive and motor impulsivity among substance dependent individuals (SDIs) that used primarily cocaine and/or heroin. One hundred currently abstinent male SDIs participated in the study. Extent of multidrug use and degree of antisociality, assessed with the Socialization Scale of the California Psychological Inventory (So-CPI), were used to classify participants into one of four gr...
Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F
Background Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Objective We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age. Methods This study was part of the prospective Groningen infant COMPARE (Comparison of Exposure-Effect Pathways to Improve the Assessment of Human Health Risks of Complex Environmental Mixtures of Organoha...
Full Text Available Histamine H3 receptor antagonists/ inverse agonists possess potential to treat diverse disease states of the central nervous system (CNS. Cognitive dysfunction and motor impairments are the hallmark of multifarious neurodegenerative and/or psychiatric disorders. This review presents the various neurobiological/ neurochemical evidences available so far following H3 receptor inverse agonists/ antagonists in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, schizophrenia and drug abuse each of which is accompanied by deficits of some aspects of cognitive and/or motor functions. Whether the H3 receptor inverse agonism modulates the neurochemical basis underlying the disease condition or affects only the cognitive/motor component of the disease process is discussed with the aim to provide a rationale for their use in diverse disease states that are interlinked and are accompanied by some common motor, cognitive and attentional deficits.
Full Text Available Background: The insula is instrumental in integrating the emotional, cognitive, and sensory-motor systems. This manuscript lays a foundational framework for understanding the insula’s mechanistic role in moderating brain networks in illness and wellness. Methods: Reviewed here is the select literature on the brain anatomy and function relevant to the insula’s role in psychiatrically ill and normative populations. Results: The insula is a hub for moderating social cognition, empathy, reward-driven decision-making, arousal, reactivity to emotional stimuli, and somatic pain processing. Findings indicate a spectrum of increasing complexity in insular function – from receiving and interpreting sensorimotor sensations in the posterior insula to subjective perception of emotions in the anterior insula. The insula plays a key role at the interface of cognitive and emotional domains, functioning in concert with other brain regions that share common cytoarchitecture, such as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Pharmacotherapy and mindfulness-based interventions can alter insular activation. Conclusion: The insula serves as a receiver and interpreter of emotions in the context of cognitive and sensory-motor information. Therefore, insular function and connectivity may potentially be utilized as a biomarker for treatment selection and outcome.
Brown, Jeffrey A.; Dalecki, Marc; Hughes, Cindy; MacPherson, Alison K.; Sergio, Lauren E.
Background The ability to perform visually-guided motor tasks requires the transformation of visual information into programmed motor outputs. When the guiding visual information does not align spatially with the motor output, the brain processes rules to integrate the information for an appropriate motor response. Here, we look at how performance on such tasks is affected in young adult athletes with concussion history. Methods Participants displaced a cursor from a central to peripheral tar...
Jerbi, Karim; Combrisson, Etienne; Dalal, Sarang,; Vidal, Juan; Hamame, Carlos,; Bertrand, Olivier; Berthoz, Alain; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe
We provide a brief overview of our recent research into decoding cognitive states and motor intentions from intracranial EEG using high-frequency brain activity for brain-machine interfaces. Appears in: Korczyn AD et al. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2), Epilepsy Behav (in press), doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2013.03.012
Manohar, Sanjay G; Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew A J; Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Jarman, Paul R; Bhatia, Kailash P; Husain, Masud
Speed-accuracy trade-off is an intensively studied law governing almost all behavioral tasks across species. Here we show that motivation by reward breaks this law, by simultaneously invigorating movement and improving response precision. We devised a model to explain this paradoxical effect of reward by considering a new factor: the cost of control. Exerting control to improve response precision might itself come at a cost--a cost to attenuate a proportion of intrinsic neural noise. Applying a noise-reduction cost to optimal motor control predicted that reward can increase both velocity and accuracy. Similarly, application to decision-making predicted that reward reduces reaction times and errors in cognitive control. We used a novel saccadic distraction task to quantify the speed and accuracy of both movements and decisions under varying reward. Both faster speeds and smaller errors were observed with higher incentives, with the results best fitted by a model including a precision cost. Recent theories consider dopamine to be a key neuromodulator in mediating motivational effects of reward. We therefore examined how Parkinson's disease (PD), a condition associated with dopamine depletion, alters the effects of reward. Individuals with PD showed reduced reward sensitivity in their speed and accuracy, consistent in our model with higher noise-control costs. Including a cost of control over noise explains how reward may allow apparent performance limits to be surpassed. On this view, the pattern of reduced reward sensitivity in PD patients can specifically be accounted for by a higher cost for controlling noise. PMID:26096975
Borralleras, Cristina; Sahun, Ignasi; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Campuzano, Victoria
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a heterozygous deletion of 26-28 genes at chromosome band 7q11.23. Haploinsufficiency at GTF2I has been shown to play a major role in the neurobehavioral phenotype. By characterizing the neuronal architecture in four animal models with intragenic, partial, and complete deletions of the WBS critical interval (ΔGtf2i(+/-), ΔGtf2i( -/-), PD, and CD), we clarify the involvement of Gtf2i in neurocognitive features. All mutant mice showed hypersociability, impaired motor learning and coordination, and altered anxiety-like behavior. Dendritic length was decreased in the CA1 of ΔGtf2i(+/-), ΔGtf2i ( -/-), and CD mice. Spine density was reduced, and spines were shorter in ΔGtf2i ( -/-), PD, and CD mice. Overexpression of Pik3r1 and downregulation of Bdnf were observed in ΔGtf2i(+/-), PD, and CD mice. Intracisternal Gtf2i-gene therapy in CD mice using adeno-associated virus resulted in increased mGtf2i expression and normalization of Bdnf levels, along with beneficial effects in motor coordination, sociability, and anxiety, despite no significant changes in neuronal architecture. Our findings further indicate that Gtf2i haploinsufficiency plays an important role in the neurodevelopmental and cognitive abnormalities of WBS and that it is possible to rescue part of this neurocognitive phenotype by restoring Gtf2i expression levels in specific brain areas. PMID:26216516
S. M. Mahmudul Hasan
Full Text Available Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention.
Hasan, S M Mahmudul; Rancourt, Samantha N; Austin, Mark W; Ploughman, Michelle
Although poststroke aerobic exercise (AE) increases markers of neuroplasticity and protects perilesional tissue, the degree to which it enhances complex motor or cognitive outcomes is unknown. Previous research suggests that timing and dosage of exercise may be important. We synthesized data from clinical and animal studies in order to determine optimal AE training parameters and recovery outcomes for future research. Using predefined criteria, we included clinical trials of stroke of any type or duration and animal studies employing any established models of stroke. Of the 5,259 titles returned, 52 articles met our criteria, measuring the effects of AE on balance, lower extremity coordination, upper limb motor skills, learning, processing speed, memory, and executive function. We found that early-initiated low-to-moderate intensity AE improved locomotor coordination in rodents. In clinical trials, AE improved balance and lower limb coordination irrespective of intervention modality or parameter. In contrast, fine upper limb recovery was relatively resistant to AE. In terms of cognitive outcomes, poststroke AE in animals improved memory and learning, except when training was too intense. However, in clinical trials, combined training protocols more consistently improved cognition. We noted a paucity of studies examining the benefits of AE on recovery beyond cessation of the intervention. PMID:26881101
Fernandes, Ângela; Sousa, Andreia S P; Rocha, Nuno; Tavares, João Manuel R S
The authors aimed to compare the postural phase of gait initiation under single-task (gait initiation) and dual-task (gait initiation plus Stroop test) conditions in healthy subjects and in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) in the early stages (Hoehn and Yahr scale .05). Also, no interaction was found between the groups and the conditions (single- and dual-task). Differences were found in the duration of the mediolateral postural phase (p = .003), which was higher in PD subjects than in healthy subjects. The findings suggest that subjects in the early stages of PD prioritize gait initiation, as their motor performance was similar to that of healthy subjects. PMID:27159414
Andreasen, Jesper T; Nasser, Arafat; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane; Sahlholt, Maj; Bach, Anders; Gynther, Mikko; Strømgaard, Kristian; Pickering, Darryl S
NMDAR antagonism shows analgesic action in humans and animal pain models, but disrupts cognitive and motor functions. NMDAR-dependent NO production requires tethering of the NMDAR to neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) by the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Perturbing the NMDAR/PSD-95/nNOS interaction has therefore been proposed as an alternative analgesic mechanism. We recently reported that UCCB01-125, a dimeric PSD-95 inhibitor with limited blood-brain-barrier permeability, reduced mechanical hypersensitivity in the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) inflammatory pain model, without disrupting cognitive or motor functions. Here, we investigated the analgesic efficacy in the CFA model of UCCB01-144, a PSD-95 inhibitor with improved blood-brain-barrier permeability. To extend the comparison of UCCB01-125 and UCCB01-144, we also tested both compounds in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain. Potential cognitive effects of UCCB01-144 were examined using the social transmission of food preference (STFP) test and the V-maze test, and motor coordination was assessed with the rotarod test. UCCB01-144 (10mg/kg) reversed CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity after 1h, and completely normalised sensitivity after 24h. In the SNI model, UCCB01-144 (30mg/kg) partially reversed hypersensitivity after 1h, but no effect was observed after 24h. UCCB01-125 did not affect SNI-induced hypersensitivity. Rotarod performance was unaffected by UCCB01-144, but 30mg/kg UCCB01-144 impaired performance in the STFP test. Collectively, UCCB01-144 reversed both CFA and SNI-induced hypersensitivity, but the efficacy in the SNI model was only transient. This suggests that enhanced BBB permeability of PSD-95 inhibitors improves the analgesic action in neuropathic pain states. PMID:27032314
The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms. PMID:24236380
Leonard, Hayley C.; Hill, Elisabeth L
Background: Motor development allows infants to gain knowledge of the world but its vital role in social development is often ignored. Method: A systematic search for papers investigating the relationship between motor and social skills was conducted, including research in typical development and in Developmental Coordination Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorders and Specific Language Impairment. Results: The search identified 43 studies, many of which highlighted a significant rela...
Eagle Yi-Kung Huang
Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the role of dopamine in cognitive and motor learning skill deficits after a traumatic brain injury (TBI, we investigated dopamine release and behavioral changes at a series of time points after fluid percussion injury, and explored the potential of amantadine hydrochloride as a chronic treatment to provide behavioral recovery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we sequentially investigated dopamine release at the striatum and behavioral changes at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after fluid percussion injury. Rats subjected to 6-Pa cerebral cortical fluid percussion injury were treated by using subcutaneous infusion pumps filled with either saline (sham group or amantadine hydrochloride, with a releasing rate of 3.6 mg/kg/hour for 8 weeks. The dopamine-releasing conditions and metabolism were analyzed sequentially by fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Novel object recognition (NOR and fixed-speed rotarod (FSRR behavioral tests were used to determine treatment effects on cognitive and motor deficits after injury. RESULTS: Sequential dopamine-release deficits were revealed in 6-Pa-fluid-percussion cerebral cortical injured animals. The reuptake rate (tau value of dopamine in injured animals was prolonged, but the tau value became close to the value for the control group after amantadine therapy. Cognitive and motor learning impairments were shown evidenced by the NOR and FSRR behavioral tests after injury. Chronic amantadine therapy reversed dopamine-release deficits, and behavioral impairment after fluid percussion injuries were ameliorated in the rats treated by using amantadine-pumping infusion. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment with amantadine hydrochloride can ameliorate dopamine-release deficits as well as cognitive and motor deficits caused by cerebral fluid-percussion injury.
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by progressive loss of dopamine neurons, leading to loss of motor coordination. However, PD is associated with a high rate of non-motor neuropsychiatric comorbities that often develop before the onset of movement symptoms. The MitoPark transgenic mouse model is the first to recapitulate the cardinal clinical features, namely progressive neurodegeneration and death of neurons, loss of motor function and therapeutic response to L-DOPA. To investigate whether MitoPark mice exhibit early onset of cognitive impairment, a non-motor neuropsychiatric comorbidity, we measured performance on a spatial learning and memory task before (∼8 weeks or after (∼20 weeks the onset of locomotor decline in MitoPark mice or in littermate controls. Consistent with previous studies, we established that a progressive loss of spontaneous locomotor activity began at 12 weeks of age, which was followed by progressive loss of body weight beginning at 16-20 weeks. Spatial learning and memory was measured using the Barnes Maze. By 20 weeks of age, MitoPark mice displayed a substantial reduction in overall locomotor activity that impaired their ability to perform the task. However, in the 8-week-old mice, locomotor activity was no different between genotypes, yet MitoPark mice took longer, traveled further and committed more errors than same age control mice, while learning to successfully navigate the maze. The modest between-day learning deficit of MitoPark mice was characterized by impaired within-day learning during the first two days of testing. No difference was observed between genotypes during probe trials conducted one or twelve days after the final acquisition test. Additionally, 8-week-old MitoPark mice exhibited impaired novel object recognition when compared to control mice. Together, these data establish that mild cognitive impairment precedes the loss of motor function in a novel
Metzger, Mary Ann
Applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to psychology have led to recent advances in understanding neuromotor development and advances in theories of cognitive development. This article reviews published findings associated with a specific coherent and influential application from which a theory of adaptive, self-organized cognition has been derived and related to a theory of developmental dynamics of the neuromotor system. The review focuses on implications of two theories for q...
Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate how different standing surfaces alter somatosensory input and how postural control is affected by these changes during the performance of a dual task with a cognitive-motor aspect. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 chronic stroke patients: 18 males, 2 females. [Methods] COP total distance, sway velocity, and the weight load on the paretic leg were measured while subjects performed the following three tasks (somatosensory task, cognitive-mot...
Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Schack, Thomas
Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (...
Chotosan (Diaoteng San-induced improvement of cognitive deficits in senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8 involves the amelioration of angiogenic/neurotrophic factors and neuroplasticity systems in the brain
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chotosan (CTS, Diaoteng San, a Kampo medicine (ie Chinese medicine formula, is reportedly effective in the treatment of patients with cerebral ischemic insults. This study aims to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CTS in cognitive deficits and investigates the effects and molecular mechanism(s of CTS on learning and memory deficits and emotional abnormality in an animal aging model, namely 20-week-old senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP8, with and without a transient ischemic insult (T2VO. Methods Age-matched senescence-resistant inbred strain mice (SAMR1 were used as control. SAMP8 received T2VO (T2VO-SAMP8 or sham operation (sham-SAMP8 at day 0. These SAMP8 groups were administered CTS (750 mg/kg, p.o. or water daily for three weeks from day 3. Results Compared with the control group, both sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8 groups exhibited cognitive deficits in the object discrimination and water maze tests and emotional abnormality in the elevated plus maze test. T2VO significantly exacerbated spatial cognitive deficits of SAMP8 elucidated by the water maze test. CTS administration ameliorated the cognitive deficits and emotional abnormality of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8 groups. Western blotting and immunohistochemical studies revealed a marked decrease in the levels of phosphorylated forms of neuroplasticity-related proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII, cyclic AMP responsive element binding protein (CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the frontal cortices of sham-SAMP8 and T2VO-SAMP8. Moreover, these animal groups showed significantly reduced levels of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, VEGF receptor type 2 (VEGFR2, platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A and PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα. CTS treatment reversed the expression levels of these factors down-regulated in the brains of sham- and T2VO-SAMP8
Kim, Gye Yeop; Han, Mi Ran; Lee, Hong Gyun
[Purpose] To determine the effect of dual-task training with cognitive tasks on cognitive and walking ability after stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients diagnosed with stroke participated in this study. All participants were receiving a traditional rehabilitation program 5 days a week. Dual-task and single-task training were additionally performed for 4 weeks, 3 days a week. The Stroop test, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT), and Figure-of-8 Walk Test (F8WT) wer...
Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist, ameliorates aberrant lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to blockade of N-methy-D-aspartate receptors; Towards the therapeutics of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia
Full Text Available Rationale Augmentation therapy with serotonin-1A (5-HT1A receptor partial agonists has been suggested to improve cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Decreased activity of prefrontal cortex may provide a basis for cognitive deficits of the disease. Lactate plays a significant role in the supply of energy to the brain, and glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to lactate production.Objectives and methods The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of repeated administration (once a daily for 4 days of tandospirone (0.05 and 5 mg/kg on brain energy metabolism, as represented by extracellular lactate concentration (eLAC in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC of young adult rats..Results Four-day treatment with MK-801, an NMDA-R antagonist, prolonged eLAC elevation induced by foot shock stress (FS. Co-administration with the high-dose tandospirone suppressed prolonged FS-induced eLAC elevation in rats receiving MK-801, whereas tandospirone by itself did not affected eLAC increment.Conclusions These results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors ameliorates abnormalities of energy metabolism in the mPFC due to blockade of NMDA receptors. These findings provide a possible mechanism based on brain energy metabolism by which 5-HT1A agonism improve cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and related disorders.
Andreasen T., Jesper; Nasser, Arafat; Caballero-Puntiverio, Maitane;
NMDAR antagonism shows analgesic action in humans and animal pain models, but disrupts cognitive and motor functions. NMDAR-dependent NO production requires tethering of the NMDAR to neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) by the postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95). Perturbing the NMDAR/PSD-95/nNOS inte......-144 impaired performance in the STFP test. Collectively, UCCB01-144 reversed both CFA and SNI-induced hypersensitivity, but the efficacy in the SNI model was only transient. This suggests that enhanced BBB permeability improves the analgesic action in neuropathic pain states......., and completely normalised sensitivity after 24 hours. In the SNI model, UCCB01-144 (30 mg/kg) partially reversed hypersensitivity after 1 hour, but no effect was observed after 24 hours. UCCB01-125 did not affect SNI-induced hypersensitivity. Rotarod performance was unaffected by UCCB01-144, but 30 mg/kg UCCB01...
Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B;
The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS...
Ehring, Thomas; Ehlers, Anke; Glucksman, Edward
The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months…
Neuroinflammation increases GABAergic tone and impairs cognitive and motor function in hyperammonemia by increasing GAT-3 membrane expression. Reversal by sulforaphane by promoting M2 polarization of microglia
Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Gonzalez-Usano, Alba; Agusti, Ana; Balzano, Tiziano; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente
Background Hyperammonemia induces neuroinflammation and increases GABAergic tone in the cerebellum which contributes to cognitive and motor impairment in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The link between neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone remains unknown. New treatments reducing neuroinflammation and GABAergic tone could improve neurological impairment. The aims were, in hyperammonemic rats, to assess whether: Enhancing endogenous anti-inflammatory mechanisms by sulforaphane treatment reduces n...
T. Ehring; A. Ehlers; E. Glucksman
The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their acciden
Xu, Leyan; Shen, Peilin; Hazel, Thomas; Johe, Karl; Koliatsos, Vassilis E.
Stem cells provide novel sources of cell therapies for motor neuron disease that have recently entered clinical trials. In the present study, we transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs) into the ventral horn of both the lumbar (L4–L5) and cervical (C4–C5) protuberance of SOD G93A rats, in an effort to test the feasibility and general efficacy of a dual grafting paradigm addressing several muscle groups in the front limbs, hind limbs and the respiratory apparatus. Transplantation was done p...
Vollmar, C.; O'Muircheartaigh, J.; Barker, G.J.; Symms, M.R.; Thompson, P.(Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada); Kumari, V; Duncan, J.S.; Janz, D.; Richardson, M.P.; Koepp, M J.
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is the most frequent idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. It is characterized by predominant myoclonic jerks of upper limbs, often provoked by cognitive activities, and typically responsive to treatment with sodium valproate. Neurophysiological, neuropsychological and imaging studies in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have consistently pointed towards subtle abnormalities in the medial frontal lobes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging with an executive fr...
Full Text Available β-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding β-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5, an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of β-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that β-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1. In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome.
P D Shallie
Full Text Available Background : Patients taking lithium often report of difficulties in concentration, memory, learning, and attention. Laboratory tests of cognitive functions in healthy volunteers on chronic lithium demonstrate that disruptions in memory-learning processes are apparent at the time of memory retrieval. Aim : This study has attempted to evaluate the impact of lithium ingestion on cognition and some subset of sensory skill, by examining comparatively how lithium or a lithium / saline supplement either harms or helps the brain. Materials and Methods : Wistar Rats (male and female were housed in individual improvised cages. The rats were acclimatized for two weeks after which they were randomly grouped into three, namely, control, lithium-treated, and lithium with saline-treated groups, and treated for four weeks. The lithium-treated group received 40 mM lithium bicarbonate per kg of feed for the first one week, and the dosage was increased to 60mM per kg of feed for the rest of the three weeks. The lithium-saline group received saline solution in addition to lithium. The control group was given normal feed and water liberally for the period of the experiment. The rats were subjected to a cognitive test using the Barnes maze, assessments of negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance, and some neurotransmitters (acetylcholine and glutamate. The data were analyzed by Microsoft excel 2007. Results : This study shows that lithium ingestion is characterized by a significant ( P ≤ 0.05 decline in learning and memory as compared to the control. While the lithium-saline-treated animals exhibit enhanced cognitive ability. The subset of sensory activity was assessed; negative geotaxis and cliff avoidance were grossly compromised, thus lithium carbonate appeared to have definite negative effects on the psychsensory speed. Conclusion : In conclusion lithium should be co-administered with saline to counter the detrimental effects of lithium noticed in this study, which
Full Text Available Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance or concrete (high vigilance. Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine.
Grossberg, Stephen; Palma, Jesse; Versace, Massimiliano
Freely behaving organisms need to rapidly calibrate their perceptual, cognitive, and motor decisions based on continuously changing environmental conditions. These plastic changes include sharpening or broadening of cognitive and motor attention and learning to match the behavioral demands that are imposed by changing environmental statistics. This article proposes that a shared circuit design for such flexible decision-making is used in specific cognitive and motor circuits, and that both types of circuits use acetylcholine to modulate choice selectivity. Such task-sensitive control is proposed to control thalamocortical choice of the critical features that are cognitively attended and that are incorporated through learning into prototypes of visual recognition categories. A cholinergically-modulated process of vigilance control determines if a recognition category and its attended features are abstract (low vigilance) or concrete (high vigilance). Homologous neural mechanisms of cholinergic modulation are proposed to focus attention and learn a multimodal map within the deeper layers of superior colliculus. This map enables visual, auditory, and planned movement commands to compete for attention, leading to selection of a winning position that controls where the next saccadic eye movement will go. Such map learning may be viewed as a kind of attentive motor category learning. The article hereby explicates a link between attention, learning, and cholinergic modulation during decision making within both cognitive and motor systems. Homologs between the mammalian superior colliculus and the avian optic tectum lead to predictions about how multimodal map learning may occur in the mammalian and avian brain and how such learning may be modulated by acetycholine. PMID:26834535
The positive effects which cardiovascular exercise may have on several aspects of cognitive functioning are well established. During the recent years, there has been an increasing focus on neuroplasticity and on the processes underlying memory formation and learning, and several studies documented...... memory but results from longitudinal studies also include effects of exercise on cognitive functions and academic performance. We argue that strategically scheduled exercise performed in close proximity to learning sessions may promote the effects of exercise on learning and memory in part through an...... positive interactions between exercise, memory and learning. The mechanisms underlying the effects of exercise on human memory and learning, however, remain controversial. Recent studies have attempted to identify potential modulators or biomarkers that could contribute to the divergent effects of exercise...
Gareth T Banks
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, mutations in the enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS cause motor and sensory axon loss in the peripheral nervous system, and clinical phenotypes ranging from Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy to a severe infantile form of spinal muscular atrophy. GARS is ubiquitously expressed and may have functions in addition to its canonical role in protein synthesis through catalyzing the addition of glycine to cognate tRNAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have recently described a new mouse model with a point mutation in the Gars gene resulting in a cysteine to arginine change at residue 201. Heterozygous Gars(C201R/+ mice have locomotor and sensory deficits. In an investigation of genetic mutations that lead to death of motor and sensory neurons, we have crossed the Gars(C201R/+ mice to two other mutants: the TgSOD1(G93A model of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and the Legs at odd angles mouse (Dync1h1(Loa which has a defect in the heavy chain of the dynein complex. We found the Dync1h1(Loa/+;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mice are more impaired than either parent, and this is may be an additive effect of both mutations. Surprisingly, the Gars(C201R mutation significantly delayed disease onset in the SOD1(G93A;Gars(C201R/+ double heterozygous mutant mice and increased lifespan by 29% on the genetic background investigated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings raise intriguing possibilities for the study of pathogenetic mechanisms in all three mouse mutant strains.
LANGEVIN, S; DOMMES, A; CAVALLO, V; Oxley, J; Vienne, F.
Older pedestrians are well known to be over-involved in road crashes compared to younger pedestrians. This study investigates the extent to which risky street-crossing decisions in older pedestrians can be explained by agerelated declines of cognitive, perceptual and physical abilities. Three age groups of participants (young, young-old, old-old) were evaluated in a street-crossing task and performed a series of functional tests. The results showed that agerelated slowing in walking speed as ...
Sinan Mahir Kayiran; Berkan Gurakan
Iron is an essential element for the human organism. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is one of the most important health problems in Turkey. Iron deficiency (ID) is more frequently seen that IDA. In developed countries, although the incidence of iron deficiency-related anemia has declined significantly, the condition still remains a health issue. Because, as with IDA, iron deficiency can lead to growth retardation in children, this is regarded as a major public health problem. Cognitive, emotion...
Neil Richard Harrison
Full Text Available The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler, Nattkemper and Vogt’s (2012 experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs, and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioural data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long SOAs between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e. when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked LRPs occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e. perceptual, cognitive, and motor phases of response preparation.
Harrison, Neil R; Ziessler, Michael
The anticipation of action effects is a basic process that can be observed even for key-pressing responses in a stimulus-response paradigm. In Ziessler et al.'s (2012) experiments participants first learned arbitrary effects of key-pressing responses. In the test phase an imperative stimulus determined the response, but participants withheld the response until a Go-stimulus appeared. Reaction times (RTs) were shorter if the Go-stimulus was compatible with the learned response effect. This is strong evidence that effect representations were activated during response planning. Here, we repeated the experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs), and we found that Go-stimulus locked ERPs depended on the compatibility relationship between the Go-stimulus and the response effect. In general, this supports the interpretation of the behavioral data. More specifically, differences in the ERPs between compatible and incompatible Go-stimuli were found for the early perceptual P1 component and the later frontal P2 component. P1 differences were found only in the second half of the experiment and for long stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between imperative stimulus and Go-stimulus, i.e., when the effect was fully anticipated and the perceptual system was prepared for the effect-compatible Go-stimulus. P2 amplitudes, likely associated with evaluation and conflict detection, were larger when Go-stimulus and effect were incompatible; presumably, incompatibility increased the difficulty of effect anticipation. Onset of response-locked lateralized readiness potentials (R-LRPs) occurred earlier under incompatible conditions indicating extended motor processing. Together, these results strongly suggest that effect anticipation affects all (i.e., perceptual, cognitive, and motor) phases of response preparation. PMID:26858621
Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan; Bukkambudhi, Ananda
Technology offers great potential to overcome physical barriers of human race. This paper presents the methods of enhanced learning applicable to children having special needs using better human-computer interaction. The Audio-Visual (AV) effects that the graphic tools or animations help in achieving better learning, understanding, remembering and performance from such students. The 3L-R Cluster Program Model enable them to look into pictures and animated objects while listening to the related audio. It also motivates them to do the FMS development activities like drawing, coloring, tracing etc., certain types of games in the clustered model will help the children to improve concentration, thinking, reasoning, cognitive skills and the eye-to hand co-ordination. Here we introduced a novel cluster model along with the methodology described which provides an ample exposure to the effectiveness of the training. Classify the students with similar problems or disability and the associated curriculum of modified tea...
Kumai, Keiichi; Meguro, Kenichi; Kasai, Mari; Nakamura, Kei; Nakatsuka, Masahiro
Background Recently, the concept of motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome was proposed, where slow gait is considered a risk factor for conversion to dementia. Aim To retrospectively investigate the characteristics of MCR among a population aged 75+ years, focusing on the aspects of epidemiology and neurobehavioral characteristics. Method The participants were 590 residents aged 75+ years living in Kurihara who underwent MRI and neurobehavioral assessments including walking velocity. The prevalence of MCR and conversion to dementia (AD8 Dementia Screening Interview cutoff 2/8), together with the neurobehavioral characteristics of the MCR group, were analyzed. Results The prevalence was 11.1%, and the conversion ratio in the MCR group was higher than that in the non-MCR group (OR = 1.38). The MCR group had lower scores on the executive function test as well as gait velocity. Conclusions The MCR syndrome increases the rate of conversion to dementia, and both slow gait and lower scores in executive tests, which are ‘frontal-based’ functions, are predictive of higher rates of conversion to dementia. PMID:27350777
ghasem Salehpoor; Sajjad Rezaei
Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of drug use on the length of hospitalization, impaired consciousness, levels of motor and cognitive independence in patients with traumatic brain injury. Method: A total of 185 patients with traumatic brain injury in the emergency, neurosurgery ward and ICU of Poursina Hospital was selected via purposive sampling. These participants who were within the age group 37.46 ± 17.42 years were divided into two groups, i.e. drug users (n = 35) ...
Sullivan, EV; Brumback, T.; Tapert, SF; Fama, R; Prouty, D; Brown, SA; Cummins, K; Thompson, WK; Colrain, IM; Baker, FC; De Bellis, MD; Hooper, SR; Clark, DB; Chung, T; Nagel, BJ
© 2016 APA, all rights reserved). Objective: To investigate development of cognitive and motor functions in healthy adolescents and to explore whether hazardous drinking affects the normal developmental course of those functions. Method: Participants were 831 adolescents recruited across 5 United States sites of the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence 692 met criteria for no/low alcohol exposure, and 139 exceeded drinking thresholds. Cross-sectional, baseline da...
Ehring, T.; Ehlers, A; Glucksman, E.
The study investigated the power of theoretically derived cognitive variables to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), travel phobia, and depression following injury in a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA survivors (N = 147) were assessed at the emergency department on the day of their accident and 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months later. Diagnoses were established with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV. Predictors included initial symptom severities; variables estab...
Pichierri G; Coppe A; Lorenzetti S; Murer K; de Bruin ED
Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the ...
Full Text Available By introducing the concept of intention in action John Searle helped to solve some of the main difficulties faced by the Causal Theory of Action. Yet, his modified theory raises new issues. Given this, the main goal of this article is to review certain problems posed by Searle’s Causal Theory taking into account recent advances in the cognitive neuroscience of action. Particularly, by using the concept of motor representation.
Scott, Jonathon P R; McNaughton, Lars R; Polman, Remco C J
This study examined the effect of 30 h of sleep deprivation and intermittent physical exercise, on both cognitive and psychomotor function as well subjective ratings of mood. Six subjects with the following physical characteristics participated in the study (Mean +/- S.D.): age 22 +/- 0.3 years, height 180 +/- 5 cm, body mass: 77 +/- 5 kg, VO2peak 44 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). Three subjects engaged in normal sedentary activities while three others cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO2peak for 20 min out of every 2 h during 30 h of sleep deprivation. One week later sleep deprivation was repeated with a cross over of subjects. Every 4 h, subjects completed simple and two-choice reaction time tasks at both rest and during exercise, a computerized tracking task, a number cancellation task, and an assessment of subjective mood state as measured by the POMS questionnaire. A 3 x 4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed that resting but not exercising reaction times were significantly slower with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was also associated with significantly greater negative disturbances to subjective vigour, fatigue and depression assessed by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Compared to those who have been deprived of sleep alone, individuals that performed 5 h of intermittent moderate exercise during 30 h of sleep deprivation appeared to be more vulnerable to negative mood disturbances and impairment in reaction times. This could result in greater risk of accident due to a reduced capacity to respond quickly. PMID:16403541
Raz, N; Williamson, A; Gunning-Dixon, F; Head, D; Acker, J D
The objective of this study was to examine age differences in procedural learning and performance in conjunction with differential aging of central nervous system (CNS) structures. Sixty-eight healthy volunteers (age 22-80) performed a pursuit rotor task (four blocks of 20 15-second trials each). Volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres, neostriatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus were measured from Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Improvement in pursuit rotor performance was indexed by increase in time on target (TOT). A general improvement trend was evident across the blocks of trials. Overall, younger participants showed significantly longer TOT. The rate of improvement was age-invariant during the initial stages of skill acquisition but became greater in middle-aged participants as the practice progressed. When the influences of regional brain volumes were taken into account, the direct age effect on mean TOT measured during the first day of practice disappeared. Instead, reduced volumes of the cerebellar hemispheres and the putamen and poorer performance on nonverbal working memory tasks predicted shorter TOT. In contrast, neither the volume of the caudate and the hippocampus, nor verbal working memory showed association with motor performance. Pursuit rotor performance at the later stages of practice was unrelated to the reduction in putamen volume and was affected directly by age, cerebellar volume, and nonverbal working memory proficiency. We conclude that in a healthy population showing no clinical signs of extrapyramidal disease, age-related declines in procedural learning are associated with reduced volume of the cerebellar hemispheres and lower nonverbal working memory scores. During initial stages of skill acquisition, reduced volume of the putamen is also predictive of poorer performance. PMID:11002356
Milene L Brownlow
Full Text Available Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs, widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31 diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition.
Full Text Available Giuseppe Pichierri,1 Amos Coppe,1 Silvio Lorenzetti,2 Kurt Murer,1 Eling D de Bruin11Institute of Human Movement Sciences and Sport, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Institute for Biomechanics, Department of Health Sciences and Technology, ETH Zurich, SwitzerlandBackground: This randomized controlled pilot study aimed to explore whether a cognitive-motor exercise program that combines traditional physical exercise with dance video gaming can improve the voluntary stepping responses of older adults under attention demanding dual task conditions.Methods: Elderly subjects received twice weekly cognitive-motor exercise that included progressive strength and balance training supplemented by dance video gaming for 12 weeks (intervention group. The control group received no specific intervention. Voluntary step execution under single and dual task conditions was recorded at baseline and post intervention (Week 12.Results: After intervention between-group comparison revealed significant differences for initiation time of forward steps under dual task conditions (U = 9, P = 0.034, r = 0.55 and backward steps under dual task conditions (U = 10, P = 0.045, r = 0.52 in favor of the intervention group, showing altered stepping levels in the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: A cognitive-motor intervention based on strength and balance exercises with additional dance video gaming is able to improve voluntary step execution under both single and dual task conditions in older adults.Keywords: fall prevention, exercise, dance, video game
Juffer, Femmie; Finet, Chloe; Vermeer, Harriet; van den Dries, Linda
Due to early-childhood adversity, adopted children often display delays in their cognitive and motor development and have problems developing secure attachment relationships with their adoptive parents. In this review we present the results of all available studies on the attachment and the cognitive and motor development of internationally adopted children from China in the first years after arriving in the adoptive family. Seven pertinent studies were found, based on five samples examined in the USA, Canada, and the Netherlands. Regarding cognitive and motor development (five studies) the adoptees showed a delayed development at arrival in the adoptive family. As soon as six months after arrival the adoptees were, on average, functioning within normal ranges, although their catch-up to non-adopted children was not yet complete. Two years after arrival the catch-up to non-adopted peers appeared to be complete. Regarding attachment (two studies) observations of attachment six and twelve months after adoption showed less secure and more disorganized attachment for the adopted children compared to the normative distribution of non-adopted children. Two years after adoption, observations of attachment confirmed a catch-up in secure attachment, but the adoptees still displayed more insecure disorganized attachment than children in the norm group. PMID:26645774
Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas
Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089
Although the effects of toxic levels of mercury have been well documented, the effects of subclinical levels of mercury on normal populations have generally not been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of mercury risk factors on cognition, affect, psychopathology, and known mercury-related symptoms in a normal sample in Hawaii exposed to subclinical although elevated levels of elemental mercury through inhalation associated with volcanic activity and of methylmercury mostly through ingestion of large ocean species fish. The following summarizes the findings and conclusions of the study: 1) a four week test-retest reliability using 41 of the subjects showed that the 41 measures used in the study exhibited an average correlation of .78. Using all 413 subjects, the average internal consistency measured by Cronbach's ..cap alpha.. was .82 for the 17 affect, psychopathology, and symptom measures; 2) nine mercury source variables were used to predict the amount of total mercury in hair. Interestingly, none of the source variables predicted hair total mercury; 3) the source variables in addition to hair total mercury and statistical control variables were used to predict the twenty-two functioning variables in the four domains cited above with a relative absence of relationships noted. This finding indicates that the normal population in Hawaii appears not to be at risk; and 4) one historical mercury source variable, reported fish intake when young, related to six functioning variables - the psychopathology measures of Somatization, Obsessive-Compulsive and Anxiety as well as the Sensory, Affect and Mental symptoms - with Beta weights in the .15 to .20 range. The implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions offered for future research especially with respect to specific high risk subgroups.
Roostaei, Tina; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Hajeaghaee, Sara; Gholipour, Taha; Togha, Mansoureh; Siroos, Bahaadin; Mansouri, Sepideh; Mohammadshirazi, Zahra; Aghazadeh Alasti, Maryam; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein
A series of preclinical and clinical studies have shown the immunomodulatory effect of melatonin, especially in the state of chronic inflammation. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to study the tolerability and efficacy of supplemental therapy with melatonin (3 mg/day) in comparison to placebo in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients receiving once weekly interferon beta. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes consisted of the number of relapses, change in Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and the number and volume of new T2 and gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions. Secondary outcomes included change in performance on Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) as well as change in fatigue and depression. The outcomes were evaluated every three months. Twenty-six patients (13 in each group) were recruited in the study. All participants, except for one patient in the placebo group, completed the study. No patient reported serious adverse events. There was no significant difference either in primary or secondary outcomes between melatonin and placebo arm. However, a trend for beneficial effect was observed for melatonin on change in MSFC performance and the cognitive subscore of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (p=0.05 and 0.006, respectively, not corrected for multiple comparisons). We found no significant effect for treatment with melatonin on measures of clinical and functional disability and development of brain lesions in our small sample-size study. Studies with higher statistical power and longer follow up are needed to further evaluate the potential immunomodulatory effect of melatonin in RRMS treatment. PMID:26725556
Full Text Available A series of preclinical and clinical studies have shown the immunomodulatory effect of melatonin, especially in the state of chronic inflammation. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to study the tolerability and efficacy of supplemental therapy with melatonin (3 mg/day in comparison to placebo in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients receiving once weekly interferon beta. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes consisted of the number of relapses, change in Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS, and the number and volume of new T2 and gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions. Secondary outcomes included change in performance on Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC as well as change in fatigue and depression. The outcomes were evaluated every three months. Twenty-six patients (13 in each group were recruited in the study. All participants, except for one patient in the placebo group, completed the study. No patient reported serious adverse events. There was no significant difference either in primary or secondary outcomes between melatonin and placebo arm. However, a trend for beneficial effect was observed for melatonin on change in MSFC performance and the cognitive subscore of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (p=0.05 and 0.006, respectively, not corrected for multiple comparisons. We found no significant effect for treatment with melatonin on measures of clinical and functional disability and development of brain lesions in our small sample-size study. Studies with higher statistical power and longer follow up are needed to further evaluate the potential immunomodulatory effect of melatonin in RRMS treatment.
Kelly, Brian; Maguire-Herring, Vanessa; Rose, Christian M; Gore, Heather E; Ferrigno, Stephen; Novak, Melinda A; Lacreuse, Agnès
Human aging is characterized by declines in cognition and fine motor function as well as improved emotional regulation. In men, declining levels of testosterone (T) with age have been implicated in the development of these age-related changes. However, studies examining the effects of T replacement on cognition, emotion and fine motor function in older men have not provided consistent results. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are excellent models for human cognitive aging and may provide novel insights on this issue. We tested 10 aged intact male rhesus monkeys (mean age=19, range 15-25) on a battery of cognitive, motor and emotional tasks at baseline and under low or high T experimental conditions. Their performance was compared to that of 6 young males previously tested in the same paradigm (Lacreuse et al., 2009; Lacreuse et al., 2010). Following a 4-week baseline testing period, monkeys were treated with a gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (Depot Lupron, 200 μg/kg) to suppress endogenous T and were tested on the task battery under a 4-week high T condition (injection of Lupron+T enanthate, 20 mg/kg, n=8) or 4-week low T condition (injection of Lupron+oil vehicle, n=8) before crossing over to the opposite treatment. The cognitive tasks consisted of the Delayed Non-Matching-to-Sample (DNMS), the Delayed Response (DR), and the Delayed Recognition Span Test (spatial-DRST). The emotional tasks included an object Approach-Avoidance task and a task in which monkeys were played videos of unfamiliar conspecifics in different emotional context (Social Playbacks). The fine motor task was the Lifesaver task that required monkeys to remove a Lifesaver candy from rods of different complexity. T manipulations did not significantly affect visual recognition memory, working memory, reference memory or fine motor function at any age. In the Approach-Avoidance task, older monkeys, but not younger monkeys, spent more time in proximity of novel objects in the high T condition
Joseph J Thompson
Full Text Available Typically studies of the effects of aging on cognitive-motor performance emphasize changes in elderly populations. Although some research is directly concerned with when age-related decline actually begins, studies are often based on relatively simple reaction time tasks, making it impossible to gauge the impact of experience in compensating for this decline in a real world task. The present study investigates age-related changes in cognitive motor performance through adolescence and adulthood in a complex real world task, the real-time strategy video game StarCraft 2. In this paper we analyze the influence of age on performance using a dataset of 3,305 players, aged 16-44, collected by Thompson, Blair, Chen & Henrey . Using a piecewise regression analysis, we find that age-related slowing of within-game, self-initiated response times begins at 24 years of age. We find no evidence for the common belief expertise should attenuate domain-specific cognitive decline. Domain-specific response time declines appear to persist regardless of skill level. A second analysis of dual-task performance finds no evidence of a corresponding age-related decline. Finally, an exploratory analyses of other age-related differences suggests that older participants may have been compensating for a loss in response speed through the use of game mechanics that reduce cognitive load.
Pei, Bing; Yang, Miaomiao; Qi, Xiaoyan; Shen, Xin; Chen, Xing; Zhang, Fayong
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of severe disability and death all worldwide. However, therapeutic options to minimize the detrimental effects of cerebral I/R injury are limited. Recent research has demonstrated that quercetin mediates neuroprotective effects associated with the activation of the Akt signaling pathway in the cerebral I/R brain. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of cognitive deficits induced by cerebral I/R injury and the effects of quercetin on these mechanisms. First, we assessed anxiety-like behavioral and cognitive impairment using the open field test and the Morris water maze test, respectively. Next, we examined the severity of apoptosis by staining hippocampal neurons by the Cresyl violet method. Third, we used western blot analysis to investigate the expression of total and phosphorylated Akt, ASK1, JNK3, c-Jun and caspase-3 after I/R injury. Our results revealed that mice subjected to bilateral common carotid occlusion exhibited severe anxiety-like behavior, learning and memory impairment, cell damage and apoptosis. These severe effects were attenuated by administration of quercetin. Further, western blot analysis revealed that quercetin increased p-Akt expression and decreased p-ASK1, p-JNK3 and cleaved caspase-3 expression after cerebral I/R injury and led to inhibition of neuronal apoptosis. Conversely, treatment with LY294002 (a selective inhibitor of Akt1) reversed the effects of quercetin. In conclusion, these findings highlight the important role of quercetin in protecting against cognitive deficits and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis via the Akt signaling pathway. We believe that quercetin might prove to be a useful therapeutic component in treating cerebral I/R diseases in the near future. PMID:27450812
Klementiev, B; Novikova, T; Korshunova, Irina;
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a crucial role during development and regeneration of the nervous system, mediating neuronal differentiation, survival and plasticity. Moreover, NCAM regulates learning and memory. A peptide termed P2, corresponding to a 12-amino-acid sequence...
Ji, Li-Li; Peng, Jun-Bo; Fu, Chang-Hai; Cao, Dong; Li, Dan; Tong, Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu
Among learning and memory processes, fear memories are crucial in some psychiatric disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Accumulating evidence shows that the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has comprehensive involvement in cognitive impairment and neuroprotective effects. It has also been reported that BDNF appears to enhance extinction of fear in anxiety disorders via the MAPK signaling cascade. However, it remains unclear whether BDNF-TrkB-MAPK pathway may be mechanistically involved in the therapeutic effect of sigma-1 receptor in the development of PTSD. To address this question, rats were subjected to a classical single-prolonged stress procedure (SPS) and kept undisturbed for 7 days. After that, rats were re-stressed by re-exposure to the forced swim component of SPS (RSPS). Behavior tests were subsequently performed to assess anxiety and cognitive impairments. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of BDNF and the phosphorylation of TrkB and three MAPK pathways, namely, the ERK, JNK and p38. We found that the levels of BDNF and p-TrkB were increased following the RSPS procedure, which were reversed by the administration of PRE-084. Meanwhile, among the three MAPK signaling pathways, only the p-ERK expression was increased following the RSPS procedure. Collectively, our results indicate that BDNF-TrkB-ERK signaling pathway may be involved in the activation of sigma-1 receptor to yield therapeutic benefits for PTSD. PMID:27275520
Lemke, Nele; Werner, Christian; Hauer, Klaus
Background Exergames often used for training purpose can also be applied to create assessments based on quantitative data derived from the game. A number of studies relate to these use functionalities developing specific assessment tasks by using the game software and provided good data on psychometric properties. However, (1) assessments often include tasks other than the original game task used for training and therefore relate to similar but not to identical or integrated performances trained, (2) people with diagnosed dementia have insufficiently been addressed in validation studies, and (3) studies did commonly not present validation data such as sensitivity to change, although this is a paramount objective for validation to evaluate responsiveness in intervention studies. Objective Specific assessment parameters have been developed using quantitative data directly derived from the data stream during the game task of a training device (Physiomat). The aim of this study was to present data on construct validity, test–retest reliability, sensitivity to change, and feasibility of this internal assessment approach, which allows the quantification of Physiomat training effects on motor-cognitive functions in 105 multimorbid patients with mild-to-moderate dementia (mean age 82.7±5.9). Methods Physiomat assessment includes various tasks at different complexity levels demanding balance and cognitive abilities. For construct validity, motor-cognitive Physiomat assessment tasks were compared with established motor and cognitive tests using Spearman’s rank correlations (rs). For test–retest reliability, we used intra-class correlations (ICC3,1) and focused on all Physiomat tasks. Sensitivity to change of trained Physiomat tasks was tested using Wilcoxon statistic and standardized response means (SRMs). Completion rate and time were calculated for feasibility. Results Analyses have mostly shown moderate-to-high correlations between established motor as well as
Oliver Alan Kannape
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive loading on movement kinematics and trajectory formation during goal-directed walking in a virtual reality (VR environment. The secondary objective was to measure how participants corrected their trajectories for perturbed feedback and how participants' awareness of such perturbations changed under cognitive loading. We asked 14 healthy young adults to walk towards four different target locations in a VR environment while their movements were tracked and played back in real-time on a large projection screen. In 75% of all trials we introduced angular deviations of ±5° to ±30° between the veridical walking trajectory and the visual feedback. Participants performed a second experimental block under cognitive load (serial-7 subtraction, counter-balanced across participants. We measured walking kinematics (joint-angles, velocity profiles and motor performance (end-point-compensation, trajectory-deviations. Motor awareness was determined by asking participants to rate the veracity of the feedback after every trial. In-line with previous findings in natural settings, participants displayed stereotypical walking trajectories in a VR environment. Our results extend these findings as they demonstrate that taxing cognitive resources did not affect trajectory formation and deviations although it interfered with the participants' movement kinematics, in particular walking velocity. Additionally, we report that motor awareness was selectively impaired by the secondary task in trials with high perceptual uncertainty. Compared with data on eye and arm movements our findings lend support to the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS uses common mechanisms to govern goal-directed movements, including locomotion. We discuss our results with respect to the use of VR methods in gait control and rehabilitation.
Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of squid phosphatidylserine (Squid-PS on the learning and memory function and the neural activity in rats with TMT-induced memory deficits. The rats were administered saline or squid derived Squid-PS (Squid-PS 50 mg kg−1, p.o. daily for 21 days. The cognitive improving efficacy of Squid-PS on the amnesic rats, which was induced by TMT, was investigated by assessing the passive avoidance task and by performing choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and acetylcholinesterase (AchE immunohistochemistry. 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose and performed a positron emission tomography (PET scan was also performed. In the passive avoidance test, the control group which were injected with TMT showed a markedly lower latency time than the non-treated normal group (P<0.05. However, treatment of Squid-PS significantly recovered the impairment of memory compared to the control group (P<0.05. Consistent with the behavioral data, Squid-PS significantly alleviated the loss of ChAT immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampal CA3 compared to that of the control group (P<0.01. Also, Squid-PS significantly increased the AchE positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3. In the PET analysis, Squid-PS treatment increased the glucose uptake more than twofold in the frontal lobe and the hippocampus (P<0.05, resp.. These results suggest that Squid-PS may be useful for improving the cognitive function via regulation of cholinergic enzyme activity and neural activity.
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is negatively correlated with body mass, whereas both osteoporosis and weight loss occur at higher incidence during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD than the age-matched non-dementia individuals. Given that there is no evidence that overweight associated with AD-type cognitive dysfunction, we hypothesized that moderate weight gain might have a protective effect on the bone loss in AD without exacerbating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, feeding a high-fat-diet (HFD, 45% calorie from fat to female APP/PS1 transgenic mice, an AD animal model, induced weight gain. The bone mineral density, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties of the femurs were then evaluated. The results showed that the middle-aged female APP/PS1 transgenic mice were susceptible to osteoporosis of the femoral bones and that weight gain significantly enhanced bone mass and mechanical properties. Notably, HFD was not detrimental to brain insulin signaling and AβPP processing, as well as to exploration ability and working, learning and memory performance of the transgenic mice measured by T maze and water maze, compared with the mice fed a normal fat diet (10% calorie from fat. In addition, the circulating levels of leptin but not estradiol were remarkably elevated in HFD-treated mice. These results suggest that a body weight gain induced by the HFD feeding regimen significantly improved bone mass in female APP/PS1 mice with no detriments to exploration ability and spatial memory, most likely via the action of elevated circulating leptin.
Full Text Available Purple sweet potato color (PSPC, a naturally occurring anthocyanin, has a powerful antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. This study explores whether PSPC has the neuroprotective effect on the aging mouse brain induced by D-galactose (D-gal. The mice administrated with PSPC (100 mg/kg.day, 4 weeks, from 9th week via oral gavage showed significantly improved behavior performance in the open field and passive avoidance test compared with D-gal-treated mice (500 mg/kg.day, 8 weeks. We further investigate the mechanism involved in neuroprotective effects of PSPC on mouse brain. Interestingly, we found, PSPC decreased the expression level of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB, increased the activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD and catalase (CAT, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde (MDA, respectively. Our data suggested that PSPC attenuated D-gal-induced cognitive impairment partly via enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity.
Sumathi, Thangarajan; Christinal, Johnson
Methylmercury (MeHg) is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in human is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. Portulaca oleraceae (purslane), a member of the Portulacaceae family, is widespread as a weed and has been ranked the eighth most common plant in the world. In this study, we sought for potential beneficial effects of Portulaca oleracea ethanolic extract (POEE) against the neurotoxicity induced by MeHg in cerebellum and cortex of rats. Male Wistar rats were administered with MeHg orally at a dose of 5 mg/kg b.w. for 21 days. Experimental rats were given MeHg and also administered with POEE (4 mg/kg, orally) 1 h prior to the administration of MeHg for 21 days. After MeHg exposure, we determine the mercury concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); mercury content was observed high in MeHg-induced group. POEE reduced the mercury content. We also observed that the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the level of glutathione were reduced. The levels of glutathione reductase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were found to be increased. The above biochemical changes were found to be reversed with POEE. Behavioral changes like decrease tail flick response, longer immobility time, and decreased motor activity were noted down during MeHg exposure. POEE pretreatment offered protection from these behavioral changes. MeHg intoxication also caused histopathological changes in cerebellum and cortex, which was found to be normalized by treatment with POEE. The present results indicate that POEE has protective effect against MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26563420
Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Salhi, Dounia; Urios, Amparo; Ruíz-Sauri, Amparo; Carda, Carmen; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente
Studies in animal models allow identifying mechanisms and treatments for cognitive and motor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Liver diseases leading to HE in humans have different aetiologies (alcoholic, viral, etc.). The International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathy points out that satisfactory model for HE resulting from alcoholic cirrhosis are lacking. This work aimed to develop and characterize an animal model for HE in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. To potentiate the effects of alcohol on liver we administered it (5, 8 or 10% in drinking water) to rats showing mild liver damage induced by "mild" bile duct ligation (MBDL), obtained by sectioning 3 out of 5 bile ducts. MBDL rats show increased markers of cholestasis and liver damage, hyperammonemia and inflammation. MBDL rats also show motor in-coordination, hypokinesia, impaired learning ability in a Y maze and reduced spatial memory in the Morris water maze. Ingesting 10% ethanol does not induce relevant liver damage in control rats but potentiates liver damage in MBDL rats. In contrast, ethanol did not enhance the biochemical or neurological alterations in MBDL rats. This supports that the combination of certain levels of hyperammonemia and inflammation is enough to induce mild cognitive impairment, even in the absence of liver cirrhosis. Rats with MBDL and MBDL-OH survived more than 3 months, allowing performing long-term studies on cognitive and motor alterations and on underlying mechanisms. MBDL-OH rats are a good model to study the mechanisms of ethanol-induced liver cirrhosis and the factors making the liver susceptible to ethanol damage. PMID:24838616